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Sample records for iatrogenic duodenal perforation

  1. [Traumatic perforation of a duodenal diverticulum].

    PubMed

    Valenzuela Martínez, M José; Bonasa, Elma; Sánchez, José Manuel; Arribas, M Dolores; Córdoba, Elena; Santero, M Pilar; Albiach, Manuel; Martínez, Fernando

    2006-10-01

    Duodenal diverticulum is a frequent abnormality that is usually diagnosed incidentally. Clinical manifestations usually mimic highly varied entities. Among the complications of duodenal diverticulum, perforation is fairly rare and rupture due to blunt trauma is even rarer. We describe the case of a male patient who presented a perforated duodenal diverticulum after an accidental fall. PMID:17040673

  2. Traumatic perforation of duodenal diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Poostizadeh, A; Gow, K W; Al-Mahmeed, T; Allardyce, D B

    1997-08-01

    A fragile 72-year-old female with previous coronary artery disease sustained blunt abdominal trauma in a motor vehicle crash. A ruptured duodenum was identified by computed tomography scanning. Exploratory laparotomy revealed that the duodenal rupture was caused by perforation of a diverticulum in the second portion of the duodenum. The surgical management of the injury to the duodenum is described in detail. PMID:9291392

  3. Endoscopic duodenal perforation: surgical strategies in a regional centre

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Duodenal perforation is an uncommon complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) and a rare complication of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Most are minor perforations that settle with conservative management. A few perforations however result in life-threatening retroperitoneal necrosis and require surgical intervention. There is a relative paucity of references specifically describing the surgical interventions required for this eventuality. Methods Five cases of iatrogenic duodenal perforation were ascertained between 2002 and 2007 at Cairns Base Hospital. Clinical features were analyzed and compared, with reference to a review of ERCP at that institution for the years 2005/2006. Results One patient recovered with conservative management. Of the other four, one died after initial laparotomy. The other three survived, undergoing multiple procedures and long inpatient stays. Conclusions Iatrogenic duodenal perforation with retroperitoneal necrosis is an uncommon complication of endoscopy, but when it does occur it is potentially life-threatening. Early recognition may lead to a better outcome through earlier intervention, although a protracted course with multiple procedures should be anticipated. A number of surgical techniques may need to be employed according to the individual circumstances of the case. PMID:24461069

  4. Duodenal Perforation Precipitated by Scrub Typhus.

    PubMed

    Rajat, Raghunath; Deepu, David; Jonathan, Arul Jeevan; Prabhakar, Abhilash Kundavaram Paul

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness usually presenting with fever, myalgia, headache, and a pathognomonic eschar. Severe infection may lead to multiple organ failure and death. Gastrointestinal tract involvement in the form of gastric mucosal erosions and ulcerations owing to vasculitis resulting in gastrointestinal bleeding is common. This process may worsen a pre-existent asymptomatic peptic ulcer, causing duodenal perforation, and present as an acute abdomen requiring surgical exploration. We report the case of a patient with no previous symptoms or risk factors for a duodenal ulcer, who presented with an acute duodenal perforation, probably precipitated by scrub typhus infection. PMID:26069430

  5. Management of iatrogenic colorectal perforation: From surgery to endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Shi-Lun; Chen, Tao; Yao, Li-Qing; Zhong, Yun-Shi

    2015-01-01

    Iatrogenic colon perforation is one the most pernicious complications for patients undergoing endoscopic screening or therapy. It is a serious but rare complication of colonoscopy. However, with the expansion of the indications for endoscopic therapies for gastrointestinal diseases, the frequency of colorectal perforation has increased. The management of iatrogenic colorectal perforation is still a challenge for many endoscopists. The methods for treating this complication vary, including conservative treatment, surgical treatment, laparoscopy and endoscopy. In this review, we highlight the etiology, recognition and treatment of colorectal iatrogenic perforation. Specifically, we shed light on the endoscopic management of this rare complication. PMID:26191347

  6. Endoscopic retrieval of a duodenal perforating teaspoon.

    PubMed

    Boškoski, Ivo; Tringali, Andrea; Landi, Rosario; Familiari, Pietro; Contini, Anna Chiara Iolanda; Pintus, Claudio; Costamagna, Guido

    2013-04-16

    Foreign objects ingestion occur commonly in pediatric patients. The majority of ingested foreign bodies pass spontaneously the gastrointestinal tract and surgery is rarely required for extraction. Endoscopic removal of foreign bodies larger than 10 cm has not yet been described. We present the case of a 16 years old bulimic girl that swallowed a 12 cm long teaspoon in order to provoke vomiting. The teaspoon perforated the duodenum. However, it was removed during gastroscopy and the site of perforation was closed endoscopically. This particular case shows the importance of endoscopy for retrieval of large foreign bodies, and the possibility to endoscopically close a perforated duodenal wall. PMID:23596543

  7. Endoscopic retrieval of a duodenal perforating teaspoon

    PubMed Central

    Boškoski, Ivo; Tringali, Andrea; Landi, Rosario; Familiari, Pietro; Contini, Anna Chiara Iolanda; Pintus, Claudio; Costamagna, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Foreign objects ingestion occur commonly in pediatric patients. The majority of ingested foreign bodies pass spontaneously the gastrointestinal tract and surgery is rarely required for extraction. Endoscopic removal of foreign bodies larger than 10 cm has not yet been described. We present the case of a 16 years old bulimic girl that swallowed a 12 cm long teaspoon in order to provoke vomiting. The teaspoon perforated the duodenum. However, it was removed during gastroscopy and the site of perforation was closed endoscopically. This particular case shows the importance of endoscopy for retrieval of large foreign bodies, and the possibility to endoscopically close a perforated duodenal wall. PMID:23596543

  8. Perforated Duodenal Ulcer in a Cow

    PubMed Central

    Fatimah, I.; Butler, D. G.; Physick-Sheard, P. W.

    1982-01-01

    A case report of perforated duodenal ulcer in a ten year old Holstein cow is presented. On three occasions, sudden anorexia and rapidly progressing abdominal fluid distension were associated with metabolic alkalosis, hypochloremia and hypokalemia. Rumen fluid at the time of the second episode was acidic and contained an excessive amount of chloride ion. An abdominal mass dorsal to the abomasum involving the pylorus and several loops of small bowel was identified but not corrected at surgery. Necropsy confirmed a 1.5 cm diameter duodenal ulcer 6 cm distal to the pylorus. PMID:17422146

  9. Management of Perforated Duodenal Diverticulum: Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Song, Sanghyun

    2015-09-01

    Duodenal diverticula are common, but perforated duodenal diverticulum is rare. Because of the disease rarity, there is no standard management protocol for perforated duodenal diverticulum. To properly manage this rare complication, a clear preoperative diagnosis and clinical disease severity assessment are important. An abdomino-pelvic CT is an unquestionably crucial diagnostic tool. Perforation is considered a surgical emergency, although conservative treatment based on fasting and broad-spectrum antibiotics may be offered in some selected cases. Herein, we report two cases of perforated duodenal diverticulum, one case managed with surgical treatment and one with conservative treatment. PMID:26387699

  10. [Perforated juxta-papillary duodenal diverticula: two cases].

    PubMed

    Atmani, Abdelhakim; Lachachi, Fouzi; Sodji, Maxime; Durand-Fontanier, Sylvaine; Moumouni, Issifou; Pech De La Clause, Bertrand; Valleix, Denis; Descottes, Bernard

    2002-03-01

    Perforation of juxta-ampullary duodenal diverticula, occurring spontaneously or after abdominal trauma, is a severe condition. Diagnosis is difficult to establish and is based on tomodensitometry, which is the most reliable diagnostic tool. Treatment consists in diverticulectomy that can be associated with drainage of the duodenum or anastomosis between digestive and biliary tract. We report two cases of perforated juxta-ampullary duodenal diverticula. Perforation was spontaneous in one case and complicated a blunt abdominal trauma in the other case. PMID:11981473

  11. Isolated perforation of a duodenal diverticulum following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Matthew J; Rashid, Tanwir G; Bird, Richard le R

    2010-01-01

    Only 10% of duodenal diverticula are symptomatic. We present the case of a man who fell from a height of 6 ft, landing on his abdomen and presenting 4 h later with severe back pain and a rigid abdomen. At laparotomy, a perforated retroperitoneal duodenal diverticulum was found and repaired with an omental patch. No other injury was noted. Not only is this perforation unusual, but the absence of other injuries sustained during this minor blunt trauma makes this case unique. This case highlights the need for a high index of suspicion when managing patients with back or abdominal pain following minor trauma. PMID:20165728

  12. Perforated duodenal diverticulum: Surgical treatment and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Costa Simões, Vitor; Santos, Bruno; Magalhães, Sara; Faria, Gil; Sousa Silva, Donzília; Davide, José

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Duodenum is the second most frequent location for a diverticulum in the digestive tract. Complications are rare and perforation was only reported in less than 200 cases. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 79-year-old female was admitted to Emergency Department with abdominal pain and vomiting for the last 24 h. A CT scan was performed and moderated extra-luminal air was identified. During surgery a fourth portion perforated duodenal diverticulum was diagnosed and duodenal resection was performed. DISCUSSION First reported in 1710, the incidence of duodenal diverticula can be as high as 22%. Nevertheless complications are extremely rare and include haemorrhage, inflammation, compression of surrounding organs, neoplastic progression, cholestasis and perforation. As perforations are often retroperitoneal, symptoms are nonspecific and rarely include peritoneal irritation, making clinical diagnose a challenge. CT scan will usually present extra-luminal retroperitoneal air and mesenteric fat stranding, providing clues for the diagnosis. Although non-operative treatment has been reported in selected patients, standard treatment is surgery and alternatives are diverse including diverticulectomy or duodenopancreatectomy. CONCLUSION Perforated diverticula of the fourth portion of the duodenum are extremely rare and current evidence still supports surgery as the primary treatment modality. PMID:25016082

  13. Perforated duodenal diverticulae: importance for the surgeon and gastroenterologist.

    PubMed

    Haboubi, Danya; Thapar, Ankur; Bhan, Chetan; Oshowo, Ayo

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a 78-year-old woman who was admitted for an elective left hemicolectomy for diverticular disease. Two days following the elective procedure, bilious fluid was noted in her pelvic drain. The patient returned to theatre, where a perforated duodenal diverticulum was excised and the defect primarily repaired. The patient then developed a low output enterocutaneous fistula which was treated conservatively with nasojejunal feeding and resolved spontaneously. PMID:25270157

  14. Perforated duodenal ulcer: An unusual manifestation of allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Riggle, Kevin M; Wahbeh, Ghassan; Williams, Elizabeth M; Riehle, Kimberly J

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous perforation of a duodenal ulcer secondary to allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) has not been previously reported. We present such a case in a teenager who presented with peritonitis. After exploration and operative repair of his ulcer, he continued to experience intermittent abdominal pain, and further evaluation revealed eosinophilic gastroenteritis in the setting of multiple food allergies. His EGE resolved after adhering to a restrictive diet. Both duodenal ulcers and EGE are very rarely seen in pediatric patients. EGE has a variable presentation depending on the layer(s) of bowel wall affected and the segment of the gastrointestinal tract that is involved. Once diagnosed, it may respond to dietary changes in patients with recognized food allergies, or to steroids in patients in whom an underlying cause is not identified. Our case highlights the need to keep EGE in the differential diagnosis when treating pediatric patients with duodenal ulcers. The epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of EGE are also discussed, along with a review of the current literature. PMID:26640348

  15. Simple diversion by duodenojejunostomy for a retroperitoneal perforation of the second portion of the duodenal diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Shigeru; Takashina, Motoi; Sakurai, Kenichi; Tomita, Rhyouichi; Takayama, Tadatoshi

    2014-01-01

    We herein describe that a Roux-en-Y duodenojejunostomy is a simple and secure procedure for perforated diverticulum in the second portion of the duodenum. The surgical technique for perforated duodenal diverticulum can be adaptable when it is difficult to achieve closure of the perforated site easily. Patients who undergo the operation may be able to eat meals, even if duodenal fistula occurs in the postoperative course. PMID:25216433

  16. Iatrogenic Colonic Perforation due to Computed Tomographic Colonography

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Takashi; Muroya, Tsukasa; Goda, Takayuki; Takabayashi, Ken; Sasaki, Kiyotaka; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Horita, Shoichi

    2015-01-01

    Although the complications of computed tomographic colonography (CTC) are very rare, CTC is associated with potential risk of colonic perforation. In the present report we describe two cases of colonic perforation secondary to CTC. In the first case with ascending colonic carcinoma, insertion of a rigid double-balloon catheter caused direct rectal wall perforation. In the second case with obstructive colonic carcinoma, pneumoperitoneum developed due to automated carbon dioxide insufflation. Both patients were asymptomatic after examination and recovered without any complications. Based on the findings of the current cases, we recommend that a soft-tip catheter be used for CTC, and suggest that colonic perforation can occur even with automatic insufflation, depending on patient characteristics. PMID:26120298

  17. Endoscopic fibrin sealant closure of duodenal perforation after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hsin-Yeh; Chen, Jui-Hao

    2015-12-01

    Traditionally, perivaterian duodenal perforation can be managed conservatively or surgically. If a large volume of leakage results in fluid collection in the retroperitoneum, surgery may be necessary. Our case met the surgical indication for perivaterian duodenal perforation after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with sphincterotomy and endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation. The patient developed a retroperitoneal abscess after the procedures, and a perivaterian perforation was suggested on computed tomography (CT). CT-guided abscess drainage was performed immediately. We unsuccessfully attempted to close the perforation with hemoclips initially. Subsequently, we used fibrin sealant (Tisseel) injection to occlude the perforation. Fibrin sealant injections have been previously used during endoscopy for wound closure and fistula repair. Based on our report, fibrin sealant injection can be considered as an alternative method for the treatment of ERCP-related type II perforations. PMID:26668519

  18. Endoscopic fibrin sealant closure of duodenal perforation after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hsin-Yeh; Chen, Jui-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, perivaterian duodenal perforation can be managed conservatively or surgically. If a large volume of leakage results in fluid collection in the retroperitoneum, surgery may be necessary. Our case met the surgical indication for perivaterian duodenal perforation after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with sphincterotomy and endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation. The patient developed a retroperitoneal abscess after the procedures, and a perivaterian perforation was suggested on computed tomography (CT). CT-guided abscess drainage was performed immediately. We unsuccessfully attempted to close the perforation with hemoclips initially. Subsequently, we used fibrin sealant (Tisseel) injection to occlude the perforation. Fibrin sealant injections have been previously used during endoscopy for wound closure and fistula repair. Based on our report, fibrin sealant injection can be considered as an alternative method for the treatment of ERCP-related type II perforations. PMID:26668519

  19. ERCP-induced duodenal perforation successfully treated with endoscopic purse-string suture: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Ge, Xianxiu; Nie, Junjie; Xu, Boming; Zhang, Xiuhua; Jiang, Guobing; Miao, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Duodenal perforation is one of the most serious complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and is difficult to manage. Recently, endoscopic purse-string suture, using endoloops with endoclips, is a relatively new technology and has provided good clinical results. However, the study and use of endoscopic purse-string suture on duodenal perforation is less and its feasibility and safety are unknown. Here, we report a case of ERCP-induced duodenal perforation successfully treated with endoscopic purse-string suture. During ERCP, fluoroscopy revealed abnormal perinephric gas shadowing after breaking and extracting the stones with a stone-removal basket. Then duodenal endoscopy showed an approximately 2.0 cm × 1.5 cm perforation on the lateral duodenal wall, with visible retroperitoneal loose connective tissue. Titanium clips were used to attempt closure of the perforation but failed because of the long diameter of the injury. Therefore, an endoscopic purse-string suture, using endoloops with endoclips, was employed with an Olympus double-lumen endoscope. The perforation was successfully closed. At the 2-month follow-up visit, the patient had no complaints or symptoms. Our case once again proved its feasibility and safety and provided a new perspective for surgeons. PMID:26068948

  20. An unusual case of duodenal perforation caused by a blister pack: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Si-Yuan; Matsui, Yugo; Shiotsu, Souichi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ingestion of foreign bodies is a relatively common clinical problem. Blister packs have been known to be a causative agent of gastrointestinal perforation. We report a rare case of duodenal perforation caused by a blister pack, which was complicated by retroperitoneal abscess and having a poor outcome. Presentation of case A 72 year-old man with a history of dementia presented to the emergency department with a 2-day history of backache. Upon radiological findings, perforated peptic ulcer was suspected. However, emergency laparotomy revealed a blister pack protruding from the posterior wall of the third portion of the duodenum. It was complicated by a widespread retroperitoneal abscess. After removal of the foreign body, the perforation was treated with primary suture repair and an omental patch. However, the patient died two days after operation due to sepsis. Discussion According to a literature review, the ileum is the most common site of perforation caused by blister packs. To our knowledge, duodenal perforations have not been documented to date. Curative treatment often involves emergent surgery. However, duodenal perforation in the third portion may lead to retroperitoneal abscess, which can result in severe sepsis and have a poor outcome. As there is no consensus about an ideal surgical approach, retroperitoneal abscess is one of the clinical challenges for surgeons. Even with prompt management, duodenal perforation may become fatal. Conclusion Unnoticed ingestion of blister packs can cause duodenal perforation. Although prompt management is necessary, duodenal perforation, especially in the third portion, may be potentially fatal. PMID:26263453

  1. Iatrogenic left common iliac artery and vein perforation during lumbar discectomy: a fatal case.

    PubMed

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Frati, Paola; Carbone, Iacopo; Pugnetti, Paola; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Iatrogenic vascular injury during lumbar disk surgery, although rare, is a serious complication, and when it does occur, can be sudden and life-threatening. The risk of injury to the pelvic vessels intra-operatively can be explained by the close proximity of the retroperitoneal vessels to the vertebral column therefore causing injury to the anterior longitudinal ligament, which can give access to the retroperitoneal space. If signs of circulatory instability are noted during lumbar disk surgery, early diagnosis of vascular injury and urgent transperitoneal surgery or emergency stenting can save the patient's life. Here, is presented the case of a 52-year-old man who underwent an elective lumbar discectomy for a rightward disk herniation in the L4-L5 intervertebral space and died 12h after the operation for a hemorrhagic shock due to a severe intra-abdominal hemorrhage following iatrogenic left common iliac artery and vein perforation during lumbar discectomy. PMID:25467198

  2. Iatrogenic perforation of esophagus successfully treated with Endoscopic Vacuum Therapy (EVT)

    PubMed Central

    Loske, Gunnar; Schorsch, Tobias; Dahm, Christian; Martens, Eckhard; Müller, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic Vacuum Therapy (EVT) has been reported as a novel treatment option for esophageal leakage. We present our results in the treatment of iatrogenic perforation with EVT in a case series of 10 patients. Patients and methods: An open pore polyurethane drainage was placed either intracavitary through the perforation defect or intraluminal covering the defect zone. Application of vacuum suction with an electronic device (continuous negative pressure, –125?mmHg) resulted in defect closure and internal drainage. Results: Esophageal perforations were located from the cricopharyngeus (4/10) to the esophagogastric junction (2/10). EVT was feasible in all patients. Eight patients were treated with intraluminal EVT, one with intracavitary EVT, and one with both types of treatments. All perforations (100?%) were healed in within a median of (3?–?7) days. No stenosis occurred, no complications were observed, and no additional operative treatment was necessary. Conclusions: Our study suggests that intraluminal EVT will play an important role in endoscopic management of esophageal perforation. PMID:26716109

  3. A rare case of duodenal ulcer perforation accompanied by Boerhaave syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rokicki, Wojciech; Rokicki, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal perforation is the fastest progressing and the most life-threatening disruption of gastrointestinal tract continuity. It must be regarded as an emergency condition that requires early diagnosis as well as very aggressive and rapid implementation of treatment in order to avoid serious complications and death. Methods of treatment for spontaneous esophageal perforation continue to be a matter of controversy. However, all authors emphasize that ultimate success depends largely on the time taken to establish the diagnosis. The authors of this study describe a rare case of duodenal ulcer perforation accompanied by Boerhaave syndrome. PMID:26702287

  4. Delayed perforation of a duodenal diverticulum by a biliary endoprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Elder, J; Stevenson, G

    1993-02-01

    A 73-year-old woman with cholangitis due to stricture of the bile duct and the presence of stones was treated by the placement of a biliary endoprosthesis. However, 8 weeks later the lower end of the stent had retracted into a duodenal diverticulum and penetrated its inferior wall. The patient was readmitted to hospital for treatment of a retroperitoneal abscess. PMID:8425156

  5. Innominate vein repair after iatrogenic perforation with central venous catheter via mini-sternotomy—Case report

    PubMed Central

    Siordia, Juan A.; Ayers, Georganne R.; Garlish, Amanda; Subramanian, Sreekumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Iatrogenic damage of the innominate vein is a possible complication with extracorporeal central venous line catheter insertion techniques. When perforation occurs, the catheter is left in place and surgery is required for careful removal and repair of other possible complications, including hemothorax and cardiac tamponade. The traditional approach for innominate vein repair is via a complete median sternotomy. Presentation of case A 75-year-old female patient with hypertension, diabetes mellitus type two and end stage renal failure, coronary artery disease presenting with iatrogenic innominate vein perforation and pulmonary effusion status post placement of a tunneled hemodialysis catheter through the left subclavian vein. Discussion The patient underwent a partial upper sternotomy into the right fourth intercostal space. Ministernotomy and endovascular techniques provide similar outcomes to those of traditional surgical approaches. However, with minimal access and trauma, these new methods provide better post-operative outcomes for patients. Conclusion The case presented in this report suggests a new approach to replace the traditional complete median sternotomy in attempts to repair the innominate vein. The mini-sternotomy approach provides sufficient visualization of the vessel and surrounding structures with minimal post-operative complications and healing time. PMID:25956040

  6. Iatrogenic perforation of a pulmonary angiomatoid lesion: histopathological study and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cecchetto, Giovanni; Viel, Guido; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Fais, Paolo; Snenghi, Rossella; Zuin, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Percutaneous tube thoracostomy (PTT) remains the most widely performed procedure to manage blunt or penetrating chest traumas. This life-saving manoeuvre can be frequently associated with complications. We present the case of a 76-year-old man, admitted to a peripheral hospital after a car accident and treated by PTT, who died shortly after the withdrawal of the chest tube. At autopsy, the victim was found to be affected by an extensive haemothorax resulting from the perforation of a subpleural angiomatoid lesion. The histopathological characteristics and the pathogenesis of the iatrogenic injury involving the vascular abnormality, along with its causal role in determining the fatal haemothorax, are critically discussed under both clinical and forensic points of view. PMID:22399031

  7. Successful open abdomen treatment for multiple ischemic duodenal perforated ulcers in dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Dermatomyositis is an autoimmune disease characterized by proximal myopathy, cutaneous Gottron papules and heliotrope rash; intestinal involvement associated to acute vasculitis is less common but could be a life-threatening condition. Methods A 21-year-old woman, affected by dermatomyositis, presented to our attention with a three-day story of severe abdominal pain, no bowel movement and biliary vomit. She was diagnosed with acute abdomen. A CT scan with bowel contrast demonstrated the presence of a leakage from the retroperitoneal aspect of duodenum. The surgical and clinical management in the light of literature review is presented. Results Our first approach consisted in primary repair of the duodenal perforation with omentopexy. Post-operative course was complicated by hemorrhage. A reintervention showed a new perforation associated with multiple ischemic intestinal areas. We performed a gastroenteric anastomosis with functional exclusion of the damaged duodenum and positioning of drainages to create a biliary fistula. A nutritional enteric tube and an open abdomen vacuum-assisted closure system to monitor the fistula creation and to prevent abdominal contamination and collections were positioned. To reduce the amount of biliary leakage, a percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was placed, with progressive fistula flow disappearance in four months. Conclusions In patients with dermatomyositis, when clinical findings and symptoms suggest abdominal vasculitis, it is very important to be aware of the risk of bowel and particularly duodenal perforations. Open abdomen treatment favors control of contamination by gastrointestinal contents, offers temporary abdominal closure, helps ICU care and delays definitive surgery. PMID:26085838

  8. Perforated duodenal diverticulum, a rare complication of a common pathology: A seven-patient case series.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Andrea; Christian, Buchs Nicolas; Pascal, Bucher; Stephane, Dominguez; Philippe, Morel

    2013-03-27

    Duodenal diverticula (DD) are frequently encountered and are usually asymptomatic, with an incidence at autopsy of 22%. Perforation of DD is a rare complication (around 160 cases reported) with potentially dramatic consequences. However, little evidence regarding its treatment is available in the literature. The aim of this study was to review our experience of perforated DD, with a focus on surgical management. Between January 2001 and June 2011, all perforated DD were retrospectively reviewed at a single centre. Seven cases (5 women and 2 men; median age: 72.4 years old, rang: 48-91 years) were found. The median American Society of Anesthesiologists' score in this population was 3 (range: 3-4). The perforation was located in the second portion of duodenum (D2) in six patients and in the third portion (D3) in one patient. Six of these patients were treated surgically: five patients underwent DD resection with direct closure and one was treated by surgical drainage and laparostomy. One patient was treated conservatively. One patient died and one patient presented a leak that was successfully treated conservatively. The median hospital stay was 21.1 d (range: 15-30 d). Perforated DD is an uncommon presentation of a common pathology. Diverticular excision with direct closure seems to offer the best chance of survival and was associated with a low morbidity, even in fragile patients. PMID:23556061

  9. Changing patterns in the surgical treatment of perforated duodenal ulcer – single centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Budzy?ski, Piotr; Grzesiak-Kuik, Agata; Natkaniec, Micha?; Major, Piotr; Mat?ok, Maciej; Stanek, Maciej; Wierdak, Mateusz; Migaczewski, Marcin; Pisarska, Magdalena; Budzy?ski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although the surgical treatment of patients with perforated duodenal ulcer is the method of choice, the introduction of effective pharmacotherapy has changed the surgical strategy. Nowadays less extensive procedures are chosen more frequently. The introduction of laparoscopic procedures had a significant impact on treatment results. Aim To present our experience in the treatment of perforated duodenal ulcer in two periods, by comparing open radical anti-ulcer procedures with laparoscopic ulcer repair. Material and methods The analysis covered patients operated on for perforated duodenal ulcer. Two groups of patients were compared. Group 1 included 245 patients operated on in the period 1980–1994 with a traditional method (pyloroplasty + vagotomy) before introduction of proton pump inhibitors (PPI). Group 2 included 106 patients treated in the period 2000–2014 with the laparoscopic technique supplemented with PPI therapy. Groups were compared in terms of patients’ demographic structure, operative time, complication rate and mortality. Results The mean operative time in group 1 was shorter than in group 2 (p < 0.0001). Complications were noted in 57 (23.3%) patients in group 1 and 14 (13.5%) patients in group 2 (p = 0.0312). Reoperation was necessary in 13 (5.3%) cases in group 1 and in 5 cases in group 2 (p = 0.8179). The mortality rate in group 1 was significantly higher than in group 2 (10.2% vs. 2.8%, p = 0.0192). In group 1, median length of hospital stay was 9 days and differed significantly from group 2 (6 days, p < 0.0001). Conclusions Within the last 30 years, significant changes in treatment of perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) have occurred, mainly related to abandoning routine radical anti-ulcer procedures and replacing the open technique with minimally invasive surgery. Thus it was possible to improve treatment results by reducing complication and mortality rates, and shortening the length of hospital stay. Although the laparoscopic operation is longer, it improves outcomes. In the authors’ opinion, in each patient with suspected peptic ulcer perforation, laparoscopy should be the method of choice.

  10. Endoscopic rendez-vous after damage control surgery in treatment of retroperitoneal abscess from perforated duodenal diverticulum: a techinal note and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The duodenum is the second seat of onset of diverticula after the colon. Duodenal diverticulosis is usually asymptomatic, but duodenal perforation with abscess may occur. Case presentation Woman, 83 years old, emergency hospitalised for generalized abdominal pain. On the abdominal tomography in the third portion of the duodenum a herniation and a concomitant full-thickness breach of the visceral wall was detected. The patient underwent emergency surgery. A surgical toilette of abscess was performed passing through the perforated diverticula and the Petzer’s tube drainage was placed in the duodenal lumen; the duodenostomic Petzer was endoscopically removed 4 months after the surgery. Discussion A review of medical literature was performed and our treatment has never been described. Conclusion For the treatment of perforated duodenal diverticula a sequential two-stage non resective approach is safe and feasible in selected cases. PMID:23866674

  11. Endoscopic management of iatrogenic perforations during endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for colorectal polyps: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Pissas, Dimitrios; Ypsilantis, Efthymios; Papagrigoriadis, Savvas; Hayee, Bu’Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Background: Iatrogenic perforation during therapeutic colonoscopy, reported in up to 1% of endoscopic mucosal resections (EMRs) and up to 14% of endoscopic submucosal dissections (ESDs), has conventionally been an indication for surgery. Aims: We present a case series of successful endoscopic management of iatrogenic colorectal perforation during EMR and ESD, demonstrating the feasibility and safety of the method. Methods: Retrospective analysis of a database of patients undergoing EMR and ESD for colorectal polyps in a tertiary referral centre in the United Kingdom. Results: Four cases of perforation were identified (two EMRs and two ESDs) in a series of 218 procedures (1.8%), all detected at the time of endoscopy and managed with endoscopic clips. Patients were observed in hospital and treated with antibiotics. Their median length of stay was 3 days (range 2–6 days), with no mortality or need for surgery. Conclusion: Surgery is no longer the first choice in the management of iatrogenic perforations during EMR and ESD for colorectal polyps; in selected patients with small perforations and minimal extraluminal contamination, conservative management with application of endoscopic clips, antibiotics and close patient monitoring constitute a safe and effective treatment option, avoiding the morbidity of major surgery. PMID:26136835

  12. Laparoscopic repair of iatrogenic bladder perforation during transurethral bladder tumor resection: Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    May, Florian; Schlenker, Boris; Hofer, Bernhard; Stief, Christian G; Rau, Horst-Guenter

    2013-01-01

    An intraperitoneal bladder perforation occurred during transurethral tumor resection under general anesthesia in a 82 year old woman. The bladder was repaired with a laparoscopic closure and an indwelling urethral catheter. The histopathology revealed T1 high grade urothelial carcinoma. The patient recovered well and was discharged home on postoperative day 7. This case highlights the successful use of laparoscopy in the treatment of a rare urological complication. PMID:23671369

  13. Laparoscopic repair of iatrogenic bladder perforation during transurethral bladder tumor resection: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    May, Florian; Schlenker, Boris; Hofer, Bernhard; Stief, Christian G; Rau, Horst-Guenter

    2013-01-01

    An intraperitoneal bladder perforation occurred during transurethral tumor resection under general anesthesia in a 82 year old woman. The bladder was repaired with a laparoscopic closure and an indwelling urethral catheter. The histopathology revealed T1 high grade urothelial carcinoma. The patient recovered well and was discharged home on postoperative day 7. This case highlights the successful use of laparoscopy in the treatment of a rare urological complication. PMID:23671369

  14. Duodenal perforation following esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with cautery and epinephrine injection for peptic ulcer disease: An interesting case of nonoperative management in the medical intensive care unit (MICU)

    PubMed Central

    Chertoff, Jason; Khullar, Vikas; Burke, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The utilization of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and related procedures continues to rise. Due to this increase in utilization is an inevitable rise in serious complications such as hemorrhage and perforation. One understudied and dreaded complication of EGD causing significant morbidity and mortality is duodenal perforation. Presentation of case We present the case of a 63-year-old male who presented to our institution’s emergency room with dyspepsia, melanic stools, tachycardia, and hypotension. Initial laboratory evaluation was significant for severe anemia, lactic acidosis, and acute kidney injury, while CT scan of the abdomen pelvis did not suggest retroperitoneal hematoma or bowel perforation. An emergent EGD was performed which showed multiple bleeding duodenal ulcers that were cauterized and injected with epinephrine. Post-procedure the patient developed worsening abdominal pain, distension, diaphoresis, and tachypnea, requiring emergent intubation. A CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis with oral contrast confirmed pneumoperitoneum and duodenal perforation. Discussion Due to the patient’s hemodynamic instability and multiple comorbidities, he was treated non-operatively with strict bowel rest and intravenous antibiotics. The patient ultimately had a 19-day hospital course complicated by renal failure requiring hemodialysis and an ischemic limb necessitating above knee amputation. Conclusion This case describes an unsuccessful attempt at nonoperative management of duodenal perforation following EGD. PMID:25837967

  15. Evaluation of repair in duodenal perforation with human amniotic membrane: An animal model (dog)

    PubMed Central

    Ghahramani, Leila; Jahromi, Ali Bagherpour; Dehghani, Mohammad Reza; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Rahimikazerooni, Salar; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Safarpour, Ali Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a growing tendency toward application of human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a biologic substitute in various tissue injuries where a significant tissue loss is a matter of concern. In gastrointestinal injuries especially duodenal ones, some potential limitations in current surgical techniques contribute to not fully acceptable healing outcomes. Thus, this study was carried out to assess repair with HAM patch for duodenal defect in comparison with simple duodenoraphy in an animal model (dog). Materials and Methods: A total of 15 male German shepherd dogs weighing 23-27 kg were randomly divided into two groups. Group A with 10 dogs, which were a candidate for duodenal repair by amniotic membrane patch and Group B consisted of 5 dogs perform simple duodenorraphy. A precise control was made to match all conditions except surgical technique. Macroscopic and microscopic features of the healed duodenal lumen in both groups were recorded. Results: Gross evaluation revealed no difference in luminal diameter in both groups. Statistical analysis of duodenal diameter between both groups after operation also showed no significant difference (Pv = 0.789). Histological assessment indicated less inflammation with better wound healing in Group A. Conclusion: It seems that repairing duodenal wall defect with HAM would result in better histological outcomes compared with what is seen in simple duodenoraphy in animal models. However, there is no significant difference regarding surgical findings. PMID:24804187

  16. Duodenal ESD: conquering difficulties.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hironori; Miura, Yoshimasa

    2014-04-01

    Duodenal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is technically difficult due to the unique anatomic features. The risks include intraprocedural complications, delayed bleeding, and perforation. A small-caliber-tip transparent hood is useful. Mechanical stretching of the submucosal tissue allows safe dissection and effective prevention of bleeding with minimum muscle injury under direct visualization of the submucosal tissue and blood vessels. A short double-balloon endoscope is useful to stabilize control of the endoscope tip in distal duodenal ESD. Selection of ESD in the duodenum should be made cautiously considering both benefits and risks of the procedure. PMID:24679234

  17. Duodenal atresia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 20-30% of infants with duodenal atresia have Down syndrome. Duodenal atresia is often associated with other birth ... abnormality. Associated problems (such as those related to Down syndrome) must be treated as appropriate.

  18. Future directions of duodenal endoscopic submucosal dissection

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Satohiro; Miyatani, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic therapies for lesions of the duodenum are technically more difficult than those for lesions of the other parts of the gastrointestinal tract due to the anatomical features of the duodenum, and the incidence rate of complications such as perforation and bleeding is also higher. These aforementioned trends were especially noticeable for the case of duodenal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). The indication for ESD of duodenal tumors should be determined by assessment of the histopathology, macroscopic morphology, and diameter of the tumors. The three types of candidate lesions for endoscopic therapy are adenoma, carcinoma, and neuroendocrine tumors. For applying endoscopic therapies to duodenal lesions, accurate preoperative histopathological diagnosis is necessary. The most important technical issue in duodenal ESD is the submucosal dissection process. In duodenal ESD, a short needle-type knife is suitable for the mucosal incision and submucosal dissection processes, and the Small-caliber-tip Transparent hood is an important tool. After endoscopic therapies, the wound should be closed by clipping in order to prevent complications such as secondary hemorrhage and delayed perforation. At present, the criteria for selection between ESD and EMR vary among institutions. The indications for ESD should be carefully considered. Duodenal ESD should have limitations, such as the need for its being performed by experts with abundant experience in performing the procedure. PMID:25901218

  19. Management of complicated duodenal diverticula.

    PubMed

    Oukachbi, N; Brouzes, S

    2013-06-01

    The duodenum is the second most common location of intestinal diverticula after the colon. Duodenal diverticulum (DD) is usually located in the second portion of the duodenum (D2), close to the papilla. Most duodenal diverticula are extraluminal and acquired rather than congenital; more rare is the congenital, intraluminal diverticulum. DD is usually asymptomatic and discovered incidentally, but can become symptomatic in 1% to 5% of cases when complicated by gastroduodenal, biliary and/or pancreatic obstruction, by perforation or by hemorrhage. Endoscopic treatment is the most common first-line treatment for biliopancreatic complications caused by juxtapapillary diverticula and also for bleeding. Conservative treatment of perforated DD based on fasting and broad-spectrum antibiotics may be offered in some selected cases when diagnosis is made early in stable patients, or in elderly patients with comorbidities who are poor operative candidates. Surgical treatment is currently reserved for failure of endoscopic or conservative treatment. The main postoperative complication of diverticulectomy is duodenal leak or fistula, which carries up to a 30% mortality rate. PMID:23810155

  20. [Traumatic rupture of duodenal diverticulum. Report of a case and literature review].

    PubMed

    Souza Júnior, A de L; Poggetti, R S; Fontes, B; Bernini, C O; Figueiredo, A M; Branco, P D; Birolini, D

    1996-01-01

    Duodenal diverticulum is a common anatomic abnormality. Its inflammatory perforation is a rare complication, with less than 100 cases reported in the available literature. Traumatic perforation is exceedingly rare (only 3 cases reported). In this report one more case of traumatic perforation is presented, and the literature is reviewed focusing on the pathogenic, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this severe disease. PMID:9239899

  1. Gastrointestinal perforation

    MedlinePLUS

    Intestinal perforation; Perforation of the intestines ... Perforation of the intestine causes the contents of the intestines to leak into the abdominal cavity. This causes a serious infection called peritonitis . ...

  2. Iatrogenic lesions of the colon and rectum.

    PubMed

    Classen, J N; Martin, R E; Sabagal, J

    1975-11-01

    Our ability to document a number of examples of iatrogenic lesions of the colon and rectum in three general hospitals confirms the multiplicity of these lesions as presented in the literature. It appears that the careful surgeon and his associates would well heed the old admonition known as Murphy's law, that "Anything that can go wrong will go wrong." In the daily practice of the general surgeon and proctologist, it is apparent that gentleness in approaching any anal-rectal examination for either diagnostic or therapeutic purposes is mandatory. The insertion of any foreign object, be it an examining finger, a thermometer, enema tip, or proctoscope, may subject the patient to an inadvertent injury of significant proportion. The dangers inherent in the evaluation and treatment of patients with recognized disease processes is significantly greater than that associated with routine and screening examinations. Morbidity and mortality have been shown to be associated with the barium enema as well as with the barium enema as well as with some of the newer radiologic procedures such as mesenteric angiography. The use of tap water for enemas has produced morbidity both from thermal injuries and from electrolyte depletion. Antibiotics and chemotherapeutic drugs frequently result in colon and rectal disease, and therapeutic procedures directed at organs adjacent to the colon and rectum have resulted in a number of iatrogenic lesions. This reviews confirms reports of others that iatrogenic lesions of the colon and rectum are not solely due to the physician's inexperience, as significant numbers of these lesions were the result of the diagnostic or therapeutic efforts of men of considerable experience and skill. Advanced age of the patient and diseases leading to changes in the character of the bowel wall frequently were factors in the production of these lesions. A poorly prepared bowel has led to increased morbidity and mortality associated with iatrogenic perforations. The early recognition of these lesions and prompt medical and surgical management diminishes both the morbidity and mortality associated with such injuries. PMID:1103307

  3. A Lethal Complication of Endoscopic Therapy: Duodenal Intramural Hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Calhan, Turan; Kahraman, Resul; Soyda?, Bar??; Tosun, Ali; Cebeci, Egemen

    2015-01-01

    Duodenal intramural hematoma (DIH) usually occurs in childhood and young adults following blunt abdominal trauma. It may also develop in the presence of coagulation disorders and may rarely be an iatrogenic outcome of endoscopic procedures. Management of DIH is usually a conservative approach. A case of intramural duodenal hematoma that developed following endoscopic epinephrine sclerotherapy and/or argon plasma coagulation and that was nonresponsive to conservative therapy in a patient with chronic renal failure who died from sepsis is being discussed in this report. Clinicians should be aware of such possible complications after endoscopic hemostasis in patients with coagulation disorders. PMID:26697240

  4. Traumatic Rupture of a Duodenal Diverticulum: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Majerus, B; Mathonet, P; Haxhe, J-P

    2015-01-01

    Duodenal diverticula are relatively common and usually asymptomatic (95%). Their perforation is a rare but harmful event. Traumatic perforation is exceptional. We report the case of a patient with such a lesion following a blunt trauma secondary to a car accident, and review the literature. Clinical presentation is aspecific and diagnosis is based upon CT scan imaging. Surgery is the recommended treatment consisting of diverticulectomy with transverse duodenal closure of the duodenum associated with retroperitoneal drainage. PMID:26324035

  5. An Overview of History, Pathogenesis and Treatment of Perforated Peptic Ulcer Disease with Evaluation of Prognostic Scoring in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, V; Shivani, A

    2014-01-01

    Peptic ulcer disease including both gastric and duodenal ulcer form a substantial part of patients seeking surgical opinion world-wide. The concept of acid in peptic ulcer disease, which was the basis of treatment of peptic ulcer was revolutionized by the discovery of H2-receptor antagonists, that led to the principle of acid suppression therapy for duodenal ulcer which followed decades of preference for surgical interventions in the form of gastric resections, vagotomy etc., After the discovery of Helicobacter pylori organism as the causative factor a triple drug regime was identified to treat peptic disease which was further modified to sequential therapy to avoid antibiotic resistance. This recognition has not concluded the chapter on peptic ulcers. The management of ulcer disease and its complications remain a surgical challenge. All the materials for this review have been accessed from various internet search engines. The references have been narrowed down to 34 by excluding cross references, duplicated citations, pediatric studies, case reports, iatrogenic and malignant perforations and including microbiological, immunohistochemistry references and studies with more than a sample size of ten. Case control, cohort studies, prospective/retrospective, metaanalytical studies were preferred in that order. This article attempts to take an overview of all aspects of the management of peptic ulcer. PMID:24669326

  6. An overview of history, pathogenesis and treatment of perforated peptic ulcer disease with evaluation of prognostic scoring in adults.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, V; Shivani, A

    2014-01-01

    Peptic ulcer disease including both gastric and duodenal ulcer form a substantial part of patients seeking surgical opinion world-wide. The concept of acid in peptic ulcer disease, which was the basis of treatment of peptic ulcer was revolutionized by the discovery of H2-receptor antagonists, that led to the principle of acid suppression therapy for duodenal ulcer which followed decades of preference for surgical interventions in the form of gastric resections, vagotomy etc., After the discovery of Helicobacter pylori organism as the causative factor a triple drug regime was identified to treat peptic disease which was further modified to sequential therapy to avoid antibiotic resistance. This recognition has not concluded the chapter on peptic ulcers. The management of ulcer disease and its complications remain a surgical challenge. All the materials for this review have been accessed from various internet search engines. The references have been narrowed down to 34 by excluding cross references, duplicated citations, pediatric studies, case reports, iatrogenic and malignant perforations and including microbiological, immunohistochemistry references and studies with more than a sample size of ten. Case control, cohort studies, prospective/retrospective, metaanalytical studies were preferred in that order. This article attempts to take an overview of all aspects of the management of peptic ulcer. PMID:24669326

  7. Oesophageal perforation following perioperative transoesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Massey, S R; Pitsis, A; Mehta, D; Callaway, M

    2000-05-01

    Transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) is being used more often by cardiothoracic anaesthetists for the perioperative management of cardiac problems. Reports of iatrogenic oesophageal perforation by instrumentation of the oesophagus are increasing. Although TOE is considered safe, it may be more risky during surgery, because the probe is passed and manipulated in an anaesthetized patient. It may be in place for several hours so the risk of mucosal pressure and thermal damage is increased. Patients on cardiopulmonary bypass are also fully anticoagulated. We describe a case of oesophageal perforation following insertion of the TOE probe in a patient with gross cardiomegaly. Oesophageal distortion by cardiac enlargement may increase the risk of oesophageal perforation. Difficulty in passage of the TOE probe should be regarded with suspicion and withdrawal should be contemplated because the symptoms of oesophageal perforation are often delayed and non-specific. Delay in investigation, diagnosis and treatment will increase morbidity and mortality. PMID:10844846

  8. Pancreatic-induced intramural duodenal haematoma.

    PubMed

    Ma, Julius K; Ng, Kelvin K; Poon, Ronnie T; Fan, Sheung Tat

    2008-04-01

    Spontaneous intramural duodenal haematoma (IDH) is an uncommon pathology and it is usually related to anticoagulant therapy. Other causes include various pancreatic diseases, connective tissue disease, peptic ulcer disease and pancreaticoduodenal aneurysm. IDH of pancreatic origin has been infrequently reported. The disease course can be life-threatening and serious complications may occur, including gastric outlet obstruction, duodenal perforation and septicaemia. A case of pancreatic-induced IDH is presented, for which pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed as definitive treatment. In general, medical treatment with continuous nasogastric aspiration and total parenteral nutrition is recommended as initial management strategy. Surgical interventions (evacuation of blood clot or surgical resection) are reserved for patients in whom medical treatment fails or complications occur. PMID:18490220

  9. Conservative Management of an Iatrogenic Esophageal Tear in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Waweru, Peter; Mwaniki, David

    2015-01-01

    Since its description over 250 years ago, diagnosis of esophageal perforation remains challenging, its management controversial, and its mortality high. This rare, devastating, mostly iatrogenic, condition can quickly lead to severe complications and death due to an overwhelming inflammatory response to gastric contents in the mediastinum. Diagnosis is made with the help of esophagograms and although such tears have traditionally been managed via aggressive surgical approach, recent reports emphasize a shift in favor of nonoperative care which unfortunately remains controversial. We here present a case of an iatrogenic esophageal tear resulting from a routine esophagoscopy in a 50-year-old lady presenting with dysphagia. The esophageal tear, almost missed, was eventually successfully managed conservatively, thanks to a relatively early diagnosis. PMID:26257974

  10. Esophageal perforation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or caustic chemicals, such as household cleaners, disk batteries, and battery acid Trauma or injury to the chest and ... Rapid heart rate Neck pain or stiffness and air bubbles underneath the skin if the perforation is ...

  11. Prevalence of Duodenal Diverticulum in South Indians: A Cadaveric Study

    PubMed Central

    Kannaiyan, Kavitha; Thiagarajan, Sivakami

    2013-01-01

    Background. Duodenum is the second most common site of diverticula after the colon. Diagnosis of duodenal diverticula is incidental and found during other therapeutic procedures. In 90% of cases, they are asymptomatic, and less than 10% develop clinical symptoms. The difficulty to ascertain the true incidence of duodenal diverticula demanded for the present study to elucidate the prevalence of the duodenal diverticulum in South Indians. Materials and Methods. One hundred and twenty specimens of duodenum were utilized for the study. The prevalence, anatomical location, and dimension of duodenal diverticulum were studied. Results. Among the 120 specimens of duodenum, five specimens had solitary, extraluminal, and globular-shaped diverticula in the medial wall of the duodenum. In three (60%) cases, it was found in the second part of duodenum and in two (40%) cases in the third part. The mean size of the diverticula was 1.4?cm. Conclusion. In the present study in South Indian people, the prevalence (4.2%) of duodenal diverticula is low comparable to other studies in the literature. Even though most of the duodenal diverticula are asymptomatic, the knowledge about its frequency and location is of great importance to prevent complications like diverticulitis, hemorrhage, obstructive jaundice, and perforation. PMID:25938103

  12. Prevalence of duodenal diverticulum in South indians: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, Sulochana; Kannaiyan, Kavitha; Thiagarajan, Sivakami

    2013-01-01

    Background. Duodenum is the second most common site of diverticula after the colon. Diagnosis of duodenal diverticula is incidental and found during other therapeutic procedures. In 90% of cases, they are asymptomatic, and less than 10% develop clinical symptoms. The difficulty to ascertain the true incidence of duodenal diverticula demanded for the present study to elucidate the prevalence of the duodenal diverticulum in South Indians. Materials and Methods. One hundred and twenty specimens of duodenum were utilized for the study. The prevalence, anatomical location, and dimension of duodenal diverticulum were studied. Results. Among the 120 specimens of duodenum, five specimens had solitary, extraluminal, and globular-shaped diverticula in the medial wall of the duodenum. In three (60%) cases, it was found in the second part of duodenum and in two (40%) cases in the third part. The mean size of the diverticula was 1.4?cm. Conclusion. In the present study in South Indian people, the prevalence (4.2%) of duodenal diverticula is low comparable to other studies in the literature. Even though most of the duodenal diverticula are asymptomatic, the knowledge about its frequency and location is of great importance to prevent complications like diverticulitis, hemorrhage, obstructive jaundice, and perforation. PMID:25938103

  13. Megaduodenum with Duodenal Diospyrobezoars

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Woo

    2015-01-01

    Bezoars are retained masses of ingested materials accumulating within the gastrointestinal track. While gastric bezoars are often observed, duodenal bezoars are rarely reported. A 77-year-old man who had frequently consumed persimmons and had never undergone gastric surgery had symptoms of epigastric pain and early satiety for 10 days. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed many diospyrobezoars in a severely distended duodenal bulb, otherwise known as megaduodenum. The patient's treatment consisted of repeated endoscopic removal of the bezoars by using a retrieval net. PMID:26473129

  14. [Radiologic aspects of the complications of duodenal diverticula].

    PubMed

    Oddo, F; Chevallier, P; Souci, J; Baque, J; Buckley, M J; Fabiani, P; Diaine, B; Coussement, A

    1999-02-01

    The duodenum is the second most common site, after the colon, for intestinal diverticulae. This condition is most often asymptomatic and is usually an accidental finding. Complications, with variable clinical presentations, may occur in up to 5% of such individuals. We report a retrospective analysis of 5 patients who presented with complicated duodenal diverticular disease. The complications, either isolated or multiple, consisted of bezoar formation (n = 2), diverticulitis (n = 2), extrinsic compression of the common bile duct (n = 3), perforation (n = 1), choledocholithiasis (n = 1), and an abnormality of the bilio-pancreatic ductal convergence (n = 1). The radiological aspects, in particular, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features are reviewed. These are, to our knowledge, the first descriptions of MRI and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatographic (MRCP) findings in complicated duodenal diverticular disease. MRI facilitates precise delineation of the complicated duodenal diverticulum while MRCP allows assessment of the effects on the biliary and pancreatic ducts. PMID:10209709

  15. Endoluminal Closure of Colon Perforation with Endoscopic Band Ligation: Technical Feasibility and Safety in an In Vivo Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Han, Joung-Ho; Kim, Myounghwan; Lee, Tae Hoon; Kim, Hyun; Jung, Yunho; Park, Seon Mee; Chae, Heebok; Youn, Seijin; Shin, Ji Yun; Lee, In-Kwang; Lee, Tae Soo; Choi, Seok Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Endoscopic band ligation (EBL) is an accepted method in the management of variceal bleeding; however, there is little evidence on the safety and feasibility of EBL for the closure of bowel perforation. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the technical feasibility and efficacy of EBL in iatrogenic colon perforation by using a canine model. Methods: We established an iatrogenic colon perforation model by using seven beagle dogs. Longitudinal 1.5- to 1.7-cm colon perforations were created with a needle knife and an insulated-tip knife, and the perforation was subsequently closed with EBL. During a 2-week follow-up period, the animals were carefully monitored and then euthanized for pathologic examination. Results: The EBL of iatrogenic colon perforations was successful in all dogs. The mean procedure time for EBL closure with one to three bands was 191.7 seconds, and there were no immediate complications. One animal was euthanized after 3 days because of peritonitis. There were no clinical and laboratory features of sepsis or peritonitis in the remaining six animals. On necropsy, we did not find any fecal peritonitis, pericolonic abscess formation, or transmural dehiscence at the perforation site. Histopathology demonstrated inflamed granulation tissue and scar lesions replaced by fibrosis. Conclusions: EBL might be a feasible and safe method for the management of iatrogenic colon perforations in an in vivo model. PMID:26668801

  16. [Iatrogenic effects of orthodontic therapy].

    PubMed

    Kiekens, R M; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M

    2000-04-01

    Iatrogenic effects of orthodontic treatment are root resorption, pulpal changes, decalcifications and white spots, gingival and periodontal changes, enamel surface changes, temporomandibular dysfunction, immunological reactions, pain and discomfort, and accidents. The authors discuss these items and give, if possible, tips to prevent or reduce these effects. PMID:11382975

  17. Iatrogenic error and physician responsibility.

    PubMed

    Sandroni, S

    2001-03-01

    The recent report on iatrogenic errors highlighted the scope of the problem and suggested solutions including a national agency to oversee error reporting. This may or may not occur; in the meantime physicians are not relieved of their responsibility to respond to the issue of patient safety. Reasons for the slow response to date are discussed and suggestions for the future are offered. PMID:11291568

  18. Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome with Co-Administered Ritonavir and

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome with Co-Administered Ritonavir and Corticosteroid via Inhaled page. 2 #12;Learning Objectives · List risk factors for developing Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome (ICS likely hood of causing Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome compared to other routes of administration · T

  19. Iatrogenic nondiabetic hyperosmolar states1

    PubMed Central

    Webb, A K; Phillips, M J; Hanson, Gillian C

    1979-01-01

    Four cases of the iatrogenic nondiabetic hyperosmolar state are presented. The clinical presentation, biochemical findings and management are discussed. No hypertonic solution should be infused at a rate above the level of patient tolerance; irrigation of a hollow viscus with a hypertonic solution should be avoided, and salt should not be used as an emetic. Patients under stress are particularly prone to this condition, largely because of the high circulating cortisol levels. The use of corticosteroids, salt-containing solutions in excess of patient requirements, water depletion and intravenous nutrition in the absence of careful biochemical monitoring, are all factors which may precipitate the hyperosmolar state in the critically ill. PMID:233253

  20. A critical Evaluation of Surgical Treatment of Perforated Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Rigopoulos, A.; Ramboiu, S.; Georgescu, I.

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of perforated ulcer disease continues to evolve because of recent advances in pharmacology, bacteriology, and operative techniques. Despite antisecretory medication and Helicobacter pylori eradication, it is still the most common indication for emergency gastric surgery associated with high morbidity and mortality. A clinical study was carried out on patients with perforated gastric or duodenal ulcer, admitted in the 1st Surgery Department between 2002 and 2008. During the 7 years of study there were admitted 256 patients with perforated ulcer - 212 cases of duodenal and 44 cases of gastric perforated ulcer. The main surgical treatment option was simple closure with Graham patch, followed by ulcer excision and vagotomy with pyloroplasty. The second major objective was the topical treatment of peritonitis and consisted in the lavage of the peritoneal cavity and drainage. Distal gastric resection has now very limited indications. We recorded no complications postoperatively. In the modern treatment of ulcer, surgery is reserved for the acute (perforation and bleeding) and chronic complications (stenosis / penetration) and exceptionally or the patients with a prolonged history of uncomplicated ulcers with lack of response to conservative therapy. PMID:24778834

  1. Iatrogenic glaucoma secondary to medications.

    PubMed

    Razeghinejad, M Reza; Myers, Jonathan S; Katz, L Jay

    2011-01-01

    Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy with primary and secondary forms. Iatrogenic glaucoma secondary to medications is potentially blinding but preventable. Most drug profiles listing glaucoma as a contraindication or an adverse effect are concerned with inducing acute angle-closure glaucoma. Anticholinergic or adrenergic agents are the most common for inducing "pupillary block" angle-closure glaucoma. Patients with a narrow irido-corneal angle are at high risk. Sulfa drugs induce "non-pupillary block" angle-closure glaucoma as an idiosyncratic reaction to the drug in patients with an open or narrow irido-corneal angle. Steroids and a few antineoplastic agents induce open-angle glaucoma. The risk is higher with topical rather than systemic steroids. The first step in the management is discontinuation of the drug, followed by medical, laser, and, if necessary, surgical intervention. PMID:21092926

  2. Endoscopic duodenal "windsock" diverticulotomy.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Tyler; Chand, Bipan; Winans, Charles

    2013-04-01

    A 49-year-old woman presented with a 3-month history of nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. Her symptoms were severe, and she required total parenteral nutrition for nutrition support. Both CT and barium upper GI series demonstrated a large "windsock" diverticulum that obstructed the duodenal lumen. The patient was referred to undergo a surgical diverticulectomy. After a multidisciplinary discussion, a less invasive endoscopic diverticulotomy was recommended, and the patient agreed. The linked video demonstrates the endoscopic findings and therapeutic technique. Upper endoscopy showed the diverticulum arising from the proximal duodenum. The scope could not traverse the true lumen due to compression by the diverticulum. A guidewire was passed to delineate the true lumen. At that point, the diverticulum spontaneously inverted into a proximal position. The tip of the diverticulum was then clipped to the duodenal wall to increase exposure and to allow a more controlled incision. Clips were placed on the vascular pedicle of the diverticulum to prevent bleeding. An incremental incision was performed using a needle-knife to divide the diverticulum completely. Mild bleeding occurred twice and was managed with clips. A complete diverticulotomy was accomplished, allowing easy passage of the endoscope. The patient had an uneventful postprocedural recovery and was discharged the same day with instructions for dietary advancement. After 2 months, the patient reported complete symptom resolution. She was eating well, had gained weight, and had discontinued total parenteral nutrition. A repeat endoscopy confirmed a patent lumen and no recurrence of the diverticulum. This case demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of endoscopic diverticulotomy performed from a proximally inverted position. This "top-down" approach provided very good exposure for the incision and easy treatment of bleeding complications. PMID:23076458

  3. [Iatrogenic urethral stenosis. Apropos of 100 cases].

    PubMed

    Boujnah, H; Abid, I; Trabelsi, N; Zmerli, S

    1989-03-01

    Iatrogenic causes of stenosis of urethra appear to be increasing in frequency. 100 cases out of a total of 582 patients being of iatrogenic origin. The principal cause is the use of a urethral catheter. Various therapeutic methods are used, preference being given quite clearly to internal urethrotomy. Prevention is of fundamental importance and is based on the less untimely routine use of urethral catheters, particularly after general surgical operations and in intensive care. PMID:2659605

  4. Inhalational Steroids and Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    A V, Raveendran

    2014-01-01

    Bronchial asthma (BA) and Allergic rhinitis (AR) are common clinical problems encountered in day to day practice, where inhalational corticosteroids (ICS) or intranasal steroids (INS) are the mainstay of treatment. Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome (CS) is a well known complication of systemic steroid administration. ICS /INS were earlier thought to be safe, but now more and more number of case reports of Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome have been reported, especially in those who are taking cytochrome P450 (CYP 450) inhibitors. Comparing to the classical clinical features of spontaneous Cushing syndrome, iatrogenic Cushing syndrome is more commonly associated with osteoporosis, increase in intra-ocular pressure, benign intracranial hypertension, aseptic necrosis of femoral head and pancreatitis, where as hypertension, hirsuitisum and menstrual irregularities are less common. Endocrine work up shows low serum cortisol level with evidence of HPA (hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal) axis suppression. In all patients with features of Cushing syndrome with evidence of adrenal suppression always suspect iatrogenic CS. Since concomitant administration of cytochrome P450 inhibitors in patients on ICS/INS can precipitate iatrogenic CS, avoidance of CYP450 inhibitors, its dose reduction or substitution of ICS are the available options. Along with those, measures to prevent the precipitation of adrenal crisis has to be taken. An update on ICS-/INS- associated iatrogenic CS and its management is presented here. PMID:25674177

  5. Intestinal perforation in a parastomal hernia by a migrated plastic biliary stent.

    PubMed

    Levey, J M

    2002-11-01

    Organ perforation is a well-described complication of plastic biliary stent placement [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10][1-10]. Most commonly, a stent will cause duodenal perforation while still in the area of the biliary system. This often occurs in the setting of a periampullary diverticulum. Less frequently, a perforation occurs as a result of stent migration into the distal lumenal gastrointestinal tract. These cases have involved a migrated stent impacting at the level of the ileum or a sigmoid colon diverticulum. A plastic biliary stent causing perforation inside an incarcerated small bowel hernia sac has been reported [10]. We describe the first reported case of a plastic biliary stent causing perforation inside a parastomal hernia. PMID:12085152

  6. Neonatal colonic perforation

    PubMed Central

    Saraç, Fatma; Atao?lu, Emel; Tatar, Cihad; Hatipo?lu, Halil U?ur; Abbaso?lu, Latif

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal colonic perforation is a rarely seen condition. Plain abdominal radiography of a 28-hour newborn consulted for vomiting and bloody stool revealed the presence of subdiaphragmatic free air, which necessitated surgical exploration. Transverse colonic perforation was detected during the exploration, and subsequently, a colostomy and appendectomy were performed. The postoperative follow-up period was uneventful. Necrotizing enterocolitis, Hirschsprung disease, and mechanical obstruction are some of the causes of colonic perforation during the neonatal period. Herein, we have shared a case of colonic perforation in an asphyctic newborn delivered after prolonged labor. PMID:25931945

  7. Neonatal colonic perforation.

    PubMed

    Saraç, Fatma; Atao?lu, Emel; Tatar, Cihad; Hatipo?lu, Halil U?ur; Abbaso?lu, Latif

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal colonic perforation is a rarely seen condition. Plain abdominal radiography of a 28-hour newborn consulted for vomiting and bloody stool revealed the presence of subdiaphragmatic free air, which necessitated surgical exploration. Transverse colonic perforation was detected during the exploration, and subsequently, a colostomy and appendectomy were performed. The postoperative follow-up period was uneventful. Necrotizing enterocolitis, Hirschsprung disease, and mechanical obstruction are some of the causes of colonic perforation during the neonatal period. Herein, we have shared a case of colonic perforation in an asphyctic newborn delivered after prolonged labor. PMID:25931945

  8. Iatrogenic Medial Patellar Instability: An Avoidable Injury.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Alfonso, Vicente; Merchant, Alan C

    2015-08-01

    Iatrogenic medial patellar instability is a specific condition that frequently causes incapacitating anterior knee pain, severe disability, and serious psychological problems. The diagnosis should be suspected in a patient who has undergone previous patellar realignment surgery that has made the pain worse. The diagnosis can be established by physical examination and simple therapeutic tests (e.g., "reverse" McConnell taping) and confirmed by imaging techniques. This iatrogenic condition should no longer exist and could almost be eliminated by avoiding over-release of the lateral retinaculum. PMID:25823671

  9. "Death by a thread"--peritonitis due to visceral perforation by a guide wire, during proximal femur osteosynthesis with DHS: a fatal case and legal implications.

    PubMed

    Durão, Carlos; Barros, André; Guerreiro, Rui; Pedrosa, Frederico

    2015-04-01

    Iatrogenic intestinal perforations in orthopaedic surgery are very rare. Reports of iatrogenic lesions caused by a guide wire during femur fracture osteosynthesis are even scarcer. There are no similar reports in recent literature. As opposed to what is normally described the lesion documented in this case report was not identified on time resulting in death by peritonitis. The forensic autopsy allowed the identification of an intestinal perforation with faecal leakage to peritoneal space in association with a vesical perforation enabling the reproduction of the guide wire path. In view of the increasing number of osteosynthesis it is essential for the surgeon to be aware of possible complications due to guide wire perforations. Cases like this go unnoticed if the forensic pathologist is not familiarized with the surgical technique which may explain the rarity of such descriptions in literature. PMID:25701153

  10. Spontaneous asymptomatic gallbladder perforation

    PubMed Central

    Seçil, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Gallstone disease is common. However, a proportion of patients are asymptomatic and remain undiagnosed until the occurrence of complications. Common complications include acute cholecystitis, biliary obstruction, acute pancreatitis and cholangitis. Severe complications include gallbladder perforation, Mirizzi syndrome and fistula formation are usually associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a case of asymptomatic spotaneous gallbladder perforation due to acute cholecystitis. PMID:24914424

  11. Cold snare piecemeal resection of colonic and duodenal polyps ?1?cm

    PubMed Central

    Choksi, Neel; Elmunzer, B. Joseph; Stidham, Ryan W.; Shuster, Dmitry; Piraka, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    Background: Endoscopic removal of duodenal and colorectal adenomas is currently considered to be the standard of care for prevention of adenocarcinoma. The use of cautery carries a risk of delayed bleeding, post-polypectomy syndrome, and perforation. We examined the safety and feasibility of removing colonic and duodenal polyps ??1?cm using a piecemeal cold snare polypectomy technique. Patients: The study included 15 patients with duodenal polyps ??1?cm and 15 patients with colonic polyps ??1?cm. Main outcome measurements: Bleeding, perforation, abdominal pain, or hospitalization occurring within 2 weeks of polypectomy. Results: Between 24 August 2011 and 29 April 2013, 15 patients had removal of duodenal polyps ??1?cm. Mean patient age was 64 years and 9/15 patients were male. The mean polyp size was 24?mm (10?–?60?mm). All polyps were removed with a cold snare and some required cold biopsy forceps. One patient required hospitalization for gastrointestinal blood loss 7 days post-polypectomy; this patient was using Coumadin. Between 27 February 2012 and 30 May 2013, 15 patients underwent resection of a ??1?cm colonic polyp.?Mean patient age was 68 years and 9/15 were male. The mean polyp size was 20?mm (10?–?45?mm). All polyps were primarily removed with a cold snare. None of the patients required hemostatic clips for control of immediate bleeding. One patient presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain 1 day after initial endoscopy. CT scan showed no abnormalities and the patient was discharged. Conclusions: Cold snare polypectomy for large duodenal and colonic polyps is technically feasible and may have a favorable safety profile compared to standard electrocautery-based endoscopic resection. Comparative trials are required to determine the relative safety and efficacy of cold snare techniques for complete and durable resection of large polyps compared to standard hot snare methods. PMID:26528509

  12. Gastric and Duodenal Stents: Follow-Up and Complications

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto Pabon, Isabel Teresa; Paul Diaz, Laura; Ruiz de Adana, Juan Carlos; Lopez Herrero, Julio

    2001-05-15

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of self-expanding metallic stents in treating inoperable gastric and duodenal stenoses during follow-up and to evaluate the complications encountered.Methods: A total of 31 patients suffering from gastroduodenal obstruction (29 malignant, 2 benign) were treated with a self-expanding metallic stent (Wallstent). In 24 cases insertion was by the peroral route, in seven cases via gastrostomy.Results: All the strictures were successfully negotiated under fluoroscopic guidance without having to resort to endoscopy. A total of 27 patients (87%) were able to resume a regular diet, a soft diet, or a liquid diet orally. Complications included one case of stent malpositioning, one case of leakage of ascitic fluid through the gastrostomy orifice, one case of perforation and fistula to the biliary tree, and two cases of hematemesis. In two patients (6%) additional stents were implanted to improve patency. In all patients follow-up was maintained until death. Recurrence of symptoms immediately before death occurred in seven cases (23%). Mean survival time of patients was 13.3 weeks (SE {+-} 4.6).Conclusions: The deployment of gastroduodenal stents resulted in good palliation of inoperable gastric and duodenal stenoses. Certain technical aspects, e.g., adaptation of stents to bowel morphology, is critical to proper stent function and avoidance of complications.

  13. Abdominal compartment syndrome from bleeding duodenal diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang; Groth, Shawn S; Leon, Jorge A; Mohr, William J

    2012-04-01

    Duodenal diverticuli are acquired false diverticuli of unknown etiology. Although mostly asymptomatic, they can occasionally cause upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, rarely with massive bleeding. In this report, we present (to the best of our knowledge) the first reported case of duodenal diverticular bleeding, causing abdominal compartment syndrome. Albeit a rare event, duodenal diverticular bleeding should be included in the differential diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. As with our case, a multidisciplinary approach to managing such patients is crucial. PMID:22787350

  14. [Iatrogenic injuries of the pulmonary artery].

    PubMed

    Hromádka, P; Cernohorský, S; Skach, J; Zýková, I

    2010-04-01

    The injury of major thoracic vessels always presents life threatening condition. In our case report we present iatrogenous pulmonary artery lesion caused by Swan-ganz catheter during invasive intraluminal pulmonary pressure measurement as a part of examination for cardiosurgical mitral valve replacement. There are no files describing successfully treated patients with vast pulmonary artery trunk injury rather than particular case reports. Although severe iatrogenous injury is being discussed, the outcome for the patient is thank to early surgical treatment (the application of recombinant coagulation factor VII - Novoseven, blood recuperation, therapeutic hypothermia) and professional postoperative care maximally beneficial. In the discussion and conclusion authors summarize therapeutical procedures that led to saving a patient's life. PMID:20586159

  15. Portland Cement Use in Dental Root Perforations: A Long Term Followup

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Álvaro Henrique; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Faitaroni, Luis Augusto; Carvalho, Elibel Reginna de Siqueira; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Tanomaru Filho, Mário

    2014-01-01

    Root canal and furcal perforations are causes of endodontic therapy failure and different materials that stimulate tissue mineralization have been proposed for perforation treatment. In the first case, a patient presented tooth 46 with unsatisfactory endodontic treatment and a periapical radiographic lesion. A radiolucent area compatible with a perforating internal resorption cavity was found in the mesial root. The granulation tissue was removed, and root canals were prepared. The intracanal medication was composed of calcium hydroxide and the perforation cavity was filled with Portland cement. The 11-year followup showed radiographic repair of the tissue adjacent to the perforation and absence of clinical signs and symptoms or periapical lesion. In the second case, a patient presented with edema on the buccal surface of tooth 46. The examination showed a radiolucent area in the furcation region compatible with an iatrogenic perforation cavity. The mesial root canals were calcified, and only the distal root canal was prepared. The cavity was filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste and the distal root canal was obturated. In sequence, the perforation cavity was filled with Portland cement. The 9-year followup showed the tooth in masticatory function with radiographic and clinical aspects compatible with normality. PMID:24715998

  16. Novel transcatheter closure of an iatrogenic perimembranous ventricular septal defect.

    PubMed

    Retzer, Elizabeth M; Dill, Karin E; Shah, Atman P

    2015-01-01

    Iatrogenic membranous ventricular septal defects (VSD) are rare complications of cardiothoracic surgery, most commonly seen as a complication of aortic valve replacements. An iatrogenic VSD can lead to right sided heart failure, systemic hypoxia, and arrhythmias, and closure is often necessary. Given the increased mortality associated with repeat surgical procedures, percutaneous transcatheter closure of these iatrogenic VSDs has increasingly become the preferred choice of therapy. We describe the first case of iatrogenic membranous VSD in the setting of mitral valve replacement and tricuspid valve repair, using the newly approved Amplatzer Duct Occluder II Device from an entirely retrograde approach. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25176592

  17. Duodenal polyposis secondary to portal hypertensive duodenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Gurung, Ananta; Jaffe, Philip E; Zhang, Xuchen

    2015-01-01

    Portal hypertensive duodenopathy (PHD) is a recognized, but uncommon finding of portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients. Lesions associated with PHD include erythema, erosions, ulcers, telangiectasia, exaggerated villous pattern and duodenal varices. However, duodenal polyposis as a manifestation of PHD is rare. We report a case of a 52-year-old man who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and was found with multiple small duodenal polyps ranging in size from 1-8 mm. Biopsy of the representative polyps revealed polypoid fragments of duodenal mucosa with villiform hyperplasia lined by reactive duodenal/gastric foveolar epithelium and underlying lamina propria showed proliferating ectatic and congested capillaries. The features were diagnostic of polyps arising in the setting of PHD. PMID:26634042

  18. Sonography of iatrogenic pneumothorax in pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Pneumothorax is defined as the presence of air in the pleural cavity. The incidence of iatrogenic pneumothorax in the pediatric population is 0.3–0.48 in 1000 patients. A conventional chest X-ray, in some cases supplemented with chest computed tomography, is a typical imaging examination used to confirm the diagnosis of pneumothorax. Within the last years, the relevance of transthoracic lung ultrasound in the diagnostic process of this disease entity has greatly increased. This is confirmed by the opinion of a group of experts in ultrasound lung imaging in patients in a life-threatening condition, who strongly recommend a transthoracic ultrasound examination for the diagnosis of pneumothorax in such patients. These data constituted the basis for initiating the prospective studies on the application of this method in pneumothorax diagnosis in patients of pediatric hematology and oncology wards. Aim The aim of the study was to present the possibility of using the transthoracic lung ultrasound in the diagnostic process of pneumothorax in pediatric patients, with particular attention paid to its iatrogenic form. The article discusses sonographic criteria for pneumothorax diagnosis in pediatric patients, including the sensitivity and specificity of the method, in relation to conventional chest X-ray. Material and methods The prospective studies included a group of patients treated in the Clinic of Pediatrics, Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Endocrinology of the Academic Clinical Centre (Medical University of Gda?sk, Poland) in whom a central venous catheter was placed in the subclavian veins. The studies lasted for one year – from 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2012. The examined group comprised 63 patients – 25 girls (39.7%) and 38 boys (60.3%) aged from 1 to 17. The analysis included the results of 115 ultrasound examinations conducted in this group. Results In t he examined group with suspected or diagnosed neoplasm, iatrogenic pneumothorax was identified in 4 out of 63 patients (6.3%). In all cases, it was a consequence of procedures connected with the introduction of a central catheter. In the examined material, the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values (positive and negative) of the transthoracic lung ultrasound equaled 100%. Conclusions The transthoracic ultrasound examination is a highly effective method in diagnosing iatrogenic pneumothorax in pediatric patients. However, to confirm this conclusion, multicenter studies, among considerably larger populations, are necessary. PMID:26675373

  19. Endoscopic management of gastrointestinal perforations, leaks and fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Rogalski, Pawel; Daniluk, Jaroslaw; Baniukiewicz, Andrzej; Wroblewski, Eugeniusz; Dabrowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal perforations, leaks and fistulas may be serious and life-threatening. The increasing number of endoscopic procedures with a high risk of perforation and the increasing incidence of leakage associated with bariatric operations call for a minimally invasive treatment for these complications. The therapeutic approach can vary greatly depending on the size, location, and timing of gastrointestinal wall defect recognition. Some asymptomatic patients can be treated conservatively, while patients with septic symptoms or cardio-pulmonary insufficiency may require intensive care and urgent surgical treatment. However, most gastrointestinal wall defects can be satisfactorily treated by endoscopy. Although the initial endoscopic closure rates of chronic fistulas is very high, the long-term results of these treatments remain a clinical problem. The efficacy of endoscopic therapy depends on several factors and the best mode of treatment will depend on a precise localization of the site, the extent of the leak and the endoscopic appearance of the lesion. Many endoscopic tools for effective closure of gastrointestinal wall defects are currently available. In this review, we summarized the basic principles of the management of acute iatrogenic perforations, as well as of postoperative leaks and chronic fistulas of the gastrointestinal tract. We also described the effectiveness of various endoscopic methods based on current research and our experience. PMID:26457014

  20. Congenital duodenal obstruction associated with Down's syndrome presenting with hematemesis.

    PubMed

    Al Shahwani, Noora; Mandhan, Parkash; Elkadhi, Abdelrahman; Ali, Mansour J; Latif, Abdel

    2013-01-01

    Congenital duodenal obstruction is usually characterized by onset of early vomiting due to high bowel obstruction. Presentation of congenital duodenal obstruction with acute gastrointestinal bleeding is very uncommon. We present an unusual case of congenital intrinsic duodenal obstruction associated with the Down's syndrome presenting with hematemesis secondary to duodenitis. This is a rare presentation of congenital duodenal obstruction associated with Down's syndrome in addition to seven cases previously reported in the English literature. PMID:24968438

  1. Congenital duodenal obstruction associated with Down's syndrome presenting with hematemesis

    PubMed Central

    Al Shahwani, Noora; Mandhan, Parkash; Elkadhi, Abdelrahman; Ali, Mansour J.; Latif, Abdel

    2013-01-01

    Congenital duodenal obstruction is usually characterized by onset of early vomiting due to high bowel obstruction. Presentation of congenital duodenal obstruction with acute gastrointestinal bleeding is very uncommon. We present an unusual case of congenital intrinsic duodenal obstruction associated with the Down's syndrome presenting with hematemesis secondary to duodenitis. This is a rare presentation of congenital duodenal obstruction associated with Down's syndrome in addition to seven cases previously reported in the English literature. PMID:24968438

  2. Update on strategies limiting iatrogenic hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Bonaventura, Aldo; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Dallegri, Franco

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing all over the world. Targeting good glycemic control is fundamental to avoid the complications of diabetes linked to hyperglycemia. This narrative review is based on material searched for and obtained via PubMed up to April 2015. The search terms we used were: 'hypoglycemia, diabetes, complications' in combination with 'iatrogenic, treatment, symptoms.' Serious complications might occur from an inappropriate treatment of hyperglycemia. The most frequent complication is iatrogenic hypoglycemia that is often associated with autonomic and neuroglycopenic symptoms. Furthermore, hypoglycemia causes acute cardiovascular effects, which may explain some of the typical symptoms: ischemia, QT prolongation, and arrhythmia. With regards to the latter, the night represents a dangerous period because of the major increase in arrhythmias and the prolonged period of hypoglycemia; indeed, sleep has been shown to blunt the sympatho-adrenal response to hypoglycemia. Two main strategies have been implemented to reduce these effects: monitoring blood glucose values and individualized HbA1c goals. Several drugs for the treatment of T2DM are currently available and different combinations have been recommended to achieve individualized glycemic targets, considering age, comorbidities, disease duration, and life expectancy. In conclusion, according to international guidelines, hypoglycemia-avoiding therapy must reach an individualized glycemic goal, which is the lowest HbA1c not causing severe hypoglycemia and preserving awareness of hypoglycemia. PMID:26099256

  3. [Iatrogenic and drug-induced hypertension].

    PubMed

    Mounier-Vehier, Claire; Boudghène, Fanny; Claisse, Gonzague; Delsart, Pascal

    2015-06-01

    Various toxic or drug agents can induce arterial hypertension, aggravate or limit the efficiency of anti-hypertensive drugs. Iatrogenic and drug-induced hypertension should be well known by the clinicians and the pharmacists, given the impact for driving the management of patients. In the food, an excessive alcohol consumption (more than 30 g per day) and more rarely glycerizine (active ingredient of the licorice) should be systematically looked for in front of a recent hypertension or do not respond to usual treatment. In the list of offending medicines, we must remember ethinyl estradiol contained in the contraception (oral, vaginal ring or transcutaneous patch), non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, immunosuppressants (cyclosporine, tacrolimus), vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor R2 (avastin, inhibitors of receptor tyrosine kinases), recombinant human erythropoietin, sympathomimetics (nasal decongestants), anabolic steroids, bromocriptine (inhibitor of lactation), psychotropes (tricyclics antidepressants, monoamine oxydase inhibitors). The diagnosis of iatrogenic hypertensions should be systematically suspected in front of a suggestive clinical context with a meticulous food questioning because these hypertensions are partially or fully reversible after exposure stops. PMID:26298906

  4. Update on strategies limiting iatrogenic hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Bonaventura, Aldo; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Dallegri, Franco

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing all over the world. Targeting good glycemic control is fundamental to avoid the complications of diabetes linked to hyperglycemia. This narrative review is based on material searched for and obtained via PubMed up to April 2015. The search terms we used were: ‘hypoglycemia, diabetes, complications’ in combination with ‘iatrogenic, treatment, symptoms.’ Serious complications might occur from an inappropriate treatment of hyperglycemia. The most frequent complication is iatrogenic hypoglycemia that is often associated with autonomic and neuroglycopenic symptoms. Furthermore, hypoglycemia causes acute cardiovascular effects, which may explain some of the typical symptoms: ischemia, QT prolongation, and arrhythmia. With regards to the latter, the night represents a dangerous period because of the major increase in arrhythmias and the prolonged period of hypoglycemia; indeed, sleep has been shown to blunt the sympatho-adrenal response to hypoglycemia. Two main strategies have been implemented to reduce these effects: monitoring blood glucose values and individualized HbA1c goals. Several drugs for the treatment of T2DM are currently available and different combinations have been recommended to achieve individualized glycemic targets, considering age, comorbidities, disease duration, and life expectancy. In conclusion, according to international guidelines, hypoglycemia-avoiding therapy must reach an individualized glycemic goal, which is the lowest HbA1c not causing severe hypoglycemia and preserving awareness of hypoglycemia. PMID:26099256

  5. Giant duodenal diverticulum: presentation by blunt trauma.

    PubMed

    Michalsky, M P; Ritota, P; Swan, K G

    1999-06-01

    Most duodenal diverticula are asymptomatic, small (i.e., less than 5 cm in greatest dimension), acquired, extraluminal, and false. The only report of a massive or giant duodenal diverticulum (i.e., 10 cm or more), in the current literature, included severe nocturnal diarrhea. The present case report is the incidental finding of a massive duodenal diverticulum in a 34-year-old male trauma victim. The insidious nature of this case and the patient's age suggest a congenital etiology. We believe this is the first report of such a case. PMID:10372639

  6. Rat Endovascular Perforation Model

    PubMed Central

    Sehba, Fatima A.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental animal models of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have provided a wealth of information on the mechanisms of brain injury. The Rat endovascular perforation model (EVP) replicates the early pathophysiology of SAH and hence is frequently used to study early brain injury following SAH. This paper presents a brief review of historical development of the EVP model, details the technique used to create SAH and considerations necessary to overcome technical challenges. PMID:25213427

  7. Preoperative endoscopic diagnosis of superficial non-ampullary duodenal epithelial tumors, including magnifying endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Shigetsugu; Doyama, Hisashi; Tsuji, Kunihiro; Tsuyama, Sho; Tominaga, Kei; Yoshida, Naohiro; Takemura, Kenichi; Yamada, Shinya; Niwa, Hideki; Katayanagi, Kazuyoshi; Kurumaya, Hiroshi; Okada, Toshihide

    2015-01-01

    Superficial non-ampullary duodenal epithelial tumor (SNADET) is defined as a sporadic tumor that is confined to the mucosa or submucosa that does not arise from Vater’s papilla, and it includes adenoma and adenocarcinoma. Recent developments in endoscopic technology, such as high-resolution endoscopy and image-enhanced endoscopy, may increase the chances of detecting SNADET lesions. However, because SNADET is rare, little is known about its preoperative endoscopic diagnosis. The use of endoscopic resection for SNADET, which has no risk of metastasis, is increasing, but the incidence of complications, such as perforation, is significantly higher than in any other part of the digestive tract. A preoperative diagnosis is required to distinguish between lesions that should be followed up and those that require treatment. Retrospective studies have revealed certain endoscopic findings that suggest malignancy. In recent years, several new imaging modalities have been developed and explored for real-time diagnosis of these lesion types. Establishing an endoscopic diagnostic tool to differentiate between adenoma and adenocarcinoma in SNADET lesions is required to select the most appropriate treatment. This review describes the current state of knowledge about preoperative endoscopic diagnosis of SNADETs, such as duodenal adenoma and duodenal adenocarcinoma. Newer endoscopic techniques, including magnifying endoscopy, may help to guide these diagnostics, but their additional advantages remain unclear, and further studies are required to clarify these issues. PMID:26557007

  8. IVC Filter Perforation through the Duodenum Found after Years of Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Jehangir, Asad; Rettew, Andrew; Shaikh, Bilal; Bennett, Kyle; Jehangir, Qasim; Qureshi, Anam; Arshad, Sharjeel; Spiegel, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 67 Final Diagnosis: IVC filter perforation through duodenum Symptoms: Abdominal pain Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Esophagogastroduodenoscopy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: The number of IVC filter-related complications has increased with their growing utilization; however, IVC filter perforation of the duodenum is rare. It can manifest with nonspecific abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, cava-duodenal fistula, or small bowel obstruction. Case Report: A 67-year-old female presented with several years of right upper quadrant abdominal pain which was exacerbated by movement and food intake. She had a history of hepatic steatosis, cholecystectomy, and multiple DVTs with inferior vena cava filter placement. Physical exam was unremarkable. Laboratory tests demonstrated elevated alkaline phosphatase and transaminases. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a thin metallic foreign body embedded in the duodenal wall and protruding into the duodenal lumen with surrounding erythema and edema, but no active hemorrhage. Further evaluation with non-contrast CT scan revealed that one of the prongs of her IVC filter had perforated through the vena cava wall into the adjacent duodenum. Exploratory laparotomy was required for removal of the IVC filter and repair of the vena cava and duodenum. Her post-operative course was uneventful. Conclusions: In patients with history of IVC filter placement with non-specific abdominal pain, a high clinical suspicion of IVC filter perforation of the duodenum should be raised, as diagnosis may be challenging. CT scan and EGD are valuable in the diagnosis. Excellent outcomes have been reported with open surgical filter removal. Low retrieval rates of IVC filters have led to increased complications; hence, early removal should be undertaken as clinically indicated. PMID:25979859

  9. The Ebola Vaccine, Iatrogenic Injuries, and Legal Liability.

    PubMed

    Attaran, Amir; Wilson, Kumanan

    2015-12-01

    Amir Attaran and Kumanan Wilson propose a compensation system for vaccine injuries, based on no-fault principles, to ensure that recipients of Ebola vaccines are fairly compensated in cases of iatrogenic harm. PMID:26625163

  10. Selective Embolization of Large Symptomatic Iatrogenic Renal Transplant Arteriovenous Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Barley, Fay L.; Kessel, David Nicholson, Tony; Robertson, Iain

    2006-12-15

    We report on the successful treatment of hypertension by occlusion of a large iatrogenic renal transplant arteriovenous fistula using detachable embolization coils with concomitant flow reduction by occlusion balloon in two patients.

  11. Conjunctival Mass as an Initial Presentation of Iatrogenic Orbital Encephalocele.

    PubMed

    Rautenbach, Pierre; Thyagaraja, Dhanurjaya Vignesh; Irvine, Fiona

    2015-12-01

    A 46-year-old woman presented with a symptomatic conjunctival mass of the right eye, appearing 2 months after undergoing right frontal craniotomy to excise a meningioma. MRI of the brain revealed a new iatrogenic encephalocele extending into the right temporal orbit. Our opinion is that the conjunctival mass resulted directly from this encephalocele. To date this has been conservatively managed, and we believe this to be the first report of an iatrogenic encephalocele presenting in this manner. PMID:26366625

  12. Inhalational Steroids and Iatrogenic Cushing’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    A.V, Raveendran

    2014-01-01

    Bronchial asthma (BA) and Allergic rhinitis (AR) are common clinical problems encountered in day to day practice, where inhalational corticosteroids (ICS) or intranasal steroids (INS) are the mainstay of treatment. Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome (CS) is a well known complication of systemic steroid administration. ICS /INS were earlier thought to be safe, but now more and more number of case reports of Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome have been reported, especially in those who are taking cytochrome P450 (CYP 450) inhibitors. Comparing to the classical clinical features of spontaneous Cushing syndrome, iatrogenic Cushing syndrome is more commonly associated with osteoporosis, increase in intra-ocular pressure, benign intracranial hypertension, aseptic necrosis of femoral head and pancreatitis, where as hypertension, hirsuitisum and menstrual irregularities are less common. Endocrine work up shows low serum cortisol level with evidence of HPA (hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal) axis suppression. In all patients with features of Cushing syndrome with evidence of adrenal suppression always suspect iatrogenic CS. Since concomitant administration of cytochrome P450 inhibitors in patients on ICS/INS can precipitate iatrogenic CS, avoidance of CYP450 inhibitors, its dose reduction or substitution of ICS are the available options. Along with those, measures to prevent the precipitation of adrenal crisis has to be taken. An update on ICS-/INS- associated iatrogenic CS and its management is presented here. PMID:25674177

  13. Feasibility and safety of endoscopic cryoablation at the duodenal papilla: Porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dennis; Reinhard, Mary K; Wagh, Mihir S

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the feasibility and safety of liquid nitrogen spray cryoablation at the duodenal papilla in a porcine model. METHODS: This prospective study protocol was approved by the University of Florida Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Six pigs underwent liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy at the duodenal papilla. Freeze time of 20-s was applied per cycle (4 cycles/session). Survival animals (n = 4) were monitored for adverse events. Hemoglobin, white blood count, liver tests, and lipase were obtained at baseline and post-treatment. EGD was performed on day#7 to evaluate the papilla and for histology. All animals were euthanized and necropsy was performed at the end of the one-week survival period. Feasibility was defined as successful placement of the decompression tube in the duodenum, followed by delivery of spray cryotherapy to the duodenal papilla. Safety was determined by monitoring post-treatment blood tests and clinical course. Treatment effect was defined as endoscopic and histologic changes after cryotherapy. This was established by comparing endoscopic and histologic findings from mucosal biopsies prior to cryotherapy and on post-operative day (POD)#7. Full-thickness specimen was obtained post-mortem to assess depth of injury. RESULTS: Spray cryotherapy was feasible and successfully performed in all 6/6 (100%) animals. Cryospray with liquid nitrogen (four 20-s freeze-thaw cycles) at the duodenal papilla resulted in white frost formation at and around the target region. The mean procedural time was 54.5 min (range 50-58 min). All six animals studied had stable blood pressure, heart rate, and pulse oximetry measurements during the procedure. There were no significant intra-procedural adverse events. There were no significant differences in hemoglobin, white cell count, liver tests or lipase from baseline to post-cryotherapy. Survival animals were monitored daily post-operatively without any clinical ill effects from the cryotherapy. There was no bleeding, infection, or perforation on necropsy. Endoscopic on POD#7 showed edema and ulceration at the duodenal papilla. On histology, there was loss of crypt architecture with moderate to severe necrosis and acute mixed inflammatory infiltration in each specimen following cryotherapy. The extent of cryogen-induced tissue necrosis (depth of injury) was limited to the mucosa on full-thickness specimen evaluation. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy is feasible and safe for ablation at the duodenal papilla in a porcine model. PMID:26140100

  14. Duodenal Implications in the Pathophysiology of Functional Dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2010-01-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a heterogeneous disorder associated with diverse pathophysiologic mechanisms. Studies have shown duodenal implications in the pathophysiology of FD. Duodenal hypersensitivity to acid, increased duodenal acid exposure, and abnormal responses to duodenal lipids or released cholecystokinin have been observed in patients with FD. Moreover, there is evidence indicating duodenal immune activation in FD. Alterations in the number of duodenal eosinophils or intraepithelial lymphocytes have been reported in a subset of FD patients, particularly in patients with post-infectious FD. Whether these abnormalities in the duodenum play a crucial role in the generation of dyspeptic symptoms needs to be elucidated. Further investigations on the relationship between duodenal abnormalities and well-known pathophysiologic mechanisms of FD are required. Furthermore, the causative factors related to the development of duodenal abnormalities in FD warrant further study. PMID:20680163

  15. Prostaglandin pathways in duodenal chemosensing

    PubMed Central

    Akiba, Yasutada; Kaunitz, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Acid-sensing pathways, which trigger mucosal defense mechanisms in response to luminal acid, involve the rapid afferent-mediated ‘capsaicin pathway’ and the sustained, ‘prostaglandin (PG) pathway’. Luminal acid quickly increases protective PG synthesis and release from epithelia, although the mechanism by which luminal acid induces PG synthesis is still mostly unknown. Acid exposure augments purinergic ATP-P2Y signaling by inhibition of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) activity. Since P2Y activation increases intracellular Ca2+, we further hypothesized that ATP-P2Y signals increase the generation of H2O2 derived from dual oxidase (Duox), a member of the NADPH oxidase family activated by Ca2+. Our recent studies suggest that acid exposure increases H2O2 output, followed by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and cyclooxygenase (COX) activation, increasing PG synthesis. Released PGE2 augments protective HCO3? and mucus secretion via EP4 receptor activation. Thus, the PG pathway as a component of duodenal acid sensing consists of acid-related IAP inhibition, ATP-P2Y signals, Duox2-derived H2O2 production, PLA2 activation, PGE2 synthesis and EP4 receptor activation. The PG pathway is also involved in luminal bacterial sensing in the duodenum via activation of pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD2. The presence of acute mucosal responses to luminal bacteria suggests that the duodenum is important for host defenses and may reduce bacterial loading to the hindgut using H2O2, complementing gastric acidity and anti-bacterial bile acids. PMID:25521740

  16. Duodenal diverticula: potential complications and common imaging pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, T C; Hartman, M; Heller, M; Klepchick, P; Ilkhanipour, K

    2014-10-01

    A duodenal diverticulum is a commonly encountered entity in gastrointestinal radiology with a wide variety of appearances. The purpose of this review is to describe the normal anatomy and embryology of the duodenum, discuss the differences between a true versus intraluminal duodenal diverticulum, and to highlight the normal appearance, potential complications, and imaging pitfalls of duodenal diverticula. PMID:25110301

  17. Iatrogenic causes of salivary gland dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, M.M.; Izutsu, K.T.

    1987-02-01

    Saliva is important for maintaining oral health and function. There are instances when medical therapy is intended to decrease salivary flow, such as during general anesthesia, but most instances of iatrogenic salivary gland dysfunction represent untoward or unavoidable side-effects. The clinical expression of the salivary dysfunction can range from very minor transient alteration in saliva flow to a total loss of salivary function. The most common forms of therapy that interfere with salivation are drug therapies, cancer therapies (radiation or chemotherapy), and surgical therapy. These therapies can affect salivation by a number of different mechanisms that include: disruption of autonomic nerve function related to salivation, interference with acinar or ductal cell functions related to salivation, cytotoxicity, indirect effects (vasoconstriction/dilation, fluid and electrolyte balance, etc.), and physical trauma to salivary glands and nerves. A wide variety of drugs is capable of increasing or decreasing salivary flow by mimicking autonomic nervous system actions or by directly acting on cellular processes necessary for salivation: drugs can also indirectly affect salivation by altering fluid and electrolyte balance or by affecting blood flow to the glands. Ionizing radiation can cause permanent damage to salivary glands, damage that is manifest as acinar cell destruction with subsequent atrophy and fibrosis of the glands. Cancer chemotherapy can cause changes in salivation, but the changes are usually much less severe and only transient. Finally, surgical and traumatic injuries interfere with salivation because of either disruption of gland innervation or gross physical damage (or removal) of glandular tissue (including ducts).

  18. Foreign body gingivitis: An iatrogenic disease

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, T.D.; Wysocki, G.P. )

    1990-06-01

    Gingival biopsy specimens from eight patients exhibiting a localized, erythematous, or mixed erythematous/leukoplakic gingivitis that was refractory to conventional periodontal therapy were examined histologically and by energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Histologic examination revealed variable numbers of small, usually subtle, sometimes equivocal, and occasionally obvious foci of granulomatous inflammation. Special stains for fungi and acid-fast bacilli were consistently negative. In all cases, the granulomatous foci contained particles of foreign material that were often inconspicuous and easily overlooked during routine histologic examination. Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis of these foreign particles disclosed Ca, Al, Si, Ti, and P in most lesions. However, other elements such as Zr, V, Ag, and Ni were found only in specific biopsy specimens. By comparing the elemental analyses, clinical features, and history of the lesions, strong evidence for an iatrogenic source of the foreign material was found in one case, and good evidence in five cases. In the remaining two patients, the source of the foreign particles remains unresolved.

  19. Prognostic characteristics of duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumours

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Q; Shou, C-H; Yu, J-R; Yang, W-L; Liu, X-S; Yu, H; Gao, Y; Shen, Q-Y; Zhao, Z-C

    2015-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the clinical characteristics, surgical procedures and prognosis of duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs). Methods Patients with a diagnosis of primary duodenal GIST treated between January 2000 and December 2012 were analysed. Patients with gastric and small intestinal GISTs were chosen as control groups according to the following parameters: age, tumour size, mitotic index and adjuvant imatinib therapy. Operative procedures for patients with duodenal GIST included pancreaticoduodenectomy or limited resection. Disease-free survival (DFS) was calculated using Kaplan–Meier analysis. Results Some 71 patients with duodenal, 71 with gastric and 70 with small intestinal GISTs were included in the study. DFS of patients with duodenal GIST was shorter than that of patients with gastric GIST (3-year DFS 84 versus 94 per cent; hazard ratio (HR) 3.67, 95 per cent c.i. 1.21 to 11.16; P?=?0.014), but was similar to that of patients with small intestinal GIST (3-year DFS 84 versus 81 per cent; HR 0.75, 0.37 to 1.51; P?=?0.491). Patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy were older, and had larger tumours and a higher mitotic index than patients who had limited resection. The 3-year DFS was 93 per cent among patients who had limited resection compared with 64 per cent for those who underwent PD (HR 0.18, 0.06 to 0.59; P?=?0.001). Conclusion The prognosis of duodenal GISTs is similar to that of small intestinal GISTs. Prognosis no different than for small bowel gastrointestinal stromal tumours PMID:25980461

  20. Duodenal obstruction following acute pancreatitis caused by a large duodenal diverticular bezoar.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Hun; Chang, Jae Hyuck; Nam, Sung Min; Lee, Mi Jeong; Maeng, Il Ho; Park, Jin Young; Im, Yun Sun; Kim, Tae Ho; Park, Il Young; Han, Sok Won

    2012-10-14

    Bezoars are concretions of indigestible materials in the gastrointestinal tract. It generally develops in patients with previous gastric surgery or patients with delayed gastric emptying. Cases of periampullary duodenal divericular bezoar are rare. Clinical manifestations by a bezoar vary from no symptom to acute abdominal syndrome depending on the location of the bezoar. Biliary obstruction or acute pancreatitis caused by a bezoar has been rarely reported. Small bowel obstruction by a bezoar is also rare, but it is a complication that requires surgery. This is a case of acute pancreatitis and subsequent duodenal obstruction caused by a large duodenal bezoar migrating from a periampullary diverticulum to the duodenal lumen, which mimicked pancreatic abscess or microperforation on abdominal computerized tomography. The patient underwent surgical removal of the bezoar and recovered completely. PMID:23082068

  1. A Case of Iatrogenic Cutaneous Lipomatosis.

    PubMed

    Miraglia, Emanuele; Calvieri, Stefano; Giustini, Sandra

    2015-09-01

    Lipomas are the most common type of soft tissue benign tumor with a prevalence of 2.1 per 1000 people (1). They generally occur in adult patients between the ages of 40 and 60 years as solitary lesions. In some cases, however, there can be multiple lipomas involving several members of a family or associated with other systemic manifestations as in some syndromes. Cases of iatrogenic lipomatosis have been reported only rarely (2,3). We report the case of a man that developed multiple lipomas after making a tattoo. A 45-year-old man presented with multiple, subcutaneous, soft, and mobile skin lesions on the left upper limbs, which had appeared about 2 years earlier (Figure 1). They were of various dimensions, were not painful, and had not recently increased in size. Physical examination found a BMI of 25.9. An ultrasound examination of cutaneous lesions showed multiple oval hyperechoic neoformations with smooth margins between 15 and 35 mm in size. Histological examination of one of the nodules showed mature adipocyte depositions in the subcutaneous tissue (Figure 2). The patient said that these lesions appeared after making a tattoo on his arm. The tattoo was administered in a professional studio 2.5 years ago. The familial history was negative for multiple lipomas. He had no significant past medical history. He was a non-smoker and consumed only a moderate amount of alcohol. Complete blood count, liver and kidney function tests, serum protein level, plasma glucose level, triglycerides, and cholesterol were all normal. We excluded pharmaceutical causes such as corticosteroid treatment, prior chemotherapies, and use of other drugs. On the basis of the clinicopathologic findings, the diagnosis of lipomatosis was made. Lipomas can be either isolated entities or involved in multiple lipomatosis, which are most often associated with specific congenital, familial, or idiopathic syndromes such Madelung's syndrome (characterized by an accumulation of adipose tissue significantly and symmetrically in the neck, head, and upper trunk which affects mainly males with a history of alcohol abuse) (4), Cowden syndrome (characterized by multiple lipomas and an increased risk of malignancies of the breast, thyroid, endometrium, kidney, and colorectum) (5), Dercum's disease (characterized by painful multiple lipomas which affect mainly women, especially postmenopausally) (6), and familial lipomatosis (characterized by regional excess of subcutaneous adipose tissue in members of the same family) (7). Our case had none of the aforementioned etiologies; it was likely an acquired condition induced by some exogenous factors stimulating fat development and subcutaneous accumulation. The association between lipomas and tattoos may be coincidental, given the great number of people with tattoos nowadays. However, these two conditions may have been linked because the skin was free of any type of lesion before the tattoo and there was a clear chronology between the development of lipomas and the tattoo. Furthermore, lipomas appeared only on the arm where the tattoo was made. A review of the literature revealed no similar cases of onset lipomatosis. Cases of iatrogenic lipomatosis have been reported after chemotherapy and therapy with Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (2,3). In 1998, Signorini and Campiglio suggested the differentiation of mesenchymal precursors (preadipocytes) to mature adipocytes by trauma (8). The inflammatory processes with local release of growth factors, inflammatory mediators, and degradation products could trigger these differentiations. Skin tattooing is a common procedure among different cultures with possible serious complications, such as transmission of hepatitis C and B, AIDS, leprosy, and lupus vulgaris. Other possible complications include mild localized infections and inflammatory responses, generalized inflammatory skin eruptions, and other chronic conditions (9). In our case, the tattoo may have been the trigger for the formation of lipomas of the arm. Even though this is a preliminary report and further stu

  2. AUTOMATIVE QUANTIFICATION OF RAT DUODENAL RHYTHMIC CONTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pacemaker activity of longitudinal muscle, as reflected by in vitro rhythmic contractions of the adult male rat's duodenum, has been examined in terms of intercontraction intervals that were collected using a microprocessor-based system. For each duodenal segment studied, 512...

  3. Neonatal zygomycosis with gastric perforation.

    PubMed

    Mathur, N B; Gupta, Aashima

    2013-07-01

    Zygomycosis is a rare infection in neonates. The clinical presentation is non-specific and diagnosis most often is made at autopsy. Surgical debridement performed early improves survival. We report a case of neonatal zygomycosis with gastric perforation. PMID:23942436

  4. Large gallstone impaction at a Meckel's diverticulum causing perforation and localized peritonitis: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Maclean, William; Szentpáli, Karoly

    2013-01-01

    We are reporting a successful laparoscopic resection of a perforated Meckel's Diverticulum (MD) causing localized peritonitis due to an impacted gallstone. MD is a small benign pouch on the wall of the small intestine that is present in ?2% of the population. It results from a failure of complete obliteration of the omphalomesenteric duct. MD is mainly lined by ileal mucosa; however, other ectopic tissue types can be found including gastric, duodenal, colonic, pancreatic, Brunner's glands, hepatobiliary tissue and endometrial mucosa. Most reported complications include bleeding, infection and obstruction. With relevance to this report, we can find no more than two reports of a large gallstone impacting the neck of the MD and causing ileus, and we were unable to find any reports that mention perforation due to impaction at the neck of an MD. PMID:24968430

  5. Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Charu; Sandlas, Gursev; Jayaswal, Shalika; Shah, Hemanshi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The term Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation (SIP) suggests a perforation in the gastrointestinal tract of a newborn with no demonstrable cause. Methods: Four neonates presenting with spontaneous bowel perforation were analyzed with respect to clinical presentation, management and outcome. Results: The mean age at presentation was 11.4 days. There were three males and one female. One of the neonates was preterm, very low birth weight and the other three were full term. Two neonates underwent emergency exploratory laparotomy and two were initially managed by peritoneal drainage in view of poor general condition; one of them improved and did not require further operative intervention. The preterm very low birth weight neonate was stabilized and explored after 48 hours. Intra-operatively, two of them had two ileal perforations each which required ileostomy; one had single perforation in the transverse colon which was primarily repaired. All four had an uneventful recovery. Conclusion: SIP is a distinct clinical entity and has better outcome than neonates with intestinal perforation secondary to Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC). PMID:26034708

  6. Feasibility of Endoscopy-Assisted Laparoscopic Full-Thickness Resection for Superficial Duodenal Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Ohata, Ken; Murakami, Masahiko; Yamazaki, Kimiyasu; Nonaka, Kouichi; Misumi, Nobutsugu; Tashima, Tomoaki; Minato, Yohei; Shozushima, Meiko; Mitsui, Takahiro; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki; Fu, Kuangi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Superficial duodenal neoplasms (SDNs) are a challenging target in the digestive tract. Surgical resection is invasive, and it is difficult to determine the site and extent of the lesion from outside the intestine and resect it locally. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has scarcely been utilized in the treatment of duodenal tumors because of technical difficulties and possible delayed perforation due to the action of digestive juices. Thus, no standard treatments for SDNs have been established. To challenge this issue, we elaborated endoscopy-assisted laparoscopic full-thickness resection (EALFTR) and analyzed its feasibility and safety. Methods. Twenty-four SDNs in 22 consecutive patients treated by EALFTR between January 2011 and July 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Results. All lesions were removed en bloc. The lateral and vertical margins of the specimens were negative for tumor cells in all cases. The mean sizes of the resected specimens and lesions were 28.9?mm (SD ± 10.5) and 13.3?mm (SD ± 11.6), respectively. The mean operation time and intraoperative estimated blood loss were 133 min (SD ± 45.2) and 16?ml (SD ± 21.1), respectively. Anastomotic leakage occurred in three patients (13.6%) postoperatively, but all were minor leakage and recovered conservatively. Anastomotic stenosis or bleeding did not occur. Conclusions. EALFTR can be a safe and minimally invasive treatment option for SDNs. However, the number of cases in this study was small, and further accumulations of cases and investigation are necessary. PMID:24550694

  7. Endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection in the treatment of sporadic nonampullary duodenal adenomatous polyps

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Joana; Baldaque-Silva, Francisco; Pereira, Pedro; Arnelo, Urban; Yahagi, Naohisa; Macedo, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Although uncommon, sporadic nonampullary duodenal adenomas have a growing detection due to the widespread of endoscopy. Endoscopic therapy is being increasingly used for these lesions, since surgery, considered the standard treatment, carries significant morbidity and mortality. However, the knowledge about its risks and benefits is limited, which contributes to the current absence of standardized recommendations. This review aims to discuss the efficacy and safety of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in the treatment of these lesions. A literature review was performed, using the Pubmed database with the query: “(duodenum or duodenal) (endoscopy or endoscopic) adenoma resection”, in the human species and in English. Of the 189 retrieved articles, and after reading their abstracts, 19 were selected due to their scientific interest. The analysis of their references, led to the inclusion of 23 more articles for their relevance in this subject. The increased use of EMR in the duodenum has shown good results with complete resection rates exceeding 80% and low complication risk (delayed bleeding in less than 12% of the procedures). Although rarely used in the duodenum, ESD achieves close to 100% complete resection rates, but is associated with perforation and bleeding risk in up to one third of the cases. Even though literature is insufficient to draw definitive conclusions, studies suggest that EMR and ESD are valid options for the treatment of nonampullary adenomas. Thus, strategies to improve these techniques, and consequently increase the effectiveness and safety of the resection of these lesions, should be developed. PMID:26140099

  8. Iatrogenic pseudoaneurysm of the innominate artery in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Philip, Ranjit R; Boston, Umar S; Ballweg, Jean A; Goldberg, Steven P; Knott-Craig, Christopher J

    2012-03-01

    A 2.8-kg infant underwent urgent repair of a large iatrogenic pseudoaneurysm of the innominate artery, which was compressing the airway and superior vena cava, creating critical respiratory instability. The pseudoaneurysm was repaired with complete resolution of all respiratory symptoms. PMID:22273485

  9. Diagnostic aspiration of an iatrogenic hydrothorax following subclavian catheterization.

    PubMed Central

    Steiger, M. J.; Morgan, A. G.

    1990-01-01

    Central venous catheterization is not without hazard. Inadvertent placement in the pleural space can occur without the development of a pneumothorax and pressure measurements may appear misleadingly normal. This case report illustrates an effective method of diagnosing and draining an iatrogenic hydrothorax which resulted in this way. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2217040

  10. Duodenal atresia: late follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kokkonen, M L; Kalima, T; Jääskeläinen, J; Louhimo, I

    1988-03-01

    In this study, 41 randomly chosen patients aged 15 to 35 years (mean 22 years) were carefully examined. As primary operations there were 13 membrane excisions, five duodenoduodenostomies, 22 duodenojejunostomies, and one gastrojejunostomy. Twenty-eight patients were symptom-free, ten admitted some discomfort, three had major pains, including one with a history of duodenal ulcer. Reoperation for adhesion ileus had been performed in six patients, in the early postoperative phase in one instance. At late follow-up barium meals (N = 41) showed completely normal findings in two cases only, hiatal hernia in two, gastritis in three, duodenogastric reflux in 12, slight dilation of the duodenum with good emptying and no reflux in 16, a huge duodenal sac in nine, diminished peristalsis in eight, delayed emptying in five, slight luminal narrowing in three, duodenal diverticuli in nine, bezoars in two, and a polyp in the duodenum of one patient. Ultrasound (N = 35) revealed a gallbladder septum in one patient and a dilated common bile duct in another; in one subject the gallbladder was not visualized satisfactorily. Isotope biligraphy (N = 15) showed biliary reflux to the stomach in 12 cases. Endoscopy (N = 20) findings were: esophagitis (1), hiatal hernia (2), gastric mucosa in the lower esophagus (2), biliary reflux (9), gastritis (7), gastric polyps (2), dilated duodenum of variable degree (19), diminished peristalsis (4), marked retention (2), abnormal papilla (3), diverticuli (4), and a persistent membrane (1). Histology showed superficial gastritis in three patients. E coli was cultured from the duodenal juice in five patients and Candida found in two.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3357136

  11. Prophylactic pancreaticoduodenectomy for premalignant duodenal polyposis in familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Causeret, S; François, Y; Griot, J B; Flourie, B; Gilly, F N; Vignal, J

    1998-01-01

    The frequency of duodenal adenomas in patients with, familial adenomatous polyposis is high. Duodenal adenoma has malignant potential, and duodenal adenocarcinoma is one of the main causes of death in patients who have had previous proctocolectomy. A conservative approach to the treatment of duodenal adenomas (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, endoscopy, polypectomy through duodenotomy) is inefficient and unsafe. When invasive cancer occurs in duodenal adenomas, the result of surgery is poor. We have performed prophylactic pancreaticoduodenal resection (PDR) for nonmalignant severe duodenal polyposis in five patients since 1991. No operative mortality was observed. One patient developed a pancreatic fistula which was successfully managed by medical treatment. The mean follow-up was 35 months. All five patients are still alive and have a good functional outcome. Prophylactic PDR may be indicated in familial adenomatous polyposis when duodenal polyposis is severe. Stages III and IV of Spigelman's classification, periampullary adenoma, age above 40, and family history of duodenal cancer are factors that may lead to the decision to perform prophylactic PDR. PMID:9548099

  12. Esophageal Perforation and Acute Bacterial Mediastinitis: Other Causes of Chest Pain That Can Be Easily Missed.

    PubMed

    Cross, Madeline R; Greenwald, Miles F; Dahhan, Ali

    2015-08-01

    Esophageal perforation is a rare condition that is commonly missed. Male gender and alcohol use are predisposing risk factors. Most of the cases are iatrogenic or traumatic; nonetheless, spontaneous cases are not uncommon. It typically occurs after vomiting or straining as the increased intra-abdominal pressure transmits into the esophagus and results in the tear. One of the main complications is acute bacterial mediastinitis from contamination with esophageal flora. This condition can be life-threatening because it is very frequently misdiagnosed and appropriate management is often delayed.A 49-year-old man presented with worsening sudden-onset interscapular back pain that then changed to chest pain with odynophagia and was found to have fever and leukocytosis.Chest computed tomography revealed signs of mediastinitis with possible esophageal perforation. He reported symptoms started 2 days ago after lifting of heavy objects. Empiric antimicrobial was begun with conservative management and avoidance of oral intake. Barium esophagram and esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed no signs of perforation or inflammation. His symptoms resolved and he gradually resumed oral intake. Blood cultures grew Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and he was discharged on appropriate antibiotics for 4 weeks. He did well on follow-up 3 months after hospitalization.The case highlights the importance of considering esophageal etiologies of chest pain. PMID:26266352

  13. Pneumoperitoneum associated with perforated appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Saebø, A

    1978-01-01

    Perforated appendicitis is sometimes accompanied by pneumoperitoneum, often localized beneath the diaphragmatic dome. This may lead to very dangerous diagnstoic errors, which every roentgenologist and surgeon should be aware of. A historical review is followed by three case reports. PMID:665100

  14. Physical activity at work and duodenal ulcer risk.

    PubMed Central

    Katschinski, B D; Logan, R F; Edmond, M; Langman, M J

    1991-01-01

    To determine whether the social class differences in duodenal ulcer frequency may be explained by differences in physical activity at work, the energy expenditure during work, smoking habits, and social class were compared in 76 recently diagnosed duodenal ulcer patients and in age and sex matched community controls. As anticipated, the relative risk of duodenal ulcer showed significant associations with smoking and social class. Social class and physical activity at work were associated with one another. After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and social class, physically active work was still associated with duodenal ulcer, with relative risks for moderate and high activity compared with sedentary work being 1.3 (0.6-3.0) and 3.6 (1.3-7.8) respectively. Within each social class stratum, the relative risk of having a duodenal ulcer was greater in those with a high level of occupational activity than in those undertaking sedentary work. PMID:1916502

  15. A case of a duodenal duplication cyst presenting as melena

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Seung Yeon; Ko, Sun Hye; Ha, Sungeun; Kim, Mi Sung; Shin, Hyang Mi; Baeg, Myong Ki

    2013-01-01

    Duodenal duplication cysts are benign rare congenital anomalies reported mainly in the pediatric population, but seldom in adults. Symptoms depend on the type and location and can present as abdominal pain, distension, dysphagia or dyspepsia. They have been reported to be responsible for duodenal obstruction, pancreatitis and, in rare cases, gastrointestinal bleeding. We present a case of a duodenal duplication cyst in a 43-year-old man presenting as melena. Initial gastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy did not reveal any bleeding focus. However, the patient began passing melena after 3 d, with an acute decrease in hemoglobin levels. Subsequent studies revealed a duplication cyst in the second portion of the duodenum which was surgically resected. Histology revealed a duodenal duplication cyst consisting of intestinal mucosa. There was no further bleeding and the patient recovered completely. In rare cases, duodenal duplication cysts might cause gastrointestinal bleeding and should be included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:24151370

  16. Human Thrombin Injection for the Percutaneous Treatment of Iatrogenic Pseudoaneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Elford, Julian; Burrell, Christopher; Freeman, Simon; Roobottom, Carl

    2002-03-15

    Purpose: Thrombin injection is becoming well established for the percutaneous management of iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms. All the published series to date use bovine thrombin,and there have been reports of adverse immunologic effects following its use. Our study aimed to assess the efficacy of human thrombin injection for pseudoaneurysm occlusion. Methods:Fourteen patients with iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms underwent a color Doppler ultrasound examination to assess their suitability for percutaneous human thrombin injection. Human thrombin 1000 IU was then injected into the pseudoaneurysm sac under sterile conditions and with ultrasound guidance. A further color Doppler ultrasound examination was performed 24 hr later to confirm occlusion. Results: All 14 pseudoaneurysms were successfully occluded by human thrombin injection. In two cases a second injection of thrombin was required,but there were no other complications, and all pseudoaneurysms remained occluded at 24 hr. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided human thrombin injection is simple to perform, effective and safe. We recommend that human thrombin becomes the agent of choice for percutaneous injection into iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms.

  17. Laparoscopic repair of iatrogenic vesicovaginal and rectovaginal fistula

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Lei; Wang, Jian-Jun; Li, Li; Tong, Xiao-Wen; Fan, Bo-Zhen; Guo, Yi; Li, Huai-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy of laparoscopic repair of iatrogenic vesicovaginal fistulas (VVF) and rectovaginal fistulas. Methods: Seventeen female patients with iatrogenic fistulas (11 cases of VVF and 6 cases of high rectovaginal fistulas) were included. All patients were hospitalized and underwent laparoscopic fistula repair in our hospital between 2008 and 2012. The mean age of the patients was 44.8 ± 9.1 years. The fistulas and scar tissue were completely excised by laparoscopy, orifices were tension-free closed using absorbable sutures, omental flaps were interposed between the vagina and the bladder or rectum, and drainage was kept after repair. Results: Laparoscopic repair of fistulas was successful in all 17 patients. No complication was found during or after repair. No reoperation was needed after the repair. The operative time was 80.2 ± 30.0 minutes (range 50-140 minutes). The blood loss was 229.4 ± 101.6 ml (range 100-400 ml). The double J catheters were placed in 7 patients and removed 1-2 months after repair. Eight VVF patients underwent cystoscopy 3 months after laparoscopic repair and there were no abnormal findings. The follow-up time was 17.1 ± 6.5 months (range 8-29 months). Conclusion: Laparoscopic repair of VVF and rectovaginal fistulas is a safe and an effective minimally invasive procedure for treatment of iatrogenic fistula. PMID:25932174

  18. [Zantac (ranitidine) in treating duodenal ulcers].

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, Iu V

    2002-01-01

    There are the results of the examination and treatment of 68 patients with duodenal ulcers, 52 of them having the Helicobacter pylori (HP) semination of the mucous coat of stomach revealed by the histologic method and/or fast urease test before the treatment. The healing of the duodenal bulb ulcer was recorded in 82.7% of cases in this group of patients after the four-week treatment (ranitidine, 150 mg b.i.d. for four weeks in combination with amoxicillin, 500 mg q.i.d., and metronidazole, 500 mg b.i.d. for the initial ten-day period); the healing of ulcers was recorded in 81.3% of cases in the second group of patients who had no HP revealed and were treated only with ranitidine, 150 mg b.i.d. for four weeks. The eradication of HP in the first group of patients was recorded in 86.5% of cases after 28-42 days following the termination of the treatment. PMID:12353395

  19. Histopathology of the minor duodenal papilla.

    PubMed

    Suda, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    The minor duodenal papilla, which is the orifice of the accessory, or dorsal, pancreatic duct/Santorini duct, mostly accompanied by pancreatic tissue, is situated about 2 cm ventroproximal to the major duodenal papilla. The patency of the terminal accessory pancreatic duct (APD) is recognized in about half or more of cases, and is related to the degree of fibrosis. The APD is lined with simple columnar epithelium and encircled by a smooth muscle layer. It is still controversial whether or not these muscle tissues comprise a sphincter muscle. Pancreatic tissue was found in about 80% of cases in the minor papilla. Among these cases, pancreatic tissue was continuous and/or closely related to the proper pancreas in about 40% of cases, and might have the same exocrine and endocrine morphologies/functions, suggesting that it is a portion of the dorsal pancreas and not an ectopic one. Endocrine cell micronests are frequently found in the ductal wall/surrounding area of the terminal APD, and predominantly consist of somatostatin- and/or pancreatic-polypeptide-containing cells. In cases of pancreas divisum, inadequate pancreatic juice drainage from the minor papilla might occur, resulting in dorsal pancreatitis. In the minor papilla, all ductal tumors may occur, such as an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and invasive ductal carcinoma, but carcinoid tumors are rare. PMID:20551659

  20. A Review on Perforation Repair Materials

    PubMed Central

    Veeramachaneni, Chandrasekhar; Majeti, Chandrakanth; Tummala, Muralidhar; Khiyani, Laxmi

    2015-01-01

    Perforation is an artificial communication between the root canal system and supporting tissues of the teeth. Root perforation complicates the treatment and deprives the prognosis if not properly managed. A wide variety of materials to seal the perforations have been suggested in literature. There are many comparative studies showing the efficacy of one material over the other. Literature shows many reviews on diagnosis, treatment plan and factors affecting prognosis of perforation repair; but none of these articles elaborated upon various materials available to seal the perforation. The present article aims at describing all the materials used for perforation repair from the past till date; it also offers a literature review of all the articles published over last four decades referred to the treatment of perforation with various root repair materials. PMID:26501031

  1. Duodenal Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma in a Celiac Patient

    PubMed Central

    Pisello, Franco; Geraci, Girolamo; Li Volsi, Francesco; Stassi, Francesca; Modica, Giuseppe; Sciumè, Carmelo

    2009-01-01

    Celiac disease results from damage to the small intestinal mucosa due to an inappropriate immune response to a cereal protein. Long-standing or ‘refractory’ celiac disease is associated with an increased risk of autoimmunity and malignancy. We produced a brief literature review starting from a case of duodenal cancer in a celiac patient. The patient with an history of celiac disease since six months presented with acute manifestation of gastric outlet syndrome. A duodenal stricture was diagnosed at upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and confirmed by abdominal computed tomography. He was successfully treated by segmental duodenal resection. In the resected specimens, the diagnosis was duodenal signet cell adenocarcinoma. 6-month follow-up is uneventful. Primary carcinoma of the duodenum is rare (duodenal adenocarcinoma accounts for less than 0.5% of all gastrointestinal cancers and 30–45% of small intestinal cancers). Some patients with duodenal carcinoma are potentially curable by surgery, but conflicting opinions exist on the factors influencing the survival rate and on surgical treatment as the gold standard. Nevertheless, the goal in surgical treatment is to achieve clear margins. At present, surgical resection (pancreaticoduodenectomy or pancreas-sparing duodenal segmental resection) is the only available option for cure of this disease. PMID:20651965

  2. Validation of the use of POSSUM score in enteric perforation peritonitis - results of a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Amit; Chaudhary, Sujata; Agrawal, Neeraj

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The objective of the study was to present our last 5-years experience of peritonitis and validate POSSUM score in predicting mortality and morbidity in patients of enteric perforation (EP) peritonitis. Methods Data was collected prospectively for all peritonitis cases admitted in single surgical unit from January 2005 to December 2009. Parameters for calculating POSSUM were also retrieved; in these patients, O:E (Observed vs. Expected) ratio of mortality and morbidity were estimated after calculating predicted mortality and morbidity by exponential regression equations. Results 887 patients with peritonitis were admitted and treated in this unit during the 5 years of study period. Duodenal (n=431; 48%) followed by ileal (n=380; 42.8%) perforations were the commonest. Mean age of the patients was 34 years and 86% were males. Mean delay in presentation was 78.5 hrs. Mean duration of hospital and ICU stay was 13 and 7.2 days. Postoperative complications were seen in 481 (54%) patients, and 90 (10%) patients died. POSSUM scores and predicted mortality/morbidity were calculated in 380 patients of ileal perforation peritonitis; O:E ratio of mortality and morbidity were 0.47 and 0.85 in these patients. Conclusion POSSUM and P-POSSUM are accurate tools for predicting morbidity and mortality respectively in EP patients. Though they may sometime over or under predict morbidity as well as mortality. PMID:22145058

  3. Colonic perforation in Behcet's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Catherine-M; Hill, Arnold-Dk; Malone, Carmel; Sheehan, John-J; Tormey, Shona; Sheahan, Kieran; McDermott, Enda; O'Higgins, Niall-J

    2008-11-14

    A 17-year-old gentleman was admitted to our hospital for headache, the differential diagnosis of which included Behcet's syndrome (BS). He developed an acute abdomen and was found to have air under the diaphragm on erect chest X-ray. Subsequent laparotomy revealed multiple perforations throughout the colon. This report describes an unusual complication of Behcets syndrome occurring at the time of presentation and a review of the current literature of reported cases. PMID:19030217

  4. Surgical replacement of iatrogenically prolapsed penis in a dromedary camel

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, M.I.; Telfah, M.N.; Al-Qubati, S.A.T.

    2012-01-01

    Prolapse of the penis through an iatrogenic incision on the right side of the preputial base in a five year old dromedary camel was handled surgically and the organ was successfully replaced into the preputial cavity. The condition occurred as a result of draining an abscess at the base of the prepuce by a quack about eight months earlier. The reason to report this case lies in its peculiarity that although the penis remained outside the preputial cavity for about eight months exposed to the external environment, yet no complications pertaining to its fragile tissue and urination occurred during this long period as seen in cases of paraphimosis. PMID:26623303

  5. Iatrogenic neurologic deficit after lumbar spine surgery: A review.

    PubMed

    Ghobrial, George M; Williams, Kim A; Arnold, Paul; Fehlings, Michael; Harrop, James S

    2015-12-01

    Iatrogenic neurologic deficits after lumbar spine surgery are rare complications, but important to recognize and manage. Complications such as radiculopathy, spinal cord compression, motor deficits (i.e. foot drop with L5 radiculopathy), and new onset radiculitis, while uncommon do occur. Attempts at mitigating these complications with the use of neuromonitoring have been successful. Guidance in the literature as to the true rate of iatrogenic neurologic deficit is limited to several case studies and retrospective designed studies describing the management, prevention and treatment of these deficits. The authors review the lumbar spinal surgery literature to examine the incidence of iatrogenic neurologic deficit in the lumbar spinal surgery literature. An advanced MEDLINE search conducted on May 14th, 2015 from January 1, 2004 through May 14, 2015, using the following MeSH search terms "postoperative complications," then subterms "lumbar vertebrae," treatment outcome," "spinal fusion," and "radiculopathy" were included together with "postoperative complications" in a single search. Postoperative complications including radiculopathy, weakness, and spinal cord compression were included. The definition of iatrogenic neurologic complication was limited to post-operative radiculopathy, motor weakness or new onset pain/radiculitis. An advanced MEDLINE search conducted on May 14th, 2015 using all of the above terms together yielded 21 results. After careful evaluation, 11 manuscripts were excluded and 10 were carefully reviewed. The most common indications for surgery were degenerative spondylolisthesis, spondylosis, scoliosis, and lumbar stenosis. In 2783 patients in 12 total studies, there were 56 patients who had reported a postoperative neurologic deficit for a rate of 5.7. The rates of deficits ranged from 0.46% to 17% in the studies used. The average rate of reported neurologic complications within these papers was 9% (range 0.46-24%). Thirty patients of a total of 731 (4.1%) had a new onset neurologic injury after anterior lumber interbody fusion or lateral lumber interbody fusion. Thirty-seven out of 2052 (1.9%) patients had a neurologic injury after posterior decompression and fusion. Screw malposition was responsible for 11 deficits. Spinal surgery for lumbar degenerative disease carries a low but definite rate of neurologic deficits. Despite the introduction of neuromonitoring, these complications still occur. Interpretation of neurologic injury rates for lumbar surgery is limited by the few prospective and cohort-matched controlled studies. Likewise, most injuries were associated with the placement of instrumentation despite the type of approach. PMID:26386902

  6. Duodenal adenoma surveillance in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Campos, Fábio Guilherme; Sulbaran, Marianny; Safatle-Ribeiro, Adriana Vaz; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2015-08-10

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a hereditary disorder caused by Adenomatous Polyposis Gene mutations that lead to the development of colorectal polyps with great malignant risk throughout life. Moreover, numerous extracolonic manifestations incorporate different clinical features to produce varied individual phenotypes. Among them, the occurrence of duodenal adenomatous polyps is considered an almost inevitable event, and their incidence rates increase as a patient's age advances. Although the majority of patients exhibit different grades of duodenal adenomatosis as they age, only a small proportion (1%-5%) of patients will ultimately develop duodenal carcinoma. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to review the data regarding the epidemiology, classification, genetic features, endoscopic features, carcinogenesis, surveillance and management of duodenal polyps in patients with FAP. PMID:26265988

  7. Duodenal adenoma surveillance in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Fábio Guilherme; Sulbaran, Marianny; Safatle-Ribeiro, Adriana Vaz; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2015-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a hereditary disorder caused by Adenomatous Polyposis Gene mutations that lead to the development of colorectal polyps with great malignant risk throughout life. Moreover, numerous extracolonic manifestations incorporate different clinical features to produce varied individual phenotypes. Among them, the occurrence of duodenal adenomatous polyps is considered an almost inevitable event, and their incidence rates increase as a patient’s age advances. Although the majority of patients exhibit different grades of duodenal adenomatosis as they age, only a small proportion (1%-5%) of patients will ultimately develop duodenal carcinoma. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to review the data regarding the epidemiology, classification, genetic features, endoscopic features, carcinogenesis, surveillance and management of duodenal polyps in patients with FAP. PMID:26265988

  8. Endoscopic Web Localization for Laparoscopic Duodenal Web Excision.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Nicholas E; Gibbons, Alexander T; Wyneski, Matthew J; Ponsky, Todd A

    2015-12-01

    When performing an open duodenal web excision, it is helpful to identify the web using a nasogastric tube because it is often difficult to determine where the web origin is located when looking at the serosal side of the bowel. However, it may be challenging to navigate the nasogastric tube to the web during laparoscopy. We present a novel technique that utilizes intraoperative endoscopy to precisely identify the location of the duodenal web, facilitating laparoscopic excision. Intraoperative endoscopy was implemented in the case of a 3-month-old boy undergoing laparoscopic excision of a duodenal web. With endoscopic visualization and transillumination, the duodenal web was precisely identified and excised laparoscopically. A supplemental video of the case presentation and technique is provided in the online version of this manuscript (Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/SLE/A134). The procedure was completed successfully and the patient did well postoperatively. Flexible endoscopy is a useful adjunct for duodenal web localization during laparoscopy, improving on the previous method of estimating the location based on a change in duodenal caliber. PMID:26551236

  9. Enhanced gastric nitric oxide synthase activity in duodenal ulcer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Rachmilewitz, D; Karmeli, F; Eliakim, R; Stalnikowicz, R; Ackerman, Z; Amir, G; Stamler, J S

    1994-01-01

    Nitric oxide, the product of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory cells, may have a role in tissue injury through its oxidative metabolism. Nitric oxide may have a role in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer and may be one of the mechanisms responsible for the association between gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and peptic disease. In this study, calcium independent nitric oxide synthase activity was detected in human gastric mucosa suggesting expression of the inducible isoform. In 17 duodenal ulcer patients gastric antral and fundic nitric oxide synthase activity was found to be two and 1.5-fold respectively higher than its activity in the antrum and fundus of 14 normal subjects (p < 0.05). H pylori was detected in the antrum of 15 of 17 duodenal ulcer patients and only in 7 of 14 of the control subjects. Antral nitric oxide synthase activity in H pylori positive duodenal ulcer patients was twofold higher than in H pylori positive normal subjects (p < 0.05). In duodenal ulcer patients antral and fundic nitric oxide synthase activity resumed normal values after induction of ulcer healing with ranitidine. Eradication of H pylori did not further affect gastric nitric oxide synthase activity. These findings suggest that in duodenal ulcer patients stimulated gastric mucosal nitric oxide synthase activity, though independent of the H pylori state, may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:7525417

  10. Endovascular Management of Iatrogenic Native Renal Arterial Pseudoaneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Sildiroglu, Onur; Saad, Wael E.; Hagspiel, Klaus D.; Matsumoto, Alan H.; Turba, Ulku Cenk

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Our purpose was to evaluate iatrogenic renal pseudoaneurysms, endovascular treatment, and outcomes. Methods: This retrospective study (2003-2011) reported the technical and clinical outcomes of endovascular therapy for renal pseudoaneurysms in eight patients (mean age, 46 (range 24-68) years). Renal parenchymal loss evaluation was based on digital subtraction angiography and computed tomography. Results: We identified eight iatrogenic renal pseudoaneurysm patients with symptoms of hematuria, pain, and hematoma after renal biopsy (n = 3), surgery (n = 3), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (n = 1), and endoscopic shock-wave lithotripsy (n = 1). In six patients, the pseudoaneurysms were small-sized (<20 mm) and peripherally located and were treated solely with coil embolization (n = 5). In one patient, coil embolization was preceded by embolization with 500-700 micron embospheres to control active bleeding. The remaining two patients had large-sized ({>=}50 mm), centrally located renal pseudoaneurysms treated with thrombin {+-} coils. Technical success with immediate bleeding cessation was achieved in all patients. There were no procedure-related deaths or complications (mean follow-up, 23.5 (range, 1-67) months). Conclusions: Treatment of renal pseudoaneurysms using endovascular approach is a relatively safe and viable option regardless of location (central or peripheral) and size of the lesions with minimal renal parenchymal sacrifice.

  11. Infectious prion diseases in humans: cannibalism, iatrogenicity and zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Haïk, Stéphane; Brandel, Jean-Philippe

    2014-08-01

    In contrast with other neurodegenerative disorders associated to protein misfolding, human prion diseases include infectious forms (also called transmitted forms) such as kuru, iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The transmissible agent is thought to be solely composed of the abnormal isoform (PrP(Sc)) of the host-encoded prion protein that accumulated in the central nervous system of affected individuals. Compared to its normal counterpart, PrP(Sc) is ?-sheet enriched and aggregated and its propagation is based on an autocatalytic conversion process. Increasing evidence supports the view that conformational variations of PrP(Sc) encoded the biological properties of the various prion strains that have been isolated by transmission studies in experimental models. Infectious forms of human prion diseases played a pivotal role in the emergence of the prion concept and in the characterization of the very unconventional properties of prions. They provide a unique model to understand how prion strains are selected and propagate in humans. Here, we review and discuss how genetic factors interplay with strain properties and route of transmission to influence disease susceptibility, incubation period and phenotypic expression in the light of the kuru epidemics due to ritual endocannibalism, the various series iatrogenic diseases secondary to extractive growth hormone treatment or dura mater graft and the epidemics of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease linked to dietary exposure to the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. PMID:24956437

  12. Iatrogenic acute cardiac tamponade during percutaneous removal of a fractured peripherally inserted central catheter in a premature neonate.

    PubMed

    Minghui, Zou; Hujun, Cui; Li, Ma; Weidan, Chen; Yanqin, Cui; Xinxin, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Acute cardiac tamponade (ACT) is a life-threatening complication associated with a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) in premature neonates. We present a case of ACT in a 4-day-old male infant. On the second admission day, a PICC was inserted. After 2.5 months, chest radiography showed PICC fracture, and its distal portion had migrated into the right pulmonary artery. Percutaneous removal through cardiac catheterization was attempted. However, right ventriculography demonstrated intrapericardial spillage of contrast agents, and iatrogenic ACT was confirmed. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was immediately started with open-chest cardiac massage. Further surgical exploration revealed right atrial appendage perforation. After 25-min CPR, the patient restored spontaneous circulation, and removal of the foreign bodies was performed. The post-operative course was uneventful. PICC fracture is an uncommon complication, but may be life-threatening. Precaution should be taken to avoid ACT during removal of a broken PICC. Once the tamponade is diagnosed, immediate interventions are mandatory. PMID:26105562

  13. A field study of underbalance pressures necessary to obtain clean perforations using tubing-conveyed perforating

    SciTech Connect

    King, G.E.; Anderson, A.R.; Ringham, M.D.

    1986-06-01

    A study of 90 wells perforated with the tubing-conveyed perforating system showed a correlation between underbalanced pressure and formation permeability that can be used to achieve clean perforations. The data, from gas and oil producers in clean sandstones, are from wells that were perforated, tested, acidized, and retested. There is a clear minimum underbalance line separating the data sets of wells that had clean perforations (unassisted by acidizing) from those wells that showed a significant productivity increase after acidizing. The study includes data from oil and gas wells in the Gulf of Mexico, Lousiana (Tuscaloosa trend), New Mexico (Morrow sandstone), Rocky Mountain overthrust, and Alberta, Canada.

  14. Dimensional scaling for impact cratering and perforation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Alan; Atkinson, Dale; Rieco, Steve

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the development of two physics-based scaling laws for describing crater depths and diameters caused by normal incidence impacts into aluminum and TFE Teflon. The report then describes equations for perforations in aluminum and TFE Teflon for normal impacts. Lastly, this report also studies the effects of non-normal incidence on cratering and perforation.

  15. Colosplenic contained perforation secondary to colonic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Radulescu, Andrei; Arrese, David; Bach, John A

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of patient with colosplenic perforation from a colonic lymphoma. He initially was diagnosed with a splenic abscess subsequently developed a contained colonic perforation, underwent surgical treatment and intraoperatively was diagnosed with lymphoma. This is a rare entity in a non-immunocompromised host and has been scarcely reported. PMID:26557492

  16. High power laser perforating tools and systems

    DOEpatents

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2014-04-22

    ystems devices and methods for the transmission of 1 kW or more of laser energy deep into the earth and for the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems, devices and methods for the laser perforation of a borehole in the earth. These systems can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perforate such boreholes.

  17. [Methods for sealing of corneal perforations].

    PubMed

    Samoil?, O; Totu, L?cr?mioara; C?lug?ru, M

    2012-01-01

    A variety of corneal pathology can lead to corneal ulcers and perforations. A deep corneal ulcer may need surgical treatment to allow good volume restoration and reepithelisation. Corneal perforation must be sealed and when the perforation is large, the task of repairing the defect can be underwhelming. The elegant solution is the corneal transplant, but this is not always readily available, especially in undeveloped countries. We present here two cases with different solutions to seal the perforated cornea: the first one has a large peripheral defect and it is successfully sealed with scleral patch and the second one is central with small perforation and is successfully sealed with multilayered amniotic membrane. Both cases are followed for over 12 months and demonstrate good corneal restoration (both on clinical examination and corneal topography). Sclera and amniotic membrane can be used to seal corneal defects when corneal transplant is not readily available. PMID:23424761

  18. The terminal web of the duodenal enterocyte.

    PubMed

    Leeson, T S

    1982-06-01

    The terminal web-brush border complex of rodent duodenal enterocytes has been studied by electron microscopy to investigate its structure in relation to currently accepted models of motility in this region. The main adherens zone is composed chiefly of a fine feltwork of 5 to 7 nm filaments, some of which originate in zonulae adherentes. In some cells, this is not a complete layer or sheet. Passing into it from its deep aspect are 10 nm tonofilaments, which also form the basal zone. The filament density in the basal zone is less than that of the adherens zone, and many of the tonofilaments are associated with spot desmosomes. The apical zone contains a loose meshwork of 5 to 7 nm filaments with more filaments lying adjacent to plasmalemmae of the zonula occludens. The core of each microvillus contains a bundle of 17 to 48 microfilaments, 5-7 nm in diameter, apparently attached to the apical plasmalemma and with some slender cross filaments between core filaments and the plasmalemma. In the main, these core bundles of microfilaments pass deeply into and often through the adherens zone of the terminal web where they terminate abruptly. Filaments of the terminal web appear to interconnect microfilaments of adjacent core bundles but without positive evidence of 'splaying' of microfilaments of a core bundle within the adherens zone. These findings are discussed in relation to movement of microvilli. PMID:6890056

  19. Lymphomatosis cerebri mimicking iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    PubMed

    Rivero Sanz, Elena; Torralba Cabeza, Miguel Ángel; Sanjuán Portugal, Francisco; García-Bragado, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Lymphomatosis cerebri (LC) is a rare variant of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) whereby individual lymphoma cells infiltrate the cerebral white matter without causing a mass effect. The disease characteristically presents as a rapidly progressive dementia, which opens an ample differential diagnosis of toxic, metabolic, neurodegenerative and infective causes. Other presentations also include changes in personality, myoclonus and psychotic symptoms. Here we report a patient who presented with a rapidly progressive dementia with a unique surgical history of a dural mater graft in the 1970s. The diagnosis of iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (iCJD) was initially considered. However, the patient's clinical status deteriorated rapidly with no response to symptomatic treatment and she died 2 months after symptom onset. A diagnosis of T-type LC was reached at autopsy. PMID:25199185

  20. Imaging findings and endovascular management of iatrogenic hepatic arterial injuries

    PubMed Central

    Güneyli, Serkan; Gök, Mustafa; Ç?nar, Celal; Bozkaya, Halil; Korkmaz, Mehmet; Par?ldar, Mustafa; Oran, ?smail

    2015-01-01

    Iatrogenic hepatic arterial injuries (IHAIs) include pseudoaneurysm, extravasation, arteriovenous fistula, arteriobiliary fistula, and dissection. IHAIs are usually demonstrated following percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, percutaneous liver biopsy, liver surgery, chemoembolization, radioembolization, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The latency period between the intervention and diagnosis varies. The most common symptom is hemorrhage, and the most common lesion is pseudoaneurysm. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is mostly performed prior to angiography, and IHAIs are demonstrated on CTA in most of the patients. Patients with IHAI are mostly treated by coils, but some patients may be treated by liquid embolic materials or stent-grafts. CTA can also be used in the follow-up period. Endovascular treatment is a safe and minimally invasive treatment option with high success rates. PMID:26359873

  1. Bladder repair following iatrogenic cystotomy in irradiated small capacity bladders

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Jia Yi; Durai, Pradeep; Wu, Mei Wen Fiona; Tiong, Ho Yee

    2015-01-01

    During laparotomy in a previously irradiated and operated pelvis, incidental cystotomies can occur and a tension-free, watertight, two- or three-layer closure of the bladder may be impossible. We herein report two cases of iatrogenic defects of the bladders in post-irradiated pelvises and compare the two different methods of bladder repair employed – an ileal augmentation segment used in the first case and bovine pericardial graft used in the second. Successful closures of the bladder defects were achieved in both cases. Native irradiated bowel and bovine pericardium can be useful substitutes in situations involving bladder defects in a previously irradiated pelvis. The advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches are also herein discussed. PMID:25820861

  2. Percutaneous Management of Postoperative Duodenal Stump Leakage with Foley Catheter

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Jung Suk Lee, Hae Giu Chun, Ho Jong; Choi, Byung Gil; Lee, Sang Hoon; Hahn, Seong Tai; Ohm, Joon Young

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate retrospectively the safety and efficacy of the percutaneous management of duodenal stump leakage with a Foley catheter after subtotal gastrectomy. Methods: Ten consecutive patients (M:F = 9:1, median age: 64 years) were included in this retrospective study. The duodenal stump leakages were diagnosed in all the patients within a median of 10 days (range, 6-20). At first, the patients underwent percutaneous drainage on the day of or the day after confirmation of the presence of duodenal stump leakage, and then the Foley catheters were replaced at a median of 9 days (range, 6-38) after the percutaneous drainage. Results: Foley catheters were placed successfully in the duodenal lumen of all the patients under a fluoroscopic guide. No complication was observed during and after the procedures in all the patients. All of the patients started a regular diet 1 day after the Foley catheter placement. The patients were discharged at a median of 7 days (range, 5-14) after the Foley catheter placement. The catheters were removed in an outpatient clinic 10-58 days (median, 28) after the Foley catheter placement. Conclusions: Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous Foley catheter placement may be a safe and effective treatment option for postoperative duodenal stump leakage and may allow for shorter hospital stays, earlier oral intake, and more effective control of leakage sites.

  3. Iatrogenic Submandibular Duct Rupture Complicating Sialography: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sharouny, Hadi; Omar, Rahmat Bin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sialolithiasis is the most common disease of salivary glands. Sialography is particularly important for the assessment of the outflow tract and in diagnosing obstructive salivary gland lesions including calculi. Case Presentation: We report on a 38-year-old female with sialolithiasis whom had Wharton’s duct perforation, complicating the sialography. She was treated conservatively with a course of co-amoxiclav, oral prednisolone for three days and pain-killers. The patient was clinically well on follow-up reassessments at the end of the first week and three weeks post procedure. Conclusions: Perforation of salivary duct complicating the sialography is rare. Awareness of this potential complication and utilizing a good sialography technique need to be advocated amongst radiologists. Response to treatment by conservative management is preferred as illustrated in this case. PMID:25593739

  4. [Importance of the morphofunctional status of APUD cells in the prognosis of duodenal ulcer hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Seidov, V D; Alekberzade, A V

    2000-01-01

    In 24 patients with uncomplicated duodenal ulcer and 40 patients with acute bleeding duodenal ulcer morphofunctional status of the local paraendocrine adjusting system of the duodenal mucous membrane in the periulcer, ulcer and remote zones was studied with histochemical and electron-microscopic techniques. It is established, that ECL- and G-apudocytes hyperplasia and hyperfunction and vice versa D-cells reduction of the number and suppression of the secretory activity are reliable prognostic criteria of duodenal ulcer bleeding. PMID:11026195

  5. [Perforations near the cardia in benign diseases].

    PubMed

    Schröder, W; Leers, J M; Bludau, M; Herbold, T; Hölscher, A H

    2014-12-01

    Esophageal perforations nearby the cardia are a clinical disorder of various causes. Perforations occur most often following diagnostic or interventional endoscopy but spontaneous perforations (Boerhaave syndrome) are less frequent. Due to the heterogeneous etiology there is a broad range of therapeutic options. In most cases the esophageal perforation site can be covered by an endoscopic stent. Recent endoscopic procedures are the intraluminal application of an endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure system (endo-VAC) or clipping of the esophageal defect. Surgical procedures include direct suturing with external coverage of the defect or transhiatal blunt dissection of the esophagus without primary reconstruction. All endoscopic and surgical procedures often require an additional drainage of the mediastinum and if necessary of the thoracic and abdominal cavities. The clinical presentation ranges from a simple perforation without concomitant esophageal pathology to a defect of considerable length with pleural perforation and associated septic multiple organ failure. The severity of the septic course is the crucial parameter for the choice of the procedure. An early multiple organ failure indicates an insufficient drainage of the septic focus and is indicative for surgical resection. The overall mortality is given as 12?% in the current literature and primarily depends on the localization and the etiology of the perforation. The highest mortality rates are observed with Boerhaave syndrome. The most important prognostic variable is the time interval between perforation and initiation of therapy whereby the mortality rises up to 20?% if the interval exceeds 24 h. Due to the complex therapy and the poor prognosis esophageal perforations should be treated in specialized centers. PMID:25488114

  6. Isolated duodenal varices as the initial presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Okoli, Amara; Raymond, Pascale; Ammannagari, Nischala; Merrell, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Duodenal varices are an uncommon, life-threatening cause of acute gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding commonly caused by portal hypertension. Though generally regarded as a complication of advanced cirrhosis and portal hypertension, often overlooked is that in about 2.7% of cases, it can be the first presenting symptom of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We report a case of an isolated, duodenal variceal bleeding as the first clinical manifestation of HCC, complicated by portal venous thrombosis. Diagnosis of HCC was established by a markedly elevated ?-fetoprotein, hepatitis B surface and core antibody positivity and consistent radiological findings. Although not the first choice, variceal bleeding was successfully arrested with endoclips. The patient thereafter declined further evaluation and unsurprisingly died within a few weeks from a massive GI bleed. An initial bleed from a duodenal varix often confers a poor prognosis. Patients with HCC who present with variceal bleeding reportedly have a median survival of 71?days. PMID:24347452

  7. A Rare Cause of Acute Pancreatitis: Intramural Duodenal Hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Hemant; Singla, Umesh; Agrawal, Roli R.

    2012-01-01

    We describe an interesting case of intramural duodenal hematoma in an otherwise healthy male who presented to emergency room with gradually progressive abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. This condition was missed on initial evaluation and patient was discharged from emergency room with diagnosis of acute gastritis. After 3 days, patient came back to emergency room and abdominal imaging studies were conducted which showed that patient had intramural duodenal hematoma associated with gastric outlet obstruction and pancreatitis. Hematoma was the cause of acute pancreatitis as pancreatic enzymes levels were normal at the time of first presentation, but later as the hematoma grew in size, it caused compression of pancreas and subsequent elevation of pancreatic enzymes. We experienced a case of pancreatitis which was caused by intramural duodenal hematoma. This case was missed on initial evaluation. We suggest that physicians should be more vigilant about this condition. PMID:23091743

  8. Upper gastrointestinal barium evaluation of duodenal pathology: A pictorial review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pankaj; Debi, Uma; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor

    2014-01-01

    Like other parts of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), duodenum is subject to a variety of lesions both congenital and acquired. However, unlike other parts of the GIT viz. esophagus, rest of the small intestine and large intestine, barium evaluation of duodenal lesions is technically more challenging and hence not frequently reported. With significant advances in computed tomography technology, a thorough evaluation including intraluminal, mural and extramural is feasible in a single non-invasive examination. Notwithstanding, barium evaluation still remains the initial and sometimes the only imaging study in several parts of the world. Hence, a thorough acquaintance with the morphology of various duodenal lesions on upper gastrointestinal barium examination is essential in guiding further evaluation. We reviewed our experience with various common and uncommon barium findings in duodenal abnormalities. PMID:25170399

  9. Characterization of prototype perforated semiconductor neutron detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, C. M.; Jahan, Q. M.; Dunn, W. L.; Shultis, J. K.; McGregor, D. S.

    2010-02-01

    Semiconductor detectors whose surfaces are coated with neutron-reactive material can be made to detect thermal neutrons, but with efficiencies only of a few percent. However, perforating the semiconductor material, filling the perforations with neutron-reactive material, and then coating the detector surface can lead to neutron detectors of much higher thermal neutron detection efficiencies, perhaps approaching or exceeding 50%. Several perforated semiconductor neutron detectors have been constructed, both for dosimetry and for position-sensitive neutron detection. The characterization of prototype devices based on these detectors is described.

  10. Lifesaving Embolization of Coronary Artery Perforation

    SciTech Connect

    Katsanos, Konstantinos; Patel, Sundip; Dourado, Renato; Sabharwal, Tarun

    2009-09-15

    Coronary artery perforation remains one of the most fearsome complications during cardiac catheterization procedures. Although emergent bypass surgery is the preferred treatment for cases with uncontrollable perforation, endovascular vessel sealing and arrest of bleeding with a combination of balloons, covered stents, or embolic materials have also been proposed. The authors describe a case of emergent lifesaving microcoil embolization of the distal right coronary artery in a patient with uncontrollable grade III guidewire perforation resulting in cardiac tamponade. The relevant literature is reviewed and the merits and limitations of the endovascular approach are highlighted.

  11. Duodenal bacterial overgrowth during treatment in outpatients with omeprazole.

    PubMed Central

    Fried, M; Siegrist, H; Frei, R; Froehlich, F; Duroux, P; Thorens, J; Blum, A; Bille, J; Gonvers, J J; Gyr, K

    1994-01-01

    The extent of duodenal bacterial overgrowth during the pronounced inhibition of acid secretion that occurs with omeprazole treatment is unknown. The bacterial content of duodenal juice of patients treated with omeprazole was therefore examined in a controlled prospective study. Duodenal juice was obtained under sterile conditions during diagnostic upper endoscopy. Aspirates were plated quantitatively for anaerobic and aerobic organisms. Twenty five outpatients with peptic ulcer disease were investigated after a 5.7 (0.5) weeks (mean (SEM)) treatment course with 20 mg (nine patients) or 40 mg (16 patients). The control group consisted of 15 outpatients referred for diagnostic endoscopy without prior antisecretory treatment. No patient in the control group had duodenal bacterial overgrowth. In the omeprazole group bacterial overgrowth (> or = 10(5) cfu/ml) was found in 14 (56%) patients (p = 0.0003). The number of bacteria (log10) in duodenal juice in patients treated with omeprazole was distinctly higher (median 5.7; range < 2-8.7) when compared with the control group (median < 2; range < 2-5.0; p = 0.0004). As well as orally derived bacteria, faecal type bacteria were found in seven of 14 and anaerobic bacteria in three of 14 patients. Bacterial overgrowth was similar with the two doses of omeprazole. These results indicate that duodenal bacterial overgrowth of both oral and faecal type bacteria occurs often in ambulatory patients treated with omeprazole. Further studies are needed to determine the clinical significance of these findings, particularly in high risk groups during long term treatment with omeprazole. PMID:8307444

  12. One week's anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment for duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Logan, R P; Gummett, P A; Misiewicz, J J; Karim, Q N; Walker, M M; Baron, J H

    1994-01-01

    This open study tested whether eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) heals duodenal ulcers as well as decreasing recurrence. H pylori was detected in patients with endoscopic duodenal ulcers by histology, CLO-test, culture, and 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT). Tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate (120 mg) and amoxycillin (500 mg) each four times daily, were given for seven days, with 400 mg metronidazole five times a day on days 5-7. The 13C-UBT was repeated immediately after treatment and endoscopy repeated within 21 days. After treatment unhealed ulcers were reinspected one month later and healed ulcers followed up by 13C-UBT alone for 12 months. Of 45 patients, 44 were available for follow up. Mean pretreatment excess delta 13CO2 excretion was 25.6 per mil, which fell to 2.4 per mil immediately after finishing treatment, indicating clearance of H pylori in every patient. At the second endoscopy (median interval 20 days from start of treatment) 33 of 44 (75%) duodenal ulcers had healed. Ten of the remaining 11 duodenal ulcers were smaller and those 10 healed in the next two weeks with no further treatment. Two patients' ulcers that initially healed with clearance of H pylori recurred three weeks later (both had metronidazole resistant H pylori). H pylori was eradicated in 28 of 44 (64%) patients (13C-UBT negative for median follow up 10.2 months). Overall 41 of 43 (93%, 95% confidence intervals 81%-99%) duodenal ulcers were healed at one month. This study suggests that one week of anti-H pylori triple treatment is effective in healing duodenal ulcers. PMID:8307442

  13. Treatment with Epidural Blood Patch for Iatrogenic Intracranial Hypotension after Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaekook; Lee, Sunyeul; Lee, Wonhyung

    2012-01-01

    Intracranial hypotension syndrome typically occurs spontaneously or iatrogenically. It can be associated with headache, drowsy mentality and intracranial heamorrhage. Iatrogenic intracranial hypotension can occur due to dural pucture, trauma and spine surgery. Treatment may include conservative therapy and operation. We report a case of a 54-year-old man who was successfully treated with epidural blood patches for intracranial hypotension due to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage into the lumbosacral area after spine surgery. PMID:23115672

  14. MRI Findings of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Duodenal Abnormalities and Variations.

    PubMed

    Dusunceli Atman, Ebru; Erden, Ayse; Ustuner, Evren; Uzun, Caglar; Bektas, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    This pictorial review aims to illustrate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and presentation patterns of anatomical variations and various benign and malignant pathologies of the duodenum, including sphincter contraction, major papilla variation, prominent papilla, diverticulum, annular pancreas, duplication cysts, choledochocele, duodenal wall thickening secondary to acute pancreatitis, postbulbar stenosis, celiac disease, fistula, choledochoduodenostomy, external compression, polyps, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, ampullary carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. MRI is a useful imaging tool for demonstrating duodenal pathology and its anatomic relationships with adjacent organs, which is critical for establishing correct diagnosis and planning appropriate treatment, especially for surgery. PMID:26576112

  15. Successful Treatment of Bleeding Duodenal Varix by Percutaneous Transsplenic Embolization.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong Hun; Park, Ji Won; Jeon, Eui Yong; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Jong Hyeok; Kwon, Young Seok; Park, Seung Ah; Park, Choong Kee

    2015-11-25

    Variceal bleeding occurs primarily in the esophagus or stomach in patients with liver cirrhosis, but can also occur rarely in the duodenum. Duodenal variceal bleeding has a high mortality and poor prognosis due to heavy blood flow originating from the portal vein (PV) and the technical difficulty of hemostatic procedures. Treatments including endoscopic sclerotherapy, endoscopic ligations, endoscopic clipping and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt have been tried, with only moderate and variable success. A percutaneous transsplenic approach offers another way of accessing the PV. Here we report a case of successfully treated duodenal variceal bleeding by percutaneous transsplenic embolization. PMID:26586353

  16. MRI Findings of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Duodenal Abnormalities and Variations

    PubMed Central

    Erden, Ayse; Ustuner, Evren; Uzun, Caglar; Bektas, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    This pictorial review aims to illustrate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and presentation patterns of anatomical variations and various benign and malignant pathologies of the duodenum, including sphincter contraction, major papilla variation, prominent papilla, diverticulum, annular pancreas, duplication cysts, choledochocele, duodenal wall thickening secondary to acute pancreatitis, postbulbar stenosis, celiac disease, fistula, choledochoduodenostomy, external compression, polyps, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, ampullary carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. MRI is a useful imaging tool for demonstrating duodenal pathology and its anatomic relationships with adjacent organs, which is critical for establishing correct diagnosis and planning appropriate treatment, especially for surgery. PMID:26576112

  17. Ultrastructure of the rat duodenal endocrine cells after prolonged irradiation.

    PubMed

    Odintsova, E A; Kvetnoi, I M; Trofimov, A V; Tokarev, O Y; Yakovleva, N D

    2001-12-01

    We propose classification of duodenal endocrine cells of intact rats based on ultrastructural signs of secretory granules and subdivided these cells into 10 basic types. The effect of long-term irradiation in a total dose of 2.5 Gy on ultrastructural organization of duodenal apudocytes was studied. Irradiation induced nonspecific changes of cell organelles in apudocytes. Differences in the ultrastructural disorganization were detected between different types of apudocyte populations and between different types of endocrine cells. Under conditions of adaptation to radiation apudocytes released the secretory product not only through molecular extrusion and exocytosis, but also via degranulation. PMID:12152887

  18. Effect of oral epidermal growth factor on mucosal healing in rats with duodenal ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Jane CJ; Liu, Kuo-Yu; Chen, Sheng-Hsuan; Fang, Chia-Lang; Tsao, Chih-Wei

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on mucosal healing in rats with duodenal ulcer. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham operation without EGF, sham operation with EGF, duodenal ulcer without EGF, or duodenal ulcer with EGF groups. Additionally, normal rats without operation served as the control group. Duodenal ulcer was induced in rats by 300 mL/L acetic acid. Rats with EGF were orally administered at a dose of 60 ?g/kg/day in drinking water on the next day of operation (day 1). Healing of duodenal ulcer was detected by haematoxylin and eosin staining. Cell growth of damaged mucosa was determined by the contents of nucleic acids and proteins. The level of EGF in duodenal mucosa was measured by ELISA. RESULTS: The pathological results showed that duodenal ulcer rats with EGF improved mucosal healing compared with those without EGF after day 5. Duodenal ulcer rats with EGF significantly increased duodenal DNA content compared with those without EGF on day 15 (6.44 ± 0.54 mg/g vs 1.45 ± 0.52 mg/g mucosa, P < 0.05). Duodenal RNA and protein contents did not differ between duodenal ulcer rats with and without EGF during the experimental period. Sham operation and duodenal ulcer rats with EGF significantly increased duodenal mucosal EGF content compared with those without EGF on day 5 (76.0 ± 13.7 ng/g vs 35.7 ± 12.9 ng/g mucosa in sham operation rats, and 68.3 ± 10.9 ng/g vs 28.3 ± 9.2 ng/g mucosa in duodenal ulcer rats, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Oral EGF can promote mucosal healing of the rats with duodenal ulcer by stimulating mucosal proliferation accompanied by an increase in mucosal EGF content. PMID:14562389

  19. [Chronic renal failure with acquired perforating dermatosis].

    PubMed

    Török, L; Tápai, M; Középessy, L

    1995-02-01

    A 50-year-old male patient suffering from renal failure was maintained in a stable condition by means of dialysis for 6 years. Hyperkeratotic papules appeared on his extremities. Histological investigation confirmed the diagnosis of perforating collagen disease. The dermatoses that are characterized by transepithelial elimination and associated with renal failure are discussed. The authors consider that the acquired perforating dermatoses should be regarded as a single entity. PMID:7706070

  20. A hypervelocity projectile launcher for well perforation

    SciTech Connect

    Fugelso, L.E.; Albright, J.N.; Langner, G.C.; Burns, K.L.

    1989-01-01

    Current oil well perforation techniques use low- to medium-velocity gun launchers for completing wells in soft rock. Shaped-charge jets are normally used in harder, more competent rock. A launcher for a hypervelocity projectile to be used in well perforation applications has been designed. This launcher will provide an alternative technique to be used when the conventional devices do not yield the maximum well perforation. It is an adaptation of the axial cavity in a high explosive (HE) annulus design, with the axial cavity being filled with a low density foam material. Two configurations were tested; both had an HE annulus filled with organic foam, one had a projectile. Comparison of the two shots was made. A time sequence of Image Intensifier Camera photographs and sequential, orthogonal flash x-ray radiographs provided information on the propagation of the foam fragments, the first shock wave disturbance, the projectile motion and deformation, and the direct shock wave transmission from the main HE charge. Perforation tests of both device configurations (with and without the pellet) into steel-jacketed sandstone cylinders were made. Static radiographs of the cavities in the sandstone showed similar cavities, however, the perforation of the steel can was larger in response to the pellet. DYNA2D calculations were made to assist in the interpretation of the experimental records. The preliminary results show promise that a useful perforating tool can be developed. Plans for an extended experimental program are outlined. 23 refs., 14 figs.

  1. [Responding to Arterial Perforation during Endovascular Neurosurgery].

    PubMed

    Muraoka, Kenichiro; Tomita, Yosuke; Kuwahara, Ken; Takahashi, Yu; Okuma, Yu; Tanabe, Tomoyuki; Meguro, Toshinari; Hirotsune, Nobuyuki; Nishino, Shigeki

    2015-11-01

    During endovascular neurosurgery, various devices, such as catheters, are passed through the intracranial arteries to access target vessels;the arteries can thereby be perforated. Even though such incidents are serious and should be dealt with appropriately, few case reports or standard procedures have been published. Herein, we report two cases of arterial perforation that occurred recently in our hospital. In the first case, the patient had been treated preoperatively using feeder occlusion of an arteriovenous malformation;the microcatheter perforated the feeder, which branched from the middle cerebral artery. The feeder and perforation site were occluded by injection of n-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate(NBCA)through the same microcatheter, and complete hemostasis was thereby achieved. The second case occurred during an embolization of the middle meningeal artery(MMA)to treat a refractory chronic subdural hematoma;the microcatheter perforated a branch of the MMA. Both the perforation and the artery were embolized using platinum coils and by injecting NBCA, and hemostasis was achieved. Considering the anatomical and pathological properties of the injured vessels, favorable results were achieved with appropriate intervention. PMID:26549717

  2. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt perforations of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Thiong'o, Grace Muthoni; Luzzio, Christopher; Albright, A Leland

    2015-07-01

    OBJECT The purposes of this study were to evaluate the frequency with which children presented with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt perforations of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, to determine the type of shunts that caused the perforations, and to compare the stiffness of perforating catheters with the stiffness of catheters from other manufacturers. METHODS Medical records were reviewed of 197 children who were admitted with VP shunt malfunction. Catheter stiffness was evaluated by measuring relative resistance to cross-sectional compression, resistance to column buckling, and elasticity in longitudinal bending. Catheter frictional force was measured per unit length. RESULTS Six children were identified whose VP shunts had perforated the GI tract; 2 shunts subsequently protruded through the anal orifice, 1 protruded through the oral cavity, and 3 presented with subcutaneous abscesses that tracked upward from the intestine to the chest. All perforating shunts were Chhabra shunts. Catheter stiffness and resistance to bending were greatest with a Medtronic shunt catheter, intermediate with a Codman catheter, and least with a Chhabra catheter. Frictional force was greatest with a Chhabra catheter and least with a Medtronic catheter. CONCLUSIONS The frequency of perforations by Chhabra shunts appears to be higher than the frequency associated with other shunts. The increased frequency does not correlate with their stiffness but may reflect their greater frictional forces. PMID:25837887

  3. A duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumor with a large central area of fluid and gas due to fistulization into the duodenal lumen, mimicking a large duodenal diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Okasha, Hussein Hassan; Amin, Hoda Mahmoud; Al-Shazli, Mostafa; Nabil, Ahmed; Hussein, Hossam; Ezzat, Reem

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract especially the stomach and upper small bowel. They are usually solid, but cystic degeneration, necrosis, and focal hemorrhage have been described in larger tumors leading to central necrotic cavitation. The most sensitive marker of GIST is CD117 (c-kit). In computed tomography (CT) scan, it is often difficult to decide the origin of the primary tumor, especially in large GISTs. We report an incidental case of a large duodenal GIST fistulizing into the second part of the duodenum with a large amount of fluid and gas inside, mistaken for a cystic pancreatic neoplasm by CT and mistaken for a duodenal diverticulum by endoscopic ultrasound. PMID:26374586

  4. A duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumor with a large central area of fluid and gas due to fistulization into the duodenal lumen, mimicking a large duodenal diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Okasha, Hussein Hassan; Amin, Hoda Mahmoud; Al-Shazli, Mostafa; Nabil, Ahmed; Hussein, Hossam; Ezzat, Reem

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract especially the stomach and upper small bowel. They are usually solid, but cystic degeneration, necrosis, and focal hemorrhage have been described in larger tumors leading to central necrotic cavitation. The most sensitive marker of GIST is CD117 (c-kit). In computed tomography (CT) scan, it is often difficult to decide the origin of the primary tumor, especially in large GISTs. We report an incidental case of a large duodenal GIST fistulizing into the second part of the duodenum with a large amount of fluid and gas inside, mistaken for a cystic pancreatic neoplasm by CT and mistaken for a duodenal diverticulum by endoscopic ultrasound. PMID:26374586

  5. DUODENAL CYTOCHROME B: A NOVEL FERRIREDUCTASE IN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Catalytically active iron in the lung causes oxidative stress and promotes microbial growth that can be limited by intracellular sequestration of iron within ferritin. Because cellular iron uptake requires membrane ferrireductase activity that in the gut can be provided by duoden...

  6. Quadruple therapy for symptomatic spontaneous duodenal ulcer disease

    PubMed Central

    Bateson, M

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To investigate Helicobacter pylori eradication in duodenal ulcer patients with a new regimen, lansoprazole 30 mg daily for one or four weeks plus twice daily tetracycline 500 mg, clarithromycin 250 mg, and metronidazole 400 mg.?BACKGROUND—Spontaneous duodenal ulcer is regularly associated with H pylori, and permanent cure follows eradication of this bacterium. Numerous treatments have been proposed and none is ideal, possibly because of primary or acquired antibiotic resistance. Quadruple regimens with proton pump inhibitor therapy and three antibiotics offer promise as the most effective therapy.?METHODS—From November 1995 all patients with spontaneous duodenal ulcer were offered quadruple therapy. A month after completion a carbon 14 urea breath test (UBT) was performed. Sensitivity of H pylori to the antibiotics used was tested in 1992-3, 1996, and 1999.?RESULTS—A total of 331 patients were treated; 313 attended for a UBT, of which 299 were negative (95.5%). Of those patients who had an endoscopy with positive urease test immediately before treatment, 95/101 (94.0%) on lansoprazole for one week and 116/121 (95.8%) on lansoprazole for four weeks had a negative UBT. H pylori antibiotic sensitivity did not change.?CONCLUSION—This regimen produced some of the best results yet seen and may be generally recommended as first line therapy.???Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; duodenal ulcer PMID:11423595

  7. Adenocarcinoma of the minor duodenal papilla: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Arichika; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Mizutani, Satoshi; Ishii, Hideaki; Watanabe, Masanori; Bou, Hideki; Yoshino, Masanori; Komine, Osamu; Uchida, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    We report a rare case of adenocarcinoma of the minor papilla of the duodenum treated with transduodenal minor papillectomy. A 64-year-old woman was treated for an asymptomatic duodenal tumor detected on gastroduodenoscopy. Endoscopy showed a 15-mm sessile mass in the descending duodenum proximal to the major papilla. The major papilla was a villous 24-mm-diameter polypoid tumor. Histopathologic examination of the biopsy specimen showed tubular adenoma with moderate epithelial atypia. Transduodenal major and minor papillectomies were performed. The orifice of the duct of Santorini and the pancreatic duct were re-approximated to the duodenal wall to prevent acute pancreatitis caused by scarring and stenosis of the duct orifice. Histological findings were consistent with well-differentiated adenocarcinoma limited to the minor duodenal papilla, without infiltration of the duodenal wall submucosa, and confirmed complete resection. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and has remained asymptomatic, without evidence of tumor recurrence or stenosis of the pancreatic duct orifice, for 4 years. PMID:23657071

  8. Duodenal Toxicity After Fractionated Chemoradiation for Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Patrick; Das, Prajnan; Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Beddar, Sam; Briere, Tina; Pham, Mary; Krishnan, Sunil; Delclos, Marc E.; Crane, Christopher H.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Improving local control is critical to improving survival and quality of life for patients with locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer (LAPC). However, previous attempts at radiation dose escalation have been limited by duodenal toxicity. In order to guide future studies, we analyzed the clinical and dosimetric factors associated with duodenal toxicity in patients undergoing fractionated chemoradiation for LAPC. Methods and Materials: Medical records and treatment plans of 106 patients with LAPC who were treated with chemoradiation between July 2005 and June 2010 at our institution were reviewed. All patients received neoadjuvant and concurrent chemotherapy. Seventy-eight patients were treated with conventional radiation to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions; 28 patients received dose-escalated radiation therapy (range, 57.5-75.4 Gy in 28-39 fractions). Treatment-related toxicity was graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess prognostic influence of clinical, pathologic, and treatment-related factors by using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. Results: Twenty patients had treatment-related duodenal toxicity events, such as duodenal inflammation, ulceration, and bleeding. Four patients had grade 1 events, 8 had grade 2, 6 had grade 3, 1 had grade 4, and 1 had grade 5. On univariate analysis, a toxicity grade ?2 was associated with tumor location, low platelet count, an absolute volume (cm{sup 3}) receiving a dose of at least 55 Gy (V{sub 55} {sub Gy} > 1 cm{sup 3}), and a maximum point dose >60 Gy. Of these factors, only V{sub 55} {sub Gy} ?1 cm{sup 3} was associated with duodenal toxicity on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 6.7; range, 2.0-18.8; P=.002). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a duodenal V{sub 55} {sub Gy} >1 cm{sup 3} is an important dosimetric predictor of grade 2 or greater duodenal toxicity and establishes it as a dosimetric constraint when treating patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer with concurrent chemoradiation.

  9. Acupuncture-induced haemothorax: a rare iatrogenic complication of acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Karavis, Miltiades Y; Argyra, Erifili; Segredos, Venieris; Yiallouroy, Aneza; Giokas, Georgios; Theodosopoulos, Thedosios

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a rare iatrogenic complication of acupuncture-induced haemothorax and comments on the importance and need for special education of physicians and physiotherapists in order to apply safe and effective acupuncture treatment. A 37-year-old healthy woman had a session of acupuncture treatments for neck and right upper thoracic non-specific musculoskeletal pain, after which she gradually developed dyspnoea and chest discomfort. After some delay while trying other treatment, she was eventually transferred to the emergency department where a chest X-ray revealed a right pneumothorax and fluid collection. She was admitted to hospital and a chest tube inserted into the right hemithorax (under ultrasound guidance) drained 800?mL of bloody fluid (haematocrit (Hct) 17.8%) in 24?h and 1200?mL over the following 3?days. Her blood Hct fell from 39.0% to 30.8% and haemoglobin from 12.7 to 10.3?g/dL. The patient recovered completely and was discharged after 9?days of hospitalisation. When dyspnoea, chest pain and discomfort occur during or after an acupuncture treatment, the possibility of secondary (traumatic) pneumo- or haemopneumothorax should be considered and the patient should remain under careful observation (watchful waiting) for at least 48?h. To maximise the safety of acupuncture, specific training should be given for the safe use of acupuncture points of the anterior and posterior thoracic wall using dry needling, trigger point acupuncture or other advanced acupuncture techniques. PMID:25791844

  10. Evaluation of recovery in iatrogenic evoked acute mediatinitis.

    PubMed

    Jab?o?ski, S?awomir; Kozakiewicz, Marcin

    2013-10-01

    This study attempts to find a prediction method of death risk in patients with acute mediastinitis (AM). There is no such tool described in available literature for this serious disease. The study comprised 37 consecutive cases of iatrogenic AM. General anamnesis and biochemical data were included. Factor analysis was used to extract the risk characteristic for the patients. The most valuable results were obtained for eight parameters, which were selected for further statistical analysis (all collected during a few hours after admission). Three factors reached eigenvalue?>?1. Clinical explanations for these combined statistical factors are as follows: Factor 1--proteinic status (serum total protein, albumin, and hemoglobin level), Factor 2--inflammatory status (white blood cells, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin), and Factor 3--general risk (age and number of coexisting diseases). Threshold values of prediction factors were estimated using statistical analysis (factor analysis, Statgraphics Centurion XVI). The final prediction result for the patients is constructed as simultaneous evaluation of all factor scores. High probability of death should be predicted if factor 1 value decreases with simultaneous increase of factors 2 and 3. The diagnostic power of the proposed method was revealed to be high [sensitivity?=?100 %, specificity?=?69.2 %]: Factor 1 [SNC?=?95.8 %, SPC?=?76.9 %]; Factor 2 [SNC?=?100 %, SPC?=?53.8 %]; and Factor 3 [SNC?=?75 %, SPC?=?76.9 %]. The described method may turn out to be a valuable prognostic tool for patients with AM. PMID:23619916

  11. Iatrogenic possibilities of orthodontic treatment and modalities of prevention

    PubMed Central

    Meeran, Nazeer Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of orthodontic treatment are numerous and in most cases, the benefits outweigh the possible disadvantages. Orthodontic treatment can play an important role in enhancing esthetics, function, and self-esteem in patients. However, it carries with it the risks of enamel demineralization, tissue damage, root resorption, open gingival embrasures in the form of triangular spaces, allergic reactions to nickel, and treatment failure in the form of relapse. These potential complications are easily avoidable by undertaking certain precautions and timely interventions by both the orthodontist and the patient. The orthodontist must ensure that the patient is aware of the associated risks and stress the importance of the patient's role in preventing these untoward outcomes. The decision whether to proceed with the orthodontic treatment is essentially a risk-benefit analysis, where the perceived benefits of commencing treatment outweigh the potential risks. This article provides an overview of the iatrogenic possibilities of orthodontic treatment and the role of the patient as well as the orthodontist in preventing the associated risks. PMID:24987646

  12. Omeprazole promotes proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, J; Bukhave, K; Rask-Madsen, J

    1996-01-01

    The proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole, surprisingly resulted in higher rates of proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion than previously reported using an H2 receptor antagonist for gastric acid inhibition. Gastroduodenal perfusions were performed in healthy volunteers to evaluate whether this incidental finding is explained by more potent gastric acid inhibition by omeprazole or might be caused by the different mode of drug action. Basal and stimulated gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion rates were measured in the same subjects in control experiments (n = 17) and after pretreatment with high dose omeprazole (n = 17) and ranitidine (n = 9), respectively, by use of a technique permitting simultaneous measurements. Concentrations of bicarbonate were measured in the respective effluents by the method of back titration. Both omeprazole and ranitidine completely inhibited gastric acid secretion (pH 6.9 v 6.8; p > 0.05). Omeprazole caused higher rates of basal (mean (SEM)) (597 (48) v 351 (39) mumol/h; p < 0.02) and vagally stimulated (834 (72) v 474 (66) mumol/h; p < 0.02), but not acid stimulated (3351 (678) v 2550 (456) mumol/h; p > 0.05) duodenal bicarbonate secretion compared with control experiments. Also the combination of omeprazole and ranitidine increased (p = 0.05) duodenal bicarbonate secretion, while ranitidine alone caused no change in either basal or stimulated secretion. In the stomach basal as well as vagally stimulated bicarbonate secretion was independent of the means of acid inhibition. These results show that the proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole, promotes proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion apparently independent of its gastric acid inhibitory effect. The mechanism of action remains speculative. PMID:8566861

  13. Volar perforators of common digital arteries: an anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Gasiunas, V; Valbuena, S; Valenti, P; Le Viet, D

    2015-03-01

    The palmar triangle is an area vascularized by perforator arteries arising from the common digital palmar arteries. The aim of this article was to perform an anatomical study of common digital palmar arteries perforators. Twelve injected specimens were included in this study. The purpose was to quantify the number of perforator arteries of each common digital palmar arteries in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th intermetacarpal space, measure distances between them, between the distal perforator and corresponding commissure, and the distance between the proximal perforator and the superficial palmar arch. Four to eight perforators were arising from common digital palmar arteries of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th intermetacarpal space. The average distance between perforator arteries was 6.5 mm, between superficial palmar arch and proximal perforator artery - 8.2 mm, between the distal perforator artery and corresponding commissure - 6.3 mm. PMID:24664162

  14. [Two catheters for one coronary perforation].

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Lucia; Verdoia, Monica; Schaffer, Alon; Marino, Paolo; De Luca, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    Coronary perforation is a severe complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with high mortality and morbidity. The incidence of coronary perforation in patients undergoing PCI ranges from 0.1% to 0.5%. The use of long balloon inflation and reversal anticoagulation is associated with high mortality, periprocedural myocardial infarction and emergency coronary bypass surgery. We present a case of severe coronary perforation treated with the dual catheter technique through the radial and femoral approach. The dual catheter technique enabled rapid delivery of a covered stent without losing control of the perforation site. Our patient did not show pericardial effusion, hemodynamic instability or need for emergency bypass surgery. About 1h after PCI, he developed acute stent thrombosis treated with thromboaspiration and biolimus-eluting stent implantation. At 2 years of follow-up, he was asymptomatic without evidence of exercise-induced ischemia. We conclude that the dual catheter technique is a safe and effective approach to treat PCI-induced severe coronary perforation, and may significantly improve patient outcome compared to historical series. PMID:25805096

  15. Spontaneous perforation of the bile duct.

    PubMed

    Niedbala, A; Lankford, A; Boswell, W C; Rittmeyer, C

    2000-11-01

    We present a classic but rare case of spontaneous perforation of the bile duct in infancy and a previously undescribed treatment technique. The patient, a male age 5 weeks, was admitted with abdominal distention, ascites, and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Ultrasound revealed ascites but did not provide visualization of the gallbladder. Although hepatobiliary scintigraphy with technetium [dimethyl iminodiacetic acid (HIDA scan)] showed normal uptake peritoneal excretion suggested perforation of the common bile duct (CBD). Exploratory laparotomy revealed 200 cm3 dark amber ascitic fluid in the peritoneal cavity and cholestasis of the liver. Intraoperative cholangiogram performed via the gallbladder showed a large perforation at the cystic duct/CBD junction. The perforation was large and leakage of contrast prevented demonstration of the distal CBD despite our attempt to primarily repair the perforation. The CBD was explored; a T-tube was placed. T-tube cholangiogram demonstrated flow of contrast into the duodenum. A large leak remained at the cystic CBD junction. A cholecystectomy was performed and a vascularized flap of the gallbladder wall was used to repair the CBD over the T-tube. The T-tube was clamped intermittently beginning 3 weeks postoperatively. T-tube cholangiogram performed 6 weeks postoperatively revealed no extravasation and normal intra- and extrahepatic biliary tree. The T-tube was subsequently discontinued and liver function tests remained normal at 6 months follow-up. PMID:11090020

  16. From cysteamine to MPTP: structure-activity studies with duodenal ulcerogens

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, S.; Cho, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    Cysteamine is the first chemical identified that induces acute and chronic duodenal ulcers in rodents. Structure-activity studies with cysteamine, propionitrile and their derivatives, as well as with analogues of toluene, revealed numerous alkyl and aryl duodenal ulcerogens. Among these, one of the most interesting from an etiologic and pathogenetic point of view is the dopaminergic neurotoxin MPTP, which shows structural similarities with toluene. The chemically-induced duodenal ulcers are similar and localized on the anterior and posterior wall of the duodenal bulb. Both cysteamine and MPTP affect endogenous dopamine; MPTP is especially potent in depleting central dopamine and inducing lesions in the substantia nigra. MPTP given in high doses induces Parkinson's disease-like syndrome and gastric ulcers. Cysteamine and propionitrile also cause dyskinesia in large and multiple doses. The motility disorders and duodenal ulcers are abolished by dopamine agonists. Cysteamine and MPTP have been known to increase and decrease gastric acid secretion, respectively. However, both compounds induced duodenal dysmotility, decreased bicarbonate production, and reduced its delivery from distal to proximal duodenum. These factors decrease acid neutralization in the duodenal bulb and contribute to duodenal ulceration. Thus, studies with animal models may reveal endogenous mediators and specific receptors which might be involved in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulceration. Specific structure-activity studies in toxicology may lead to new insights in the pathogenesis and pharmacology of a poorly understood human disorder such as duodenal ulceration. 39 references.

  17. Proper Management for Morbid Iatrogenic Retroperitoneal Barium Insufflation

    PubMed Central

    Vahedian-Ardakani, Jalal; Nazerani, Shahram; Saraee, Amir; Sarmast, Ali; Saraee, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    A barium enema is a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure commonly used for colon and rectum problems. Rectal perforation with extensive intra- and/or extraperitoneal spillage of barium is a devastating complication of a barium enema that leads to a significant increase in patient mortality. Due to the low number of reported cases in recent scientific literature and the lack of experience with the management of these cases, we would like to present our treatment approach to a rare case of retroperitoneal contamination with barium, followed by its intraperitoneal involvement during a diagnostic barium enema. Our experience with long-term management of the patient and the good outcome will be depicted in this paper. PMID:25580416

  18. Iatrogenic QT Abnormalities and Fatal Arrhythmias: Mechanisms and Clinical Significance.

    PubMed

    Cubeddu, Luigi X

    2009-08-01

    Severe and occasionally fatal arrhythmias, commonly presenting as Torsade de Pointes [TdP] have been reported with Class III-antiarrhythmics, but also with non-antiarrhythmic drugs. Most cases result from an action on K(+) channels encoded by the HERG gene responsible for the IKr repolarizing current, leading to a long QT and repolarization abnormalities. The hydrophobic central cavity of the HERG-K+ channels, allows a large number of structurally unrelated drugs to bind and cause direct channel inhibition. Some examples are dofetilide, quinidine, sotalol, erythromycin, grepafloxacin, cisapride, dolasetron, thioridazine, haloperidol, droperidol and pimozide. Other drugs achieve channel inhibition indirectly by impairing channel traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell membrane, decreasing channel membrane density (pentamidine, geldalamicin, arsenic trioxide, digoxin, and probucol). Whereas, ketoconazole, fluoxetine and norfluoxetine induce both direct channel inhibition and impaired channel trafficking. Congenital long QT syndrome, subclinical ion-channel mutations, subjects and relatives of subjects with previous history of drug-induced long QT or TdP, dual drug effects on cardiac repolarization [long QT plus increased QT dispersion], increased transmural dispersion of repolarization and T wave abnormalities, use of high doses, metabolism inhibitors and/or combinations of QT prolonging drugs, hypokalemia, structural cardiac disease, sympathomimetics, bradycardia, women and older age, have been shown to increase the risk for developing drug-induced TdP. Because most of these reactions are preventable, careful evaluation of risk factors and increased knowledge of drugs use associated with repolarization abnormalities is strongly recommended. Future genetic testing and development of practical and simple provocation tests are in route to prevent iatrogenic TdP. PMID:20676275

  19. Iatrogenic QT Abnormalities and Fatal Arrhythmias: Mechanisms and Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Cubeddu, Luigi X

    2009-01-01

    Severe and occasionally fatal arrhythmias, commonly presenting as Torsade de Pointes [TdP] have been reported with Class III-antiarrhythmics, but also with non-antiarrhythmic drugs. Most cases result from an action on K+ channels encoded by the HERG gene responsible for the IKr repolarizing current, leading to a long QT and repolarization abnormalities. The hydrophobic central cavity of the HERG-K+ channels, allows a large number of structurally unrelated drugs to bind and cause direct channel inhibition. Some examples are dofetilide, quinidine, sotalol, erythromycin, grepafloxacin, cisapride, dolasetron, thioridazine, haloperidol, droperidol and pimozide. Other drugs achieve channel inhibition indirectly by impairing channel traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell membrane, decreasing channel membrane density (pentamidine, geldalamicin, arsenic trioxide, digoxin, and probucol). Whereas, ketoconazole, fluoxetine and norfluoxetine induce both direct channel inhibition and impaired channel trafficking. Congenital long QT syndrome, subclinical ion-channel mutations, subjects and relatives of subjects with previous history of drug-induced long QT or TdP, dual drug effects on cardiac repolarization [long QT plus increased QT dispersion], increased transmural dispersion of repolarization and T wave abnormalities, use of high doses, metabolism inhibitors and/or combinations of QT prolonging drugs, hypokalemia, structural cardiac disease, sympathomimetics, bradycardia, women and older age, have been shown to increase the risk for developing drug-induced TdP. Because most of these reactions are preventable, careful evaluation of risk factors and increased knowledge of drugs use associated with repolarization abnormalities is strongly recommended. Future genetic testing and development of practical and simple provocation tests are in route to prevent iatrogenic TdP. PMID:20676275

  20. Traumatic Forefoot Reconstructions With Free Perforator Flaps.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yue-Liang; He, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Yi; Lv, Qian; Fan, Xin-Yv; Xu, Yong-Qing

    2015-01-01

    The forefoot is critical to normal walking; thus, any reconstruction of forefoot defects, including the soft tissues, must be carefully done. The free perforator flap, with its physiologic circulation, lower donor site morbidity, and minimal thickness is the most popular technique in plastic and microsurgery, and is theoretically the most suitable for such forefoot reconstruction. However, these flaps are generally recognized as more difficult and time-consuming to create than other flaps. In 41 patients with traumatic forefoot defects, we reconstructed the forefoot integument using 5 types of free perforator flaps. The overall functional and cosmetic outcomes were excellent. Three flaps required repeat exploration; one survived. The most common complications were insufficient perfusion and the need for second debulking. The key to our success was thoroughly debriding devitalized bone and soft tissue before attaching the flap. Forefoot reconstruction with a free perforator flap provides better function, better cosmesis, better weightbearing, and better gait than the other flaps we have used. PMID:26190781

  1. Perforated Crohn's disease presenting during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Burgers, Jessica; Ruiz, Oscar; Rivers, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Severe exacerbations of Crohn's disease (CD) requiring acute surgery are rare, and rarer still are those that occur during pregnancy. We present a case of perforated CD in an obstetric patient. A 24-year-old woman at 27?weeks gestation, with abdominal pain, leucocytosis and concern for preterm labour, presented to our institution. MRI was obtained and demonstrated a phlegmon in the small bowel mesentery near the distal ileum, with concern for perforation. The patient was taken for an emergent exploratory laparotomy. Intraoperatively, an ileal perforation with small bowel fistula was observed and an ileocolectomy with primary anastomosis was performed. Pathology of the resection revealed CD, a new diagnosis for the patient. She was ultimately discharged on postoperative day 13 and later went on to deliver a healthy term infant, and, 5?years later, has had no significant recurrence. PMID:26452410

  2. Perforated diverticulitis sigmoidei after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Eljaja, Salameh; Hadi, Sabah; El-Hussuna, Alaa

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of 47-year-old healthy man who underwent an uneventful elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Despite the postoperative analgesia with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), the patient developed diffuse abdominal pain culminating on the second postoperative day when the patient also had rebound tenderness. A diagnostic laparoscopy showed diverticular perforation, which was treated with laparoscopic lavage and drain. The patient's condition continued to deteriorate and the drain output resembled faecal material necessitating an emergency sigmoidium resection. The histopathological examination confirmed inflammation and perforation in the diverticulosis-bearing segment. The use of NSAID can be a reason for perforation, and may be for diverticulitis. NSAID should be used with caution in patients with a previous history or endoscopic-verified diverticulosis. PMID:25770142

  3. Technical tips in perforator flap harvest.

    PubMed

    Celik, Naci; Wei, Fu-Chan

    2003-07-01

    Advances in the field of microsurgical reconstruction have focused on decreasing donor site morbidity and increasing the function and aesthetics of the reconstructed site. Since the advent of perforator flap surgery, most of these expectations have been satisfied. On the other hand, we need refinements in the surgical techniques and clinical reports studying these flaps. In the future, the clinical use of these flaps and the familiarity of surgeons will increase; perforator flap reconstruction will be as reliable as other types of free flaps. PMID:12916601

  4. Transabdominal approach assisted by thoracoscopic drainage for lower esophageal perforation

    PubMed Central

    Maki, Harufumi; Azuma, Masaki; Kanamaru, Hitoshi; Nishiyama, Motohiro; Okamoto, Kazuya; Shimamura, Takahiro; Kyo, Kennoki; Maema, Atsushi; Nakamura, Toshio; Shirakawa, Motoaki; Yokoyama, Hidetaro

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of use of thoracoscopy for esophageal perforation has not been fully evaluated. We herein report a case of esophageal perforation for which a transabdominal approach assisted by thoracoscopic drainage was performed. PMID:26628716

  5. [New methods of vagotomy in the treatment of duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Za?tsev, V T; Lagoda, A E; Dudenko, G I; Molotiagin, G E; Lagoda, O G; Bo?ko, V V

    1993-01-01

    The experience to use in the treatment of duodenal ulcer disease the new methods of vagotomy: selective distal antral cellular vagotomy (SDAV) and selective distal vagotomy with pyloroplasty (SDV) is substantiated. By means of these operations, the suppression of phase II of gastric secretion is achieved due to denervation of gastrin-producing antral portion of the stomach. The results of experimental studies in 15 dogs, and the results of treatment of 37 patients with duodenal ulcer disease caused by the increased production at phase II of alimentation are presented. SDAV was performed in 20 patients, SDV--in 17. A result of treatment was studied in 34 patients at the period of up to 3 years. A pronounced acid inhibiting effect of the new methods of vagotomy was noted. No ulcer recurrence was revealed. PMID:8158916

  6. Psychological correlates of gastric and duodenal ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Tennant, C; Goulston, K; Langeluddecke, P

    1986-05-01

    Psychological correlates of gastric and duodenal ulcer disease were assessed in a group of somewhat older patients with ulcer disease identified by endoscopy. Associations between both ulcer types and symptom measures (anxiety and depression) seemed only to reflect severity or chronicity of gastrointestinal symptoms or the impending endoscopy procedure. Associations with 'trait' psychological indices may be of causal significance. Duodenal ulcer patients had higher 'introversion' and 'psychoticism' scores (on the EPQ) than controls, while gastric ulcer patients had higher psychoticism scores and 'trait anxiety' scores. These findings could not be attributed to confounding variables. When the two ulcer groups were compared, the gastric ulcer group had significantly higher neuroticism, psychoticism and hostility scores which were not attributable to confounding variables. The higher depression scores in gastric ulcer patients, however, simply reflected the greater chronicity of their physical symptoms. The groups did not differ significantly on measures of trait anxiety, tension, introversion or Type A behaviour. PMID:3726009

  7. Intraluminal duodenal diverticulum with malposition of the ampulla of Vater.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, D; Shirai, Y; Tsukada, K; Hatakeyama, K

    1997-01-01

    Intraluminal duodenal diverticulum is a rare congenital anomaly, sometimes associated with malposition of the ampulla of Vater. When the diverticulum is excised, the position of the ampulla should be determined carefully to avoid injury to pancreaticobiliary ducts. We report two patients with symptomatic intraluminal duodenal diverticulum and malposition of the ampulla. The ampulla was located on the rim of the diverticulum in one patient; in the others, the ampullary site was the posterior wall of the duodenum. Both patients underwent successful excision of the diverticulum without ductal injuries. As we have been unable to find any case with an ampullary location on the anterior wall of the duodenum, anterior duodenotomy followed by identification of the ampulla must precede excision of the diverticulum in order to avoid pancreaticobiliary ductal injuries. PMID:9222678

  8. [Biliary endoprosthesis causing ileal perforation--a case report].

    PubMed

    Kosi?ski, Robert; Ol?dzki, Szymon; Modrzejewski, Andrzej

    2015-10-01

    We experienced ileal perforation caused by dislocated biliary endoprosthesis in 59 years old female patient. The endoprosthesis was implanted due to biliary fistula after laparoscopic cholecystectomy 2 years before the perforation. It seems that endoprosthesis dislocation and the perforation were the result of too long stay of endoprosthesis. After the surgical management and the removal of the prosthesis patient was cured. Although ileal perforation caused by dislocated biliary endoprosthesis is rare, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of its occurrence. PMID:26608492

  9. Duodenal phytobezoar: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Arda, K; Yilmaz, S; Calikoglu, U; Olçer, T

    1995-01-01

    Phytobezoars are an unusual cause of small bowel obstruction. We report a case of small bowel obstruction due to phytobezoar in a 63 year-old female patient who had undergone gastric surgery (truncal vagotomy with pyloroplasty) for duodenal ulcer disease complicated by gastric outlet obstruction 10 years ago. We diagnosed this bezoar case by radiologic methods and these methods keep their importance for the diagnosis of small bowel obstruction with phytobezoars. PMID:8776004

  10. Role of Sonography in Surgical Decision Making for Iatrogenic Spinal Accessory Nerve Injuries: A Paradigm Shift.

    PubMed

    Cesmebasi, Alper; Smith, Jay; Spinner, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    The spinal accessory nerve (SAN) is susceptible to iatrogenic injury in the posterior cervical triangle. Early diagnosis and management of suspected SAN transection injuries are crucial in the restoration of shoulder stability and function. Although neurologic examination and electrodiagnostic testing can assess SAN function, they cannot assess nerve continuity. We report the use of sonography to prospectively evaluate the SAN in 6 patients with suspected iatrogenic SAN injury. Sonography directly visualized SAN transection in 4 cases, whereas sonographic findings were reported as "probable" transection in the fifth case and was nondiagnostic in the sixth case in the setting of extensive scarring. PMID:26543166

  11. Bare Stent Implantation in Iatrogenic Dissecting Pseudoaneurysm of the Superior Mesenteric Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Kutlu, Ramazan Ara, Cengiz; Sarac, Kaya

    2007-02-15

    Iatrogenic arterial dissection leading to the development of dissecting pseudoaneurysms of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a rare complication of angiography. Surgical and endovascular treatment options exist for this important condition. We report a case of bare stent implantation in dissecting pseudoaneurysm of the SMA that developed after angiography in a patient with acute mesenteric ischemia. Although it is rarely published, iatrogenic arterial dissection causing pseudoaneurysm can occur after diagnostic and interventional angiography. Bare stent implantation in dissecting pseudoaneurysm of the SMA could be an advantageous endovascular treatment option in selected cases due its to potential preservation of important side branches of the SMA.

  12. The Modified Kimura's Technique for the Treatment of Duodenal Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Zuccarello, Biagio; Spada, Antonella; Centorrino, Antonio; Turiaco, Nunzio; Chirico, Maria Rosaria; Parisi, Saveria

    2009-01-01

    Background/Purpose. Kimura's diamond-shaped-duodenoduodenostomy (DSD) is a known technique for the correction of congenital intrinsic duodenal obstruction. We present a modification of the technique and review the advantages of this new technique. Methods. From 1992 to 2006, 14 newborns were treated for duodenal atresia. We inverted the direction of the duodenal incisions: a longitudinal incision was made in the proximal duodenum while the distal was opened by transverse incision. Results. Our “inverted-diamond-shaped-duodenoduodenostomy” (i-DSD) allowed postoperative oral feeding to start on days 2 to 3, peripheral intravenous fluids discontinuity on days 3 to 8 (median values 3.6); time to achieve full oral feeds on days 8 to 12 (median values 9.4); the length of hospitalisation ranged from 10 and 14 days (median value 11.2). No complications related to the anastomosis, by Viz leakage, dehiscence, biliary stasis, or stenosis were observed. Conclusions. The i-DSD provides a safe procedure to protect the ampulla of Vater from injury and avoids any formation of a blind loop. The results show that patients who have i-DSD achieve full oral feeds in a very short time period and, consequently, the length of hospitalisation is also significantly reduced. PMID:19946416

  13. Groove pancreatitis and pancreatic heterotopia in the minor duodenal papilla.

    PubMed

    Chatelain, Denis; Vibert, Eric; Yzet, Thierry; Geslin, Guillaume; Bartoli, Eric; Manaouil, David; Delcenserie, Richard; Brevet, Marie; Dupas, Jean-Louis; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc

    2005-05-01

    Groove pancreatitis is a rare form of segmental chronic pancreatitis that involves the anatomic space between the head of the pancreas, the duodenum, and the common bile duct. We report 2 cases of groove pancreatitis with pancreatic heterotopia in the minor papilla. Patients were a 44-year-old woman and a 47-year-old man. Both had a past history of alcohol consumption and presented with abdominal pain, vomiting, and weight loss caused by duodenal stenosis. Abdominal computed tomography revealed thickening of the duodenal wall and enlargement of the pancreatic head in both patients. In 1 patient, ultrasound endoscopy showed a dilated duct in the head of the pancreas. Pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed to rule out pancreatic adenocarcinoma and because of the severity of the symptoms. In both cases, gross and microscopic examinations showed fibrous scar of the groove area. The Santorini duct was dilated and contained protein plugs in both patients, with abscesses in 1 of them. In both cases, there were microscopic foci of heterotopic pancreas with mild fibrosis in the wall of the minor papilla. Groove pancreatitis is often diagnosed in middle-aged alcoholic men presenting with clinical symptoms caused by duodenal stenosis. The pathogenesis of this rare entity could be because of disturbance of the pancreatic secretion through the minor papilla. Pancreatitis in heterotopic pancreas located in the minor papilla and chronic consumption of alcohol seem to be important pathogenic factors. PMID:15841034

  14. Gastric Perforation Following Dog Bite in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Mahmud, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Gastric perforation following dog bite is exceedingly rare event in pediatric population that requires emergency surgery. We report a 26 month old male who presented 36 hours after a dog bite over abdomen with pneumoperitoneum. At laparotomy, two perforations were found on the anterior surface of the stomach. The perforations were repaired primarily. The child made an uneventful postoperative recovery.

  15. Trichobezoar Causing Gastric Perforation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Zeeshanuddin; Sharma, Apoorv; Ahmed, Minhajuddin; Vatti, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Trichobezoars are impactions of swallowed hairs in the stomach and occasionally in the intestine. They occur in emotionally disturbed, depressed, or mentally retarded patients who have trichotillomania and trichophagia. Trichobezoars are usually diagnosed on CT scan or upper GI endoscopy. They can give rise to complications like gastroduodenal ulceration, haemorrhage, perforation, peritonitis, or obstruction, with a high rate of mortality. The treatment is endoscopic, laparoscopic, or surgical removal and usually followed by psychiatric opinion. Herein, we report a case of gastric trichobezoar presenting as gastric perforation in a patient of trichotillomania and trichophagia that was accidentally found on laparotomy. As the patient was in shock on admission, relevant history of trichophagia could not be elicited. Henceforth, she was operated for perforation peritonitis. Trichobezoar was discovered intraoperatively and removed. The perforation was repaired with Graham’s omental patch. Postoperatively, history of trichophagia was corroborated with scarring alopecia of scalp. Trichobezoars is usually seen in adolescent girls, often with an underlying psychiatric or social problem. Laparotomy is the gold standard treatment. Surgical treatment should be followed by behavioral and psychiatric treatment. The patient should be vigilantly monitored for this impulsive disorder, as recurrences are common. PMID:26722149

  16. Firing system for tubing conveyed perforating gun

    SciTech Connect

    Bagley, J.T.; Simon, M.L.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes a system for firing a tubing conveyed perforating gun suspended in a well utilizing a drop bar. This system consists of: (a) A percussion activated firing means attached between a tubing string and at least one perforating gun. The firing means includes a first end adjacent the tubing string for receiving an activating force and a second end adjacent the at least one perforating gun for transmitting an explosive force to the at least one perforating gun; (b) A drop bar for introducing into the tubing and contacting the first end of the firing means. This drop bar includes a housing with an attached stop means, a mandrel movably attached to the housing, and a contacting end attached to the mandrel and movable in relation to the stop means. The drop bar has a retractor for moving the contacting end toward the stop means after the retractor is activated; (c) A guide for receiving the drop bar and directing the contacting end toward the first end of the firing means; and, (d) An abutment fixed in relation to the firing means for receiving the stop means. The drop bar may be safely fished from the tubing or the guns safely removed from the well in the event of a misfire.

  17. [Small bowel perforation caused by magnetic toys].

    PubMed

    Schroepfer, E; Siauw, C; Hoecht, B; Meyer, T

    2010-06-01

    Accidental ingestion of foreign bodies is a common problem in infants and childhood, but ingestion of magnetic construction toys is very rare. In the case of ingestion of multiple parts of these magnetic construction toys, they may attract each other through the intestinal walls, causing pressure necrosis, perforation, fistula formation or intestinal obstruction. A 20-month-old boy presented with a three-day history of abdominal pain and bilious vomiting. Physical examination revealed a slighted distended abdomen. The -white blood cell count was increased, but the C-reactive protein was normal. Ultrasound and X-ray of the abdomen showed a distended bowel loop in the right upper quadrant, a moderate amount of free intraperitoneal liquid and 4 foreign bodies. Emergency laparotomy was performed and 2 perforations in the ileum were detected. The perforations were caused by a magnetic construction toy and 2 iron globes. The fourth foreign body was a glass marble. The foreign bodies were removed, both perforations were primarily sutured. The child was discharged on postoperative day 10 after an uneventful recovery. Parents should be warned against the potential dangers of children's constructions toys that contain these kinds of magnets. PMID:20549590

  18. Bowel perforation in intestinal lymphoma: incidence and clinical features

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, R.; Habermann, T. M.; Donohue, J. H.; Ristow, K. M.; Maurer, M. J.; Macon, W. R.; Colgan, J. P.; Inwards, D. J.; Ansell, S. M.; Porrata, L. F.; Micallef, I. N.; Johnston, P. B.; Markovic, S. N.; Thompson, C. A.; Nowakowski, G. S.; Witzig, T. E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Perforation is a serious life-threatening complication of lymphomas involving the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Although some perforations occur as the initial presentation of GI lymphoma, others occur after initiation of chemotherapy. To define the location and timing of perforation, a single-center study was carried out of all patients with GI lymphoma. Patients and methods Between 1975 and 2012, 1062 patients were identified with biopsy-proven GI involvement with lymphoma. A retrospective chart review was undertaken to identify patients with gut perforation and to determine their clinicopathologic features. Results Nine percent (92 of 1062) of patients developed a perforation, of which 55% (51 of 92) occurred after chemotherapy. The median day of perforation after initiation of chemotherapy was 46 days (mean, 83 days; range, 2–298) and 44% of perforations occurred within the first 4 weeks of treatment. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was the most common lymphoma associated with perforation (59%, 55 of 92). Compared with indolent B-cell lymphomas, the risk of perforation was higher with aggressive B-cell lymphomas (hazard ratio, HR = 6.31, P < 0.0001) or T-cell/other types (HR = 12.40, P < 0.0001). The small intestine was the most common site of perforation (59%). Conclusion Perforation remains a significant complication of GI lymphomas and is more frequently associated with aggressive than indolent lymphomas. Supported in part by University of Iowa/Mayo Clinic SPORE CA97274 and the Predolin Foundation. PMID:23704194

  19. Low yield of routine duodenal biopsies for evaluation of abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, Sterling M; Kwong, Wilson T; Kalmaz, Denise; Savides, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the yield of biopsying normal duodenal mucosa for investigation of abdominal pain. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of consecutive patients who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with duodenal biopsies of normal appearing duodenal mucosa for an indication that included abdominal pain. All the patients in this study were identified from an electronic endoscopy database at a single academic medical center and had an EGD with duodenal biopsies performed over a 4-year period. New diagnoses that were made as a direct result of duodenal biopsies were identified. All duodenal pathology reports and endoscopy records were reviewed for indications to perform the examination as well as the findings; all the medical records were reviewed. Exclusion criteria included age less than 18 years, duodenal mass, nodule, or polyp, endoscopic duodenitis, duodenal scalloping, known celiac disease, positive celiac serology, Crohns disease, or history of bone marrow transplant. Information was collected in a de-identified database with pertinent demographic information including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, and descriptive statistics were performed. RESULTS: About 300 patients underwent EGD with biopsies of benign appearing or normal appearing duodenal mucosa. The mean age of patients was 44.1 ± 16.8 years; 189 of 300 (63%) were female. A mean of 4.3 duodenal biopsies were performed in each patient. In the subgroup of patients with abdominal pain without anemia, diarrhea, or weight loss the mean age was 43.4 ± 16.3 years. Duodenal biopsies performed for an indication that included abdominal pain resulting in 4 new diagnoses (3 celiac disease and 1 giardiasis) for an overall yield of 1.3%. 183 patients with abdominal pain without anemia, diarrhea, or weight loss (out of the total 300 patients) underwent duodenal biopsy of duodenal mucosa resulting in three new diagnoses (two cases of celiac disease and one giardiasis) for a yield of 1.6%. Duodenal biopsies of 19 HIV patients presenting for evaluation of abdominal pain did not reveal any new diagnoses. Information pertaining to new diagnoses is provided. CONCLUSION: Routine biopsy of normal appearing duodena in patients with abdominal pain should be reserved for those with a high pre-test probability given its low diagnostic yield. PMID:26139995

  20. Tissue Doppler and strain imaging of left ventricle in Beagle dogs with iatrogenic hypercortisolism

    PubMed Central

    Oui, Heejin; Jeon, Sunghoon; Lee, Gahyun; Park, Seungjo; Cho, Kyoung-Oh

    2015-01-01

    Changes in radial and longitudinal left ventricular (LV) function were investigated in beagles with iatrogenic hypercortisolism. A total of 11 normal dogs were used, and 2 mg/kg prednisone was administered per oral q12 h for 28 days to 7 out of 11 dogs to induce iatrogenic hypercortisolism. Body weight, blood pressure, conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) of normal and iatrogenic hypercortisolism groups were conducted. The myocardial wall velocity of the LV was measured using color TDI and myocardial deformation was determined by the strain and strain rate. Conventional echocardiography revealed that the diastolic LV free wall and interventricular septum in the hypercortisolism group were thickened relative to those in the normal group. The peak early diastolic myocardial velocity and early to late diastolic myocardial velocity ratio of TDI in the hypercortisolism group were significantly lower than those in the normal group. The strain values in the hypercortisolism group were significantly lower than those in the normal group, particularly for longitudinal wall motion. The lower values of myocardium from TDI and strain imaging could be used to investigate subclinical LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction in dogs with the iatrogenic hypercortisolism. PMID:26040612

  1. A Florid Case of Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome Induced by Topical Steroid with Osteoporosis and Hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Sahana, Pranab Kumar; Sarma, Nilendu; Sengupta, Nilanjan; Somani, Prashant Subhash

    2015-01-01

    Here we report a case of a young male who developed full blown iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome after use of superpotent clobetasol propionate cream 0.05% for long duration to suppress psoriatic skin lesions. He also developed osteoporosis and hypogonadism. This case demonstrates that injudicious use of topical steroids can have disastrous consequences. PMID:26288430

  2. A Florid Case of Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome Induced by Topical Steroid with Osteoporosis and Hypogonadism

    PubMed Central

    Sahana, Pranab Kumar; Sarma, Nilendu; Sengupta, Nilanjan; Somani, Prashant Subhash

    2015-01-01

    Here we report a case of a young male who developed full blown iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome after use of superpotent clobetasol propionate cream 0.05% for long duration to suppress psoriatic skin lesions. He also developed osteoporosis and hypogonadism. This case demonstrates that injudicious use of topical steroids can have disastrous consequences. PMID:26288430

  3. Genistein stimulates duodenal HCO(3)(-) secretion through PI3K pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Biguang; Wen, Guorong; Song, Penghong; Xu, Jingyu; Liu, Xuemei; Seidler, Ursula; Dong, Hui

    2011-01-25

    Genistein has been proposed as a promising pharmacotherapeutic for cystic fibrosis. We recently found that genistein stimulates murine duodenal HCO(3)(-) secretion through cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The aim of the present study was to determine the intracellular signal pathways involved in genistein-stimulated duodenal HCO(3)(-) secretion. Murine duodenal mucosal HCO(3)(-) secretion was examined in vitro in Ussing chambers by the pH-stat technique. The results showed that neither cAMP-dependent signal pathway inhibitors MDL-12330A and KT-5720, nor cGMP signal pathway inhibitors NS2028 and KT5823, nor calcium signal pathway inhibitors verapamil and W-13, altered genistein-stimulated duodenal HCO(3)(-) secretion. In calcium-free solution, genistein-stimulated duodenal HCO(3)(-) secretion was not altered either. Vanadate, an inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatase, only partially inhibited genistein-stimulated duodenal HCO(3)(-) secretion. However, both wortmannin and LY294002, two structurally and mechanistically distinct phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors, markedly inhibited genistein-stimulated duodenal HCO(3)(-) secretion. Genistein increased duodenal mucosal PI3K activity and induced the phosphorylation of Akt, a signaling molecule downstream of PI3K, which was again inhibited by wortmannin. Estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI182,780, also markedly inhibited genistein-stimulated duodenal HCO(3)(-) secretion and genistein-induced PI3K activity increase in duodenal mucosa. These results demonstrate that genistein stimulates duodenal HCO(3)(-) secretion mainly through estrogen receptor and PI3K-dependent pathway. These findings contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanism of genistein-induced anion secretion and further pharmacotherapeutic development and use of genistein or related substances in the treatment of diseases of epithelial tissues. PMID:21093426

  4. Gastric metaplasia and duodenal ulcer disease in children infected by Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Gormally, S M; Kierce, B M; Daly, L E; Bourke, B; Carroll, R; Durnin, M T; Drumm, B

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric mucosa is vital in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer disease. H pylori will only colonise gastric epithelium and its association with duodenal disease is therefore not easily explained. AIMS--To determine if gastric metaplasia in the duodenum increases the risk of duodenal ulcer disease in children infected with H pylori. PATIENTS--All children undergoing upper endoscopy over a 20 month period in a children's hospital in Ireland. METHODS--Two biopsy specimens were obtained from the antral mucosa and two from the first part of the duodenum. One antral biopsy specimen was used in a rapid urease test (Clo Test). Biopsy sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and also with cresyl violet for identification of H pylori. Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) stain was performed to identify areas of gastric metaplasia. RESULTS--Gastric and duodenal biopsy specimens were obtained from 148 patients (M:F 1:2:1). Twenty five children (17%) had H pylori positive gastritis. Thirty four children (23%) had gastric metaplasia in the duodenum. Nine per cent of children under the age of 8 years had gastric metaplasia compared with 38% in those 12 years of age or over (p < 0.005). Seven children had duodenal ulcer disease. Gastric metaplasia was present in six of seven (86%) children with duodenal ulcer disease compared with 28 of 141 (20%) without ulceration (p < 0.001). While both H pylori and gastric metaplasia were each significant risk factors for duodenal ulcer disease, the combined presence of both factors was associated with a pronounced increase in duodenal ulcer disease. Duodenal ulcer disease occurred in over 50% of children with both H pylori infection and gastric metaplasia. In contrast duodenal disease did not occur in children (0 of 100) when both were absent. CONCLUSION--The presence of gastric metaplasia in the duodenum is the major risk factor for duodenal ulcer disease in patients colonised by H pylori. PMID:8707079

  5. The Perforation-Operation time Interval; An Important Mortality Indicator in Peptic Ulcer Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Surapaneni, Sushama; S, Rajkumar; Reddy A., Vijaya Bhaskar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To find out the significance of the Perforation-Operation Interval (POI) with respect to an early prognosis, in patients with peritonitis which is caused by peptic ulcer perforation. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of the Study: Department of General Surgery, Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences and RF Amalapuram, Andhra Pradesh, India from 2008-2011. Materials and Method: This study included 150 patients with generalized peritonitis, who were diagnosed to have Perforated Peptic Ulcers (PPUs). The diagnosis of the PPUs was established on the basis of the history , the clinical examination and the radiological findings. The perforation-operation interval was calculated from the time of onset of the symptoms like severe abdominal pain or vomiting till the time the patient was operated. Result: Out of the 150 patients 134 were males and 16 were females, with a male : female ratio of 9:1. Their ages ranged between 25-70 years. Out of the 150 patients, 65 patients (43.3%) presented within 24 hours of the onset of severe abdominal pain (Group A), 27 patients (18%) presented between 24-48 hours of the onset of severe abdominal pain (Group B) and 58 patients (38.6%) presented after 48 hours. There was no mortality in Group A and the morbidity was more in Group B and Group C. There were 15 deaths in Group C. Conclusion: The problem of peptic ulcer perforation with its complication, can be decreased by decreasing the perforation –operation time interval, which as per our study, appeared to be the single most important mortality and morbidity indicator in peptic ulcer perforation. PMID:23814733

  6. In Vivo Risk Analysis of Pancreatic Cancer Through Optical Characterization of Duodenal Mucosa

    E-print Network

    Hartline, Jason D.

    In Vivo Risk Analysis of Pancreatic Cancer Through Optical Characterization of Duodenal Mucosa,§ and Vadim Backman, PhD* Objectives: To reduce pancreatic cancer mortality, a paradigm shift in cancer) spectroscopy to predict the presence of pancreatic cancer by interrogating the duodenal mucosa. A previous ex

  7. Rapunzel syndrome resulting in gastric perforation.

    PubMed

    Parakh, J S; McAvoy, A; Corless, D J

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of an 18-year-old female patient with no past medical history who presented to the emergency department with acute abdominal pain and vomiting on the background of a long history of ingesting hair (trichophagia). Computed tomography revealed pneumoperitoneum and free fluid in keeping with visceral perforation. In addition, a large hair bolus was seen extending in contiguity from the stomach to the jejunum. A laparotomy was performed, revealing an anterior gastric perforation secondary to a 120cm long trichobezoar, which had formed a cast of the entire stomach, duodenum and proximal jejunum. The bezoar was removed and an omental patch repair to the anterior ulcer was performed. The patient made an excellent postoperative recovery and was discharged home with psychiatric follow-up review. PMID:26688419

  8. Ileal J-Pouch Perforation: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Dogan, U; Dogan, B; Habibi, M; Erol, M K; Mayir, B; Aslaner, A; Bulbuller, N

    2015-01-01

    A 34-year-old male patient who had undergone total colectomy and J-pouch ileanal anastomosis subsequent to diagnosisof familial adenomatous polyposis five years previously was admitted to the emergency room with complaints of severe abdominal pain of a four-day duration. Physical examination revealed widespread tenderness throughout the abdomen, especially in the lower quadrant. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed fluid between intestinal loops and computed tomography revealed free air and fluid in the abdomen. During laparotomy to expand the ileal J-pouch to approximately 12 cmin diameter, a 2-mm perforation was detected in the blind end of the ileal J-pouch. The perforation was repaired primarily andprotective ileostomy was performed. During postoperative endoscopy, neither obstruction nor stasis was observed, but pouchitis was observed in the ileal J-pouch. The patient was postoperatively discharged on the 20th day and followed endoscopically. The endoscopic findings were normal in the sixth month postsurgery. PMID:26158741

  9. Colonic perforation in Behçet’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Catherine M; Hill, Arnold DK; Malone, Carmel; Sheehan, John J; Tormey, Shona; Sheahan, Kieran; McDermott, Enda; O’Higgins, Niall J

    2008-01-01

    A 17-year-old gentleman was admitted to our hospital for headache, the differential diagnosis of which included Behçet’s syndrome (BS). He developed an acute abdomen and was found to have air under the diaphragm on erect chest X-ray. Subsequent laparotomy revealed multiple perforations throughout the colon. This report describes an unusual complication of Behcets syndrome occurring at the time of presentation and a review of the current literature of reported cases. PMID:19030217

  10. Mediastinitis and Bronchial Perforations Due to Mucormycosis.

    PubMed

    Dhooria, Sahajal; Agarwal, Ritesh; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

    2015-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common predisposing condition for mucormycosis, which is emerging as an important invasive fungal infection worldwide. Isolated mediastinitis is a very rare presentation of mucormycosis. A 57-year-old woman with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus and ketoacidosis presented with septic shock and was subsequently found to have mucor mediastinitis with multiple bronchial perforations. The organism was identified as Rhizopus oryzae with the help of DNA sequencing. PMID:26348693

  11. Liquid nitrogen ingestion followed by gastric perforation.

    PubMed

    Berrizbeitia, Luis D; Calello, Diane P; Dhir, Nisha; O'Reilly, Colin; Marcus, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Ingestion of liquid nitrogen is rare but carries catastrophic complications related to barotrauma to the gastrointestinal tract. We describe a case of ingestion of liquid nitrogen followed by gastric perforation and respiratory insufficiency and discuss the mechanism of injury and management of this condition. Liquid nitrogen is widely available and is frequently used in classroom settings, in gastronomy, and for recreational purposes. Given the potentially lethal complications of ingestion, regulation of its use, acquisition, and storage may be appropriate. PMID:20065833

  12. Perforating devices for use in wells

    DOEpatents

    Jacoby, Jerome J. (Grass Valley, CA); Brooks, James E. (Manvel, TX); Aseltine, Clifford L. (late of Houston, TX)

    2002-01-01

    The perforating device for use in completing a well includes a case, an explosive charge contained in the case, and a generally bowl-shaped liner. The liner is positioned adjacent the explosive charge and has non-uniforrn thickness along its length. The liner further includes a protruding portion near its tip. In another configuration, the liner includes a hole near its tip to expose a portion of the explosive charge.

  13. Surgical Excision of Duodenal/Pancreatic Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Eduardo; Hassani, Ali; Vaishampayan, Ulka; Shi, Dongping; Pontes, J. Edson; Weaver, Donald W.

    2014-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has a potential to metastasize to almost any site and this may occur many years following nephrectomy. We present six cases with uncommon sites of metastasis: four patients presented with distal pancreatic metastasis and two with duodenal/head of the pancreas metastasis. Time to metastatic disease varied from 1 to 19?years following renal surgery. For patients are alive and two succumbed to their disease. Long-term survival can be achieved with aggressive surgical excision of disease. PMID:25177547

  14. Perforation of thin unreinforced concrete slabs

    SciTech Connect

    Cargile, J.D.; Giltrud, M.E.; Luk, V.K.

    1993-10-01

    This report discusses fourteen tests which were conducted to investigate the perforation of thin unreinforced concrete slabs. The 4340-steel projectile used in the test series is 50.8 mm in diameter, 355.6 mm in length, has a mass of 2.34 kg. and an ogive nose with caliber radius head of 3. The slabs, contained within steel culverts, are 1.52 m in diameter and consist of concrete with a nominal unconfined compressive strength of 38.2 MPa and maxima aggregate size of 9.5 mm. Slab thicknesses are 284.4, 254.0, 215.9 and 127.0 mm. Tests were conducted at impact velocities of about 313 m/s on all slab thicknesses and about 379 and 471 m/s on the 254.0-mm-thick slab. All tests were conducted at normal incidence to the slab. All tests were conducted at normal incidence to the slab. Information obtained from the tests used to determine the loading (deceleration) on the projectile during the perforation process, the velocity-displacement of the projectile as it perforated the slab, and the projectile position as damage occurred on the backface of the slab. The test projectile behaved essentially as a rigid body for all of the tests.

  15. Angiographic analysis of the lateral intercostal artery perforator of the posterior intercostal artery: anatomic variation and clinical significance

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Eui-Yong; Cho, Young Kwon; Yoon, Dae Young; Seo, Young Lan; Lim, Kyoung Ja; Yun, Eun Joo

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Knowledge of the anatomic variations of the posterior intercostal artery (PICA) and its major branches is important during transthoracic procedures and surgery. We aimed to identify the anatomic features and variations of the lateral intercostal artery perforator (LICAP) of the PICA with selective PICA arteriography. METHODS We retrospectively evaluated 353 PICAs in 75 patients with selective PICA arteriography for the following characteristics: incidence, length (as number of traversed intercostal spaces), distribution at the hemithorax (medial half vs. lateral half), and size as compared to the collateral intercostal artery of the PICA. RESULTS The incidence of LICAPs was 35.9% (127/353). LICAPs were most commonly observed in the right 8th–11th intercostal spaces (33%, 42/127) and in the medial half of the hemithorax (85%, 108/127). Most LICAPs were as long as two (35.4%, 45/127) or three intercostal spaces (60.6%, 77/127). Compared to the collateral intercostal artery, 42.5% of LICAPs were larger (54/127), with most of these observed in the right 4th–7th intercostal spaces (48.8%, 22/54). CONCLUSION We propose the clinical significance of the LICAP as a potential risk factor for iatrogenic injury during posterior transthoracic intervention and thoracic surgery. For example, skin incisions must be as superficial as possible and directed vertically at the right 4th–7th intercostal spaces and the medial half of the thorax. Awareness of the anatomical variations of the LICAPs of the PICA will allow surgeons and interventional radiologists to avoid iatrogenic arterial injuries during posterior transthoracic procedures and surgery. PMID:26268302

  16. Importance of repeat angiography in the diagnosis of iatrogenic anterior cerebral artery territory pseudoaneurysm following endoscopic sinus surgery.

    PubMed

    Munich, Stephan A; Cress, Marshall C; Rangel-Castilla, Leonardo; Krishna, Chandan; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Snyder, Kenneth V

    2015-01-01

    Iatrogenic intracranial pseudoaneurysm formation and rupture are rare complications following endoscopic sinus surgery. Given the propensity for devastating neurologic injury after a relatively routine procedure, swift diagnosis and treatment is essential. The authors present a patient who experienced bifrontal intracranial hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured iatrogenic frontopolar artery pseudoaneurysm caused during routine endoscopic sinus surgery. The pseudoaneurysm was not present on initial angiograms but became apparent radiographically 19?days after the endoscopic procedure. Endovascular treatment consisted of coil and Onyx embolization for sacrifice of the parent vessel proximal to the lesion. Early recognition of iatrogenic intracranial vascular injury is important to allow for rapid treatment. Initial radiographic studies may be unreliable in excluding the presence of a pseudoaneurysm so delayed repeat angiographic assessment is necessary, particularly in the presence of a high index of clinical suspicion. Endovascular techniques may provide an effective and safe option for the treatment of iatrogenic anterior cerebral artery distribution pseudoaneurysms. PMID:25979961

  17. [Nineteenth century physicians against drum perforation. I. The method of "mechanical" closure of drum perforation].

    PubMed

    Kierzek, A

    1995-01-01

    The trials of closure of drum perforation since a long are described. The first, who noticed drum perforation was Astley Paston Cooper. The first, who used artificial ear-drum was Marcus Banzer. The achievements of James Yearsley, Juliusz Erhard Camile Miot, Adam Politzer, Joseph Toynbee and others are presented. The achievements of Polish physicians: Teodor Heiman, Aleksander Zebrowski, Jan Szmur?o, Edmund Modrzejewski, Rafa? Spira and others are depicted. The indications and contrinications for artificial ear-drum employment are also described. PMID:8714576

  18. Prompt Management Is Most Important for Colonic Perforation After Colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Ho; Kye, Bong-Hyeon; Cho, Hyeon-Min

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of complications after colonoscopy is very low. The complications after colonoscopy that are of clinical concern are bleeding and perforation. The present study was conducted to determine the clinical outcomes and the risk factors of a colostomy or a colectomy after colonoscopic colon perforation. Methods From March 2009 to December 2012, the records of all patients who were treated for colorectal perforation after colonoscopy were reviewed retrospectively. The following parameters were evaluated: age, sex, purpose of colonoscopy, management of the colonic perforation, and interval from colonoscopy to the diagnosis of a colonic perforation. A retrospective analysis was performed to determine the risk factors associated with major surgery for the treatment of a colon perforation after colonoscopy. Results A total 27 patients were included in the present study. The mean age was 62 years, and 16 were males. The purpose of colonoscopy was diagnostic in 18 patients. The most common perforation site was the sigmoid colon. Colonic perforation was diagnosed during colonoscopy in 14 patients, just after colonoscopy in 5 patients, and 24 hours or more after colonoscopy in 8 patients. For the treatment of colonic perforation, endoscopic clipping was performed in 3 patients, primary closure in 15 patients, colon resection in 2 patients, Hartmann's procedures in 4 patients, and diverting colostomy in 3 patients. If the diagnosis of perforation after colonoscopy was delayed for more than 24 hours, the need for major treatment was increased significantly. Conclusion Although a colonic perforation after colonoscopy is rare, if the morbidity and the mortality associated with the colonic perforation are to be reduced, prompt diagnosis and management are very important. PMID:25360430

  19. Conservative Treatment of a Large Facial Midroot Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Bronnec, François

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To report on the endodontic and periodontal management of a root and alveolar process perforation in a maxillary front tooth. Summary. Perforation during access cavity preparation is an infrequent complication during endodontic therapy, leading to potential periodontal tissue breakdown. The case described the two-stage management of a massive facial root perforation requiring a connective tissue graft to correct a mucosal fenestration persisting after orthograde repair of the root defect with MTA. PMID:25838948

  20. Allopurinol in the treatment of acquired reactive perforating collagenosis*

    PubMed Central

    Tilz, Hemma; Becker, Jürgen Christian; Legat, Franz; Schettini, Antonio Pedro Mendes; Inzinger, Martin; Massone, Cesare

    2013-01-01

    Acquired reactive perforating collagenosis is a perforating dermatosis usually associated with different systemic diseases, mainly diabetes mellitus and/or chronic renal insufficiency. Different therapies have been tried but treatment is not standardized yet and remains a challenge. In the last few years, allopurinol has been reported as a good therapeutic option for acquired reactive perforating collagenosis. We describe the case of a 73-year-old man affected by acquired reactive perforating collagenosis associated with diabetes type 1 and chronic renal failure with secondary hyperparathyroidism. The patient was successfully treated with allopurinol 100mg once/day p.o.. PMID:23539010

  1. Bowel perforation in the newborn: diagnosis with metrizamide

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.D.; Weber, T.R.; Grosfeld, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Although the diagnosis of bowel perforation is frequently straightforward, it may be difficult in the neonate. Clinical signs may be limited to abdominal distension. If the patient is on assisted ventilation, pneumoperitoneum may be due to air tracking down from the chest rather than perforation. Perforation in infants in whom the diagnosis could not readily be made from the clinical findings and plain radiographs was apparent when oral metrizamide was employed. This suggests that metrizamide can be a valuable adjunct in some cases of neonatal bowel perforation.

  2. Acute iatrogenic polycythemia induced by massive red blood cell transfusion during subtotal abdominal colectomy.

    PubMed

    Chiapaikeo, David; Rohani, Pejman

    2015-02-24

    A 46 year old man was transfused ten units of packed red blood cells during subtotal colectomy after intraoperative point-of-care testing values demonstrated hemoglobin values less than seven grams per deciliter (g/dL). A postoperative hemoglobin analyzed in a standard hematologic laboratory revealed a hemoglobin value of 27.8 g/dL. He underwent emergent red blood cell depletion therapy which decreased his hemoglobin to 7.5 g/dL. The physiologic consequences of iatrogenic polycythemia caused by massive transfusion during major abdominal surgery must take into account the fluid shifts that interplay between the osmotic load, viscosity of blood, and postoperative third spacing of fluid. Treatment of acute iatrogenic polycythemia can be effectively accomplished by red blood cell depletion therapy. However, fluid shifts caused by massive transfusion followed by rapid red cell depletion produce a unique physiologic state that is without a well-described algorithm for management. PMID:25852846

  3. Acute Iatrogenic Polycythemia Induced by Massive Red Blood Cell Transfusion During Subtotal Abdominal Colectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chiapaikeo, David; Rohani, Pejman

    2015-01-01

    A 46 year old man was transfused ten units of packed red blood cells during subtotal colectomy after intraoperative point-of-care testing values demonstrated hemoglobin values less than seven grams per deciliter (g/dL). A postoperative hemoglobin analyzed in a standard hematologic laboratory revealed a hemoglobin value of 27.8 g/dL. He underwent emergent red blood cell depletion therapy which decreased his hemoglobin to 7.5 g/dL. The physiologic consequences of iatrogenic polycythemia caused by massive transfusion during major abdominal surgery must take into account the fluid shifts that interplay between the osmotic load, viscosity of blood, and postoperative third spacing of fluid. Treatment of acute iatrogenic polycythemia can be effectively accomplished by red blood cell depletion therapy. However, fluid shifts caused by massive transfusion followed by rapid red cell depletion produce a unique physiologic state that is without a well-described algorithm for management. PMID:25852846

  4. A practical approach to avoiding iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) from invasive instruments.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paul; Farrell, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Potential Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease instrument-contamination events continue to occur, causing widespread hospital and patient concern. We propose the use of a combination of diagnostic tests (ie, spinal fluid for 14-3-3 protein or nasal brushing for misfolded prion protein) and instrument handling procedures (ie, using a regional set of dedicated instruments), which if applied to all patients admitted with symptoms of either dementia or cerebellar disease, should eliminate the risk of iatrogenic instrument infection. PMID:25850546

  5. Iatrogenic Iliac Artery Rupture: Emergency Management by Longer Stent-Graft on a Shorter Balloon

    SciTech Connect

    Trehan, Vijay; Nigam, Arima; Ramakrishnan, S.

    2007-02-15

    Rupture of an iliac artery during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty is a rare but potentially devastating complication. We report a case of iatrogenic external iliac artery rupture that was successfully treated by temporary balloon occlusion followed by endovascular stent graft placement in an unusual manner. Limited availability of the hardware necessitated the use of a longer bare stent graft mounted on a relatively shorter balloon.

  6. A prospective study of intraoperative methods to diagnose and resect duodenal gastrinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Sugg, S L; Norton, J A; Fraker, D L; Metz, D C; Pisegna, J R; Fishbeyn, V; Benya, R V; Shawker, T H; Doppman, J L; Jensen, R T

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study determined, prospectively, whether duodenotomy (DX) should be routinely performed in explorations for patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Duodenal gastrinomas are now being found with increasing frequency in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. The surgical approach used to detect these tumors is controversial. Some recommend intraoperative endoscopy with transillumination (IOE) at surgery, while others recommend routine DX. METHODS: Beginning in 1989, the authors prospectively compared the ability of palpation, intraoperative ultrasound (IOUS), IOE, and DX (in that sequence) to detect gastrinomas in 35 consecutive patients with ZES. Each patient also underwent preoperative localization studies. RESULTS: Thirty-three of 35 patients (94%) had tumor detected and excised; duodenal gastrinomas were excised in 27 patients (77%). The average size of the duodenal tumors was 0.8 cm, significantly smaller (p < 0.005) than the pancreatic and lymph node tumors in this series. Standard palpation after a Kocher maneuver identified 19 of the 31 duodenal tumors (61%) in the 27 patients. IOUS revealed only eight duodenal tumors (26%) and no new lesions. IOE identified 20 duodenal gastrinomas (64%) and 6 new lesions. DX identified 31 duodenal tumors (100%) and 5 additional tumors. The morbidity rate was 17%. One patient had a duodenal fistula after operation (2.8%) and subsequently recovered. No patient died. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that the duodenum is the most common location for gastrinoma in patients with ZES (77%) and that DX to detect and remove duodenal gastrinomas should be routinely performed in all explorations for patients with ZES. Images Figure 3. Figure 6. PMID:8342993

  7. Bladder Perforation Secondary to Primary Systemic Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Dru, Christopher J.; Feng, Tom S.; Kim, Howard H.

    2014-01-01

    Amyloidosis is a disorder of protein folding characterized by extracellular aggregation and deposition of amyloid protein fibrils. Light-chain amyloidosis, also known as primary systemic amyloidosis, is the most common form of the disease. We present a case of an 84-year-old male with a history of systemic primary amyloidosis causing genitourinary, cardiac, and autonomic dysfunction who presented with hematuria and hypotension secondary to bladder perforation. He underwent open repair of a large extraperitoneal bladder defect. He ultimately died as a result of medical complications from his disease. PMID:25587481

  8. Pressure enhanced penetration with shaped charge perforators

    DOEpatents

    Glenn, Lewis A. (Danville, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A downhole tool, adapted to retain a shaped charge surrounded by a superatmospherically pressurized light gas, is employed in a method for perforating a casing and penetrating reservoir rock around a wellbore. Penetration of a shaped charge jet can be enhanced by at least 40% by imploding a liner in the high pressure, light gas atmosphere. The gas pressure helps confine the jet on the axis of penetration in the latter stages of formation. The light gas, such as helium or hydrogen, is employed to keep the gas density low enough so as not to inhibit liner collapse.

  9. Preoperative Identification of a Perforator Using Computed Tomography Angiography and Metal Clip Marking in Perforator Flap Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Woo; Kim, Han Kyeol; Kim, Sin Rak; Han, Yea Sik

    2015-01-01

    In perforator flap reconstruction, vascular mapping using preoperative computed tomography (CT) angiography is widely used to confirm the existence and location of an appropriate perforator. This study proposes a rapid, accurate, and convenient method for marking the perforator location on the skin surface. For 12 patients who underwent perforator flap reconstruction between November 2011 and November 2013, metal clips were fixed on the skin surface at the anticipated perforator locations, which were decided using a handheld Doppler. CT angiography was used to compare the location between the metal clip and the actual perforator. The metal clip was moved and repositioned, if needed, on the basis of the CT images. The locations of the appropriate perforator and the metal clip, which were observed during the surgery, were then compared. In CT angiography, the mean distance between the metal clip and the perforator was 3±3.9 mm, and the mean distance that was measured during surgery was 0.8±0.8 mm. In conclusion, we report a simple, rapid, and precise technique to indicate the accurate location of the appropriate perforator on the skin surface. PMID:25606494

  10. [Iatrogenic meningitis after diagnosis lumbar puncture: 3 cases reports in the paediatric Children's Hospital of Tunis].

    PubMed

    Smaoui, H; Hariga, D; Hajji, N; Bouziri, A; Ben Jaballah, N; Barsaoui, S; Bousnina, S; Sammoud, A; Kechrid, A

    2011-02-01

    We have collected cases of iatrogenic meningitis managed in the Children's Hospital of Tunis, between January 1998 and December 2006. Clinical information about each patient were collected, all bacterial samples were investigated in the microbiology laboratory of the hospital. Bacterial isolates were identified according to conventional criteria. In the interval under study, we recorded three cases of iatrogenic meningitis after lumbar puncture. Two cases occurred in newborn admitted for suspicion of neonatal infection and one in a 2-month-old infant admitted for exploration of hyperpyretic convulsion. In all patients, the initial cerebrospinal fluid was normal. All patients developed symptoms of acute meningitis within 72 hours after lumbar puncture; the second cerebrospinal fluid was, then, typical for purulent meningitis. The causal agents isolated in the three cases were Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, and Serratia marcescens, all resistant to beta-lactams by extended spectrum beta-lactamase production. The use of quinolones was required in all cases. Different complications were recorded: hydrocephalus and brain abscess in one case, respiratory and hemodynamic failure managed in the intensive care unit in the second, and brain hygroma in the third case. This study shows high morbidity of iatrogenic meningitis. Simple aseptic precautions undertaken before the procedure of lumbar puncture can prevent such cases. The urgent need for increasing the awareness among medical personnel in hospitals of developing countries cannot be overemphasized. PMID:21103965

  11. Pneumoretroperitoneum and pneumoperitoneum following argon plasma coagulation for a bleeding duodenal diverticulum: a case report.

    PubMed

    Su, Pei-Yuan; Yen, Hsu-Heng

    2010-02-01

    Duodenal diverticula are usually asymptomatic, with an incidence of 0.16% to 22%. Symptomatic bleeding from a duodenal diverticulum is an even rarer event. The management of such a hemorrhage is almost entirely surgically based. Since the first reported case of endoscopic therapy for duodenal diverticular bleeding (DDB) by Sim et al, only two case series have been reported in the literature regarding endoscopic therapy for DDB. Hence, the optimal therapy modality for DDB remains unclear. A rare case involving massive pneumoretroperitoneum and pneumoperitoneum following argon plasma coagulation treatment for DDB is presented. A short discussion of the optimal endoscopic therapy for this rare disease is provided. PMID:20065903

  12. Duodenal Switch Operation for Pathologic Transpyloric Duodenogastric Reflux

    PubMed Central

    Strignano, Paolo; Collard, Jean-Marie; Michel, Jean-Marie; Romagnoli, Renato; Buts, Jean-Paul; De Gheldere, Charles; Volonté, Francesco; Salizzoni, Mauro

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the long-term results of the duodenal switch operation made for pathologic transpyloric duodenogastric reflux (DGR). Summary Background Data: DGR symptoms and lesions are poorly responsive to medical treatment. Methods: A duodenal switch operation was made on 48 patients suffering from pathologic transpyloric DGR either unrelated (n = 28) or secondary (n = 20) to previous upper gastrointestinal (GI) surgery, including cholecystectomy or vagotomy. The diagnosis was based on the combination of several objective arguments: a long history of gastric symptoms (ie, nausea, epigastric pain, and/or bilious vomiting) poorly responsive to medical treatment (48 of 48), gastroesophageal reflux symptoms unresponsive to proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) (23 of 29), gastritis on upper GI endoscopy (37 of 48) and/or at histology (28 of 41), presence of a bilious gastric lake at >1 upper GI endoscopy (30 of 48), DGR at diisopropyl iminodiacetic acid (DISIDA) scintigraphy scanning (7 of 13), pathologic 24-hour intragastric bile monitoring with the Bilitec device (40 of 41), and absence of Helicobacter pylori antral infection (39 of 41). Results: At follow-up (median, 81 months), gastric symptoms were nil, had improved, and remained unchanged in 29 (60.4%), 16 (33.3%), and 2(4.2%) patients, respectively, and 1 patient experienced symptomatic recurrence after a 92-month symptom-free period (2.1%). Among the 44 patients who had postoperative upper GI endoscopy, 42 (95.5%) had no gastritis whereas 5 (11.3%) had an ulcer at the duodenojejunostomy. Gastric exposure to bile at postoperative 24-hour intragastric Bilitec test in 36 patients was nil, within the normal range, and still slightly pathologic in 15 (41.7%), 19 (52.8%), and 2 (5.5%), respectively. Conclusions: The duodenal switch operation made on patients in whom diagnosis of pathologic transpyloric DGR is supported by several objective arguments provides most of them with symptomatic and endoscopic improvement parallel to abolishment or normalization of gastric exposure to bile. Postoperative PPI therapy during a 2-month period is to be recommended to prevent the development of an anastomotic ulcer. PMID:17245178

  13. Duodenal epithelial transport in functional dyspepsia: Role of serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Witte, Anne-Barbara; D’Amato, Mauro; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Laurent, Agneta; Knuhtsen, Svend; Bindslev, Niels; Hansen, Mark Berner; Schmidt, Peter Thelin

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate functional duodenal abnormalities in functional dyspepsia (FD) and the role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in mucosal ion transport and signalling. METHODS: Duodenal mucosal biopsies were obtained from 15 patients with FD and 18 healthy controls. Immunohistochemistry was used to study the number of 5-HT-containing cells and real-time polymerase chain reaction for expression of 5-HT receptors 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B, 3C, 3D, 3E, 4 and 7, as well as expression of the serotonin re-uptake transporter (SERT) gene SLC6A4 and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1). Biopsies were mounted in Ussing chambers for evaluation of basal and 5-HT-stimulated short-circuit current (SCC). RESULTS: Conductance was lower in FD [42.4 ± 4.7 mS/cm2 (n = 15) vs 62.5 ± 4.5 mS/cm2 (n = 18), P = 0.005]. 5-HT induced a dose dependent rise in SCC in both FD (n = 8) and controls (n = 9), the rise was lower in FD (P < 0.001). Mean number of 5-HT stained cells per high power field was the same [34.4 ± 8.4 in FD (n = 15) and 30.4 ± 3.7 in controls (n = 18), P = 0.647]. The following genes were highly expressed: 5-HT receptor HTR3E, HTR4, HTR7, SERT gene (SLC6A4) and TPH1. Differences in expression levels were observed for HTR3E (higher expression in FD, P = 0.008), HTR7 (lower expression in FD, P = 0.027), SLC6A4 (higher expression in FD, P = 0.033) and TPH1 (lower expression in FD, P = 0.031). CONCLUSION: Duodenal ion transport in response to exogenous 5-HT is abnormal in FD patients and associated with high expression of the HTR3E receptor and the serotonin transporter. PMID:23755368

  14. Duodenal-Mucosal Bacteria Associated with Celiac Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Ester; Donat, Ester; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Fernández-Murga, Maria Leonor

    2013-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of cereal gluten proteins. This disorder is associated with imbalances in the gut microbiota composition that could be involved in the pathogenesis of CD. The aim of this study was to characterize the composition and diversity of the cultivable duodenal mucosa-associated bacteria of CD patients and control children. Duodenal biopsy specimens from patients with active disease on a gluten-containing diet (n = 32), patients with nonactive disease after adherence to a gluten-free diet (n = 17), and controls (n = 8) were homogenized and plated on plate count agar, Wilkins-Chalgren agar, brain heart agar, or yeast, Casitone, and fatty acid agar. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Renyi diversity profiles showed the highest diversity values for active CD patients, followed by nonactive CD patients and control individuals. Members of the phylum Proteobacteria were more abundant in patients with active CD than in the other child groups, while those of the phylum Firmicutes were less abundant. Members of the families Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcaceae, particularly the species Klebsiella oxytoca, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus pasteuri, were more abundant in patients with active disease than in controls. In contrast, members of the family Streptococcaceae were less abundant in patients with active CD than in controls. Furthermore, isolates of the Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus mutans groups were more abundant in controls than in both CD patient groups, regardless of inflammatory status. The findings indicated that the disease is associated with the overgrowth of possible pathobionts that exclude symbionts or commensals that are characteristic of the healthy small intestinal microbiota. PMID:23835180

  15. A modified Rendezvous ERCP technique in duodenal diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Odabasi, Mehmet; Yildiz, Mehmet Kamil; Abuoglu, Haci Hasan; Eris, Cengiz; Ozkan, Erkan; Gunay, Emre; Aktekin, Ali; Muftuoglu, MA Tolga

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) failure, we describe a modified Rendezvous technique for an ERCP in patients operated on for common bile duct stone (CBDS) having a T-tube with retained CBDSs. METHODS: Five cases operated on for CBDSs and having retained stones with a T-tube were referred from other hospitals located in or around Istanbul city to the ERCP unit at the Haydarpasa Numune Education and Research Hospital. Under sedation anesthesia, a sterile guide-wire was inserted via the T-tube into the common bile duct (CBD) then to the papilla. A guide-wire was held by a loop snare and removed through the mouth. The guide-wire was inserted into the sphincterotome via the duodenoscope from the tip to the handle. The duodenoscope was inserted down to the duodenum with a sphincterotome and a guide-wire in the working channel. With the guidance of a guide-wire, the ERCP and sphincterotomy were successfully performed, the guide-wire was removed from the T-tube, the stones were removed and the CBD was reexamined for retained stones by contrast. RESULTS: An ERCP can be used either preoperatively or postoperatively. Although the success rate in an isolated ERCP treatment ranges from up to 87%-97%, 5%-10% of the patients require two or more ERCP treatments. If a secondary ERCP fails, the clinicians must be ready for a laparoscopic or open exploration. A duodenal diverticulum is one of the most common failures in an ERCP, especially in patients with an intradiverticular papilla. For this small group of patients, an antegrade cannulation via a T-tube can improve the success rate up to nearly 100%. CONCLUSION: The modified Rendezvous technique is a very easy method and increases the success of postoperative ERCP, especially in patients with large duodenal diverticula and with intradiverticular papilla. PMID:24255749

  16. Duodenal-mucosal bacteria associated with celiac disease in children.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Ester; Donat, Ester; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Fernández-Murga, Maria Leonor; Sanz, Yolanda

    2013-09-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of cereal gluten proteins. This disorder is associated with imbalances in the gut microbiota composition that could be involved in the pathogenesis of CD. The aim of this study was to characterize the composition and diversity of the cultivable duodenal mucosa-associated bacteria of CD patients and control children. Duodenal biopsy specimens from patients with active disease on a gluten-containing diet (n = 32), patients with nonactive disease after adherence to a gluten-free diet (n = 17), and controls (n = 8) were homogenized and plated on plate count agar, Wilkins-Chalgren agar, brain heart agar, or yeast, Casitone, and fatty acid agar. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Renyi diversity profiles showed the highest diversity values for active CD patients, followed by nonactive CD patients and control individuals. Members of the phylum Proteobacteria were more abundant in patients with active CD than in the other child groups, while those of the phylum Firmicutes were less abundant. Members of the families Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcaceae, particularly the species Klebsiella oxytoca, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus pasteuri, were more abundant in patients with active disease than in controls. In contrast, members of the family Streptococcaceae were less abundant in patients with active CD than in controls. Furthermore, isolates of the Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus mutans groups were more abundant in controls than in both CD patient groups, regardless of inflammatory status. The findings indicated that the disease is associated with the overgrowth of possible pathobionts that exclude symbionts or commensals that are characteristic of the healthy small intestinal microbiota. PMID:23835180

  17. Jejunal diverticula - a rare cause of intestinal perforation.

    PubMed

    Borgaonkar, Viraj; Borgaonkar, Vijay

    2009-04-01

    Jejunal diverticuli is a extremely rare entity. We report a case of jejunal diverticulum as a cause of perforation peritonitis, which has been managed by resection anastomosis. This study is important from the perspective that clear cut guidelines for managment of jejunal perforation are not available in litreture. PMID:23133127

  18. Acoustic Transmission Loss of Perforated Plates Vincent Phong1

    E-print Network

    Papamoschou, Dimitri

    Acoustic Transmission Loss of Perforated Plates Vincent Phong1 and Dimitri Papamoschou2 University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA A study has been conducted on the acoustic response of perforated plates through experimentation. The acoustic response was quantified through the transmission loss and absorption

  19. Optimal conditions for tissue perforation using high intensity focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Kihara, Taizo; Ogawa, Kouji; Tanabe, Ryoko; Yosizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro; Kakimoto, Takashi; Yamashita, Hiromasa; Chiba, Toshio

    2012-10-01

    To perforate tissue lying deep part in body, a large size transducer was assembled by combining four spherical-shaped transducers, and the optimal conditions for tissue perforation have studied using ventricle muscle of chicken as a target. The ex vivo experiments showed that ventricle muscle was successfully perforated both when it was exposed to High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) directly and when it was exposed to HIFU through atrial muscle layer. Moreover, it was shown that calculated acoustic power distributions are well similar to the perforation patterns, and that the acoustic energy distributes very complexly near the focus. Lastly, perforation on the living rabbit bladder wall was demonstrated as a preliminary in vivo experiment.

  20. Active Control of Liner Impedance by Varying Perforate Orifice Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuji, K. K.; Gaeta, R. J., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The present work explored the feasibility of controlling the acoustic impedance of a resonant type acoustic liner. This was accomplished by translating one perforate over another of the same porosity creating a totally new perforate that had an intermediate porosity. This type of adjustable perforate created a variable orifice perforate whose orifices were non-circular. The key objective of the present study was to quantify, the degree of attenuation control that can be achieved by applying such a concept to the buried septum in a two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) acoustic liner. An additional objective was to examine the adequacy of the existing impedance models to explain the behavior of the unique orifice shapes that result from the proposed silding perforate concept. Different orifice shapes with equivalent area were also examined to determine if highly non-circular orifices had a significant impact on the impedance.

  1. Massive duodenal variceal bleed; complication of extra hepatic portal hypertension: Endoscopic management and literature review.

    PubMed

    Steevens, Christopher; Abdalla, Maisa; Kothari, Truptesh H; Kaul, Vivek; Kothari, Shivangi

    2015-11-01

    Bleeding from duodenal varices is reported to be a catastrophic and often fatal event. Most of the cases in the literature involve patients with underlying cirrhosis. However, approximately one quarter of duodenal variceal bleeds is caused by extrahepatic portal hypertension and they represent a unique population given their lack of liver dysfunction. The authors present a case where a 61-year-old male with history of remote crush injury presented with bright red blood per rectum and was found to have bleeding from massive duodenal varices. Injection sclerotherapy with ethanolamine was performed and the patient experienced a favorable outcome with near resolution of his varices on endoscopic follow-up. The authors conclude that sclerotherapy is a reasonable first line therapy and review the literature surrounding the treatment of duodenal varices secondary to extrahepatic portal hypertension. PMID:26558159

  2. Acute pancreatitis as an adverse event in patients with the duodenal-jejunal bypass liner.

    PubMed

    Betzel, Bark; Homan, Jens; Aarts, Edo; Janssen, Ignace; Spanier, Marcel; Wahab, Peter; Groenen, Marcel; Berends, Frits

    2015-11-01

    Placement of the duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL) is a minimally invasive technique for the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Acute pancreatitis was seen in 5 of 167 patients (3?%) in our series. It is suggested that acute pancreatitis in patients with the DJBL results from either direct blockage or edema of the major duodenal papilla, which may be caused by the following: migration of the anchor of the DJBL, accumulation of food debris between the liner and the duodenal wall, or reflux of duodenal contents into the pancreatic duct due to intraluminal hypertension caused by the liner. Early removal of the DJBL resulted in fast and complete recovery, whereas delayed diagnosis and removal led to severe, necrotizing acute pancreatitis. PMID:26021308

  3. Intraluminal duodenal diverticula: collective review with report of a laparoscopic excision.

    PubMed

    Meinke, Alan Kurt; Meighan, Dennis M; Meinke, Mary E; Mirza, Nadia; Parris, Tchaiko M; Meinke, Richard K

    2013-02-01

    A comprehensive review of intraluminal duodenal diverticulum (IDD) is presented, along with a report of a completely laparoscopic excision of this duodenal abnormality as well as a report of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography demonstrating the classic fluoroscopic "wind sock sign" pathognomonic appearance of IDD. IDD may easily be missed unless one specifically considers this entity in patients presenting with symptoms of foregut disease. Patients with IDD typically present in the fourth decade of life with duration of symptoms less than 5 years that typically include pain, nausea and vomiting, pancreatitis, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Diagnosis usually requires imaging studies and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Laparoscopic excision is recommended because of superior visualization of significant intestinal anatomic abnormalities, the need for accurate ampullary localization, and the ability to facilitate complete diverticular excision while maintaining biliary and pancreatic ductal integrity. Review of surgical literature suggests that IDD results from congenital duodenal developmental abnormalities matured by long-term duodenal peristalsis. PMID:23256586

  4. Modeling data for pancreatitis in presence of a duodenal diverticula using logistic regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dineva, S.; Prodanova, K.; Mlachkova, D.

    2013-12-01

    The presence of a periampullary duodenal diverticulum (PDD) is often observed during upper digestive tract barium meal studies and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). A few papers reported that the diverticulum had something to do with the incidence of pancreatitis. The aim of this study is to investigate if the presence of duodenal diverticula predisposes to the development of a pancreatic disease. A total 3966 patients who had undergone ERCP were studied retrospectively. They were divided into 2 groups-with and without PDD. Patients with a duodenal diverticula had a higher rate of acute pancreatitis. The duodenal diverticula is a risk factor for acute idiopathic pancreatitis. A multiple logistic regression to obtain adjusted estimate of odds and to identify if a PDD is a predictor of acute or chronic pancreatitis was performed. The software package STATISTICA 10.0 was used for analyzing the real data.

  5. Massive duodenal variceal bleed; complication of extra hepatic portal hypertension: Endoscopic management and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Steevens, Christopher; Abdalla, Maisa; Kothari, Truptesh H; Kaul, Vivek; Kothari, Shivangi

    2015-01-01

    Bleeding from duodenal varices is reported to be a catastrophic and often fatal event. Most of the cases in the literature involve patients with underlying cirrhosis. However, approximately one quarter of duodenal variceal bleeds is caused by extrahepatic portal hypertension and they represent a unique population given their lack of liver dysfunction. The authors present a case where a 61-year-old male with history of remote crush injury presented with bright red blood per rectum and was found to have bleeding from massive duodenal varices. Injection sclerotherapy with ethanolamine was performed and the patient experienced a favorable outcome with near resolution of his varices on endoscopic follow-up. The authors conclude that sclerotherapy is a reasonable first line therapy and review the literature surrounding the treatment of duodenal varices secondary to extrahepatic portal hypertension. PMID:26558159

  6. Preoperative color Doppler assessment in planning of gluteal perforator flaps.

    PubMed

    Isken, Tonguc; Alagoz, M Sahin; Onyedi, Murat; Izmirli, Hakki; Isil, Eda; Yurtseven, Nagehan

    2009-02-01

    Gluteal artery perforator flaps have gained popularity due to reliability, preservation of the muscle, versatility in flap design without restricting other flap options, and low donor-site morbidity in ambulatory patients and possibility of enabling future reconstruction in paraplegic patients. But the inconstant anatomy of the vascular plexus around the gluteal muscle makes it hard to predict how many perforators are present, what their volume of blood flow and size are, where they exit the overlying fascia, and what their course through the muscle will be. Without any prior investigations, the reconstructive surgeon could be surprised intraoperatively by previous surgical damage, scar formation, or anatomic variants.For these reasons, to confirm the presence and the location of gluteal perforators preoperatively we have used color Doppler ultrasonography. With the help of the color Doppler ultrasonography 26 patients, 21 men and 5 women, were operated between the years 2002 and 2007. The mean age of patients was 47.7 (age range: 7-77 years). All perforator vessels were marked preoperatively around the defect locations. The perforator based flap that will allow primary closure of the donor site and the defect without tension was planned choosing the perforator that showed the largest flow in color Doppler ultrasonography proximally. Perforators were found in the sites identified with color Doppler ultrasonography in all other flaps. In our study, 94.4% flap viability was ensured in 36 perforator-based gluteal area flaps. Mean flap elevation time was 31.9 minutes. We found that locating the perforators preoperatively helps to shorten the operation time without compromising a reliable viability of the perforator flaps, thus enabling the surgeon easier treatment of pressure sores. PMID:19158526

  7. Septic Complication After Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of Duodenal Variceal Bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Akasaka, Thai; Shibata, Toshiya Isoda, Hiroyoshi; Taura, Kojiro; Arizono, Shigeki; Shimada, Kotaro; Togashi, Kaori

    2010-12-15

    We report a 64-year-old woman with duodenal varices who underwent balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) complicated by intraprocedural variceal rupture. The patient developed shivering and a fever higher than 40{sup o}C 3 days after the B-RTO procedure. A blood culture grew Entereobacter cloacoe. This case represents a rare septic complication of B-RTO for duodenal varices.

  8. Relation between gastric acid output, Helicobacter pylori, and gastric metaplasia in the duodenal bulb.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, A W; Gummett, P A; Walker, M M; Misiewicz, J J; Baron, J H

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Factors that determine gastric metaplasia in the duodenal bulb are ill defined. It is more common and extensive in the presence of high acid output and possibly in the presence of Helicobacter pylori. However, no quantitative relation between acid output and the extent of gastric metaplasia has been demonstrated and its relation to H pylori is uncertain. AIM: To determine the relation between H pylori infection and acid output and the presence and extent of gastric metaplasia in the duodenal bulb. subjects: H pylori positive and negative patients with duodenal ulcer and healthy controls were studied. METHODS: Quadrantic duodenal bulb biopsy specimens were taken and the presence and extent of gastric metaplasia determined using a computer enhanced image intensifier. Basal and stimulated acid outputs were measured. RESULTS: gastric metaplasia was significantly (p < 0.05 more common and significantly (p < 0.05) greater in extent in patients with duodenal ulcer than in controls. Neither the prevalence or extent of gastric metaplasia was affected by H pylori status. There were significant (p < 0.01) direct correlations between acid output and extent of gastric metaplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence and extent of gastric metaplasia are not related to H pylori in controls, or in patients with duodenal ulcer. Rather, high acid response to gastrin may be more important. Images Figure 1 PMID:8944558

  9. Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on the natural history of duodenal ulcer disease

    PubMed Central

    Goggin, N; Rowland, M; Imrie, C; Walsh, D; Clyne, M; Drumm, B

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Duodenal ulcer disease is strongly associated with Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric mucosa. Eradication of H pylori from the gastric mucosa in adults is associated with long term healing of ulcers.?AIMS—To follow a cohort of children with duodenal ulcer disease for a minimum of two years after the eradication of H pylori.?PATIENTS AND METHODS—Over a three year period, all children diagnosed with duodenal ulcer disease had their symptoms documented and their H pylori status evaluated. The histories of these children were carefully screened to determine previous symptoms and to document previous treatment regimens.?RESULTS—Sixteen children were diagnosed with ulcers and 15 were available for treatment and long term follow up. The median age at which symptoms first occurred was 10.5 years (range, 6-14) and the median duration of symptoms was 24 months (range, 2-60). Ten of the children had been treated with H2 receptor antagonists for a median of 3.5 months (range, 1-60). Duodenal ulcers healed in all children after eradication of H pylori and all children have remained asymptomatic for a median of 37 months (range, 26-62). No child has required subsequent admission to hospital.?CONCLUSION—Eradication of H pylori is very effective in the long term healing of duodenal ulcer disease. H pylori eradication should be the standard treatment for all infected children who present with duodenal ulcer disease.?? PMID:10210995

  10. Detection of Perforators Using Smartphone Thermal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Hardwicke, Joseph T; Osmani, Omer; Skillman, Joanna M

    2016-01-01

    Thermal imaging detects infrared radiation from an object, producing a thermogram that can be interpreted as a surrogate marker for cutaneous blood flow. To date, high-resolution cameras typically cost tens of thousands of dollars. The FLIR ONE is a smartphone-compatible miniature thermal imaging camera that currently retails at under $200. In a proof-of-concept study, patients and healthy volunteers were assessed with thermal imaging for (1) detecting and mapping perforators, (2) defining perforasomes, and (3) monitoring free flaps. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative thermograms can assist in the planning, execution, and monitoring of free flaps, and the FLIR ONE provides a low-cost adjunct that could be applied to other areas of burns and plastic surgery. PMID:26710006

  11. Viscous damping of perforated planar micromechanical structures

    PubMed Central

    Homentcovschi, D.; Miles, R.N.

    2008-01-01

    The paper gives an analytical approximation to the viscous damping coefficient due to the motion of a gas between a pair of closely spaced fluctuating plates in which one of the plates contains a regular system of circular holes. These types of structures are important parts of many microelectromechanical devices realized in MEMS technology as microphones, microaccelerometers, resonators, etc. The pressure satisfies a Reynolds’ type equation with coefficients accounting for all the important effects: compressibility of the gas, inertia and possibly slip of the gas on the plates. An analytical expression for the optimum number of circular holes which assure a minimum value of the total damping coefficient is given. This value realizes an equilibrium between the squeeze-film damping and the viscous resistance of the holes. The paper also provides analytical design formulas to be used in the case of regular circular perforated plates. PMID:19365579

  12. The Bloch Approximation in Periodically Perforated Media

    SciTech Connect

    Conca, C. Gomez, D. Lobo, M. Perez, E.

    2005-06-15

    We consider a periodically heterogeneous and perforated medium filling an open domain {omega} of R{sup N}. Assuming that the size of the periodicity of the structure and of the holes is O({epsilon}),we study the asymptotic behavior, as {epsilon} {sup {yields}} 0, of the solution of an elliptic boundary value problem with strongly oscillating coefficients posed in {omega}{sup {epsilon}}({omega}{sup {epsilon}} being {omega} minus the holes) with a Neumann condition on the boundary of the holes. We use Bloch wave decomposition to introduce an approximation of the solution in the energy norm which can be computed from the homogenized solution and the first Bloch eigenfunction. We first consider the case where {omega}is R{sup N} and then localize the problem for abounded domain {omega}, considering a homogeneous Dirichlet condition on the boundary of {omega}.

  13. Endovascular Perforation Murine Model of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Du, Guo Jia; Lu, Gang; Zheng, Zhi Yuan; Poon, Wai Sang; Wong, Kwok Chu George

    2016-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a subtype of stroke with disastrous outcomes of high disability and mortality. A variety of endeavors have been developed to explore a SAH animal model for investigation of the disease. Among these models, the endovascular perforation SAH model was considered to be the most simulative to the clinical human SAH because it reproduces several pathophysiology procedures and presents some of the most important post-hemorrhage features. An applicable SAH animal model should have the characteristics of low mortality rate, limited surgical manipulation, and adaptation to many species, which permits reproducibility and standardization. An intensive discussion of how to improve the techniques and refine the procedure has taken place in the last decade. This report describes our experiences with a murine model of SAH. We aim to standardize and optimize the procedures to establish a relatively stable animal model for SAH research. PMID:26463927

  14. Haemoperitoneum secondary to intrahepatic gallbladder perforation.

    PubMed

    Johnston, D B; Irwin, G W; Epanomeritakis, E

    2015-01-01

    A 70-year-old man presented to the accident and emergency department with a 1-day history of right upper quadrant pain and nausea. Examination revealed mild tenderness in the right upper quadrant but no evidence of peritonism or haemodynamic instability. The patient was admitted to the general surgical ward with a diagnosis of cholecystitis and remained stable overnight. In the morning, he developed acute severe pain in the upper abdomen. Examination found him to be tachycardic, tachypnoeic and to have peritonism in the upper abdomen. An urgent CT scan demonstrated cholecystitis but also a small amount of fluid in the pelvis, with Hounsfield units suggestive of blood. The patient proceeded to laparotomy and was found to have massive haemoperitoneum secondary to intrahepatic gallbladder perforation causing liver capsule tear. Cholecystectomy was performed and the liver packed until haemostasis was achieved. The patient made an uneventful recovery. PMID:26272960

  15. Esophageal perforation during or after conformal radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hai-yan; Ma, Xiu-mei; Ye, Ming; Hou, Yan-li; Xie, Hua-Ying; Bai, Yong-rui

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the risk factors and prognosis for patients with esophageal perforation occurring during or after radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma. We retrospectively analyzed 322 patients with esophageal carcinoma. These patients received radiotherapy for unresectable esophageal tumors, residual tumors after operation, or local recurrence. Of these, 12 had radiotherapy to the esophagus before being admitted, 68 patients had concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT), and 18 patients had esophageal perforation after RT (5.8%). Covered self-expandable metallic stents were placed in 11 patients. Two patients continued RT after stenting and control of infection; one of these suffered a new perforation, and the other had a massive hemorrhage. The median overall survival was 2 months (0–3 months) compared with 17 months in the non-perforation group. In univariate analysis, the Karnofsky performance status (KPS) being ?70, age younger than 60, T4 stage, a second course of radiotherapy to the esophagus, extracapsular lymph nodes (LN) involving the esophagus, a total dose >100 Gy (biologically effective dose?10), and CRT were risk factors for perforation. In multivariate analysis, age younger than 60, extracapsular LN involving the esophagus, T4 stage, and a second course of radiotherapy to the esophagus were risk factors. In conclusion, patients with T4 stage, extracapsular LN involving the esophagus, and those receiving a second course of RT should be given particular care to avoid perforation. The prognosis after perforation was poor. PMID:24914102

  16. Epidemiology of perforated peptic ulcer: Age- and gender-adjusted analysis of incidence and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Thorsen, Kenneth; Søreide, Jon Arne; Kvaløy, Jan Terje; Glomsaker, Tom; Søreide, Kjetil

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the epidemiological trends in incidence and mortality of perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) in a well-defined Norwegian population. METHODS: A retrospective, population-based, single-center, consecutive cohort study of all patients diagnosed with benign perforated peptic ulcer. Included were both gastric and duodenal ulcer patients admitted to Stavanger University Hospital between January 2001 and December 2010. Ulcers with a malignant neoplasia diagnosis, verified by histology after biopsy or resection, were excluded. Patients were identified from the hospitals administrative electronic database using pertinent ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes (K25.1, K25.2, K25.5, K25.6, K26.1, K26.2, K26.5, K26.6). Additional searches using appropriate codes for relevant laparoscopic and open surgical procedures (e.g., JDA 60, JDA 61, JDH 70 and JDH 71) were performed to enable a complete identification of all patients. Patient demographics, presentation patterns and clinical data were retrieved from hospital records and surgical notes. Crude and adjusted incidence and mortality rates were estimated by using national population demographics data. RESULTS: In the study period, a total of 172 patients with PPU were identified. The adjusted incidence rate for the overall 10-year period was 6.5 per 100?000 per year (95%CI: 5.6-7.6) and the adjusted mortality rate for the overall 10-year period was 1.1 per 100?000 per year (95%CI: 0.7-1.6). A non-significant decline in adjusted incidence rate from 9.7 to 5.6 occurred during the decade. The standardized mortality ratio for the whole study period was 5.7 (95%CI: 3.9-8.2), while the total 30-d mortality was 16.3%. No difference in incidence or mortality was found between genders. However, for patients ? 60 years, the incidence increased over 10-fold, and mortality more than 50-fold, compared to younger ages. The admission rates outside office hours were high with almost two out of three (63%) admissions seen at evening/night time shifts and/or during weekends. The observed seasonal variations in admissions were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: The adjusted incidence rate, seasonal distribution and mortality rate was stable. PPU frequently presents outside regular work-hours. Increase in incidence and mortality occurs with older age. PMID:23372356

  17. Integration of Perforated Subretinal Prostheses With Retinal Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Adekunle, Adewumi N.; Adkins, Alice; Wang, Wei; Kaplan, Henry J.; de Castro, Juan Fernandez; Lee, Sang Joon; Huie, Philip; Palanker, Daniel; McCall, Maureen; Pardue, Machelle T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the integration of subretinal implants containing full-depth perforations of various widths with rat and pig retina across weeks of implantation. Methods In transgenic P23H rhodopsin line 1 (TgP23H-1) rats and wild-type (WT) pigs, we examined four subretinal implant designs: solid inactive polymer arrays (IPA), IPAs with 5- or 10-?m wide perforations, and active bipolar photovoltaic arrays (bPVA) with 5-?m perforations. We surgically placed the implants into the subretinal space using an external approach in rats or a vitreoretinal approach in pigs. Implant placement in the subretinal space was verified with optical coherence tomography and retinal perfusion was characterized with fluorescein angiography. Rats were sacrificed 8 or 16 weeks post-implantation (wpi) and pigs 2, 4, or 8 wpi, and retinas evaluated at the light microscopic level. Results Regardless of implant design, retinas of both species showed normal vasculature. In TgP23H-1 retinas implanted with 10-?m perforated IPAs, inner nuclear layer (INL) cells migrated through the perforations by 8 wpi, resulting in significant INL thinning by 16 wpi. Additionally, these retinas showed greater pseudo-rosette formation and fibrosis compared with retinas with solid or 5-?m perforated IPAs. TgP23H-1 retinas with bPVAs showed similar INL migration to retinas with 5-?m perforated IPAs, with less fibrosis and rosette formation. WT pig retina with perforated IPAs maintained photoreceptors, showed no migration, and less pseudo-rosette formation, but more fibrosis compared with implanted TgP23H-1 rat retinas. Conclusions In retinas with photoreceptor degeneration, solid implants, or those with 5-?m perforations lead to the best biocompatibility. PMID:26290776

  18. Iatrogenic staphylococcus aureus septicaemia following intravenous and intramuscular injections: clinical course and pathomorphological findings.

    PubMed

    Tsokos, M; Püschel, K

    1999-01-01

    The clinical course, autopsy and histological findings are presented from three (one 33-year-old female and two males aged 26 and 56) fatalities resulting from injection therapy which has produced Staphylococcus aureus septicaemia. The autopsies were performed within 2-4 days postmortem. No primary focus other than the insertion site of the peripheral venous catheters or the intramuscular injections, representing the initial entry site of Staphylococcus aureus, could be identified. Death was attributed directly to the staphylococcal infection as a result of iatrogenic injection therapy for the treatment of a non-severe underlying illness (premature labour pains, acute loss of hearing, lumbago). The forensic diagnosis of Staphylococcus aureus septicaemia following iatrogenic injections has to be critically evaluated and can be established routinely in cases with delayed autopsy only when no other cause of death is revealed by autopsy, no apparent source of infection other than the insertion site can be detected and careful attention is paid to histological and bacteriological findings. All doubtful cases of nosocomial bloodstream infections with fatal outcome should undergo an immediate autopsy. In cases of very early forensic involvement microbiological investigations, including phagotyping, molecular biological characterization and identification of bacterial toxins from micro-organisms out of appropriate specimens obtained postmortem, could be efforts of potential evidential value regarding the aetiological proof. To optimize aetiopathogenetic conclusions concerning a causal relationship between iatrogenic injections and septic complications, the medicolegal investigation should also include an interdisciplinary co-operation with consultants from other relevant fields (e.g. microbiology and hygienics). PMID:10460421

  19. Percutaneous Treatment of Iatrogenic Pseudoaneurysms by Cyanoacrylate-Based Wall-Gluing

    SciTech Connect

    Del Corso, Andrea; Vergaro, Giuseppe

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. Although the majority of iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms (PSAs) are amenable to ultrasound (US)-guided thrombin injection, patients with those causing neuropathy, claudication, significant venous compression, or soft tissue necrosis are considered poor candidates for this option and referred to surgery. We aimed to test the effectiveness and feasibility of a novel percutaneous cyanoacrylate glue (NBCA-MS)-based technique for treatment of symptomatic and asymptomatic iatrogenic PSA. Material and Methods. During a 3-year period, we prospectively enrolled 91 patients with iatrogenic PSA [total n = 94 (femoral n = 76; brachial n = 11; radial n = 6; axillary n = 1)]. PSA were asymptomatic in 66 % of cases, and 34 % presented with symptoms due to neuropathy, venous compression, and/or soft tissue necrosis. All patients signed informed consent. All patients received NBCA-MS-based percutaneous treatment. PSA chamber emptying was first obtained by US-guided compression; superior and inferior walls of the PSA chamber were then stuck together using NBCA-MS microinjections. Successfulness of the procedure was assessed immediately and at 1-day and 1-, 3-, and 12-month US follow-up. Results. PSA occlusion rate was 99 % (93 of 94 cases). After treatment, mean PSA antero-posterior diameter decrease was 67 {+-} 22 %. Neuropathy and vein compression immediately disappeared in 91 % (29 of 32) of cases. Patients with tissue necrosis (n = 6) underwent subsequent outpatient necrosectomy. No distal embolization occurred, nor was conversion to surgery necessary. Conclusion. PSA treatment by way of NBCA-MS glue injection proved to be safe and effective in asymptomatic patients as well as those with neuropathy, venous compression, or soft-tissue necrosis (currently candidates for surgery). Larger series are needed to confirm these findings.

  20. A case of perforating folliculitis in association with antisynthetase syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shaw, K C; Kaley, J R; Darling, M D; Patterson, J W; Chokoeva, A A; Lotti, T; Wollina, U; Tchernev, G

    2015-01-01

    Perforating folliculitis (PF) describes the process by which altered dermal material is eliminated from the epidermis through a follicular unit resulting in keratotic, follicular papules that favor hair-bearing regions of the forearms, arms, buttocks, and thighs. Diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic renal failure (CRF) are commonly associated with PF. The more general term, acquired perforating dermatosis, has been applied to PF as well as Kyrle?s disease and the non-inherited form of perforating collagenosis. In this report, we describe an instance of PF that arose in the setting of preexisting antisynthetase syndrome. PMID:26016976

  1. Perforation of a Long-standing Ileocolonic Anastomosis During Colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Benjamin; McCue, Peter; Baliff, Jeffrey; Kastenberg, David

    2015-01-01

    Colonoscopy is a valuable diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Colonic perforation is a serious complication of colonoscopy that must be promptly recognized to limit morbidity and mortality. We present a 69-year-old woman who, during colonoscopy, had a perforation secondary to barotrauma of a long-standing ileocolonic anastomosis proximal to the point of colonoscopic intubation. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a perforation of a well-established anastomosis proximal to the point of endoscope intubation during colonoscopy. PMID:26203445

  2. Perforation of a Long-standing Ileocolonic Anastomosis During Colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Tofani, Christina J; Phillips, Benjamin; McCue, Peter; Baliff, Jeffrey; Kastenberg, David

    2015-07-01

    Colonoscopy is a valuable diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Colonic perforation is a serious complication of colonoscopy that must be promptly recognized to limit morbidity and mortality. We present a 69-year-old woman who, during colonoscopy, had a perforation secondary to barotrauma of a long-standing ileocolonic anastomosis proximal to the point of colonoscopic intubation. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a perforation of a well-established anastomosis proximal to the point of endoscope intubation during colonoscopy. PMID:26203445

  3. Acute appendicitis in the elderly: risk factors for perforation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency and becomes serious when it perforates. Perforation is more frequent in the elderly patients. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors of perforation in elderly patients who presented with acute appendicitis. Methodology The medical records of 214 patients over the age of 60 years who had a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of acute appendicitis over a period of 10 years (2003-2013) were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were grouped into those with perforated and those with nonperforated appendicitis. Comparison was made between both groups in regard to demography, clinical presentation, and time delay to surgery, diagnosis, hospital stay and postoperative complications. Clinical assessment, Ultrasonography and Computerized tomography, in that order, were used for diagnosis. The incidence of perforation was also compared with a previous report from the same region 10 years earlier. Results During the study period, a total of 214 patients over the age of 60 years had acute appendicitis, 103 males and 111 females. Appendix was found perforated in 87 (41%) patients, 46 (53%) males and 41 (47%) females. Of all patients, 31% were diagnosed by clinical assessment alone, 40% needed US and 29% CT scan. Of all the risk factors studied, the patient’s pre-hospital time delay was the most important risk factor for perforation. Perforation rate was not dependent on the presence of comorbid diseases or in-hospital time delay. Post operative complications occurred in 44 (21%) patients and they were three times more common in the perforated group, 33 (75%) patients in the perforated and 11 (25%) in the nonperforated group. There were 6 deaths (3%), 4 in the perforated and 2 in the nonperforated group. Conclusion Acute appendicitis in elderly patients is a serious disease that requires early diagnosis and treatment. Appendiceal Perforation increases both mortality and morbidity. All elderly patients presented to the hospital with abdominal pain should be admitted and investigated. The early use of CT scan can cut short the way to the appropriate treatment. PMID:24428909

  4. Iatrogenic magnesium toxicity following intravenous infusion of magnesium sulfate: risks and strategies for prevention.

    PubMed

    Cavell, Gillian F; Bryant, Catherine; Jheeta, Seetal

    2015-01-01

    A 65-year-old man being treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy for recurrent colonic adenocarcinoma was admitted for management of hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia secondary to diarrhoea. He was treated with intravenous infusions of potassium chloride and magnesium sulfate. Following an infusion of magnesium sulfate, he experienced a sudden neurological deterioration. A CT of the head revealed no haemorrhage or evidence of acute ischaemic injury. Results of serum biochemistry later that day revealed an elevated magnesium level. Iatrogenic magnesium toxicity was suspected. Further discussions between the pharmacist and ward staff confirmed that a medication error had been made in the preparation of the infusion resulting in an overdose of intravenous magnesium. PMID:26231187

  5. A Case of Iatrogenic Chordal Rupture after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Procedure Requiring a Second Valve.

    PubMed

    Cincin, Altug; Tigen, Kursat; Sari, Ibrahim; Sunbul, Murat; Kartal, Fatih; Basaran, Yelda

    2015-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has emerged as a therapeutic option for high-risk aortic stenosis. Malposition of the prosthesis and severe residual aortic regurgitation are known complications of the procedure, which might require a second valve implantation. Although the implantation of a second valve seems to be an effective method, very few data are available describing this technique. Herein is reported a case of iatrogenic chordal rupture in a TAVI procedure which required a second valve implantation due to dislodgment of the first prosthesis. PMID:26182632

  6. Emotion profile and behaviour pattern of patients with active duodenal ulcer compared with acute coronary patients.

    PubMed

    Catipovi?-Veselica, K; Mi?unovi?, N; Ilakovac, V; Catipovi?, B; Muji?, N; Lauc, A

    1993-01-01

    The authors examined personality profiles and type A/B behaviour in 100 patients with active duodenal ulcer, and a mean age of 39 years, using the Bortner scale and the Plutchnik Emotional Profile Index (EPI). The authors compared them with acute coronary patients and healthy controls. The mean EPI percentages for the duodenal ulcer patients, compared with acute coronary patients and healthy controls, display the trustful dimension (84.1 +/- 27.4--69.1 +/- 20.4--69.3 +/- 20.0), the aggressive dimension (56.7 +/- 9.3--41.3 +/- 19.2--37.6 +/- 17.3), the depressed dimension (84.5 +/- 12.3--52.8 +/- 19.1--51.4 +/- 23.1) and the dyscontrol dimension (73.5 +/- 32.2--48.4 +/- 27.7--50.2 +/- 17.5) to be significantly higher (P < 0.005). The mean percent scores of the gregarious dimension (44.2 +/- 13.2--72.7 +/- 22.7--68.0 +/- 22.0), control dimension (25.2 +/- 91.--39.1 +/- 31.9--44.3 +/- 15.5) and timid dimension (26.2 23.3--56.0 +/- 19.9--59.8 +/- 29.5), are significantly lower in duodenal ulcer patients than in acute coronary patients and controls (P < 0.005). Behaviour type A was found in 95 (95%) duodenal ulcer patients, in 76 (73.7%) acute coronary patients and in 58 (68%) healthy controls (P < 0.001). The Bortner scale was significantly higher in duodenal ulcer patients than in coronary and control subjects (P < 0.005). The EPI of duodenal ulcer patients in comparison to acute coronary patients and healthy controls, are sadder, more impulsive, do more risky things and are more disorganized and dependent. Type A behaviour was more often in duodenal ulcer patients than in the coronary and control groups. PMID:7505135

  7. Impact of familial amyloid associated polyneuropathy on duodenal endocrine cells.

    PubMed Central

    el-Salhy, M; Suhr, O; Stenling, R; Wilander, E; Grimelius, L

    1994-01-01

    Duodenal endocrine cells in 11 patients with familial amyloid associated polyneuropathy (FAP) were compared with those in 12 healthy volunteers by means of immunohistochemistry and morphometry. The total endocrine cell content, determined by the argyrophilic reaction and chromogranin A immunoreactivity, was significantly reduced in FAP patients compared with controls. There was a significant reduction in the serotonin, cholecystokinin/gastrin, and secretin immunoreactive cell content. A decreased cell content was also noted for somatostatin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide immunoreactive cells but this was not statistically significant. Amyloid deposits were noted in seven of the 11 biopsy specimens from FAP patients, but otherwise the duodenum was histologically normal in both groups. The reduction in endocrine cell content was not correlated with the degree of amyloid deposit in the duodenum. These findings indicate that patients with FAP have reduced intestinal endocrine cells. This does not seem to be related to amyloid deposits in the mucosa or to villous or crypt abnormalities. The observed changes in endocrine cells may contribute to the development of intestinal motility dysfunction and maldigestion in these patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7959197

  8. Juxtapapillary duodenal diverticula risk development and recurrence of biliary stone.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kang Suk; Kim, Seong Hun; Kim, Hyun Chul; Kim, In Hee; Lee, Seung-Ok

    2012-07-01

    We assessed whether the presence of juxtapapillary duodenal diverticula (JPDD) risks biliary stone disease and recurrence. In total, 695 patients who underwent ERCP were divided into two groups: biliary stone disease (group I, n = 523) and non-stone biliary diseases (group II, n = 172). Additionally, for a control group (group III), 80 age-matched healthy subjects underwent side-view duodenoscopy. In group I, rates of post-ERCP pancreatitis, cannulation failure, and disease recurrence in two-year follow up were compared according to the presence of JPDD. In results, the incidence of JPDD in group I (42.4%) was significantly higher than in group II (16.3%) and III (18.8%). The frequencies of JPDD were increased with age in all groups, and reached statistical significance in group I. In group I, rates of post-ERCP pancreatitis were significantly higher in patients with JPDD (18.5%) compared to JPDD negative (12.6%). The cannulation failure rate was also higher in patients with JPDD (9.9%) compared to JPDD negative (5.3%). Recurrence rate was higher in patients with JPDD (25.3%) compared to JPDD negative (9.2%). In conclusion, JPDD develops with aging and risks biliary stone formation. JPDD also seems to be associated with post-ERCP pancreatitis, cannulation failure and biliary stone recurrence. PMID:22787373

  9. Protective Factors of the Gastric and Duodenal Mucosa: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Yandrapu, Harathi; Sarosiek, Jerzy

    2015-06-01

    The structural and functional integrity of the gastric and duodenal mucosa represents equilibrium between aggressive factors and protective mechanisms. Mucus-buffers-phospholipid layer as pre-epithelial barrier, enhanced by prostaglandins and epidermal growth factor, remains a vanguard of mucosal protection. It maintains a neutral pH at the surface epithelial luminal interface, facing luminal pH dropping to 1.0, i.e., hydrogen ion concentration gradient equal 1,000,000. The surface epithelial cells, elaborating mucins, buffers, phospholipids, prostaglandins, trefoil peptides, peptide growth factor and their receptors, heat shock proteins, cathelicidins, and ?-defensins form the second line of defense. Endothelium exerts mucosal protection through production of potent vasodilators like nitric oxide and prostacyclins and through release of angiogenic growth factors, securing adequate blood flow and representing the third and an ultimate line of mucosal protection. This microcirculation is instrumental for supply of oxygen, nitric oxide, hydrogen sulfide and removal of ad hoc generated toxic substances as well as for continuous mucosal cell renewal from progenitor cells, secured by growth factors accompanied by survivin preventing early apoptosis. PMID:26109006

  10. Efficiency of perforated breakwater and associated energy dissipation 

    E-print Network

    Ariyarathne, Hanchapola Appuhamilage

    2008-10-10

    The flow field behavior in the vicinity of a perforated breakwater and the efficiency of the breakwater under regular waves were studied. To examine the efficiency of the structure thirteen types of regular wave conditions ...

  11. A novel technique to close large perforation of sinus membrane

    PubMed Central

    CLEMENTINI, M.; OTTRIA, L.; PANDOLFI, C.; BOLLERO, P.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Maxillary sinus floor elevation is generally accepted as a regenerative procedure to facilitate dental implants placement in the posterior atrophic maxilla. Although the sinus lift procedure is relatively safe, some potential problems could be occur. The most prevalent intraoperative complication is perforation of sinus membrane, which can lead to graft infection and early failure. The Aim of this work Is to present a new technique to repair large perforation of sinus membrane. This case report Is focused on a 10 mm perforation of sinus membrane occurred during preparation of the sinus window. The obliteration of the perforation was obtained by means of suturing sinus membrane with a resorbable material to the bone directly lateral to the osteotomy site. Sinus augmentation procedure could complete and the insertion of a graft was permitted. PMID:23991280

  12. [Abrasion perforation of two intra-aortic balloons].

    PubMed

    Sakai, M; Nishiwaki, N; Kawano, Y

    1990-10-01

    We report two patients whose intra-aortic balloons exhibited delayed perforation caused by prolonged contact of the balloon against calcific atheromatous plaque. Perforation was diagnosed by the presence of blood in the tube connecting the balloon. Leak detection systems were useless to diagnose this complication. We believe that the balloon immediately should be removed at the presence of blood in the tube. PMID:2250434

  13. Amyand's Hernia with Perforated Appendix in a Neonate.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Asif; Liaqat, Naeem; Nayyar, Sajid Iqbal; Faryal, Rehman; Shafique, Shanze

    2014-09-01

    When vermiform appendix is found in the inguinal hernial sac, the condition is called Amyand's hernia (AH). Appendix in hernial sac can be normal, inflamed or perforated. It can present as complicated hernia or acute scrotum. We present a case of Amyand's hernia in a 25-day-old male who presented with an obstructed hernia having perforated appendix in the hernial sac. PMID:25374801

  14. Amyand’s Hernia with Perforated Appendix in a Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Asif; Nayyar, Sajid Iqbal; Faryal, Rehman; Shafique, Shanze

    2014-01-01

    When vermiform appendix is found in the inguinal hernial sac, the condition is called Amyand’s hernia (AH). Appendix in hernial sac can be normal, inflamed or perforated. It can present as complicated hernia or acute scrotum. We present a case of Amyand’s hernia in a 25-day-old male who presented with an obstructed hernia having perforated appendix in the hernial sac. PMID:25374801

  15. Perforated-Layer Implementation Of Radio-Frequency Lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolgin, Benjamin P.

    1996-01-01

    Luneberg-type radio-frequency dielectric lenses made of stacked perforated circular dielectric sheets, according to proposal. Perforation pattern designed to achieve required spatial variation of permittivity. Consists of round holes distributed across face of each sheet in "Swiss-cheese" pattern, plus straight or curved slots that break up outer parts into petals in "daisy-wheel" pattern. Holes and slots made by numerically controlled machining.

  16. Clinicopathological Analysis of Factors Related to Colorectal Tumor Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Arana, Vicente; Martínez-Riera, Antonio; Delgado-Plasencia, Luciano; Rodríguez-González, Diana; Bravo-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Álvarez-Argüelles, Hugo; Alarcó-Hernández, Antonio; Salido-Ruiz, Eduardo; Fernández-Peralta, Antonia M.; González-Aguilera, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Colorectal tumor perforation is a life-threatening complication of this disease. However, little is known about the anatomopathological factors or pathophysiologic mechanisms involved. Pathological and immunohistochemical analysis of factors related with tumoral neo-angiogenesis, which could influence tumor perforation are assessed in this study. A retrospective study of patients with perforated colon tumors (Group P) and T4a nonperforated (controls) was conducted between 2001 and 2010. Histological variables (differentiation, vascular invasion, and location) and immunohistochemical (CD31, Growth Endothelial Vascular Factor (VEGF) and p53) related with tumor angiogenesis were analyzed. Of 2189 patients, 100 (4.56%) met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 49 patients had nonperforated (2.23%) and 51 had perforated tumors (2.32%). The P group had lower number of right-sided tumors (7/51, 13.7%) compared with controls (13/49, 36.7%) (P?=?.01). The high-grade tumors (undifferentiated) represented only 3.9% of the perforated tumors; the remaining 96.1% were well differentiated (P?=?.01). No differences between groups in the frequency of TP53 mutation or VEGF and CD31 expression were found. In the P group, only 2 (3.9%) had vascular invasion (P?=?.01). Of the 12 tumors with vascular invasion, only 2 were perforated (16.6%). The median number of metastatic lymph-nodes in P Group was 0 versus 3 in controls (Z?=??4.2; P?perforation, location, and tumor differentiation. We could not directly validate our hypothesis, by immunohistochemistry of TP53, VEGF, and CD31, that perforated tumors exhibit less angiogenesis. PMID:25881846

  17. Subcutaneous ureteral bypass device for treatment of iatrogenic ureteral ligation in a kitten.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Caitlin M; Culp, William T N; Palm, Carrie A; Zacuto, Alyse C

    2015-10-15

    Case Description-A 17-week-old spayed female Sphinx was evaluated after a 3-day history of inappetence, lethargy, and vomiting. Three weeks prior, the kitten had undergone routine elective ovariohysterectomy. Clinical Findings-Abdominal ultrasonography revealed moderate hydronephrosis of the left kidney, and the left ureter was tortuous and dilated from the kidney to the level of the midureter, where it abruptly tapered. No discrete cause of obstruction could be identified. Clinicopathologic analyses revealed that the kitten was nonazotemic. Treatment and Outcome-Exploratory laparotomy revealed that the distal portion of the left ureter was irregular with ill-defined margins and abundant scar tissue, likely secondary to iatrogenic ureteral ligation during the ovariohysterectomy (suture was not observed). Intraoperative antegrade pyelography confirmed complete left ureteral obstruction extending distally from the level of the midureter. A subcutaneous ureteral bypass device was placed to allow for renal decompression. No complications were encountered in the perioperative period, and the kitten recovered well after anesthesia. The kitten was discharged from the hospital 7 days after initial evaluation and continued to do well after surgery. At long-term follow-up, abdominal ultrasonography confirmed resolution of hydronephrosis and ureteral dilation. Clinical Relevance-A subcutaneous ureteral bypass device successfully allowed renal decompression in a kitten with iatrogenic ureteral ligation. A subcutaneous ureteral bypass device may be an alternative to historical surgical options in cases of unilateral ureteral obstruction and may result in a good long-term outcome. PMID:26421405

  18. Iatrogenic Bleb Formation and Hypotony Maculopathy Following Pterygium Surgery with Mitomycin-C

    PubMed Central

    Shokouhi-Rad, Saeed; Alizadeh, Reza; Daneshvar, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To report a case of late iatrogenic bleb formation and hypotony maculopathy after pterygium surgery applying Mitomycin C (MMC). Case Report: A 66-year-old man presented with an elevated, bleb-like, fluid-filled, cystic lesion on the nasal sclera of the right eye. The patient had undergone pterygium surgery with a combination of conjunctival autograft and adjuvant intraoperative MMC 0.02% four years before. The sclera seemed fistulized at the site of surgery and a thin layer of conjunctiva completely covered the lesion. A scleral patch graft was secured over the fistula with sutures, followed by excision of the thinned, avascular conjunctiva and advancement of the healthy adjacent conjunctiva to cover the patch graft. One month later, a small bleb re-appeared adjacent to the scleral patch graft and IOP was 2 mmHg. Argon-laser treatment of the bleb was tried to induce scarring and reduction of bleb size, and was highly effective. After one week, IOP was increased to 8 mmHg. The clinical features remained stable four months after initial presentation. Conclusion: Pterygium surgery using adjuvant MMC may result in late iatrogenic bleb formation and hypotony maculopathy. This complication can be successfully corrected surgically using a scleral patch graft combined with argon laser treatment over the inadvertent bleb.

  19. Ondine's Curse - Genetic and Iatrogenic Central Hypoventilation as Diagnostic Options in Forensic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Sus?o, Robert; Trnka, Jakub; Siewiera, Jacek; Drobnik, Jaros?aw

    2015-01-01

    In the Nordic mythology a man lost his ability to breathe without remembering it after he was cursed by water nymph - referred to as 'Ondine's curse' - and then he died as soon as he fell asleep. Family medicine specialists are familiar with many sleeping disorders that their patients commonly call by the term Ondine's Curse. In medical sciences this term is historically related to the group of conditions that have as the common denominator seemingly spontaneous onset of life-threatening hypoventilation. The physiology and genetics specialists focus mainly on congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), which was proven to be linked to several genetic mutations. Anesthesiologists tend to be more interested in similarly manifesting iatrogenic condition. Typically, patients that were previously subjected to general anesthesia, after temporarily waking up and regaining the spontaneous respiratory drive, later fall back into unconsciousness and develop hypoventilation. Anesthesiologists also call it Ondine's curse because of the sudden and unexpected sleep onset. The iatrogenic Ondine's curse is proven to be precipitated by delayed anesthetics release from patients' fat tissue - where it was deposited at the time general anesthesia was administered - back into bloodstream. Forensic medicine has to consider the latter form of Ondine's curse called scenario more often, as they investigate sudden deaths related to surgery and general anesthesia in the post-operational care period. These cases may also fall into the category of medical malpractice-related deaths. PMID:26022898

  20. Delayed Diagnosis of Pharyngeal Perforation following Exploding Tyre Blast Barotrauma.

    PubMed

    Field, Samantha M; Manjaly, Joseph G; Ramdoo, S Krishan; Jones, Huw A S; Tatla, Taran S

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Pharyngoesophageal perforation secondary to barotrauma is a rare phenomenon that can have serious complications if identified late. It is challenging to detect due to nonspecific symptoms. We present a case in which detection proved difficult leading to delayed diagnosis. Case Report. A 27-year-old mechanic presented with haemoptysis, dysphonia, and odynophagia after a car tyre exploded in his face. Flexible nasoendoscopy (FNE) revealed blood in the pharynx, thought to represent mucosal haemorrhage. Initial treatment consisted of IV dexamethasone and antibiotics. After 3 days, odynophagia persisted prompting a CT scan. This revealed a defect in the posterior hypopharynx and surgical emphysema in the deep neck tissues. Contrast swallow confirmed posterior hypopharyngeal leak. NG feeding was commenced until repeated contrast swallow confirmed resolution of the defect. Discussion. Prompt nonsurgical management of pharyngoesophageal perforation has good outcomes but untreated perforation can have serious complications. FNE should be performed routinely, but only a contrast swallow can diagnose a functional perforation. Clinicians should have a high index of clinical suspicion when patients present with barotrauma and odynophagia. Patients should be kept nil by mouth until perforation has been excluded. Conclusion. When faced with cases of facial barotrauma, clinicians should have a low threshold for further imaging to exclude pharyngoesophageal perforation. PMID:25525540

  1. Famotidine in the treatment of duodenal ulcers resistant to other histamine H2-receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Chen, P H; Wang, T H; Wang, C Y; Chen, C Y; Cheng, T C; Tsai, Y T; Siauw, C P; Yang, K C; Chen, G H; Sung, J L

    1989-01-01

    In 20% of patients with duodenal ulcers, treatment is ineffective. Ulcers are considered resistant when they fail to heal following 8-12 weeks of treatment with full dose duodenal ulcer therapy. The present study reviewed the records and endoscopic findings of 73 patients who were considered by their physicians to have resistant duodenal ulcers. From this population, 15 patients with documented, active duodenal ulcers were chosen to participate in this study. Each had failed treatment with cimetidine or ranitidine at recommended doses administered for from 56 days to more than 2 years. After up to 6 weeks' treatment with 20 mg famotidine given twice daily, eight patients showed endoscopic evidence of healing (S1 or S2) based on the criteria established by the Japanese Society of Digestive Endoscopy. Five others showed moderate to marked improvement H1-H3). No patient experienced side-effects during famotidine treatment. The greater antisecretory effect of famotidine may be useful in treating duodenal ulcer patients who fail to heal with cimetidine or ranitidine. PMID:2566541

  2. Characterization of dopamine receptor subtypes involved in experimentally induced gastric and duodenal ulcers in rats.

    PubMed

    Desai, J K; Goyal, R K; Parmar, N S

    1999-02-01

    There are conflicting reports about the role of dopamine in gastric and duodenal ulcers. This investigation was undertaken to characterize the specific subtypes of dopamine receptor involved in gastric and duodenal ulceration. Administration of dopamine D1 agonist fenoldopam and dopamine D2 antagonist sulpiride elicited a significant decrease in acid secretion, total acid output, pepsin output and histamine content in the gastric juice, and reduced ulcer-index values, in pylorus-ligated rats. However, dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH 39166 ((-)-trans-6,7,7a,8,9,13b-hexahydro-3-chloro-2-hydroxy-N-methyl-5H -benzo (d) naptho -(2,1-b) azepine) and the D2 receptor agonist quinpirole led to significant augmentation of these parameters compared with respective controls. In the restraint plus water-immersion stress model the score for intraluminal bleeding and the cumulative gastric lesion length was significantly lower for rats treated with fenoldopam and sulpiride. The opposite effects were observed after pretreatment of rats with SCH 39166 and quinpirole. In the cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer model the mean ulcer area and the score for intensity were significantly lower for fenoldopam and sulpiride and higher for SCH 39166 and quinpirole. Our data suggest that the dopamine D1 and D2 receptors have opposite effects on gastric and duodenal ulcers. Whereas stimulation of dopamine D1 receptors inhibits the formation of gastric and duodenal ulcers, stimulation of dopamine D2 receptors has a pro-ulcerogenic effect. PMID:10217318

  3. A hypervelocity projectile launcher for well perforation

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, J.N.; Fugelso, L.E.; Lagner, G.C.; Burns, K.L.

    1989-01-01

    Current oil well perforation techniques use low- to medium-velocity gun launchers for completing wells in soft rock. Shaped-charge jets are normally used in harder, more competent rock. A device to create a much higher velocity projectile was designed. This launcher will provide an alternative technique to be used when the conventional devices do not yield the maximum well performance. It is an adaptation of the axial cavity in a high explosive (HE) annulus design, with the axial cavity being filled with a low density foam material. Two configurations were tested; both had an HE annulus filled with organic foam, one had a projectile. Comparison of the two shots was made. A time sequence of Image Intensifier Camera photographs and sequential, orthogonal flash x-ray radiographs provided information on the propagation of the foam fragments, the first shock wave disturbance, the projectile motion and deformation, and the direct shock wave transmission from the main HE charge. DYNA2D calculations were made to assist in the experimental interpretation. 25 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Double-blind randomised clinical trial of a pepsin-inhibitory pentapeptide (pepstatin) in the treatment of duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnevie, O; Svendsen, L B; Holst-Christensen, J; Johansen, T S; Søltoft, J; Christiansen, P M

    1979-01-01

    In a double-blind randomised clinical trial a specific inhibition of peptic activity with a pentapeptide, pepstatin, had no significant advantage over placebo in the ulcer healing and symptomatology of duodenal ulcer. Thus, the inhibition of pepsin in human gastric juice does not appear to have a major influence on the healing of duodenal ulcer. PMID:385457

  5. S-1 treatment leading to complete remission of advanced duodenal adenocarcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    WANG, LIJUN; SONG, QUANMAO; LI, JINPENG; CHEN, XIAOHUA

    2015-01-01

    Primary duodenal adenocarcinoma (DA) is a rare malignant neoplasm, accounting for 1% of all gastrointestinal tract carcinomas. This is the case report of a 40-year-old male patient with a duodenal lesion detected on abdominal magnetic resonance imaging and diagnosed by endoscopy and biopsy as DA. Following surgical resection and histopathological examination, the tumor was confirmed as differentiated duodenal neuroendocrine carcinoma with liver metastasis (TxNxM1). The patient received 8 cycles of palliative chemotherapy with oxaliplatin and S-1 and achieved a clinically complete response, with a treatment-related toxicity profile that was considered as tolerable. Therefore, this regimen exhibited favorable efficacy and a tolerable toxicity profile for the treatment of DA in this case.

  6. Predicting chemically induced duodenal ulcer and adrenal necrosis with classification trees.

    PubMed Central

    Giampaolo, C; Gray, A T; Olshen, R A; Szabo, S

    1991-01-01

    Binary tree-structured statistical classification algorithms and properties of 56 model alkyl nucleophiles were brought to bear on two problems of experimental pharmacology and toxicology. Each rat of a learning sample of 745 was administered one compound and autopsied to determine the presence of duodenal ulcer or adrenal hemorrhagic necrosis. The cited statistical classification schemes were then applied to these outcomes and 67 features of the compounds to ascertain those characteristics that are associated with biologic activity. For predicting duodenal ulceration, dipole moment, melting point, and solubility in octanol are particularly important, while for predicting adrenal necrosis, important features include the number of sulfhydryl groups and double bonds. These methods may constitute inexpensive but powerful ways to screen untested compounds for possible organ-specific toxicity. Mechanisms for the etiology and pathogenesis of the duodenal and adrenal lesions are suggested, as are additional avenues for drug design. PMID:2068109

  7. Cysteamine-induced inhibition of acid neutralization and the increase in hydrogen ion back-diffusion in duodenal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Ohe, K.; Okada, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Inoue, M.; Miyoshi, A.

    1982-03-01

    To investigate the possible impairment of defensive mechanisms in cysteamine-induced duodenal ulceration, the effect of cysteamine on the neutralization of acid by the duodenum and the back-diffusion of hydrogen ions into the duodenal mucosa has been studied. The results obtained were as follows. (1) The intraduodenal pH started to decrease between 3 and 4 hr after cysteamine injection. (2) By perfusion of the duodenal loop excluding the opening of bile and pancreatic ducts, the amount of hydrogen ions (H+) neutralized was found to be significantly lower in cysteamine-treated animals than in the controls. (3) the back-diffusion of luminal H+ into the duodenal mucosa, estimated by measuring the H+ disappearance from the test solution including 100 mM HCl, was significantly increased by cysteamine. From these findings, it has been concluded that cysteamine reduces the resistance of duodenal mucosa to acid coming from the stomach.

  8. The Epidemic of Cocaine-Related Juxtapyloric Perforations

    PubMed Central

    Feliciano, David V.; Ojukwu, John C.; Rozycki, Grace S.; Ballard, Robert B.; Ingram, Walter L.; Salomone, Jeffrey; Namias, Nicholas; Newman, Paul G.

    1999-01-01

    Objective This is a report of 50 consecutive patients with juxtapyloric perforations after smoking “crack” cocaine (cocaine base) at one urban public hospital. Summary Background Data Although the exact causal relation between smoking crack cocaine and a subsequent juxtapyloric perforation has not been defined, surgical services in urban public hospitals now treat significant numbers of male addicts with such perforations. This report describes the patient set, presentation, and surgical management and suggests a possible role for Helicobacter pylori in contributing to these perforations. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed, supplemented by data from the patient log in the department of surgery. Results From 1994 to 1998, 50 consecutive patients (48 men, 2 women) with a mean age of 37 had epigastric pain and signs of peritonitis a median of 2 to 4 hours (but up to 48 hours) after smoking crack cocaine. A history of chronic smoking of crack as well as chronic alcohol abuse was noted in all patients; four had a prior history of presumed ulcer disease in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Free air was present on an upright abdominal x-ray in 84% of patients, and all underwent operative management. A 3- to 5-mm juxtapyloric perforation, usually in the prepyloric area, was found in all patients. Omental patch closure was used in 49 patients and falciform ligament closure in 1. Two patients underwent parietal cell vagotomy as well., In the later period of the review, antral mucosal biopsies were performed through the juxtapyloric perforation in five patients. Urease testing was positive for infection with H. pylori in four, and these patients were prescribed appropriate antimicrobial drugs. Conclusions Juxtapyloric perforations after the smoking of crack cocaine occur in a largely male population of drug addicts who are 8 to 10 years younger than the patient group that historically has perforations in the pyloroduodenal area. These perforations are usually 3 to 5 mm in diameter, and an antral mucosal biopsy for subsequent urease testing should be performed if the location and size of the ulcer allow this to be done safely. Omental patch closure is appropriate therapy for patients without a history of prior ulcer disease; antimicrobial therapy and omeprazole are prescribed when H. pylori is present. PMID:10363893

  9. Unexpected Delayed Colon Perforation after the Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection with Snaring of a Laterally Spreading Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Young Bo; Lee, Jeong-Mi; Kim, Wan Soo; Kwak, Min Seob; Lee, Ji Wan; Shin, Dong Yeol; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Byeon, Jeong-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Colonic perforation may occur as a complication of diagnostic and therapeutic colonoscopy. The risk factors for perforation after colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) include an inexperienced endoscopist, a large tumor size, and submucosal fibrosis. The mechanisms of perforation include unintended endoscopic resection/dissection and severe thermal injury. Here, we report a case of colon perforation that occurred after ESD with snaring of a laterally spreading tumor. The perforation was completely unexpected because there were no colorectal ESD-associated risk factors for perforation, deep dissection, or severe coagulation injury in our patient. PMID:26668808

  10. Endovenous Laser Ablation of Incompetent Perforator Veins: A New Technique in Treatment of Chronic Venous Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Ozkan, Ugur

    2009-09-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of endovenous laser ablation of incompetent perforator veins in a patient with incompetency of the small saphenous vein and multiple perforator veins. Two different methods were used to ablate seven perforator veins with a laser giving 50-60 J/cm energy. Total occlusion was observed in six perforators, and partial ablation in one perforator, at 1-month follow-up. To our knowledge, endovenous laser ablation of incompetent perforator veins is easy and a good therapeutic method.

  11. [Antimicrobial and antimycotic therapy in the surgery of iatrogenic esophageal and tracheal diseases].

    PubMed

    Parshin, V D; Bogomolova, N S; Vishnevskaia, G A; Bol'shakov, L V; Oreshkina, T D; Parshin, V V

    2010-01-01

    Microbiologic analysis of tracheal and gastrostomic discharge was performed in 327 patients with iatrogenic injuries of trachea and esophagus, operated during 2003-2008. Main groups of microorganisms, colonizing the tracheobronchial tree were defined. St. epidermalis was defined in 3.9-13.3%, St. aureus - in 12.4-21.1%, Ps. small a. Cyrilliceruginosa - in 9.2-17.5% of cases. Increase of Candidae colonization was revealed (7.8-12.2%). The increase of polyresistant strains identification was typical. St. epidermalis and St. aureus demonstrated the preserving high sensitivity to vankomycin and linesolide, whereas Ps. aeruginosa showed the growth of resistance to all groups of antibiotics, but polymyxin. The common decrease of antibiotic activity requires the realization of complex antibacterial and antimycotic treatment. PMID:20336037

  12. Fighting the Whole System: Dissociative Identity Disorder, Labeling Theory, and Iatrogenic Doubting.

    PubMed

    Floris, Jessica; McPherson, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This research examines how individuals diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder construe their experiences of being labeled with a contested diagnosis. Semistructured interviews were conducted in the United Kingdom with 5 women and 2 men diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder. A framework analysis was conducted. The analysis identified 2 overarching themes: diagnosis cross-examined and navigating care systems. The diagnosis appeared to be continually assessed by participants for its fit with symptoms, and the doubt among professionals seemed to be unhelpfully reflected in participants' attempts to understand and come to terms with their experiences. The findings are considered in light of labeling theory, the iatrogenic effects of professional doubt, and current debates concerning the reliability and validity of psychiatric diagnostic systems that have been reinvigorated by the publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. PMID:25923473

  13. Iatrogenic mitral valve chordal rupture during placement of an inflatable and repositionable percutaneous aortic valve prosthesis.

    PubMed

    D'Ancona, Giuseppe; Ince, Hüseyin; Ortak, Jasmin; Stoeckicht, Yannik; Kische, Stephan

    2015-03-01

    A case is reported of iatrogenic mitral valve chordal rupture occurring during transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with an inflatable and repositionable valve (Direct Flow; Direct Flow Medical, Santa Rosa, CA, USA). The specific implantation technique requires initial valve advancement into the left ventricular cavity, valve inflation within the ventricular cavity, and a final finely tuned valve upward pulling through the left ventricular outflow tract until contact with the aortic annulus is achieved. During this phase of the procedure, entangling with the mitral subvalvular apparatus should be excluded, to avoid inadvertent tissue tearing and consequent mitral valve malfunction. The present patient underwent TAVI but then developed symptomatic severe mitral valve regurgitation resulting from chordal rupture. The condition was successfully treated percutaneously by implanting a Mitra-Clip. PMID:26204679

  14. Embolization of Iatrogenic Vascular Injuries of Renal Transplants: Immediate and Follow-Up Results

    SciTech Connect

    Dorffner, Roland; Thurnher, Siegfried; Prokesch, Rupert; Bankier, Alexander; Turetschek, Karl; Schmidt, Alice; Lammer, Johannes

    1998-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome in seven patients in whom iatrogenic vascular complications were treated with catheter embolization. Methods: Angiography showed an arteriovenous fistula in six of the seven patients, a pseudoaneurysm in three patients, and an arteriocaliceal fistula in three patients. Embolization was performed with GAW coils or microcoils in all cases. In three patients enbucrilate, polyvinyl alcohol, or absorbable gelatin powder was administered as an adjunct to the coils. Results: Angiographic success with total occlusion of the vascular injury was achieved in five of the seven patients and clinical success was achieved in four of seven cases. In two cases, nephrectomy after embolization was necessary because of renal artery occlusion or acute hemorrhage at the renal artery anastomosis, respectively. Infarction of 30%-50% of the renal parenchyma was seen in two cases. Conclusion: Angiographically successful embolization is not necessarily associated with clinical success. The complication rate is high.

  15. Cascaded Perforates as One-Dimensional, Bulk Absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrott, T. L.; Jones, M. G.

    2006-01-01

    Porous cell honeycomb liners for aircraft engine nacelles offer the possibility of exploiting extended reaction effects to improve liner attenuation bandwidth as generally attributed to the performance of bulk absorbers. This paper describes an analytical procedure, starting with an impedance prediction model for a single perforated plate, to estimate the bulk-absorber parameters for a cascade of such perforates - a first step to modeling a porous wall honeycomb structure. The objective is to build confidence in a lumped element impedance model, when applied to a uniformly-spaced set of porous plates to predict its .bulk. absorber properties. The model is based upon a modified version of the two-parameter flow resistance model of the form A + BV(sub inc), where A and B are physics-based, semi-empirical parameters that are adjusted to provide an optimum fit to a composite dataset from three plate porosities of 2.5, 5 and 10%. The composite dataset is achieved by reformulating the two-parameter flow resistance model into a .reduced pressure drop coefficient. dependency on perforate hole Reynolds number. The resulting impedance model is employed to calculate surface impedance spectra for N and 2N-layer perforate cascades. The well-known two-thickness method for experimental determination of bulk-absorber parameters is then applied to these .synthesized. data sets to predict the characteristic impedance and propagation constant for the perforate cascades. These results are then compared with experimental results reported in a companion paper.

  16. Colon perforation related to percutaneous nephrolithotomy: from diagnosis to treatment.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Fatih; Tok, Adem; Penbegul, Necmettin; Daggulli, Mansur; Eryildirim, Bilal; Adanur, Senol; Gurbuz, Gokhan; Celik, Huseyin; Utangac, Mehmet Mazhar; Dede, Onur; Bodakc?, Mehmet Nuri; Tepeler, Abdulkadir; Sarica, Kemal

    2015-11-01

    We present our experience with the largest series of colon perforation (CP) as complication of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL). From January 1998 to August 2014, 22 cases that presented with PNL-related CP from seven referral centers were retrospectively reviewed. The patients with CP were evaluated in terms of probable risk factors. Peri-operative and postoperative findings, timing of diagnosis, and treatment modalities of the CP were reviewed. Of the 22 patients, previous ipsilateral renal surgery (n:2) and retrorenal colon (n:5) were the risk factors for CP. The CP was directly visualized via nephroscopy during the surgery in 3 (13.6 %) and with nephrostography at the end of the procedure in 4 patients (18.2 %). In two patients, perforation was realized via the passage of contrast into the colon with nephrostography on the postoperative second day. Postoperative passage of feces through the nephrostomy tube was seen in six patients. The clinical signs in 13 cases directed CP diagnosis. The confirmation of the CP was achieved with a CT scan in all the patients. The patients with extraperitoneal perforation were primarily managed conservatively. Open surgical treatment was performed in cases with intraperitoneal perforation (n:5) and those with extraperitoneal perforation resistant to conservative treatment (n:5). Meticulous evaluation of the risk factors preoperatively is the initial step in the prevention of CP. Timely diagnosis plays essential role in the management of this PNL complication. Although extraperitoneal CP may be managed conservatively, surgery is required for intraperitoneal CPs. PMID:26033042

  17. Coagulation syndrome: Delayed perforation after colorectal endoscopic treatments

    PubMed Central

    Hirasawa, Kingo; Sato, Chiko; Makazu, Makomo; Kaneko, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Kokawa, Atsushi; Maeda, Shin

    2015-01-01

    Various procedure-related adverse events related to colonoscopic treatment have been reported. Previous studies on the complications of colonoscopic treatment have focused primarily on perforation or bleeding. Coagulation syndrome (CS), which is synonymous with transmural burn syndrome following endoscopic treatment, is another typical adverse event. CS is the result of electrocoagulation injury to the bowel wall that induces a transmural burn and localized peritonitis resulting in serosal inflammation. CS occurs after polypectomy, endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), and even endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). The occurrence of CS after polypectomy or EMR varies according previous reports; most report an occurrence rate around 1%. However, artificial ulcers after ESD are largely theoretical, and CS following ESD was reported in about 9% of cases, which is higher than that for CS after polypectomy or EMR. Most cases of post-polypectomy syndrome (PPS) have an excellent prognosis, and they are managed conservatively with medical therapy. PPS rarely develops into delayed perforation. Delayed perforation is a severe adverse event that often requires emergency surgery. Since few studies have reported on CS and delayed perforation associated with CS, we focused on CS after colonoscopic treatments in this review. Clinicians should consider delayed perforation in CS patients. PMID:26380051

  18. Deep inferior epigastric perforator flap: an anatomical study of the perforators and local vascular differences.

    PubMed

    Eri?, Mirela; Ravnik, Dean; Zic, Rado; Dragni?, Nataša; Krivoku?a, Dragan; Lekšan, Igor; Hribernik, Marija

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine precise localization and external diameter of the lower abdominal wall perforators as well as to investigate some vascularity differences between the same parts of perfusion zones II and III according to Hartrampf perfusion zones. The study was performed on 10 fresh cadavers (20 hemiabdomens) using the gelatin injection technique. All perforators were identified, and their localization and diameter were noted. Measurements were made at the level of the fascia. We noted localization and diameter of arteries on cross-sectional planes of either part of the flap. The median sum of the external diameter of all arteries in zone I was 17.01 mm. The median sum of the external diameter of all arteries in the medial 1/3 part of zone III was 4.17 mm, and in the medial 1/3 part of zone II, it was 0.96 mm. The median sum of the external diameter of all arteries in the intermediary 1/3 part of zone III was 2.16 mm, whereas in the intermediary 1/3 part of zone II, it was 0.81 mm. Significant differences were recorded between proximal and middle horizontal regions of zones II and III and between medial vertical part of zone III and medial vertical part of zone II. Anastomoses between zones I and II are considerably smaller compared with anastomoses between zones I and III. The best vascularized parts of the lower abdominal wall were perfusion zone I, then the inner 2/3 of zone III and medial 1/3 of zone II. PMID:22113874

  19. Effect of dopamine-related drugs on duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine or propionitrile: prevention and aggravation may not be mediated by gastrointestinal secretory changes in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, G.; Brown, A.; Szabo, S.

    1987-03-01

    Dose- and time-response studies have been performed with dopamine agonists and antagonists using the cysteamine and propionitrile duodenal ulcer models in the rat. The experiments demonstrate that the chemically induced duodenal ulcer is prevented by bromocriptine, lergotrile and reduced by apomorphine or L-dopa. Aggravation of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer was seen especially after (-)-butaclamol, (-)-sulpiride, haloperidol and, less effectively, after other dopaminergic antagonists. The duodenal antiulcerogenic action of dopamine agonists was more prominent after chronic administration than after a single dose, whereas the opposite was found concerning the proulcerogenic effect of dopamine antagonists. In the chronic gastric fistula rat, both the antiulcerogens bromocriptine or lergotrile and the proulcerogens haloperidol, pimozide or (-)-N-(2-chlorethyl)-norapomorphine decreased the cysteamine- or propionitrile-induced gastric secretion. No correlation was apparent between the influence of these drugs on duodenal ulcer development and gastric and duodenal (pancreatic/biliary) secretions. In the chronic duodenal fistula rat, decreased acid content was measured in the proximal duodenum after haloperidol, and diminished duodenal pepsin exposure was recorded after bromocriptine. Furthermore, the aggravation by dopamine antagonists of experimental duodenal ulcer probably involves a peripheral component. The site of dopamine receptors and physiologic effects which modulate experimental duodenal ulcer remain to be identified, but their elucidation may prove to be an important element in the pathogenesis and treatment of duodenal ulcer.

  20. Perforated mesenteric Meckel's diverticulum in an adult: a real variant?

    PubMed Central

    Gueye, M.L.; Thiam, O.; Seck, M.; Gueye, M.N.; Toure, A.O.; Cisse, M.; Ka, O.; Dieng, M.; Toure, C.T.

    2015-01-01

    A Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract. It is a real diverticulum that is usually located on the anti-mesenteric edge in the last meter of the ileum. Its location on the mesenteric edge has been rarely reported. It may lead to several complications including perforation that may be life-threatening for the patient. We report herein a case of perforated mesenteric Meckel's diverticulum in an adult patient. Upon surgical exploration by laparotomy, we found a perforated Meckel's diverticulum located on the mesenteric edge of the ileum 60 cm from the ileocoecal junction and 400 ml of seropurulent peritoneal fluid. The patient underwent a segmental ileal resection and an end-to-end anastomosis. The postoperative outcomes were marked by a persistent peritonitis that required successful revision surgery. PMID:26330235

  1. Perforation gastrique néonatale spontanée: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Naji, Abdelhalim; Elkarout, Yahya; Benajiba, Noufissa

    2015-01-01

    La perforation gastrique néonatale spontanée est rare. Nous rapportons un cas survenu chez un nouveau-né issu d'une grossesse et une naissance sans anomalies, et qui a présenté au deuxième jour de sa vie brutalement une distension abdominale importante, suivie d'une détresse respiratoire nécessitant des mesures de réanimation brèves. La radiographie de l'abdomen sans préparation montrait un pneumopéritoine massif, la laparotomie trouvait une perforation au niveau de l'antre gastrique de 2cm, qui était suturée en un plan. Les suites opératoires étaient simples. L’évolution des perforations gastriques spontanées survenant chez le nouveau-né est habituellement favorable. Sous réserve d'un diagnostic et prise en charge précoce. PMID:26405497

  2. Right main bronchus perforation detected by 3D-image

    PubMed Central

    Bense, László; Eklund, Gunnar; Jorulf, Hakan; Farkas, Árpád; Balásházy, Imre; Hedenstierna, Göran; Krebsz, Ádám; Madas, Balázs Gergely; Strindberg, Jerker Eden

    2011-01-01

    A male metal worker, who has never smoked, contracted debilitating dyspnoea in 2003 which then deteriorated until 2007. Spirometry and chest x-rays provided no diagnosis. A 3D-image of the airways was reconstructed from a high-resolution CT (HRCT) in 2007, showing peribronchial air on the right side, mostly along the presegmental airways. After digital subtraction of the image of the peribronchial air, a hole on the cranial side of the right main bronchus was detected. The perforation could be identified at the re-examination of HRCTs in 2007 and 2009, but not in 2010 when it had possibly healed. The occupational exposure of the patient to evaporating chemicals might have contributed to the perforation and hampered its healing. A 3D HRCT reconstruction should be considered to detect bronchial anomalies, including wall-perforation, when unexplained dyspnoea or other chest symptoms call for extended investigation. PMID:22679238

  3. Systemic lupus erythematosus with intestinal perforation: A case report

    PubMed Central

    GU, YUQING; ZHU, TAO; WANG, YIQING; XU, HONGXING

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease, which can affect almost all systems and organs. Gastrointestinal disorder is one of the most noteworthy complications of patients with SLE. However, gastrointestinal disorder with intestinal perforation is rare, but potentially life-threatening if not treated promptly. The present study reported a case of SLE with intestinal perforation, where surgical intervention was performed and a crevasse (~3 cm in diameter) was detected in the ileum, ~60 cm from the ileocecal valve. Following surgery, the patient suffered from difficult ventilator weaning, septic shock and intestinal obstruction. The patient was successfully treated and discharged from the hospital after ~4 months of treatment. Intestinal perforation in SLE patients is potentially life-threatening; early diagnosis and prompt treatment are crucial to the management of this rare complication of SLE. PMID:26622471

  4. Perforator flaps: the next step in the reconstructive ladder?

    PubMed

    Wolff, K-D

    2015-11-01

    Perforator flaps are claimed to be a sign of major progress in head and neck reconstruction, but are they a further step up the reconstructive ladder? In this paper I provide a short summary of the development and current clinical use of perforator flaps in the head and neck, which is based on a presentation to the annual meeting of the British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons in 2014. I will describe 4 flaps from the lower leg, which are useful specifically for covering intraoral defects, as examples. When we consider the spectrum of new donor sites, and the precision of flap design that is offered by perforator flaps, it becomes evident that the potential of this new technique has not yet been reached. PMID:26187367

  5. Method and apparatus for perforating subsurface earth formations

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, D.B.

    1984-11-27

    Method and apparatus are claimed for completing subsurface formations traversed by a borehole. A perforating gun and a firing head assembly are run into the borehole on the end of a tubing string. A percussion firing assembly subsequently is lowered through the tubing string and latches into the firing head assembly. To initiate the firing system an impact member is dropped through the tubing string. Should ignition fail to occur the percussion firing assembly can be detached and removed from the borehole. Additional percussion firing assemblies can be lowered into engagement with and removed from the firing head assembly as desired. Further, an electrical firing assembly can be lowered through the tubing string into engagement with the firing head assembly and an electrical control signal used to detonate the perforating gun. Should ignition again fail the electrical firing assembly is removed leaving a perforating system having no primary explosives therein, which can be removed from the borehole by pulling the tubing string.

  6. Rectal Perforation Caused by Anal Stricture After Hemorrhoid Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Yong Joon; Ha, Heon-Kyun; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Shin, Rumi; Jeong, Seung-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Inappropriate therapies for hemorrhoids can lead to various complications including anorectal stricture. We report a patient presenting with catastrophic rectal perforation due to severe anal stricture after inappropriate hemorrhoid treatment. A 67-years old man with perianal pain visited the emergency room. The hemorrhoids accompanied by constipation, had tortured him since his youth. Thus he had undergone injection sclerotherapy several times by an unlicensed therapist and hemorrhoidectomy twice at the clinics of private practitioners. His body temperature was as high as 38.5?. The computed tomographic scan showed a focal perforation of posterior rectal wall. The emergency operation was performed. The fibrotic tissues of the anal canal were excised. And then a sigmoid loop colostomy was constructed. The patient was discharged four days following the operation. This report calls attention to the enormous risk of unlicensed injection sclerotherapy and overzealous hemorrhoidectomy resulting in scarring, progressive stricture, and eventual rectal perforation. PMID:23586012

  7. High-energy gas fracturing in cased and perforated wellbores

    SciTech Connect

    Cuderman, J.F.

    1986-06-01

    A propellant-based technology, High-Energy Gas Fracturing (HEGF), has been applied to fracturing through perforations in cased boreholes. HEGF is a tailored-pulse fracturing technique originally developed by Sandia National Laboratories for application in uncased, liquid-free gas wells in Appalachian Devonian shales. Because most oil and gas wells are liquid filled as well as cased and perforated, the potential impact of present research is significantly broader. A number of commercial tailored-pulse fracturing services, using a variety of explosives or propellants, are currently available. Present research provides valuable insight into phenomena that occur in those stimulations. The use of propellants that deflagrate or burn rather than detonate, as do high-order explosives, permits controlled buildup of pressure in the wellbore. The key to successful stimulation in cased and perforated wellbores is to control the pressure buildup of the combustion gases to maximize fracturing without destroying the casing. Eight experiments using cased and perforated wellbore were conducted in a tunnel complex at the Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site, which provides a realistic in situ stress environment (4 to 10 MPa (600 to 1500 psi)) and provides access for mineback to directly observe fracturing obtained. Primary variables in the experiments include propellant burn rate and amount of propellant used, presence or absence of liquid in the wellbore, in situ stress orientation, and perforation diameter, density, and phasing. In general, the presence of liquid in the borehole results in a much faster pressure risetime and a lower peak pressure for the same propellant charge. Fracture surfaces proceed outward along lines of perforations as determined by phasing, then gradually turn toward the hydraulic fracture direction. 8 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-related perforations: Diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Vezakis, Antonios; Fragulidis, Georgios; Polydorou, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has become an important therapeutic modality for biliary and pancreatic disorders. Perforation is one of the most feared complications of ERCP and endoscopic sphincterotomy. A MEDLINE search was performed from 2000-2014 using the keywords “perforation”, “ERCP” and “endoscopic sphincterotomy”. All articles including more than nine cases were reviewed. The incidence of ERCP-related perforations was low (0.39%, 95%CI: 0.34-0.69) with an associated mortality of 7.8% (95%CI: 3.80-13.07). Endoscopic sphincterotomy was responsible for 41% of perforations, insertion and manipulations of the endoscope for 26%, guidewires for 15%, dilation of strictures for 3%, other instruments for 4%, stent insertion or migration for 2% and in 7% of cases the etiology was unknown. The diagnosis was made during ERCP in 73% of cases. The mechanism, site and extent of injury, suggested by clinical and radiographic findings, should guide towards operative or non-operative management. In type I perforations early surgical repair is indicated, unless endoscopic closure can be achieved. Patients with type II perforations should be treated initially non-operatively. Non-operative treatment includes biliary stenting, fasting, intravenous fluid resuscitation, nasogastric drainage, broad spectrum antibiotics, percutaneous drainage of fluid collections. Non-operative treatment was successful in 79% of patients with type II injuries, with an overall mortality of 9.4%. Non-operative treatment was sufficient in all patients with type III injuries. Surgical technique depends on timing, site and size of defect and clinical condition of the patient. In conclusion, diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion and clinical and radiographic findings. Whilst surgery is usually indicated in patients with type I injuries, patients with type II or III injuries should be treated initially non-operatively. A minority of them will finally require surgical intervention. PMID:26468337

  9. A Metagenomic Investigation of the Duodenal Microbiota Reveals Links with Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Carrière, Frédéric; Bachar, Dipankar; Laugier, René; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Robert, Catherine; Michelle, Caroline; Henrissat, Bernard; Raoult, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have tested the small intestine microbiota in humans, where most nutrient digestion and absorption occur. Here, our objective was to examine the duodenal microbiota between obese and normal volunteers using metagenomic techniques. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested duodenal samples from five obese and five normal volunteers using 16S rDNA V6 pyrosequencing and Illumina MiSeq deep sequencing. The predominant phyla of the duodenal microbiota were Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, whereas Bacteroidetes were absent. Obese individuals had a significant increase in anaerobic genera (p < 0.001) and a higher abundance of genes encoding Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (p = 0.0018) compared to the control group. Obese individuals also had a reduced abundance of genes encoding sucrose phosphorylase (p = 0.015) and 1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzyme (p = 0.05). Normal weight people had significantly increased FabK (p = 0.027), and the glycerophospholipid metabolism pathway revealed the presence of phospholipase A1 only in the control group (p = 0.05). Conclusions/Significance The duodenal microbiota of obese individuals exhibit alterations in the fatty acid and sucrose breakdown pathways, probably induced by diet imbalance. PMID:26356733

  10. Optical Markers in Duodenal Mucosa Predict the Presence of Pancreatic Cancer

    E-print Network

    Kim, Young L.

    Optical Markers in Duodenal Mucosa Predict the Presence of Pancreatic Cancer Yang Liu,1 Randall E Shah,2 Curtis Hall,2 and Vadim Backman1 Abstract Purpose: Pancreatic cancer remains one of the most to develop a highly accurate and minimally invasive (e.g., without instrumentation of the pancreatic duct

  11. Spontaneous intramural duodenal hematoma in type 2B von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Eichele, Derrick D; Ross, Meredith; Tang, Patrick; Hutchins, Grant F; Mailliard, Mark

    2013-11-01

    Intramural duodenal hematoma is a rare cause of a proximal gastrointestinal tract obstruction. Presentation of intramural duodenal hematoma most often occurs following blunt abdominal trauma in children, but spontaneous non-traumatic cases have been linked to anticoagulant therapy, pancreatitis, malignancy, vasculitis and endoscopy. We report an unusual case of spontaneous intramural duodenal hematoma presenting as an intestinal obstruction associated with acute pancreatitis in a patient with established von Willebrand disease, type 2B. The patient presented with abrupt onset of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Computed tomography imaging identified an intramural duodenal mass consistent with blood measuring 4.7 cm × 8.7 cm in the second portion of the duodenum abutting on the head of the pancreas. Serum lipase was 3828 units/L. Patient was managed conservatively with bowel rest, continuous nasogastric decompression, total parenteral nutrition, recombinant factor VIII (humateP) and transfusion. Symptoms resolved over the course of the hospitalization. This case highlights an important complication of an inherited coagulopathy. PMID:24222967

  12. Malignant Gastric and Duodenal Stenosis: Palliation by Peroral Implantation of a Self-Expanding Metallic Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, Isabel T.

    1997-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the use of self-expanding metallic stents in patients with inoperable malignant antrum-pylorus-duodenal obstruction. Methods: Six patients underwent implantation of a Wallstent self-expanding metallic endoprosthesis (20 mm in five patients and 16 mm in one). In five patients a catheter (Berenstein) was introduced perorally into the stomach. A guidewire (Terumo) was introduced through the catheter and advanced through the antrum-pylorus-duodenal stenosis. The guidewire was removed and a 260-cm-long, 0.035'' superstiff guide (Amplatz) was introduced. After the catheter was removed the stent assembly was introduced. In the last patient the stent was implanted through a percutaneous gastrostomy. Results: Treatment of inoperable gastric outlet obstruction caused by tumor compression is difficult and unsatisfactory. Peroral implantation of self-expanding metallic stents resulted in successful palliative therapy of antrum-pylorus-duodenal stenosis in six patients in whom surgery was not possible because of advanced disease and poor general condition. On average, patients were able to eat during 41 days. One patient is tolerating oral intake at 3 months. Conclusion: Implantation of stents resulted in palliative relief of malignant antrum-pylorus-duodenal obstructions.

  13. Isolated perforation of left coronary cusp after blunt chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Maini, Rohit; Dadu, Razvan T; Addison, Daniel; Cunningham, Luke; Hamzeh, Ihab; Wall, Matthew; Lakkis, Nasser; Tabbaa, Rashed

    2015-01-01

    Left coronary cusp perforation is an extremely rare consequence of blunt chest trauma. A 22-year-old male presented after a motor vehicle accident with dyspnea. Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) showed moderate to severe aortic regurgitation with prolapsing right coronary cusp. In the operating room he was found to have a left coronary cusp tear near the annulus and an enlarged right cusp. The patient recovered well after successful aortic valve replacement with a mechanical valve. Traumatic aortic regurgitation with left cusp perforation is serious and surgical intervention may be lifesaving if performed timely. PMID:25802765

  14. Isolated Perforation of Left Coronary Cusp after Blunt Chest Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Maini, Rohit; Dadu, Razvan T.; Addison, Daniel; Cunningham, Luke; Hamzeh, Ihab; Wall, Matthew; Lakkis, Nasser; Tabbaa, Rashed

    2015-01-01

    Left coronary cusp perforation is an extremely rare consequence of blunt chest trauma. A 22-year-old male presented after a motor vehicle accident with dyspnea. Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) showed moderate to severe aortic regurgitation with prolapsing right coronary cusp. In the operating room he was found to have a left coronary cusp tear near the annulus and an enlarged right cusp. The patient recovered well after successful aortic valve replacement with a mechanical valve. Traumatic aortic regurgitation with left cusp perforation is serious and surgical intervention may be lifesaving if performed timely. PMID:25802765

  15. Risk of basilar membrane perforation by intracochlear electrodes.

    PubMed

    Zrunek, M; Burian, K

    1985-01-01

    Insertion of intracochlear electrodes may damage the basilar membrane, the stria vascularis and adjacent structures. When electrodes were placed in human temporal bone specimens, perforations were shown to be independent of the type of implant used, the depth of insertion or the use of a lubricating agent. Helical electrode reinforcements and failure to enlarge the round window frame increase the risk of damage. Perforations are invariably localized at a distance of about 7-14 mm from the round window and occur at the site where the curvature of the basal turn is greatest. PMID:3840992

  16. A Rare Complication of an Ingested Foreign Body: Gallbladder Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Karacay, Safak; Topçu, Koray; Sözübir, Selami

    2013-01-01

    We present a 13-year-old child who admitted with a dull right upper quadrant pain that started 3 weeks before her referral. Several medications were given but they did not change the intensity and the frequency of the pain. Her physical examination was nonspecific except for slight right upper quadrant tenderness. The imaging studies revealed a sewing pin perforating the stomach and gallbladder. The patient was treated with a successful operation, and no postoperative complications were observed. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a sharp foreign body gallbladder perforation in a child. PMID:23984118

  17. Optimal Control of the Obstacle Problem in a Perforated Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Stroemqvist, Martin H.

    2012-10-15

    We study the problem of optimally controlling the solution of the obstacle problem in a domain perforated by small periodically distributed holes. The solution is controlled by the choice of a perforated obstacle which is to be chosen in such a fashion that the solution is close to a given profile and the obstacle is not too irregular. We prove existence, uniqueness and stability of an optimal obstacle and derive necessary and sufficient conditions for optimality. When the number of holes increase indefinitely we determine the limit of the sequence of optimal obstacles and solutions. This limit depends strongly on the rate at which the size of the holes shrink.

  18. Characterization of cardiac lead perforation risk via a dynamic simulated environment

    E-print Network

    Rosario, Matthew J

    2012-01-01

    Delayed cardiac perforation is a serious medical condition where an implanted cardiac lead migrates through the heart wall, causing life-threatening complications. Where acute perforation occurs during implant, delayed ...

  19. History of Helicobacter pylori, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Graham, David Y

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician’s believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for “surgical disease” or for “Sippy” diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori-related diseases. PMID:24833849

  20. Emergency polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent implantation to treat right coronary artery perforation during percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Yorgun, Hikmet; Canpolat, Ugur; Aytemir, Kudret; Oto, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Coronary artery perforations are life-threatening complications with a poor outcome. Historically, if the perforation was not controlled using conservative methods such as prolonged balloon inflation and protamine administration, emergency cardiac surgery has been performed. However, several percutaneous methods including covered stents and embolization materials have emerged as therapeutic options to manage coronary perforations. We report a case of right coronary artery perforation after high pressure stent post-dilatation that was successfully sealed with a polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent. PMID:23224929

  1. A fatal iatrogenic right vertebral injury after transoral odontoidectomy and posterior cervical stabilization for a type II odontoid fracture.

    PubMed

    Scalici, Edoardo; Indorato, Francesca; Portelli, Francesca; Savì, Tommaso; Maresi, Emiliano; Busardò, Francesco P

    2014-02-01

    The authors present a singular case of an iatrogenic right vertebral artery injury, involving a 67 year-old man, who reported a type II odontoid fracture (Anderson and D'Alonzo Classification) and posterior atlantoaxial dislocation following a road traffic accident. A small injury involving the right vertebral artery occurred as a consequence of transoral odontoidectomy and posterior cervical stabilization. It was caused by bone spicules of spinal origin and their presence was confirmed by the histological section of the right vertebral artery at the level of C1-C2. The case confirms how iatrogenic vertebral artery injuries during cervical spine surgery may be potentially lethal, especially where complications arise some days after surgery. PMID:24485420

  2. Iatrogenic Aorto-Cisterna Chyli Fistula During Percutaneous Balloon Aortoplasty in a Patient with Takayasu's Arteritis: A Case Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Hye Sun; Shin, Sung Wook Kim, Eun Hui; Do, Young Soo; Choo, Sung Wook; Cho, Sung Ki; Park, Kwang Bo

    2007-04-15

    We present a case of iatrogenic aorto-cisterna chyli fistula that developed during percutaneous transluminal aortoplasty in a 16-year old girl with Takayasu's arteritis. The aorto-cisterna chyli fistula was angiographically confirmed and treated using a stent-graft, which successfully occluded the fistula. Her claudication then improved, although follow-up CT angiography at 10 months revealed mild recurrent aortic stenosis.

  3. Orthotopic neobladder perforation: an unusual presentation of small bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Gill, Jonathan D; Cast, James E I; Thomas, Philip J; Simms, Matthew S

    2013-01-01

    Orthotopic bladder reconstruction is becoming increasingly popular in patients who have undergone radical cystectomy. One of the rare complications is spontaneous rupture, which presents with various symptoms, but in particular, abdominal pain. We report a case of orthotopic bladder perforation in a patient who presented with the symptoms and signs of small bowel obstruction. PMID:24964454

  4. Orthotopic neobladder perforation: an unusual presentation of small bowel obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Jonathan D.; Cast, James E.I.; Thomas, Philip J.; Simms, Matthew S.

    2013-01-01

    Orthotopic bladder reconstruction is becoming increasingly popular in patients who have undergone radical cystectomy. One of the rare complications is spontaneous rupture, which presents with various symptoms, but in particular, abdominal pain. We report a case of orthotopic bladder perforation in a patient who presented with the symptoms and signs of small bowel obstruction. PMID:24964454

  5. Jejunal perforation due to porcupine quill ingestion in a horse.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stacy L; Panizzi, Luca; Bracamonte, Jose

    2014-02-01

    An 8-month-old Andalusian filly was treated for jejunal perforations due to ingestion of a porcupine quill. During exploratory laparotomy, 2 separate stapled side-to-side jejunojejunal resection and anastomoses were performed. Post-operative complications after 2 years follow-up included mild incisional herniation following incisional infection and chronic intermittent colic. PMID:24489394

  6. Scour around a perforated disk modeling a marine hydrokinetic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beninati, M. L.; Soliani, G.; Zhou, C. C.; Krane, M.; Fontaine, A.

    2013-12-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the behavior of scour hole dimensions and scour rates around a bottom-mounted cylindrical support structure of a perforated disk. The experiments focus on collecting temporal variations of scour depth around the support structure of the perforated disk for two scour regimes: transitional (ReD = 8500 and 9400) and live-bed (ReD = 10200). A perforated disk is used to approximate the drag of a submerged, horizontal axis, marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbine. The goal is to compare the scour behavior around a perforated disk to that of a marine hydrokinetic (MHK) device. This study is motivated by the need to predict the environmental effect of MHK devices on an erodible bed. Testing is conducted in the small-scale hydraulic flume facility (1.2 m wide, 0.38 m deep, and 9.75 m long) at Bucknell University. The base of the support structure is marked incrementally to allow for time based observations of changes in scour depth. Bed form topologies are then acquired after a three hour time interval using a 2D sediment bed profiler. Experimental results show that scour rate is dependent on flow speed. Additionally, an increase in scour hole size occurs as the scour conditions are varied from transitional to live-bed.

  7. Hard palate perforation in cocaine abusers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Francisco Javier; Perez-Herbera, Ana; Puente-Sandoval, Angel; Bagán, José V

    2010-12-01

    Cocaine abuse has increased in the past decade, with a rise in the reported cases of midpalatine perforations produced as a result. The vasoconstrictive and caustic effect of the drug can produce direct irritation and ischemia of the nasal and palatine mucosa, leading over the long term to the creation of an oronasal perforation secondary to maxillary bone destruction. The present study offers a systematic review of all the clinical cases of necrotic nasopalatine perforations attributed to inhaled cocaine documented in the PubMed literature database. The main clinical characteristics of the disorder and its different management options are examined. Likewise, emphasis is placed on the importance of a correct differential diagnosis with respect to other conditions also characterized by midfacial necrotic destruction. Of the 36 cases included in the study, 21 corresponded to females and 15 to males. Most of the lesions were located in the hard palate (77.7%) with only 5.5% being found in the soft palate. Combined hard and soft palate presentations in turn accounted for 16.6% of the cases. The mean diameter of the perforation was 19.32 ± 16.94 mm (95%CI: 11.81-26.83). The most frequent clinical manifestation was rhinolalia together with the regurgitation of solid food and liquids through the nares. Management consists of a combination of antibiotics, analgesics, prostheses (obturators), and surgical reconstructions of the defect. PMID:20063023

  8. Management of acquired punctal stenosis with perforated punctal plugs

    PubMed Central

    Ozgur, Ozlen Rodop; Akcay, Levent; Tutas, Nesrin; Karadag, Onur

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficiency of perforated punctal plug in acquired punctal stenosis. Materials and methods Forty-five eyes of 33 patients who had epiphora due to punctal stenosis were included in this study. After biomicroscopic examination and lacrimal dilatation punctal stenosis was managed with the perforated punctal plugs in all patients. In the following period epiphora, plug tolerance, lacrimal drainage were evaluated and graded. Lacrimal drainage was evaluated with fluorescein dye disappearing test. Results The age of the patients ranged between 31 and 80 (mean 55.78 ± 13.11). Preoperatively punctal dilatation and lacrimal system irrigations were performed on all patients. Lacrimal system irrigation was positive in all patients. Perforated punctal plugs were placed in the inferior puncti in all patients. The plugs were explanted 6 months after operation. The follow-up period ranged between 6 and 24 months. Plug tolerance was good in 97.8% of the eyes in the 1st month visit. Epiphora decreased remarkably in 88.9% of the patients 1 month after plug implantation, except one whose plug dropped off spontaneously in 2 weeks. Fluorescein disappearing times were found under 3 min in 97.8% of the eyes after plug explanations. Conclusion Punctum stenosis is one of the several disorders that cause lacrimal drainage obstruction. Perforated punctal plugs are found convenient and effective in managing punctal stenosis. PMID:26155080

  9. [Perforation of a hiatal hernia after a high altitude flight].

    PubMed

    Kenfack, R; Debaize, S; Sztern, B; Joukovsky, P

    2007-03-01

    We report the case of a 84-year-old patient who came to the emergency department for vomiting and epigastralgia which had occurred during an air flight. These symptoms were related to the intraabdominal perforation of a massive hiatal hernia on barotrauma due to high altitude. PMID:17511380

  10. Sound radiation from a line forced perforated elastic sandwich panel

    E-print Network

    Sidorov, Nikita

    Sound radiation from a line forced perforated elastic sandwich panel I. David Abrahams Department INTRODUCTION Sound transmission through panels has long been a sub- ject of importance in a variety- plates separated by stiffeners or ribs in between.2 The trans- mission and reflection of sound waves

  11. Percutaneous peritoneal drainage in isolated neonatal gastric perforation.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Mustafa; Deveci, Ugur; Taskin, Erdal; Bakal, Unal; Kilic, Mehmet

    2015-12-01

    A comment on the article by He et al, "Idiopathic neonatal pneumoperitoneum with favorable outcome: A case report and review", published on World Journal of Gastroenterology that reported a case of idiopathic neonatal pneumoperitoneum, possibly due to gastric perforation, with a favorable outcome without surgical intervention. PMID:26668521

  12. Percutaneous peritoneal drainage in isolated neonatal gastric perforation

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Mustafa; Deveci, Ugur; Taskin, Erdal; Bakal, Unal; Kilic, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    A comment on the article by He et al, “Idiopathic neonatal pneumoperitoneum with favorable outcome: A case report and review”, published on World Journal of Gastroenterology that reported a case of idiopathic neonatal pneumoperitoneum, possibly due to gastric perforation, with a favorable outcome without surgical intervention. PMID:26668521

  13. Body Force Model for the Aerodynamics of Inclined Perforated Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Liu, Feng

    (FFD) for the reduction of jet noise from turbofan engines [7]. However, the results will be generic in the momentum equation. The study considers wedge-shaped deflectors used for jet noise reduction in turbofan engine nozzles in the form of flaps with varying angles and perforation shapes. The experiments measured

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF CLEAN AND FOULED PERFORATED MEMBRANE DIFFUSERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory analyses were conducted on plasticized PVC perforated membrane tube diffusers after varying periods in service at two different municipal wastewater treatment facilities. ne set of diffusers from Cedar Creek, NY, was in service for 26 months. he other set from the Gree...

  15. Pneumoretroperitoneum and Pneumomediastinum Revealing a Left Colon Perforation.

    PubMed

    Montori, Giulia; Di Giovanni, Giacomo; Mzoughi, Zeineb; Angot, Cedric; Al Samman, Sophie; Solaini, Leonardo; Cheynel, Nicolas

    2015-06-01

    Left colon perforation usually occurs in complicated diverticulitis or cancer. The most frequent signs are intraperitoneal abscess or peritonitis. In cases of retroperitoneal colonic perforation, diagnosis may be difficult. A 59-year-old woman presented with left thigh pain and with abdominal discomfort associated with mild dyspnea. Computed tomography scan showed air bubbles and purulent collection in the retroperitoneum, with subcutaneous emphysema extending from the left thigh to the neck. Computed tomography scan also revealed portal vein gas and thrombosis with multiple liver abscesses. An emergency laparotomy revealed a perforation of the proximal left colon. No masses were found. A left colectomy was performed. The retroperitoneum was drained and washed extensively. A negative pressure wound therapy was applied. A second-look laparotomy was performed 48 hours later. The retroperitoneum was drained and an end colostomy was performed. Intensive Care Unit postoperative stay was 9 days, and the patient was discharged on the 32nd postoperative day. Pneumoretroperitoneum and pneumomediastinum are rare signs of colonic retroperitoneal perforation. The diagnosis may be delayed, especially in the absence of peritoneal irritation. Clinical, laboratory, and especially radiologic parameters might be useful. Surgical treatment must be prompt to improve prognosis. PMID:26414818

  16. The mechanisms and risks of surgical glove perforation.

    PubMed

    Palmer, J D; Rickett, J W

    1992-12-01

    Intact surgical gloves are a barrier to hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but once perforated during surgery they cannot sustain adequate defence. This study examines the rate of glove perforations during surgery at a District General Hospital. In total, 275 pairs of gloves were collected from 100 consecutive operations. In the 43% of gloves that had been damaged 200 perforations were recorded. The mean rate per operation in the surgeon's gloves was 1.18. Injuries to the non-dominant index finger were significantly higher than injuries to other parts of the hand. Injuries occurred particularly during manipulation of the needles and at wound closure. Consultants were more likely to have glove perforation than juniors. Operations requiring manipulation of instruments deep within the wound had a higher rate than those on the surface. The results of the study indicate that a surgeon risks more than one hepatitis B infection per lifetime and that at least one in 1500 surgeons is likely to be infected by HIV during the next 35 years. PMID:1363107

  17. Spontaneous uterine perforation of pyometra presenting as acute abdomen.

    PubMed

    Kitai, Toshihiro; Okuno, Kentaro; Ugaki, Hiromi; Komoto, Yoshiko; Fujimi, Satoshi; Takemura, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    Pyometra is the accumulation of pus in the uterine cavity, and spontaneous perforation of pyometra resulting in generalized diffuse peritonitis is extremely uncommon. We report a rare case of diffuse peritonitis caused by spontaneous perforation of pyometra. A 66-year-old postmenopausal woman with diffuse abdominal pain and vomiting was admitted to our institution. She had a history of mixed connective-tissue disease and had been taking steroids for 20 years. Under a diagnosis of generalized peritonitis secondary to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract or uterus, supravaginal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed. Unfortunately, wound dehiscence and infection occurred during the postoperative course, which were exacerbated by her immunocompromised state. Despite intensive care and a course of antibiotics, the patient died of multiple organ failure resulting from sepsis on the 36th postoperative day. Although correct diagnosis, early intervention, and proper treatment can reduce morbidity and mortality of spontaneous perforation of pyometra, if severe infection occurs, this disease can be life threatening for immunocompromised hosts. PMID:25057420

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF CLEAN AND FOULED PERFORATED MEMBRANE DIFFUSERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory analyses were conducted on plasticized PVC perforated membrane tube diffusers after varying periods in service at two different municipal wastewater treatment facilities. One set of diffusers from Cedar Creek, NY, was in service for 26 months. The other set from the ...

  19. Extrahepatic Pseudoaneurysms and Ruptures of the Hepatic Artery in Liver Transplant Recipients: Endovascular Management and a New Iatrogenic Etiology

    SciTech Connect

    Saad, Wael E. A. Dasgupta, Niloy; Lippert, Allison J.; Turba, Ulku C.; Davies, Mark G.; Kumer, Sean; Gardenier, Jason C.; Sabri, Saher S.; Park, Auh-Whan; Waldman, David L.; Schmitt, Timothy; Matsumoto, Alan H.; Angle, John F.

    2013-02-15

    To characterize extrahepatic pseudoaneurysm regarding incidence and etiology and determine the effectiveness of endovascular management. A retrospective audit of 1,857 liver transplants in two institutions was performed (1996-2009). Recipients' demographics, clinical presentation, transplant type, biliary anastomosis, and presence of biliary endoprostheses were noted. Pseudoaneurysms were classified into iatrogenic (associated with biliary endoprosthesis or angioplasty) or spontaneous extrahepatic pseudoaneurysms. Spontaneous and iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms were compared for time from transplant, presenting symptoms, location in the arterial anatomy, and 3-month graft survival. Arterial patency and 6-month graft survival were calculated. Twenty pseudoaneurysms were found (1.1 %, 20/1,857): 9 (0.5 % of transplants, 9/1,857) were spontaneous and 11 (0.6 % of transplants, 11/1,857) were 'iatrogenic' (due to minimally invasive procedures: 4 angioplasty and 7 biliary endoprostheses). Sixty percent (12/20) underwent endovascular management (4 coil embolization and 8 stent-grafts). Technical success was 83 % (10/12) with a mean arterial patency of 70 % (follow-up mean, 4.9; range, 0-18 months). The 1-, 3-, and 6-month graft survival was 70, 40, and 35 %, respectively. Due to minimally invasive procedures, posttransplant extrahepatic pseudoaneurysms are no longer an exclusive complication of the transplant surgery itself. Endovascular management is effective to stabilize patients but has not improved historic postsurgical graft survival.

  20. Iatrogenic vitamin D toxicity in an infant--a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Ketha, Hemamalini; Wadams, Heather; Lteif, Aida; Singh, Ravinder J

    2015-04-01

    Public concern over vitamin D deficiency has led to widespread use of over the counter (OTC) vitamin D (-D3 or -D2) supplements, containing up to 10,000 IU/unit dose (400 IU=10?g). Overzealous use of such supplements can cause hypercalcemia due to vitamin D toxicity. Infants are particularly vulnerable to toxicity associated with vitamin D overdose. OTC supplements are not subject to stringent quality control regulations from FDA and high degree of variability in vitamin D content in OTC pills has been demonstrated. Other etiologies of vitamin D induced hypercalcemia include hyperparathyroidism, granulomatous malignancies like sarcoidosis and mutations in the CYP24A1 gene. The differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia should include iatrogenic and genetic etiologies. C24-hydroxylation and C3-epimerization are two important biochemical pathways via which 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) is converted to its metabolites, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24,25(OH)2D3) or its C3 epimer, 3-epi-25-OH-D3 respectively. Mutations in the CYP24A1 gene cause reduced serum 24,25(OH)2D3 to 25(OH)D3 ratio (<0.02), elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3), hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria and nephrolithiasis. Studies in infants have shown that 3-epi-25(OH)D3 can contribute 9-61.1% of the total 25(OH)D3. Therefore, measurements of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D metabolites 25(OH)D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, 3-epi-25(OH)D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3 are useful to investigate whether the underlying cause of vitamin D toxicity is iatrogenic versus genetic. Here we report a case of vitamin D3 associated toxicity in a 4-month-old female who was exclusively breast-fed and received an oral liquid vitamin D3 supplement at a dose significantly higher than recommended on the label. The vitamin D3 content of the supplement was threefold higher (6000 IU of D/drop) than listed on the label (2000 IU). Due to overdosing and higher vitamin D3 content, the infant received ?50,000 IU/day for two months resulting in severe hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. We also review the relevant literature on vitamin D3 toxicity in this report. PMID:25636720

  1. Perforated Intestinal Tuberculosis in a Non-AIDS Immunocompromised Patient

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Dedrick Kok-Hong; Lee, Kuok-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 68 Final Diagnosis: Intestinal perforation Symptoms: Abdominal pain Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Exploratory laparotomy and bowel resection Specialty: Surgery Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Intestinal tuberculosis can mimic many conditions. The incidence of intestinal tuberculosis in developed countries has risen in tandem with the increase in patients with immunocompromised states. This is a condition which needs to be considered in patients who present with symptoms and signs of bowel perforation on a background of immunosuppression in order to obtain the correct diagnosis and, consequently, the correct treatment. Case Report: We report a patient with a background of sarcoidosis who had been on mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, and high-dose prednisolone. He presented with abdominal pain without overt peritonitis. Initial imaging showed small locules of free air in the abdominal cavity. The patient was managed with intravenous antibiotics as up-front surgery was deemed to be high risk. However, on a repeat imaging scan 3 days later, larger locules of gas were seen within the abdominal cavity, indicating progression and non-resolution of his acute condition. The patient was brought to the operating theatre and a perforation at the ileum was found. A segment of small bowel containing the perforation was resected. Histology showed the presence of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) on Ziehl-Neelsen stain, leading to a diagnosis of intestinal tuberculosis. Conclusions: A high index of suspicion for intestinal tuberculosis is needed in patients who are on immunosuppression. Intestinal tuberculosis presenting with perforation is unlikely to lead to spontaneous resolution without operative management, and patients should be brought to the operating theatre for immediate surgery. PMID:26451879

  2. Pyloro-duodenal hernia with formation of enterocutaneous fistula in a buffalo calf following a dog attack

    PubMed Central

    Kamalakar, G.; Prasad, V. Devi; Devaratnam, J.; Ganeshan, A.

    2015-01-01

    A body wall hernia entrapping abomasum and concurrent duodenal fistula in a buffalo calf aged about 8 months, secondary to a dog bite was successfully treated by closure of fistulous orifice and ventro lateral herniorrhaphy. PMID:26623378

  3. Iatrogenic CJD due to pituitary-derived growth hormone with genetically determined incubation times of up to 40 years.

    PubMed

    Rudge, Peter; Jaunmuktane, Zane; Adlard, Peter; Bjurstrom, Nina; Caine, Diana; Lowe, Jessica; Norsworthy, Penny; Hummerich, Holger; Druyeh, Ron; Wadsworth, Jonathan D F; Brandner, Sebastian; Hyare, Harpreet; Mead, Simon; Collinge, John

    2015-11-01

    Patients with iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease due to administration of cadaver-sourced growth hormone during childhood are still being seen in the UK 30 years after cessation of this treatment. Of the 77 patients who have developed iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, 56 have been genotyped. There has been a marked change in genotype profile at polymorphic codon 129 of the prion protein gene (PRNP) from predominantly valine homozygous to a mixed picture of methionine homozygous and methionine-valine heterozygous over time. The incubation period of iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is significantly different between all three genotypes. This experience is a striking contrast with that in France and the USA, which may relate to contamination of different growth hormone batches with different strains of human prions. We describe the clinical, imaging, molecular and autopsy features in 22 of 24 patients who have developed iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the UK since 2003. Mean age at onset of symptoms was 42.7 years. Gait ataxia and lower limb dysaesthesiae were the most frequent presenting symptoms. All had cerebellar signs, and the majority had myoclonus and lower limb pyramidal signs, with relatively preserved cognitive function, when first seen. There was a progressive decline in neurological and cognitive function leading to death after 5-32 (mean 14) months. Despite incubation periods approaching 40 years, the clinical duration in methionine homozygote patients appeared to be shorter than that seen in heterozygote patients. MRI showed restricted diffusion in the basal ganglia, thalamus, hippocampus, frontal and the paracentral motor cortex and cerebellar vermis. The electroencephalogram was abnormal in 15 patients and cerebrospinal fluid 14-3-3 protein was positive in half the patients. Neuropathological examination was conducted in nine patients. All but one showed synaptic prion deposition with numerous kuru type plaques in the basal ganglia, anterior frontal and parietal cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia and cerebellum. The patient with the shortest clinical duration had an atypical synaptic deposition of abnormal prion protein and no kuru plaques. Taken together, these data provide a remarkable example of the interplay between the strain of the pathogen and host prion protein genotype. Based on extensive modelling of human prion transmission barriers in transgenic mice expressing human prion protein on a mouse prion protein null background, the temporal distribution of codon 129 genotypes within the cohort of patients with iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the UK suggests that there was a point source of infecting prion contamination of growth hormone derived from a patient with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease expressing prion protein valine 129. PMID:26268531

  4. Iatrogenic CJD due to pituitary-derived growth hormone with genetically determined incubation times of up to 40 years

    PubMed Central

    Jaunmuktane, Zane; Adlard, Peter; Bjurstrom, Nina; Caine, Diana; Lowe, Jessica; Norsworthy, Penny; Hummerich, Holger; Druyeh, Ron; Wadsworth, Jonathan D. F.; Brandner, Sebastian; Hyare, Harpreet; Mead, Simon; Collinge, John

    2015-01-01

    Patients with iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease due to administration of cadaver-sourced growth hormone during childhood are still being seen in the UK 30 years after cessation of this treatment. Of the 77 patients who have developed iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, 56 have been genotyped. There has been a marked change in genotype profile at polymorphic codon 129 of the prion protein gene (PRNP) from predominantly valine homozygous to a mixed picture of methionine homozygous and methionine-valine heterozygous over time. The incubation period of iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is significantly different between all three genotypes. This experience is a striking contrast with that in France and the USA, which may relate to contamination of different growth hormone batches with different strains of human prions. We describe the clinical, imaging, molecular and autopsy features in 22 of 24 patients who have developed iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the UK since 2003. Mean age at onset of symptoms was 42.7 years. Gait ataxia and lower limb dysaesthesiae were the most frequent presenting symptoms. All had cerebellar signs, and the majority had myoclonus and lower limb pyramidal signs, with relatively preserved cognitive function, when first seen. There was a progressive decline in neurological and cognitive function leading to death after 5–32 (mean 14) months. Despite incubation periods approaching 40 years, the clinical duration in methionine homozygote patients appeared to be shorter than that seen in heterozygote patients. MRI showed restricted diffusion in the basal ganglia, thalamus, hippocampus, frontal and the paracentral motor cortex and cerebellar vermis. The electroencephalogram was abnormal in 15 patients and cerebrospinal fluid 14-3-3 protein was positive in half the patients. Neuropathological examination was conducted in nine patients. All but one showed synaptic prion deposition with numerous kuru type plaques in the basal ganglia, anterior frontal and parietal cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia and cerebellum. The patient with the shortest clinical duration had an atypical synaptic deposition of abnormal prion protein and no kuru plaques. Taken together, these data provide a remarkable example of the interplay between the strain of the pathogen and host prion protein genotype. Based on extensive modelling of human prion transmission barriers in transgenic mice expressing human prion protein on a mouse prion protein null background, the temporal distribution of codon 129 genotypes within the cohort of patients with iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the UK suggests that there was a point source of infecting prion contamination of growth hormone derived from a patient with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease expressing prion protein valine 129. PMID:26268531

  5. Evaluation of endoscopically obtained duodenal biopsy samples from cats and dogs in an adapter-modified Ussing chamber

    PubMed Central

    DeBiasio, John V.; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Newman, Shelley; Musch, Mark W.; Steiner, Jörg M.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate an adapter-modified Ussing chamber for assessment of transport physiology in endoscopically obtained duodenal biopsies from healthy cats and dogs, as well as dogs with chronic enteropathies. 17 duodenal biopsies from five cats and 51 duodenal biopsies from 13 dogs were obtained. Samples were transferred into an adapter-modified Ussing chamber and sequentially exposed to various absorbagogues and secretagogues. Overall, 78.6% of duodenal samples obtained from cats responded to at least one compound. In duodenal biopsies obtained from dogs, the rate of overall response ranged from 87.5% (healthy individuals; n = 8), to 63.6% (animals exhibiting clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease and histopathological unremarkable duodenum; n = 15), and 32.1% (animals exhibiting clinical signs of gastrointestinal diseases and moderate to severe histopathological lesions; n = 28). Detailed information regarding the magnitude and duration of the response are provided. The adapter-modified Ussing chamber enables investigation of the absorptive and secretory capacity of endoscopically obtained duodenal biopsies from cats and dogs and has the potential to become a valuable research tool. The response of samples was correlated with histopathological findings. PMID:24378587

  6. Coupling Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS) with Electrotherapy: Fighting Iatrogenic Opioid Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; DiNubile, Nicholas; Giordano, John; Braverman, Eric R; Truesdell, Courtney E; Barh, Debmalya; Badgaiyan, Rajendra

    2014-01-01

    The endemic of legal opioid iatrogenic induced prescription drug abuse is of major world-wide concern. Understanding pain pathways and the role of dopaminergic tone in the neurophysiology of pain relief provides potential therapeutic solutions. A 2011 NIDA report indicated that approximately 8.7% of the entire US population above the age of 12 years has used a psychoactive drug within the past 30 days. It has been reported that the overall genetic contribution to the variance of Substance Use Disorder (SUD) was approximately 60% but each candidate gene evaluated by GWAS was relatively small. In an attempt to combat this global endemic we are proposing a number of alternative strategies. Prevention of death due to opioid overdose and attenuation of prescription abuse should focus on strategies that target 1) high-dosage medical users; 2) persons who seek care from multiple doctors; 3) persons involved in “drug diversion”; 4) genetic testing for addiction liability and severity indices; 5) non-pharmacolgical analgesic treatments such as electrotherapy. PMID:24616834

  7. Superselective Renal Artery Embolization in the Treatment of Iatrogenic Bleeding into the Urinary Tract

    PubMed Central

    Z?bkowski, Tomasz; Piasecki, Piotr; Zieli?ski, Henryk; Wieczorek, Andrzej; Brzozowski, Krzysztof; Zi?cina, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of superselective renal artery embolization in patients with bleeding into the urinary system. Material/Methods From 2007 to 2012, 20 patients were treated with superselective renal artery embolization for bleeding after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), nephron-sparing surgery (NSS), including 1 patient with AVF after PCNL. During the procedure, embolization material was injected through a microcatheter to stop the bleeding. Embolization materials included a mixture of cyanoacrylate and lipiodol, embolization coils, and Spongostan. Clinical evaluation included remission of hematuria and normalization of blood morphotic elements. Results The cause of bleeding into the urinary tract was damage to vessels (all cases): with coexisting false aneurism (8 cases); with coexisting arterio-venus fistula (1 case); and with coexisting intrarenal hematoma (3 cases). The bleeding occurred 2–5 days after PCNL and NSS, and 10 days after PCNL with AVF. The mean hematocrit level was 22%–24%. Technical success was achieved in 20 cases. Clinical success was achieved in 19 cases. One patient with hematuria after PCNL with AVF needed a second endovascular treatment to stop bleeding. Conclusions Superselective renal artery embolization is an effective procedure in the treatment of iatrogenic bleeding into the urinary tract after PCNL and NSS. PMID:25627580

  8. [Infectious complications in patients with iatrogenic diseases of the trachea and esophagus].

    PubMed

    Parshin, V D; Bogomolova, N S; Vishnevskaia, G A; Bol'shakov, L V; Oreshkina, T D; Kuznetsova, S M; Cherny?, S S

    2010-01-01

    Methods for microbiological monitoring could analyze the microflora isolated in 372 patients with iatrogenic diseases of the trachea and esophagus, who were treated at the Department for Surgery of the Lung and Mediastinum, Acad. B. V. Petrovsky Russian Research Center of Surgery, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, in 2003 to 2009. Major groups of microorganisms colonizing the tracheobronchial tree in patients who had undergone long-term resuscitation, injuries, surgery, etc. and in those who had admitted to the department from other clinics are identified. The main clinically significant microorganisms isolated during the pathological process in this area were Staphylococcus epidermadis (3.9-13.3%), St. aureus (12.4-21.1%), Pseudomonas eruginosa (9.2-17.5%), and Candida fungi (7.8-12.2%). This indicates the greater importance of the fungal microflora and its representatives' resistance to the most commonly used drugs. Rational antibacterial therapy regimens are proposed in relation to the type of microorganisms colonizing the tracheobronchial tree. PMID:21395146

  9. May-Thurner syndrome: High output cardiac failure as a result of iatrogenic iliac fistula

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shantanu; Singh, Shivank; Jyothimallika, Juthika; Lynch, Teresa J

    2015-01-01

    May-Thurner syndrome (MTS) also termed iliocaval compression or Cockett-Thomas syndrome is a common, although rarely diagnosed, condition in which the patient has an anatomical variant wherein the right common iliac artery overlies and compresses the left common iliac vein against the fifth lumbar spine resulting in increased risk of iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis. This variant has been shown to be present in over 23% of the population but most go undetected. We present a patient with MTS who developed high output cardiac failure due to an iatrogenic iliac fistula. The patient underwent an extensive workup for a left to right shunt including MRI and arterial duplex in the vascular lab. He was ultimately found to have a 2.1 cm left common iliac artery aneurysm and history of common iliac stent. We took the patient to the operating room for aortogram with placement of an endovascular plug of the left internal iliac artery and aorto-bi-iliac stent graft placement with CO2 and IV contrast. Subsequently the patient underwent successful stent placement in the area that was compressed followed by 6 mo of anticoagulation with warfarin. The flow from the fistula decreased significantly. PMID:25789305

  10. Iatrogenic Biliary Injuries: Multidisciplinary Management in a Major Tertiary Referral Center

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Ibrahim Abdelkader; Shoreem, Hany Abdelmeged; Saleh, Sherif Mohamed; Hegazy, Osama; Housseni, Mohamed; Abbasy, Mohamed; Badra, Gamal; Ibrahim, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    Background. Iatrogenic biliary injuries are considered as the most serious complications during cholecystectomy. Better outcomes of such injuries have been shown in cases managed in a specialized center. Objective. To evaluate biliary injuries management in major referral hepatobiliary center. Patients & Methods. Four hundred seventy-two consecutive patients with postcholecystectomy biliary injuries were managed with multidisciplinary team (hepatobiliary surgeon, gastroenterologist, and radiologist) at major Hepatobiliary Center in Egypt over 10-year period using endoscopy in 232 patients, percutaneous techniques in 42 patients, and surgery in 198 patients. Results. Endoscopy was very successful initial treatment of 232 patients (49%) with mild/moderate biliary leakage (68%) and biliary stricture (47%) with increased success by addition of percutaneous (Rendezvous technique) in 18 patients (3.8%). However, surgery was needed in 198 patients (42%) for major duct transection, ligation, major leakage, and massive stricture. Surgery was urgent in 62 patients and elective in 136 patients. Hepaticojejunostomy was done in most of cases with transanastomotic stents. There was one mortality after surgery due to biliary sepsis and postoperative stricture in 3 cases (1.5%) treated with percutaneous dilation and stenting. Conclusion. Management of biliary injuries was much better with multidisciplinary care team with initial minimal invasive technique to major surgery in major complex injury encouraging early referral to highly specialized hepatobiliary center. PMID:25435672

  11. Iatrogenic newborn weight loss: knowledge translation using a study protocol for your maternity setting

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In our original study of newborn weight loss, we determined there were positive correlations among newborn weight loss, neonatal output, and the IV fluids mothers received before their babies' birth. Basically, an increase in maternal IV fluids is correlated to an increase in neonatal output and newborn weight loss. When assessing newborn weight change, our recommendation is to change baseline from birth weight to a weight measured at 24 hours. The purpose of this paper is to provide a protocol for clinicians to collect and analyze data from their own maternity site to determine if the newborns experience such an iatrogenic weight loss and to make decisions about how to assess newborn weight changes. Methods We recommend a prospective observational study with data collected about maternal fluids, neonatal output, and newborn weight measurements. The methods we suggest include specifics about recruitment, data collection, and data analysis. Discussion Quality assurance and research ethics considerations are described. We also share practical information that we learned from our original study. Ultimately, to encourage knowledge translation and research uptake, we provide a protocol and sound advice to do a research study in your maternity setting. PMID:21843331

  12. Frequency of Iatrogenic Errors through Root Canal Treatment Procedure in 1335 Charts of Dental Patients

    PubMed Central

    Haji-Hassani, Neda; Bakhshi, Mahin; Shahabi, Samaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Endodontic procedures such as root canal treatment would be at the risk of failure like other medical interventions due to any unsuitable conditions. This has a causative effect in making the procedure more complicated to resulting in weak prognosis finally. Technical errors such as ledge, perforation, obstruction, broken instrument, etc. make infection control too hard or impossible. The aims of this study are common errors frequency and types of root canal treatments focusing on defined groups of dental students in Qazvin, Iran. Materials and Methods: All the errors were divided into three major kinds of: (1) During providing access cavity, (2) cleaning and preparation and (3) canal obturation. Results: A total number of 1335 charts of the cases were studied in the field of root canal treatment. The whole number of charts, which reported errors was 880 (66%) while 455 (34%) error-free ones. The most frequent error in upper incisors was void with the rate of 50.9%, followed by overfilling (apical perforation) in 18.2%. The same errors were also most common for lower incisors in addition to imperfect cleaning. Conclusions: The current study identified the least mistakes through the process of providing access cavity and instrumentation phase comparing obturation phase, which had the most frequent errors including void, overfilling and imperfect cleaning. PMID:26225098

  13. How diet and lifestyle affect duodenal ulcers. Review of the evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Ryan-Harshman, Milly; Aldoori, Walid

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the role of diet in reducing or aggravating risk of duodenal ulcer (DU). QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched from January 1966 to December 2001 for articles on the relationship between diet and lifestyle and DU using the key words duodenal ulcer and diet, fibre, or lifestyle. Evidence that these factors are associated with DU arose mainly from three case-control and three prospective studies (level II evidence) and from expert opinion (level III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE: A high-fibre diet appears to reduce risk of DU; soluble fibre might be associated with reduced risk also. Vitamin A intake is associated with lower risk of DU. Little evidence indicates that fat, type of fat, protein intake, or consumption of alcohol or caffeine affect the etiology of DU. CONCLUSION: A high-fibre diet, particularly if the fibre comes from fruit and vegetables, could reduce risk of DU; vitamin A might also be beneficial. PMID:15171675

  14. Upper ureteric transitional cell carcinoma, extending to the renal pelvis, presenting as duodenal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Stroman, Luke Andrew; Sharma, Naomi; Sullivan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    A 61-year-old man presented with weight loss, dysphagia and vomiting. A barium swallow revealed a duodenal obstruction at D3. CT of the abdomen and pelvis showed a left upper ureteric tumour extending to the renal pelvis compressing the duodenum and causing left-sided hydronephrosis. Cystoscopy and left-sided ureteroscopy proved difficult and were unable to visualise or biopsy the mass, but a left ureteric stent was placed. Laparoscopic biopsy of the mass was completed and histology revealed transitional cell carcinoma. The patient went on to receive palliative chemotherapy, which relieved the small bowel obstruction, and the patient was able to eat solid food 8?weeks later. This case highlights a previously unreported cause of duodenal obstruction. PMID:26564110

  15. [A case of enterolith ileus secondary to acute pancreatitis associated with a juxtapapillary duodenal diverticulum].

    PubMed

    Morii, Shinji; Doi, Yoko; Makita, Tomoo; Takeda, Shinichiro; Miura, Seiki; Kaneko, Takaaki; Saito, Shuichi; Okabe, Shinichiro

    2015-05-01

    A 63-year-old woman with abdominal pain was referred to our hospital. Her pancreatic enzymes were elevated, and an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan showed an enlarged pancreas, consistent with pancreatitis, and gas collection containing an impacted stone adjacent to Vater's papilla. This finding raised the suspicion of a duodenal diverticulum. A subsequent ERCP showed a juxtapapillary duodenal diverticulum (JPDD) filled with calculi and pus. The pancreatitis improved with 2 weeks of conservative treatment. Subsequently, the patient underwent resection of the uterus and bilateral adnexa to remove a large ovarian cyst that was also identified on the admission CT scan. On the third postoperative day, she developed abdominal pain and vomiting. CT revealed small bowel obstruction caused by an enterolith expelled from JPDD. Enterotomy was performed to remove the stone. To our knowledge, only three similar cases have been previously reported in Japan. PMID:25947022

  16. Endoscopic treatment of intraluminal duodenal ("windsock") diverticulum: varying techniques from five cases.

    PubMed

    Law, R; Topazian, M; Baron, T H

    2012-12-01

    The optimal endoscopic approach to intraluminal duodenal diverticulum (IDD) has not been established. We report on our experience of endoscopic resection of symptomatic IDD in five patients (three men, two women; mean age 37 years) who were treated between August 2004 and April 2012.?Four patients underwent endoscopic diverticulectomy using a standard polypectomy snare. Following diverticulectomy, the remaining duodenal septum was incised using a needle-knife in two patients. The fifth patient underwent endoscopic diverticulotomy using a needle-knife. In four cases the IDD was resected and reviewed histologically and demonstrated substantial vascularity. All patients developed clinically significant, post-procedural bleeding, which was managed endoscopically. Endoscopic management of symptomatic IDD can be achieved using various approaches. Post-procedural bleeding appears to be a common adverse event, but this complication can be managed endoscopically. PMID:23188665

  17. Down syndrome: Molecular mapping of the congenital heart disease and duodenal stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Korenburg, J.R. ); Bradley, C.; Disteche, C.M. )

    1992-02-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a major cause of congenital heart and gut disease and mental retardation. DS individuals also have characteristic facies, hands, and dermatoglyphics, in addition to abnormalities of the immune system, and increased risk of leukemia, and an Alzheimer-like dementia. Although their molecular basis is unknown, recent work on patients with DS and partial duplications of chromosome 21 has suggested small chromosomal regions located in band q22 that are likely to contain the genes for some of these features. The authors now extend these analyses to define molecular markers for the congenital heart disease, the duodenal stenosis, and an 'overlap' region for the facial and some of the skeletal features. They report the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular analysis of two patients. These studies provide the molecular basis for the construction of a DS phenotypic map and focus the search for genes responsible for the physical features, congenital heart disease, and duodenal stenosis of DS.

  18. Variant on Manifestation of Duodenal Metastasis 26 Years after Initial Diagnosis of Primary Cutaneous Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Kumiko; Bardier-Dupas, Armelle; Breton, Sylvie; Rousseau, Géraldine; Siksik, Jean-Michel; Vaillant, Jean-Christophe; Hannoun, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Malignant duodenal neoplasms are relatively rare, and the diagnosis is often delayed because of their vague and nonspecific symptoms. We report the case of a 79-year-old female who had a medical history of malignant melanoma of the cheek that had initially been diagnosed at 53 years of age. Work-up revealed severe stenosis of the duodenum caused by a large mass with ulceration at the tip of its mucosal surface. Tumor biopsy led to a histological diagnosis of extremely poorly differentiated carcinoma, but it was impossible to determine whether the lesion was a primary neoplasm or represented secondary involvement. Pancreatoduodenectomy was performed, and the surgical specimen showed a protuberant tumor in the nonampullary region of the second portion of the duodenum. Final diagnosis of metastatic duodenal melanoma was made by immunohistological examination. She is currently alive without recurrence 28 months after the surgical treatment. PMID:21103234

  19. Duodenal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas: Two Cases and the Evaluation of Endoscopic Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Jin; Choi, Choel Woong; Ha, Jong Kun; Hong, Young Mi; Park, Jin Hyun; Park, Soo Bum; Kang, Dae Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma mainly arises in the stomach, with fewer than 30% arising in the small intestine. We describe here two cases of primary duodenal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma which were evaluated by endoscopic ultrasonography. A 52-year-old man underwent endoscopy due to abdominal pain, which demonstrated a depressed lesion on duodenal bulb. Endoscopic ultrasonographic finding was hypoechoic lesion invading the submucosa. The other case was a previously healthy 51-year-old man. Endoscopy showed a whitish granular lesion on duodenum third portion. Endoscopic ultrasonography image was similar to the first case, whereas abdominal computed tomography revealed enlargement of multiple lymph nodes. The first case was treated with eradication of Helicobacter pylori, after which the mucosal change and endoscopic ultrasound finding were normalized in 7 months. The second case was treated with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisolone, and rituximab every 3 weeks. After 6 courses of chemotherapy, the patient achieved complete remission. PMID:24143321

  20. Hemoclip-assisted endoscopic polypectomy of large superior duodenal angle polyp using a needle knife.

    PubMed

    Lin, L F; Siauw, C P; Ho, K S; Tung, J C

    2001-12-01

    Endoscopic polypectomy of a large polyp can be difficult due to inability to snare the polyp. The difficulty may increase when the polyp is located at turning corner of the bowel. We presented a case of a 3 cm-sized large pedunculated polyp located at the superior duodenal angle that was not amenable to conventional snare polypectomy, but was instead successfully resected by hemoclip-assisted and needle knife method. Such experience has not been reported in the English literature. PMID:11922495

  1. Duodenal hemorrhage and dermal vasculitis associated with mixed connective tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Hirose, W; Nakane, H; Misumi, J; Sugi, T; Hara, M; Kawagoe, M; Nakamura, H

    1993-01-01

    We describe a 23-year-old woman with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) who developed duodenal bleeding responsive to treatment with corticosteroid and recurrent skin eruptions due to leukocytoclastic vasculitis. The endoscopic findings revealed patchy, reddened, edematous, friable mucosa with scattered small ulcers and oozing of blood in the second portion of the duodenum. Endoscopic pictures from the onset to healing are presented. This appears to be the first recorded occurrence of such findings in MCTD. PMID:8441150

  2. Ultrastructural aspects of duodenal mucosa repair during treatment of peptic disease.

    PubMed

    Zoli, G; Bonvicini, F; Ercoli, C; Gasbarrini, G; Laschi, R

    1984-01-01

    We applied scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to the study of duodenal ulcer healing during treatment with an H2-receptor antagonist (ranitidine). We also evaluated the changes in the duodenal mucosa close to the lesion, which appeared endoscopically and histologically normal. Endoscopic biopsies were taken from 8 patients both on the edge of the ulcer and in the upper duodenum, before and after 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. Endoscopy revealed a decrease of the ulcer crater after the first week and a complete healing after three weeks of therapy. The ulcer edge presented a subtotal mucosal atrophy, cellular exfoliation (dome-shaped cells) and changes in microvilli (bridging, branching, blebs). In the first week of treatment, reepithelization was observed: however, cellular exfoliation and changes in microvilli persisted at least up to the end of the first month of treatment. Short and stumped villi began to reappear after one month. The mucosa farthest from the lesion showed the same alterations but to a lesser extent. The changes tended to decrease after treatment. Two months after the end of treatment the duodenal mucosa was endoscopically and histologically normal, while SEM showed altered microvilli. SEM allowed us to investigate the morphogenesis of mucosal repair and to identify minimal cellular alterations which could represent the morphological basis of the disease and its possible recurrence. PMID:6099683

  3. In Vivo Risk Analysis of Pancreatic Cancer Through Optical Characterization of Duodenal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Mutyal, Nikhil N.; Radosevich, Andrew J.; Bajaj, Shailesh; Konda, Vani; Siddiqui, Uzma D.; Waxman, Irving; Goldberg, Michael J.; Rogers, Jeremy D.; Gould, Bradley; Eshein, Adam; Upadhye, Sudeep; Koons, Ann; Gonzalez-Haba Ruiz, Mariano; Roy, Hemant K.; Backman, Vadim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To reduce pancreatic cancer mortality, a paradigm shift in cancer screening is needed. Our group pioneered the use of low-coherence enhanced backscattering (LEBS) spectroscopy to predict the presence of pancreatic cancer by interrogating the duodenal mucosa. A previous ex vivo study (n = 203) demonstrated excellent diagnostic potential: sensitivity, 95%; specificity, 71%; and accuracy, 85%. The objective of the current case-control study was to evaluate this approach in vivo. Methods We developed a novel endoscope-compatible fiber-optic probe to measure LEBS in the periampullary duodenum of 41 patients undergoing upper endoscopy. This approach enables minimally invasive detection of the ultrastructural consequences of pancreatic field carcinogenesis. Results The LEBS parameters and optical properties were significantly altered in patients harboring adenocarcinomas (including early-stage) throughout the pancreas relative to healthy controls. Test performance characteristics were excellent with sensitivity = 78%, specificity = 85%, and accuracy = 81%. Moreover, the LEBS prediction rule was not confounded by patients’ demographics. Conclusion We demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo measurement of histologically normal duodenal mucosa to predict the presence of adenocarcinoma throughout the pancreas. This represents the next step in establishing duodenal LEBS analysis as a prescreening technique that identifies clinically asymptomatic patients who are at elevated risk of PC. PMID:25906443

  4. Thermographic Localization of Incompetent Perforating Veins in the Leg

    PubMed Central

    Patil, K. D.; Williams, J. R.; Williams, K. Lloyd

    1970-01-01

    Incompetent perforating veins in the leg were localized separately by clinical and thermographic methods. Clinically, the methods used were a multiple tourniquet test and palpation for fascial defects. Thermographically, the diagnosis of an incompetent perforator was made by finding rapid and localized heat flow to the skin in a cooled limb with occlusion of circulation in the superficial veins distally and proximally. Exploration of all the sites marked clinically or thermographically showed that the clinical method detected 60%, missed 40%, and gave false-positive results in 40%, while thermography detected 94·5%, missed 5·5%, and contributed 13% false-positive results. All these findings show a highly significant difference (P<0.0005) in favour of the thermographic technique as against the clinical method. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:4904934

  5. Anomalous sound absorption in lattices of cylindrical perforated shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Chocano, Victor M.; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2015-03-01

    This work reports the enhancement of sound absorption by sonic crystals slabs made of cylindrical perforated shells. These building units, with perforations of millimeter size, show small losses and cannot explain the strong absorption observed at some specific frequencies when the slabs consist of just a few number of rows. It is found that this phenomenon is due to a resonant Wood anomaly which occurs when the incident wave couples with a leaky guided mode supported by the slab. This effect results in an enhancement of the absorption, since the energy transferred to the guided mode travels within the slab, along a direction perpendicular to the incident one. Multiple scattering and finite element simulations give support to the proposed behavior, the transmittance results being in good agreement with experimental data previously reported.

  6. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum with periumbilical perforation in a nullipara.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Parimalam; Sivasubramanian, Athilakshmi; Vadivel, Sampath; Krishnaswamy, Manoharan

    2012-05-01

    Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is an inherited multisystem disorder that primarily affects the skin and is characterized by progressive calcification and degeneration of the elastic fibers. PXE has recently been found to be caused by mutations in the ATP-binding cassette transporter C6 (ABCC6) or the multidrug resistance-associated protein 6 (MRP6) genes. Perforating PXE is a rare presentation that is usually seen in the periumbilical area in obese multiparous black women; it has distinct clinical and histopathological features and there may or may not be systemic manifestations. We report an unusual case of PXE in a nulliparous woman, with perforation in the periumbilical area and without any systemic involvement. PMID:22707774

  7. Directional bending wave propagation in periodically perforated plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreassen, Erik; Manktelow, Kevin; Ruzzene, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    We report on the investigation of wave propagation in a periodically perforated plate. A unit cell with double-C perforations is selected as a test article suitable to investigate two-dimensional dispersion characteristics, group velocities, and internal resonances. A numerical model, formulated using Mindlin plate elements, is developed to predict relevant wave characteristics such as dispersion, and group velocity variation as a function of frequency and direction of propagation. Experimental tests are conducted through a scanning laser vibrometer, which provides full wave field information. The analysis of time domain wave field images allows the assessment of plate dispersion, and the comparison with numerical predictions. The obtained results show the predictive ability of the considered numerical approach and illustrate how the considered plate configuration could be used as the basis for the design of phononic waveguides with directional and internal resonant characteristics.

  8. Apparatus and method for sealing perforated well casing

    DOEpatents

    Blount, Curtis G. (Wasilla, AK); Benham, Robert A. (Albuquerque, NM); Brock, Jerry L. (Los Lunas, NM); Emerson, John A. (Albuquerque, NM); Ferguson, Keith R. (Anchorage, AK); Scheve, Donald F. (Anchorage, AK); Schmidt, Joseph H. (Anchorage, AK); Schuler, Karl W. (Albuquerque, NM); Stanton, Philip L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    Perforations and other openings in well casings, liners and other conduits may be substantially blocked or sealed to prevent fluid flow between the casing or liner interior and an earth formation by placing a radially expansible sleeve adjacent the perforations or openings and urging the sleeve into forcible engagement with the casing or inner wall using an explosive charge. An apparatus including a radially contracted sleeve formed by a coiled plate member or a tubular member having flutes defined by external and internal folds, may be deployed into a well casing or liner through a production or injection tubing string and on the end of a flexible cable or coilable tubing. An explosive charge disposed on the apparatus and within the sleeve may be detonated to urge the sleeve into forcible engagement with the casing inner wall.

  9. Apparatus and method for sealing perforated well casing

    DOEpatents

    Blount, C.G.; Benham, R.A.; Brock, J.L.; Emerson, J.A.; Ferguson, K.R.; Scheve, D.F.; Schmidt, J.H.; Schuler, K.W.; Stanton, P.L.

    1997-03-25

    Perforations and other openings in well casings, liners and other conduits may be substantially blocked or sealed to prevent fluid flow between the casing or liner interior and an earth formation by placing a radially expansible sleeve adjacent the perforations or openings and urging the sleeve into forcible engagement with the casing or inner wall using an explosive charge. An apparatus including a radially contracted sleeve formed by a coiled plate member or a tubular member having flutes defined by external and internal folds, may be deployed into a well casing or liner through a production or injection tubing string and on the end of a flexible cable or coilable tubing. An explosive charge disposed on the apparatus and within the sleeve may be detonated to urge the sleeve into forcible engagement with the casing inner wall. 17 figs.

  10. Geometric control of failure behavior in perforated sheets.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Michelle M

    2014-12-01

    Adding perforations to a continuum sheet allows new modes of deformation, and thus modifies its elastic behavior. The failure behavior of such a perforated sheet is explored, using a model experimental system: a material containing a one-dimensional array of rectangular holes. In this model system, a transition in failure mode occurs as the spacing and aspect ratio of the holes are varied: rapid failure via a running crack is completely replaced by quasistatic failure, which proceeds via the breaking of struts at random positions in the array of holes. I demonstrate that this transition can be connected to the loss of stress enhancement, which occurs as the material geometry is modified. PMID:25615109

  11. Spontaneous Biliary Perforations: An Uncommon yet Important Entity in Children

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Prabudh; Jain, Vishesh; Manchanda, Vivek; Sengar, Mamta; Gupta, Chhabi Ranu; Mohta, Anup

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous or idiopathic biliary perforations are an infrequently encountered but an important cause of surgical jaundice in paediatric patients and one of the most common causes of surgical jaundice in infancy. A pre-operative diagnosis with a clinical history and physical findings may not be possible in most of the cases. The exact cause of the perforation remains unclear and the diagnosis is made at the time of laparotomy for an acute abdomen. An early, efficient and an effective surgical management is associated with a good prognosis; however, a delay in the correct diagnosis or an inappropriate management may result in bacterial contamination of the biliary ascites, with an unfavourable outcome. The relative rarity of this condition is reflected by the very few case reports, limited case studies and scarcity of published literature. PMID:23905142

  12. Perforation of Meckel's diverticulum by foreign body, a rare complication.

    PubMed

    Cotirlet, A; Anghel, R; Tincu, E; Rau, S; Motoc, I; Popa, E

    2013-01-01

    Meckel's diverticulum is a congenital disorder that results from an incomplete obliteration of the vitelline duct. Meckel's diverticulum may give rise to bleeding, intestinal obstruction and inflammation; however, its perforation by a foreign body is an extremely rare life-threatening complication. We report ona 37-year-old male presenting symptoms and signs of acute abdomen with an initial suspicion of acute appendicitis.However, the right diagnosis was made only during exploratory laparoscopy when the appendix was found to be normal,whereas Meckel's diverticulum was found to be inflamed and perforated by a chicken bone. The patient was treated successfully with laparoscopic resection of the diverticulum, and had an uncomplicated postoperative course. PMID:23790794

  13. Impalement injury by glass shard with delayed colonic perforation

    PubMed Central

    Rosat, Adriá; Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Chocarro, Cristina; Barrera, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A 66-year-old man experienced a traumatic injury after a fall on top of a glass tea table, which caused some superficial lacerations all around the body. He was examined in the emergency room by a physician. The physician could not feel any foreign body upon wound exploration and sutured the laceration. Fourteen months after the injury, he developed progressive abdominal pain. On emergency room and abdominal x-ray showed a foreign body, which a CT scan revealed as an intraabdominal glass shard. The glass presumably impaled his abdominal wall as a result of his previous traumatic injury. The patient underwent laparotomy, which revealed a large glass (16x1cm) perforating the transverse colon. It was extracted and the perforation closed with a lineal stapler. There was no need of bowel resection and the patient was discharged home nine days after the intervention. PMID:26587176

  14. Parenchymal Guidewire Perforation during ERCP: An Unappreciated Injury

    PubMed Central

    Rabie, M. Ezzedien; Al Faris, Saad; Nasser, Ali; Shahir, Abdul Aziz; Al Mahdi, Yasser; Youssef Al Asmari, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    ERCP is attended with certain complications, the majority of which are well known to the medical community. Other less-known complications also exist. Guidewire injury to the hepatic or pancreatic parenchyma represents one of the much less appreciated, albeit preventable, complications. In this report, we present the clinical course of three patients who sustained guidewire perforation of the pancreatic or hepatic parenchyma. In one patient, the clinical deterioration was confidently attributed to guidewire perforation of the pancreatic parenchyma. Conservative treatment was successful and unnecessary emergency surgery was thus avoided. In the other two, in whom the cause of the clinical deterioration was unclear, an emergency surgery was performed. Guidewire injury to the hepatic parenchyma was then confirmed which needed only intraperitoneal drainage, with successful outcome. PMID:26693377

  15. Diagnosing spontaneous ileal neobladder perforation: Too often delayed

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Shilo; Gofrit, Ofer N.; Hidas, Guy; Landau, Ezekiel H.; Pode, Dov

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous neobladder perforations are rare, but well-documented; the first cases were reported more than 2 decades ago mostly in urologic journals. However, the diagnosis of these patients is often delayed in the emergency room setting because initial care is given by non-urological medical staff that is too often unaware of this etiology. We present 2 cases and discuss the shift in treatment that has occurred over time. PMID:24475003

  16. Sural Versus Perforator Flaps for Distal Medial Leg Wounds.

    PubMed

    Schannen, Andrew P; Truchan, Lisa; Goshima, Kaoru; Bentley, Roger; DeSilva, Gregory L

    2015-12-01

    Soft tissue coverage of distal medial ankle wounds is a challenging problem in orthopedic surgery because of the limited local tissues and prominent instrumentation. Traditionally, these wounds required free tissue transfer to achieve suitable coverage and subsequent bony union. To better respect the reconstructive ladder and to avoid the inherent difficulty of free flap coverage, rotational flaps have been used to cover these wounds. Both sural fasciocutaneous flaps and rotational fasciocutaneous perforator (propeller) flaps have been described for distal medial soft tissue coverage. The authors performed a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent distal medial leg coverage with the use of either sural flaps or rotational fasciocutaneous perforator flaps. The authors identified 14 patients by Current Procedural Terminology code who met the study criteria. The average age and degree of medical comorbidities were comparable in the 2 groups. The authors reviewed their medical records to evaluate fracture healing, flap size, complications, and return to normal shoe wear. All 7 sural flaps healed without incident, with underlying fracture healing. Of the 7 perforator flaps, 6 healed without incident, with underlying fracture healing. One perforator-based flap was complicated by superficial tip necrosis and went on to heal with local wound care. All patients returned to normal shoe wear. Both sural artery rotational flaps and posterior tibial artery-based rotational flaps are viable options for coverage of the distal medial leg. Coverage can be achieved reliably without microsurgery, anticoagulation, or monitoring in the intensive care unit. [Orthopedics. 2015; 38(12):e1059-e1064.]. PMID:26652325

  17. Temperature Driven Annealing of Perforations in Bicellar Model Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Nieh, Mu-Ping; Raghunathan, V.A.; Pabst, Georg; Harroun, Thad; Nagashima, K; Morales, H; Katsaras, John; Macdonald, P

    2011-01-01

    Bicellar model membranes composed of 1,2-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and 1,2-dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC), with a DMPC/DHPC molar ratio of 5, and doped with the negatively charged lipid 1,2-dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPG), at DMPG/DMPC molar ratios of 0.02 or 0.1, were examined using small angle neutron scattering (SANS), {sup 31}P NMR, and {sup 1}H pulsed field gradient (PFG) diffusion NMR with the goal of understanding temperature effects on the DHPC-dependent perforations in these self-assembled membrane mimetics. Over the temperature range studied via SANS (300-330 K), these bicellar lipid mixtures exhibited a well-ordered lamellar phase. The interlamellar spacing d increased with increasing temperature, in direct contrast to the decrease in d observed upon increasing temperature with otherwise identical lipid mixtures lacking DHPC. {sup 31}P NMR measurements on magnetically aligned bicellar mixtures of identical composition indicated a progressive migration of DHPC from regions of high curvature into planar regions with increasing temperature, and in accord with the 'mixed bicelle model' (Triba, M. N.; Warschawski, D. E.; Devaux, P. E. Biophys. J.2005, 88, 1887-1901). Parallel PFG diffusion NMR measurements of transbilayer water diffusion, where the observed diffusion is dependent on the fractional surface area of lamellar perforations, showed that transbilayer water diffusion decreased with increasing temperature. A model is proposed consistent with the SANS, {sup 31}P NMR, and PFG diffusion NMR data, wherein increasing temperature drives the progressive migration of DHPC out of high-curvature regions, consequently decreasing the fractional volume of lamellar perforations, so that water occupying these perforations redistributes into the interlamellar volume, thereby increasing the interlamellar spacing.

  18. Evaluation of Perforated Carbonate Cores Under Acid Stimulation 

    E-print Network

    Diaz, Nerwing Jose

    2011-10-21

    productivity. Shaped charges? goal is to enhance well productivity by creating long perforations to by-pass the casing, cement and the contaminated zone resulting from drilling operations. But it is known that the stress created by the action of the jet... in obtaining single and deep penetrating wormholes. The purpose of this research study is to introduce the impact of reactive shaped charges in carbonate wormholing. The type of shaped charges tested in this research generates a secondary reaction...

  19. Effect of narcotic premedication of scintigraphic evaluation of gallbladder perforation

    SciTech Connect

    Sefczek, D.M.; Sharma, P.; Isaacs, G.H.; Brodmerkel, G.J. Jr.; Adatepe, M.H.; Powell, O.M.; Nichols, K.

    1985-01-01

    A case of gallbladder perforation is presented in which a small bile leak was demonstrated by cholescintigraphy while the patient was receiving meperidine, but not after meperidine was discontinued. The scintigrams obtained during meperidine therapy also showed a pattern of bile-duct obstruction. It is suggested that increased biliary pressure secondary to meperidine admininstration permitted visualization of the leak. Use of narcotic drugs may be a useful pharmocologic intervention in cases of peritonitis due to small obscure bile leaks.

  20. Poverty of the Stimulus? A Rational Approach Amy Perfors1 (perfors@mit.edu), Joshua B. Tenenbaum1 (jbt@mit.edu),

    E-print Network

    Regier, Terry

    Poverty of the Stimulus? A Rational Approach Amy Perfors1 (perfors@mit.edu), Joshua B. Tenenbaum1, MIT; 2 Department of Psychology, University of Chicago Abstract The Poverty of the Stimulus (Po that these generalizations can best be explained by innate knowledge, known as the argument from the Poverty of the Stimulus

  1. Micro-mechanical modeling of perforating shock damage

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, R.P.; Krogh, K.E.; Behrmann, L.A.; Halleck, P.M.

    1997-11-17

    Shaped charge jet induced formation damage from perforation treatments hinders productivity. Manifestation of this damage is in the form of grain fragmentation resulting in fines that plug up pore throats along with the breakdown of inter-grain cementation. The authors use the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) computational method as a way to explicitly model, on a grain pore scale, the dynamic interactions of grains and grain/pores to calculate the damage resulting from perforation type stress wave loading. The SPH method is a continuum Lagrangian, meshless approach that features particles. Clusters of particles are used for each grain to provide representation of a grain pore structure that is similar to x-ray synchrotron microtomography images. Numerous damage models are available to portray fracture and fragmentation. In this paper the authors present the results of well defined impact loading on a grain pore structure that illustrate how the heterogeneity affects stress wave behavior and damage evolution. The SPH approach easily accommodates the coupling of multi-materials. Calculations for multi-material conditions with the pore space treated as a void, fluid filled, and/or clay filled show diverse effects on the stress wave propagation behavior and damage. SPH comparisons made with observed damage from recovered impacted sandstone samples in gas gun experiments show qualitatively the influence of stress intensity. The modeling approach presented here offers a unique way in concert with experiments to define a better understanding of formation damage resulting from perforation completion treatments.

  2. A Rare Complication of Tracheal Intubation: Tongue Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Lollo, Loreto; Meyer, Tanya K.; Grabinsky, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To describe the subsequent treatment of airway trauma sustained during laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation. Methods. A rare injury occurring during laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation that resulted in perforation of the tongue by an endotracheal tube and the subsequent management of this unusual complication are discussed. A 65-year-old female with intraparenchymal brain hemorrhage with rapidly progressive neurologic deterioration had the airway secured prior to arrival at the referral institution. The endotracheal tube (ETT) was noted to have pierced through the base of the tongue and entered the trachea, and the patient underwent operative laryngoscopy to inspect the injury and the ETT was replaced by tracheostomy. Results. Laryngoscopy demonstrated the ETT to perforate the base of the tongue. The airway was secured with tracheostomy and the ETT was removed. Conclusions. A wide variety of complications resulting from direct and video-assisted laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation have been reported. Direct perforation of the tongue with an ETT and ability to ventilate and oxygenate subsequently is a rare injury. PMID:23056962

  3. Perforated plates for cryogenic regenerators and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, J.B.

    1994-03-29

    Perforated plates having very small holes with a uniform diameter throughout the plate thickness are prepared by a [open quotes]wire drawing[close quotes] process in which a billet of sacrificial metal is disposed in an extrusion can of the plate metal, and the can is extruded and restacked repeatedly, converting the billet to a wire of the desired hole diameter. At final size, the rod is then sliced into wafers, and the wires are removed by selective etching. This process is useful for plate metals of interest for high performance regenerator applications, in particular, copper, niobium, molybdenum, erbium, and other rare earth metals. Er[sub 3]Ni, which has uniquely favorable thermophysical properties for such applications, may be incorporated in regions of the plates by providing extrusion cans containing erbium and nickel metals in a stacked array with extrusion cans of the plate metal, which may be copper. The array is heated to convert the erbium and nickel metals to Er[sub 3]Ni. Perforated plates having two sizes of perforations, one of which is small enough for storage of helium, are also disclosed. 10 figures.

  4. Perforated plates for cryogenic regenerators and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, John B. (Huntsville, AL)

    1994-01-01

    Perforated plates (10) having very small holes (14) with a uniform diameter throughout the plate thickness are prepared by a "wire drawing" process in which a billet of sacrificial metal is disposed in an extrusion can of the plate metal, and the can is extruded and restacked repeatedly, converting the billet to a wire of the desired hole diameter. At final size, the rod is then sliced into wafers, and the wires are removed by selective etching. This process is useful for plate metals of interest for high performance regenerator applications, in particular, copper, niobium, molybdenum, erbium, and other rare earth metals. Er.sub.3 Ni, which has uniquely favorable thermophysical properties for such applications, may be incorporated in regions of the plates by providing extrusion cans (20) containing erbium and nickel metals in a stacked array (53) with extrusion cans of the plate metal, which may be copper. The array is heated to convert the erbium and nickel metals to Er.sub.3 Ni. Perforated plates having two sizes of perforations (38, 42), one of which is small enough for storage of helium, are also disclosed.

  5. Clinical Outcomes of Silk Patch in Acute Tympanic Membrane Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Ho; Lee, Joong Seob; Kim, Dong-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The silk patch is a thin transparent patch that is produced from silk fibroin. In this study, we investigated the treatment effects of the silk patch in patients with traumatic tympanic membrane perforation (TTMP). Methods The closure rate, otorrhea rate, and closure time in all patients and the closure time in successful patients were compared between the paper patch and silk patch groups. Results Demographic data (gender, site, age, traumatic duration, preoperative air-bone gap, and perforation size and location) were not significantly different between the two groups. The closure rate and otorrhea rate were not significantly different between the two groups. However, the closure time was different between the two groups (closure time of all patients, P=0.031; closure time of successful patients, P=0.037). Conclusion The silk patch which has transparent, elastic, adhesive, and hyper-keratinizing properties results in a more efficient closure time than the paper patch in the treatment of TTMP patients. We therefore believe that the silk patch should be recommended for the treatment of acute tympanic membrane perforation. PMID:26045909

  6. Hybrid silencers with micro-perforated panels and internal partitions.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiang; Cheng, Li; You, Xiangyu

    2015-02-01

    A sub-structuring approach, along with a unit cell treatment, is proposed to model expansion chamber silencers with internal partitions and micro-perforated panels (MPPs) in the absence of internal flow. The side-branch of the silencer is treated as a combination of unit cells connected in series. It is shown that, by connecting multiple unit cells with varying parameters, the noise attenuation bandwidth can be enlarged. With MPPs, the hybrid noise attenuation mechanism of the silencer is revealed. Depending on the size of the perforation hole, noise attenuation can be dominated by dissipative, reactive, or combined effects together. For a broadband sound absorption, the hole size, together with the perforation ratio and other parameters, can be optimized to strike a balance between the dissipative and reactive effect, for ultimately achieving the desired noise attenuation performance within a prescribed frequency region. The modular nature of the proposed formulation allows doing this in a flexible, accurate, and cost effective manner. The accuracy of the proposed approach is validated through comparisons with finite element method and experiments. PMID:25698027

  7. Droplet manipulation and microparticle sampling on perforated microfilter membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuejun; Kug Chung, Sang; Yi, Ui-Chong; Cho, Sung Kwon

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes droplet manipulation and microparticle sampling where droplets driven by the electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) principle are transported on perforated microfilter membranes and pick up microparticles in their path. Three designs of microfilter membranes that have different hole shapes (rounded rectangle versus circle holes), sizes (>=6 µm) and opening area ratios (5, 9 and 20%) are microfabricated and tested along with a commercial membrane (rounded rectangle holes of 60 µm × 128 µm, 17% opening area ratio). All the tested perforated membranes are embedded with a linear array of electrodes for EWOD actuation. Reversible EWOD actuations and droplet transportations are successfully achieved on the perforated filter membranes. Particle sampling is examined against glass particles (8 µm diameter and ~14° contact angle) and polystyrene particles (8 µm diameter and ~66° contact angle). It is demonstrated that as droplets are moved on the microfilter surfaces by EWOD actuation, they efficiently pick up the microparticles in their path, showing high sampling efficiencies: over 95% for the glass particles and over 85% for the polystyrene particles. This particle sampling method uses a small liquid volume (microliters or smaller) and has the capability of fully automatic handling. Thus, it is expected to be highly compatible and easily integrated with lab-on-a-chip systems for follow-up biological and chemical analyses.

  8. Surgical Audit of Patients with Ileal Perforations Requiring Ileostomy in a Tertiary Care Hospital in India

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Hemkant; Pandey, Siddharth; Sheoran, Kapil Dev; Marwah, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Ileal perforation peritonitis is a frequently encountered surgical emergency in the developing countries. The choice of a procedure for source control depends on the patient condition as well as the surgeon preference. Material and Methods. This was a prospective observational study including 41 patients presenting with perforation peritonitis due to ileal perforation and managed with ileostomy. Demographic profile and operative findings in terms of number of perforations, site, and size of perforation along with histopathological findings of all the cases were recorded. Results. The majority of patients were male. Pain abdomen and fever were the most common presenting complaints. Body mass index of the patients was in the range of 15.4–25.3 while comorbidities were present in 43% cases. Mean duration of preoperative resuscitation was 14.73 + 13.77 hours. Operative findings showed that 78% patients had a single perforation; most perforations were 0.6–1?cm in size and within 15?cm proximal to ileocecal junction. Mesenteric lymphadenopathy was seen in 29.2% patients. On histopathological examination, nonspecific perforations followed by typhoid and tubercular perforations respectively were the most common. Conclusion. Patients with ileal perforations are routinely seen in surgical emergencies and their demography, clinical profile, and intraoperative findings may guide the choice of procedure to be performed. PMID:26247059

  9. Computed tomography attenuation values of ascites are helpful to predict perforation site

    PubMed Central

    Seishima, Ryo; Okabayashi, Koji; Hasegawa, Hirotoshi; Tsuruta, Masashi; Hoshino, Hiroki; Yamada, Toru; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of computed tomography (CT) attenuation values of ascites on gastrointestinal (GI) perforation site prediction. METHODS: The CT attenuation values of the ascites from 51 patients with GI perforations were measured by volume rendering to calculate the mean values. The effect of the CT attenuation values of the ascites on perforation site prediction and postoperative complications was evaluated. RESULTS: Of 24 patients with colorectal perforations, the CT attenuation values of ascites were significantly higher than those in patients with perforations at other sites [22.5 Hounsfield units (HU) vs 16.5 HU, respectively, P = 0.006]. Colorectal perforation was significantly associated with postoperative complications (P = 0.038). The prediction rate of colorectal perforation using attenuation values as an auxiliary diagnosis improved by 9.8% compared to that of CT findings alone (92.2% vs 82.4%). CONCLUSION: The CT attenuation values of ascites could facilitate the prediction of perforation sites and postoperative complications in GI perforations, particularly in cases in which the perforation sites are difficult to predict by CT findings alone. PMID:25663776

  10. A Dosimetric Model of Duodenal Toxicity After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, James D.; Christman-Skieller, Claudia; Kim, Jeff; Dieterich, Sonja; Chang, Daniel T.; Koong, Albert C.

    2010-12-01

    Introduction: Dose escalation for pancreas cancer is limited by the tolerance of adjacent normal tissues, especially with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). The duodenum is generally considered to be the organ at greatest risk. This study reports on the dosimetric determinants of duodenal toxicity with single-fraction SBRT. Methods and Materials: Seventy-three patients with locally advanced unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma received 25 Gy in a single fraction. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) endpoints evaluated include V{sub 5} (volume of duodenum that received 5 Gy), V{sub 10}, V{sub 15}, V{sub 20}, V{sub 25}, and D{sub max} (maximum dose to 1 cm{sup 3}). Normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) was evaluated with a Lyman model. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted with Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models. Results: The median time to Grade 2-4 duodenal toxicity was 6.3 months (range, 1.6-11.8 months). The 6- and 12-month actuarial rates of toxicity were 11% and 29%, respectively. V{sub 10}-V{sub 25} and D{sub max} all correlated significantly with duodenal toxicity (p < 0.05). In particular, V{sub 15} {>=} 9.1 cm{sup 3} and V{sub 15} < 9.1 cm{sup 3} yielded duodenal toxicity rates of 52% and 11%, respectively (p = 0.002); V{sub 20} {>=} 3.3 cm{sup 3} and V{sub 20} < 3.3 cm{sup 3} gave toxicity rates of 52% and 11%, respectively (p = 0.002); and D{sub max} {>=} 23 Gy and D{sub max} < 23 Gy gave toxicity rates of 49% and 12%, respectively (p = 0.004). Lyman NTCP model optimization generated the coefficients m = 0.23, n = 0.12, and TD{sub 50} = 24.6 Gy. Only the Lyman NTCP model remained significant in multivariate analysis (p = 0.001). Conclusions: Multiple DVH endpoints and a Lyman NTCP model are strongly predictive of duodenal toxicity after SBRT for pancreatic cancer. These dose constraints will be valuable in future abdominal SBRT studies.

  11. Umami Receptor Activation Increases Duodenal Bicarbonate Secretion via Glucagon-Like Peptide-2 Release in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Joon-Ho; Inoue, Takuya; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Guth, Paul H.; Engel, Eli; Kaunitz, Jonathan D.

    2011-01-01

    Luminal nutrient chemosensing during meal ingestion is mediated by intestinal endocrine cells, which regulate secretion and motility via the release of gut hormones. We have reported that luminal coperfusion of l-Glu and IMP, common condiments providing the umami or proteinaceous taste, synergistically increases duodenal bicarbonate secretion (DBS) possibly via taste receptor heterodimers, taste receptor type 1, member 1 (T1R1)/R3. We hypothesized that glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) or glucagon-like peptide (GLP) is released by duodenal perfusion with l-Glu/IMP. We measured DBS with pH and CO2 electrodes through a perfused rat duodenal loop in vivo. GIP, exendin (Ex)-4 (GLP-1 receptor agonist), or GLP-2 was intravenously infused (0.01–1 nmol/kg/h). l-Glu (10 mM) and IMP (0.1 mM) were luminally perfused with or without bolus intravenous injection (3 or 30 nmol/kg) of the receptor antagonists Pro3GIP, Ex-3(9-39), or GLP-2(3-33). GIP or GLP-2 infusion dose-dependently increased DBS, whereas Ex-4 infusion gradually decreased DBS. Luminal perfusion of l-Glu/IMP increased DBS, with no effect of Pro3GIP or Ex-3(9-39), whereas GLP-2(3-33) inhibited l-Glu/IMP-induced DBS. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)(6–28) intravenously or NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester coperfusion inhibited the effect of l-Glu/IMP. Perfusion of l-Glu/IMP increased portal venous concentrations of GLP-2, followed by a delayed increase of GLP-1, with no effect on GIP release. GLP-1/2 and T1R1/R3 were expressed in duodenal endocrine-like cells. These results suggest that luminal l-Glu/IMP-induced DBS is mediated via GLP-2 release and receptor activation followed by VIP and nitric oxide release. Because GLP-1 is insulinotropic and GLP-2 is intestinotrophic, umami receptor activation may have additional benefits in glucose metabolism and duodenal mucosal protection and regeneration. PMID:21846840

  12. Retroperitoneal abscess and acute acalculous cholecystitis after iatrogenic colon injury: report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chengwei; Wang, Yuxu; Hu, Sanyuan; Du, Futian; Ding, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis has a high mortality rate due to the difficulties in early diagnosis and high rate of complications like empyema, gangrene and perforation. We report a case of 20-year-old male with acute severe pancreatitis, acute renal failure and acute peripancreatic fluid collection who was transferred to our department after blood filtration treatment in ICU. After percutaneous catheter drainage for 20 hours, the patient got a high fever. Computed tomography revealed retroperitoneal colon injury. In this case, percutaneous catheter drainage was performed again and the pus cavity was flushed regularly, after which the patient’s state gradually improved. Unpredictably, septic shock appeared on the 51st day. Repeated computed tomography revealed acute acalculous cholecystitis and abscess formation. After percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder catheterization and drainage, the patient got better gradually. Three months later the retroperitoneal catheter was removed. Four months later, ultrasound examination showed normal gallbladder and the catheter was removed. PMID:26131252

  13. Retroperitoneal abscess and acute acalculous cholecystitis after iatrogenic colon injury: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chengwei; Wang, Yuxu; Hu, Sanyuan; Du, Futian; Ding, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis has a high mortality rate due to the difficulties in early diagnosis and high rate of complications like empyema, gangrene and perforation. We report a case of 20-year-old male with acute severe pancreatitis, acute renal failure and acute peripancreatic fluid collection who was transferred to our department after blood filtration treatment in ICU. After percutaneous catheter drainage for 20 hours, the patient got a high fever. Computed tomography revealed retroperitoneal colon injury. In this case, percutaneous catheter drainage was performed again and the pus cavity was flushed regularly, after which the patient's state gradually improved. Unpredictably, septic shock appeared on the 51(st) day. Repeated computed tomography revealed acute acalculous cholecystitis and abscess formation. After percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder catheterization and drainage, the patient got better gradually. Three months later the retroperitoneal catheter was removed. Four months later, ultrasound examination showed normal gallbladder and the catheter was removed. PMID:26131252

  14. Immediate and late management of iatrogenic ureteric injuries: 28 years of experience

    PubMed Central

    El Abd, Ahmed S.; El-Abd, Shawky A.; El-Enen, Mohamed Abo; Tawfik, Ahmed M.; Soliman, Mohamed G.; Abo-Farha, Mohamed; Gamasy, Abd-El Naser El; El-Sharaby, Mahmoud; El-Gamal, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the long-term results after managing intraoperative and late-diagnosed cases of iatrogenic ureteric injury (IUI), treated endoscopically or by open surgery. Patients and methods Patients immediately diagnosed with IUI were managed under the same anaesthetic, while those referred late had a radiological assessment of the site of injury, and endoscopic management. Open surgical procedures were used only for the failed cases with previous diversion. Results In all, 98 patients who were followed had IUI after gynaecological, abdominopelvic and ureteroscopic procedures in 60.2%, 14.3% and 25.5%, respectively. The 27 patients diagnosed during surgery were managed immediately, while in the late-referred 71 patients ureteroscopic ureteric realignment with stenting was successful in 26 (36.6%). Complex open reconstruction with re-implantation or ureteric substitution, using bladder-tube or intestinal-loop procedures, was used in 27 (60%), 16 (35.5%) and two (4.5%) patients of the late group, respectively. A long-term radiological follow-up with a mean (range) of 46.6 (24.5–144) months showed recurrent obstruction in 16 (16.3%) patients managed endoscopically and reflux in six (8.3%) patients. Three renal units only (3%) were lost in the late-presenting patients. Conclusion Patients managed immediately had better long-term results. More than a third of the late-diagnosed patients were successfully managed endoscopically with minimal morbidity. Open reconstruction by an experienced urologist who can perform a complex substitutional procedure was mandatory to preserve renal units in the long-term. PMID:26609443

  15. The Effect of Iatrogenic Staphylococcus epidermidis Intercellar Adhesion Operon on the Formation of Bacterial Biofilm on Polyvinyl Chloride Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yunchao, Huang; Guangqiang, Zhao; Kun, Yang; Xing, Liu; Fengli, Guo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The intercellular adhesion gene (ica) of Staphylococcus epidermidis is a key factor for bacterial aggregation. This study explored the effect of ica on the formation of bacterial biofilm on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surfaces. Methods: Genes related to bacterial biofilm formation, including 16S rRNA, autolysin (atlE), fibrinogen binding protein gene (fbe), and ica were identified and sequenced from 112 clinical isolates of iatrogenic S. epidermidis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene sequencing. Based on the sequencing result, ica operon-positive (icaADB+/atlE+/fbe+) and ica operon-negative (icaADB?/atlE+/fbe+) strains were separated and co-cultivated with PVC material. After 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30?h of co-culture, the thickness of the bacterial biofilm and quantity of bacterial colony on the PVC surface were measured under the confocal laser scanning microscope and scanning electron microscope. Results: The positive rate of S. epidermidis-specific 16SrRNA in 112 iatrogenic strains was 100% (112/112). The genotype of ica-positive (icaADB+/atlE+/fbe+) strains accounted for 57.1% (64/112), and genotype of ica-negative (icaADB?/atlE+/fbe+) strains accounted for 37.5% (42/112). During 30?h of co-culture, no obvious bacterial biofilm formed on the surface of PVC in the ica-positive group, however, mature bacterial biofilm structure formed after 24?h. For all time points, thickness of bacterial biofilm and quantity of bacterial colony on PVC surfaces in the ica operon-positive group were significantly higher than those in ica operon-negative group (p<0.01). Conclusions: Iatrogenic S. epidermidis can be categorized into ica operon-negative and ica operon-positive strains. The ica operon plays an important role in bacterial biofilm formation and bacterial multiplication on PVC material. PMID:25402758

  16. Management of an unusual case of iatrogenic parotid sialocele using an infant feeding tube: a novel approach.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Ambadas; Chandrasala, Soumithran; Nimbeni, Basavaraj S; Singh, Surendar Pal; Golai, Shruti

    2014-01-01

    Injuries to the parotid duct and parenchyma resulting in swelling in the cheek region commonly present in maxillofacial practice. Sialocele is a discrete collection of saliva in a subcutaneous cavity that can be iatrogenic, idiopathic or the result of post-traumatic injuries to the duct or parenchyma, presenting as a salivary pseudocyst or retention cyst. We present an unusual case of parotid sialocele following surgery for sialolithiasis which presented with progressive painless swelling in the preauricular region of 9 months duration. Treatment included surgical exploration under local anaesthesia and draining the cavity by keeping the opening patent using an infant feeding tube. PMID:25331148

  17. An anatomic-based approach to the iatrogenic spinal accessory nerve injury in the posterior cervical triangle: How to avoid and treat it.

    PubMed

    Cesmebasi, Alper; Spinner, Robert J

    2015-09-01

    Iatrogenic injury of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) is a significant reducible risk with any invasive procedure involving the posterior cervical triangle. Most commonly associated with cervical lymph node biopsy, it affects 3-6% of patients and serves as a major cause of avoidable medical malpractice litigation. Medical malpractice cases not only affect the primary surgeon but also may include the repairing surgeon through a shift of blame. For this reason, we discuss the strategies all clinicians may utilize in approaching iatrogenic SAN injuries. By taking basic precautionary measures based on simple application of anatomy in the management of these patients, clinicians may protect themselves from needless malpractice litigation. A thorough knowledge of the anatomy and application in preventative strategies may provide guidance for clinicians in reducing the incidence of iatrogenic injuries, providing effective postinjury management, and ensuring the salvaging surgeon is not at fault if litigation is pursued. PMID:26060941

  18. Postoperative Delayed Duodenum Perforation following Elective Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Jing, Kong; Shuo-Dong, Wu

    2014-01-01

    Background. Duodenum injury is extremely rare complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy with potentially fatal consequences. Methods. Over the past 13-year period, 3000 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed in our institution. Duodenum injury only occurred in one patient recently who had undergone gastrectomy owing to duodenal diverticulum. The diagnosis and management of this rare complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy are described, and the literature is reviewed. Results. We present this case of duodenum injury on the fourth postoperative day after selective laparoscopic cholecystectomy was treated successfully by percutaneous needle aspiration and catheter drainage. The hospital stay was 26 days. No abscess recurred during the follow-up period. Conclusion. Duodenum injuries are extremely rare complications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy with potentially fatal consequences if not promptly recognized and treated. Sonographically guided percutaneous needle aspiration and catheter drainage can be used to treat the intraperitoneal abscess. Billroth II subtotal gastrectomy and gastrojejunostomy were beneficial for the treatment. PMID:24790609

  19. Postoperative Delayed Duodenum Perforation following Elective Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Kong; Shuo-Dong, Wu

    2014-01-01

    Background. Duodenum injury is extremely rare complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy with potentially fatal consequences. Methods. Over the past 13-year period, 3000 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed in our institution. Duodenum injury only occurred in one patient recently who had undergone gastrectomy owing to duodenal diverticulum. The diagnosis and management of this rare complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy are described, and the literature is reviewed. Results. We present this case of duodenum injury on the fourth postoperative day after selective laparoscopic cholecystectomy was treated successfully by percutaneous needle aspiration and catheter drainage. The hospital stay was 26 days. No abscess recurred during the follow-up period. Conclusion. Duodenum injuries are extremely rare complications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy with potentially fatal consequences if not promptly recognized and treated. Sonographically guided percutaneous needle aspiration and catheter drainage can be used to treat the intraperitoneal abscess. Billroth II subtotal gastrectomy and gastrojejunostomy were beneficial for the treatment. PMID:24790609

  20. [The emergency plastic reconstruction of the tympanic membrane defects of post-traumatic and iatrogenic etiology with the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material].

    PubMed

    Zabirov, R A; Kar'kaeva, S M; Shchetinin, V N; Akimov, A V

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the effectiveness of the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material for the plastic reconstruction of tympanic defects of post-traumatic and iatrogenic etiology. The authors report the results of the emergency plastic reconstruction of tympanic defects of post-traumatic and iatrogenic nature with the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material (giamatrix). The analysis of the results of the study prfovidd definitive evidence of the effectiveness of plastic reconstruction of tympanic defects with the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material. PMID:25588474

  1. Perforator flaps in hand reconstruction: the effect of blood vessel twisting

    PubMed Central

    ARDELEAN, FILIP; MUNTEAN, MAXIMILIAN; DUMITRASCU, DINU; STRILCIUC, STEFAN; GEORGESCU, ALEXANDRU VALENTIN

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Perforator flaps increasingly find acceptance and use in hand reconstructive surgery. A propeller flap is an island flap that moves from one orientation to another by rotating around its vascular pedicle. It is now possible to design propeller flaps based on a single perforator, so-called “perforator-based propeller flaps,” but they are more prone to vascular impairment when twisted more than 90°. Methods We present a prospective study conducted in the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department of the Rehabilitation Hospital over 17 months. All perforator-based propeller flaps that were used for hand reconstruction were analyzed. The parameters studied included the size and location of the defect, the size and shape of the flap, the perforator (length and location) that was used, the degree of twisting of the perforator, the degree of perforator dissection, the management of the donor site, and flap survival area. Results In this study we investigated the circulatory impairment induced by twisting of the pedicle on a true perforator flap. All flaps survived completely with the exception of partial skin necrosis in few cases. Some of these cases required debridement and skin grafting. Conclusions Perforator-based propeller flaps provide a reliable option for covering small- to medium-size hand complex tissue defects. They have the advantages of using similar tissues in reconstruction, not damaging another area, they do not require main vessels sacrifice, and the donor site can be generally directly closed. PMID:26609268

  2. [Transplantation of the muscular perforant flaps for restoration of tissues defects in the extremities].

    PubMed

    Galich, S P; Petakh, A V; Dabizha, A Iu; Reznikov, A V; Ogorodnik, Ia P; Greben', N I; Egorova, O N

    2005-09-01

    There was summarized the experience of surgical treatment of 9 patients with the soft tissues defects of various etiology, localization and size, in whom microsurgical autotransplantation of the perforant flaps was performed on thoracospinal and medial gastrocnemial arteries. Peculiarities of preparation and mobilization of perforating vessels, securing the motor nerves branches, were presented. The perforant flaps advantages are: their small thickness, plasticity, mobility and minimal complications in the donor's zone. The perforant flaps advantages secure the wider diapason of their usage comparing with conventional composed complexes of tissues. PMID:16445046

  3. Multidetector-row Computed Tomographic Angiography in the Planning of the Local Perforator Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Sliesarenko, Sergii V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The perforator vessels are highly variable in number, localization types, hemodynamic specifications, and the anatomical interactions with other structures. For these reasons, the identification of the best perforator before the operation is very important for the choice of the main feed vessel and the design of the perforator flap. Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed all cases in which multiple detector computed tomography (MDCT) with 3-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction was used in the preoperative planning in preparation for the reconstruction with local perforator flaps, which took place between July 2012 and December 2014 in the hospital. Results: A total of 24 people were examined and underwent operations with 26 reconstructions using local perforator flaps. All perforators, which were identified during the MDCT with 3D reconstruction examination, were located intraoperationally without any errors. Conclusions: The preoperative MDCT with 3D reconstruction investigations of the topographic anatomical specifics of the perforator vessel on which the formation of the flap feed pedicle is planned allow for the fast and precise identification of the perforation at the preoperative stage while minimizing the amount of injury caused to the perforator during the operation and decrease the operation time. PMID:26495229

  4. Life threatening bleeding from duodenal ulcer after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ivanecz, Arpad; Sremec, Marko; Cerani?, Davorin; Potr?, Stojan; Skok, Pavel

    2014-12-16

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a rare, but serious complication of gastric bypass surgery. The inaccessibility of the excluded stomach restrains postoperative examination and treatment of the gastric remnant and duodenum, and represents a major challenge, especially in the emergency setting. A 59-year-old patient with previous history of peptic ulcer disease had an upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a duodenal ulcer two years after having a gastric bypass procedure for morbid obesity. After negative upper endoscopy finding, he was urgently evaluated for gastrointestinal bleeding. At emergency laparotomy, the bleeding duodenal ulcer was identified by intraoperative endoscopy through gastrotomy. The patient recovered well after surgical hemostasis, excision of the duodenal ulcer and completion of the remnant gastrectomy. Every general practitioner, gastroenterologist and general surgeon should be aware of growing incidence of bariatric operations and coherently possible complications after such procedures, which modify patient's anatomy and physiology. PMID:25512773

  5. Association of interleukin 1 gene family polymorphisms with duodenal ulcer disease

    PubMed Central

    GARCIA-GONZALEZ, M A; LANAS, A; SAVELKOUL, P H M; SANTOLARIA, S; BENITO, R; CRUSIUS, J B A; PEÑA, A S

    2003-01-01

    Cytokine genes taking part in the immunological response to Helicobacter pylori infection are good candidates to study for genetic predisposition to duodenal ulcer disease (DU). Among cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1? and its natural specific inhibitor, the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, are cytokines that play a key role in regulating gastric acid secretion and modulating the immune response in the gastrointestinal mucosa. We aimed to investigate whether polymorphisms in the IL-1B and IL-1RN genes are involved in the susceptibility to duodenal ulcer. DNA from 131 unrelated Spanish Caucasian patients with DU and 105 ethnically matched healthy controls was typed for the IL-1B-511, IL-1B-31, and IL-1B + 3954 gene polymorphisms, and the VNTR polymorphism in intron 2 of the IL-1RN gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods and TaqMan assays. H. pylori status and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) use was determined in all patients and controls. Logistic regression analysis identified H. pylori infection (OR: 9·74; 95%CI = 3·53–26·89) and NSAIDs use (OR: 8·82; 95%CI = 3·51–22·17) as independent risk factors for DU. In addition, the simultaneous carriage of IL-1RN*2, IL-1B-511*C, IL-1B-31*T and IL-1B + 3954*C alleles was a genetic risk factor for DU in patients with H. pylori infection (OR: 3·22; 95%CI = 1·09–9·47). No significant differences in IL-1RN and IL-1B genotypes were found when patients were categorized according to gender, age of onset, smoking habit, NSAIDs use, type of complication and positive family history. Our results provide further evidence that host genetic factors play a key role in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer. PMID:14632761

  6. Carcinogenic potential of duodenal reflux juice from patients with long-standing postgastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhe-Fu; Wang, Zhong-Yu; Zhang, Jun-Ran; Gong, Peng; Chen, Hai-Long

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether study on the carcinogenic potential of reflux juice from patients with remote gastrectomy could clarify the inherent relationship between duodenal reflux and gastric stump cancer. METHODS: A total of 37 reflux juice samples (13 Billroth I, 24 Billroth II) were employed in the present study. A two-stage transformation assay using BALB/c 3T3 cells was carried out to test the initiating or promoting activity of these samples. RESULTS: Two of 18 (11.1%) reflux samples exerted initiating activities, whereas 9/19 (47.4%) samples enhanced the MNNG-initiating cell transformation, suggesting the duodenal reflux juice might more frequently possess the tumor-promoter activity (P = 0.029). In addition, there was no difference in initiating activities of the samples irrespective of surgical procedures (P = 0.488), while Billroth II samples exhibited stronger tumor-promoter activity than Billroth I samples (P = 0.027). Furthermore, the promoter activities were well correlated with the histological changes of the stomas (rs = 0.625, P = 0.004), but neither their cytotoxicities nor initiating activities had this correlation (Probabilities were 0.523 and 0.085, respectively). CONCLUSION: The duodenal reflux juice from patients with remote postgastrectomy did have carcinogenic potential, and suggested that tumor-promoting activity should principally account for the high incidence of gastric cancer in gastrectomy patients. In contrast, it is difficult to explain the high stump-cancer incidence with the "N-nitroso compounds" theory-a popular theory for the intact stomach carcinogenesis, and it seemed to be justified to focus chemoprevention of this cancer on the tumor-promoting potential of reflux juice. PMID:11819793

  7. Bloch wave homogenization in a medium perforated by critical holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Jaime; San Martín, Jorge; Smaranda, Loredana

    2007-02-01

    In this Note, we use the Bloch wave method to study the asymptotic behavior of the solution of the Laplace equation in a periodically perforated domain, under a non-homogeneous Neumann condition on the boundary of the holes, as the hole size goes to zero more rapidly than the domain period. We prove that for a critical size, the non-homogeneous boundary condition generates an additional term in the homogenized problem, commonly referred to as 'the strange term' in the literature. To cite this article: J. Ortega et al., C. R. Mecanique 335 (2007).

  8. Radiant heat test of Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATP).

    SciTech Connect

    Gronewald, Patrick James; Oneto, Robert; Mould, John; Pierce, Jim Dwight

    2003-08-01

    A conceptual design for a plutonium air transport package capable of surviving a 'worst case' airplane crash has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). A full-scale prototype, designated as the Perforated Metal Air Transport Package (PMATP) was thermally tested in the SNL Radiant Heat Test Facility. This testing, conducted on an undamaged package, simulated a regulation one-hour aviation fuel pool fire test. Finite element thermal predictions compared well with the test results. The package performed as designed, with peak containment package temperatures less than 80 C after exposure to a one-hour test in a 1000 C environment.

  9. Laparoscopy for perforated Richter hernia with incarcerated foreign body.

    PubMed

    Hartin, Charles W; Caty, Michael G; Bass, Kathryn D

    2011-07-01

    Children often place nonedible objects into their mouths. Occasionally, these objects are inadvertently swallowed, and fortunately, the majority passes spontaneously without intervention. We present the case of a 10-month-old girl who presented with an incarcerated Richter hernia through an indirect inguinal defect containing a wall of sigmoid colon perforated by a swallowed lollipop stick. Although this is a rare case, we conclude that prompt laparoscopic abdominal exploration is an extremely valuable tool in making an accurate diagnosis in difficult-to-reduce or incarcerated hernia cases. PMID:21763852

  10. Marine catfish sting causing fatal heart perforation in a fisherman.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Vidal; de Souza, Reinaldo Alves; Auerbach, Paul S

    2008-01-01

    Many marine catfish have serrated bony stings ("spines"), which are used in defense against predators, on the dorsal and pectoral fins. While catfish-induced injuries are generally characterized by the pain associated with envenomation, the stings in some species are sufficiently long and sharp to cause severe penetrating trauma. Most injuries are to the hands of victims, commonly fishermen. We report the death of a fisherman caused by myocardial perforation from a catfish sting. To our knowledge, this is the first such description in the medical literature. PMID:18513109

  11. Acquired perforating dermatosis: a report of 8 cases.

    PubMed

    González-Lara, L; Gómez-Bernal, S; Vázquez-López, F; Vivanco-Allende, B

    2014-01-01

    Acquired perforating dermatosis (APD) is an uncommon disease characterized by lesions exhibiting transepidermal elimination of collagen or elastic fibers. APD affects adults and is associated with systemic diseases, mainly diabetes mellitus and renal failure. We present 8 cases of APD. Seven patients had concomitant diabetes mellitus with or without chronic renal failure, and 1 had alcoholic cirrhosis. In the patients with chronic renal failure, the onset of APD coincided with transient worsening of renal function. The mean increase in creatinine concentrations above baseline was 1.14mg/dL. Acute deterioration of renal function may be involved in APD. Further studies are needed to investigate this association. PMID:24440280

  12. Delayed complete heart block secondary to jailed first septal perforator.

    PubMed

    Nee, Lisa M; Guttormsen, Brian; Gimelli, Giorgio

    2007-11-01

    Partial or total occlusion of septal perforator branches can occur during stenting of the proximal and mid portion of the left anterior descending artery, secondary to plaque snow plowing and/or stent "jailing". Flow compromise in a sizeable septal branch can result in a myocardial infarction or in atrioventricular conduction abnormalities. Complete heart block has been described at the time of the procedure, and though it is usually transient, it may require temporary pacing. We report a case of delayed, symptomatic and permanent complete atrio-ventricular block that occurred 2 days after the index procedure, requiring implantation of a permanent pacemaker. PMID:17986733

  13. A comparison of unrefined wheat and rice diets in the management of duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-one chronic duodenal ulcer patients in a rice-eating area were put on to an unrefined wheat diet and twenty-one continued on their previous rice diet. After 5 years only 14% of the first group had had relapses compared with 81% of the second group. A similar 5-year relapse rate (80%) was obtained in a group of thirty patients from another area with a more varied rice diet. The author attributes this difference to the increased mastication required by the unrefined wheat diet, which is associated with an increase in saliva, lower stomach acidity and reduced bile output. PMID:625462

  14. Entering the duodenal diverticulum: a method for cannulation of the intradiverticular papilla.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao-Can; Shi, Wei-Bin; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Gu, Jun; Tao, Yi-Jing; Wang, Yu-Qin; Wang, Xue-Feng

    2012-12-28

    Successful cannulation of the common bile duct may be difficult in patients in whom the papilla is located entirely within a diverticulum. In this study, we report successful biliary cannulation in three patients following intubation of the distal tip of the duodenoscope into the duodenal diverticulum and locating the major papilla. No complications occurred during the operation or during the postoperative period. This method didn't need second incubation an endoscope and might lower the burden of patients. So this skill is useful to deal with the papilla hidden inside the large diverticulum because of its safety and convenience. PMID:23326150

  15. Retained foreign body: associations with elevated lead levels, pica, and duodenal anomaly.

    PubMed

    Sprinkle, J D; Hingsbergen, E A

    1995-01-01

    A 14-month-old girl presented with elevated lead levels and a metallic foreign body was detected on abdominal radiograph. Subsequent evaluation, performed after the child failed to pass the foreign body with cathartics, revealed a bezoar proximal to a partial duodenal obstruction. The metallic foreign body was later removed and found to contain lead, however, the patient has subsequently had recurrent elevations of lead levels with episodes of pica. This case reiterates the need to evaluate children with retained foreign bodies for lead poisoning due to associated pica. In addition, retained foreign bodies should point to possible congenital anomaly of the duodenum causing partial obstruction. PMID:8545182

  16. Management and associated factors of delayed perforation after gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Haruhisa; Oda, Ichiro; Sekiguchi, Masau; Abe, Seiichiro; Nonaka, Satoru; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Nakajima, Takeshi; Saito, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To identify the actual clinical management and associated factors of delayed perforation after gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). METHODS: A total of 4943 early gastric cancer (EGC) patients underwent ESD at our hospital between January 1999 and June 2012. We retrospectively assessed the actual management of delayed perforation. In addition, to determine the factors associated with delayed perforation, after excluding 123 EGC patients with perforations that occurred during the ESD procedure, we analyzed the following clinicopathological factors among the remaining 4820 EGC patients by comparing the ESD cases with delayed perforation and the ESD cases without perforation: age, sex, chronological periods, clinical indications for ESD, status of the stomach, location, gastric circumference, tumor size, invasion depth, presence/absence of ulceration, histological type, type of resection, and procedure time. RESULTS: Delayed perforation occurred in 7 (0.1%) cases. The median time until the occurrence of delayed perforation was 11 h (range, 6-172 h). Three (43%) of the 7 cases required emergency surgery, while four were conservatively managed without surgical intervention. Among the 4 cases with conservative management, 2 were successfully managed endoscopically using the endoloop-endoclip technique. The median hospital stay was 18 d (range, 15-45 d). There were no delayed perforation-related deaths. Based on a multivariate analysis, gastric tube cases (OR = 11.0; 95%CI: 1.7-73.3; P = 0.013) were significantly associated with delayed perforation. CONCLUSION: Endoscopists must be aware of not only the identified factors associated with delayed perforation, but also how to treat this complication effectively and promptly. PMID:26640340

  17. Reconstruction of the hand and upper limb with free flaps based on musculocutaneous perforators.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Chi; Tang, Yueh-Bih; Mardini, Samir; Tsai, Bo-Wen

    2004-01-01

    Since the advent of perforator flaps, a wide variety of applications have been documented. This study focuses on free flaps based on musculocutaneous perforators, because they have not been well-described in the literature of upper-limb reconstruction. They can be trimmed to be thin and pliable, and may provide large flaps with multiple components on the same pedicle to facilitate three-dimensional inset of flaps. Microvascular free flaps based on musculocutaneous perforators were performed in 36 cases for reconstruction of the thumb and thenar web, palm, dorsum of the hand, wrist, and forearm. They included the anterolateral thigh perforator flap (27 cases), thoracodorsal perforator flap (5 cases), and deep inferior epigastric perforator flap (4 cases). In 2 other cases not included in this series, the thoracodorsal perforator flap could not be elevated due to anatomical variations. There was no failure in this series, but complications included: 1) hematoma in 2 cases, and 2) infection in 2 cases with flap rim necrosis which was treated by a local rotation flap and skin graft. The thin flaps facilitated secondary reconstructive procedures, and only minor effort was required for the debulking procedure of the flaps. On average, these patients required 2.3 occasions of secondary procedures for further reconstruction following coverage with a perforator flap. The perforator flaps provide medium-thickness flaps for coverage of large defects in the upper limb with improved aesthetics and function. With careful dissection of the musculocutaneous perforators and primary thinning of the flaps, the use of a perforator flap is quite safe. Preservation of the muscles leads to better preservation of donor-site functions. Less requirement of secondary debulking procedures is a great advantage. However, caution should be taken in the presence of wound infection. PMID:15274182

  18. Massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding originating from a fourth-stage duodenal diverticulum: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Rioux, Louis; Groseilliers, Sylvain Des; Fortin, Michel; Mutch, David O.

    1996-01-01

    Duodenal diverticulum is well-known pathologic entity. Most such diverticula are asymptomatic and located on the second stage of the duodenum. The diagnosis is most often established by endoscopy or upper gastrointestinal radiography. Hemorrhage has been described but is an infrequent complication. We report on a patient who presented with massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding, originating from a fourth-stage duodenal diverticulum. The diagnosis was made with a combination of arteriography and scanning with technetium 99-labelled red cells. Diverticulectomy was performed with a successful outcome. This report underlines the diagnostic limits of fiberoptic endoscopy for hemorrhagic lesions located past the third stage of the duodenum. PMID:8956821

  19. Extended thoracodorsal artery perforator flap for breast reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Rancati, Alberto; Escudero, Ezequiel; Artero, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    A total of 45 patients underwent partial or total autologous breast reconstruction after skin-sparing mastectomy, skin-reducing mastectomy, and quadrantectomy using a thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP) flap. The detailed surgical technique with its variations is explained in this report. The propeller, flip-over, conventional perforator, and muscle-sparing flaps have been described and evaluated. The flaps were partially or completely de-epithelialized. The conventional TDAP can be enlarged or “extended” as the traditional latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous (LD-MC) flap by incorporating the superior and inferior fat compartments. It can be referred to as the “extended TDAP flap”. This technique augments the flap volume. In addition, this flap can serve as a scaffold for lipofilling to obtain autologous breast reconstruction in medium to large cases. There were two complete failures due to technical errors during flap elevation. Distal partial tissue suffering was observed in four flaps. These flaps were longer than usual; they reached the midline of the back. It is advisable to discard the distal medial quarter of the flap when it is designed up to the midline to avoid steatonecrosis or fibrosis. A retrospective analysis of the 39 flaps that survived completely revealed a satisfactory result in 82% of the cases. The main disadvantage of this procedure is the final scar. The TDAP flap is a reliable and safe method for partial or total breast autologous reconstruction. PMID:26645006

  20. The Perforated Solar Sail - Its Application to Interstellar Travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matloff, G. L.

    In response to a recent publication greatly overestimating the potential performance of perforated solar sails, an analysis is presented here demonstrating as rigorously as possible the performance of such sails in interstellar transport. A historical review of the optical theory utilized-that of Driscoll and Vaughan-is first presented, followed by a consideration of various aspects of this theory, which allows estimation of reflectivity, transmissivity, absorptivity and emissivity of metallic mesh solar sails, under certain restrictive conditions. Three candidate mesh materials are then compared: aluminium, magnesium, and scandium. Aluminium, being superior, is chosen for further evaluation. Two candidate aluminium meshes are next compared for application to probes requiring several decades to reach an Oort cloud target 10,000-AU from the Sun. The best performing mesh is then applied to 106-107 kg worldship payloads requiring 1-2 millennia to reach Alpha Centauri. Some consideration is given to methods of flight-duration reduction. Perforated solar sails are not a “magic bullet” allowing for interstellar travel velocities in excess of 0.01c, but they do compare favorably in performance to the best possible hyperthin metallic-sheet sails.

  1. The bacteriology of gangrenous and perforated appendicitis--revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Bennion, R S; Baron, E J; Thompson, J E; Downes, J; Summanen, P; Talan, D A; Finegold, S M

    1990-01-01

    By using optimum sampling, transport, and culture techniques in patients with gangrenous or perforated appendicitis, we recovered than has previously been reported. Thirty patients older than 12 years with histologically documented gangrenous or perforated appendicitis had peritoneal fluid, appendiceal tissue, and abscess contents (if present) cultured. Appendiceal tissue was obtained so as to exclude the lumen. A total of 223 anaerobes and 82 aerobic or faculatative bacteria were recovered, an average of 10.2 different organisms per specimen. Twenty-one different genera and more than 40 species were encountered. Bacteroides fragilis group and Escherichia coli were isolated from almost all specimens. Within the B. fragilis group, eight species were represented. Other frequent isolates included Peptostreptococcus (80%), Pseudomonas (40% [P. aeruginosa, 23.3%, other Pseudomonas spp., 16.7%]), B. splanchnicus (40%), B. intermedius (36.7%), and Lactobacillus (36.7%). Interestingly a previously undescribed fastidious gram-negative anaerobic bacillus was isolated from nearly one half of all patients. This organism was found to have low DNA homology (by dot blot) with the known organisms most closely resembling it. PMID:2405791

  2. Wave diffraction on arc-shaped floating perforated breakwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jin-hui; Cheng, Jian-sheng; Wang, Jian-ping; Wang, Jing-quan

    2012-06-01

    An analytical method is developed to study the sheltering effects on arc-shaped floating perforated breakwaters. In the process of analysis, the floating breakwater is assumed to be rigid, thin, vertical, and immovable and located in water with constant depth. The fluid domain is divided into two regions by imaginary interface. The velocity potential in each region is expanded by eigenfunction in the context of linear theory. By satisfying continuity of pressure and normal velocity across the imaginary fluid interface, a set of linear algebraic equations can be obtained to determine the unknown coefficients for eigenfunction expansions. The accuracy of the present model was verified by a comparison with existing results for the case of arc-shaped floating breakwater. Numerical results, in the form of contour maps of the non-dimensional wave amplitude around the breakwater and diffracted wave amplitude at typical sections, are presented for a range of wave and breakwater parameters. Results show that the sheltering effects on the arc-shaped floating perforated breakwater are closely related to the incident wavelength, the draft and the porosity of the breakwater.

  3. Colonic perforation by a large gallstone: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Halleran, Devin R.; Halleran, David R.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Herein we present the case of an 86-year-old woman with gallstone perforation of the sigmoid colon. PRESENTATION OF CASE An 86-year-old woman with known cholelithiasis presented to our office with one week of abdominal pain and nausea. X-rays taken at presentation demonstrated pneumobilia, and CT scan showed a 3.5 cm gallstone in the sigmoid colon. Medical management was unsuccessful in passing the stone, and a colonoscopy on day 4 was unsuccessful in incorporating the stone. Subsequent clinical deterioration prompted a laparotomy, where a perforation was discovered. A Hartmann's procedure was performed and the patient recovered after a complicated post-operative course. DISCUSSION Gallstone ileus is an uncommon, but medically important, cause of bowel obstruction. This presentation is considered a surgical emergency and thus prompt identification and removal is essential. Obstructions tend to occur in either the stomach or along the various segments of the small intestine but have been reported in the colon as well. CONCLUSION In cases of gallstones that manage to pass into the large intestine, it is prudent to attempt conservative measures for passage. Failure to do so should raise suspicion of a possible stricture, either benign or malignant, preventing its evacuation. Earlier surgical intervention should be considered in these cases. PMID:25498567

  4. A Simple Analytical Formula for the Leakage Flux Through a Perforated Aquitard.

    PubMed

    Bonte, Matthijs; Zaadnoordijk, Willem Jan; Maas, Kees

    2015-01-01

    In this methods note, we present a simple analytical formula to quantify the steady-state leakage flux (Q) over a perforated aquitard. The flux depends on the aquitard thickness (D), the radius of the perforation (R), the hydraulic conductivity of the material inside the perforation (kfill ), the conductivities of the overlying and underlying aquifers (k1 and k2 , respectively), and the head difference between the two aquifers (?H): [Formula: see text]. This equation assumes an aquitard separating two homogeneous and infinite aquifers (R???aquifer thickness) in which radial flow to and from the perforation occurs, with no other recharge or discharge boundaries near the perforation. The flux through a perforation in a hypothetical case study with D?=?10?m, k1 ?=?10?m/d, k2 ?=?20?m/d, R?=?0.072?m, and ?H?=?1?m ranges between less than 1?mL/d if the hole is backfilled with bentonite (k(fill )?=?10(-4) ?m/d), to several liters per day if the perforation is backfilled with sand from the overlying aquifer (k(fill) ?=?10?m/d), to several m(3) /d if the perforation forms an open conduit (k(fill) ?=?10(5) ?m/d). The leakage fluxes calculated with this model agree well with those calculated using a numerical model (MODFLOW). PMID:25040493

  5. Widespread lymph node recurrence of major duodenal papilla cancer following pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bai-Sen; Shi, Hui; Wen, Min; Xiao, Ming-Yong; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Major duodenal papilla cancer (MDPC) represents the primary type of duodenal cancer, and is typically considered a periampullary carcinoma as most tumors arise in this region. This report describes an extremely rare case involving a patient with rapidly and extensively recurrent MDPC following pancreaticoduodenectomy, who achieved complete response by concurrent image-guided radiation and intravenous oxaliplatin plus oral capecitabine therapies. The patient was a 50-year-old female who was admitted to our hospital 6 wk after resection for MDPC for evaluation of a nontender and enlarged node in the left side of her neck. After clinical work-up, the patient was diagnosed with postoperatively recurrent MDPC with widespread lymph node metastases at the bilateral cervix, mediastinum, abdominal cavity, and retroperitoneal area. She was administered whole field image-guided radiation therapy along with four cycles of the intravenous oxaliplatin plus oral capecitabine regimen. A complete response by positron emission tomography with 18-fluorodeoxyglucose was observed 4 months after treatment. The patient continues to be disease-free 2 years after the diagnosis of recurrence.

  6. Eating Behavior in Rats Subjected to Vagotomy, Sleeve Gastrectomy, and Duodenal Switch

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Yosuke; Zhao, Chun-Mei; Kulseng, Bård

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aim Food intake, eating behavior, and metabolic parameters in rats that underwent bilateral truncal vagotomy, sleeve gastrectomy, and duodenal switch procedures were examined. Methods Rats were subjected to bilateral truncal vagotomy plus pyloroplasty (VTPP), pyloroplasty (PP), laparotomy, sleeve gastrectomy (SG), or duodenal switch (DS; with and without SG). Results VTPP, but neither PP nor laparotomy, reduced body weight (BW; 10%) transiently (1 week postoperatively). SG reduced BW (10%) for 6 weeks, while DS alone or SG followed by DS led to a continuous BW loss from 15% at 1 week to 50% at 8 weeks postoperatively. Food intake was higher and the satiety ratio was lower during the night than the day for all groups of surgeries. Neither VTPP nor SG had measurable effect on food intake, eating behavior and metabolic parameters. DS reduced daily food intake by more than 50%, which was associated with hypercholecystokinin(CCK)emia, reduced meal size and increased satiety ratio, and increased fecal energy content (measured at 8 weeks). Conclusions Weight loss after VTPP, SG, or DS differed in terms of degree, duration, and underlying mechanisms. DS without SG was most effective in the long-term, probably due to hyperCCKemia-induced reduction in food intake and long-limb intestinal bypass-induced malabsorption. PMID:20824380

  7. Duodenal and gallbladder metastasis of regressive melanoma: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Elomrani, Fadwa; Elkabous, Mustapha; Rimani, Mouna; Boutayeb, Saber; Mrabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background Malignant melanoma involving the gastrointestinal (GI) tract may be primary or metastatic. Small bowel is the commonest site of GI metastases from cutaneous malignant melanoma, metastatic lesion in the gallbladder is extremely rare. Case presentation This case report describes the presentation of metastatic melanoma in duodenum and gallbladder. A 45-year-old man has presented melena with intermittent abdominal pain. On physical examination we found a small lesion between the fourth and fifth toes, associated with inguinal lymph node. An Abdominal ultrasound revealed diffuse duodenal thickening. Upper endoscopy was performed and discovered an ulcerative lesion in the second part of the duodenum. The biopsy with immunohistochemical stains was in favor of a duodenal location of melanoma. Computed tomography (CT) revealed many circumferential thickening of ileal loops associated with a nodular lesion in the anterior wall of the gallbladder. The patient was treated by palliative chemotherapy. Discussion Malignant melanoma of the GI tract may be primary or secondary. The small bowel is the most affected, but it’s rare in the gallbladder. The clinical presentation can mimic the other intestinal tumors, and the diagnosis is based on imaging; CT scan and GI endoscopy have a key role on the diagnosis, and the treatment depends on the location and the number of lesions. Conclusions Metastases of melanoma in the GI tract are uncommon, the diagnosis must be suspected in any patient with a history of melanoma with digestive signs. PMID:26487955

  8. A Case of Duodenal Obstruction and Pancreatitis Due to Intragastric Balloon

    PubMed Central

    Öztürk, Alaattin; Yavuz, Yunus; Atalay, Talha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intragastric balloons have several advantages such as easy placement and low complication rates over other bariatric procedures. It is very rare for intragastric balloons to dislodge and give rise to pancreatitis. In this article, we present a case of duodenal obstruction caused by a gastric balloon leading to pancreatitis. Case Report: A 38-year-old obese female patient had undergone intragastric implantation one month before admission. The patient was admitted to our hospital because of sudden onset of abdominal pain. On the abdominal ultrasonography and tomography, edematous pancreatitis and cholelithiasis were observed. The patient was given medical treatment for pancreatitis. Abdominal ultrasonography was repeated on the next day, and a distended gallbladder was revealed. Thus, the patient was operated on with the pre-diagnosis of acute cholecystitis and biliary pancreatitis. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. During the operation, a hard and trapped object was determined in the second part of the duodenal lumen. The patient was reevaluated on the second postoperative day as her pain had increased. On direct abdominal X-ray and computed tomography scan, the tubular part of the gastric balloon was found to be stuck in the duodenum. A gastroscopy was performed, but the balloon could not be removed. Therefore, an immediate laparotomy was performed, and the balloon was removed via gastrotomy. Conclusion: Although intragastric balloons are designed to reduce the risk of displacement, all unexpected patient complaints should lead to a thorough examination of the position and status of the balloon. PMID:26185725

  9. Shape-based 3D vascular tree extraction for perforator flaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Quan; Gao, Jean

    2005-04-01

    Perforator flaps have been increasingly used in the past few years for trauma and reconstructive surgical cases. With the thinned perforated flaps, greater survivability and decrease in donor site morbidity have been reported. Knowledge of the 3D vascular tree will provide insight information about the dissection region, vascular territory, and fascia levels. This paper presents a scheme of shape-based 3D vascular tree reconstruction of perforator flaps for plastic surgery planning, which overcomes the deficiencies of current existing shape-based interpolation methods by applying rotation and 3D repairing. The scheme has the ability to restore the broken parts of the perforator vascular tree by using a probability-based adaptive connection point search (PACPS) algorithm with minimum human intervention. The experimental results evaluated by both synthetic and 39 harvested cadaver perforator flaps show the promise and potential of proposed scheme for plastic surgery planning.

  10. Value of temporary stents for the management of perivaterian perforation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Min; Cho, Kwang Bum

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has become the mainstay of treatment in hepato-pancreato-biliary disease. However, ERCP requires a high level of technical skills and experience in therapeutic endoscopy, there is always a risk of complications. Especially, the perforation per se affects the patient adversely, and the clinical course may lead to a poor prognosis, even with appropriate management. The treatments for ERCP-related perforation are diverse, depending on the location and mechanism of the bowel perforation and the time of diagnosis. Thus, we reviewed the appropriate surgical and non-surgical management options for therapeutic ERCP-related perforations, especially, evaluating metallic stenting as a treatment modality in perivaterian perforation. PMID:25405193

  11. Deep Endometriosis Induced Spontaneous Colon Rectal Perforation in Pregnancy: Laparoscopy Is Advanced Tool to Confirm Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Aurelio; Sartini, Annalisa; Garibaldi, Silvia; Cencini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis causes rare complications in pregnancy, such as obstetrical bleeding, preterm birth, spontaneous haemoperitoneum, and intestinal perforation. The prevalence of spontaneous perforation due to intestinal endometriosis is unknown in pregnancy. A recent review of the literature indicated 15 bowel complications caused by endometriosis during pregnancy or at the immediate postpartum period. The diagnosis of a bowel perforation can be difficult and in all of the cases reported necessitates an exploratory laparotomy. Anyway, in the majority of cases bowel perforation is not diagnosed during this laparotomy, and a repeat laparotomy is needed. Laparoscopy is being used increasingly in the diagnosis and operative management of acute abdomen. Laparoscopy can be a useful means of diagnosis and in addition a therapeutic tool in selected pregnant patients with abdominal pain. We report the first case of a pregnant woman with spontaneous double sigmoid and rectal perforation from decidualized endometriosis diagnosed by laparoscopy. PMID:25161788

  12. Role of uterine forces in intrauterine device embedment, perforation, and expulsion

    PubMed Central

    Goldstuck, Norman D; Wildemeersch, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine factors that could help reduce primary perforation during insertion of a framed intrauterine device (IUD) and to determine factors that contribute in generating enough uterine muscle force to cause embedment and secondary perforation of an IUD. The objective was also to evaluate the main underlying mechanism of IUD expulsion. Methods We compared known IUD insertion forces for “framed” devices with known perforation forces in vitro (hysterectomy specimens) and known IUD removal forces and calculated a range of possible intrauterine forces using pressure and surface area. These were compared with known perforation forces. Results IUD insertion forces range from 1.5 N to 6.5 N. Removal forces range from 1 N to 5.8 N and fracture forces from 8.7 N to 30 N depending upon device. Measured perforation forces are from 20 N to 54 N, and calculations show the uterus is capable of generating up to 50 N of myometrial force depending on internal pressure and surface area. Conclusion Primary perforation with conventional framed IUDs may occur if the insertion pressure exceeds the perforation resistance of the uterine fundus. This is more likely to occur if the front end of the inserter/IUD is narrow, the passage through the cervix is difficult, and the procedure is complex. IUD embedment and secondary perforation and IUD expulsion may be due to imbalance between the size of the IUD and that of the uterine cavity, causing production of asymmetrical uterine forces. The uterine muscle seems capable of generating enough force to cause an IUD to perforate the myometrium provided it is applied asymmetrically. A physical theory for IUD expulsion and secondary IUD perforation is given. PMID:25143756

  13. Vascular Anatomy and Clinical Application of the Free Proximal Ulnar Artery Perforator Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yitao; Shi, Xiaotian; Yu, Yaling; Zhong, Guiwu; Tang, Maolin

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a dearth of detailed published work on the anatomy of ulnar artery perforators. The objective of this study was to fully document the vascular basis of the free proximal ulnar artery perforator flap and report its use in reconstruction of the hand. Methods: (1) The ulnar artery perforators were studied in 25 fresh cadavers and 10 cast preparations. Cadavers were injected with lead oxide for 3-dimensional reconstruction. The origin, course, and distribution of the ulnar artery perforators were comprehensively documented. (2) Between August 2011 and January 2013, 29 free proximal ulnar artery perforator flaps were utilized for reconstruction of soft-tissue defects of the hand in 25 patients. Flap size varied from 3.5 × 2.0 cm to 24.0 × 4.0 cm, with a consistent thickness of approximately 3 mm. Results: (1) There were 7 ± 2.0 ulnar artery perforators. The average external diameter was 0.6 ± 0.2 mm. Each perforator supplied an average area of 26 ± 7.0 cm2. Extensive anastomoses were found between the ulnar artery perforators and multiple adjacent source arteries. (2) All flaps survived. The clinical results were satisfactory after 10.2 ± 5.3 months of follow-up. The flaps were considered cosmetically acceptable by both patients and doctors. Conclusions: The main advantage of the proximal ulnar artery perforator flap is that it is a thin flap that is ideal for upper extremity reconstruction, either as proximally or distally based local perforator flap or as a free flap. The donor site is excellent, and the vascular anatomy is very consistent. PMID:25426362

  14. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE, VOL. 53, NO. 3, JUNE 2006 1659 Efficiencies of Coated and Perforated Semiconductor

    E-print Network

    Shultis, J. Kenneth

    and Perforated Semiconductor Neutron Detectors J. Kenneth Shultis and Douglas S. McGregor, Member, IEEE Abstract--Previous experimental results indicated that boron- filled perforations within a semiconductor diode detector increase be realized for doubled or "sand- wiched" devices. Index Terms--Perforated detector, semiconductor neutron de

  15. Comparing Gray and White Mineral Trioxide Aggregate as a Repair Material for Furcation Perforation: An in Vitro Dye Extraction Study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kiran; Baba, Suheel Manzoor; Jaiswal, Shikha; Venkataraghavan, Karthik; Jani, Mehul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Furcation perforation can have a negative impact on the prognosis of the affected tooth by compromising the attached apparatus. Hence these perforations require immediate repair. A variety of materials have been suggested for repair, of that MTA is the most promising material. The purpose of this study was to compare the ability of Gray and White MTA to seal furcation perforations using a dye extraction method under spectrophotometer. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 permanent mandibular molars were randomly divided into four experimental groups of 15 samples each as follows: Group A: Perforation repaired with White MTA. Group B: Perforation repaired with Gray MTA. Group C: Perforation left unsealed (positive). Group D: without perforation (negative). Dye extraction was performed using full concentration nitric acid. Dye absorbance was measured at 550 nm using spectrophotometer. The data analyzed using one-way-Anova Ratio and Unpaired t-test showing statistically significance difference among the groups. Result: It was seen that Group D samples without perforation showed least absorbance followed by Group A (perforation repaired with White MTA) and Group B (perforation repaired with Gray MTA). Group C (perforation left unsealed) showed highest absorbance. Conclusion: The White and Gray Mineral Trioxide Aggregate performed similarly as a furcation perforation repair material. There was no significant difference between the Gray MTA and White MTA. PMID:25478452

  16. Sphincter of Oddi hypomotility and its relationship with duodenal-biliary reflux, plasma motilin and serum gastrin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Wu, Shuo-Dong; Wang, Bing; Su, Yang; Jin, Jun-Zhe; Kong, Jing; Wang, Hao-Lin

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To detect whether patients with a T tube after cholecystectomy and choledochotomy have duodenal-biliary reflux by measuring the radioactivity of Tc99m-labeled diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) in the bile and whether the patients with duodenal-biliary reflux have sphincter of Oddi hypomotility, by measuring the level of plasma and serum gastrin of the patients. Finally to if there is close relationship among sphincter of Oddi hypomotility, duodenal-biliary reflux and gastrointestinal peptides. METHODS: Forty-five patients with a T tube after cholecystectomy and choledochotomy were divided into reflux group and control group. The level of plasma and serum gastrin of the patients and of 12 healthy volunteers were measured by radioimmunoassay. Thirty-four were selected randomly to undergo choledochoscope manometry. Sphincter of Oddi basal pressure (SOBP), amplitude (SOCA), frequency of contractions (SOF), duration of contractions (SOD), duodenal pressure (DP) and common bile duct pressure (CBDP) were scored and analyzed. RESULTS: Sixteen (35.6%) patients were detected to have duodenal-biliary reflux. SOBP, SOCA and CBDP in the reflux group were much lower than the control group (t = 5.254, 3.438 and 3.527, P < 0.001). SOD of the reflux group was shorter than the control group (t = 2.049, P < 0.05). The level of serum gastrin and plasma motilin of the reflux group was much lower than the control group (t = -2.230 and -2.235, P < 0.05). There was positive correlation between the level of plasma motilin and SOBP and between the level of serum gastrin and SOBP and CBDP. CONCLUSION: About 35.9% of the patients with a T tube after cholecystectomy and choledochotomy have duodenal-biliary reflux. Most of them have sphincter of Oddi hypomotility and the decreased level of plasma motilin and serum gastrin. The disorder of gastrointestinal hormone secretion may result in sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. There is a close relationship between sphincter of Oddi hypomotility and duodenal-biliary reflux. PMID:18609694

  17. Review of active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ACD-CPR). Analysis of iatrogenic complications and their biomechanical explanation.

    PubMed

    Rabl, W; Baubin, M; Haid, C; Pfeiffer, K P; Scheithauer, R

    1997-10-01

    Our review takes a critical look at the active compression-decompression technique (ACD) for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). ACD-CPR was developed following a report of successful resuscitation performed by a medical amateur using a household plunger. The efficacy of the principle of active decompression has been demonstrated by animal and human studies. Potential iatrogenic complications from the CardioPump were evaluated only when large clinical trials were already underway. Our prospective analysis of autopsy patients and systematic randomised studies in corpses prove that ACD-CPR using the CardioPump considerably increases the rate of iatrogenic complications and especially of sternum fractures. The experimental use of the CardioPump in corpses and the analysis of a variety of different parameters, especially of the rubber cushion pads mounted in the silicone cup to prevent skin abrasions, revealed a statistically significant correlation between sternum fractures and female sex (P < 0.01) and usage of the rubber cushion pad (P = 0.045). Biomechanical studies showed that the transmission of forces from the CardioPump is greatly dependent on chest shape. The lower the sternum is sunken compared with the surrounding structures, the higher the force which is transmitted via the central area of the device onto the sternum. The rubber cushion pad shortens the distance between CardioPump and sternum by 5 mm and therefore increases the sternal loading. Sex differences in the shape of the sternum and especially the thickness may account for the significant correlation between sternum fractures and female sex. PMID:9363626

  18. Iatrogenic myxoedema madness following radioactive iodine ablation for Graves' disease, with a concurrent diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism

    PubMed Central

    Snell, L; Morris, D V

    2015-01-01

    Summary Myxoedema madness was first described as a consequence of severe hypothyroidism in 1949. Most cases were secondary to long-standing untreated primary hypothyroidism. We present the first reported case of iatrogenic myxoedema madness following radioactive iodine ablation for Graves' disease, with a second concurrent diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism. A 29-year-old woman presented with severe hypothyroidism, a 1-week history of psychotic behaviour and paranoid delusions 3 months after treatment with radioactive iodine ablation for Graves' disease. Her psychiatric symptoms abated with levothyroxine replacement. She was concurrently found to be hypertensive and hypokalemic. Primary hyperaldosteronism from bilateral adrenal hyperplasia was diagnosed. This case report serves as a reminder that myxoedema madness can be a complication of acute hypothyroidism following radioactive iodine ablation of Graves' disease and that primary hyperaldosteronism may be associated with autoimmune hyperthyroidism. Learning points Psychosis (myxoedema madness) can present as a neuropsychiatric manifestation of acute hypothyroidism following radioactive iodine ablation of Graves' disease.Primary hyperaldosteronism may be caused by idiopathic bilateral adrenal hyperplasia even in the presence of an adrenal adenoma seen on imaging.Adrenal vein sampling is a useful tool for differentiating between a unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma, which is managed surgically, and an idiopathic bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, which is managed medically.The management of autoimmune hyperthyroidism, iatrogenic hypothyroidism and primary hyperaldosteronism from bilateral idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia in patients planning pregnancy includes delaying pregnancy 6 months following radioactive iodine treatment and until patient is euthyroid for 3 months, using amiloride as opposed to spironolactone, controlling blood pressure with agents safe in pregnancy such as nifedipine and avoiding ? blockers.Autoimmune hyperthyroidism and primary hyperaldosteronism rarely coexist; any underlying mechanism associating the two is still unclear. PMID:26525086

  19. Perforated Sigmoid Diverticulitis in the Presence of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Heye, P.; Descloux, A.; Singer, G.; Rosenberg, R.; Kocher, T.

    2014-01-01

    Even though the incidence of toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is low, it is also associated with a high mortality rate. The condition predominantly affects the skin, but may also affect the gastrointestinal tract, dramatically increasing mortality. We present a case of perforated sigmoid diverticulitis in the presence of TEN. The patient was taking medication, known to be a risk factor, and presented an affected total body surface area and temporal development similar to previously reported cases of TEN. Characteristic abdominal symptoms, however, were missing. Gastrointestinal involvement in TEN appears to be a poor prognostic factor; medical staff must therefore be alert to patients with TEN who complain of abdominal discomfort. The exact pathogenesis, however, remains unclear. PMID:24707250

  20. Endoscopic vacuum therapy for esophageal perforations and leakages

    PubMed Central

    Möschler, Oliver; Nies, Christoph; Mueller, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: Injuries to the esophageal wall, such as perforations and anastomotic leaks, are serious complications of surgical and endoscopic interventions. Since 2006, a new treatment has been introduced, in the form of endoscopically placed vacuum sponge therapy. Patients and methods: Between April 2012 and October 2014, 10 patients (5 men and 5 women) aged 57 to 94 years were treated at our institution using endoscopic vacuum therapy (EVT) in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Results: The defect in the esophageal wall was successfully closed in seven of the 10 patients (70?%). No severe complications occurred. Conclusions: EVT is a valuable tool for management of defects in the esophageal wall and should be considered as a treatment option for patients with this condition. PMID:26716111

  1. Mechanical seal having a single-piece, perforated mating ring

    DOEpatents

    Khonsari, Michael M. (Baton Rouge, LA); Somanchi, Anoop K. (Fremont, CA)

    2007-08-07

    A mechanical seal (e.g., single mechanical seals, double mechanical seals, tandem mechanical seals, bellows, pusher mechanical seals, and all types of rotating and reciprocating machines) with reduced contact surface temperature, reduced contact surface wear, or increased life span. The mechanical seal comprises a rotating ring and a single-piece, perforated mating ring, which improves heat transfer by controllably channeling coolant flow through the single-piece mating ring such that the coolant is in substantially uniform thermal contact with a substantial portion of the interior surface area of the seal face, while maintaining the structural integrity of the mechanical seal and minimizing the potential for coolant flow interruptions to the seal face caused by debris or contaminants (e.g., small solids and trash) in the coolant.

  2. Oculocerebral perforating trauma by foreign objects: diagnosis and surgery.

    PubMed

    Scarfo, G B; Mariottini, A; Palma, L

    1990-01-01

    Two unusual cases of perforating oculocerebral trauma by foreign bodies treated surgically are reported. Both were caused by industrial accidents. In the first a nail shot from a nail gun ricocheted off the target and crossed the right eyeball and the posterior wall of the orbit, lodging in the homolateral temporal lobe. In the second case a metal fragment expelled by an agricultural machine penetrated the left maxillary sinus, crossed the floor of the orbit, the eyeball and the roof of the orbit and lodged in the homolateral frontal lobe. After accurate neuroradiological examination the patients were operated using simultaneous transcranial and transorbital access. In our opinion this is the only approach which can minimize the risk of infection which is so dangerous in this type of trauma. The functional and aesthetic results, which were very satisfactory in both cases, seem to confirm the correctness of this approach. PMID:2092091

  3. Low temperature thermal transport in partially perforated silicon nitride membranes.

    SciTech Connect

    Yefremenko, V.; Wang, G.; Novosad, V.; Datesman, A.; Pearson, J.; Divan, R.; Chang, C. L.; Downes, T. P.; Mcmahon, J. J.; Bleem, L. E.; Crites, A. T.; Meyer, S. S.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Univ. of Chicago

    2009-05-04

    The thermal transport in partially trenched silicon nitride membranes has been studied in the temperature range from 0.3 to 0.6 K, with the transition edge sensor (TES), the sole source of membrane heating. The test configuration consisted of Mo/Au TESs lithographically defined on silicon nitride membranes 1 {micro}m thick and 6 mm{sup 2} in size. Trenches with variable depth were incorporated between the TES and the silicon frame in order to manage the thermal transport. It was shown that sharp features in the membrane surface, such as trenches, significantly impede the modes of phonon transport. A nonlinear dependence of thermal resistance on trench depth was observed. Partial perforation of silicon nitride membranes to control thermal transport could be useful in fabricating mechanically robust detector devices.

  4. Vision loss after inadvertent corneal perforation during lid anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Mansi; Kwon, Young H

    2011-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman was referred for glaucoma management after inadvertent corneal perforation during eyelid anesthesia for upper eyelid blepharoplasty. A mixture of 50:50 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and 0.5% bupivacaine buffered with sodium bicarbonate was injected intracamerally. Decreased vision and uncontrollable intraocular pressure resulted, despite prompt anterior chamber washout. Examination showed corneal edema, inflammation, and secondary angle closure. Intraocular pressure control with seton placement led to an improvement in vision; however, mild corneal haze remained, and specular microscopy showed endothelial cell loss, presumably secondary to local anesthetic toxicity. Inadvertent ocular penetration is a rare but serious complication of local eyelid anesthesia. Prompt recognition is essential to institute appropriate management and minimize subsequent vision loss. PMID:21904171

  5. Shock wave strength reduction by passive control using perforated plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerffer, Piotr; Szulc, Oskar

    2007-05-01

    Strong, normal shock wave, terminating a local supersonic area on an airfoil, not only limits aerodynamic performance but also becomes a source of a high-speed impulsive helicopter noise. The application of a passive control system (a cavity covered by a perforated plate) on a rotor blade should reduce the noise created by a moving shock. This article covers the numerical implementation of the Bohning/Doerffer transpiration law into the SPARC code and includes an extended validation against the experimental data for relatively simple geometries of transonic nozzles. It is a first step towards a full simulation of a helicopter rotor equipped with a noise reducing passive control device in hover and in forward flight conditions.

  6. Perforation of HY-100 steel plates with long rod projectiles

    SciTech Connect

    Hanchak, S.J.; Altman, B.S.; Forrestal, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    The authors conducted perforation experiments with 4340 steel, rod projectiles and HY-100 steel, target plates at striking velocities between 80 and 370 m/s. Projectiles were machined to nominally 30-mm-diameter and 281-mm-length so they could be launched from a 30-mm-powder gun without sabots. The target plates were rigidly clamped at 305-mm diameter and had a nominal thickness of 10.2 mm. In addition to measuring striking and residual projectile velocities, they obtained back surface framing camera data that showed clearly the plate deformation and plug ejection process. An Imacon 792 camera provided up to 20 frames per experiment with an interframe time duration of 10 {mu}s. The modeling work is in progress, but they present a beam model that exhibits the features observed in the experiments.

  7. Abdominal perforator vs. muscle sparing flaps for breast reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liza C.

    2015-01-01

    Abdominally based free flaps have become the mainstay for women that desire to use their own tissue as a means of breast reconstruction after mastectomy. As the techniques have evolved, significant effort has been invested in finding the best means of minimizing morbidity to the abdominal donor site while ensuring a viable reconstructed breast that is aesthetically pleasing. This manuscript reviews and compares the muscle sparing free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (MsfTRAM), the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP), and the superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) flaps, regarding flap success rate, operative times, abdominal donor site morbidity and residual functionality, hospital lengths of stay and associated costs, impact of co-morbid conditions, and resilience after adjuvant radiation treatment. PMID:26161306

  8. Heat-stable enterotoxin of Escherichia coli stimulates a non-CFTR-mediated duodenal bicarbonate secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Zachary M; Childs, Debbie; Chow, Jimmy Y C; Smith, Anders J; Hogan, Daniel L; Isenberg, Jon I; Dong, Hui; Barrett, Kim E; Pratha, Vijaya S

    2005-04-01

    The cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an important pathway for duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion. Duodenal biopsies from CF patients secrete bicarbonate in response to heat-stable enterotoxin from Escherichia coli (STa) but not cAMP. To explore the mechanism of STa-induced bicarbonate secretion in CF more fully, we examined the role of CFTR in STa-stimulated duodenal bicarbonate secretion in mice. In vivo, the duodenum of CFTR (-/-) or control mice was perfused with forskolin (10(-4) M), STa (10(-7) M), uroguanylin (10(-7) M), 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cGMP (8-Br-cGMP) (10(-3) M), genistein (10(-6) M) plus STa, or herbimycin A (10(-6) M) plus STa. In vitro, duodenal mucosae were voltage-clamped in Ussing chambers, and bicarbonate secretion was measured by pH-stat. The effect of genistein, DIDS (10(-4) M), and chloride removal was also studied in vitro. Control, but not CF, mice produced a significant increase in duodenal bicarbonate secretion after perfusion with forskolin, uroguanylin, or 8-Br-cGMP. However, both control and CF animals responded to STa with significant increases in bicarbonate output. Genistein and herbimycin A abolished this response in CF mice but not in controls. In vitro, STa-stimulated bicarbonate secretion in CF tissues was inhibited by genistein, DIDS, and chloride-free conditions, whereas bicarbonate secretion persisted in control mice. In the CF duodenum, STa can stimulate bicarbonate secretion via tyrosine kinase activity resulting in apical Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange. Further studies elucidating the intracellular mechanisms responsible for such non-CFTR mediated bicarbonate secretion may lead to important therapies for CF. PMID:15513951

  9. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR) -196 to 174del polymorphism in gastro-duodenal diseases in Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Tomomitsu; Arisawa, Tomiyasu; Wang, Fangyu; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Masakatsu; Sakata, Mikijyu; Hirata, Ichiro; Nakano, Hiroshi

    2008-04-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play important roles in the signaling of many pathogen-related molecules and endogenous proteins associated with immune activation. -196 to -174del polymorphism affects the TLR2 gene and alters its promoter activity. We investigated the influence of TLR2 -196 to -174del polymorphism on the risk of gastro-duodenal diseases, on the severity of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis in a Japanese population. The study was performed on 309 patients with abdominal discomfort and 146 healthy controls. -196 to -174del polymorphism of TLR2 was investigated by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction method in all of the subjects. Gastritis scores of antral gastric mucosa were assessed according to the updated Sydney system in H. pylori-positive subjects (n = 156). Patients with abdominal discomfort was consisted of 80 gastric ulcers (25.9%), 38 duodenal ulcers (12.3%), five gastric + duodenal ulcers (1.6%), 105 patients with gastritis (34.0%) and 81 normal healthy stomachs (26.2%). We did not find any association between TLR2 polymorphism and risk of gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, gastric and duodenal ulcer and gastritis compared to healthy controls. However, the TLR2-196 to -174ins allele was associated with severity of intestinal metaplasia in more than 60 years of ages (P = 0.02). The same allele also increased the risks of developing more severe gastric mucosal atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in female subjects (P < 0.05, P = 0.07 respectively). No association was observed between TLR2 polymorphism and severity of neutrophil and mononuclear cell infiltration. Our data suggest that the TLR2-196 to -174ins allele was associated with more severe intestinal metaplasia in patients older than was correlated with severity of gastric mucosal atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in female subjects. PMID:17934843

  10. Azithromycin in a triple therapy for H.pylori eradication in active duodenal ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Ivashkin, Vladimir T.; Lapina, Tatiana L.; Bondarenko, Oksana Yu.; Sklanskaya, Olga A.; Grigoriev, Petr Ya.; Vasiliev, Yuri V.; Yakovenko, Emilia P.; Gulyaev, Pavel V.; Fedchenko, Valeri I.

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To assess and compare the efficacy and safety of two triple regimes: A) metronidazole, amoxicillin and omeprazole, which is still widely used in Russia, and B) azithromycin, amoxicillin and omeprazole in healing active duodenal ulcer and H. pylori eradication. METHODS: 100 patients with active duodenal ulcer were included in the open, multicentre, randomized study with comparative groups. Patients were randomly assigned to one of the following one-week triple regimes: A) metronidazole 500 mg bid, amoxicillin 1 g bid and omeprazole 20 mg bid (OAM, n = 50) and B) azithromycin 1 g od for the first 3 d (total dose 3 g), amoxicillin 1 g bid and omeprazole 20 mg bid (OAA, n = 50). Omeprazole 20 mg od was given after the eradication course as a monotherapy for three weeks. The control endoscopy was performed 8 wk after the entry. H. pylori infection was determined in the entry of the study and four weeks after the cessation of treatment by means of histology and CLO-test. RESULTS: 97 patients completed the study according to the protocol (1 patient of the OAM group did not come to the control endoscopy, 2 patients of the OAA group stopped the treatment because of mild allergic urticaria). Duodenal ulcers were healed in 48 patients of the OAM group (96%; CI 90.5%-100%) and in 46 patients of the OAA group (92%; CI 89.5%-94.5%) (p = ns). H. pylori infection was eradicated in 15 out of 50 patients with OAM (30%; CI 17%-43%) and in 36 out of 50 patients treated with OAA (72%; CI 59%-85%) (P < 0.001) - ITT analysis. CONCLUSION: The triple therapy with omeprazole, amoxicillin and metronidazole failed to eradicate H. pylori in the majority of patients, which is an essential argument to withdraw this regimen out of the national recommendations. Macrolide with amoxicillin are preferable to achieve higher eradication rates. Azithromycin (1 g od for the first 3 d) can be considered as a successful component of the triple PPI-based regimen. PMID:12378634

  11. Evolution of nonspecific duodenal lymphocytosis over 2 years of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Losurdo, Giuseppe; Piscitelli, Domenico; Giangaspero, Antonio; Principi, Mariabeatrice; Buffelli, Francesca; Giorgio, Floriana; Montenegro, Lucia; Sorrentino, Claudia; Amoruso, Annacinzia; Ierardi, Enzo; Di Leo, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the evolution of duodenal lymphocytosis (DL), a condition characterized by increased intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), over 2 years of follow-up. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing upper endoscopy/histology for abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, weakness or other extraintestinal features compatible with celiac disease (CD) were included. Evaluation of IELs infiltrate in duodenal biopsy samples was carried out by CD3-immunohistochemistry and expressed as number of positive cells/100 enterocytes. Diagnostic agreement on the IELs count was tested by calculating the weighted k coefficient. All patients underwent serological detection of autoantibodies associated with CD: IgG and IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase and endomysium. Each patient underwent further investigations to clarify the origin of DL at baseline and/or in the course of 2 years of follow-up every six months. Autoimmune thyroiditis, intestinal infections, parasitic diseases, bacterial intestinal overgrowth, hypolactasia and wheat allergy were detected. Colonoscopy and enteric magnetic resonance imaging were performed when necessary. Risk factors affecting the final diagnosis were detected by multinomial logistic regression and expressed as OR. RESULTS: Eighty-five patients (16 males, 69 females, aged 34.1 ± 12.5 years) were followed up for a mean period of 21.7 ± 11.7 mo. At baseline, endoscopy/duodenal biopsy, CD3 immunohistochemistry revealed: > 25 IELs/100 enterocytes in 22 subjects, 15-25 IELs in 37 and < 15 IELs in 26. They all had negative serum anti-transglutaminase and anti-endomysium, whilst 5 showed IgG anti-gliadin positivity. In the course of follow-up, 23 developed CD seropositivity and gluten sensitivity (GS) was identified in 19. Other diagnoses were: 5 Helicobacter pylori infections, 4 jejunal Crohn’s disease, 1 lymphocytic colitis and 1 systemic sclerosis. The disease in the remaining 32 patients was classified as irritable bowel syndrome because of the lack of diagnostic evidence. At multivariate analysis, the evolution towards CD was associated with an IELs infiltrate > 25 (OR = 1640.4) or 15-25 (OR = 16.95), human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ2/8 (OR = 140.85) or DQA1*0501 (OR = 15.36), diarrhea (OR = 5.56) and weakness (OR = 11.57). GS was associated with IELs 15-25 (OR = 28.59), autoimmune thyroiditis (OR = 87.63), folate deficiency (OR = 48.53) and diarrhea (OR = 54.87). CONCLUSION: DL may have a multifactorial origin but the IELs infiltrate and HLA are strong predictive factors for CD development and a clinical diagnosis of GS. PMID:26140001

  12. Surgical and Medical Treatment of Pyloric and Duodenal Pythiosis in a Dog.

    PubMed

    Dycus, David Lee; Fisher, Cory; Butler, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    A 5 yr old, male, neutered mixed-breed dog was referred for persistent vomiting 2 wk following a pyloric biopsy for a pyloric outflow obstruction. Histopathology at the time of initial surgery was suggestive of pythiosis. Following referral, the dog underwent radical surgical treatment with a Billroth II procedure, partial pancreatectomy, and cholecystoduodenostomy. Histopathology and serology confirmed the diagnosis of pythiosis and medical treatment consisting of itraconazole and terbinafine was started postoperatively. Serology titers were checked again at 8, 12, and 24 wk postoperatively revealing a positive response to treatment and no reoccurrence of pythiosis. Since surgery, the patient experienced waxing and waning elevations of liver values and laparoscopic liver biopsies 10 mo postoperatively revealed hepatic cirrhosis with fibrosis, bile duct hyperplasia, and chronic inflammation. This report documents successful treatment of pyloric/duodenal pythiosis and the long-term (17 mo) consequences associated with the Billroth II, partial pancreatectomy, and biliary rerouting in the dog. PMID:26535457

  13. Duodenal ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux disease today: long-term therapy--a sideways glance.

    PubMed Central

    Bardhan, K. D.

    1996-01-01

    Acid-peptic disease is widely considered conquered or controlled, future advances being refinements of existing treatments rather than radical new developments. Yet controversies remain and developments have yet to be made. DUODENAL ULCER: Daily maintenance treatment with the anti-secretory drugs, histamine H2 receptor antagonists and proton pump blockers, controls duodenal ulcer effectively, markedly reducing relapse rate at one year after treatment from about 75 percent to 15 to 20 percent (and to about 10 percent on proton pump blockers). In contrast, Helicobacter pylori eradication with a one to two week course of treatment yields prolonged remission or cure. The consequent reduction in drug costs in individual patients, however, has been exceeded by increasing community use on the more expensive proton pump blockers for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The marked decline in elective surgery since the introduction of histamine H2 receptor antagonists is commonly attributed to the power of these drugs. The fall, however, had started much earlier, indicating that the decline is due to changing natural history. In contrast, complication rates remain unaltered. An increasing proportion of newly diagnosed duodenal ulcer patients are elderly, and more of them now present for the first time with complications (in this center, about 40 percent), which consequently cannot be forestalled. Thus, duodenal ulcer disease is likely to remain a problem and in many will be a serious illness. GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE: The proton pump blockers have revolutionized the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. In clinical trials they have proven markedly superior to the histamine H2 receptor antagonists in healing (at eight weeks, 80 to 90 percent vs. 50 to 60 percent), symptom relief, prevention of relapse on maintenance therapy and cost-effectiveness. However, several issues remain. The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease seems to be rising and is now probably the commonest acid-peptic disease encountered in the West. Most clinical trials comparing proton pump blockers vs. histamine H2 receptor antagonists have been done in patients with erosive esophagitis, whereas the majority (50 to 60 percent) of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease have milder, generally non-erosive, disease. The therapeutic gain of proton pump blockers diminishes in mild disease so may not be worth the higher drug costs. This is an important area for investigation. The majority of patients with erosive esophagitis relapse when treatment is stopped (about 75 percent at one year). Relapse is markedly reduced (to 20 to 25 percent) by daily maintenance treatment with proton pump blockers. Mild disease relapses less often, so longterm therapy by intermittent treatment may prove acceptable and more cost-effective than maintenance treatment. This strategy remains unexplored in trials. The ideal profile of an anti-secretory drug for intermittent treatment would combine rapid onset of action (similar to histamine H2 receptor antagonists) with powerful effect (as with proton pump blockers). The new class of drug, the reversible proton pump blocker (e.g., BY841) approaches this requirement. PMID:9165690

  14. [The incidence of duodenogastric reflux and its relation to stomach and duodenal diseases].

    PubMed

    Radev, D; Kotsev, I; Pana?otov, P; Karageorgiev, L; Georgiev, M; Bozhanin, D; Dimov, D

    1990-01-01

    The data available in the literature on the incidence of duodenogastric reflux and its relation with diseases of the stomach and duodenum are controversial. A study was performed based on the results of 4256 primary endoscopies of the stomach and duodenum: 3673 in nonoperated patients and 583 in patients having undergone vagotomy and resection. For duodenogastric reflux one judged from the yellow coloration of the gastric juice and regurgitation of bile at the moment of examination. Reflux had 428 patients (10.05 per cent)--330 in the nonoperated group (8.98 per cent) and 98 in the operated group (16.81 per cent). Inference is drawn that duodenogastric reflux does not coincide in incidence with reflux gastritis and that causal relation might be searched between gastritis, reflux esophagitis and duodenitis, on the one hand, and duodenogastric reflux, on the other. PMID:2097428

  15. Mechanistic Comparison between Gastric Bypass vs. Duodenal Switch with Sleeve Gastrectomy in Rat Models

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Yosuke; Johannessen, Helene; Furnes, Marianne W.; Zhao, Chun-Mei; Johnsen, Gjermund; Mårvik, Ronald; Kulseng, Bård; Chen, Duan

    2013-01-01

    Background Both gastric bypass (GB) and duodenal switch with sleeve gastrectomy (DS) have been widely used as bariatric surgeries, and DS appears to be superior to GB. The aim of this study was to better understand the mechanisms leading to body weight loss by comparing these two procedures in experimental models of rats. Methods Animals were subjected to GB, DS or laparotomy (controls), and monitored by an open-circuit indirect calorimeter composed of comprehensive laboratory animal monitoring system and adiabatic bomb calorimeter. Results Body weight loss was greater after DS than GB. Food intake was reduced after DS but not GB. Energy expenditure was increased after either GB or DS. Fecal energy content was increased after DS but not GB. Conclusion GB induced body weight loss by increasing energy expenditure, whereas DS induced greater body weight loss by reducing food intake, increasing energy expenditure and causing malabsorption in rat models. PMID:24039816

  16. Transcatheter Coil Embolization of an Aneurysm of the Pancreatico-duodenal Artery with Occluded Celiac Trunk

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.H. Pfeifer, K.J.; Tato, F.; Reiser, M.; Rieger, J.

    2005-04-15

    We report on a case of a wide-necked aneurysm of the pancreatico-duodenal artery with occlusion of the celiac trunk in an asymptomatic patient. The aneurysm was considered to be at high risk of rupture. Successful embolization after interdisciplinary consultation was followed with color-coded duplex ultrasound (CCDS) demonstrating significant flow reduction. Three weeks later CCDS and angiography demonstrated exclusion of the aneurysm and a patent arterial supply of the liver and spleen fed by superior mesenteric artery (SMA) collaterals. The patient has done well so far, without major adverse clinical events or evidence for tissue necrosis of the liver, pancreas or spleen. Discussion of the case and review of the literature indicate that transcatheter embolization is the therapy of choice even in complicated cases.

  17. Stercoral Perforation of the Colon during Pregnancy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Costales, Anthony B.; Agarwal, Amit K.; Chauhan, Suneet P.; Refuerzo, Jerrie S.; Taub, Ethan A.

    2015-01-01

    Stercoral perforation of the colon, though rare, is associated with high mortality. Review of the literature identified only three prior cases reported during pregnancy. We report a case on a multiparous female presenting at 31 weeks of gestation with acute abdominal pain. Computed tomography suggested a sigmoid colon perforation. An urgent exploratory laparotomy was performed where feculent peritonitis and a stercoral perforation of the sigmoid colon was confirmed. A cesarean delivery and sigmoid colectomy with descending end colostomy was performed. While the newborn had an uncomplicated course, the mother developed an intra-abdominal abscess requiring operative management. PMID:26199793

  18. An analytical model for the determination of resonance frequencies of perforated beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luschi, Luca; Pieri, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we develop closed expressions for the equivalent bending and shear stiffness of beams with regular square perforations, and apply them to the problem of determining the resonance frequencies of slender, regularly perforated clamped-clamped beams, which are of interest in the development of MEMS resonant devices. We prove that, depending on the perforation size, the Euler-Bernoulli equation or the more complex shear equation needs to be used to obtain accurate values for these frequencies. Extensive finite element method simulations are used to validate the proposed model over the full practical range of possible hole sizes. An experimental verification of the model is also presented.

  19. Stercoral perforation in a child: a rare complication of NSAID use.

    PubMed

    Al Omran, Yasser; Al Hindi, Saeed; Alarayedh, Sharif; Hawash, Aamenah

    2014-01-01

    The adverse effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are well known. However, NSAID use rarely leads to a stercoral perforation, an extremely rare but life-threatening cause of acute abdomen. We present a case of stercoral sigmoid colon perforation in a 2-year-old girl, secondary to unintentional NSAID overdose, developing as a result of miscommunication between the general practitioner (GP) and the mother. To the best of our knowledge, stercoral perforation has never before been reported in a child. PMID:24658528

  20. [Epidemiological study on the risk of gastric cancer in patients with duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Kawashima, T

    1991-05-01

    Patients who were diagnosed to have duodenal ulcer (DU) or duodenal ulcer scar (DUS) by gastric mass screening with X-Ray examination from April 1970 to Dec. 1983 were followed up to Dec. 1983 by means of record linkage to the Osaka Cancer Registry, and incident patients of gastric cancer (GC) among the study subjects during the follow-up period were investigated almost completely. Standardized incidence rates (SIR) of GC for the groups categorized by diagnosis at the initial screening, i.e., DU or DUS group and normal group, were calculated by comparing the number of GC among the study groups with the expected number of GC. This expected number was obtained by multiplying the person-year of the study subjects with GC incidence rates for the whole population of Osaka prefecture according to sex and age group. SIR were calculated by sub-groups, i.e., male and female groups, under 5 year follow-up (from the initial screening to GC diagnosis) and 5 year follow-up or over groups, and direct X-Ray examination at the detection center and indirect X-Ray examination in the screening bus groups. The results were as follows. The SIR were 0.41 for the DU or DUS group and 0.74 for the normal group. The risk for the DU or DUS group was lower than that for the normal group (R.R. = 0.55, chi 2 = 3.56, 0.1 greater than p greater than 0.05). In all subgroups, the risk of GC for each DU or DUS group was lower than that for the normal group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1880947

  1. Several standard elective operations for duodenal ulcer: ten to 16 year clinical results.

    PubMed Central

    Goligher, J C; Feather, D B; Hall, R; Hall, R A; Hopton, D; Kenny, T E; Latchmore, A J; Matheson, T; Shoesmith, J H; Smiddy, F G; Willson-Pepper, J

    1979-01-01

    A survey was undertaken of 558 men with duodenal ulcer who had been treated ten to 16 years previously by truncal vagotomy and drainage, truncal vagotomy and antrectomy and subtotal gastrectomy. Of the 558, 65 had died and 111, presumed living, could not be traced, leaving 382 available for assessment. Between 75 and 85% of the traced patients were considered to have an excellent or very good result, which is a slight improvement on the previously published results in this same group of patients at five to eight years follow-up. Some of the side effects of operation had diminished slightly in frequency and there had been no significant increase in the incidence of recurrent ulceration since the previous survey. Anemia was an uncommon finding. As between the various forms of operation, truncal vagotomy and antrectomy and subtotal gastrectomy demonstrated significantly better protection against proven recurrent ulcer than did truncal vagotomy and pyloroplasty (p less than 0.05). Compared with truncal vagotomy and gastroenterostomy, however, the results of both resection operations, though better, did not achieve statistical significance at p - 0.5 level (p less than 0.1). In regard to Visick gradings the resection procedures had better scores, but the differences were not significant at the p - 0.05 level, except for vagotomy and antractomy as compared with vagotomy and pyloroplasty. But it is stressed that in formulating a policy of surgical therapy for duodenal ulcer the greater inherent immediate risks of resection operations need to be borne in mind. PMID:758858

  2. Comparison of gastric and other bowel perforations in preterm infants: a review of 20 years' experience in a single institution

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Do Kyung; Shim, So Yeon; Cho, Su Jin; Lee, Sun Wha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In this study, we aimed to review the clinical presentation of preterm infants with gastrointestinal perforations and compare the clinical features of gastric perforation with other intestinal perforations. Methods The medical records of preterm neonates with pneumoperitoneum, admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) between January 1994 and December 2013, were retrospectively reviewed. Results Twenty-one preterm infants underwent exploratory laparotomy to investigate the cause of the pneumoperitoneum. The sample consisted of five patients (23.8%) with gastric perforation and 16 patients (76.2%) with intestinal perforation. No statistical differences were found in the birth history and other perinatal factors between the two groups. Underlying necrotizing enterocolitis, bilious vomiting, and paralytic ileus preceding the perforation were statistically more common in the intestinal perforation group. All preterm infants with gastric perforation survived to discharge; however, six preterm infants with intestinal perforation expired during treatment in the NICU. In the gastric perforation group, sudden pneumoperitoneum was the most common finding, and the mean age at diagnosis was 4.4±1.7 days of life. The location and size of the perforations varied, and simple closure or partial gastrectomy was performed. Conclusion Patients with gastric perforation did not have a common clinical finding preceding the perforation diagnosis. Although mortality in previous studies was high, all patients survived to discharge in the present study. When a preterm infant aged less than one week presents with sudden abdominal distension and pneumoperitoneum, gastric perforation should first be excluded. Prompt exploratory laparotomy will increase the survival rates of these infants. PMID:26388893

  3. Dosimetric Predictors of Duodenal Toxicity After Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Treatment of the Para-aortic Nodes in Gynecologic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Jonathan; Sulman, Erik P.; Jhingran, Anuja; Tucker, Susan L.; Rauch, Gaiane M.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Klopp, Ann H.

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of duodenal toxicity in patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for treatment of para-aortic nodes and to identify dosimetric parameters predictive of late duodenal toxicity. Methods and Materials: We identified 105 eligible patients with gynecologic malignancies who were treated with IMRT for gross metastatic disease in the para-aortic nodes from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2009. Patients were treated to a nodal clinical target volume to 45 to 50.4 Gy with a boost to 60 to 66 Gy. The duodenum was contoured, and dosimetric data were exported for analysis. Duodenal toxicity was scored according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Univariate Cox proportional hazards analysis and recursive partitioning analysis were used to determine associations between dosimetric variables and time to toxicity and to identify the optimal threshold that separated patients according to risk of toxicity. Results: Nine of the 105 patients experienced grade 2 to grade 5 duodenal toxicity, confirmed by endoscopy in all cases. The 3-year actuarial rate of any duodenal toxicity was 11.7%. A larger volume of the duodenum receiving 55 Gy (V55) was associated with higher rates of duodenal toxicity. The 3-year actuarial rates of duodenal toxicity with V55 above and below 15 cm{sup 3} were 48.6% and 7.4%, respectively (P<.01). In Cox univariate analysis of dosimetric variables, V55 was associated with duodenal toxicity (P=.029). In recursive partitioning analysis, V55 less than 13.94% segregated all patients with duodenal toxicity. Conclusions: Dose-escalated IMRT can safely and effectively treat para-aortic nodal disease in gynecologic malignancies, provided that care is taken to limit the dose to the duodenum to reduce the risk of late duodenal toxicity. Limiting V55 to below 15 cm{sup 3} may reduce the risk of duodenal complications. In cases where the treatment cannot be delivered within these constraints, consideration should be given to other treatment approaches such as resection or initial chemotherapy.

  4. Experimental investigation of sound absorption properties of perforated date palm fibers panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elwaleed, A. K.; Nikabdullah, N.; Nor, M. J. M.; Tahir, M. F. M.; Zulkifli, R.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the sound absorption properties of a natural waste of date palm fiber perforated panel. A single layer of the date palm fibers was tested in this study for its sound absorption properties. The experimental measurements were carried out using impedance tube at the acoustic lab, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. The experiment was conducted for the panel without air gap, with air gap and with perforated plate facing. Three air gap thicknesses of 10 mm, 20 mm and 30 mm were used between the date palm fiber sample and the rigid backing of the impedance tube. The results showed that when facing the palm date fiber sample with perforated plate the sound absorption coefficient improved at the higher and lower frequency ranges. This increase in sound absorption coincided with reduction in medium frequency absorption. However, this could be improved by using different densities or perforated plate with the date palm fiber panel.

  5. Peritonitis with small bowel perforation caused by a fish bone in a healthy patient

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yonghoon; Kim, Gyuwon; Shim, Chansup; Kim, Dongkeun; Kim, Dongju

    2014-01-01

    Perforation of the gastrointestinal tract by ingested foreign bodies is extremely rare in otherwise healthy patients, accounting for < 1% of cases. Accidentally ingested foreign bodies could cause small bowel perforation through a hernia sac, Meckel’s diverticulum, or the appendix, all of which are uncommon. Despite their sharp ends and elongated shape, bowel perforation caused by ingested fish bones is rarely reported, particularly in patients without intestinal disease. We report a case of 57-year-old female who visited the emergency room with periumbilical pain and no history of underlying intestinal disease or intra-abdominal surgery. Abdominal computed tomography and exploratory laparotomy revealed a small bowel micro-perforation with a 2.7-cm fish bone penetrating the jejunal wall. PMID:24587641

  6. Numerical simulations of perforated plate stabilized premixed flames with detailed chemistry

    E-print Network

    Kedia, Kushal Sharad

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a high efficiency two-dimensional reactive flow solver to investigate perforated-plate stabilized laminar premixed flames. The developed code is used to examine the impact of the ...

  7. Delayed presentation of uterine perforation with ovary migration after dilatation and curettage

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shili; Tao, Guowei; Dong, Baihua; Shi, Linlin; Dong, Jianchun

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare but serious uterine perforation. A 31-year-old woman was referred to our department for hyperechogenic mass in uterus on ultrasonography after Dilation and curettage (D&C) for the adherent placenta and retained products of conception. Transvaginal ultrasound examination showed that a mass with several follicles measuring 35×29 mm was seen emanating from the right posterior wall of the uterine cavity, and there was absence of the myometrial tissue. A hysteroscopy and laparoscopy showed a uterine perforation with ovary incarceration. The ovary was rehabilitated, and the uterine perforation site was incised. D&C can not be performed when delayed presentation of uterine perforation with migration of an extrauterine organ is suspected, particularly, some of them are asymptomatic after a difficult intrauterine operation. PMID:26131247

  8. Linear and radial flow targets for characterizing downhole flow in perforations

    SciTech Connect

    Deo, M. ); Tariq, S.M. ); Halleck, P.M. )

    1989-08-01

    Two types of sandstone targets are commonly used to test flow efficiency of shaped-charge jet perforations: linear targets, in which flow enters only the unperforated end of the cylindrical sample, and radial targets, in which flow enters through the end and sides of the sample. To determine which of these targets best represents downhole conditions, the flow distribution along the length of a perforation has been studied by three-dimensional (3D) finite-element analyses. Linear and radial laboratory targets have been compared with downhole perforations under varying conditions. For ideal perforations, the low-shot-density (LSD) case is adequately represented by the radial target, while the high-shot-density (HSD) case falls between the two targets. With realistic crushed and damaged zones, the HSD closely matches the linear target, and the LSD case falls between the two targets.

  9. Transfixing cardiac injury with perforations in stomach, diaphragm and lung: unusual scenario in penetrating trauma

    PubMed Central

    Karigyo, Carlos Junior Toshiyuki; Fan, Otavio Goulart; Yoshida, Marcelo Miyazaki; Menescal, Roberto Jonathas; Tarasiewich, Marcos Jose

    2014-01-01

    A 23-year-old man suffered a penetrating injury caused by a metallic fragment thrown from a grass-cutting tool, resulting in perforating injuries in the stomach, diaphragm, heart, and lungs. PMID:24896170

  10. Algorithm for the management of endoscopic perforations: a quality improvement project.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Lukasz; Forsmark, Chris E; Ben-David, Kf?r; Wagh, Mihir S; Chauhan, Shailendra; Collins, Dennis; Draganov, Peter V

    2011-06-01

    Perforations are an uncommon but serious complication of endoscopy. Although they are well recognized, no universally accepted strategy for their management exists. The need for management algorithms in situations that call for multiple interventions in a short time, with coordinated effort encompassing multiple providers from different specialties, has long been recognized, but no such clinical care pathway has been developed for the management of endoscopic perforations. Since perforations are uncommon, a predetermined plan of action can streamline patient management. Furthermore, such a plan demonstrates preparedness on the part of the gastroenterologist. We developed an endoscopic perforation management strategy based on the best available scientific evidence and our specific resources. We report our experience in the hope that it may form a useful framework for gastroenterologists attempting to do the same at their own institution. PMID:21637265

  11. Fatal abdominal hemorrhage associated with gallbladder perforation due to large gallstones

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Luis R.; Levine, Harold R.; Celinski, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Gallbladder perforation is a relatively uncommon complication of acute cholecystitis and may occur with or without gallstones. Prophylactic cholecystectomy has been recommended for patients with very large stones (>3 cm) due to an increased risk of gallbladder cancer. We present the case of a 68-year-old woman who died of hemorrhagic shock following gallbladder perforation due to very large gallstones. This case provides additional support for consideration of prophylactic cholecystectomy in patients with very large gallstones. PMID:24688200

  12. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants with Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation or Surgical Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Wadhawan, Rajan; Oh, William; Hintz, Susan R; Blakely, Martin L; Das, Abhik; Bell, Edward F.; Saha, Shampa; Laptook, Abbot R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Stoll, Barbara J.; Walsh, Michele C.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine if extremely low birth weight infants with surgical necrotizing enterocolitis have a higher risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment and neurodevelopmental impairment among survivors (secondary outcome) at 18–22 months corrected age compared to infants with spontaneous intestinal perforation and infants without necrotizing enterocolitis or spontaneous intestinal perforation. Study Design Retrospective analysis of the Neonatal Research Network very low birth weight registry, evaluating extremely low birth weight infants born between 2000–2005. The study infants were designated into 3 groups: 1) Spontaneous intestinal perforation without necrotizing enterocolitis; 2) Surgical necrotizing enterocolitis (Bell's stage III); and 3) Neither spontaneous intestinal perforation nor necrotizing enterocolitis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between the clinical group and death or neurodevelopmental impairment, controlling for multiple confounding factors including center. Results Infants with surgical necrotizing enterocolitis had the highest rate of death prior to hospital discharge (53.5%) and death or neurodevelopmental impairment (82.3%) compared to infants in the spontaneous intestinal perforation group (39.1% and 79.3%) and no necrotizing enterocolitis/no spontaneous intestinal perforation group (22.1% and 53.3%; p<0.001). Similar results were observed for neurodevelopmental impairment among survivors. On logistic regression analysis, both spontaneous intestinal perforation and surgical necrotizing enterocolitis were associated with increased risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (adjusted OR 2.21, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.2 and adjusted OR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.5, 2.9 respectively) and neurodevelopmental impairment among survivors (adjusted OR 2.17, 95% CI: 1.4, 3.2 and adjusted OR 1.70, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.4 respectively). Conclusions Spontaneous intestinal perforation and surgical necrotizing enterocolitis are associated with a similar increase in the risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment and neurodevelopmental impairment among extremely low birth weight survivors at 18–22 months corrected age. PMID:24135709

  13. Imaging scatterometry and microspectrophotometry of lycaenid butterfly wing scales with perforated multilayers

    PubMed Central

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Leertouwer, Hein L.; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the structural as well as spatial and spectral reflectance characteristics of the wing scales of lycaenid butterfly species, where the scale bodies consist of perforated multilayers. The extent of the spatial scattering profiles was measured with a newly built scatterometer. The width of the reflectance spectra, measured with a microspectrophotometer, decreased with the degree of perforation, in agreement with the calculations based on multilayer theory. PMID:18782721

  14. An Experimentally Validated Numerical Modeling Technique for Perforated Plate Heat Exchangers

    PubMed Central

    Nellis, G. F.; Kelin, S. A.; Zhu, W.; Gianchandani, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Cryogenic and high-temperature systems often require compact heat exchangers with a high resistance to axial conduction in order to control the heat transfer induced by axial temperature differences. One attractive design for such applications is a perforated plate heat exchanger that utilizes high conductivity perforated plates to provide the stream-to-stream heat transfer and low conductivity spacers to prevent axial conduction between the perforated plates. This paper presents a numerical model of a perforated plate heat exchanger that accounts for axial conduction, external parasitic heat loads, variable fluid and material properties, and conduction to and from the ends of the heat exchanger. The numerical model is validated by experimentally testing several perforated plate heat exchangers that are fabricated using microelectromechanical systems based manufacturing methods. This type of heat exchanger was investigated for potential use in a cryosurgical probe. One of these heat exchangers included perforated plates with integrated platinum resistance thermometers. These plates provided in situ measurements of the internal temperature distribution in addition to the temperature, pressure, and flow rate measured at the inlet and exit ports of the device. The platinum wires were deposited between the fluid passages on the perforated plate and are used to measure the temperature at the interface between the wall material and the flowing fluid. The experimental testing demonstrates the ability of the numerical model to accurately predict both the overall performance and the internal temperature distribution of perforated plate heat exchangers over a range of geometry and operating conditions. The parameters that were varied include the axial length, temperature range, mass flow rate, and working fluid. PMID:20976021

  15. Quasi-steady acoustic response of wall perforations subject to a grazing-bias flow combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonon, D.; Moers, E. M. T.; Hirschberg, A.

    2013-04-01

    Well known examples of acoustical dampers are the aero-engine liners, the IC-engine exhaust mufflers, and the liners in combustion chambers. These devices comprise wall perforations, responsible for their sound absorbing features. Understanding the effect of the flow on the acoustic properties of a perforation is essential for the design of acoustic dampers. In the present work the effect of a grazing-bias flow combination on the impedance of slit shaped wall perforations is experimentally investigated by means of a multi-microphone impedance tube. Measurements are carried out for perforation geometries relevant for in technical applications. The focus of the experiments is on the low Strouhal number (quasi-steady) behavior. Analytical models of the steady flow and of the low frequency aeroacoustic behavior of a two-dimensional wall perforation are proposed for the case of a bias flow directed from the grazing flow towards the opposite side of the perforated wall. These theoretical results compare favorably with the experiments, when a semi-empirical correction is used to obtain the correct limit for pure bias flow.

  16. Small bowel obstruction due to enterolith (bezoar) formed in a duodenal diverticulum: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Shocket, E; Simon, S A

    1982-09-01

    An elderly patient with an acute small bowel obstruction due to an enterolith that evolved within a duodenal diverticulum is reported. Twenty-four prior instances of small bowel obstruction due to an enterolith formed within a small bowel diverticulum have been culled from the world literature and tabulated. In toto, 18 subjects are female and seven are male. The median age is 68 yr. Optimal surgical management is either to break up the enterolith and milk the components into the cecum without an enterotomy or, as is more often necessary, to milk the enterolith orad removing the concretion through an enterotomy made in less edematous small intestine. As in managing gallstone ileus, the bowel should be "run" seeking additional enteroliths. The diagnosis can be established only by documenting the normalcy of the gallbladder and the presence of duodenal and/or jejunal diverticula. PMID:6810693

  17. Test Report for Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATO) Prototype.

    SciTech Connect

    Bobbe, Jeffery G.; Pierce, Jim Dwight

    2003-06-01

    A prototype design for a plutonium air transport package capable of carrying 7.6 kg of plutonium oxide and surviving a ''worst-case'' plane crash has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). A series of impact tests were conducted on half-scale models of this design for side, end, and comer orientations at speeds close to 282 m/s onto a target designed to simulate weathered sandstone. These tests were designed to evaluate the performance of the overpack concept and impact-limiting materials in critical impact orientations. The impact tests of the Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATP) prototypes were performed at SNL's 10,000-ft rocket sled track. This report describes test facilities calibration and environmental testing methods of the PMATP under specific test conditions. The tests were conducted according to the test plan and procedures that were written by the authors and approved by SNL management and quality assurance personnel. The result of these tests was that the half-scale PMATP survived the ''worst-case'' airplane crash conditions, and indicated that a full-scale PMATP, utilizing this overpack concept and these impact-limiting materials, would also survive these crash conditions.

  18. Thermal analysis of Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATP) prototype.

    SciTech Connect

    Oneto, Robert; Levine, Howard; Mould, John; Pierce, Jim Dwight

    2003-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has designed a crash-resistant container, the Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATP), capable of surviving a worst-case plane crash, including both impact and subsequent fire, for the air transport of plutonium. This report presents thermal analyses of the full-scale PMATP in its undamaged (pre-test) condition and in bounding post-accident states. The goal of these thermal simulations was to evaluate the performance of the package in a worst-case post-crash fire. The full-scale package is approximately 1.6 m long by 0.8 m diameter. The thermal analyses were performed with the FLEX finite element code. This analysis clearly predicts that the PMATP provides acceptable thermal response characteristics, both for the post-accident fire of a one-hour duration and the after-fire heat-soak condition. All predicted temperatures for the primary containment vessel are well within design limits for safety.

  19. An unusual presentation of perforated appendicitis in epigastric region?

    PubMed Central

    Odabasi, Mehmet; Arslan, Cem; Abuoglu, Hasan; Gunay, Emre; Yildiz, Mehmet Kamil; Eris, Cengiz; Ozkan, Erkan; Aktekin, Ali; Muftuoglu, M.A. Tolga

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Atypical presentations of appendix have been reported including backache, left lower quadrant pain and groin pain from a strangulated femoral hernia containing the appendix. We report a case presenting an epigastric pain that was diagnosed after computed tomography as a perforated appendicitis on intestinal malrotation. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 27-year-old man was admitted with a three-day history of epigastric pain. Physical examination revealed tenderness and defense on palpation of epigastric region. There was a left subcostal incision with the history of diaphragmatic hernia repair when the patient was 3 days old. He had an intestinal malrotation with the cecum fixed at the epigastric region and the inflamed appendix extending beside the left lobe of liver. DISCUSSION While appendicitis is the most common abdominal disease requiring surgical intervention seen in the emergency room setting, intestinal malrotation is relatively uncommon. When patients with asymptomatic undiagnosed gastrointestinal malrotation clinically present with abdominal pain, accurate diagnosis and definitive therapy may be delayed, possibly increasing the risk of morbidity and mortality. CONCLUSION Atypical presentations of acute appendicitis should be kept in mind in patients with abdominal pain in emergency room especially in patients with previous childhood operation for diaphragmatic hernia. PMID:24441442

  20. Effects of duodenal switch alone or in combination with sleeve gastrectomy on body weight and lipid metabolism in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gudbrandsen, O A; Kodama, Y; Mjøs, S A; Zhao, C-M; Johannessen, H; Brattbakk, H-R; Haugen, C; Kulseng, B; Mellgren, G; Chen, D

    2014-01-01

    Background: A combined procedure of sleeve gastrectomy and duodenal switch (SG+DS) has been applied to the treatment of super obesity. The aim of the present study was to test whether duodenal switch alone (DS) leads to similar weight loss and changes in lipid metabolism as SG+DS. Methods: Male Sprague–Dawley rats underwent sham surgery (Sham, N=7), duodenal switch alone (DS, N=5) or sleeve gastrectomy followed by duodenal switch (SG+DS, N=5). Body weight, feed and water intakes, and ambulatory activity were recorded 2 months post surgery. Tissue and faecal lipids, faecal bile acids, plasma cytokines and lipid metabolism-related gene expression in adipose tissue and liver were analysed. Results: Daily energy intake, relative feed uptake, ambulatory activity and body weight reduction were similar between DS and SG+DS rats. The hepatic triacylglycerol content was higher and faecal secretion of triacylglycerol was lower after SG+DS compared to DS (P<0.05). Faecal bile acid secretion was higher in SG+DS than in DS rats (P<0.05) despite similar hepatic CYP7A1mRNA level. Plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1b, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor and tumour necrosis factor alpha were higher in SG+DS than in DS rats (P<0.05). Conclusions: Although DS and SG+DS had similar efficacy in terms of body weight loss, SG+DS resulted in a poorer regulation of lipid metabolism than DS. PMID:24979153

  1. Food impaction in a duodenal diverticulum as an unusual cause of biliary obstruction: case reports and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    van der Linde, K; van der Linden, G H; Beukers, R; Cleophas, T A

    1997-06-01

    We present two patients with upper abdominal complaints and symptoms of biliary obstruction. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed that the common bile duct was obstructed by a juxtapapillary duodenal diverticulum filled with a food bezoar. There were no gallstones or other potential causes of obstruction. The bile flow was restored and symptoms disappeared after rinsing the diverticulum. Eventually, both of the patients were treated surgically because of recurrent symptoms. PMID:9222744

  2. [Surgical treatment of duodenal ulcer associated with Mallory-Weiss syndrome and sliding hiatal hernia and complicated by hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Za?tsev, V T; Bo?ko, V V; Donets, N P; Taraban, I A; Groma, V G

    1997-01-01

    Of 1061 patients with an acute gastro-intestinal haemorrhage the combination of duodenal ulcer disease, Mallory-Weiss syndrome and sliding hiatal hernia was noted in 22 (2.07%). Surgical treatment consisted of the bleeding ulcer excision, cardia defects suturing, lowering of the stomach acid production performing one kind of vagotomy, external and internal decompression of stomach accomplishment (nasogastric tube and pyloroplasty), correction of anatomic-topographic interrelations of cardio-esophageal zone (cruroraphy, fundoplication). PMID:9511312

  3. Motor Vehicle Collision Patient with Simultaneous Duodenal Transection and Thoracic Aorta Injury: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Blunt polytrauma can present complex management decisions. Here we report the case of a 31-year-old male involved in a high speed motor vehicle collision resulting in both duodenal and thoracic aorta injury that was managed collaboratively between the trauma, vascular, and cardiothoracic surgical teams. The patient went on to a full recovery. We also review the management of such injuries which has evolved over the past two decades resulting in less morbidity and mortality. PMID:25688322

  4. Effect of curing Helicobacter pylori infection on intragastric acidity during treatment with ranitidine in patients with duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Labenz, J; Tillenburg, B; Peitz, U; Verdú, E; Stolte, M; Börsch, G; Blum, A L

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with duodenal ulcer cure of Helicobacter pylori infection resulted in a pronounced decrease in intragastric pH during treatment with omeprazole. AIM: To test the hypothesis that treatment of H pylori adversely affects the pH response to ranitidine. PATIENTS: Eighteen patients with duodenal ulcer who were infected with H pylori were studied. METHODS: Twenty four hour pH recordings were performed during treatment with ranitidine (300 mg) at night before and four to six weeks after cure of H pylori infection. Presence of H pylori was assessed by a rapid urease test, culture, histology, and a 13C urea breath test. Also, the fasting gastrin concentrations were measured before and after treatment for H pylori infection. RESULTS: Cure of H pylori infection resulted in a considerable improvement in both antral and corpus gastritis and a decrease in fasting gastrin concentrations. As a result of the cure the night time intragastric pH during treatment with ranitidine decreased (median pH 6.8 v 5.4; p = 0.007), whereas the acidity during the daytime was not affected. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with duodenal ulcer the intragastric pH during treatment with ranitidine depends on H pylori. However, the loss of effectiveness in altering pH seems to be less pronounced than previously found with omeprazole. PMID:9274468

  5. A case of gallbladder cancer combined with ectopic individual opening of pancreatic and bile ducts to the duodenal bulb

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woohyung; Park, Ji-Ho; Kim, Ju-Yeon; Kwag, Seung-Jin; Park, Taejin; Jeong, Sang-Ho; Ju, Young-Tae; Jung, Eun-Jung; Lee, Young-Joon; Choi, Sang-Kyung; Hong, Soon-Chan

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic opening of the pancreatic and bile ducts (EOPBD) into the duodenal bulb is an extremely rare congenital anomaly with unknown clinical implications. We presented a case of gallbladder cancer with EOPBD into the duodenal bulb. A 57-year-old male was referred to our hospital with intermittent right upper abdominal pain. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed individual EOPBD into the duodenal bulb with no papillary structure, and a focal nodular lesion in the gallbladder. A follow-up abdominal computed tomography scan 9 months later revealed a slight increase in the size of the fundal nodule, which was suspected as gallbladder cancer. An intraoperative frozen biopsy identified the nodular lesion as adenocarcinoma involving the cystic duct, and the patient underwent radical cholecystectomy including bile duct resection with hepaticojejunostomy. EOPBD is an extremely rare condition that can be associated with gallbladder malignancy as well as benign disease. Clinicians should follow up carefully and consider surgical treatment for suspected malignant lesions. PMID:26379734

  6. Adenocarcinoma of the minor duodenal papilla and its precursor lesions: a clinical and pathologic study.

    PubMed

    Shia, Jinru; Agaram, Narasimhan P; Olgac, Semra; Cobanov, Brando; Adsay, Volkan; Klimstra, David S

    2014-04-01

    The minor duodenal papilla drains the accessory pancreatic duct of Santorini and lies proximal to the ampulla of Vater. Adenocarcinoma and its precursor lesions arising in the minor papilla are rare. Literature data thus far are limited to a few individual case reports, and the condition is consequently poorly defined. Our study cases were composed of carcinomas fulfilling all of the following criteria: location at 1.5 to 2.5 cm proximal to the major papilla; presence of associated submucosal pancreatobiliary-type ducts with periductal glands or acinar tissue; a predominant submucosal location of the tumor; and lack of an intestinal-type adenoma in the adjacent duodenal mucosa. Tumors were studied morphologically, immunohistochemically, and clinically. Nine cases fulfilling the inclusion criteria were identified. There were 5 men and 4 women with an age range of 50 to 76 years (median, 72 y). The tumor size ranged from 1.2 to 4.4 cm (median, 3 cm). The carcinomas were of colloid type (3 tumors), pancreatobiliary type (4), or nonmucinous intestinal type (2). Five cases were associated with an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN)-like precursor lesion within the residual structures of the minor papilla in the duodenal submucosa. Immunohistochemically, the intestinal-type and mucinous-type tumors tended to be positive for CK20, CDX2, MUC2, and B72.3, and pancreatobiliary-type tumors tended to be positive for CK7, MUC1, B72.3, and CA125. Loss of DPC4 (Smad4) expression was found in the pancreatobiliary-type carcinomas only. Two tumors showed loss of DNA mismatch-repair protein expression, one losing MLH1 and PMS2 and the other losing MSH6. Both patients were older than 60 years, and neither had germline mutation testing. Follow-up information was available for 6 patients (median follow-up time, 67.5 mo): 3 of the 6 patients died of disease at 60, 75, and 85 months after surgery, respectively, and all 3 patients had an intestinal-type carcinoma (1 colloid and 2 nonmucinous). The patient whose tumor was MSH6 deficient was alive without evidence of disease 51 months after surgery. In conclusion, adenocarcinomas of the minor papilla are rare tumors occurring predominantly in the sixth to seventh decade. Some of them arise from IPMN-like precursors in the residual submucosal minor papilla tissue. Morphologically, immunohistochemically, and clinically they are similar to ampullary or IPMN-associated pancreatic carcinomas and can exhibit either an intestinal, colloid, or pancreaticobiliary phenotype. DNA mismatch-repair deficiency may occur. A careful gross and histologic examination is essential to accurately recognize the site of origin of minor papilla carcinomas. PMID:24625417

  7. A study of the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori negative chronic duodenal ulceration.

    PubMed Central

    McColl, K E; el-Nujumi, A M; Chittajallu, R S; Dahill, S W; Dorrian, C A; el-Omar, E; Penman, I; Fitzsimons, E J; Drain, J; Graham, H

    1993-01-01

    In the past five years 12 patients have been identified presenting with chronic duodenal ulcer (DU) disease and with no evidence of current or recent Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection. Four of them were taking regular non-steroidal anti inflammatory agents, one was subsequently found to have Crohn's disease of the duodenum, and one to have the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. The remaining six patients with idiopathic DU disease were remarkable for their absence of the A1 blood antigen gene. Detailed studies of gastric function were performed in these six patients and compared with H pylori positive patients with DU and with healthy volunteers. The median integrated gastrin response in the patients with idiopathic DU (2810 (range 750-8750) ng/l min) was similar to that of the H pylori positive patients with DU (3355 (550-8725)) and higher than that of the H pylori negative healthy volunteers (560 (225-1125)). The median peak acid output in the patients with idiopathic DU (37 mmol/h, range 17-52) was similar to that of the H pylori positive patients with DU (40 (15-57)) and higher than that of the non-ulcer controls (22 (16-29)). The median percentage of a liquid meal retained in the stomach at 60 minutes was less in the patients with idiopathic DU (23 (15-33)) than in H pylori negative healthy volunteers (34 (30-53) p < 0.01). The median percentage of a solid meal retained at 60 minutes was less in the patients with idiopathic DU (54 (9-83)) than in either H pylori negative healthy volunteers (87 (49-95) p<0.01) or H pylori positive patients with DU (79 (51-100) p<0.01). In conclusion, three abnormalities of gastric function are prevalent in patients with H pylori negative idiopathic DU disease - hypergastrinaemia, increased acid secretion, and the one feature distinguishing them from H pylori positive patients with DU - rapid gastric emptying of both liquids and solids. Each of these abnormalities will increase the exposure of the duodenal mucosa to acid and thus explain its ulceration. The absence of the blood group A1 antigen gene is consistent with a genetic basis for the disturbed gastric function linked to the ABO blood group antigen genes. PMID:8314508

  8. Down syndrome: molecular mapping of the congenital heart disease and duodenal stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Korenberg, J R; Bradley, C; Disteche, C M

    1992-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a major cause of congenital heart and gut disease and mental retardation. DS individuals also have characteristic facies, hands, and dermatoglyphics, in addition to abnormalities of the immune system, an increased risk of leukemia, and an Alzheimer-like dementia. Although their molecular basis is unknown, recent work on patients with DS and partial duplications of chromosome 21 has suggested small chromosomal regions located in band q22 that are likely to contain the genes for some of these features. We now extend these analyses to define molecular markers for the congenital heart disease, the duodenal stenosis, and an "overlap" region for the facial and some of the skeletal features. We report the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular analysis of two patients. The first is DUP21JS, who carries both a partial duplication of chromosome 21, including the region 21q21.1-q22.13, or proximal q22.2, and DS features including duodenal stenosis. Using quantitative Southern blot dosage analysis and 15 DNA sequences unique to chromosome 21, we have defined the molecular extent of the duplication. This includes the region defined by DNA sequences for APP (amyloid precursor protein), SOD1 (CuZn superoxide dismutase), D21S47, SF57, D21S17, D21S55, D21S3, and D21S15 and excludes the regions defined by DNA sequences for D21S16, D21S46, D21S1, D21S19, BCE I (breast cancer estrogen-inducible gene), D21S39, and D21S44. Using similar techniques, we have also defined the region duplicated in the second case occurring in a family carrying a translocation associated with DS and congenital heart disease. This region includes DNA sequences for D21S55 and D21S3 and excludes DNA sequences for D21S47 and D21S17.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:1531166

  9. Delayed right-ventricular perforation by pacemaker lead; a rare complication in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Aykan, Hayrettin Hakan; Ak?n, Alper; Ertu?rul, ?lker; Karagöz, Tevfik

    2015-03-01

    Developments in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart diseases have led to an increase in the need for intracardiac pacemaker and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation. Various complications related to these interventions can be seen in the short term (pneumothorax, pericardial effusion, cardiac perforation, etc…) and in the long term (infection, subclavian vein thrombosis, sensing and pacing problems, battery erosion and cardiac perforation). In this report, we present a rare case of cardiac perforation occurring 2 years after pacemaker implantation. PMID:25782125

  10. Unilateral Breast Reconstruction Using Bilateral Inferior Gluteal Artery Perforator Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Muto, Mayu; Ogawa, Marina; Shibuya, Mai; Yasumura, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Shinji; Ishikawa, Takashi; Maegawa, Jiro

    2015-01-01

    Background: For reconstructing moderate-to-high projection breasts in nulliparous patients with insufficient abdominal tissue or prior abdominal surgeries, a unilateral inferior gluteal artery perforator (IGAP) flap is an alternative procedure. In patients with slim hips, however, unilateral gluteal tissue is insufficient and inferior gluteal crease displacement may develop postoperatively. Donor-site asymmetry is also a major disadvantage. In these circumstances, bilateral IGAP flaps provide sufficient tissue without significant gluteal deformity. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 20 patients who underwent unilateral breast reconstruction using bilateral IGAP flaps by a single surgeon between November 2007 and December 2012. A quantitative outcome assessment was performed and compared with that of 22 unilateral IGAP flap patients operated on by the same surgeon. Results: Twenty patients underwent reconstruction with 40 IGAP flaps. Of the 40 flaps, 39 survived and 1 developed total necrosis due to repeated venous thrombosis. In 15 of 20 patients, the size of reconstructed breast was comparable to that of the contralateral breast. Final inset flap weight was 462.3 g for bilateral flaps and 244.3 g for unilateral flaps. Total operating time was 671.1 minutes (bilateral flaps) and 486.8 minutes (unilateral flaps). Conclusions: Use of bilateral IGAP flaps for breast reconstruction helps to avoid asymmetry of the inferior buttock volume and shape. Bilateral flaps provide sufficient tissue volume and allow for reconstruction of a breast comparable to the unaffected side. In patients with moderate-to-high projection breast whose abdominal tissue cannot be used for reconstruction, IGAP flaps may be a suitable alternative. PMID:25878925

  11. Perforating corneal injury in rat and pentadecapeptide BPC 157.

    PubMed

    Masnec, Sanja; Kokot, Antonio; Zlatar, Mirna; Kalauz, Miro; Kunjko, Kristian; Radic, Bozo; Klicek, Robert; Drmic, Domagoj; Lazic, Ratimir; Brcic, Luka; Radic, Radivoje; Ivekovic, Renata; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2015-07-01

    Based on its healing effects in various tissues, we hypothesized that the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 heals corneal ulcerations in rats and effects corneal transparency. We made a penetrant linear 2-mm incision in the paralimbal region of the left cornea at the 5 o'clock position with a 20-gauge MVR incision knife at 45° under an operating microscope. Medication was BPC 157 (2 pg/mL, 2 ng/mL, and 2 ?g/mL distilled water, two eye drops/left rat eye) immediately after injury induction and then every 8 h up to 120 h; controls received an equal volume of distilled water. In contrast to the poor healing response in controls, BPC 157 significantly accelerated the healing process in 2 ?g and 2 ng BPC 157-treated eyes, starting 24 h after the injury, and the fluorescein and Seidel tests became negative. The epithelial defects were completely healed at 72 h (2 ?g BPC 157-treated group) and at 96 h (2 ng BPC 157-treated group) after injury. Aqueous cells were absent at 96 h and 120 h after injury in the 2 ?g and 2 ng BPC 157-treated groups, respectively. In conclusion, BPC 157 effects the rapid regaining of corneal transparency. Whereas controls developed new vessels that grew from the limbus to the penetrated area, BPC 157-treated rats generally had no new vessels, and those that did form in the limbus did not make contact with the penetrated area. Thus, BPC 157 eye drops successfully close perforating corneal incisions in rats. PMID:25912999

  12. Deep-Sea Water Containing Selenium Provides Intestinal Protection against Duodenal Ulcers through the Upregulation of Bcl-2 and Thioredoxin Reductase 1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Ching; Yao, Chien-An; Lin, Yi-Ruu; Yang, Jyh-Chin; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Deep-sea water (DSW), which is rich in micronutrients and minerals and with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory qualities, may be developed as marine drugs to provide intestinal protection against duodenal ulcers. We determined several characteristics in the modified DSW. We explored duodenal pressure, oxygenation, microvascular blood flow, and changes in pH and oxidative redox potential (ORP) values within the stomach and duodenum in response to tap water (TW, hardness: 2.48 ppm), DSW600 (hardness: 600 ppm), and DSW1200 (hardness: 1200 ppm) in Wistar rats and analyzed oxidative stress and apoptosis gene expressions by cDNA and RNA microarrays in the duodenal epithelium. We compared the effects of drinking DSW, MgCl2, and selenium water on duodenal ulcers using pathologic scoring, immunohistochemical analysis, and Western blotting. Our results showed DSW has a higher pH value, lower ORP value, higher scavenging H2O2 and HOCl activity, higher Mg2+ concentrations, and micronutrients selenium compared with TW samples. Water infusion significantly increased intestinal pressure, O2 levels, and microvascular blood flow in DSW and TW groups. Microarray showed DSW600, DSW1200, selenium water upregulated antioxidant and anti-apoptotic genes and downregulated pro-apoptotic gene expression compared with the TW group. Drinking DSW600, DSW1200, and selenium water but not Mg2+ water significantly enhanced Bcl-2 and thioredoxin reductase 1 expression. Bax/Bcl-2/caspase 3/poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase signaling was activated during the pathogenesis of duodenal ulceration. DSW drinking reduced ulcer area as well as apoptotic signaling in acetic acid-induced duodenal ulcers. DSW, which contains selenium, provides intestinal protection against duodenal ulcers through the upregulation of Bcl-2 and thioredoxin reductase 1. PMID:24984066

  13. Comorbid Gastric Adenocarcinoma and Gastric and Duodenal Strongyloides stercoralis Infection: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Seo, An Na; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul; Kwon, Ohkyoung; Bae, Han-Ik

    2015-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis can cause systemic infection, termed strongyloidiasis, and gastrointestinal ulcer disease in immunocompromised patients. However, to our knowledge, there are no reported cases of comorbid gastric adenocarcinoma and S. stercoralis infection. Here, we report a case of an 81-year-old Korean man who presented with S. stercoralis infection coexisting with early gastric adenocarcinoma (T1aN0M0). S. stercoralis eggs, rhabditiform larvae, and adult females were observed in normal gastric and duodenal crypts. They were also observed in atypical glands representative of adenocarcinoma and adenoma. Preliminary laboratory tests revealed mild neutrophilic and eosinophilic leukocytosis. A routine stool test failed to detect rhabditiform larvae in the patient’s fecal sample; however, S. stercoralis was identified by PCR amplification and 18S rRNA sequencing using genomic DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Postoperatively, the patient had a persistent fever and was treated with albendazole for 7 days, which alleviated the fever. The patient was followed-up by monitoring and laboratory testing for 4 months postoperatively, and no abnormalities were observed thus far. The fact that S. stercoralis infection may be fatal in immunocompromised patients should be kept in mind when assessing high-risk patients. PMID:25748714

  14. Endoscopic therapy for weight loss: Gastroplasty, duodenal sleeves, intragastric balloons, and aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    A new paradigm in the treatment of obesity and metabolic disease is developing. The global obesity epidemic continues to expand despite the availability of diet and lifestyle counseling, pharmacologic therapy, and weight loss surgery. Endoscopic procedures have the potential to bridge the gap between medical therapy and surgery. Current primary endoscopic bariatric therapies can be classified as restrictive, bypass, space-occupying, or aspiration therapy. Restrictive procedures include the USGI Primary Obesity Surgery Endolumenal procedure, endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty using Apollo OverStitch, TransOral GAstroplasty, gastric volume reduction using the ACE stapler, and insertion of the TERIS restrictive device. Intestinal bypass has been reported using the EndoBarrier duodenal-jejunal bypass liner. A number of space-occupying devices have been studied or are in use, including intragastric balloons (Orbera, Reshape Duo, Heliosphere BAG, Obalon), Transpyloric Shuttle, and SatiSphere. The AspireAssist aspiration system has demonstrated efficacy. Finally, endoscopic revision of gastric bypass to address weight regain has been studied using Apollo OverStitch, the USGI Incisionless Operating Platform Revision Obesity Surgery Endolumenal procedure, Stomaphyx, and endoscopic sclerotherapy. Endoscopic therapies for weight loss are potentially reversible, repeatable, less invasive, and lower cost than various medical and surgical alternatives. Given the variety of devices under development, in clinical trials, and currently in use, patients will have multiple endoscopic options with greater efficacy than medical therapy, and with lower invasiveness and greater accessibility than surgery. PMID:26240686

  15. Comorbid gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric and duodenal Strongyloides stercoralis infection: a case report.

    PubMed

    Seo, An Na; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul; Kwon, Ohkyoung; Bae, Han-Ik

    2015-02-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis can cause systemic infection, termed strongyloidiasis, and gastrointestinal ulcer disease in immunocompromised patients. However, to our knowledge, there are no reported cases of comorbid gastric adenocarcinoma and S. stercoralis infection. Here, we report a case of an 81-year-old Korean man who presented with S. stercoralis infection coexisting with early gastric adenocarcinoma (T1aN0M0). S. stercoralis eggs, rhabditiform larvae, and adult females were observed in normal gastric and duodenal crypts. They were also observed in atypical glands representative of adenocarcinoma and adenoma. Preliminary laboratory tests revealed mild neutrophilic and eosinophilic leukocytosis. A routine stool test failed to detect rhabditiform larvae in the patient's fecal sample; however, S. stercoralis was identified by PCR amplification and 18S rRNA sequencing using genomic DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Postoperatively, the patient had a persistent fever and was treated with albendazole for 7 days, which alleviated the fever. The patient was followed-up by monitoring and laboratory testing for 4 months postoperatively, and no abnormalities were observed thus far. The fact that S. stercoralis infection may be fatal in immunocompromised patients should be kept in mind when assessing high-risk patients. PMID:25748714

  16. Combined endo-laparoscopic approach in a patient with a duodenal foreign body and bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    de Filippo, Francesca Romana; Perrotta, Nicola; Cappiello, Antonio; Esposito, Torquato; Loffredo, Domenico

    2013-09-01

    We report the successful removal of an intraduodenal foreign body (f.b.) by endo-laparoscopic rendezvous, in a 67-year-old patient with mental disorders and duodenal occlusion by a large peach seed impacted in the duodenum. During a first endoscopic diagnostic evaluation it was possible to retract the peach seed into the stomach and have a confirmation of a stenosis of the second portion of the duodenum. Otherwise, the endoscopic procedure failed during removal out of the esophagus due to the large size of the f.b., and a second treatment in general anesthesia was planned. A 4 cm anterior gastrotomy was than performed by laparoscopy, and with a real endo-laparoscopic rendezvous, the peach seed out of the stomach was positioned, avoiding any intra-gastric surgical manouver and directly passing from Dormia basket into laparoscopic plastic retrieval bag. The gastrotomy was than closed with a single cartridge of a linear stapler and reinforced with an oversewn suture. PMID:22392575

  17. Pathogenetic factors affecting gastroesophageal reflux in patients with esophagitis and concomitant duodenal ulcer: a multivariate analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hui-Ming; Huang, Xun; Deng, Chuang-Zheng; Porro, G. Pianchi; Pace, F.; Sangaletti, O.

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To assess the relationship between gastric acid output (GAO) and both pattern of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and esophageal lesions, and to evaluate the role of GAO and other potential pathogenetic factors in the development of esophagitis. METHODS: Gastric acid secretory testing and 24-h intraesophageal pH monitoring were performed in 31 patients with esophagitis and concomitant duodenal ulcer (E + DU) and compared with those of 72 patients with esophagitis (E) alone. RESULTS: The GAO in patients with E + DU was significantly higher than in patients with E (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the two groups of patients as to endoscopicl findings and parameters of GER (P > 0.05). A multiple regression analysis with stepwise deletion showed that the presence of hiatal hernia (HH), GER in upright position and age appeared to correlate significantly with the presence of esophagitis. CONCLUSIONS: No parallel relationship between GAO and severity of GER or esophageal lesions exists in patients with E + DU, and that GAO is not a major pathogenetic factor in GER disease. PMID:11819262

  18. Endoscopic therapy for weight loss: Gastroplasty, duodenal sleeves, intragastric balloons, and aspiration.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nitin

    2015-07-25

    A new paradigm in the treatment of obesity and metabolic disease is developing. The global obesity epidemic continues to expand despite the availability of diet and lifestyle counseling, pharmacologic therapy, and weight loss surgery. Endoscopic procedures have the potential to bridge the gap between medical therapy and surgery. Current primary endoscopic bariatric therapies can be classified as restrictive, bypass, space-occupying, or aspiration therapy. Restrictive procedures include the USGI Primary Obesity Surgery Endolumenal procedure, endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty using Apollo OverStitch, TransOral GAstroplasty, gastric volume reduction using the ACE stapler, and insertion of the TERIS restrictive device. Intestinal bypass has been reported using the EndoBarrier duodenal-jejunal bypass liner. A number of space-occupying devices have been studied or are in use, including intragastric balloons (Orbera, Reshape Duo, Heliosphere BAG, Obalon), Transpyloric Shuttle, and SatiSphere. The AspireAssist aspiration system has demonstrated efficacy. Finally, endoscopic revision of gastric bypass to address weight regain has been studied using Apollo OverStitch, the USGI Incisionless Operating Platform Revision Obesity Surgery Endolumenal procedure, Stomaphyx, and endoscopic sclerotherapy. Endoscopic therapies for weight loss are potentially reversible, repeatable, less invasive, and lower cost than various medical and surgical alternatives. Given the variety of devices under development, in clinical trials, and currently in use, patients will have multiple endoscopic options with greater efficacy than medical therapy, and with lower invasiveness and greater accessibility than surgery. PMID:26240686

  19. Duodenal seromyectomy in the management of adherent colonic carcinoma in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Peeyush; Klaasen, Herman

    1997-01-01

    Objective To determine if partial denudation of the duodenum by seromyectomy can achieve tumour clearance in elderly patients with adherent primary colonic carcinoma. Design A case series. Setting An urban tertiary care centre. Patients Seven elderly patients with Dukes’ class C primary adenocarcinoma of the ascending colon adherent to the duodenum but without distant metastases. The follow-up ranged from 29 to 41 months. Interventions Right hemicolectomy and seromyectomy of the duodenum at the site of adhesion. Main outcome measures Patient survival and tumour recurrence. Results One patient died 29 months postoperatively of myocardial infarction but without tumour recurrence. Another patient had a solitary metastasis in the right liver lobe 7 months postoperatively. She was disease free 34 months after a right hemihepatectomy. The other 5 patients were alive and disease free at their last follow-up. Conclusion Duodenal seromyectomy with postoperative chemotherapy for locally advanced adherent colonic cancer seems to be an acceptable management strategy for elderly patients in whom major en bloc resections present a greater than average risk of death. PMID:9267298

  20. A Modern Cohort of Duodenal Obstruction Patients: Predictors of Delayed Transition to Full Enteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Yu, David C.; Khan, Faraz Ali; Pathak, Bhavana; Grabowski, Matthew J.; Zurakowski, David; Linden, Bradley C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. A common site for neonatal intestinal obstruction is the duodenum. Delayed establishment of enteral nutritional autonomy continues to challenge surgeons and, since early institution of nutritional support is critical in postoperative newborns, identification of patients likely to require alternative nutritional support may improve their outcomes. Therefore, we aimed to investigate risk factors leading to delayed establishment of full enteral nutrition in these patients. Methods. 87 patients who were surgically treated for intrinsic duodenal obstructions from 1998 to 2012 were reviewed. Variables were tested as potential risk factors. Median time to full enteral nutrition was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Independent risk factors of delayed transition were identified using the multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results. Median time to transition to full enteral nutrition was 12 days (interquartile range: 9–17 days). Multivariate Cox analysis identified three significant risk factors for delayed enteral nutrition: gestational age (GA) ? 35 weeks (P < .001), congenital heart disease (CHD) (P = .02), and malrotation (P = .03). Conclusions. CHD and Prematurity are most commonly associated with delayed transition to full enteral nutrition. Thus, in these patients, supportive nutrition should strongly be considered pending enteral nutritional autonomy. PMID:25210625