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Cultural perceptions and traditions are part of the intangible aspects of water resources management. However, little attention has been given to their impact on water management issues such as access, use, or allocation, as well as the success of state water projects. This article looks at these issues through a case study of Akwa IbomState, Nigeria, drawing on interviews,
Background Despite massive anti-malaria campaigns across the subcontinent, effective access to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) among pregnant women remain low in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa. The slow uptake of malaria prevention products appears to reflect lack of knowledge and resistance to behavioural change, as well as poor access to resources, and limited support of programmes by local communities and authorities. Methods A recent community-based programme in Akwa IbomState, Nigeria, is analysed to determine the degree to which community-directed interventions can improve access to malaria prevention in pregnancy. Six local government areas in Southern Nigeria were selected for a malaria in pregnancy prevention intervention. Three of these local government areas were selected for a complementary community-directed intervention (CDI) programme. Under the CDI programme, volunteer community-directed distributors (CDDs) were appointed by each village and kindred in the treatment areas and trained to deliver ITNs and IPTp drugs as well as basic counseling services to pregnant women. Findings Relative to women in the control area, an additional 7.4 percent of women slept under a net during pregnancy in the treatment areas (95% CI [0.035, 0.115], p-value < 0.01), and an additional 8.5 percent of women slept under an ITN after delivery and prior to the interview (95% CI [0.045, 0.122], p-value < 0.001). The effects of the CDI programme were largest for IPTp adherence, increasing the fraction of pregnant women taking at least two SP doses during pregnancy by 35.3 percentage points [95% CI: 0.280, 0.425], p-value < 0.001) relative to the control group. No effects on antenatal care attendance were found. Conclusion The presented results suggest that the inclusion of community-based programmes can substantially increase effective access to malaria prevention, and also increase access to formal health care access in general, and antenatal care attendance in particular in combination with supply side interventions. Given the relatively modest financial commitments they require, community-directed programmes appear to be a cost-effective way to improve malaria prevention; the participatory approach underlying CDI programmes also promises to strengthen ties between the formal health sector and local communities.
Food is one of the basic needs of man, and has a strong positive relationship with health. This article examines the impact of food consumption patterns and habits on the health of Ibibio households in Uyo, the capital of Akwa IbomState of Nigeria. Employing a stratified random sampling framework, the study administered 368 questionnaires to respondents from both low-income and high-income households on equal proportion, and was complimented with four Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). Results indicate that the majority of households consumed foods classified under condiments/spices, stem/roots, vegetables, fat/oil, seafood, and poultry/meat on daily basis. Foods such as cereals, fruits, and bulbs were not common in their daily menu. Some respondents, especially from the low-income households, had to skip and/or forego meals for the benefit of the younger ones. The Linear Estimation System (LES) revealed deficiency in the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and blamed this on income poverty and lack of knowledge on the nutritional values of food. To obtain good health, there are prescribed food items that must be eaten in a scientifically required mix. The study therefore recommends nutritional and health education and the creation of awareness on the nutritional values of locally produced food items that would enhance nutritional and health status of the citizenry and food security. PMID:21576067
Determines and analyses the constraints on the financing and management of basic education in Akwa IbomState, Nigeria. A survey design, developed into 17 modules and administered as interview schedules, was used to collect the data from respondents. At all levels of basic education, there was inadequate funding for the provision of physical and instructional facilities. This affected the management
Although therapeutic itineraries have been studied in a variety of contexts, little research has investigated care-seekers’ quests for traditional medical treatments outside their own ethnic boundaries. The present study investigated 19 Igbo women seeking traditional cures from Ibibio indigenous healers in Akwa IbomState, Nigeria. Emerging data show that these Igbo women were uptaking Ibibio indigenous treatments primarily for health
C. Otutubikey Izugbara; I. Wilson Etukudoh; A. Sampson Brown
This paper takes a look at the general condition of water resources availability and management practices in Akwa IbomState, southeastern Nigeria. The paper observes high incidence of inequity and access burdens on the general population (especially the vulnerable groups) as well as reckless incidence of exploitation of the aquifer for private market. These were all linked to weak government
This case study seeks first to explore the culpability of the state of Nigeria in regards to recent allegations of rape and\\u000a sexual torture by security forces and, secondly, to question why these rapes continue to occur despite Nigeria’s responsibility\\u000a to address them. Though exact rates of violence are impossible to ascertain, reports by the media and various non-governmental\\u000a organizations
Despite scholarly assertions to the contrary, the dramatic increase in the scale and intensity of migration in Africa, since the fifteenth century, has made the formation of ethnically constituted states the exception rather than the rule. This paper traces the origin and development of the multi-ethnic state of Katsina, which is in the area that was to become northern Nigeria.
I am grateful to the organizers of this seminar for asking me to give a talk on multilingualism in Nigeria. In what follows, I present a sketch of the linguistic situation in Nigeria, especially in Rivers State. The linguistic situation in Rivers State is particularly interesting given that no less than twenty indigenous languages are spoken in the State, and
Doing Business in Nigeria 2010 is the second subnational report of the Doing Business series in Nigeria. In 2008, quantitative indicators on business regulations were created for 10 states and Abuja, FCT. This year, Doing Business in Nigeria 2010 expands ...
Police forces in Nigeria have been variously described as corrupt, oppressive and subservient to the whims and caprices of the government of the day. This paper analyses the development of police forces in Nigeria since the era of British colonial domination in the country. Police corruption and repression in Nigeria is analyzed in the context of the wider political and
The accumulation of some heavy metals by Talinum triangulare grown on waste dumpsites in Uyo Metropolis was studied using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results obtained indicated the following ranges for the metals in dumpsite soil: Cd: 1.85-8.65 mg kg-1; Pb: 42.05-60.85 mg kg-1; Ni: 11.05-20.55 mg kg-1; Fe: 183.00-237.20 mg kg-1 and Zn: 11.35-119.30 mg kg-1, while the ranges in Talinum triangure were Cd: 0.10-0.30 mg kg-1; Pb: 0.33-1.55 mg kg-1; Ni:0.05-0.45 mg kg-1; Fe: 223.43-260.00 mg kg-1 and Zn: 2.20-29.95 mg kg-1. These results indicated higher levels of the metals in soils and plants from dumpsites than the values recorded in the Control samples. In the dumpsite soil and plant samples, Fe recorded the highest mean concentrations in both samples while Cd and Ni concentrations were the lowest in soil and plant respectively. Although, the ranges obtained for the metals in plant and soil were within the recommended limits except for Cd in soil and Fe in plant, it maybe risky to consume water leaf grown on dumpsites since it can accumulate much of these toxic metals. The results obtained also revealed that apart from Cd, the concentrations of other metals analyzed for in plant and soil correlated positively at p = 0.05. The transfer Ratio between dumpsite soil and plant samples indicated the following trend: Fe> Zn> Cd> Pb> Ni showing that the rate of metal uptake by T. triangulare was greatest with Fe, while the rate of Ni uptake was the least. Relative standard deviations in the distribution of the metals in plant and soil samples from one dumpsite to the other were also studied; results obtained showed a high degree of variability in the distributions of the metals in both samples with the locations.
The United States and Nigeria share common objectives based on security and resources. Theater security cooperation efforts between the nations ensures a stable and secure Nigeria, assists access to resources for the U.S., and facilitates U.S. presence in...
|This paper has analyzed the characteristic features of women's associations and problems inhibiting their effective participation in rural development projects in Osun State, Nigeria. One rural local government area was purposively selected in each of the six administrative zones in Osun State, based on high degrees of ruralness. A list of…
The views of nurse experts and policymakers on maternal birth outcomes in Anambra State, Nigeria, were explored using qualitative content analysis. The findings indicate that although there are different levels of birth attendants in Anambra State, nurses attend to most deliveries; are highly favored; and are the most trusted obstetric providers among skilled personnel. Obstetric complications are extensive, leading to
The need for adequate functional English literacy and numeracy instruction for the herdsmen in Osun State in Nigeria arose as a result of the persistent clashes between the herdsmen and their neighbours. In all, 48 participants (22 adults and 26 children and youths) took part in the International Reading Association assisted functional literacy project held between April 2007 and June
|Describes study that was designed to measure the social and spatial television viewing behavior of selected families in Kwara State, Nigeria. Topics discussed include values attached to television viewing, and the social effects of television on educational planning, moral reformation, policy making, and the adoption of innovations in society.…
This paper presents new data on the rate and patterns of loss of tropical moist forest cover to agriculture in Cross River State, Nigeria. Data from sequential aerial photographs and field surveys are used to derive an estimate of forest loss of 0.6 per cent per year. This rate is relatively modest, yet current conservation and forestry policy in the
|The need for adequate functional English literacy and numeracy instruction for the herdsmen in Osun State in Nigeria arose as a result of the persistent clashes between the herdsmen and their neighbours. In all, 48 participants (22 adults and 26 children and youths) took part in the International Reading Association assisted functional literacy…
This study addresses the socio-economic impact of AIDS on rural livelihoods in Benue State, Nigeria, where HIV prevalence is 9.3% but the number of AIDS cases is still relatively low. About 6% of the study households had experienced illness and death classified as AIDS, and reported high costs in terms of expenditures and time spent on care, funerals and mourning.
Thea Hilhorst; Marti van Liere; Adiya V Ode; Korrie de Koning
This study investigated the sources of agricultural information available to farmers in Imo State, Nigeria as well as the farmers' preferred sources. The ex-post facto research design was used for the study. A stratified proportionate sampling technique was used to select a sample of 1386 farmers across the existing 34 farm blocks and 63 farm cells in the Agricultural Development
Three cases of Lassa fever occurred in Onitsha, East Central State, Nigeria, in January and February 1974. The first case was a 19-year-old Nigerian; the other 2 cases were German missionary physicians at St Charles Borromeo Hospital, Onitsha, one of whom cared for the patient who was the first case. Thus, 2 of the 3 cases were hospital acquired. Investigations failed to discover a village outbreak or the source of virus for the first case. A serosurvey of 258 hospital staff members and contacts of the 3 cases showed no other persons with antibody to Lassa virus. The absence of Lassa virus antibody in a high-risk group indicates a low or nonexistent level of past Lassa virus activity in southeastern Nigeria.
Bowen, G. S.; Tomori, O.; Wulff, Herta; Casals, J.; Noonan, A.; Downs, W. G.
On Friday morning, 29 January 2001, Bariya Ibrahima Mugazu was given 100 lashes. Zamfara state of Nigeria tried and punished this young woman for having had sex unlawfully in the previous year. Until this case between Zamfara state of Nigeria and unmarried Bariya Mugazu, controversies surrounding the full adoption of Islamic law (Shari'ah) in northern Nigeria seemed to have remained
This article examines the utility of the principle of autonomy in the management of deeply divided polities, from the perspective of the Nigerian case. It traces the origins of the principle to the attempts by the colonial authorities and subsequent regimes to accommodate the country's ethnic diversity, but argues that this essentially state-centred approach reduces the effectiveness of the principle.
A study of broadcasting libraries in Nigeria was carried out using the social survey method. Questionnaire, observation, and interview techniques were used to generate data from a representative sample of the nation's broadcast media stations (radio and television) located in the Bauchi and Plateau States of Nigeria. A general underdevelopment of the libraries was revealed. Staffing is inadequate in number
The purpose of this study is to examine the spatial and temporal pattern of road traffic accidents in Lagos State, Nigeria, and to suggest preventive and corrective safety measures for reducing road traffic accidents in the study area. Road traffic accidents exert a huge burden on Nigeria's economy and health care services and current accident prevention interventions are sporadic, uncoordinated
The maternal mortality rate (MMR) in 10 hospitals scattered all over Anambra State in a 5-year period was studied. The hospitals covered urban, semi-urban and rural areas. The MMR varied from 1.8 to 13 per thousand with a mean of 4.97 per thousand. The causes of and various factors influencing this high mortality rate are examined as well as the avoidable factors. Suggestions are made for its reduction based on accurate data collection, improved health facilities, improved socio-economic status and basic education. PMID:2904899
The effect of highways and local activities on the quality of groundwater in Ogun State, Nigeria was investigated. This was\\u000a done by collecting groundwater samples from three different districts in the state, located in Southwestern Nigeria. The water\\u000a samples collected at 5 m from the highway and control samples collected at 3 km from the highway were analyzed for the following\\u000a physicochemical
Olusegun O. Odukoya; Percy C. Onianwa; Olanrewaju I. Sanusi
This study addresses the socio-economic impact of AIDS on rural livelihoods in Benue State, Nigeria, where HIV prevalence is 9.3% but the number of AIDS cases is still relatively low. About 6% of the study households had experienced illness and death classified as AIDS, and reported high costs in terms of expenditures and time spent on care, funerals and mourning. These demands on time affected income and productivity, while the diversion of resources had implications for investments and savings. Coping strategies varied between households, mainly as a reflection of asset levels, which were often related to the gender of the household head. Reported coping strategies also differed between ethnic groups. First-line relatives were the most important source of support for households under pressure. Erosive coping strategies that undermined the sustainability of livelihoods were used by more vulnerable households following multiple cases of illness and death. Mourning practices, rules of inheritance and stigma tended to increase a household's vulnerability. Currently, Benue State is facing growing adult morbidity and mortality because of HIV infections. A context-specific study of its possible impact in a setting with a still relatively low number of AIDS cases is therefore important for informing local policy development and for building advocacy. PMID:17601020
Hilhorst, T; van Liere, M J; Ode, A V; de Koning, K
The study estimates the determinants of technical inefficiency among the farmers that are participating in the Ondo State chapter of the National Directorate of Employment (NDE) program in Nigeria. Data were collected from farmers under the NDE programme in Ondo State, Nigeria. Using a tobit analysis, it was found that extension visits and higher education were significant factors influencing technical
A survey was carried out in Kaduna State of Nigeria to establish the indigenous knowledge system for treating trypanosomiasis in domestic animals. Questionnaire and interviews were, respectively, administered to, or conducted with about 200 livestock farmers and traders spread around the state. Data obtained revealed the use of several plants either alone or in combination, for the treatment and management
S. E Atawodi; D. A Ameh; S Ibrahim; J. N Andrew; H. C Nzelibe; E. O Onyike; K. M Anigo; E. A Abu; D. B James; G. C Njoku; A. B Sallau
|Research was carried out on the ethnobotanical potentials of common herbs in Nigeria using Enugu State as a case study. A total of 200 questionnaires were administered on herb sellers in major herb markets in the state. In all, 96 different plant species were encountered in the markets. Attempts were made to write the names of the species both in…
This article examined teachers' teaching experience and students' learning outcomes in the secondary schools in Ondo StateNigeria. As a correlational survey, the study population comprised all the 257 secondary schools in the State. This population was made up of 147 rural schools and 110 urban schools. It was also made up of 12 single sex…
Over the years, students of Catholic High\\/Senior secondary schools in Edo state, Nigeria have maintained a significantly higher level of academic achievement than their counterparts in public schools in the state. This development has not only been a cause of serious concern for parents of students who attend public High\\/Senior secondary schools and the government that runs them but also
This paper examines the health effects due to air pollution on peasant farmers in Benue State, Nigeria. The study is based on the review of epidemiological data collected from clinics and hospitals in the State. The diseases found to be prevalent in the study area include allergic asthma, pulmonary tuberculosis, pneumonia, upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), chronic bronchitis and visual
Based on the example of the Oodua People's Congress (OPC) in Nigeria, this article argues that vigilante activities are embedded in a range of social relations and historical trajectories. While vigilantism transforms relationships of power within the state, it does not necessarily undermine all aspects of state authority. After the annulled presidential election of a Yoruba speaker in 1993, the
|Over the years, students of Catholic High/Senior secondary schools in Edo state, Nigeria have maintained a significantly higher level of academic achievement than their counterparts in public schools in the state. This development has not only been a cause of serious concern for parents of students who attend public High/Senior secondary schools…
This study focused on substance use and abuse among students of tertiary institutions in Lagos State, Nigeria. A sample of 700 students belonging to different levels of studies was taken from the various higher institutions in the State using proportional allocation. Initial descriptive statistics show that the median and modal ages of respondents are 23 years and 20 years respectively
|This study was conducted to isolate the determinants of improved fish production technologies in Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample population of 250 fish farmers from ten randomly selected Local Government Areas of Delta State. The data were elicited from respondents with the use of structured interview schedule while…
Male and female students in four urban locations of Bendel State of Nigeria were administered a questionnaire on choice of careers. The sample consisted of 640 students, 160 in each location ranging in age from 14 to 17. It was hypothesized that factors influencing career choice were money-yielding prospects, desire to work in state of origin,…
Ogelube, a small, shallow natural lake at Opi, a township near the University of Nigeria's Nsukka campus yielded 231 algal taxa. Most belonged to the Desmidiales, dominated by Cosmarium, and to the Chlorococcales dominated by Scenedesmus, giving 73 taxa new to West Africa.
Background Primary open angle glaucoma is reported to blind 150,000 people in the Nigerian population and over 7000 in Rivers State, and requires constant follow-up. Compliance is a challenge, given that most inhabitants live below the poverty line. This study was performed to determine how Nigerian patients are affected economically by the disease. Methods Consecutive adult patients attending the eye clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria, with a diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma and on outpatient antiglaucoma treatment in the first 6 months of 2006, were recruited for the study. The lowest paid government worker was on USD50 (N7500.00) per month and the gross domestic product per capita was USD1150 for the period under review. Results We enrolled 120 consecutive patients of mean age 52.7 ± 10.4 years, with a male to female ratio of 2:3. The most common occupations were in the civil service (n = 56, 46.7%). All participants were on topical antiglaucoma treatment. The average cost of medical antiglaucoma medication was N6000 (USD40) per month. Computed to include indirect costs, including medical laboratory tests, transportation, and care by patient escorts, an average sum of USD105.4 (N15,810) was spent by each patient per month. Most of the patients (73.3%) were responsible for their own treatment costs. No patient accepted the cheaper option of surgery (USD275.4, N41,310). Eighty of the patients (66.7%) visited our eye clinic monthly. Direct and indirect loss to the economy was USD3,064587 per annum from those already blind. This was in addition to the USD 4.1 million being spent yearly on medical treatment by those who were visually impaired by glaucoma. Conclusion Middle-income earners spent over 50% of their monthly income and low-income earners spend all their monthly earnings on treatment for glaucoma. This situation often resulted in noncompliance with treatment and hospital follow-up visits. To reduce the economic burden of glaucoma, trabeculectomy performed by experienced surgeons should be offered as first-line treatment for glaucoma in this country, rather than medical therapy.
|In 2007, Kwara State in Nigeria embarked on a process of college of education reform. This article explores the strategic and managerial issues associated with that process. It sets out the policy imperative for reform within the context of an urgent need to improve the quality of education in Nigeria and traces progress over a four year period,…
Given the history of ethnic politics in most Nigeria's federal bureaucracies and the failure of the various governmental policies which have attempted to address it, this study was carried out to examine the effects of ethnic factors on employees' performance in some selected federal bureaucracies in Ibadan metropolis, Oyo state, Nigeria. The study adopted a survey research design, using a
|Radio stations have used jingles for environmental education and communication in Nigeria for decades though not much has been done to study the impact of such use--which is the purpose of this article. Through 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) in six local government areas of Oyo state, Nigeria, interviews with the program directors of two radio…
|The purpose of the study is to examine factors associated with risky sexual behaviors among secondary school adolescents in Ogun State, Nigeria. Two hundred and fifty adolescents randomly selected from three schools participated in the study. The ages of the participants ranged from 13 to 18 years. Both the independent and dependent variables…
Doing Business in Nigeria 2008 is the first subnational report on Sub-Saharan Africa in the Doing Business series. The report covers 10 states and Abuja, FCT, comparing them with each other and with 178 economies around the world. Comparisons are based on...
An ethnobotanical survey was conducted to identify the medicinal plants in Sagamu Local Government Area (LGA), and Remo North LGA of Ogun State, Nigeria, implicated in the treatment of various types of fever. The survey tools consisted of a semi-structured questionnaire and oral interviews. Seventy respondents mostly ages 31 to 50 covered in this survey were drawn from among the
Abiodun A. Adeyemi; Adebayo A. Gbolade; Jones O. Moody; Omonike O. Ogbole; Monsurat T. Fasanya
This study focused on the effects of malaria on household productivity, expenditure and mortality in Kwara state, Nigeria. In recent years, there has been increase in human and financial commitments to Malaria control, nationally and internationally, partly due to the need to meet the Development targets set in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and that of the National Economic Empowerment
This study examined the extent to which emotional expression, communication flow, financial management and work involvement predict marital adjustment among married persons in Delta State, Nigeria. One question was raised and one hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. 2561 married persons were selected through the use of purposive sampling…
Background: The prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections and the anthropogenic risk factors of 978 randomly selected primary school children from Igbede community in Isoko South Local Government Area of Delta State Southern Nigeria were evaluated. Methods: Subjects were screened for the presence of STH using direct smear method and kato-katz techniques. This study was conducted between April and
|This study examined the forms of emotional abuse experienced by students and the percentage of victims that experience the various forms of emotional abuse. The survey design was adopted for this study. A total of 1,559 students drawn from public secondary schools in Edo State, Nigeria, who were randomly selected through the multi-stage…
Storage of Bitter kola (Garcinia kola) as carried out by peasant farmers cum traders in Imo State, Nigeria, was studied to evaluate the most appropriate storage material relative to the extension of its shelf life. Five storage material namely: Polyethylene Bags (PB), Cement Bag Paper (CBP), Dry Plantain Leaves (DPL), Fresh Plantain Leaves FPL) and Sawdust were utilized in a
M. O. Ofor; M. I. Nwufo; I. J. Ogoke; A. A. Ngwuta; I. I Ibeawuchi; C. I. Duruigbo
The paper examined the sustainability rates of co-operatives and NGOs in farm credit delivery in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. The Subsidy Dependence Indices (SDI) and the capital formation rates were determined using both primary and secondary data obtained from 80 and 20 purposively selected cooperatives and NGOs respectively, based on their…
BACKGROUND: The control of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria remains inert due to lack of reliable data on the geographical distribution of the disease and the population at risk. To help in developing a control programme, delineating areas of risk, geographical information system and remotely sensed environmental images were used to developed predictive risk maps of the probability of
Uwem F Ekpo; Chiedu F Mafiana; Clement O Adeofun; Adewale RT Solarin; Adewumi B Idowu
Diversification is a norm in every economy, particularly in rural Africa, where farming alone rarely provides sufficient income. This study examines the forms and determinants of nonfarm livelihoods among 320 rural households in Ogun State, Nigeria. Results show that nonfarm livelihoods contribute 63?% of household income. The Simpson Index of Diversity shows moderate diversification (0.42) indicating a complementary role of
E. Fabusoro; A. M. Omotayo; S. O. Apantaku; P. A. Okuneye
|The purpose of this research is to find out how students appraise the teaching of Clothing and Textiles in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State, Nigeria. To do this two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to give direction to the study. The target population consisted of 660 Home Economics Students enrolled in Home Economics in…
Beneficiary funding for agricultural extension services in many developing countries, including Nigeria is not only a reality, but also a necessity due to several factors. This study was carried out in Kwara state. Specifically, it examined the socio-economic characteristics of the contact farmers, forms of service that have been rendered by the agricultural extension service agency to the contact farmers,
The main objective of this study was to determine the attitude of farmers towards erosion and the adoption of appropriate soil conservation technologies (SCTs). For the survey, farmers were selected from the communities Esa Oke, Elwure and Owode-Ede and Akoda in Osun State in Nigeria. In the first three communities farmers did receive training on soil conservation, in the fourth
B. Junge; O. Deji; R. Abaidoo; D. Chikoye; K. Stahr
|Every educational system has its goals and objectives, curricula and modes of implementation. There is however the need for periodic assessment and evaluation. Specifically, this research paper sets out to evaluate the success or otherwise of the music education delivery system in Kwara state of Nigeria and its implications for the goals of music…
|This paper assessed the participation of elderly women in community welfare activities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 elderly women from six out of the twelve political wards in the study area. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used to elicit information from the…
This study aimed to assess attitudes and beliefs affecting family care for people living with schizophrenia. The research design was observational through in-depth interviews and family group discussions. The participants were sixty family members sampled from the five ethnic groups that constitute Delta State in Nigeria. Data were generated via a structured interview schedule and family discussions reflecting Expressed Emotion
|The main objective of this study was to determine the attitude of farmers towards erosion and the adoption of appropriate soil conservation technologies (SCTs). For the survey, farmers were selected from the communities Esa Oke, Elwure and Owode-Ede and Akoda in Osun State in Nigeria. In the first three communities farmers did receive training on…
Junge, B.; Deji, O.; Abaidoo, R.; Chikoye, D.; Stahr, K.
The dismal results of 2011, 2010, 2009, and previous years WAEC and NECO Senior School Certificate Examinations (SSCE) show the pitiable state of education in secondary schools in Nigeria. The youths of today live in a digital age. Web technologies and sites have become an integral part of the youth culture. Today's youths use the web tools to…
|This study evaluated perceived assessment practices needs among social studies teachers in Cross River State, Nigeria, in relation to some teacher factors (attitude towards social studies, sex, teaching experience and educational qualification). Subjects who participated in this study were 297 social studies teachers (144 males and 153 females)…
Ekuri, Emmanuel Etta; Egbai, Julius Michael; Ita, Caroline Iserome
|The paper examined the sustainability rates of co-operatives and NGOs in farm credit delivery in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. The Subsidy Dependence Indices (SDI) and the capital formation rates were determined using both primary and secondary data obtained from 80 and 20 purposively selected cooperatives and NGOs respectively, based on their…
Odo, B.I., Alaku, S.O. and Omeje, S.I. 2000. Contribution of small ruminants (sheep and goats) to meat supply in Enugu state, Nigeria. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 18: 165–169.The monthly records of various livestock species (cattle, sheep, goat, pig, horse, donkey and dog) slaughtered for meat in Enugu state for a period of 8 years (1988–1995) were used to determine the
The paper examines In-school Adolescents and Career Choice: The case of Ekiti State, Nigeria. The sample consists of two hundred randomly selected parents and in-school adolescents from four local government areas in Ekiti State. Two hypotheses were generated and tested at 0.05 level of significance using t-test statistical analysis. The results showed that there were no significant differences between parental
Oluyole, K. A. and Lawal, J. O. 2008. Determinants of the Occurrence of Black Pod Disease of Cocoa in Edo State, Nigeria: A Multivariate Probit Analysis Approach. j. innov.dev.strategy 2(2): 1-4 This study was conducted at Edo state of Nigeria during July 2007 to determine factors that favor the infestation of black pod disease of cocoa in the study area.
There is increasing resistance of malaria parasites to chloroquine, the cheapest and commonly used drug for malaria in Nigeria. Artemisin, a product from medicinal plant indigenous to China, based on active principle of Artemisia annua, has been introduced into the Nigerian market. However not much has been done to project antimalaria properties of indigenous medicinal plants. This study thus, has the main objective of presenting medicinal plants used for malaria therapy in Okeigbo, Ondo State, South west Nigeria. Focus group discussions and interview were held about plants often found useful for malaria therapy in the community. Fifty species (local names) including for example: Morinda lucida (Oruwo), Enantia chlorantha (Awopa), Alstonia boonei (Ahun), Azadirachta indica (Dongoyaro) and Khaya grandifoliola (Oganwo) plants were found to be in use for malaria therapy at Okeigbo, Southwest, Nigeria . The parts of plants used could either be the barks, roots, leaves or whole plants. The recipes also, could be a combination of various species of plants or plant parts. This study highlights potential sources for the development of new antimalarial drugs from indigenous medicinal plants found in Okeigbo, Nigeria. PMID:20162091
Odugbemi, Tolu O; Akinsulire, Odunayo R; Aibinu, Ibukun E; Fabeku, Peter O
A retrospective study of 375 consecutive medicolegal cases seen in four peripheral general hospitals in the Rivers State of Nigeria over a five-year period (March 1984 to February 1989) was undertaken. The most common indications for forensic medical consultation were assaults (78.6%) using clubs, sticks, fists and machetes as weapons, road traffic accidents (9.1%) and sexual offences (7.7%). The proportions of accidental deaths (4.3%), homicidal deaths (2.9%), sudden natural deaths (0.5%), maternal deaths (0.5%) and suicidal deaths (0.3%) were much lower. The male-to-female ratio was 1.4 to 1. The patients' ages ranged from 10 months to 75 years, with a mean of 31.6 years. Twenty-three cases (6.1%) were children, while the remaining 352 cases (93.9%) were adults. The study showed that for those cases which do come to the pathologist's attention, forensic personnel and laboratory services are inadequate in the peripheral parts of Nigeria. The study also highlighted the possible range of medicolegal problems of which the medical practitioner should be aware, even if he is practising in the rural non-urbanized areas of Nigeria. The study shows that not all deaths are registered in Nigeria. PMID:10689865
This study was carried out to determine the awareness and practice of FGC in a rural community in southern Nigeria. A cross sectional study was carried out among Ayadehe women in Itu, LGA Akwa IbomState, Nigeria using a semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Information obtained was analysed using SPSS version 17. A total of 218 respondents participated in the study. Majority, 215 (98.6%) were aware of the practice of FGC. Type 2 FGC was the commonest type reported by 71.2% of respondents. Prevalence of FGC was 92.7%. A total of 69.8% were circumcised at 6-12 years. Health complications experienced included excruciating pains, (36.6%), severe bleeding, (15.8%), and painful urination, (26.7%). Up to 53.5% were circumcised by traditional birth attendants. The belief that FGM should be discontinued increased with educational level. The practice of FGC was high in this community. Increased female education, community involvement and legislation are needed to reduce this practice. PMID:23444550
An ethnobotanical survey of herbal medicine used for treatment of malaria fever in 17 communities in Ogun State, Southwest Nigeria was carried out. According to the results, 38 plant species belonging to 24 families were used in herbal antimalarial recipes. Among the plants mentioned, the most frequently used were Morinda lucida (7.87%), Lawsonia inermis (7.41%), Citrus medica (6.94%), Sarcocephalus latifolius
A geoelectric investigation involving twenty-six vertical electrical soundings was carried out at Jos, Plateau State, North\\u000a Central Nigeria. The survey was aimed at determining the structure of the underlying bedrock, as well as computing the transmissivity\\u000a for the aquifer in the area. The basement geometrymapproduced from the results of the survey indicates that the bedrock is\\u000a undulating lying at depths
The impact of bee pests on bee colony establishment in Kwara State, Nigeria and the distribution\\/spread in the various Local Government Areas were studied at the peak of production i.e., April\\/May 2006. Bee colony establishment rate were below 15% in Oyun, Asa, Irepodun and Ilorin west LGAs. In Ifelodun and Moro LGAs, 73.33% and 65.85% of the 60 and 41
This paper assess the level of potability of rainwater samples harvested from catchments roofs in 6 rural communities of Delta\\u000a State, Nigeria to achieve this goal a stratified sampling technique was adopted in the establishment of 90 sterilized cans\\u000a into the 3 senatorial districts of Delta; on the basis of one can for thatch, aluminium, asbestos and corrugated iron sheets,
Objective To determine the time spent and income lost by patients and their households for seeking tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment in Bauchi State-Nigeria. Method A cross sectional study where 242 TB patients were sampled from 27 out of 67 facilities providing TB services in a north-eastern state of Nigeria. Sampling was stratified based on facility type, patients’ HIV status and gender. Results The income lost among the hospitalized group was estimated at $156/patient and about $114 in the non-hospitalized patients group. Age, gender, facility of diagnosis, level of education and occupation were significant (p-values <0.05) associated with total (both patients and their households) income lost. However, AFB sputum-smear result and HIV status had no significant effects on the income lost. Hospitalised patients spent an average time of 924.98 hours for diagnosis and treatment whereas the non-hospitalised spent an average of 141.29 hours. The estimated US dollar valued of these hours was US517.98 and US$79.13 for hospitalised and non-hospitalised patient groups respectively. Hospitalisation and the facility of diagnosis were statistically significant (p-value <0.05) predictors of the time patients and household spent on TB. Conclusion Tuberculosis poses causes tremendous burden in terms of time and productivity lost to both patients and their households in Bauchi StateNigeria.
The effect of highways and local activities on the quality of groundwater in Ogun State, Nigeria was investigated. This was done by collecting groundwater samples from three different districts in the state, located in Southwestern Nigeria. The water samples collected at 5 m from the highway and control samples collected at 3 km from the highway were analyzed for the following physicochemical parameters: pH, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, alkalinity, total hardness, total solid, suspended solid, dissolved solid, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, phenol, and the metals-lead, zinc, iron, aluminum, sodium, and potassium. The levels of chromium, copper, and cadmium in the samples were below the detectable limit. The levels of the parameters show that there are significant differences between those in the samples and the controls (F test) except for phosphate and phenol. Also, anthropogenic sources (local activities) elevate the levels of different specific parameters, which are related to these activities. Good correlation was observed between traffic density and lead levels as well as between conductivity and dissolved solids. Comparisons with the World Health Organization guidelines indicate that most of the water samples are not suitable for human consumption. PMID:19626447
Odukoya, Olusegun O; Onianwa, Percy C; Sanusi, Olanrewaju I
A house-to-house survey of paediatric deaths which occurred from January to December 1991 in the village of Nko, Cross River State, Nigeria, was carried out. Among the 471 total deaths recorded, the leading causes were malaria (29%), protein-energy malnutrition, pneumonia and diarrhoeal disease (11% each). Neonatal deaths were largely due to septicaemia, tetanus and birth asphyxia. Poor domestic and human waste disposal, lack of portable water and basic health facilities appear to be the important related factors to child health problems in this community. The provision of public toilets, safe water, primary health care centres and health education can definitely improve the health status of this rural community. Events in other rural communities in Nigeria are most likely to be similar to that in Nko. Such populations need to be identified and their problems urgently addressed. PMID:7855918
A helminthological study of faecal materials collected from 1037 people from four rural communities in Gumau District of Bauchi State, Nigeria was carried out using a standard diagnostic procedure. The study is the first parasitological survey to be carried out in this rural district. Thirty-nine percent of examined persons were infected with helminths. Ascaris lumbricoides, Schistosoma mansoni, Trichuris trichiura, Hymenolepis nana, Strongyloides stercoralis, Taenia sp. and hookworm were encountered. Mixed infections were very common. There did not seem to be any difference between these and results obtained half a century ago in similar areas of northern Nigeria. The findings are discussed from the point of view of the social aspects of the people which encourage host-parasite contact and their implications for public health. Suggestions are made for the control of helminth parasites in the district. PMID:2738990
We conducted a recent survey of dermatological fungal infections amongst children in both urban and rural parts of Anambra State in the south-east geographical flank of Nigeria during the period January 2003 to December 2003. Samples were collected from 1624 children with clinically suggestive lesions and also between the ages of 4 and 16. Young children aged 7-11 and 4- 6 years had significantly higher incidences (P < 0.05) than their older colleagues aged 12-16 years among samples proved to be mycologically positive by microscopy, culture or both. There was a significant difference in the incidence of dermatophytoses amongst children in urban and rural areas investigated (P < 0.05). Tinea capitis was the predominant clinical type. Trichophyton tonsurans was the most prevalent etiological agent while Microsporum audouinii was the least in occurrence. We compared our result with a recent study in the northern geographical zone and observed that although incidence of dermatophytoses is higher in northern Nigeria, tinea capitis was the predominant clinical type in both regions. In addition, the etiological agents appear to vary from time to time in their occurrence and the reasons for these observations are discussed. A regular surveillance and assessment of the etiologic agent and its prevalence by medical mycologists is strongly recommended to facilitate monitoring, reduce/prevent transmission and spread of dermatophytes in countries like Nigeria where they constitute a public health problem. PMID:16205973
Purpose: To determine the pattern of non-traumatic ocular disorders in industrial technical workers in the Delta state, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study of the pattern of non-traumatic ocular disorders among industrial technical workers in 3 factories in Ughelli North local Government Area of Delta state, Nigeria was conducted between February, 2002 and May, 2002. In addition to the demographic, the workers were studied for the presence of any non-trauma related ocular findings. Visual acuity of these workers was obtained as well as ocular examination was performed by using the Snellen's chart, pen torch, ophthalmoscope, Perkins hand-held tonometer, Ishihara plates. Patients were refracted if their visual acuity was less than normal. Results: Five hundred technical workers were screened that included 200 (40%) from the construction industry, 180 (36%) from the rubber factory and 120(24%) from the oil mill. All the workers studied were males. Ocular disorders were seen in 664 (66.4%) of the eyes. The most common ocular disorders were pingueculum 215 (21.5%), presbyopia 97 (9.7%), refractive error 94 (9.4%), pterygium 86 (8.6%) and chronic conjunctivitis 45 (4.5%). None of the workers was blind from non-traumatic causes. Only 36 (7.2%) workers wore any protective eye devices at work. Conclusion: Non-traumatic ocular disorders are common in the industrialized technical workers in the Delta state of Nigeria. The use of protective eye devices is low in these workers and suggests that measures to implement ocular safety should be undertaken in these industries.
Omoti, A. E.; Edema, O. T.; Akinsola, F. B.; Aigbotsua, P.
This paper examined the role of counselling, and parental encouragement on re-entry of adolescents into secondary school in Abia State, Nigeria. A total of 353 adolescents who re-entered school were selected from six secondary schools in the State through a simple random sampling technique. A validated questionnaire was used for data analysis.…
3 Abstracts: The study examined sound reasons, principles and techniques employed by subsistenc e farmers in the art of masterminding Nigerian native hens to incubate, hatch and brood guinea fowl chicks in Katsina State of Nigeria. Ninety subsistence poultry farmers were randomly selected without replacement from the three agricultural zones of the state. Sources of primary data were structured questionnaires,
S. O. Ugwu; A. E. Onyimonyi; Nicholas Ozor; M. Mkpado
This paper examines the socio-economic status of women in rural poultry production in selected areas of Kwara State, Nigeria. This is based on the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between women's participation and their socio-economic status such as age, marital status, level of education and occupation. The study was conducted in selected villages in Kwara State. A total
|This paper examined the role of counselling, and parental encouragement on re-entry of adolescents into secondary school in Abia State, Nigeria. A total of 353 adolescents who re-entered school were selected from six secondary schools in the State through a simple random sampling technique. A validated questionnaire was used for data analysis.…
This study focused on the existing relationships in four Catholic nursery\\/primary schools in Anambra State, Nigeria. Specifically, this study examined how the development of Catholic nursery\\/primary school relationships can lead to the partnerships between the parents, community, Church, and State. Literature review highlights the significance of collaboration, dedication, and partnerships in promoting childhood education. The four schools recently built by
The concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in spent drilling fluid deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State of Nigeria. The total concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the spent drilling fluid deposits ranged between 40 and 770 ?g kg(-1). The PAHs profile were predominantly 2- and 3-rings with acenaphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene being the predominant PAHs. The prevalence of 2- and 3-rings PAHs in the spent drilling fluid deposits indicate contamination of the drilling fluids with crude oil during drilling. Incorporation of spent drilling fluids into the soil has serious implication for soil, surface water and groundwater quality. PMID:21809098
Standard procedures were applied in the comparative evaluation of the performance of septic tanks receiving three types of domestic waste water in Bayelsa State: namely, (a) toilet waste waters only (arrangement 1), (b) toilet and kitchen wastewater (Arrangement 2) (c) toilet, kitchen and bathroom wastewater (arrangement 3),with a view to improving the design of septic tanks in the State. Influent
W. Burubai; A. J. Akor; M. T. Lilly; D. T. Ayawari
4 Abstract: Cases of Avian Influenza (AI) outbreaks reported and confirmed were extracted from the records of control committees on AI in Kano and Katsina States, Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Pan-African Control of Epizootics (PACE) project office at Kaduna. Information on A l outbreaks in Jigawa State were obtained through a questionnaire. A total of 480,378
L. Saidu; A. M. Wakawa; P. A. Abdu; D. F. Adene; H. M. Kazeem; K. C. Ladan; M. Abdu; R. B. Miko; M. Y. Fatihu; J. Adamu; P. H. Mamman
A bivariate analysis of infant mortality in the 1986\\/87 Ondo State Demographic and Health Survey data indicates that children of secondary school graduates experienced a higher rate of infant mortality than children of less educated mothers. Although this pattern has also been shown in a few other Demographic and Health Surveys, this paper explores the Ondo State data to explain
On the 27th of September, 2003 Nigeria joined Space faring Nations with the launch of its first satellite "NigeriaSat-1" into the Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The Satellite which carries Remote sensing payload and has a Ground Sampling Distance of 32m is a fulfillment of one of Government thrust towards solving socio-economic problems and its realizing sustainable development plans through the applications of space science and technology. NigeriaSat-1 project also included the acquiring of expertise in the area of Satellite Technology as 15 Nigerian Engineers/Scientists under gone an 18 months Know How Technology Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL). The trainee along side their SSTL counterparts designed and built the NigeriaSat-1. The NigeriaSat-1 has been fully commissioned from the Ground Control Station in Nigeria and the spacecraft is in perfect working condition. The spacecraft has been sending down excellent images of the earth. NigeriaSat-1 is being controlled from Nigeria by Nigerian Ground Station Engineers. The NigeriaSat-1 is one of the Spacecrafts in the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) which has the following member states, United Kingdom, Turkey, Algeria, China, Vietnam and Thailand. The DMC is to provide real time data with a global coverage. This paper will focus on the NigeriaSat-1 project, the know-how technology training, the utilization plan of data from the NigeriaSat-1 and the gains from the DMC.
Background In order to initiate a disease elimination programme for lymphatic filariasis based on mass drug administration, a proper understanding of the geographical distribution and degree of risk is essential. Methods An investigation of lymphatic filariasis due to Wuchereria bancrofti was carried out among 785 people in four communities of Yakurr Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria between March and August, 2009. Finger prick blood smear samples collected from the subjects were examined for W. bancrofti using standard parasitological protocol. The subjects were also screened for clinical manifestations of lymphatic filariasis. Results Of the 785 persons examined, 48 (6.1%) were positive for microfilariae in their thick blood smear. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis among the various age groups (P?0.01) although peak prevalence occurred between 41 – 60 years. There was no significant difference in prevalence and density with respect to sex (P?>?0.05). The overall mean microfilarial density of the infected individuals was 5.6mf/50 ?l. There was a significant variation (P?0.01) in mean microfilarial density within the communities, ranging from 4.7 to 6.4 mf/50 ?l. The only clinical sign found in the study area was lymphoedema of the leg recording 2 (0.3%) prevalence. Conclusions The National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme should intervene by expanding the distribution of albendazole and ivermectin to all endemic areas including Yakurr Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria.
|This study examined the predictive factors in undergraduates' involvement in campus secret cults in public universities in Edo State of Nigeria. The study employed the descriptive method, specifically the survey format. A random sample of three hundred and eighty (380) undergraduates was drawn from the two public universities. Data were elicited…
Azetta Arhedo, Philip; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Adomeh, Ilu O. C.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important public health problem worldwide. Its association with, and predisposing nature for diabetes mellitus (DM) has been long established. This research was carried out to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) amongst people with possible genetic predisposition to diabetes mellitus living in and around Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria. 188 subjects were
Obinna O Nwankiti; James A Ndako; Atanda O Olabode; Chika I Nwosuh; Ema M Onovoh; Lilian A Okeke; Jumoke O Akinola; Boniface N Duru; Ijeoma O Nwagbo; Godwin O Agada; Anthony A Chukwuedo
A well-managed organization sees employees as the source of quality and productivity. This study examines the perception of work motivation in relation to job satisfaction and organizational commitment of library personnel in academic and research libraries in Oyo state, Nigeria. Two hundred library personnel (41% female, 59% male) were selected through a total enumeration sampling from five research and four
|This study investigated psychosocial care in complementary feeding of children under two years of age. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Osun State of Nigeria within Sub-Saharan Africa, and 450 mothers were interviewed of which 337 were from the urban and 113 from the rural communities. Results revealed that 37.4% of the respondents…
|This study investigated the influence of retraining programme on self-esteem of primary school teachers in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. The study was guided by one research question and a null hypothesis. A purposively selected sample of 775 primary school teachers who attended capacity building retraining programme provided the data collected using…
Igbo, Janet N.; Eze, Justina U.; Eskay, M.; Onu, V. C.; Omeje, J.
This study focused mainly on changes in the traditional institutions of governance occasioned by colonial rule and the impact of such changes on the organization of social life of erstwhile republican communities in Nigeria. These changes appeared to be the most fundamental and underlying cause of incessant violent conflicts and the seeming powerlessness on the part of State authorities to
This study offers exploratory insights into the level of loan delinquency among the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Ondo State of Nigeria, and the lending practices of the country's bankers towards the SMEs It does offer nice description of the theoretical reasoning for the restricted SMEs lending portfolio for banks. The results were based on the analysis of interview
This study characterized farmer users and nonusers of mass media as channels of agricultural information. A structured interview was used to obtain data from 316 randomly selected farmers in Benue State, Nigeria. The data were subjected to discriminant analysis and the following socioeconomic characteristics significantly differed at a 5% level of probability between users and nonusers of mass media (and
A four?day weighed food intake study was carried out in the wet and dry seasons in northern Anambra State, Nigeria, on pre?school children and (during the wet season) on pregnant women. In both seasons the energy, calcium, riboflavin and niacin of the diet of the children were low while the diet of the pregnant women was deficient in most nutrients.
The study examines the effect of neighborhood deprivation on gender. It shows that most residents are deprived and that though, in Lagos State, the gender differences in the level of deprivation may not be too pronounced, yet, women, because of their socio-traditional roles in the society are more at a receiving end. There is gender difference in the distance an individual has to cover to get to the place of work with men having to cover more distance than women to get to their offices. The study shows that there is no difference between men and women in terms of accessibility to electricity and water as all residents are deprived almost equally. An interesting aspect of the study is that the fear of being killed or maimed as a result of crime within the neighborhood does not depend on the gender of the individual concerned. However, in general, there is gender difference in deprivation within the neighborhood with clear difference in the level of neighborhood convenience (chi2=97.131 and p<0.05) and availability of Amenities (chi2=105.12, p<0.05.) while there is no gender difference in neighborhood Safety (chi2=35.097, p>0.05), Health (chi2=63.933, p>0.05) and Community Relationship (chi2=12.905, p>0.05). PMID:20000022
Despite numerous molecular epidemiologic studies of cryptosporidiosis in dairy cattle in industrialized countries, there are very few studies on the diversity and public health significance of Cryptosporidium species in native cattle in developing countries. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene was used to detect and identify Cryptosporidium spp. in 194 fecal specimens from 2 to 365 days old calves in 20 White Fulani and Sokoto Gudali herds in Nigeria. Thirty one (16.0%) of the specimens were positive for Cryptosporidium. Restriction digestion of the PCR products showed the presence of Cryptosporidium bovis (7.2%), Cryptosporidium ryanae (4.1%), Cryptosporidium andersoni (2.5%), and concurrent occurrence of C. bovis and C. ryanae (1.5%), and C. bovis and C. andersoni (0.5%). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in Cryptosporidium infection rates by sex, herd location, management system, breed of calves, or fecal consistency. However, calves 180 days or younger had a higher infection rate of Cryptosporidium than older calves (p=0.034). Likewise, younger calves also had higher occurrence of C. bovis and C. ryanae (p=0.022). The absence of zoonotic Cryptosporidium parvum in the calves studied suggests that native breeds of cattle may not be important in the transmission of human cryptosporidiosis in Kaduna State, Nigeria. PMID:21277091
Maikai, Beatty V; Umoh, Jalarth U; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Lawal, Idris A; Maikai, Victor A; Cama, Vitaliano; Xiao, Lihua
A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the current status of Brucella antibodies in goats in Kaduna North Senatorial District of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 442 serum samples (31 bucks and 411 does) were screened using Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test with ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (SAT-EDTA), and lateral flow assay (LFA). Results. The prevalence of Brucella antibodies was found to be 25.8%, 11.1%, and 2.5% using RBPT, SAT-EDTA, and LFA, respectively. The prevalence in bucks was 32.3%, 3.2%, and 0.0% and 17.5%, 12.4%, and 3.9% in does using RBPT, SAT-EDTA, and LFA, respectively. The prevalence rates for goats less than one year of age using the tests were 1.5%, 0.0%, and 0.0%. While for those within the age bracket of one to three years, the rates were 19.4%, 10.5%, and 3.5%, respectively. The corresponding values for goats above 3 years of age were 34.2%, 15.2%, and 1.8%, respectively. The prevalence of brucellosis in goats in the study area is high which poses a threat to the development of the livestock industry and is of important zoonotic implications in Nigeria.
Kaltungo, B. Y.; Saidu, S. N. A.; Sackey, A. K. B.; Kazeem, H. M.
Fish supplies 25% of the total protein source in developing countries. A techno-economic analysis was performed for developing a good business proposal for aquaculture loans to enhance aquaculture development in Nigeria. A case study of catfish Clarias gariepinus framing was conducted in Abeokuta North Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The results show that the fixed cost is N18 338 per year, and the variable cost is N459 700 per year, accounting for the largest amount of the total; therefore, a profit of N43 289 per month can be made. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess any risk(s) that associated with unfavorable changes in government policy with particular reference to monetary policy. Positive net present value shows that the investment in fish farm is economically feasible and the net investment ratio is 3.52. Also, the benefit-cost ratio is 2.17. The internal rate of return (IRR) is 21% showing that the enterprise is able to offset the interest being charged on the loan. It is therefore worthwhile to invest into fish farm business in the study area. The study suggests that to better sustain the local aquaculture business, the government should create a good conducive environment to foster development of the fish farming. Government intervention is urgently needed to solve problems such as in traditional land tenure, grant credit facilities and subsidies, to enhance the aquacultural development in the country.
A survey was carried out in Kaduna State of Nigeria to establish the indigenous knowledge system for treating trypanosomiasis in domestic animals. Questionnaire and interviews were, respectively, administered to, or conducted with about 200 livestock farmers and traders spread around the state. Data obtained revealed the use of several plants either alone or in combination, for the treatment and management of trypasonomiasis. The most common plants encountered were Adansonia digitata, Terminalia avicennoides, Khaya senegalensis, Cissus populnea, Tamarindus indica, Lawsonia inermis, Boswellia dalzielli, Pseudocedrela kotschi, Syzyium quinensis, Sterculia setigera, Afzelia africana, Prosopis africana, Lancea kerstingii. The method of preparation and mode of administration of some of these plants in the treatment of trypanosomiasis are reviewed and discussed. PMID:11801393
Atawodi, S E; Ameh, D A; Ibrahim, S; Andrew, J N; Nzelibe, H C; Onyike, E O; Anigo, K M; Abu, E A; James, D B; Njoku, G C; Sallau, A B
The lack of empirical data on the determinants of youths` participation in rural agriculture necessitated this study that investigated the rate of youths` participation, agricultural activities participated in and the factors that determined their participation in Imo State, Nigeria. Data were generated from 230 youths from the three agricultural zones of the state using questionnaire and interview schedule. These were analyzed with the aid of frequency tables, simple percentage counts and logit regression model at 0.05 level of significance. The results indicated about 84% participation in land clearing, planting, fertilizer application, collection of fodder for livestock etc. The participation was determined by their ages, education, marital status, parents` income, parents` occupation, household size and youths` dependence status. It was recommended that institutional support services for agriculture should be extended to the youths and intervention strategies for youths` agricultural activities should be guided and guarded by their ages, education, marital status, parents` income, parents` occupation, family size and youths` dependence status.
Plasma thiocyanate has been reported to be high among cassava-eating populations such as that in Nigeria because of the cyanide content of cassava. Thiocyanate, which is secreted into the stomach contents of animals, has been demonstrated to catalyse the formation of nitrosamines (potent carcinogens) in the stomach from secondary amines and nitrite. The main source of the nitrite precursor in this environment is vegetables, primarily eaten as the chief supplier of proteins. The present study attempts to analyse the levels of nitrate and nitrite in vegetables commonly grown and consumed in Delta State, Nigeria. The nitrate and nitrite contents in green vegetable (Amaranthus spp.), bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina), pumpkin (Telfaria occidentalis) and water leaf (Talinum triangulare) grown in different localities of the state were determined by standard analytical procedures. The results show that those vegetables grown in the industrialised urban centres of the state had higher nitrate (223 (SD 71) mg/kg dry weight; P<0.05) and nitrite (12.6 (SD 1.7) mg/kg dry weight; P>0.05) levels when compared with the same species (188 (SD 77) mg nitrate/kg dry weight and 10.9 (SD 1.1) mg nitrite/kg dry weight) cultivated in less industrialised suburbs. We conclude that frequent consumption of such vegetables whose nitrate and nitrite contents are high by cassava-eating individuals might put them at risk of developing stomach cancer and other possible results of nitrate and/or nitrite toxicity. In order to avoid an outbreak in our communities, appropriate agencies should monitor and regulate the release of chemicals into the environment. In the meantime, the cultivation and consumption of vegetables grown in industrialised areas of the state should be discouraged. PMID:17092380
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe cyber crime and techniques adopted for combating it in Nigeria. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Reviews the state of cyber crime in Nigeria, and how it is being stemmed in the country. Findings – The types of cyber crime in Nigeria are revealed together with the efforts geared towards combating\\/preventing cyber crime in
Background: The national policy on malaria control recommends use of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (IPT-SP) for chemoprophylaxis against malaria in pregnancy; and use of quinine and arthemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for acute treatment of malaria in the first, and second/third trimesters, respectively. In Nigeria, a large proportion of pregnant women are seen by the general practitioners (GPs). Objective: To determine the pattern of anti-malaria prescription in pregnancy among GPs in Enugu state, and access the level of conformity with the national policy on malaria control. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires were administered to a cross-section of 147 GPs that attended the 2010 Enugu state branch of the Nigeria Medical Association Scientific Conference/Annual General Meeting/Election. Results: The mean age of the GPs was 37 ± 3.6 (range 27-70) years. Quinine was the commonly (45.6% (n = 67)) prescribed anti-malaria drug in the first trimester while in the second/third trimester ACT was commonly (48.3% (n = 71)) prescribed. Seventy-six (51.7%) practitioners prescribed IPT-SP for chemoprophylaxis against malaria while the rest (48.3%) prescribed other drugs. GPs who obtained MBBS qualification less than or equal to 5 years prior to the survey were more likely to comply with the national policy on malaria control in their prescriptions (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The pattern of anti-malaria prescription among GPs in Enugu state is varied, and conformed poorly to the evidence-based national policy on malaria control. There is need for continuing professional development to keep the GPs abreast with current trends in malaria treatment during pregnancy.
Ugwu, Emmanuel Onyebuchi; Iferikigwe, E. S.; Obi, S. N.; Ugwu, A. O.; Agu, P. U.; Okezie, O. A.
Introduction The characteristics and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Staphylococcus aureus differs according to geographical regions and in relation to antibiotic usage. The aim of this study was to determine the biochemical characteristics of the prevalent S. aureus from Ekiti State, Nigeria, and to evaluate three commonly used disk diffusion methods (cefoxitin, oxacillin, and methicillin) for the detection of methicillin resistance in comparison with mecA gene detection by polymerase chain reaction. Materials and methods A total of 208 isolates of S. aureus recovered from clinical specimens were included in this study. Standard microbiological procedures were employed in isolating the strains. Susceptibility of each isolate to methicillin (5 ?g), oxacillin (1 ?g), and cefoxitin (30 ?g) was carried out using the modified Kirby–Bauer/Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute disk diffusion technique. They were also tested against panels of antibiotics including vancomycin. The conventional polymerase chain reaction method was used to detect the presence of the mecA gene. Results Phenotypic resistance to methicillin, oxacillin, and cefoxitin were 32.7%, 40.3%, and 46.5%, respectively. The mecA gene was detected in 40 isolates, giving a methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) prevalence of 19.2%. The S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin (82.7%) and tetracycline (65.4%), but largely susceptible to erythromycin (78.8% sensitive), pefloxacin (82.7%), and gentamicin (88.5%). When compared to the mecA gene as the gold standard for MRSA detection, methicillin, oxacillin, and cefoxitin gave sensitivity rates of 70%, 80%, and 100%, and specificity rates of 76.2%, 69.1%, and 78.5% respectively. Conclusion When compared with previous studies employing mecA polymerase chain reaction for MRSA detection, the prevalence of 19.2% reported in Ekiti State, Nigeria in this study is an indication of gradual rise in the prevalence of MRSA in Nigeria. A cefoxitin (30 ?g) disk diffusion test is recommended above methicillin and oxacillin for the phenotypic detection of MRSA in clinical laboratories.
Olowe, Olugbenga Adekunle; Kukoyi, Olayinka Oluwatoyin; Taiwo, Samuel Sunday; Ojurongbe, Olusola; Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele; Bolaji, Oloyede Samuel; Adegoke, Abiodun Adebimpe; Makanjuola, Olufunmilola Bamidele; Ogbolu, David Olusoga; Alli, Oyebode Terry
Although therapeutic itineraries have been studied in a variety of contexts, little research has investigated care-seekers' quests for traditional medical treatments outside their own ethnic boundaries. The present study investigated 19 Igbo women seeking traditional cures from Ibibio indigenous healers in Akwa IbomState, Nigeria. Emerging data show that these Igbo women were uptaking Ibibio indigenous treatments primarily for health conditions that have failed to respond to initial treatments in their places of origin, were stigmatized at their own places of origin, or and were thought to have resulted from supernatural causes. Care-seeking outside patients' ethnic borders was thus both a quest for a more effective treatment and a strategy for concealing therapeutic progress or and the nature of illness from the patients' places of origin. Findings underscore the critical role of culture and place in health-seeking behaviour and the need for health care services to be responsive to the complex nature of cultural organization involving care-seekers' and the critical ways this plays out in, flows into, and is negotiated through particular places during therapeutic quests. PMID:15550352
Izugbara, C Otutubikey; Etukudoh, I Wilson; Brown, A Sampson
This study reports the results of a survey conducted in 2001 to investigate the economic effects of Fascioliasis (Liverflukes) on drought animals in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 60 and 74 farmers` owners of 148 non-infested and 204 infested drought animals, respectively, through a cost-route method using structured questionnaires and supplemented with interviews. Analysis using descriptive statistics and animal traction efficiency measure showed that the non-infested drought animals were efficiently utilized than the infested drought animals. It was concluded that the non-infested drought animals were more productive. The study therefore, recommend among others, the regular deworming of drought animals in order to improve their efficiency.
This study reports an ethnobotanical survey by means of semi-structured questionnaire of medicinal plants in five districts of Lagos State of Nigeria reputed for the treatment of diabetes. 100 respondents from the predominantly Yoruba tribe mostly males (76%) were knowledgeable in traditional treatment of diabetes. About half of the respondents with 20-30 years experience in treating diabetes used mainly herbs (96%) and have developed effective and easily recognised diagnostic tools. 92% of diabetic patients were usually out-patients aged 21-60 years. Diabetes trado-specialists (80%) rarely referred their patients but usually treated referred cases (96%). Fifty multi-component herbal recipes covered in the survey were mainly liquid preparations often administered without serious side effects (92%). The principal antidiabetic plants included Vernonia amygdalina, Bidens pilosa, Carica papaya, Citrus aurantiifolia, Ocimum gratissimum, Momordica charantia and Morinda lucida. Dietary recommendations also accompanied therapy. PMID:19013225
A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2008 to March 2009 to identify risk factors for BTB in cattle and humans in Jigawa State, Nigeria. A total of 855 cattle belonging to 17 households were subjected to comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT) while interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtains information on the risk factors. Twenty-two (22) respondent (5%) amongst the families sampled had TB or clinical signs suggestive of TB, while 9 (2%) had reactor cattle in their herds; However, no statistically significant association (P ? 0.05) was observed between reactor cattle and human TB cases in the households. The habit of milk and meat consumption was found to be affected by occupation and location of the household residence. None of these risk factors (food consumption, living with livestock in the same house, and presence of BTB-positive cattle) were found to be statistically significant. PMID:22848868
Ibrahim, S; Cadmus, S I B; Umoh, J U; Ajogi, I; Farouk, U M; Abubakar, U B; Kudi, A C
Background In northern Nigeria, trachoma is an important public health problem, but there are currently few population-based data on prevalence of disease and no formal trachoma control programs. Methodology / Principal Findings In Kano state, Nigeria, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey using multistage cluster random sampling, combining examination for clinical signs of trachoma and application of questionnaires assessing potential household-level risk factors. A total of 4491 people were examined in 40 clusters, of whom 1572 were aged 1–9 years, and 2407 (53.6%) were female. In 1–9 year-olds, the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation–follicular (TF) was 17.5% (95% CI: 15.7–19.5%). In a multivariate model, independent risk factors for active trachoma were the presence of flies on the face (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.30–3.02); a dirty face (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.85–3.25) and presence of animal dung within the compound of residence (OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.62–7.41). The prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis in persons aged ?15years was 10.9% (95% CI: 9.7–12.2%). Trichiasis was significantly more common in adult females than in adult males. Conclusion/Significance There is an urgent need for a trachoma control program in Kano state, with emphasis given to provision of good quality trichiasis surgery. Particular effort will need to be made to identify women with trichiasis and engage them with appropriate services while also taking steps to secure azithromycin for mass treatment and ensuring personal and environmental hygiene.
Mpyet, Caleb; Lass, Barka David; Yahaya, Hadi B.; Solomon, Anthony W.
A survey to determine the prevalence and causes of blindness in Anambra State of Nigeria was conducted. The aim was to provide baseline data for the planning, implementation and evaluation of both the state's and the National Programme for Prevention of Blindness.A multistage cluster random sampling technique was used. The World Health Organization\\/Prevention of Blindness (WHO\\/PBL) Eye Examination Record Form
Background The control of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria remains inert due to lack of reliable data on the geographical distribution of the disease and the population at risk. To help in developing a control programme, delineating areas of risk, geographical information system and remotely sensed environmental images were used to developed predictive risk maps of the probability of occurrence of the disease and quantify the risk for infection in Ogun State, Nigeria. Methods Infection data used were derived from carefully validated morbidity questionnaires among primary school children in 2001–2002, in which school children were asked among other questions if they have experienced "blood in urine" or urinary schistosomiasis. The infection data from 1,092 schools together with remotely sensed environmental data such as rainfall, vegetation, temperature, soil-types, altitude and land cover were analysis using binary logistic regression models to identify environmental features that influence the spatial distribution of the disease. The final regression equations were then used in Arc View 3.2a GIS software to generate predictive risk maps of the distribution of the disease and population at risk in the state. Results Logistic regression analysis shows that the only significant environmental variable in predicting the presence and absence of urinary schistosomiasis in any area of the State was Land Surface Temperature (LST) (B = 0.308, p = 0.013). While LST (B = -0.478, p = 0.035), rainfall (B = -0.006, p = 0.0005), ferric luvisols (B = 0.539, p = 0.274), dystric nitosols (B = 0.133, p = 0.769) and pellic vertisols (B = 1.386, p = 0.008) soils types were the final variables in the model for predicting the probability of an area having an infection prevalence equivalent to or more than 50%. The two predictive risk maps suggest that urinary schistosomiasis is widely distributed and occurring in all the Local Government Areas (LGAs) in State. The high-risk areas (? 50% prevalence) however, are confined to scatter foci in the north western part of the State. The model also estimated that 98.99% of schools aged children (5–14 years) are living in areas suitable for urinary schistosomiasis transmission and are at risk of infection. Conclusion The risk maps developed will hopefully be useful to the state health officials, by providing them with detailed distribution of urinary schistosomiasis, help to delineate areas for intervention, assesses population at risk thereby helping in optimizing scarce resources.
Despite strong optimism that the enthronement of democratic rule in Nigeria in 1999 would avert or contain ethnic and religious conflicts, the country has witnessed high level ethnic and religious violence with devastating consequences. This paper examines ethnic and religious conflicts in Nigeria in terms of its causes and impacts from 1999 to date. It argues that the weakness of
Background: Job satisfaction implies doing a job one enjoys, doing it well, and being suitably rewarded for one' efforts. Several factors affect job satisfaction. Objective: To compare factors influencing job satisfaction amongst rural and urban primary health care workers in southwestern Nigeria. Methods: A cross sectional comparative study recruited qualified health workers selected by multi stage sampling technique from rural and urban health facilities in four local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State in Southwestern Nigeria. Data were collected and analysed using Epi info V 3.5.1 Results: The response rates were 88(88%) and 91(91%) respectively in the rural and urban areas. While urban workers derived satisfaction from availability of career development opportunities, materials and equipment, in their current job, rural workers derived satisfaction from community recognition of their work and improved staff relationship. Major de-motivating factors common to both groups were lack of supportive supervision, client-provider relationship and lack of in-service training. However more rural 74(84.1%) than urban 62(68.1%) health workers would prefer to continue working in their present health facilities (p=0.04). There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in job satisfaction with respect to tools availability and career development opportunities (p<0.05). Conclusion: There is dissimilarity in factors influencing job satisfaction between rural and urban healthcare workers. There is need for human resource policy to be responsive to the diverse needs of health workers particularly at the primary level. PMID:22786855
Objective To determine how the cholera and other diarrheal disease surveillance system in Niger state is meeting its surveillance objectives, to evaluate its performance and attributes and to describe its operation to make recommendations for improvement. Introduction Cholera causes frequent outbreaks in Nigeria, resulting in mortality. In 2010 and 2011, 41,936 cases (case fatality rate [CFR]-4.1%) and 23,366 cases (CFR-3.2%) were reported (1). Reported cases in Nigeria by week 26, 2012 was 309 (CFR-1.29%) involving 20 Local Government Areas in 6 States. In Nigeria, there are currently eleven (11) States including Niger state at high risk for cholera/bloodless diarrhea outbreaks. In 2011, Niger state had 2472 cholera cases (CFR-2%) and 45,111 other diarrhea diseases cases, recorded in more than half of state Purpose of surveillance system is to ensure early detection of cholera and other diarrheal cases and to monitor trends towards evidence-based decision for management, prevention and control. Methods We conducted evaluation in July, 2012. We used CDC guideline on surveillance system evaluation (2001) as guide to assess operation, performance and attributes (2). We conducted key informant/in-depth interviews with stakeholders. We examined cholera action plans for preparedness and response, conducted laboratory assessment, extracted and analyzed cholera surveillance (2005–2012) for frequencies/proportions using Microsoft Excel. Thematic analysis was done for qualitative data. We shared findings with stakeholders at all levels. Results Surveillance system was setup for early detection and monitoring towards evidence-based decision. State government funds system. Case definition used is highly sensitive and is any patient aged 5 years or more who develops acute watery diarrhea, with/without vomiting. Though simple case definition, laboratory confirmation makes surveillance complex. A passive system, active during outbreaks; has formal and informal sources of information and part of Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) system and flow(fig.1). It takes 24–48 hours between outbreaks onset, confirmation and response. Line list showed undefined/poorly labeled outcomes. Of 2472 cases in 2011 1320 (49%) were found in line list. 2011 monthly data completeness was 75%. So far in 2012, 5(0.02%) of all diarrhea cases were cholera. System captures only age as sociodemographics. Of 11 suspected cholera cases tested during 2011 epidemic, 7 confirmed as cholera (PPV-63%). Of 3 rumours of cholera outbreaks (January 2011-July 2012), one (PPV-33%) was true. Acceptability of system is high among all stakeholders interviewed. Timeliness of monthly reporting was 68.7% (Table 1). Laboratory can isolate Vibro cholerae isolation but has no Cary Blair transport medium and cholera rapid test kits. Conclusions Evaluation revealed that surveillance system is meeting its objectives by early detection and response to cholera outbreaks. System is simple, stable, flexible, sensitive with poor data quality, low PPV, fair laboratory capacity and moderate timeliness. We recommended electronic and internet-based reporting for timeliness and data quality improvement; and provision of laboratory consumables.
Although congenital malformations are believed to be on the rise in the oil production areas of Nigeria, few baseline data are available. This retrospective study documented the incidence of congenital abnormalities in 2 major hospitals in Port Harcourt, an oil-rich city in Rivers state, Nigeria. Delivery and nursery records were reviewed from January 1990 to December 2003. In the first hospital 78 congenital anomalies were recorded out of 19 572 births (4.00/1000), principally affecting the central nervous system (1.84/1000) and skeletal system (1.74/1000). In the second hospital, 47 congenital anomalies were recorded out of 20121 births (2.20/1000), with malformations of the central nervous system (0.80/1000) and skeletal system (1.14/1000) again predominating. More research is needed into long-term trends in congenital malformations and possible associations with environmental pollution in Rivers state. PMID:22259922
Ekanem, B; Bassey, I E; Mesembe, O E; Eluwa, M A; Ekong, M B
\\u000a For many communities in the “fragile” state order of Nigeria, vigilante groups represent the only pragmatic alternative for\\u000a providing a minimum of protection and order in the face of widespread insecurity. But vigilante groups are often more than\\u000a just controllers of violence and competing operators in security markets. They are also integrated into social networks, representing\\u000a a social response to
The prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections and their relationship to anthropometric indices of 1,351 school children from Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria were evaluated. 739 (54.70%) of the subjects were infected by soil-transmitted helminths (STH). The overall prevalences by species were Ascaris lumbricoides (48.41%), hookworms (29.76%), and Trichuris trichiura (17.39%). 174 (12.88%) were infected
A 6-year retrospective study (2000–2005) of animals slaughtered at the Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria was\\u000a carried out to determine disease conditions encountered in slaughtered animals. Records kept at the abattoir were analysed.\\u000a A total of 69,307 cattle, 3,820 goats and 1,763 sheep were slaughtered for the period under study. Of the 69,307 cattle slaughtered\\u000a for the period,
Clement B. I. Alawa; I. Etukudo-Joseph; Judith N. Alawa
Two hundred and forty blood samples were collected from children, women, and men in urban areas of Enugu State, Nigeria. The samples were analyzed for lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results show the range and % detectable values were 3.9–88.1 ?g\\/dl and 97.92%, respectively. The sample population was classified according to age groups (?12, 13–25, and >25 years), sex, occupationally
Background and objective Abdominal obesity is associated with the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes and hypertension. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Materials and methods We carried out a cross-sectional study aimed at ascertaining the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Participants in the study were recruited from communities in the three senatorial zones in the state. Screening for abdominal obesity was carried out in these subjects using waist circumference (the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel criteria were used). The World Health Organization Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of chronic disease risk factors was used. Body mass index, anthropometric measurements, and other relevant data were also collected. Results Data on waist circumference were obtained from 2,807 subjects. The prevalence of obesity using body mass index in the population was 11.12%. In men and women, it was 7.73%, and 14.37%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in the population was 21.75%. In men and women, it was 3.2% and 39.2%, respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of abdominal obesity is high in Nigeria, and needs to be monitored because it is associated with increased cardiovascular risk.
The study was conducted to gain insight into the meanings, beliefs, and practices of female circumcision among three Nigerian tribes in the United States and Nigeria. Participant-observations occurred in three sites in Nigeria (Ibadan, Lagos, and Owerri) and in Essex County, New Jersey (Newark, Irvington, and East Orange). A total of 50 informants included adult males and females from the three main Nigerian ethnic tribes: Igbo, Yoruba, and Hausa. Leininger's culture care theory of diversity and universality was the study framework. Findings revealed existence of similarities and differences in the cultural meanings, beliefs, and practices among the tribes. Religion, education, and occupation were significant factors influencing informants' attitudes toward continuation of the practice. Government-sponsored public education and influence by the media were found to increase informants' awareness of complications of female circumcision. Changes in attitudes toward the practice and use of alternative practices were evident. PMID:15070492
Anuforo, Prisca O; Oyedele, Lola; Pacquiao, Dula F
Two hundred people were randomly selected for myiasis infection in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, except in some states where we did not get the stipulated number (200) to sample. In each of the six states sampled within the Niger Delta in 2009, 88% of 200 patients examined in Rivers State had the Cordylobia infection followed by Cross Rivers State (>86%), Bayelsa (>84%) while Edo, Delta, and Akwa Ibomstates showed higher than 82% infection in that order. Our findings showed that women, children, and infants are commonly affected by furuncular myiasis irrespective of skin color, age, blood group, race, sex, genotype, etc. Infection due to C. anthropophaga occurs throughout the year; the rate of infection is higher during the rainy season (when humidity is normally higher) than the dry seasons. Most cases of human myiasis are not reported but treated locally. The Niger Delta populace (especially the areas sampled) consists of people with diverse occupations; some are fishermen, traders, farmers, and refuse disposers. They move from one place to another predisposed to myiasis-causing agents due to the types of work they do. Two major categories of people based on skin color (i.e., white and black skinned) are recognized for this research. People with albinism are also part of the colored African group, however, according to the data, there does not seem to be any difference between them and others. Cordylobia infection is a neglected disease of the Niger Delta region. Therefore, there was the need to know the spread and factors that promote spreading as well as populations of the myiasis-causing agent in the Niger Delta. The data presented here provides good travel information to the Niger Delta region as well as other parts of Nigeria. Human furuncular myiasis affects neonates ranging from 3 to 11 days old, children, and adults in Nigeria. C. anthropophaga maggots penetrate all types of skin; people with albinism, white skin, and black skin. Some of the factors that affect the distribution include unhygienic situations, high humidity, poverty, and use of soiled clothes. Details of our findings are presented. PMID:22861528
Ogbalu, Ogugua K; Achufusi, Ted George Ody; Orlu, Eme E
Crayfish, lobster, and sea-water samples collected from five fishing islands on the Atlantic coast–Bight of Biafra (Bonny)–belonging to Ibaka Local Government Area of Akwa-IbomState of Nigeria were bacteriologically evaluated on thiosulphate citrate bile-salt sucrose (TCBS) agar for Vibrio load and pathotypes. Mean log10 Vibrio counts of 7.64±2.78 cfu/g (in crayfish), 5.07±3.21 cfu/g (in lobster), and 3.06±2.27 cfu/mL (in sea-water) were obtained in rainy season (June-July) while counts in the dry season (November-December) were 6.25±1.93 cfu/g, 5.99±1.54 cfu/g, and 3.84±1.78 cfu/mL respectively. The physicochemical measurements (temperature, pH, and total dissolved solutes) of the sea-water did not vary significantly in the two seasons across all five islands. Vibrio species isolated were Vibrio cholerae (both O1 and non-O1 serotypes), V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. mimicus, and V. fluvialis. Both Ogawa and Inaba subtypes of V. cholerae O1 serotype were found. In addition, the Hikojima subtype, which had not been previously reported in the region, was isolated in two samples. The results show that these Vibrio species are endemic in the area.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a major global zoonosis. It has a complex ecological distribution with almost unpredictable epidemiological features thus placing it topmost in the World Organization for Animal Health list A poultry diseases. Structured questionnaire survey of poultry farmer's knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) in two Nigerian states revealed the presence of risk farming practices that may enable avian influenza high chance of introduction/reintroduction. There existed significant statistical association between farmer's educational levels and AI awareness and zoonotic awareness (P < 0.005). Poultry rearing of multiage and species (81%), multiple sources of stock (62%), inadequate dead-bird disposal (71%), and access to live bird markets (LBMs) (62%) constituted major biosecurity threats in these poultry farming communities. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test detected antibodies against H5 avian influenza (AI) in 8 of the 400 sera samples; rapid antigen detection test kit (RADTK) was negative for all the 400 cloaca and trachea swabs. These results and other poultry diseases similar to AI observed in this study could invariably affect avian influenza early detection, reporting, and control. We recommend strong policy initiatives towards poultry farmers' attitudinal change and increasing efforts on awareness of the implications of future HPAI outbreaks in Nigeria.
Musa, Ibrahim Waziri; Abdu, Paul Ayuba; Sackey, Anthony Kojo Bedu; Oladele, Sunday Blessing
Many studies have been conducted on the elderly, but none has ever paid particular attention to the increasing rate of destitution in the rural communities, where the elderly serve as agents for sustenance and transmission of culture. This study is descriptive in nature and has adopted qualitative perspective in order to identify and examine the factors that have contributed to the state of elderly in destitution in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. It has also examined the feelings and reactions of the subjects of the study and has documented how their lifestyles affect their health status. Sixteen elderly people in destitution were traced and interviewed in Ile-Ife community. At each location, where an elderly in destitution was located, at least an elderly chief and a resident were located for interview. Data collected were analysed using Textbase Beta package for qualitative analysis. The study found that communal feud, violence and conflicts were factors that created unhappiness for the elderly, and the lack of adequate support from the immediate households consequently led to their homelessness. The study documented that the elderly in destitution lack good hygiene and nutrition, and equally suffer self-neglect and mental confusion. The study concludes that peaceful coexistence, communal security, and familial care and support are important factors that promote happiness and successful ageing. It also maintains that focused health education is highly essential for the households and caregivers of the elderly in rural community. PMID:17518789
Fajemilehin, Bolu R; Ayandiran, Emmanuel O; Salami, Kabiru K
Twenty-one rice samples from field (ten), store (six) and market (five) from the traditional rice-growing areas of Niger State, Nigeria were analysed for aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) and B(2) (FB(2)), and patulin (PAT) by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) respectively. T-2 toxin was determined using TLC only. AFs were detected in all samples, at total AF concentrations of 28-372 ?g/kg. OTA was found in 66.7% of the samples, also at high concentrations (134-341 ?g/kg) that have to be considered as critical levels in aspects of nephrotoxicity. ZEA (53.4%), DON (23.8), FB(1) (14.3%) and FB(2) (4.8%) were also found in rice, although at relatively low levels. T-2 toxin was qualitatively detected by TLC in only one sample. Co-contamination with AFs, OTA, and ZEA was very common, and up to five mycotoxins were detected in a single sample. The high AF and OTA levels as found in rice in this study are regarded as unsafe, and multi-occurrences of mycotoxins in the rice samples with possible additive or synergistic toxic effects in consumers raise concern with respect to public health. PMID:21836766
Makun, Hussaini Anthony; Dutton, Michael Francis; Njobeh, Patrick Berka; Mwanza, Mulunda; Kabiru, Adamu Y
A helminthological study of stool and urine samples from 1037 people from 4 rural communities in Gumau District of Bauchi State, Nigeria, was carried out using formol-ether concentration and direct centrifugation methods respectively. 39.0% of persons examined were infected. Ova of Ascaris lumbricoides, Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni were the most common. Trichuris trichiura, hookworm, tapeworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were also encountered. 17.9% and 10.8% of examined persons had S. haematobium and S. mansoni infections respectively. A significant relationship was found between water demand index (number of persons per well) and infection with S. haematobium (r = 0.95) and S. mansoni (r = 0.88) (P less than 0.01). Such a relationship was not found with other helminth infections. A significant association was also found between distance from a river and prevalence of S. haematobium (r = 0.94) and S. mansoni (r = 0.95) (P less than 0.01), but not with the other helminth infections. These findings suggest that the water demand index may be an important factor in the epidemiology of schistosome infections in rural communities. PMID:2128667
In a nine-months epidemiological study to assess the status of human filariasis in north-western zone of Bauchi State, Nigeria, 3.5% prevalence was recorded in 8 communities. Of the 1536 persons examined, 54 were microfilaremic for three blood-dwelling filarial parasites. 22 (1.4%) were positive for Mansonella perstans, 10 (0.7%) and 22 (1.4%) had Loa loa and Wuchereria bancrofti respectively. W. bancrofti showed low microfilaremia in females of reproductive age with high degree of heterogeneity among communities. Most infected persons (81.5%) had counts less than 11 mf/20 mm3 of peripheral blood. Pruritus appeared much earlier in life while hydrocoele, limb and scrotal elephantiasis occurred much later in the population (> or = 40 years). Except in L. loa infections, mf-rate and mean mf-density increased with advancing host age (r = 0.713, P < 0.01). Fishermen, nomads and farmers had significantly higher infection rates (P < 0.05) than other occupational categories. Suggestions on the disease intervention involving treatment, prevention and vector control are highlighted. PMID:8087153
This is a multi-stage random sampling study involving 896 male and female adolescents aged 11-25 years in Niger State of Nigeria. Thirty three per cent of them had already had first sexual experience. Only 3.6% were married. Most of the Gwari and Hausa respondents acknowledged that they married at an earlier age than the Yoruba respondents. One half of those who were sexually experienced had more than one sexual partner. Majority of the respondents were informed about HIV/AIDS and STDs. More Gwari and Hausa respondents felt that HIV infection could be prevented by not having multiple sexual partners than Yoruba and Igbo respondents. A wide disparity between contraceptive knowledge and use was found. Knowledge rate was between 41.9% and 63.8%, while use rate was between 0.7% and 12.5% for the contraceptive methods studied. Condom knowledge and use rate was highest. For prevention of HIV/AIDS, more males than females thought condom was useful. Most Gwari and Hausa respondents did not use any FP method during their first sexual relationships. It is imperative for reproductive health programmes to intensify efforts in improving adolescents' attitude towards sexual risk and motivate them to exhibit behaviours that limit it. PMID:12685412
Sunmola, Adegbenga M; Dipeolu, Morenike; Babalola, Sunday; Otu, Adebayo D
Between November, 1988 and April, 1991, parasitological and symptomatological methods of diagnosis were used to survey the prevalence of mansonellosis among the Ibo population in Abia and Imo States of Nigeria. 1,197 or 28.6% of the 4,183 persons examined were positive for microfilariae of Mansonella perstans. The prevalence of mansonellosis was significantly higher (P < 0.05) among rural dwellers (34.6%) than among urban dwellers (22.5%), in males (30.8%) than in females (26.3%), in farmers (59.8%) and palm wine tappers (46.1%) than in civil servants (7.6%), and in persons 21 years of age and above (36.2%) than in those in the first two decades of life (9.4%). Clinical signs observed in most infected persons include body itching, joint and back pains, occasional giddiness and elephantoid scrotum. Body itching was the most commonly observed clinical sign (14.7%), followed by joint pains (12.41%) with elephantoid scrotum (3.5%) as the least. The public health implication of the findings is discussed. PMID:1456469
Anosike, J C; Onwuliri, C O; Payne, V K; Amuta, E U; Akogun, O B; Adeiyongo, C M; Nwoke, B E
Evaluating the levels of antinutrients in the staple foods is an important aspect of nutritional studies. The levels of these antinutrients were quantitatively estimated in staple foods in a major food producing rural areas of Ebonyi State, South-Eastern Nigeria using spectrophotometric method. Results indicated that phytate was not detected in tubers while legumes recorded the highest mean values of phytate (260.07 mg gG1). The oxalate levels of legumes were significantly high compared to tubers and cereals (p< 0.000). Tubers had the highest mean. Concentration of cyanogenic glycoside 15.20 mg gG1 followed by legumes while cereals were the least correlation analysis shows that the cyanogenic glycoside was negatively related to all other antinutrients except tannin. Also tannin was related to all other antinutrients except cyanogenic glycoside. Interestingly, all other antinutrients were positively related to each other except cyanogenic glycoside and tannins. The consumption of staple foods rich in these antinutrients pose a health risk to livestock and poor communities that reside around the study sites, especially children.
Edeogu, C. O.; Ezeonu, F. C.; Okaka, A. N. C.; Ekuma, C. E.; Eiom, S. O.
A study was undertaken in 12 local government areas (LGAs) of Edo State located in central southern Nigeria, representing 66.6% coverage, in order to obtain an inventory of the major medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension. One hundred and eighty nine respondents who were mainly traditional medical practitioners and were knowledgeable in the medicinal plants for treating hypertension were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers. The inventory of medicinal plants is summarized in a synoptic table, which contains the scientific, vernacular and common names of the plants/frequency of citation, the part of the plant and method of preparation of recipes. The study indicated 70 plants belonging to 67 genera in 43 families are commonly prescribed. Of these plants, 39 species are cultivated, 29 species grow in the wild, while only 2 both grow wild and also cultivated. Ninety three herbal antihypertensive recipes are recognized and are mainly prepared as decoctions, infusions, powders and juice. The leaf (43%) represented the dominant morphological part often included in recipes. Plants frequently included in antihypertensive recipes were Allium species, Persea americana, Acalypha godseffiana, Zingiber officinale, Sida acuta, Hunteria umbellata, Rauwolfia vomitoria, Viscum album and Aframomum melegueta. PMID:22975417
A combination of gamma spectrometry and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the presence and level of radioactivity of radionuclides in bituminous sand and overburden obtained from bituminous sand deposits in Ondo StateNigeria for the purpose of providing baseline data and assessing its impact on the environment. The radionuclides identified with reliable regularity belong to the decay series of naturally occurring radionuclides headed by 238U and 232Th. The non-decay series of naturally occurring 40K was found to be below the limit of detection. The average specific activity concentration values obtained for 214 Bi, 208Tl, and 226Ra in the overburden are 165.64+/-2.91, 150.25+/-2.91 and 60.97+/-2.27Bqkg-1, respectively. The measured activity in the bituminous sand layer is so low that it can be said to be non-radioactive. The result of the EDXRF supports the presence of radioelements in the overburden, which are likely to be embedded in accessory minerals like zircon and tourmaline. Thus, surface exploration technique using soil-gas radon measurement will not yield the desired result. Furthermore, the level of radioelements and associated decay daughter 222Rn is not expected to cause any health hazard.
Fasasi, M. K.; Oyawale, A. A.; Mokobia, C. E.; Tchokossa, P.; Ajayi, T. R.; Balogun, F. A.
|This study investigated teacher supply and pupils' enrolment in public and private primary schools in Kwara and Ekiti States, Nigeria. The study population comprised all the 811 primary schools in Kwara State and 810 primary schools in Ekiti State. Out of the forty-seven higher institutions that supply teachers to primary schools in the two…
This study investigated teacher supply and pupils' enrolment in public and private primary schools in Kwara and Ekiti States, Nigeria. The study population comprised all the 811 primary schools in Kwara State and 810 primary schools in Ekiti State. Out of the forty-seven higher institutions that supply teachers to primary schools in the two…
In Nigeria, most studies concerning HIV/AIDS transmission have looked at the sexual route from both epidemiological and behavioral perspectives. A few have examined the role of blood transfusion and the potential for indigenous surgical practices. None have specifically looked at the transmission of potential barbers. This study distinguished between indigenous barbers who function as surgeons and "modern" barbers who cut hair, and focused on the latter through observations of barbering practices in 77 shops in Igbo-Ora and Apete communities in Oyo State. Igbo-Ora is headquarters of a rural local government, while Apete is a peri-urban community near Ibadan, the state capital. Five barbering sessions were observed in each shop using a checklist during evening hours when shops are busiest. All barbers used clippers to cut hair, either electric or manual. On average, barbers sterilized the clippers in a commercial disinfectant, Jik, or with methylated spirits prior to 4.2 barberings. Sex and age of customer were not associated with wether the clippers were sterilized. Three shop characteristics appeared to influence sterilization behavior. Clippers were more likely to be sterilized if the shop was in Apete, if the shop owner was male, and if the shop had two or more of the following electrical appliances: fan, TV, or radio/cassette layer. There were only two observed cases of the barbers causing a cut, and in both cases the clippers had been sterilized. Overall, 63 (16.3%) of the 385 customers were barbed with non-sterilized clippers. The relatively short time gap between customers implies that the potential for disease transmission exists, though it was not within the scope of this study to study disease transmission itself. In-service training that involves the barbers themselves and addresses both gender and town differences is recommended. PMID:17695087
Salami, Kabiru K; Titiloye, Musibau A; Brieger, William R; Otusanya, Sakiru A
Background This study was carried out in Opi-Agu a tropical semi-urban autonomous community comprising of three villages in Enugu State, Nigeria, between the months of April and June 2010. It was designed to determine the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection and assess the perception of the disease among the inhabitants of this community. Methods A total number of 305 individuals comprising of 148 males and 157 females were examined for various manifestations of onchocerciasis symptoms using rapid epidemiological assessment (REA) method. Results Out of this number, 119 (39.02%) individuals were infected. Prevalence of infection among age groups and villages varied. Age group 41 yr and above had the highest (31.00%) prevalence, while among the villages, Ogbozalla village ranked higher (45.71%) than the other villages. Overall the prevalence of infection among the sexes revealed that males were more infected (43.24%) than the females (35.03%). Lichenified onchodermatitis (LOD) was the most prevalent (35.29%) onchocerciasis symptom among others identified in the area, while leopard skin (LS) had the lowest (20.17%) occurrence and blindness (0.00%) which is the most devastating effect of O. volvulus infection was not observed. Questionnaire responses from 410 individuals revealed that 34.8% respondent from Idi village and 28.1% from Ibeku village believed that O. volvulus infection occurs through poor personal hygiene. Bite of blackfly ranked least (10.6%) among the respondent's knowledge of the causes of onchocerciasis in Opi-Agu community. Conclusion Opi-Agu community members had poor knowledge of onchocerciasis, the vector and of its etiologic organism. There is need for integration of community health education with mass chemotherapy.
Background: Onchocerciasis is a chronic parasitic infection caused by the filarial nematode, Onchocerca volvulus. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, endemicity, and symptomatic effects of the disease in Ovia Northeast Local Government Area. Methods: The prevalence of onchocerciasis was investigated in Ovia Northeast Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria, between March 2008 and June 2009 using the standard skin-snip method. A total of 2020 subjects, who had visited various primary health centres located in each community, were enlisted using randomised sampling, and the data were analysed using the Chi-squared (?2) test and logistic regression. Results: A Of the 2020 individuals examined, 1674 (83%) harboured microfilaria in their skin tissues. On the basis of the standardised scale for microfilaria prevalence—less than 10% is considered sporadic, 10%–29% is considered hypoendemic, 30%–59% is considered mesoendemic, and 60% and above is considered hyperendemic—the prevalence (83%) reported in this study led to the disease being classified as hyperendemic. Females were more frequently infected than were males, and this was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Prevalence was also found to increase with age, and this correlation was significant (P < 0.001). The prevalence of the clinical features of the disease in the local government area was 87.5% for leopard skin, 84.16% for itching, and 75.42% for nodules. Conclusion: A prevalence of 83% was observed and considered hyperendemic. Female gender and age (50 years or more) were significant risk factors that affected the prevalence of onchocerciasis. The findings demonstrated the hyperendemicity of infection and the need for urgent attention with ivermectin treatment and other control measures.
Akinbo, Frederick Olusegun; Okaka, Christopher Ehis
This descriptive study assesses the current status of mental illness in Bendel State of Nigeria to determine its implications for mental health policy and education. It is a study of the demographic characteristics of psychiatric patients in the only two modern western psychiatric facilities in Bendel State, the various treatment modalities utilized for mental illness, and the people's choice of
During a field trial of ivermectin in Kaduna State, 6831 people age 5 years and above, living in 34 mesoendemic onchocercal communities in Kaduna State, northern Nigeria, were examined for ocular disease. Visual function assessments included tests of visual acuity and visual fields. A total of 185 individuals (2.7%) were bilaterally blind by acuity criteria with a further 28 blind
A Abiose; I Murdoch; O Babalola; S Cousens; I Liman; J Onyema; J Evans; W Gregory; B Jones
Nigeria`s Escravos gas project, Delta state, officially began late last year. The project -- 6,650 b/d of LPG and 1,740 b/d of condensate from 165 MMscfd of gas -- is the first attempt to rid Nigeria of incessant flares that have lit the Delta skies. Operator Chevron Nigeria Ltd. believes that the Escravos project will enable the joint venture to utilize a significant portion of the gas reserves, thus reducing gas flaring. The paper describes the background of the project, the gas fields, transport pipeline, process design, construction, and start-up.
Nwokoma, M. [Chevron Nigeria Ltd., Lekki (Nigeria)
A survey on mansonellosis was carried out in Bauchi State of Nigeria between January 1990 and March 1992. Of the 5,640 inhabitants examined, 24 (0.4%) were positive for Mansonella streptocerca microfilariae. Microfilaria rate and mf density increased gradually with host age. While infection and sex are independent, mansonellosis was significantly lower in subjects within the first three decades of life than in those above 31 years (P < 0.05). Clinical signs observed include pruritus, rash, inguinal adenopathy and occasional dizziness. Skin biopsies taken from the shoulder gave the highest frequency of positive skin snip. PMID:7951395
The factors influencing patterns of snail distribution in Oyan Reservoir, a typically medium sized man-made reservoir in southwest Nigeria, were investigated once a month, for 28 months (August 1990-November 1992). During each monthly visit, seven stations were sampled for relative snail density, vegetation cover and physical and chemical properties of the lake water. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the
Describes the results of a survey of broadcasting libraries in Nigeria that used questionnaires, observation techniques, and interviews to generate data. Inadequacies regarding staffing, development, preservation and conservation practices, collection development, bibliographic control, space, and funding are discussed, and recommendations for…
BACKGROUND: Weight gain in adulthood is now common in many populations, ranging from modest gains in developing countries to a substantial percentage of body weight in some Western societies. To examine the rate of change across the spectrum of low to high-income countries we compared rates of weight change in samples drawn from three countries, Nigeria, Jamaica and the United
Ramón A Durazo-Arvizu; Amy Luke; Richard S. Cooper; Guichan Cao; Lara Dugas; Adebowale Adeyemo; Michael Boyne; Terrence Forrester
|Sexual harassment in educational settings is a common problem globally. While it is well addressed in college and university campuses in most developed countries of the world through specific policies and mechanisms of enforcement, it remains a taboo topic in African colleges and universities particularly in Nigeria. This study investigated the…
|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the information needs of nurses in two hospitals in Nigeria and the ways in which they went about attempting to meet those needs. Design/methodology/approach: The study is a descriptive survey of nurses at the Federal Medical Center (FMC), Yenagoa, and Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital…
Nigeria's agricultural imports have grown more rapidly since 1974 than those of most other countries. About one-quarter of these imports have come from the United States, including almost all of Nigeria's imported grains, principally corn and wheat. By 19...
Objective: The study assessed the risk of developing type 2 diabetes Mellitus in Ogun State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Finnish Medical Association diabetes risk score was administered across 25 communities facilitated by non-communicable disease clinics established under a World Diabetes Foundation project. Subjects in the high risk group had blood glucose estimated. Results: 58,567 respondents included 34,990 (59.6%) females and 23,667 (40.3%) males. Majority (61.2%) were between 25 years and 54 years. Considering waist circumference, 34,990 (38.1%) females and 23,667 (5.3%) males had values above 88 cm and 102 cm respectively. Overall, 11,266 (19.2%) were obese and 28.9% overweight using body mass index (BMI). More females had elevated BMI than males. Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of all subjects were 129.54 mm Hg ± 23.5 mm Hg and 76.21 mm Hg ± 15.5 mm Hg respectively. Prevalence of hypertension (Joint National Committee VII classification) was 27.7%. More subjects had normal DBP than SBP (68.2% vs. 42.5% P < 0.05). Mean fasting blood glucose (FBG) of all subjects was 5.5 mmol/L ± 0.67 mmol/L. Using a casual blood glucose >11.1 mmol/L and/or FBG >7 mmol/L, the total yield of subjects adjudged as having diabetes was 2,956 (5.05%). Mean total risk score was 5.60 ± 3.90; this was significantly higher in females (6.34 ± 4.16 vs. 4.24 ± 3.71, P < 0.05). A total of 2,956 (5.05%) had high risk of developing DM within 10 years. Conclusion: The risk of developing DM is high in the community studied with females having a higher risk score. There is urgent need to implement diabetes prevention strategies.
Alebiosu, Olutayo C.; Familoni, Oluranti B.; Ogunsemi, Olawale O.; Raimi, T. H.; Balogun, Williams O.; Odusan, O.; Oguntona, Segun A.; Olunuga, Taiwo; Kolawole, Babatope A.; Ikem, Rosemary T.; Adeleye, Jokotade O.; Adesina, Olubiyi F.; Adewuyi, Peter A.
Background A study of the helminth infection status of primary-school children and the hygiene condition of schools in Ikenne Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria was undertaken between November 2004 and February 2005 to help guide the development of a school-based health programme. Methods and Findings Three primary schools were randomly selected: two government-owned schools (one urban and the other rural) and one urban private school. No rural private schools existed to survey. A total of 257 schoolchildren aged 4–15 y, of whom 146 (56.8%) were boys and 111 (43.2%) were girls, took part in the survey. A child survey form, which included columns for name, age, sex, and class level, was used in concert with examination of stool samples for eggs of intestinal helminths. A school survey form was used to assess the conditions of water supply, condition of latrines, presence of soap for handwashing, and presence of garbage around the school compound. The demographic data showed that the number of schoolchildren gradually decreased as their ages increased in all three schools. The sex ratio was proportional in the urban school until primary level 3, after which the number of female pupils gradually decreased, whereas in the private school, sexes were proportionally distributed even in higher classes. The prevalence of helminth infection was 54.9% of schoolchildren in the urban government school, 63.5% in the rural government school, and 28.4% in the urban private school. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent species, followed by Trichuris trichiura, Taenia species, and hookworm in the three schools. Prevalence of infection in the government-owned schools was significantly higher than in the private school (?2?=?18.85, df?=?2, p<0.0005). A survey of hygiene conditions in the three schools indicated that in the two government schools tapwater was unavailable, sanitation of latrines was poor, handwashing soap was unavailable, and garbage was present around school compounds. In the private school, in contrast, all hygiene indices were satisfactory. Conclusions These results indicate that burden of parasite infections and poor sanitary conditions are of greater public health importance in government-owned schools than in privately owned schools. School health programmes in government-owned schools, including deworming, health education, and improvement of hygiene conditions are recommended.
BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of information on the epidemiology of sports injuries in Nigeria. The study was aimed at documenting sports injuries sustained by Lagos state athletes during the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA Games 2009). It was also aimed at providing information on treatments offered to injured athletes. METHODS: The study was carried out at Amadu Bello Stadium
This study sought to understand how faith-based schools teach and practice the principles of peace and justice in Taraba state, Nigeria, given the conflict-driven in the community. Three principals and three teachers in three different local high schools (Catholic, Protestant, and Muslim) were interviewed individually, as were the Commissioner for Education in Taraba, a religious leader from all three religions,
BACKGROUND: The African Heads of State meeting in Abuja, Nigeria on Roll Back Malaria adopted effective treatment of malaria nearer the home as one of the strategies for malaria control in Africa. A potentially effective strategy for bringing early, appropriate and low cost treatment of malaria closer to the home is through the use of community health workers (CHWs). There
Obinna Onwujekwe; Nkem Dike; Juliana Ojukwu; Benjamin Uzochukwu; Nkoli Ezumah; Elvis Shu; Paul Okonkwo
|This study investigated the relative contributions of selected teachers' variables and students' attitude towards academic achievement in biology among senior secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. It involved descriptive survey research and ex-post facto research designs. The sample, 360 respondents which consists of 180 biology teachers and…
This study assessed the effectiveness of mass media availability, accessibility and use on farmers' adoption of cassava-related innovations in the central agricultural zone of Delta State, Nigeria. The influence of a specific media type was also determined. Data, collected from a random sample of 133 cassava farmers resident in nine communities in the study area, were analysed using frequency distribution,
This article sets out to identify the causes of Christian–Muslim conflicts in Northern Nigeria and suggest strategies for peaceful co-existence among the adherents of the two religions. It is based on in-depth interviews with the community and religious leaders and a survey of media coverage of the crises. The article examines the sudden upsurge of violent conflicts between Christians and
This study reports on findings of a pilot of community-based distribution (CBD) of injectable contraceptives in two local government areas (LGAs) of Gombe State, Nigeria. From August 2009 to January 2010, the project enrolled, trained and equipped community health extension workers (CHEWs) to distribute condoms, oral and injectable contraceptives in communities. The project mobilized communities and stakeholders to promote Family Planning (FP) services in the selected communities. Using anonymised unlinked routine service data, the mean couple years of protection (CYP) achieved through CBD was compared to that achieved in FP clinics. The CBD mean CYP for injectables- depo medroxy-progesterone acetate (DMPA) and norethisterone enantate was higher (27.72 & 18.16 respectively) than the facility CYP (7.21 & 5.08 respectively) (p < 0.05) with no injection related complications. The CBD's mean CYP for all methods was also found to be four times higher (11.65) than that generated in health facilities (2.86) (p < 0.05). This suggests that the CBD of injectable contraceptives is feasible and effective, even in a setting like northern Nigeria that has sensitivities about FP. PMID:24069754
Abdul-Hadi, Rabiatu A; Abass, Moyosola M; Aiyenigba, Bolatito O; Oseni, Lolade O; Odafe, Solomon; Chabikuli, Otto N; Ibrahim, Mohammed D; Hamelmann, Christoph; Ladipo, Oladapo A
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) coinfection rate was investigated among patients referred to a chest clinic in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Out of the 344 patients who presented with respiratory problems at the clinic, 44.8% had M. tuberculosis infection, 24.7% HIV infection and 12.8% HIV/tubercle bacilli co-infection. Coinfection rate in HIV infected persons (HIV+) was 51.8 and 28.6% in those with M. tuberculosis infection. The relative risk of HIV positive persons being coinfected was 1.075, while it was 0.401 for TB infected persons. The estimated Odds Ratio (OR) shows that the risk of co-infection was 2.68 times higher among HIV+ persons than among those with tuberculosis. The attributable risk was 45% and shows the extent to which co-infection could be attributed to HIV infection. A key socio-economic variable, eating in groups, was significantly correlated with coinfection (r = 0.107; p< 0.05). The results of this study may provide a useful policy guide in the formulation of HIV and tuberculosis control measures in Nigeria.
BACKGROUND: Knowledge and awareness about childhood autism is low among health care workers and the general populace in Nigeria. Poor knowledge about childhood autism among final year medical, nursing and psychology students who would form tomorrow's child health care professionals can compromise early recognition and interventions that are known to improve prognosis in childhood autism. Educational factors that could be
Monday N Igwe; Muideen O Bakare; Ahamefule O Agomoh; Gabriel M Onyeama; Kevin O Okonkwo
The post-vaccination antibody response to both Group A and Group C meningococcal polysaccharide antigen was studied in 397 male and 359 female vaccinated persons aged between 4 and 40 years from Bauchi Town and neighbouring villages in Nigeria. No difference in response was observed between the sexes. Highest antibody levels occurred in those aged between 13 and 28 years. Haemoglobin genotype did not affect response. Malnourished children had significantly lower mean IgG, IgA and IgM levels and the response to meningovaccine was also lower than in normal children. PMID:6810520
Background Menarcheal age is a sensitive indicator of environmental conditions during childhood. The aim of study is to determine the age at menarche and growth status in adolescents in a rural area of Tarka, Wannune, Nigeria. Methods Data on 722 female students (aged 12-18 years) were collected in February 2009. Height and weight were measured. Body mass index (BMI; kg m-2) was used as an index of relative weight. Results Mean and median menarcheal age calculated by probit analysis were 13.02 (SD 3.0) (95% CI: 13.02-13.07), and age 13.00 (SD 2.8) (95% CI: 12.98-13.04), respectively. Girls who reach menarche are significantly heavier and taller with higher BMIs than those of their pre-menarcheal peers. Conclusion The age of menarche is probably still declining in Nigeria. Although BMI is an important factor in the onset of menstruation, some other unmeasured environmental variables may be implicated in this population.
Security was tight in northern Nigeria today, as armed police guarded mosques after days of religious rioting that have left hundreds dead and widespread destruction. While sparked by Christian opposition to the introduction of Sharia, or Muslim law, in the Nigerian state of Kaduna, most observers blame both sides for the rioting. Africa's most populous nation (115 million), Nigeria contains over 200 ethnic groups and is split almost evenly between a Muslim north and Christian south. Ironically, the violence can in part be traced to the return of democracy to Nigeria last year. Under the new and more open government led by President Olusegun Obasanjo, some of the Muslim-dominated states have taken steps to introduce Sharia. While the transition to Sharia passed peacefully in the overwhelmingly Muslim Zamfara state, Kaduna contains a sizable Christian majority who have reacted strongly at the mere prospect of the introduction of Islamic law. Previously circumspect on the issue, Obasanjo recently spoke out against Sharia, expressing doubts over whether it was compatible with the Nigerian constitution. In addition, Nigeria's Human Rights Law Service has also begun court proceedings to try to have Sharia declared unconstitutional in Zamfara. While order is slowly being restored in Kaduna, this issue will certainly remain in the forefront of Nigerian politics, as the governors of two more states have signed bills under which Sharia will come into effect in May, and two other states are actively considering taking similiar steps.
Despite the fine coverage offered by the BBC and other news providers, finding detailed and up-to-date information about any number of African countries can be frustrating -- especially when looking for different perspectives on events that have bearing on international affairs and the like. Despite the presence of numerous advertisements, NigeriaWorld is a good way to find out about current events in the country and is a real boon for persons looking to stay current on the affairs of this region of Africa. From the main page, visitors can read news from each state in Nigeria, and browse news headlines and complete articles organized under such familiar sections as business, sports, arts, and politics. The site also contains feature columns that provide additional insight into Nigeria from such journalists as Tonye David-West and Rudolf Okonkwo.
The study appraised local poultry biosecurity risks to highly pathogenic avian influenza by assessing farmers' knowledge, beliefs and poultry practices using a standard questionnaire. Farmers' knowledge on transmission and prevention was high but low on disease recognition. Radio was ineffective at informing Islamic educated farmers. Extensive knowledge on transmission and protection did not result in behavioural change as farmers engaged in risky practices of selling, eating or medicating infected poultry and not reporting poultry death. Islamic educated farmers do not believe highly pathogenic avian influenza is a serious and preventable disease. Women are more likely to self medicate when experiencing influenza-like illness. Audio-visual aids would improve avian influenza recognition while involvement of community leaders would enhance disease reporting. Outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in local poultry in Nigeria would follow a similar pattern in Southeast Asia if the risk perception among farmers is not urgently articulated. PMID:22869337
This paper reports on health beliefs and their influence on treatment decisions and behaviour among the Esan people of mid-west Nigeria. The sources for the study are my own experience of growing up in Esan society, anthropological field work, and focus groups. The research revealed a transitional society where both traditional and modern medicine are employed and where the choice between them is determined by belief systems which are themselves in the process of change, as well as by distance and costs. The traditional health-belief system was one which placed most responsibility and blame upon women, and a system of social control over the adult female population. Changing health beliefs are less the result of the introduction of a new health philosophy than of the retreat, under the impact of Christianity, of traditional religion which embodied the older health philosophy. PMID:10146569
This study was aimed at investigating the relative abundance of heavy metals in cement dust from different cement dust factories in order to predict their possible roles in the severity of cement dust toxicity. The concentrations of total mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and chromium (VI) (Cr (VI)) levels in cement dust and clinker samples from Nigeria and cement dust sample from the United States of America (USA) were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption (GFAAS), while Zn and Ca were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS), and Cr (VI) by colorimetric method. Total Cu, Ni and Mn were significantly higher in cement dust sample from USA (p<0.05), also, both total Cr and Cr (VI) were 5.4-26 folds higher in USA cement dust compared with Nigeria cement dust or clinker (p<0.001). Total Cd was higher in both Nigeria cement dust and clinker (p<0.05 and p<0.001), respectively. Mercury was more in both Nigeria cement dust and clinker (p<0.05), while Pb was only significantly higher in clinker from Nigeria (p<0.001). These results show that cement dust contain mixture of metals that are known human carcinogens and also have been implicated in other debilitating health conditions. Additionally, it revealed that metal content concentrations are factory dependent. This study appears to indicate the need for additional human studies relating the toxicity of these metals and their health impacts on cement factory workers. PMID:23261125
Ogunbileje, J O; Sadagoparamanujam, V-M; Anetor, J I; Farombi, E O; Akinosun, O M; Okorodudu, A O
BackgroundThere is a dearth of information on the epidemiology of sports injuries in Nigeria.ObjectiveThe study was aimed at documenting sports injuries sustained by Lagos state athletes during the 16th National Sports Festival and providing information on treatments offered to injured athletes.DesignProspective descriptive study.SettingThe study was carried out at the Amadu Bello Stadium Complex, sporting arena of the Murtala Square and
Soils from cocoa plantations treated with Boudreaux mixture in two south-western states of Nigeria were collected at different depths, 0–15cm and 15–30cm, and subjected to five-stage sequential extraction to obtain the speciation forms of copper: exchangeable, carbonate, manganese and iron oxides, organic and residual fractions. The Cu content in the extracts from the sequential extraction were read with an Atomic
Bamidele I. Olu-Owolabi; Foluso O. Agunbiade; Idowu O. Ogunleye; Kayode O. Adebowale
Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in Ondo state, Nigeria. Community directed distribution of ivermectin is currently on-going in some local government areas of the state. Randomly selected persons (2331 males and 2469 females) were interviewed using a modified rapid assessment procedure for Loa loa (RAPLOA) to assess community directed treatment with ivermectin. The retrospective study evaluated the coverage, impacts and adverse reactions to the drug treatment. A questionnaire was administered by house-to-house visit in six local government areas, implementing community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in this bioclimatic zone. A total of 2,398 respondents were reported to have participated in the treatment. The overall ivermectin coverage of 49.96% was recorded (range 0-52% in different communities). Adverse reactions from ivermectin administration were experienced in 38% of individuals. Diverse adverse reactions experienced included predominantly itching (18.50%); oedema, especially of the face and the limbs (8.2%); rashes (3.4%) and body weakness (2.4%). Expulsion of intestinal worms occurred in 0.96% of the respondents. The occurrence of adverse reactions in relation to age categories was statistically significant. Neither fatal nor severe adverse reactions were reported by respondents. Significantly, despite experienced adverse reactions, continued participation, acceptability and compliance to ivermectin treatment was expressed by the various communities. This attitude is in consonance with the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) objectives. Rev. Biol. PMID:19419072
Otubanjo, O A; Adeoye, G O; Ibidapo, C A; Akinsanya, B; Okeke, P; Atalabi, T; Adejai, E T; Braide, E
Background: Anaemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and evaluate the relationship of intestinal helminth infection on the anaemia status of children in the rural communities of Evbuomore, Isiohor, and Ekosodin. in the Ovia North East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Faecal samples and blood samples were obtained from 316 children aged 1-15 years. Faecal samples were examined using standard parasitological techniques, and anaemia was defined as blood haemoglobin <11 g/dL. Results: Of the 316 children, 38.6% were anaemic: 75.9% of children in Evbuomore, 42.3% in Isiohor and 26.8% in Ekosodin. The overall parasite prevalence in the three communities were: Ascaris lumbricoides (75.6%), hookworm (16.19%) and Trichuris trichiura (7.3%). Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted, and 44.0% underweight. There was a statistically significant association between hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infection and anaemia (P < .001). Serum ferritin levels were more sensitive than haemoglobin in detecting anemia and were correlated with intestinal helminth infection. Conclusion: Intestinal helminth infection in a concomitant state of malnutrition is observed in this population. Intervention programmes should be aimed at control of intestinal helminth infection and iron supplementation.
Osazuwa, Favour; Ayo, Oguntade Michael; Imade, Paul
This study employed the use of the Stochastic Frontier Production Function in the comparative economic analysis of the relative technical efficiency of cassava farmers in the three agro-ecological zones of Edo State. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 156 cassava farmers from the three agro-ecological zones of the State and the differences in the results obtained were discussed. The empirical estimates showed individual technical efficiency values that ranged from 23 to 95%, 43 to 97% and 52 to 98% with a mean of 72, 83 and 91%, for Edo South, Edo North and Edo Central agro-ecological zones, respectively. This shows that systemic differences in relative technical efficiency levels exist between the three zones and these differences were shown to be related to particular farmer`s characteristics. Non-physical factors that served as determinants of technical inefficiency in the three zones were, farmers level of education, age, farming experience and variety of planting materials used. Gender and family size were however, not found to be significant determinants of the technical inefficiency of cassava farmers in the State. Apart from this estimates serving as a guide to potential investors in the cassava industry in the State, the relative variations in technical efficiency is also an indication of the gaps that exist in the current production technologies employed by cassava farmers in the three agro-ecological zones of the State. The gaps should serve as intervention points for government and non-governmental agencies as well as other stakeholders in the emerging cassava industry in Nigeria.
Home management of childhood illness is a norm throughout most of the world. Decisions about treatment are influenced by cultural perceptions of the illness, and diarrheal illnesses are no exception. A group of 473 mothers and their pre-school age children in rural communities outside Ibadan metropolis in Nigeria were followed over a two-month period. Data were collected on actual diarrhea illness episodes: mothers' names for these illnesses were recorded, and reported treatment actions were noted. Six major ethno-medical diarrheal illnesses were identified and were grouped broadly into watery diarrheas and dysentery-like diarrheas. Although few (40%) women used home-made sugar-salt solution (SSS) in case management, those who labeled their child's illness as a watery diarrhea were more likely to use SSS. Modern and herbal medicines were commonly and equally applied to both groups of diarrheal illnesses. While very few mothers reported decreased fluid intake by their children, many said the child had reduced appetite, especially if the child had a watery diarrhea. The findings indicate that twelve years after the national Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) Program was launched, few mothers practice the recommended actions of giving SSS, increasing food intake and avoiding drugs. Lack of attention to studies that describe the cultural basis for mothers' decisions could be part of the reason why the ORT has not been more successful. PMID:20841070
Okunribido, O O; Brieger, W R; Omotade, O O; Adeyemo, A A
The aim and objective of the study was to determined pollutant levels in tannery industrial effluent from kano metropolis, Nigeria. Effluents from five tannery industries were characterized and the major sources of industrial pollution determined. Levels of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, Pb and Cr) were determined using Atomic absorption Spectrophotomeric method, while pH, Eh, DO, TDS, Temperature, sulphate, nitrate and phosphate were also determined using standard procedure. The results of the study showed that effluent quality discharged between tanneries differed significantly. Effluent chromium concentrations varied between 1.02`0.13 to 1.56`0.06 mg LG1, which are above WHO and FEPA limit of 1.0 mg LG1. Hafawa Enterprise Tannery, Unique Leather Finishing had significantly high lead concentrations, while Great Northern Tannery could be a potential source of Iron contamination in this area. Mean levels of Zn for Tannorth Tannery Limited were above maximum permissible limits set by FEPA and WHO. Mean levels of sulphate, nitrate and dissolved Oxygen were also above maximum permissible limits for the entire tanneries studied. Mean values of pH total dissolved solid, phosphate, temperature, Cu, Co, Mn and Redox potential generally were below maximum and minimum permissible limits for effluent discharged into rivers. The monthly variations in the entire tannery fell within the range set up by FEPA and WHO for the discharged of tannery effluent into river. The study serves to generate relevant baseline information for Kano industrial estate.
Akan, J. C.; Moses, E. A.; Ogugbuaja, V. O.; Abah, J.
Nigeria, Africa's most populous democracy, celebrates her 50th year as an independent nation in October 2010. As the cliché states, ‘As Nigeria goes, so goes Africa’. This volume frames the socio-historical and political trajectory of Nigeria while examining the many dimensions of the critical choices that she has made as an independent nation. How does the social composition of interest
This article examines the introduction of Sharia'h law in northern Nigeria, both in regard to the fundamental legal provisions of the Nigeria constitution and also as to the international rights conventions to which Nigeria is a signatory. The relationship between the new Sharia'h laws enacted in all 19 northern Nigerian states and the human rights provisions in the 1999 Constitution
Improved family and community support would prevent many youth in Nigeria from risk behavior including drinking alcohol, smoking, and using illicit drugs. In Rivers State, 70% of secondary students have had at least 1 alcoholic drink. Further, in Bendel State, 13% of 15-19 year olds in the coastal region drink alcohol compared with 75% of those in the hinterland. Since alcohol affects good judgment skills, this behavior is especially risky during rituals and social activities and causes accidents. Youth who drink are likely to have unplanned and unprotected sexual intercourse. Drinking during pregnancy is associated with miscarriages, low birth weight, and birth defects. Despite the problems with youth and drinking, Nigeria does not have law restricting sales of alcohol to youth. In Nigeria smoking was once predominantly a male habit but is now increasing quickly among women. Most smokers 1st begin their habit when 18 years old. Even thought he Nigerian government has restricted smoking in public places, it has not yet been effective. Smoking has numerous negative effects such as lung cancer, other cancers, shorter life spans, low birth weight, prematurity, higher perinatal mortality, and more labor complications. Moreover the tobacco and alcohol companies advertise widely using ingenious and persuasive promotions. Youth are especially vulnerable to these slick promotions. Cannabis remains the most common illegal drug. Heroin use is growing among urban adolescents in Nigeria, however. Nigeria also serves as a transhipment point for drugs to the US as well as a consumption point. Drug use results in rising numbers of patients in mental hospitals and treatment centers. A particular concern of drug use is transmission of HIV and hepatitis B via needles. Smokers and alcohol drinkers are likely to also be drug users. Families, government, and community organizations need to collaborate to prevent these risk behaviors among youth. PMID:12317498
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important public health problem worldwide. Its association with, and predisposing nature for diabetes mellitus (DM) has been long established. This research was carried out to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) amongst people with possible genetic predisposition to diabetes mellitus living in and around Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria. 188 subjects were screened after they filled a structured questionnaire to determine some of their demographic data, social habits and possible risk factors. 5 ml of blood was collected from each subject and sera separated out. Biotech's third generation ELISA Kit for HCV antibodies was used for the screening. Liver enzyme analysis was carried out on positive samples to determine their disease status. A prevalence of 14.36% was recorded with the highest seropositive group being those in the age bracket of 18 – 37 years. 13(13.40%) of males and 14(15.38%) of females were sero-positive. Liver enzyme analysis of sero-positive subjects showed increased levels which may imply early onset of liver damage. These result showed that these individuals could later suffer diabetes which may be triggered by their HCV infection if not treated. This is not over-looking the economic significance of their ill health, assuming they progress to cirrhotic HCV or develop hepatocelluar carcinoma due to HCV chronicity.
Nwankiti, Obinna O; Ndako, James A; Echeonwu, Georgebest ON; Olabode, Atanda O; Nwosuh, Chika I; Onovoh, Ema M; Okeke, Lilian A; Akinola, Jumoke O; Duru, Boniface N; Nwagbo, Ijeoma O; Agada, Godwin O; Chukwuedo, Anthony A
Between January and October 1994, a study of the prevalence, intensity and clinical manifestations of onchocerciasis in nine communities of Toro local government area of Bauchi State, Nigeria was undertaken using the skin-snip method. Of the 1117 inhabitants examined, 188 (16.8%) were positive for microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus. The prevalence of onchocerciasis was significantly higher (P < 0.05) among males than females, in subjects 21 years of age and above than in those in the first two decades of life, in nomads, farmers, hunters and fishermen than smiths and traders. Intensity of infection was light, not exceeding a geometric mean of 5.3 microfilaria per 2 mm skin bite. Preponderance of positive cases below 20 years presented no chronic signs. Conversely, persons above 20 years had higher microfilaria counts which coincides with the period when most clinical signs manifest. Microfilarial-rate and -density in relation to age were closely associated (r = 0.75, P < 0.001). The need for a sustained mass distribution of Mectizan in these communities is highlighted. PMID:11556150
Anosike, J C; Celestine; Onwuliri, O E; Onwuliri, V A
The endemicity of human onchocerciasis was assessed in eight rural, at-risk communities in Ningi Local Government Area, Bauchi State, Nigeria, between July 1990 and March 1991. Of the 1536 subjects skin-snipped, 334 (21.7%) were positive for Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae. Surprisingly, there was a significant inverse relationship between prevalence and mean microfilarial load (r = -0.608; P < 0.05). Males were more likely to be infected than females (P < 0.01) and cattle rearers (71.0% infected), farmers (49.8%) and fishermen (40.0%) had significantly higher prevalences than students/schoolchildren, housewives or traders (P < 0.001). Pruritus and itchy eyes were recorded in all age groups and appeared in much younger subjects than any other manifestations of the infection. Prevalence and onchocercal blindness were linearly related to intensity of infection. The epidemiological significance of these findings, in terms of a future community-wide programme of long-term chemoprophylaxis with Mectizan, is highlighted. PMID:7741592
In an eleven months study of eleven communities of Darazo Local Government Area of Bauchi state, northern Nigeria, 293 (21.7) of 1,349 persons examined harboured various filarial parasites. Of the sampled population, 18%, 1.9%, 1.6%, 0.5% and 0.2% had microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus, Wuchereria bancrofti, Mansonella perstans, M. streptocerca and Loa loa respectively. Of the 637 females examined, 90 (14.1%) were infected, while 203 (23.5%) of 712 males sampled had filarial infections. The high rate in males was significant (P < 0.001). O. volvulus mf-rate increased gradually from the first decade to the seventh decade of life but declined thereafter. Prevalence of bancroftian filariasis was consistently lower in females of reproductive age, while the distribution of various filarial parasites varied significantly among age groups and communities (P < 0.05). Fishermen (42.9%), farmers (42.4%) and cattle rearers (40.9%) were the most affected occupational categories. Control strategies are highlighted. PMID:7812311
The effect of different water discharge patterns from the artificial Oyan Reservoir in Ogun State, Nigeria, on water level fluctuations and on schistosomiasis transmission was investigated between August 1990 and March 1993 to determine the impact of water level regulation on schistosomiasis transmission and control. The results show that transmission was greatly influenced by the pattern of water discharge during the hot dry season (January-April). A high discharge during this period of no rainfall, high temperatures, and intense sunshine stimulated rapid water level fluctuations and lake draw-down, which led to significant reductions in all indices of schistosomiasis transmission, i.e. snail density, snail infection rates, human water contact patterns, and incidence of infection. Although these results support continuous water discharges from the reservoir during the hot dry season, this may run counter to current water management policies. Further investigation is therefore required to harmonize the potential benefits in this type of discharge pattern with the objectives of efficient water management in artificial reservoirs.
The authors investigated the effect of blood lead (BPb) and its relationship with calcium and phosphorus in the development of preeclampsia in Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from 59 preclamptics, 150 normal pregnant, and 122 nonpregnant women. Blood lead and serum Ca and P were determined. Blood lead was significantly higher (p < .001), whereas serum Ca and P were significantly lower (p < .001) in preclamptics than in normal pregnant women (60.2 ± 12.8 vs 26.3 ± 8.0 ?g/dL for Pb, 1.39 ± 0.33 vs 2.03 ± 0.22 mmol/L for Ca, and 0.76 ± 0.10 vs 0.99 ± 0.13 mmol/L for P, respectively). There was significant increase (p < .05) in BPb and decreases (p < .01) in serum Ca and P in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (35.7 ± 18.0 vs 13.1 ± 6.4 ?g/dL for Pb, 1.85 ± 0.33 vs 2.33 ± 0.20 mmol/L for Ca, and 0.93 ± 0.38 vs 1.24 ± 0.26 mmol/L for P). Also, BPb was negatively correlated with serum Ca and, P, and positively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures in pregnancy (r = -.804 for Ca, r = -.728 for P, r = .908 for SBP, and r = .842 for DBP) and preeclampsia (p < .01). It appears that increase in blood lead, which parallels decreases in serum calcium and phosphorus, may be related to the development and progression of preeclampsia in this environment. PMID:22845729
Background In order to achieve universal health coverage, the government of Anambra State, southeast Nigeria has distributed free Long-lasting Insecticide treated Nets (LLINs) to the general population and delivered free Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) to pregnant women and children less than 5 years. However, the levels of coverage with LLINS and ACTs is not clear, especially coverage of different socio-economic status (SES) population groups. This study was carried out to determine the level of coverage and access to LLINs and ACTs amongst different SES groups. Methods A questionnaire was used to collect data from randomly selected households in 19 local government areas of the State. Selected households had a pregnant woman and/or a child less than 5 years. The lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) methodology was used in sampling. The questionnaire explored the availability and utilization of LLINs and ACTs from 2394 households. An asset-based SES index was used to examine the level of access of LLINS and ACTs to different SES quintiles. Results It was found that 80.5 % of the households had an LLIN and 64.4 % of the households stated that they actually used the nets the previous night. The findings showed that 42.3 % of pregnant women who had fever within the past month received ACTs, while 37.5 % of children ?5 years old who had malaria in the past month had received ACTs. There was equity in ownership of nets for the range 1–5 nets per household. No significant SES difference was found in use of ACTs for treatment of malaria in children under five years old and in pregnant women. Conclusions The free distribution of LLINs and ACTs increased household coverage of both malaria control interventions and bridged the equity gap in access to them among the most vulnerable groups.
Purpose – This paper aims to examine the Nigerian advertising environment with children as the target audience in relation to its regulatory system. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A comprehensive review of the extant relevant literature was conducted to provide the needed framework for exploring the state of ethics in advertising to children in Nigeria. Findings – While it is shown that Nigeria
The rapid assessment procedure for loiasis (RAPLOA) was used to assess the prevalences of loiasis among 4800 subjects in 60 villages in Ondo state, south-western Nigeria. Coverages for community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) were assessed in the same communities, which were located in the Owo, Akure North, Ifedore, Akure South, Ondo East and Ondo West local government areas (LGA). In addition, fingerprick blood samples were collected from 80 individuals in each of six villages (i.e. one village in each LGA investigated) and checked for Loa loa microfilaraemia. Microfilaraemias were only detected in three of the villages where blood samples were collected and then only at low prevalences (1.25%-5.0%) and intensities (267-1600 microfilariae/ml). No serious adverse events were or ever had been related to the CDTI but mild or moderate adverse reactions were quite common, especially in Akure North (55.0%) and Owo (40.2%). A female subject was more likely to report an history of eye worm than a male subject (20.3%-35.7% v. 20.8%-26.5%, according to LGA). Although the subjects aged 41-50 years formed the age-group most likely to report an history of eye worm (32.7%), the highest CDTI coverage was recorded in the subjects aged 61-70 years (54.7%). The results indicated that CDTI had helped to reduce the prevalence and intensity of Loa microfilaraemia and that ivermectin can continue to be used for mass administrations in Ondo state with little risk of serious adverse events. PMID:18348776
Adeoye, G O; Akinsanya, B; Otubanjo, A O; Ibidapo, C A; Atalabi, T; Okwuzu, J; Adejai, E O; Braide, E I
Background Interest in the reproductive health of adolescents continues to grow throughout the world. Few studies had explored the reproductive health knowledge, sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion among secondary school students in North Eastern states of Nigeria. The objectives of this descriptive survey were to collect data to plan appropriate interventions that meet the reproductive health knowledge, service and skills needs of students in Bauchi, Borno and Gombe states. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted for 624 consenting students who were randomly selected from eighteen secondary schools using an 83-item structured questionnaire. Data were collected on demographic profile, reproductive health knowledge, sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion. Results The mean age of the respondents was 16.5 years. There were slightly more males (52%) than females (48%). Students' knowledge about reproductive health was generally low even though girls had better knowledge than boys. Thirteen percent of the entire students had had sexual experience; significantly more males (19%) than females (6%) had done so (p < 0.001). Among boys the age at sexual debut ranged from 10–26 with a mean of 15.7 and median of 16. By contrast, the age at first sex among girls ranged from 10 to 18 years with a mean and median of 16.1 and 17 years respectively. Only 24% of those who were sexually active used a condom during their last sexual encounter. Overall 11% of the students reported that they had been tricked into having sex, 9% had experienced unwanted touch of breast and backside, and 5% reported rape. Conclusion Students low reproductive health knowledge and involvement in risky sexual activities predispose them to undesirable reproductive health outcomes.
Background Poor nutritional status of mothers has a direct and indirect consequence on their own health and that of their children. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between nutritional status of mothers and their children and the risk factors for under-nutrition among mothers and children in rural and urban communities of Lagos State, Nigeria. Methods This was a cross sectional survey conducted using the multistage random sampling technique. A total of 300 mother-child pairs were studied, consisting of 150 each from rural and urban communities. Under-nutrition in mothers and children was determined using standard criteria. Results The prevalence of under-nutrition among mothers was significantly higher in rural than urban communities (10.7% vs. 2.7%, p?=?0.014). The prevalences of underweight and stunted children were also significantly higher in rural than urban communities (19.4% vs. 9.3%, p?0.001) and (43.3% vs. 12.6%, p?0.001) respectively. In rural communities, the risk of stunted mothers having children with stunting was about 7 times higher than those who were not (OR 6.7, 95% CI?=?1.4-32.0, p?=?0.007). In urban communities, undernourished mothers have about 11 and 12 times risk of having children with underweight and wasting respectively (OR 11.2, 95% CI?=?1.4-86.5, p?=?0.005) and (OR 12.3, 95% CI?=?1.6-95.7, p?=?0.003) respectively. The identified risk factors for maternal and child under nutrition differs across rural and urban communities. Conclusions The prevalence of maternal and child under-nutrition is high in both communities although higher in rural communities. Efforts at reducing the vicious cycle of under-nutrition among mothers and children should concentrate on addressing risk factors specific for each community.
As part of efforts to initiate lymphatic filariasis elimination activities in Benue State, this study employed the use of lymphatic filariasis-related clinical signs as rapid diagnostic features, immunochromatographic card test (ICT) to detect circulating filarial antigen (CFA) and questionnaire to investigate community perceptions and beliefs. 81 (32.6%) out of the 248 persons were positive for circulating filarial antigen (CFA). Infection rates denoted by CFA ranged from 41 (46.1%) in Uffia to 1(6.6%) in Ijigbam districts. Distribution of community ICT prevalence showed a significant variation (X(2), P < 0.05). The prevalence of clinical signs and/or symptoms in the communities also showed significant variations (X(2), P < 0.05). Community hydrocoele prevalence ranged from 8 (9.0%) in Uffia to 1(6.6%) in Ijigbam. The overall hydrocoele prevalence was 21 (8.5%), while the overall lymphoedema prevalence was 16 (6.4%) and women accounted for 14 (87.5%) of persons with swollen limbs. Only about 14 (15.9%) of unaffected respondents knew that lymphatic filariasis is transmitted through mosquito bites, this differ significantly from affected respondents 10 (66.6%) (X(2), P < 0.05). The communities' capacity to protect themselves is hindered by a lack of understanding of the true cause, symptoms, transmission route and prevention of the disease. Our study demonstrates the need for the development of health education programmes that will enable people to protect themselves against mosquito bites. As Nigeria commence her lymphatic filariasis elimination programmes, there is an urgent need to develop morbidity management activities that will alleviate the burden of patients. PMID:23878707
This study was carried out to determine the occurrence, prevalence and contributing factors to the incidence of goitre in Yewa north local government area of Ogun state, southwestern Nigeria. To achieve these objectives, soil, water, and cassava tubers were collected from four villages -- Igbogila, Egua, Sawonjo and Imoto and from Lagos (about 250 m to the ocean) as a reference location, in order to determine their iodine concentrations. The results of the analyses indicated a soil mean iodine range of 2.1-5.8 microg g(-1); a cassava mean iodine value of 2.3-3.5 mug g(-1) and a drinking water mean iodine value of generally <1.0 microg L(-1) in all the four villages. These values of iodine in soil and water of the four villages are considered low when compared with the soil iodine value of 7.4 microg g(-1) and water iodine value of 6.1 microg L(-1) obtained from Lagos. The limestone unit of the study area remains an inhibiting factor in the bioavailability of the iodine because of its alkalinity. Statistical analysis has shown that there was significant difference between iodine concentration in the soils and the drinking water, and a correlation between the soil iodine and organic matter content at p < 0.05. The correlation between soil iodine and granulometric fractions occurred at p < 0.01. Potential goitrogens in the commonly consumed cassava products might also have contributed to the prevalence of goitre in the study area. Both the females and the adults (i.e., less mobile groups) were found to be vulnerable to goitre development in these villages. PMID:16237605
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to focus on the problems of compensation for compulsory acquisition of oil exploration fields in Delta State with particular reference to the oil field acquired by Agip Oil Company for gas pipeline way leave in Irri and Okpai towns of Delta State. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey was conducted in which questionnaires were
This report describes how Nigeria, a country that at one time had the highest number of cases of dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) in the world, reduced the number of cases from more than 653,000 in 1988 to zero in 2009, despite numerous challenges. Village-based volunteers formed the foundation of the program, which used health education, cloth filters, vector control, advocacy for safe water, voluntary isolation of patients, and monitored program interventions and cases reported monthly. Other factors in the program's success were strong governmental support, advocacy by a former head of state of Nigeria, technical and financial assistance by The Carter Center, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the United Nations Children's Fund, the World Health Organization, and many other partners and donors. The estimated cost of the Nigerian program during 1988–2009 is $37.5 million, not including funding for water supply projects or salaries of Nigerian governmental workers.
Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) is common in all populations. Iodine and other trace elements naturally occur in the soil but erosion leaches off these elements from the soil. This results in a continued loss of trace elements from the soil. In the present study, the levels of iodine, selenium, zinc and lead in the environment (measured in soil, bitter leaves (Vernonia amygdalina), cassava roots (mannihot utilissima, staple food in Nigeria), and drinking water) and urinary iodine from school children (n=200), pregnant women (n=60) and women of child bearing age (n=60) were determined for Nanka prone to soil erosion and Oba all in Anambra State, Nigeria (used as control) to assess their risk to IDD. The levels of selenium, zinc and lead were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry while the levels of iodine in the environment and urinary iodine were estimated using the method of Dunn et al.,(1993). In this study there was a positive correlation between iodine and the metals. The results show that the mean concentrations of total soil zinc (0.69 +/- 0.16 ppm); lead (0.40 +/- 0.12 ppm) values in Oba were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than values from Nanka (Zn = 0.33 +/- 0.10 ppm; Pb = 0.21 +/- 0.09 ppm). However, total soil values for selenium and iodine in soil were not significantly different in the two communities. Mean concentration of total vegetable zinc (0.63 +/- 0.14 ppm) value in Oba is significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the value from Nanka (Zn = 0.31 +/- 0.07 ppm). However, total vegetable values for I, Se and Pb were not significantly different in the two communities. Also, mean concentration of total cassava zinc (0.65 = 0.15 ppm) in Oba was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than Zn (0.44 +/- 0.1l ppm) from Nanka. However, values for Se, Pb, and I were not significantly different in the two communities. Mean concentration of total water iodine (105.25 +/- 10.44 microg/L) in Oba was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the value from Nanka (I = 89.8 +/- 6.42 microg/L). However, total water values for Se, Zn, and Pb were not significantly different in the two communities. The mean urinary iodine concentration of 170.65 +/- 27.17 microg/L in school children from Oba was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the mean concentration of 156.12 +/- 16.48 microg/L found in school children from Nanka. However, the mean urinary iodine concentration of all the women (pregnant and non-pregnant) were not significantly different in the two communities but they are below the recommended daily intake. The results show that people living in Nanka and Oba, could be at risk of IDD. PMID:17970305
Olife, Ifeyinwa C; Okaka, Antoinette N; Dioka, Chudi E; Meludu, Samuel C; Orisakwe, Orish E
Background The Community Directed Interventions (CDI) strategy has proven effective in increasing access to health services in sedentary populations. It remains to be seen if CDI strategy is feasible among nomads given the dearth of demographic and medical data on the nomads. This study thus characterized the nomadic populations in Enugu State, Nigeria and outlined the potentials of implementing CDI among nomads. Study design and methods This exploratory study adopted qualitative methods. Forty focus group discussions (FGD) were held with members of 10 nomadic camps in 2 LGAs in Enugu State, as well as their host communities. Thirty in-depth interviews (IDIs) were held with leaders of nomadic camps and sedentary populations. Ten IDIs with traditional healers in the nomadic camps and 14 key informant interviews with health workers and programme officers were also conducted. Documents and maps were reviewed to ascertain the grazing routes of the nomads as well as existing health interventions in the area. Results Like sedentary populations, nomads have definable community structures with leaders and followers, which is amenable to implementation of CDI. Nomads move their cattle, in a definite pattern, in search of grass and water. In this movement, the old and vulnerable are left in the camps. The nomads suffer from immunization preventable health problems as their host communities. The priority health problems in relation to CDI include malaria, measles, anemia, and other vaccine preventable infections. However, unlike the sedentary populations, the nomads lack access to health interventions, due to the mutual avoidance between the nomads and the sedentary populations in terms of health services. The later consider the services as mainly theirs. The nomads, however, are desirous of the modern health services and often task themselves to access these modern health services in private for profit health facilities when the need arises. Conclusion Given the definable organizational structure of the nomads in Enugu State and their desire for modern health intervention, it is feasible to test the CDI strategy for equitable healthcare delivery among nomads. They are willing and capable to participate actively in their own health programmes with minimal support from professional health workers.
SUMMARY Coastal erosion is a global problem facing both developing and developed Countries. In Nigeria, Coastal erosion is experienced in almost all the sections of the country's coastal zone, thus the quest for a lasting solution. The social and economic consequences of coastal erosion can be substantial in many cases. It may cause displacement of a whole community, including the
This paper focuses on the realities and assessment of the quality of guidance and counselling services on students' adjustment in Nigeria. It was hypothesized that qualification of guidance and counselling personnel, availability of guidance and counselling facilities, quality of guidance and counselling services will not significantly predict students' adjustment. The study was limited to only sixteen secondary schools: thirteen government
The Niger Delta region of Nigeria has been ridden by youth restiveness and yet several intervention program have not yielded positive results. The study, therefore, evaluates the impact of youth empowerment strategies on conflict resolution using an ordered probit regression model. The study reveals that youth educational programs, provision of infrastructures and credit facilities showed significant effects as tools for
Background HIV/AIDS is fast becoming a chronic disease with the advent of antiretroviral drugs, therefore making home based care key in the management of chronically ill HIV/AIDS patient. The objective of this study was to determine the perception and practice of health care workers on HIV/AIDS related home based care in the health facilities in Ogun state, Nigeria. Methods This study is an analytical cross-sectional study. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to obtain a representative sample of the primary health care workers in Ogun state. An interviewer administered structured questionnaire was administered by trained health workers to elicit the required information. Result A total of 350 health care workers were interviewed, 70% of the respondents could adequately describe the components of home based care. Only 38.7% were aware of the National guideline on home based care practices and 17.1% believe that home based care will not significantly improve the prognosis of PLWAs. Few 19.1% had ever been trained or ever involved 16.6% in home based care practices. Only 20 [5.7%] are involved on a weekly basis, 16 [4.6%] monthly and 22 [6.3%] quarterly. Reasons given for non implementation of home based care are inadequate number of healthcare workers 45%, lack of political will 24.4%, lack of implementation by facility managers 14% and inadequate funds 16.6%. Factors that were significantly associated with the practice of home based care were perception of its relevance in improving prognosis [OR?=?54.21, C.I?=?23.22-129.52] and presence of a support group in the facility [OR?=?4.80, C.I?=?2.40-9.57]. There was however no statistically significant relationship between adequate knowledge of home based care [OR?=?0.78, C.I?=?0.39-1.54] and previous training on home based care (OR?=?1.43, C.I?=?0.66-3.06]. Conclusion The practice of home based care for HIV/AIDS among the study population is low and it is greatly influenced by perception of its effectiveness and relevance. The study recommends that the health care workers should be adequately educated on the importance of home based care in the management of chronic illnesses in order to enhance its practice.
Research on markets and marketing of some non-timber forest products (NTFPs) was carried out in selected locations of Osun State. The NTFPs considered are chewing sticks such as "Massularia acuminata" and bush meat like "Thryonomys swinderianus", representing both the flora and fauna aspects of NTFPs, respectively. Five Local Government Areas were…
The study investigates communication factors affecting the adoption of innovation at the grassroots level in Ogun State. Two hundred farmers and twenty-five extension agents were selected using a multi - stage sampling technique, and were interviewed for the purpose of the study. Data collected were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistical tools. The study revealed that the majority of
This piece attempts a new reading of the political economy of the Nigerian state within the context of the epoch-making British colonialism, the spin-off effects of structural imperialism and the stranglehold of an increasingly desperate transnational capital. The principal argument is that whilst these structures do not explain everything – to the extent that the Nigerian ruling elite has played
Cocoa agroforests are a common farming system in the humid zone of West and Central Africa, in which forest trees provide shade and other environmental services as well as marketable products. To determine the extent of these benefits, data were collected in nine cocoa farms located in three major cocoa producing local government areas (LGAs) in Ondo State. Reserved natural
|The study assessed computer literacy of secondary school teachers in Ekiti State. Three hundred teachers (Male = 150; Female = 150) selected from 30 public schools in 15 out of 16 local government areas participated. The instrument for collecting data was a 25-item Self-Assessment of Computer Literacy questionnaire and each item was rated on a…
|Research on markets and marketing of some non-timber forest products (NTFPs) was carried out in selected locations of Osun State. The NTFPs considered are chewing sticks such as "Massularia acuminata" and bush meat like "Thryonomys swinderianus", representing both the flora and fauna aspects of NTFPs, respectively. Five Local Government Areas…
This study examines economics of vertical integration in poultry industry in Ogun and Oyo States. The study examines the production systems and analyses costs and returns to non- integrated and vertically integrated poultry farms. Primary data were generated using structured questionnaires in a field survey of 100 non-integrated poultry farms, 70 partially integrated poultry farms and 40 fully integrated poultry
This study aims at analyzing economics of vertical integration in poultry industry in Ogun and Oyo States. The study examines the production systems and analyses costs and returns to non-integrated and vertically integrated poultry farms. Primary data were generated using structured questionnaires in a field survey of 100 non-integrated poultry farms, 70 partially integrated poultry farms and 40 fully poultry
Reducing the huge economic losses due to diseases in poultry as the second largest industry in Nigeria after oil means improving the protein intake of the majority. Similarly, this will also promotes a steady income for the teeming farmers. This study investigated the incidence of the lethal avian influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria, with particular emphasis on the socio-economic and cultural activities of the poultry farmers, economic losses and the possible role of wild birds in the transmission of the disease. Data were collected from 316 and 458 direct and indirect respondents, respectively, from 6 affected villages and a town in 2 Local Government Areas (LGAs): Girei and Yola-North. Results revealed that a larger (25.71%) proportion of the respondents fell within the age range of 31-40 years, with majority (54.91%) as females. While the bulk (54.65%) of the respondents were illiterates, 95.47% of the direct respondents derived their incomes from crop production, whereas 59.17% of the indirect respondents from livestock rearing. About 26,049 birds worth N13, 454,800.00 was cumulative economic loss incurred by the poultry farmers, whereas that of the government was put at N1, 119,781.10. Of the mortalities experienced in the wildlife before the outbreak of the disease, Bubulcus ibis (64.29) and Tadarida nigeriae (86.36) were the highest. The study recommends a massive rural extension on Poultry Production with absolute biosecurity, involving all stakeholders (Veterinary Surgeons, Animal Scientists/health workers, wildlife specialists, Agricultural Economists, Information Officers etc.) in a collaborative form for high synergistic effects.
Ja`Afar-Furo, M. R.; Balla, H. G.; Tahir, A. S.; Haskainu, C.
Background Despite clear emphasis through the Millennium Development Goals, the problem of high maternal mortality persists especially within low and middle income countries. Various studies report remarkably high maternal mortality rates in northern Nigeria, where maternal mortality rates exceed 1,000 deaths per 100,000 live births and eclampsia contributes approximately 40% of maternal deaths. Across Nigeria, diazepam is routinely used for the management of eclampsia. Prior to February 2008, diazepam was widely used for the management of eclampsia in Kano State (within northern Nigeria) with case fatality rate being over 20%. While magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) is recognized as the most effective drug for the management of eclampsia; this study aims to compare MgSO4 therapy with diazepam therapy in terms of case fatality rates and costs. Findings This retrospective study, including 1045 patients with eclampsia and pre-eclampsia during the years 2008 and 2009, reports a drop in case fatality rates from 20.9% (95% CI: 18.7, 23.2) to 2.3% (95% CI: 1.4, 3.2) among eclampsia patients following the MgSO4 intervention. The study observed no significant difference in the cost of using MgSO4 therapy compared to diazepam therapy. Conclusions The study found a remarkable reduction in case fatality rate due to eclampsia in those who received MgSO4 therapy with minimal increase in costs when compared to diazepam therapy. Concerted efforts should be focused on properly introducing MgSO4 into emergency obstetric protocols especially within developing countries to reduce maternal mortality and also impact on health system performance.
Early child-hood Education is the bedrock upon which excellent basic and sound education is built. This study examined the concept of quality in early childhood education in Ekiti State. It is a descriptiv e research design of the survey type, which aimed at assessing the quality of early-child-hood education in 12 randomly selected private nursery schools in Ado-Ekiti Local Government
An external background ionizing radiation study has been carried out within the Asa Dam Industrial Layout of Ilorin in Kwara State. The study was carried out in 5 stations within the industrial area using two Digilert Nuclear Radiation Monitors. The study has revealed that the external background ionizing radiation is averagely 0.0134 mR\\/hr with a deviation of about 22% which
Background The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has generated renewed interest in recent times, as herbal preparations are increasingly being used in both human and animal healthcare systems. Diarrhoea is one of the common clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders caused by both infectious and non-infectious agents and an important livestock debilitating condition. Plateau State is rich in savannah and forest vegetations and home to a vast collection of plants upheld in folklore as having useful medicinal applications. There is however scarcity of documented information on the medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in the state, thus the need for this survey. Ten (10) out of 17 Local Government Areas (LGAs), spread across the three senatorial zones were selected. Farmers were interviewed using well structured, open-ended questionnaire and guided dialogue techniques between October and December 2010. Medicinal plants reported to be effective in diarrhoea management were collected using the guided field-walk method for identification and authentication. Results A total of 248 questionnaires were completed, out of which 207 respondents (83.47%) acknowledged the use of herbs in diarrhoea management, while 41 (16.53%) do not use herbs or apply other traditional methods in the treatment of diarrhoea in their animals. Medicinal plants cited as beneficial in the treatment of animal diarrhoea numbered 132, from which 57(43.18%) were scientifically identified and classified into 25 plant families with the families Fabaceae (21%) and Combretaceae (14.04%) having the highest occurrence. The plant parts mostly used in antidiarrhoeal herbal preparations are the leaves (43.86%) followed by the stem bark (29.82%). The herbal preparations are usually administered orally. Conclusion Rural communities in Plateau State are a rich source of information on medicinal plants as revealed in this survey. There is need to scientifically ascertain the authenticity of the claimed antidiarrhoeal properties of these plants and perhaps develop more readily available alternatives in the treatment of diarrhoea.
Background Corneal lacerations mostly affect younger children, commonly males, who will constitute the majority of the workforce. Clinical outcomes are reviewed and compared so that measures to reduce their occurrence and improve outcome can be proffered. Methods Records of all children between the ages of 1-18?yrs, who presented with penetrating eye injuries at the eye clinic of the University of Port Harcourt teaching Hospital, Rivers state, Nigeria between January 2002 and December 2009 were included. Information retrieved -patient’s Bio data, presenting symptoms, presenting visual acuity (VA), source of injury, surgical intervention and outcome using VA. All data analysed with EPI Info version 6 with the aid of a statistician. Results Folders of thirty-six children (36 eyes) between the ages of 0–18?years diagnosed with corneal laceration over a period of 8?years out of 65 cases managed within that period available. Other folders reported as missing. Male female ratio 3:1, the mean age is 8.7?years (SD?±?3.67). Only one presented within 24?hours. Objects causing injury mainly missiles with stones/catapult injuries (n?=?8, 22.2%). Presenting VAs in those that could be measured, ranged from 6/24 to 6/60 (n?=?4, 11%) to no light perception (NLP) (n?=?5, 13.9%). Associated injuries include lid laceration, cataract, vitreous haemorrhage and retinal detachment. Twenty one patients had primary corneal repair (58.3%) carried out within 7?days of presentation. Four had endophthalmitis. After 3?months follow up, VA of 6/60 and better was achieved in 11 of 18 eyes left in follow up (6/60-6/24 in 8 eyes (22.2%), 6/18 and better in 3 eyes (8.3%). Conclusion Most eye injuries in children are preventable. In this study, the prognosis was better in those whose injuries were confined to a peripheral part of the cornea, with no other associated injury, who presented within 5?days and who did not have any intraocular infection at the time of presentation. The importance of health education, adult supervision of play and application of appropriate measures that is necessary for reducing the incidence and severity of trauma is emphasized.
This study examines the rationales underlying state creation in Nigeria. Specifically, the study addresses significant political, economic, and socio-cultural issues considered to be the rationales behind the creation of states in Nigeria. Dependency theory was applied to determine whether state creation is: (a) a viable public policy tool to promote much needed good governance in a country whose ethnic groupings
The study examined a possible association between HIV infection and conventional sexually transmitted diseases (STDS) in a population of 700 patients seen in some hospitals and clinics in Lagos State between November 1997 and December 1999. The patients were drawn mainly from LUTH and Jolad hospitals in Lagos State. In these hospitals, patients who presented with symptoms of STDS were screened clinically and microbiologically for agents of STDS and HIV antibodies. Screening was carried out using conventional methods. A total of 150 (21.5%) were found positive for various STDS while 550 (78.5%) were negative Also, 109 (15.8%) were sero-positive for HIV while 591 (84.4%) were sero-negative. The frequency of STDS diagnosed were, Treponema pallidum, 38(25.3%), Neisseria gonorrhoea 3(2.0%), Chlamydia trachomatis 26(17.3), Hepatitis B virus 60(40.0%) Staphylococcus aureaus, 20 (13.3%) and Candida albicans 3(2.0%). Data showed that Syphillis was the most prevalent STDS diagnosed while Calbicans and N. gonorrhoea are the least. Amongst the 150 (21.5%) patients positive with STDS, 82(54.65%) were found to be positive for HIV antibodies. The remaining 68(45.3%) patients were negative for HIV. The difference in sero-prevalence on the true group of patients rates was significant. The higher rate in the STDS patients strongly suggest some association between HIV infections andSTDS amongst the patients studied p = 0.05. It was also recorded that HIV-1 infection is four times more prevalent than HIV-2 in these patients. PMID:12403041
Otuonye, N M; Olukoya, D K; Odunukwe, N N; Idigbe, E O; Udeaja, M N; Bamidele, M; Onyewuchie, J I; Oparaugu, C T; Ayelari, O S; Oyekunle, B
Management of flame retarded plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been posing a major challenge to waste management experts because of the potential environmental contamination issues especially the formation of polybrominated-dioxins and -furans (PBDD\\/F) during processing. In Nigeria, large quantities of electronic waste (e-waste) are currently being managed—a significant quantity of which is imported illegally as secondhand
This article deals with the relationship of religion to space, ethnicity and political domination, through the case of the Orisha religion in Africa and the Americas. This religion originated in the south-east of present-day Nigeria and was first re-implanted in the Americas as a result of the deportation of thousands of Yoruba slaves, especially to Cuba. Today, it is experiencing
Studies by political scientists and theorists have identified ethnicity and ethnonationalism as potential obstacles to democracy and political stability in multiethnic states. Nigeria as a pluralistic polity shares in this category of countries where fierce competition for power among its various ethnic groups has made governing a difficult task. In this study, the objective was to find what relevance consociationalism
Background: A high level of community awareness and positive perception toward pulmonary TB (PTB) and its management is crucial for the success of any control strategy. This study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practice as regard to TB and its treatment. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study involving 193 persons was carried out in a rural community in Ward 5 of Etsako-West local government area of Edo state, selected through a multi-stage sampling process. Results: About 86% of respondents had heard of PTB, with a greater proportion being females (55.7%). Mean knowledge score (16.26±5.8) showed that a greater proportion (55.1%) had poor knowledge (range 0-35), with males having better (though not significant) knowledge than females (mean score 17.28±5.9 and 16.94±5.0, respectively, P=0.68). Although attitude toward TB did not influence caring for sick relatives or friends, it impeded social interactions and marriage prospects with infected persons within the community. Conclusion: Knowledge and attitude toward PTB was generally poor in this rural community. Efforts should be intensified by health authorities in the local government to raise awareness and knowledge of the disease, so as to improve social perception and early recognition of infection. PMID:24005586
Three hundred and eight Igbo women were randomly selected to respond to a number of questions on experiences, patterns and attitudes to domestic violence. Data was collected using structured questionnaires that were complemented with focus group discussions. The results show that 78.8% of the women have ever been battered by their male counterparts, out of which 58.9% reported battery during pregnancy, while 21.3% reported having been forced to have sexual intercourse. The study further revealed that the practice of female circumcision is still common among this Igbo population, and 52.6% were of the view that it should be continued. Multivariate logistic regression identified the correlates of these forms of violence such as age, place of residence, age at first marriage, type of marital union, level of income of women, and level of education of husband against women in Imo State. While wife battery is more pronounced in the urban area, forced sexual relationship and female genital mutilation are more pronounced in the rural areas. We recommend education of women and integration of services in reproductive health care service delivery as appropriate measures to eradicate these practice. PMID:12476722
Okemgbo, Christian Ndugasa; Omideyi, Adekunbi Kebinde; Odimegwu, Clifford Obby
Fowl pox is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The large size of the genome makes it a useful vector for recombinant DNA technology. Although the disease has been described in both commercial and indigenous chickens in Nigeria, data are limited on seroprevalence in free range chickens. Such data are, however, important in the design and implementation of fowl pox virus vector vaccine. We surveyed current antibody status to fowl pox virus in free range chickens by testing 229 sera collected from 10 villages in Jos North and Jos South LGA of Plateau StateNigeria. Sera were analyzed by AGID against standard fowl pox antigen. Fifty-two of the 229 (23%) tested sera were positive for fowl pox virus antibody, and the log titre in all positive specimen was >2. Thirty (21%) and twenty-two (27%) of the samples from Jos South and Jos North, respectively, tested positive. This was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.30). Generally the study showed a significant level of antibody to fowl pox virus in the study area. This observation may hinder effective use of fowl pox vectored viral vaccine. Fowl pox control is recommended to reduce natural burden of the disease. PMID:23762578
Nigeria is highly endemic for infection with Schistosoma haematobium, which most commonly manifests itself with blood in urine. To monitor the impact of annual mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel for S. haematobium in Delta State, Nigeria, cross-sectional hematuria surveys of school children were conducted in 8 sentinel villages (SVs) at baseline (n=240) and after two annual doses (n=402). We assessed the comparability of three assessments of hematuria (child’s reported history, nurse visual diagnosis (NVD) and dipstick) to determine the need for mass treatment. Dipstick was considered to be the gold standard. Prior to treatment, history and NVD each identified only the 3 most highly prevalent SVs, and overall this represented just 37.5% of the 8 SVs in need of treatment. Following treatment, after dipstick prevalence decreased by 88.5% (p<0.001), and history and NVD identified only one of two villages still needing treatment. The study suggests that dipsticks should be the recommended method for launching and monitoring mass treatment for S. haematobium.
Perception is fundamental in the fight against stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Perception generally influences discriminatory attitudes towards PLHIV which exacerbates their problems and quickens the degeneration of the disease from HIV to AIDS. This study examined the Anambra people's perception and knowledge of HIV/AIDS with the goal of creating knowledge on these issues in order to design effective intervention programmes towards the reduction of social stigmatization associated with the pandemic. The study was carried out in Idemmili North and Oyi local government areas of Anambra State. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used to elicit information from respondents who were adult males and females of 18 years and above. The research instruments were questionnaires and in-depth interview schedule. Questionnaires were administered on 1000 respondents while 13 people were interviewed in-depth. Analysis of quantitative data were conducted by using the Statistical package for Social Sciences. Univariate analysis in the form of frequencies were conducted which generated the distribution of respondents across the research variables. Furthermore, multivariate analysis were conducted to test the hypotheses and sought for relationships among variables. The qualitative data were reported in themes based on the research objectives and were analysed jointly with the quantitative data. The findings were that majority of the respondents viewed HIV/AIDS as a disease that afflict immoral people and as a punishment from God. Only a handful of them saw the disease as a disease that could afflict anybody. Also, many of the respondents said that AIDS is real but showed a low level of knowledge. It was further indicated that there were significant relationships between educational level, sex, occupation, income influence perception and peoples' reactions to HIV positive status of a relative while there were no significant relationships between these variables and knowledge of HIV/AIDS. It was concluded that these negative perceptions were as a result of the people's low level of knowledge and cultural belief systems, which see a strange illness as punishment from God for disobedience. Furthermore, the fact that most of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents had significant relationship with perception and reaction to HIV was an indication that most people in the study area had a uniform perception. It was also an indication that government HIV/AIDS awareness programmes were not effective. It was recommended that strategies for effective HIV educational programme should be sought and carried out in the study area. Effective intervention programme have the power to change behaviours and would likely change the people's negative perception and low level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS, thereby reducing stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:23808412
The study examines the cotton commodity chain and assessed the share of each actor in the cotton industry and identified the constraints encountered in cotton production, marketing and processing. A sample of thirty cotton producers, 50 traders, 500 agents and 3 ginneries were selected from Funtua Local Government Area of Katsina State using both random and purposive sampling techniques. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the participants using focus group discussion and structured questionnaire during the 2004/2005 cropping season. Analysis of the data was done using descriptive statistics and budgeting technique. The farmersN budget analysis indicated that from an investment cost of N 33,146.00 ha-1, farmers obtained a revenue of N 44,544-00 ha-1, thus making a net income of N 11,398 ha-1, while the agent analysis shows that an agent is paid a commission of N 500.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchase on behalf of the merchant. The analysis of the tradersN budget revealed that from an investment cost of N 36,746.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchased, traders` N 41,700.00 (lint + seed) and a net profit of N 4,954.00 ton h-1 of seed cotton. The analysis of the ginnery budget revealed that from one ton of seed cotton processed, a ginnery is making a net profit of N 2,178.00. These analyses indicated that cotton production, marketing and processing under the current price and cost setting is profitable. In spite of the profitability in cotton business, the following problems were identified: adulteration of seed cotton with foreign materials, heterogeneous seeds resale in the market, inappropriate packaging systems, no good prices for improving the quality and no mechanism for ensuring transparency in the quality (trust between actors). There is the need for intensification and expansion of the cotton sector in terms of provision of high quality inputs, clean seed cotton, introduction of jute bags for packaging, introduction of quality control mechanisms and good prices in order to sustain the industry.
There are few studies on health-facility based prevalence rates for dual hepatitis B virus-hepatitis C virus (HBV-HCV) infection on a state-wide scale in Nigeria. In this study we determined the state-wide prevalence rate of dual positivity of hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-HCV antibody among hospital patients of Ekiti State, Nigeria, and identified associated factors. Consenting apparently-healthy patients visiting health centers in all local government area (LGA) headquarters of Ekiti State were consecutively selected to a total of 2000 individuals. Patient demographic data pertinent to HBV and HCV transmission were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Subsequently, serum samples prepared from the aseptically collected blood was tested for the presence of both HBsAg and anti-HCV antibody using DiaSpot test strips. The results were analyzed using binary logistic regression. Dual positivity of 7.40% was recorded among the study participants, with 9.80% and 12.80%, respectively, testing positive for HBsAg and anti-HCV antibody. The study patients were, however, most likely to be anti-HCV antibody positive. Nine of the 10 factors studied were independently associated with dual positivity. Five of these, in descending order of odds ratio, were: illiteracy (15.76, p=0.001); having ?4 sexual partners (9.46, p=0.001); age range of 35-44?y (8.46,p=0.001); farming (7.33, p=0.001); and "not at all" to use of condoms during sexual intercourse (4.39, p=0.001). The dual positivity rate was relatively high, with unprotected sexual intercourse as the most probable mode of acquisition of HBV and HCV by the seropositive study participants. PMID:23171358
The paper examines the contentious nature of resource control and distribution in Nigeria. It avers that resource control has been a big problem confronting the Nigerian state from inception. This fact has not been helped by the heterogene- ous nature of Nigeria, the weak capacity of the Nigerian state, the politics of resource allocation and the primordial bend of leadership.
The immigration of ECOWAS (Economic Community of Western African States) citizens into Nigeria following the 1980 ECOWAS treaty on international migration is discussed. Consideration is given to international migration in Nigeria before and after the treaty, the effect of Nigeria's oil boom on immigration, and the impact of drought and war in other parts of Western Africa. Factors leading to the expulsion of ECOWAS aliens, and public response to the order, are also examined. Data are from official sources. PMID:12281050
Fish is generally regarded as a primary source of protein for many poor African fishing communities. The present study compared the relative importance of fish as a high-quality dietary protein source with meat in fishing communities in two states in Nigeria. Fifty fishing households in which active fishing was the primary activity and fifty non-fishing households (agriculture being stated as primary activity) in traditional fishing communities were randomly selected in the coastal state of Lagos and the inland state of Niger. A simple weighing balance was designed and given to each household to measure fish or meat entering the household for consumption. A comparison of consumption using this method against the 24h recall method revealed that the recall method accounted for only one third of actual fish consumed. Overall, the price of fish was higher and consumption lower in Lagos compared with Niger State. At the household level in both states, the consumption of fish in fishing households was twice that of non-fishing households, whereas meat consumption was similar. A total of thirty-nine different fish species were consumed, with Tilapia contributing 24% by weight of the fish consumed. In both states, beef was the most frequently consumed meat, followed by goat meat. The study revealed a high preference for fresh fish. The highest fish consumption occurred in March, corresponding to the period of lowest meat consumption. On a unit weight basis, heads of households consumed 59% more fish than their wives or children. PMID:17217570
This paper discusses the perceptions of the Nigerian population policy, family planning program and family planning using data obtained from a 1995 survey of 600 Atyap women aged 15-49 years, in Nigeria. Additional qualitative data were obtained from married and unmarried women and men, clergymen, government officials, and respected community elders. The predominantly Christian and rural Atyap community generally accepts modern contraception and the need for family size reduction but considers the "four-is-enough" policy to be unacceptable. Religion may be important in determining the success of the federal government to reduce family size to four children by the year 2000. PMID:11000710
Rotimi T. Suberu is lecturer in political science at the University of lbadan, Nigeria, and a 1993-94 Peace Fellow at the United States Institute of Peace in Washington, D.C. He has published several articles on the Nigerian federal system and is currently preparing a book-length study of federalism, democracy, and ethnic-conflict management in Nigeria. The need to establish a stable
There is no record so far known of Nigeria's participation in old time astronomy. However, she started a gradual entry into modern day astronomy in 1962. In this report, I present a review of the steps taken so far by Nigeria to realize her dreams in astronomy, and examine the prospects awaiting astronomers from Nigeria.
AID-assisted efforts by UNICEF/Nigeria and the Government of Nigeria to implement an oral rehydration therapy (ORT) promotion program are briefly reviewed. A scientifically sound ORT methodology applicable throughout Nigeria was developed by UNICEF/N and ...
Development as a growth process is what every person, nation and state seeks from day to day. The issues of development and better welfare are generally important to the average man and woman, especially in developing countries like Nigeria. Nigeria and other African countries need to instigate the principles and strategies that will bring about…
The study examined the Productivity and Technical Efficiency of Poultry egg production in Nigeria using the stochastic frontier production function analysis. Primary data were collected using a set of structured questionnaire from two hundred poultry egg farmers who were selected using multi stage sampling techniques, from five Local Government Areas (LGA) of Osun state, Nigeria. Results showed that poultry egg
Since the early nineteenth century, when Uthman b. Fudi established an Islamic state in northern Nigeria, there has been a close symbiosis between religion and political power. Since indepen dence in 1960, the issue of regional or ethnic power sharing in Nigeria has shifted to a contest between Muslims and Christians, with the part-Muslim, part-Christian Yoruba of the southwest helping
Aflatoxin M1 (AF M1), a hydroxylated metabolite of AF B1, is an important toxin that can contaminate the milk of lactating mothers. A correlation study was conducted to determine the relationship between AF M1 content of breast milk, dietary exposure to AF B1 and socioeconomic status of lactating mothers in the three Senatorial districts of Ogun State, Nigeria. Equal amounts of breast milk (20 ml) and food rations (40 kg) obtained from 50 volunteer lactating mothers and eighty-two frequently consumed food commodities in the preceding month were used for the study. The level of contamination of the foods by AF B1 was low (0.16-0.33 ?g/kg) and differed significantly (p<0.05) across the state but did not exceed the EU limit of 2 ?g/kg. The occurrence level of AF B1 was however high (93.75-94.45%) and was more pronounced in Ogun East Senatorial district (94.45%). Eighty-two percent of the breast milk was contaminated with AF M1 (3.49-35 ng/l) and 16% exceeded the EU limit of 25 ng/l while a 100% occurrence risk was recorded in Ogun Central Senatorial district. The socioeconomic status of the mothers also significantly influenced their dietary exposure and exposure risk of the sucklings to AF M1. PMID:23462105
The socio-linguistic picture of Nigeria, as a developing nation with so much economic, political, human resources and potentials is handicapped by her geo-linguistic landscape with regard to national integration. It is known that this country has over 450 different registered languages within this geo-polity. Nigeria is therefore a politico-geogr aphical linguistic lump begging for unity and the good will of
Individuals suffering from dracontiasis from Igwun river basin area of Imo StateNigeria were randomly chosen, examined and interviewed between December 1988 and March 1989 with a view to ascertain some of the behavioural aspects that could be of help in the control/eradication of this disease as well as to ascertain whether local medication was of any chemotherapeutic significance. Of 100 guinea-worm patients males were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in number (63.0%). In the age-related distribution, children less than 10 years old and the members of the villages more than 60 years old accounted for only 5.0% of the patients whilst those in their productive years (10-60 year old) accounted for 95.0%. Only 10.5% of the respondents associated guinea-worm infection with the drinking of "polluted" water while most believed it was a familial trait (36.8%) or implicated their enemies (35.1%). As a result medications against the disease were mainly directed towards consulting the oracle and herbalists, and appeasing the gods. Most (98.0%) of them kept their dressing dry by refraining from immersing them in water. The concomitant behavioural aspects of these results are discussed in relation to their uses in the control/eradication of guinea-worm. PMID:1456464
The study examined perceptions, practices and norms underlying sexuality and gender relations that constrain the prevention and control of STIs and HIV/AIDS. It was carried out among the Igbo of Awka and Agulu in Anambra State of Nigeria. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used for data collection. Findings indicate that cultural practices that encourage the establishment of sexual networks by men persist in the study communities. Some married women who are not able to achieve pregnancy with their husbands get involved in such networks to have children. Some parents who do not have male children encourage their unmarried daughters to have children out of wedlock so as to perpetuate the lineage. Inequality in gender relations and fear of repercussions constrain women from negotiating safe sex. Sexuality education is, therefore, necessary to improve the knowledge base, perceptions and sexual behaviours of the study communities. Women should be empowered to make informed decisions about sexuality and childbearing. Male responsibility in reproductive health should also be encouraged. PMID:14677303
Background: Maternal mortality remains a leading cause of death among women of reproductive age. While Nigeria has only two percent of the global population, it contributes 10% to the global maternal mortality burden. Antenatal care (ANC) reduces the incidence of maternal mortality. However, financial capability affects access to antenatal care. Thus, the rural poor are at a higher risk of maternal mortality. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study involving 135 women (pregnant women and those who are 6 weeks postpartum). Structured interviewer-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Data analysis was carried out using statistical package for social sciences software (version 17). Results: The average amount spent on booking and initial laboratory investigations were N77 (half a dollar) and N316 ($2), respectively. Per ANC visit, average amount spent on drugs and transportation were N229 ($1.5) and N139 ($0.9) respectively. For delivery, the average amount spent was N1500 ($9.6). On an average, ANC plus delivery cost about N3,365.00 ($22). There was a statistically significant association between husband's income and ANC attendance (X2 = 2.451, df = 2, P = 0.048). Conclusion: Cost of Antenatal care and delivery services were not catastrophic but were a barrier to accessing antenatal care and facility-based delivery services in the study area. ANC attendance was associated with the income of household heads. Pro-poor policies and actions are needed to address this problem, as it will go a long way in reducing maternal mortality in this part of the country.
Sambo, Mohd Nasiq; Abdulrazaq, Gobir A.; Shamang, Anthony F.; Ibrahim, Ahmad A.
Objectives To determine the knowledge and attitudes on modern contraceptive use of women living in an inner city area of Osogbo. Materials and methods Three hundred and fifty nine women of childbearing age were studied utilizing a community-based, descriptive, cross-sectional study design. A multistage random sampling technique was used in recruiting respondents to the study. A four-part questionnaire was applied dually, by interviewers and by respondents’ self administration, and the data was analyzed using the SPSS software version 17.0. Results The mean age of respondents was 28.6 ± 6.65 years. The majority (90.3%) of respondents were aware of modern methods of family planning (FP), 76.0% claimed awareness of where to obtain FP services, and 74.9% knew of at least five methods. However, only 30.6% had ever used contraceptives, while only 13.1% were current users. The most frequently used method was the male condom. The commonly perceived barriers accounting for low use of FP methods were fear of perceived side effects (44.0%), ignorance (32.6%), misinformation (25.1%), superstition (22.0%), and culture (20.3%). Some reasons were proffered for respondents’ nonuse of modern contraception. Predictors of use of modern contraceptives include the awareness of a place of FP service provision, respondents’ approval of the use of contraceptives, higher education status, and being married. Conclusion Most of the barriers reported appeared preventable and removable and may be responsible for the reported low point prevalence of use of contraceptives. It is recommended that community-based behavioral-change communication programs be instituted, aimed at improving the perceptions of women with respect to bridging knowledge gaps about contraceptive methods and to changing deep-seated negative beliefs related to contraceptive use in Nigeria.
Nigeria has earned a well-deserved reputation for having one of the most diverse and complex polities on the African continent. Not surprisingly, its vast civil society reflects this complexity, presenting a daunting challenge to USAID/Nigeria and other d...
|Before Nigeria can connect to the World Wide Web, it must have a national computer network and a series of organization-based intranets. This letter assesses Nigeria's communications infrastructure; discusses what is being done to improve it; and credits its shortcomings to low university funding, rising computers costs, currency exchange rates,…
In this paper we investigated cybercrime and examined the relevant laws available to combat this crime in Nigeria. Therefore, we had a critical review of criminal laws in Nigeria and also computer network and internet security. The internet as an instrument to aid crime ranges from business espionage, to banking fraud, obtaining un-authorized and sabotaging data in computer networks of
Time and again, observers of Nigeria's politics have predicted—so far incorrectly—the nation's ineluctable demise. Recently, this multiethnic country has been coping with intense political strains, including vexa- tious issues of presidential tenure and entitlement to that office. In Nigeria, presidential elections are the main events of extended electoral exercises that involve voting to fill the bicameral national assembly, the 36
This lesson plans project provides information and classroom-ready lesson plans about Nigeria. These lesson plans can stand alone or be used in conjunction with one another. They have been correlated to coincide with the standards set forth in Geography for Life. Following background information "Why Study Nigeria?" (A. Shields), lesson plans are…
Northern Iowa Univ., Cedar Falls. Geographic Alliance of Iowa.
In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs. PMID:12284522
Nigeria continues to be the major hub in Africa for the transshipment of Southeast Asian (SEA) and, to a limited degree, Southwest Asian (SWA) heroin to Europe and the United States. Nigerian drug trafficking organizations are among the largest traffickin...
Objective Poverty is both a cause and consequence of tuberculosis. The objective of this study is to quantify patient/household costs for an episode of tuberculosis (TB), its relationships with household impoverishment, and the strategies used to cope with the costs by TB patients in a resource-limited high TB/HIV setting. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in three rural hospitals in southeast Nigeria. Consecutive adults with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB were interviewed to determine the costs each incurred in their care-seeking pathway using a standardised questionnaire. We defined direct costs as out-of-pocket payments, and indirect costs as lost income. Results Of 452 patients enrolled, majority were male 55% (249), and rural residents 79% (356), with a mean age of 34 (±11.6) years. Median direct pre-diagnosis/diagnosis cost was $49 per patient. Median direct treatment cost was $36 per patient. Indirect pre-diagnostic and treatment costs were $416, or 79% of total patient costs, $528. The median total cost of TB care per household was $592; corresponding to 37% of median annual household income pre-TB. Most patients reported having to borrow money 212(47%), sell assets 42(9%), or both 144(32%) to cope with the cost of care. Following an episode of TB, household income reduced increasing the proportion of households classified as poor from 54% to 79%. Before TB illness, independent predictors of household poverty were; rural residence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.8), HIV-positive status (aOR 4.8), and care-seeking at a private facility (aOR 5.1). After TB care, independent determinants of household poverty were; younger age (?35 years; aOR 2.4), male gender (aOR 2.1), and HIV-positive status (aOR 2.5). Conclusion Patient and household costs for TB care are potentially catastrophic even where services are provided free-of-charge. There is an urgent need to implement strategies for TB care that are affordable for the poor.
Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Alobu, Isaac; lgwenyi, Chika; Hopewell, Philip C.
Background Early diagnosis of HIV in infants provides a critical opportunity to strengthen follow-up of HIV-exposed children and assure early access to antiretroviral (ARV) treatment for infected children. This study describes findings from an Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) program and the effectiveness of a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) intervention in six health facilities in Cross-River and Akwa-Ibomstates, south-south Nigeria. Methods This was a retrospective study. Records of 702 perinatally exposed babies aged six weeks to 18 months who had a DNA PCR test between November 2007 and July 2009 were reviewed. Details of the ARV regimen received to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), breastfeeding choices, HIV test results, turn around time (TAT) for results and post test ART enrolment status of the babies were analysed. Results Two-thirds of mother-baby pairs received ARVs and 560 (80%) babies had ever been breastfed. Transmission rates for mother-baby pairs who received ARVs for PMTCT was 4.8% (CI 1.3, 8.3) at zero to six weeks of age compared to 19.5% (CI 3.0, 35.5) when neither baby nor mother received an intervention. Regardless of intervention, the transmission rates for babies aged six weeks to six months who had mixed feeding was 25.6% (CI 29.5, 47.1) whereas the transmission rates for those who were exclusively breastfed was 11.8% (CI 5.4, 18.1). Vertical transmission of HIV was eight times (AOR 7.8, CI: 4.52-13.19) more likely in the sub-group of mother-baby pairs who did not receive ARVS compared with mother-baby pairs that did receive ARVs. The median TAT for test results was 47 days (IQR: 35-58). A follow-up of 125 HIV positive babies found that 31 (25%) were enrolled into a paediatric ART program, nine (7%) were known to have died before the return of their DNA PCR results, and 85 (67%) could not be traced and were presumed to be lost-to-follow-up. Conclusion Reduction of MTCT of HIV is possible with effective PMTCT interventions, including improved access to ARVs for PMTCT and appropriate infant feeding practices. Loss to follow up of HIV exposed infants is a challenge and requires strategies to enhance retention.
An inventory study into the ethno-veterinary medicine and traditional management practices and the extent of their adoption in the management of small ruminants by farmers in Edo State, Nigeria was carried out. Three hundred and fifty (350) small ruminant farmers randomly chosen from the seven (7) randomly selected local government areas in the state were used for the study. Data pertaining to farmers' background information, small ruminant acquisition and rearing as well as the ethno-veterinary medicines (EVMs) adopted were collected through a scheduled interview where structured questionnaires were administered. Data collected were used in the computation of ethno-veterinary medicine use indices (EVMUIs) and were subjected to simple statistical analysis. Results showed that 60.5% of the farmers interviewed were male while 39.4% were females and 56.9% of them were above 40 years old. About 60% of the farmers had between primary and secondary education, while 33.1% have no formal education and about 86% had little or no exposure to mass media. Thirty-seven (37) different EVMs/Traditional practices were identified. Based on their EVMUIs, 11 or 29.73% were highly used, 9 or 24.32% were moderately used while 17 or 45.95% were poorly used by farmers. Materials identified were noted to be locally available and were fully discussed. It is concluded that EVMs practices are actually adapted to the culture and socio-economic realities of resource poor farmers and means of spreading the knowledge among small scale farmers should be encouraged. PMID:19412741
The diagnostic accuracy of urine dipsticks was investigated using two different brands in five endemic communities of south-western Nigeria. The BM-5L test was used in 1992 to screen 566 subjects in two communities in Ogun State, while 1457 subjects in three other communities in Osun State were screened with the Combur-9 test in 2006. Haematuria gave a higher prevalence of infection than proteinuria irrespective of which strip brand was used (e.g. BM-5L test: 58.3 and 36.2%; Combur-9 test: 46.5 and 41.9%, respectively). Compared with egg microscopy (gold standard), haematuria identified over 90% of egg-positive samples using either the BM-5L test in 1992 or the Combur-9 test in 2006. The corresponding values for proteinuria were 58% using the BM-5L test and 82% using the Combur-9 test. Sensitivity of haematuria to infection was higher using the BM-5L test (92.4-93.5%) than Combur-9 (58.6-73.3%), while sensitivity of proteinuria to infection was higher using Combur-9 (55.5-80.4%) than BM-5L test (26.0-58.3%). However, both strip brands have comparable specificity for haematuria (BM-5L test, 88.3-99.5%; Combur-9, 88.9-100%) and proteinuria (BM-5L test, 94.4-100%; Combur-9, 98.7-100%) to infection. Based on these results we conclude that neither brand nor manufacturer has a significance effect on the performance of chemical reagent strips. However, the diagnostic value of both haematuria and proteinuria varied according to the positivity level adopted, intensity of infection and age, but was not affected by sex and village of residence. PMID:19068147
Ugbomoiko, U S; Obiezue, R N N; Ogunniyi, T A B; Ofoezie, I E
It is argued that Nigeria must focus on effective environmentally protective intensive farming, resource management methods, and strong family planning programs. Other contributory factors are recognized as the lack of democracy and the "ill-advised" internal policies of the government. The emphasis is on man-made decisions about migration, natality, and land use practices that have ecological consequences that significantly affect the economy. Land degradation in Nigeria is attributed to improper agricultural and husbandry practices. Land degradation has severe ecological, economic, and human costs. Awareness of environmental problems in Nigeria is growing. Natural disasters such as the droughts of 1984-85, continued soil depletion, accumulations of soil wastes, increased flooding in urban areas, and land erosion in Anambra state are evidence of the growing environmental problems. Agricultural development should involve changing rural land use practices, using technology that is "appropriate" to the climate, crops, and culture of the people, and introducing agroforestry. Population growth in Nigeria puts pressure on the fragile ecosystem. Actual carrying capacity is a rough calculation. Nigeria's population growth patterns follow a pattern that suggests population pressure on carrying capacity. The acceleration of population growth has strained the traditional system of agriculture. Land is overused, and cultivation continues on unsuitable land. Domestic policies during the oil boom encouraged rapid industrialization at the expense of the environment. Migration increased to urban centers, but cities did not provide suitable housing, waste disposal, safe water supplies, and other basic facilities. PMID:12347030
In this article it is argued that, although the study of ethnicity in Nigeria bears the imprint of almost all the different perspectives that have been deployed towards the study of ethnicity; perspectives that privilege the role of the state and critical élites in ethnic mobilization have dominated the literature. Apart from the tenuous explanation of false consciousness, a lot
From earlier and recent reports it would appear that contagious ecthyma is endemic in Nigeria although the virus was only recently isolated from indigenous breeds of sheep and goats from a natural outbreak (Obi and Gibbs, 1978). Many exotic breeds of sheep have been introduced into state farms for up-grading of indigenous breeds but a search through the literature revealed
Airway inflammation and related respiratory complaints are common symptoms among waste management workers (WMWs). This study investigated the relationship between exposure to municipal solid waste (MSW) and the levels of inflammatory markers and oxidative stress among WMW of Ogun State, South West Nigeria. A total of 280 subjects consisting of 180 WMW and 100 controls were recruited. Ten millilitres of blood were collected from antecubital vein of the subjects for analysis. Results reveal that exposure to MSW is associated with systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Significant (p < 0.001) elevation of ceruloplasmin (Cp) and C-reactive protein was associated with marked decreases in superoxide dismutase (p < 0.01), catalase (p < 0.001), and glutathione (p < 0.05) and significant (p < 0.001) increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) and uric acid when compared with control. Haematological disorders include significant (p < 0.05) decreases in haemoglobin, packed cell volume, and mean corpuscular volume and significant (p < 0.01) increase in total leucocyte count. Apart from decreased albumin (p < 0.05) and elevated aspartate aminotransferase (p < 0.05) activity observed in WMW, other markers of hepatic (alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol and triglycerides) and renal (urea and creatinine) functions did not change significantly (p > 0.05) when compared with the control. A positive correlation between leucocytes (r = 0.195, p < 0.01), Cp (r = 0.210, p < 0.01) and job duration and between Cp and MDA (r = 0.200, p < 0.01) and Cp and leucocytes (r = 0.260, p < 0.001) were observed in WMW. Overall, exposure to MSW predisposes to systemic inflammation and oxidative stress and Cp may be a useful biomarker for monitoring health status of Nigerian WMWs. PMID:22577128
Bacterial count in prepared food or water is a key factor in assessing the quality and safety of food. It also reveals the level of hygiene adopted by food handlers in the course of preparation of such foods. This comparative study evaluated the bacteriological quality of food and water consumed in Nsukka, Enugu state, Nigeria, using three bacteria enumeration methods. Data obtained are assumed to reflect the level of personal and environmental hygiene in the study population. Ten types of foods--beans, yam, abacha, okpa, moimoi, pear, cassava foofoo, rice, agidi, and garri--and 10 water samples were evaluated for bacteriological quality, precisely determining the level of coliform contamination, using the most probable number (MPN), lactose fermentation count (LFC), and Escherichia coli count (ECC) methods. Bacterial counts differed significantly (p < 0.05) among the various food samples. However, this did not differ significantly in the three methods used for the enumeration of coliforms, suggesting that any of the three methods could be validly used for such studies with confidence. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the two major coliforms identified among 98 coliform isolates obtained from the various food samples, of which 78 (79.6%) were assumed to be of human origin on account of their ability to grow at 44 degrees C. The level of coliform contamination in the food samples from vendors and restaurants (geometric mean count 7.64-9.21; MPN > or = 50) were above the accepted 10(4) colony-forming unit/g or MPN < or = 10 limits. The results of the study, therefore, call for stringent supervision and implementation of food-safety practices and regular education on food and personal hygiene among food vendors. PMID:22283029
Nkere, Chukwuemeka K; Ibe, Nnenne I; Iroegbu, Christian U
The United States Federal Sentencing Guidelines, in use since 1987, was set up to reduce disparity in sentencing and its application was made mandatory. Though there are a few who are in favor of the guidelines, the guidelines as mandatory have been severely criticized and many have called for their abolition. Consequently, in the twin cases of United States v.
Access to justice should not be a privilege of the rich alone. In a country where more than 70% of its inhabitants live below the poverty line, getting justice to the poor has been a matter of concern. However, there was no visible effort at either the federal or state level until the creation of the Lagos State Office of
When research for the Area Handbook for Nigeria was completed in mid-1971, the country was struggling with problems that had arisen in an era of sociopolitical crisis-difficulties that had strained traditional regional relationships and national unity. A ...
The Almajiri heritage is, like the madrassahs in Central Asia, a system of Muslim education that dates back several centuries. With the imposition of British colonial rule between 1902 and 1960 on parts of the Sokoto Empire that currently constitute northern Nigeria, the North's amalgamation with Southern Nigerian British protectorates in 1914, and the formal abolition of slavery in northern
In the course of an archaeological project in the southern Chad Basin of Nigeria, excavations were conducted at several deeply stratified mound sites that date from the Late Neolithic to the Late Iron Age. As a way to complement the ceramic sequence obtained so far and to link it with today's pottery tradition, a small excavation was conducted at a
This study employed the use of the Stochastic Frontier Production Function in the comparative economic analysis of the relative technical efficiency of cassava farmers in the three agro-ecological zones of Edo State. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 156 cassava farmers from the three agro-ecological zones of the State and the differences in the results obtained were
The fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis), an important cucurbitaceous leaf and seed vegetable, is indigenous to the west tropical rainforest area from Bendel to\\u000a Cross Rivers states of Nigeria (c. longitude 7°–8° E and latitude 5°–6° N). Though endemic to southeastern Nigeria, Telfairia\\u000a is of local ethnobotanical importance in the folklore and the dietary and cropping systems of Igbos and their
|The study investigated the relationship between vocational interest socio-economic status and re-entry of girls into school in Edo State. The research design adopted was correlational because it sought to establish the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable. A sample size of 306 girls who re-enrolled in…
Alika, Ijeoma Henrietta; Egbochuku, Elizabeth Omotunde
2 Abstract: The study focused on role of women in agricultural development and their constraints in Biliri Local Government Area of Gombe State. Simple random sampling technique was used to select six villages from the LGA and 60 women farmers. Interview scheduled was used to obtain information from the women, on their socio-economic characteristics, farm activities, farm production and their
E. F. Fabiyi; B. B. Danladi; K. E. Akande; Y. Mahmood
|This study was conducted to investigate the home influences on the academic performance of agricultural science secondary school students in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State. The instrument used in data collection was a validated questionnaire structured on a two point rating scale. Simple random sampling technique was used to select…
The study assessed the training needs of fadama farmers in Osun State for future agricultural extension work development. Primary data on fadama farming were collected from 150 fadama farmers selected using random sampling technique. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation matrix and regression techniques. The results of analysis indicated that fadama farming is practiced mostly very close to
A survey of the gross alpha and beta radionuclide activity of Okpare Creek in Delta state has been carried out. Twenty samples of the creek water were collected from the farming, residential\\/commercial and industrial zones along the creek and were analyzed using the eurysis system-eight-channels-gas-filled proportional counters. The count results show that the average alpha activities in the farming, residential\\/commercial
The study used the log-linear model derived from the Cobb-Douglas functional form for explaining determinants of productivity among male and female cocoyam farmers in Nsukka Agricultural Zone of Enugu State. The study involved a multi-stage random sampling technique of 120 farmers, consisting of 60 males and 60 females. For the male farmers, the coefficients for capital, cocoyam setts, labour and
B. C Okoye; A. C Okoye; G. N Asumugha; M. U Dimelu; A. E Agwu; C. C Agbaeze
The study examined poverty alleviation through extension education among Fulani pastoralists in Yewa North Local Government Area of Ogun State. Demographic characteristics of the pastoralists revealed that most of them (73.3%) were between the age of thirty-one and sixty years, all were males, 92.4% were married and 81.9% had no formal education. All of them were Muslims and their household
Women's advancement is predicated upon their educational development. But what exactly should this education focus on vis-à-vis cassava production? Answers to this question pre-suppose an understanding of their knowledge of modern cassava production-related practices. The study addresses these issues by gathering data from 120 women cassava farmers in two selected local government areas of Edo State. Results show that the
The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) has been carried out in soil samples collected from oil and gas field environment of Delta state, using gamma spectroscopy operated on a Canberra vertical high purity 2?×2? NaI(TI) detector. The activity concentration of the samples ranges from 19.2 ± 5.6Bqkg(-1) to 94.2 ± 7.7Bqkg(-1) with mean value of 41.0 ± 5.0Bqkg(-1) for (226)Ra, 17.1 ± 3.0Bqkg(-1) to 47.5 ± 5.3Bqkg(-1) with mean value of 29.7 ± 4Bqkg(-1) for (232)Th and 107.0 ± 10.2Bqkg(-1) to 712.4 ± 38.9Bqkg(-1) with a mean value of 412.5 ± 20.0Bqkg(-1) for (40)K. These values obtained are well within the world range and values reported elsewhere in other countries, but are little above some countries reported average values and some part of Nigeria. The study also examined some radiation hazard indices, the mean values obtained are, 98.5 ± 12.3Bq.kg(-1), 0.8Bqkg(-1), 54.6?Gyh(-1), 0.07?Svy(-1), 0.3 and 0.4 for Radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), Representative level index (I?), Absorbed Dose rates (D), Annual Effective Dose Rates (E(ff) Dose), External Hazard Index (H(ex)) and Internal Hazard Index (H(in)) respectively. These calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate associated with it are well below their permissible limit. The soil and sediments from the study area provide no excessive exposures for inhabitants and can be use as construction materials without posing any immediate radiological threat to the public. However, oil workers in the fields and host communities are cautioned against excess exposure to avoid future accumulative dose of these radiations from sludge and sediment of this area. PMID:22310017
Congenital malaria, defined as the presence of malaria parasites in the erythrocytes of newborns aged <7 days, was considered rare in endemic areas until recent studies started reporting high prevalence rates. Various theories have been postulated to explain this phenomenon, but they are not proven conclusively from research. Against this background, a prospective study was designed with the following objectives. To determine the prevalence of congenital malaria parasitaemia and identify possible risk factors amongst newborns delivered in O.O.U.T.H Sagamu, Ogun State. Over a 6-month period, 192 live newborns and their mothers were consecutively recruited into the study. Within 3 days of life, neonatal peripheral blood samples were collected for malaria screening by blood film microscopy and detection of plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) with the OptiMAL Rapid Malaria Test kit. Maternal peripheral blood samples were taken simultaneously, to check for malaria infestation by blood film microscopy, and questionnaires were administered on the mothers to identify possible factors associated with the development of neonatal parasitaemia. Neonatal clinical and laboratory data were recorded in a pro forma designed for the study. Data analysis was done with Epi-info version 6 software and level of significance set at <5%. Twenty-one of 192 newborns delivered in O.O.U.T.H within the study period were diagnosed as having congenital malaria by blood film microscopy, giving a prevalence rate of 10.9%. The main identified innate neonatal risk factor for congenital malaria parasitaemia was prematurity. First-order pregnancy, history of fever within 3 months of delivery and peripheral parasitaemia at delivery (p < 0.001) were the variables that were significantly higher in the mothers of the parasitemic newborns. We conclude that congenital malaria parasitaemia in tropical endemic areas is not rare. Pre-term neonates, infants of primigravidae, women with history of fever within 3 months of delivery and women with post-partum peripheral parasitaemia may benefit from routine screening for malaria. PMID:18375970
|Objective: Community-based health promotion intervention for improving unhygienic disposal of children's faeces was conducted in a rural area of Nigeria. Setting: The study was conducted in Ife South Local Government area of Osun State, Nigeria. Design: The study was conducted in 10 randomly selected rural villages: five control and five active.…
Jinadu, M. K.; Adegbenro, C. A.; Esmai, A. O.; Ojo, A. A.; Oyeleye, B. A.
Conflicts over the status of Sharia Islamic law have dominated constitutional politics and ethno-religious relations in the Nigerian federation for decades. The adoption of stringent Sharia codes by 12 Muslim majority states in northern Nigeria, beginning with Zamfara in 1999, was particularly contentious, provoking broad concerns about the viability and survival of Nigeria's innovatively structured multi-ethnic federal system. But Sharia
The study provides empirical evidence for the management of stress by teachers of secondary schools in Nigeria. A total of 3466 teachers, drawn from secondary schools in Ogun State of Nigeria, returned their questionnaire for the study. Data were analysed using simple percentage and chi-square. The findings indicate that teachers frequently use…
The paper empirically investigated the relationship between profitability, bank loans, age of business and the size of small and medium enterprises in Nigeria. Using fixed-effects regression model, the paper was based on a balanced panel data of 115 SMEs of existing firms that have taken loans or currently have active loans, randomly selected in Ondo State, Nigeria. The equation specified
Background Malaria is currently the most important cause of death and disability in children aged under 5 years in Africa. A health education interventional study of this nature is essential in primary control of an endemic communicable disease such as malaria. This study was therefore designed to determine the effect of health education on the home management of Malaria among the caregivers of children under 5 years old in Ogun State, Nigeria. Methods The study design was a quasi-experimental study carried out in Ijebu North Local Government Area of Ogun State. A multistage random sampling technique was used in choosing the required samples for this study and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information. The intervention consisted of a structured educational program based on a course content adapted from the national malaria control program. A total of 400 respondents were recruited into the study, with 200 each in both the experimental and control groups, and were followed up for a period of 3 months when the knowledge and uptake of insecticide treated net was reassessed. Results There was no statistically significant differences observed between the experimental and control groups in terms of sociodemographic characteristics such as age (P?=?0.99), marital status (P?=?0.48), religion (P?=?0.1), and income (P?=?0.51). The majority in both the experimental (75.0%) and control (71.5%) groups use arthemisinin-based combination therapy as first line home treatment drugs pre intervention. Post health education intervention, the degree of change in the knowledge of referral signs and symptoms in the experimental group was 52.8% (P?0.0001) while it was 0.2% in the control group (P?=?0.93). Tepid sponging improved by 45.0%, paracetamol use by 55.3%, and the use of herbs and other drugs were not significantly influenced in the experimental (P?=?0.65 and 0.99) and control group (P?=?0.89 and 0.88), respectively. Furthermore, there was a 55.7% (P?=?0.001) increase in the proportion of respondents using the correct dose of arthemisinin-based combination therapy in the home management of malaria and 23.9% (P?0.001) in the proportion using it for the required time. Conclusions The study concludes that there is a shift in the home management of malaria with the use of current and effective antimalarial drugs. It also demonstrated the effect of health education on the promptness of appropriate actions taken among the respondents for early diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can be guaranteed if caregivers are knowledgeable on prompt actions to be taken in the home management of malaria.
Although the main focus of the paper is companies’ annual reports, it attempts to discuss briefly other sources of business information available in Nigeria and some of the problems encountered in accessing them. It considers the value business executives place on sources of business information and in particular companies’ annual reports. A survey of three types of business organizations in
Canada was one of the first countries to call for tough sanctions against Nigeria following the execution of Ogoni dissident Ken Saro?Wiwa on 10 November 1995. Canada's subsequent attempt, from within the Commonwealth, to force the Nigerian military government to make the transition to democracy illustrates Canada's position within that organization and the debate as to whether sanctions can compel
Background In developing countries, most childbirth occurs at home and is not assisted by skilled attendants. This situation increases the risk of death for both mother and child and has severe maternal and neonatal health complications. The purpose of this study was to explore pregnant women’s perceptions and utilization of traditional birth attendant (TBA) services in a rural Local Government Area (LGA) in Ogun State, southwest Nigeria. Methods A quantitative design was used to obtain information using a structured questionnaire from 250 pregnant women attending four randomly selected primary health care clinics in the LGA. Data were analyzed using Epi Info (v 3.5.1) statistical software. Results Almost half (48.8%) of the respondents were in the age group 26–35 years, with a mean age of 29.4 ± 7.33 years. About two-thirds (65.6%) of the respondents had been pregnant 2–4 times before. TBA functions, as identified by respondents, were: “taking normal delivery” (56.7%), “providing antenatal services” (16.5%), “performing caesarean section” (13.0%), “providing family planning services” (8.2%), and “performing gynaecological surgeries” (5.6%). About 6/10 (61.0%) respondents believed that TBAs have adequate knowledge and skills to care for them, however, approximately 7/10 (69.7%) respondents acknowledged that complications could arise from TBA care. Services obtained from TBAs were: routine antenatal care (81.1%), normal delivery (36.1%), “special maternal bath to ward off evil spirits” (1.9%), “concoctions for mothers to drink to make baby strong” (15.1%), and family planning services (1.9%). Reasons for using TBA services were: “TBA services are cheaper” (50.9%), “TBA services are more culturally acceptable in my environment” (34.0%), “TBA services are closer to my house than hospital services” (13.2%), “TBAs provide more compassionate care than orthodox health workers” (43.4%), and “TBA service is the only maternity service that I know” (1.9%). Approximately 8/10 (79.2%) of the users (past or current) opined that TBA services are effective but could be improved with some form of training (78.3%). More than three-quarters (77.1%) opposed the banning of TBA services. Almost 7/10 (74.8%) users were satisfied with TBA services. Conclusion Study findings revealed a positive perception and use of TBA services by the respondents. This underlines the necessity for TBAs’ knowledge and skills to be improved within permissible standards through sustained partnership between TBAs and health systems. It is hoped that such partnership will foster a healthy collaboration between providers of orthodox and traditional maternity services that will translate into improved maternal and neonatal health outcomes in relevant settings.
This study was conducted to determine the perception of nurses on various aspects of continuing professional education (CPE). A mixed method design (quantitative/qualitative) was adopted. A self-explanatory, semi-structured questionnaire was validated and used to collect data in addition to unstructured interview. One hundred and fifty nurses were selected through stratified random sampling from two hospitals in Calabar, Nigeria and served as participants. Participants generally perceived CPE as valuable and worthwhile and participated because it is mandatory and helps them to retain their jobs. The content of CPE were perceived to be more relevant for clinicians than for nurse educators; clinical skills and quantitative research methodology were adequately covered while evidence-based practice, attitudinal issues, nursing theories and patient safety were inadequately covered. CPE was perceived to be fragmented without gaining points, follow-up monitoring and evaluation after CPE which make it difficult to objectively assess the influence of CPE on quality of care. It is recommended that nurse leaders in Nigeria should develop online CPE modules for nursing, and allocate points to them so that participation may contribute to career progression. Effective monitoring and evaluation systems should be put in place to assess impact of CPE on staff competence and patient outcomes. PMID:23664784
Nsemo, Alberta D; John, Mildred E; Etifit, Rita E; Mgbekem, Mary A; Oyira, Emilia J
As urban and rural centres in Nigeria experienced population explosion in ethnic composition, ethnic disharmony and apathy increased over social and economic policies of the government. State sovereignty can no longer be regarded as only for protection against external interference, but as a charge of responsibility, whereby the state is made to be accountable for both internal and external mandates.
When states in northern Nigeria started processes for implementing Sharia laws in 1999, it triggered sentiments all over the country. In Kaduna State, the proposal led to demonstrations and violent clashes. The article examines the ways in which different scales of politics are mutually constituted in the Sharia case and how the Sharia proposal subsequently resulted in clashes in Kaduna.
Background Onchocerciasis can be effectively controlled as a public health problem by annual mass drug administration of ivermectin, but it was not known if ivermectin treatment in the long term would be able to achieve elimination of onchocerciasis infection and interruption of transmission in endemic areas in Africa. A recent study in Mali and Senegal has provided the first evidence of elimination after 15-17 years of treatment. Following this finding, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has started a systematic evaluation of the long-term impact of ivermectin treatment projects and the feasibility of elimination in APOC supported countries. This paper reports the first results for two onchocerciasis foci in Kaduna, Nigeria. Methods In 2008, an epidemiological evaluation using skin snip parasitological diagnostic method was carried out in two onchocerciasis foci, in Birnin Gwari Local Government Area (LGA), and in the Kauru and Lere LGAs of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The survey was undertaken in 26 villages and examined 3,703 people above the age of one year. The result was compared with the baseline survey undertaken in 1987. Results The communities had received 15 to 17 years of ivermectin treatment with more than 75% reported coverage. For each surveyed community, comparable baseline data were available. Before treatment, the community prevalence of O. volvulus microfilaria in the skin ranged from 23.1% to 84.9%, with a median prevalence of 52.0%. After 15 to 17 years of treatment, the prevalence had fallen to 0% in all communities and all 3,703 examined individuals were skin snip negative. Conclusions The results of the surveys confirm the finding in Senegal and Mali that ivermectin treatment alone can eliminate onchocerciasis infection and probably disease transmission in endemic foci in Africa. It is the first of such evidence for the APOC operational area.
Nigeria is endowed with a wealth of rich and varied human, natural, and cultural resources which are a great asset to the country's tourism development. However despite the growth of international tourism and its importance in developing countries, in Nigeria the tourism industry has not grown significantly. Peace and stability are important prerequisites to tourism development. The political instability, crime,
This Intelligence Community Assessment (ICA) highlights the rising HIV/AIDS problem through 2010 in five countries of strategic importance to the United States that have large populations at risk for HIV infection: Nigeria, Ethiopia, Russia, India, and Ch...
Nigeria's statutory framework grants local officials the authority to extend or deny basic rights to citizens in their jurisdictions, thereby creating incentives for the politicization of ethnicity and escalating intercommunal violence. Ineffective state ...
ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to assess the facilities and resources available to support internationally endorsed standards of asthma care at tertiary hospitals (University teaching, Federal Medical Centre and State specialist Hospitals) in Nigeria.
This paper concentrates on three main issues. First a brief overview of the nature of the politics, economy and health in Nigeria prior to colonialism. It is important to know, for instance, how medicine was organized prior to the advent of modern medicine. I think our understanding of pre-colonial Nigeria is important because it enables us a better grasp of the changes which were later introduced by imperialists. The second issue will be the imperial penetration of Nigeria by Britain. Imperialism took several forms ranging from the activities of Christian missionaries to the eventual colonial rule over the various kingdoms and empires which were in the region. The effects of the imperialist activities on the transformation of Nigerian society and particularly the introduction of the capitalist productive forces wil be discussed, with the view to examine changes in the organization of health and medicine. The last issue to be considered in this paper will be the role of imperialism in class formation in Nigeria. Emphasis will be first, on the social and economic condition of colonial physicians who came from England and then how they were related to the colonial state and colonial health policies. From this premise, we can examine the historically specific circumstances under which Nigerians were trained as physicians and how they (Nigerian physicians) got involved in the politics of nationalism. We will then discuss how the First and Second World War gave energy to Nigerian nationalist movements. The paper ends by stating that the Nigerian nationalists who had struggled and secured Nigeria's political independence eventually became Nigeria's ruling class which now controls the post-colonial state. PMID:3296221
ObjectiveTo evaluate HIV and syphilis prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria, and assess their HIV-related risk behaviours and exposure to HIV prevention interventions.MethodsCross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling conducted in Lagos, Kano and Cross River states, Nigeria, between July and September 2007.ResultsA total of 879 MSM participated, 293 from each state. Eight participants (1.1%, CI 0.1%
Mike Merrigan; Aderemi Azeez; Bamgboye Afolabi; Otto Nzapfurundi Chabikuli; Obinna Onyekwena; George Eluwa; Bolatito Aiyenigba; Issa Kawu; Kayode Ogungbemi; Christoph Hamelmann
Urban areas are faced with the problem of increasing population and consequently inadequate supply of food items. Many urban households and individuals in Nigeria merely eat for Survival. This study was therefore designed to assess the state of food security among urban households in the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 respondents
H. Ibrahim; N. R. Uba-Eze; S. O. Oyewole; E. G. Onuk
Oil has played a major role in the development dynamics of the Nigerian nation. Due to institutional corruption and fiscal mismanagement, Nigeria's oil wealth has brought more ruin than blessing to the natural environment, children and youths. The oil industry in Nigeria is characterised by a vicious cycle of violence involving the state, multinational oil companies, and lately a group
BACKGROUND: Nigeria's national standard has recently moved to artemisinin combination treatments for malaria. As clinicians in the private sector are responsible for attending a large proportion of the population ill with malaria, this study compared prescribing in the private and public sector in one State in Nigeria prior to promoting ACTs. OBJECTIVE: To assess prescribing for uncomplicated malaria in government
Martin Meremikwu; Uduak Okomo; Chukwuemeka Nwachukwu; Angela Oyo-Ita; John Eke-Njoku; Joseph Okebe; Esu Oyo-Ita; Paul Garner
|In northern Nigeria, over 80% of the unskilled and uneducated adolescent street boys, or "Almajiris", are from the ethnic Hausa-Fulani tribes. They depend on street begging and menial jobs for daily survival. In dealing with the situation, state vocational centers were established as the Millennium Hope Project (MHP) to provide the boys with…
Focused on maritime piracy in the oil-producing Niger Delta (Nigeria), this article addresses three main questions. First, how can we measure the escalation or decrease of criminal violence at sea? Secondly, what is the relationship between piracy and the (permanent) crisis of the state in Africa? Finally, what is the relationship between violence at sea and conflicts onshore? Actually, there
Purpose: The prevalence of E. coli, Ps. aeruginosa and Staph aureus isolates from urine of selected residents in Zaria was investigated. This was an attempt to elucidate the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of these bacteria commonly implicated in urinary tact infection. Methods: Urine samples collected from students of Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University and Kaduna State Polytechnic, Zaria, Nigeria,
The deplorable and unsafe state of road traffic environment in Nigeria renders children the most helpless, vulnerable and endangered class of road users in the country. Practically, other road users such as the motorists and cyclists are psychologically reckless and unmindful of children safety. Also, the pronounce disorderliness in the admixture of various components of road traffic units such as
Terrorism is a socio-political disorder that has grown to the detriment of the international security system and global economy. Acts of Terrorism have increased over the years since September 11, 2001 terrorist attack directed at the United States of America. Since then, some nations including Nigeria have been suspected as pro-terrorist countries, possible haven for the terrorists and prone to
Since the execution of Osama bin Laden and a few other al-Qaeda kingpins, the incidence of international terrorism seems to be on the decline and the ‘war on terror’ has been applauded as a huge success, with some even arguing that terrorism will fizzle out sooner rather than later. But recent experiences in Nigeria and some other African states reveal
As a consequence of the illegal dumping of toxic wastes in Koko, in the former Bendel State, in 1987, the Nigerian Government promulgated the Harmful Wastes Decree which provides the legal framework for the effective control of the disposal of toxic and hazardous waste into any environment within the confines of Nigeria. This was immediately followed by the creation of
This paper explores the nexus between the police and corruption in Nigeria. Based on an empirical study of the role of the police utilising Lagos State as a case study, it was observed that corrupt practices in the police force are not a one-off event, rather they constitute a web of structural and accentuating factors, which are analysed within the
The development of higher education in Nigeria over the past quarter of a century has been characterized by a high degree of proliferation and dispersal. In the distribution of universities there exists a cautious state of balance among the former regional components of the country. Variation is much more marked in the distribution of other categories of institutions of higher
Flood estimation is one of the major aspects of hydrologic design and is the first in planning for flood regulation and protection measures. This research work was aimed at comparing prediction models for forecasting flood occurrences in River Lokoja, located in Kogi State of Nigeria. Relevant climatic data such as rainfalls, flood discharges, river stages of 24 years duration (1980
Astronomy cannot be said to be entirely new in Nigeria. There are hundreds of cosmogony and ancient astronomical practices in Nigeria, but these need to be studied systematically. Nigerian ethnoastronomy is revealed in the folklore, ancient architecture, religious practices, traditional poetry and art works of the different ethnic groups. Though expressed within a cultural framework, much of Nigerian ethnoastronomy contains scientific principles of astronomy. This paper discusses the need to bridge the gap between ethnoastronomy in Nigeria and modern astronomy by providing scientific interpretation to such cosmogonies and ancient astronomical practices.
Four families of venomous snakes are found in Nigeria--Viperidae, Elapidae, Colubridae and Actraspididae but three species carpet viper (Echis ocellatus), black-necked spitting cobra (Naja nigricollis) and puff adder (Bitis arietans), belonging to the first two families, are the most important snakes associated with envenoming in Nigeria. The incidence of bites has been reported as 497 per 100,000 population per year with a 12 percent natural mortality, with Echis ocellatus accounting for at least 66 percent in certain foci. Bites occur more often while victims were farming, herding or walking although the spitting cobra may bite victims who roll upon it in their sleep. Carpet viper venom contains a prothrombin activating procoagulant, haemorrhagin and cytolytic fractions which cause haemorrhage, incoagulable blood, shock and local reactions/ necrosis. The spitting cobra bite manifests with local tissue reaction and occassionally with bleeding from the site of bite, but no classic neurotoxic feature has been observed except following Egyptian cobra (N. haje) bites. Cardiotoxicity and renal failure may occassionally occur following bites by the carpet viper and the puff adder. In the laboratory, haematological and other features are noted and immunodiagnosis has a role in species identification. Immobilisation of the bitten limb is probably the single most important first aid measure. Antivenom should be used cautiously when indicated. As only 8.5 percent of snake bite victims attend hospitals in Nigeria, health education should be the main preventive measure, mean-while, the study of immunisation of occupationally predisposed individuals in endemic areas should be intensified. A new Fab fragment antivenom specific to Nigerian Echis ocellatus was investigated clinically, just as the local herbs-Aristolochia spp, Guiera spp and Schummaniophyton spp are investigated experimentally. PMID:14510123
Background. Nigeria has the world largest burden of paediatric HIV and is also highly endemic for Hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, relatively little is known regarding the prevalence of HBV-HIV coinfections among Nigerian children. Methods. A retrospective study among treatment naive HIV-infected children attending the pediatric clinic of the APIN Plus/Harvard PEPFAR program of the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, between June 2008 and June 2012. Results. The mean age of the 395 subjects studied was 7.53 ± 4.23 years. Thirty-one subjects (7.8%) were positive for HBV. No subject was HIV-HBV-HCV triply infected. Significantly higher HIV-HBC coinfections were found, in older subjects (11–15 years), subjects that did not receive nor complete Hepatitis B vaccinations, and subjects that had a severe immunosuppression of < 15% with respective P values of 0.00, 0.01, and 0.00. HIV-HBV co-infection did not significantly impact on other baseline characteristics including, gender, WHO clinical stage, median absolute CD4 count, mean viral load, median ALT, and hepatotoxicity. Conclusion. A high seroprevalence of HBV among this cohort of HIV-infected children contributes to the calls for pre-ART screening for HBV and the necessary paradigm shift in the ART nucleoside backbone to include agent(s) more dually effective against HIV and HBV.
Well-structured questionnaire on the perception, impression and response to genitourinary bilharziasis (Genitourinary schistosomiasis) was administered and explained in local languages: 'Igbo' 'Esan' 'Ezon' Itshekiri and Bini to 33815 inhabitants of selected endemic areas in south-eastern Nigeria from January, 1999 to December, 2001. Out of this number, 3815 (11.3%) were properly filled and returned. About 42.0% of the inhabitants admitted knowledge of the disease, while 14 (0.4%) knew about the aetiologic agent. About 181 (5.0%) who responded, admitted procuring treatment, while 100 (5.0%) declined to seek treatment of any sort. The relationships between water-bodies and human activities, and infection were well discussed. Amongst those who admitted knowledge of the disease but no knowledge of its etiologic agent, declined seeking treatment of any kind, but believe the disease is a natural phenomenon in ones developmental stage and therefore of no morbidity and mortality. Laboratory analysis of urine, faeces, semen and HVS was employed to assess questionnaire responses, and in some cases, physical examination was utilized to augment laboratory analysis in confirming urinal diagnosis. Haematuria was only directly related to egg count in the early part of life. Females were significantly haematuric and excreted more ova than males (p < 0.05). Headache (43.0%) and fever (31.0%) were major clinical signs while sexual pains (22.0%) were the least. PMID:15361973
Background. Nigeria has the world largest burden of paediatric HIV and is also highly endemic for Hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, relatively little is known regarding the prevalence of HBV-HIV coinfections among Nigerian children. Methods. A retrospective study among treatment naive HIV-infected children attending the pediatric clinic of the APIN Plus/Harvard PEPFAR program of the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, between June 2008 and June 2012. Results. The mean age of the 395 subjects studied was 7.53 ± 4.23 years. Thirty-one subjects (7.8%) were positive for HBV. No subject was HIV-HBV-HCV triply infected. Significantly higher HIV-HBC coinfections were found, in older subjects (11-15 years), subjects that did not receive nor complete Hepatitis B vaccinations, and subjects that had a severe immunosuppression of < 15% with respective P values of 0.00, 0.01, and 0.00. HIV-HBV co-infection did not significantly impact on other baseline characteristics including, gender, WHO clinical stage, median absolute CD4 count, mean viral load, median ALT, and hepatotoxicity. Conclusion. A high seroprevalence of HBV among this cohort of HIV-infected children contributes to the calls for pre-ART screening for HBV and the necessary paradigm shift in the ART nucleoside backbone to include agent(s) more dually effective against HIV and HBV. PMID:23691352
Background There is limited uptake of measures to prevent malaria by pregnant women in Nigeria which is often related to the lack of knowledge on Malaria in Pregnancy (MIP) and its effects on mother and foetus. This study, explored peer to peer education as a tool in raising knowledge of MIP among women of child bearing age. Methods 1105 women of child bearing age were interviewed in their households using a structured questionnaire about their knowledge of malaria in general, MIP and use of preventive measures. Thereafter, a peer education campaign was launched to raise the level of knowledge in the community. The interviews were repeated after the campaign and the responses between the pre- and post-intervention were compared. Results In the pre-assessment women on average answered 64.8% of the question on malaria and its possibility to prevent malaria correctly. The peer education campaign had a significant impact in raising the level of knowledge among the women; after the campaign the respondents answered on average 73.8% of the questions correctly. Stratified analysis on pre and post assessment scores for malaria in general (68.8 & 72.9%) and MIP (61.7 & 76.3%) showed also significant increase. Uptake of bed nets was reported to be low: 11.6% Conclusion Peer education led to a significant increase in knowledge of malaria and its prevention but we could not asses its influence on the use of preventive measures.
Gender-based violence has received increased international focus since after the International Conference on Population and Devlopment in Cairo 1994 and the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing in 1995. This paper reports the activities and outcome of a Christian women group initiative to eliminate dehumanising widowhood practices, a prevalent type of gender-based violence among the Igbos in Eastern Nigeria. Through in-depth interviews, group discussions, participant observations and membership records, information was elicited on the processes and outcome of the women group initiative. Evaluation was done using the community action cycle framework model for community mobilisation. The women group was able to identify and eliminate major dehumanising widowhood practices. Though women were the victims of violence, they were surprisingly also the perpetrators and astute enforcers of the practice, as well as those who vehemently opposed any form of change. Superstitious beliefs and associated fears were major reasons for opposition to change. Women can play key and effective roles in eliminating gender-based violence and in initiating and implementing programmes that guarantee their reproductive and human rights. They should, therefore, be strengthened and encouraged to champion issues that affect their well-being. PMID:16485587
The World Health Organization EPIMODEL computer program has projected that in 1993, there will be 41,023 cumulative cases of AIDS and 642,897 cumulative HIV infections among Nigerian adults. 1.2% of pregnant Nigerian women are reported to be HIV seropositive, 20-30% of whom can be expected to transmit HIV to their offspring. There are therefore many cases of pediatric HIV infection and AIDS in Nigeria. Infants and children can also be infected with HIV through the receipt of HIV-contaminated blood or blood products during transfusion, the use of unsterilized syringes and needles, and the use of contaminated instruments by traditional healers for circumcision, scarification, and tattoos. Vertical transmission, however, is the mode through which pediatric AIDS is most commonly spread. Preventive measures should therefore be directed toward promoting HIV risk reduction behaviors. Diagnosing AIDS and securing the laboratory confirmation of HIV infection are problematic in poor tropical countries like Nigeria. HIV-infected infants of unimpaired immunological status should be immunized with measles, injectable diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis, and inactivated polio virus vaccines. However, measles vaccine must not be given to an already immunocompromised patient. Likewise, BCG vaccination and oral live poliovaccine should not be given to HIV-infected children. PMID:12292367
Summary Burn injuries continue to be a major source of mortality and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries of the world, of which Nigeria is a part. Overview data on burn care in Nigeria are sparse but the available literature on burns and burn care in Nigeria was retrieved through Internet-based search engines, collated, and reviewed. Peculiarities of epidemiology, types of burn, pattern of injuries, complications, and outcome of burn care were reviewed. There were no broad-based overview statistical data on burns in Nigeria in all the articles reviewed. There was no documentation on the regionalization of care and there were no national databases. All reports on epidemiology were hospital-based. Flame is emerging as the predominant cause of burns, and burn injury is occurring increasingly away from the domestic setting. The severity of the injuries is also increasing. Deliberate burn injury remains a practice and a wide range of complications occur as burns sequelae in Nigeria. Several challenges militate against optimal care for burn victims. Burn injuries continue to contribute significantly to the burden of disease in Nigeria. There is a need for broad-based data collection systems. Avoidable complications are common and mortality remains high. Pooling of resources by regionalization of care could increase focus on burn prevention and improve the care of burn victims. Nongovernmental and governmental support to reduce the burden of burns is advocated.
Introduction Febrile convulsions (FC) are a common paediatric problem worldwide. Between 1 and 4% of children will have a febrile convulsion with about 4% of cases arising before the age of six months. Although FC is benign and does not cause death, brain damage or learning disorders, it is quite frightening to observers and parents who witness an episode of FC, would think the child is going to die. Methods This was a quasi-experimental study (a pre and post-test interventional, one group), aimed at assessing the impact of health education on knowledge and home management of febrile convulsion amongst mothers in a rural community in North Western Nigeria. A one in three samples of fifty mothers that met the eligibility criteria where selected using systematic random sampling. Structured interviewer administered questionnaire with close and open-ended questions was administered to obtain data at pre- and post intervention. Results The ages of the mothers ranged from 18-47 with a mean age of 33 ± 7.14years. The perceived causes of febrile convulsion included fever (28%), witch craft (80%) with majority (98%) of the mothers administering traditional medications. Proportion of study subjects with adequate knowledge of febrile convulsion at baseline and post intervention were 4% (mean knowledge score of 35.3± 9.48) and 96.0% (mean knowledge score of 77.69 ± 10.75) respectively (P < 0.0001). Conclusion Although inadequate knowledge and inappropriate home practices about FC were rampant in the study community, using community members to teach and sensitize the mothers on FC improved their knowledge base significantly. The use of effective educational intervention programmes and parental support groups will go a long way in reducing the incidence of FC among children in our communities.
Objective: To compare the nutritional status of disabled children in Nigeria with their non-disabled siblings and neighbours. A second aim was to investigate anthropometric techniques appropriate for disabled children in this situation.Design: A cross-sectional survey.Setting: Nasarawa and Plateau States and the Federal Capital Territory in Central Nigeria.Subjects: 311 children under 10 years of age were studied: 112 with various disabilities,
Objective Community-based health promotion intervention for improving unhygienic disposal of children's faeces was conducted in a rural area of Nigeria.Setting The study was conducted in Ife South Local Government area of Osun State, Nigeria.Design The study was conducted in 10 randomly selected rural villages: five control and five active.Method The intervention, which lasted for nine months, consisted of hygienic use
M. K. Jinadu; C. A. Adegbenro; A. O. Esmai; A. A. Ojo; B. A. Oyeleye
This study investigated peacekeeping in West Africa, with particular focus on Nigeria’s roles (diplomatic, political, cultural, socioeconomic, peacekeeping and peace enforcement) in the West Africa region, from 1990 to 2005. This time frame is particularly important, because in the 1990s, the West African region experienced an outbreak of inter\\/intra state conflicts. These conflicts have been studied extensively by social scientists,
Nigeria is an oil-rich but staggering democracy that has become increasingly important to U.S. strategic interests. The U.S. imports more than 10% of its oil from Nigeria, which holds critical reserves of oil and natural gas. Nigeria is a key partner in t...
This paper examines the military, ethnicity and democracy within the context of Nigeria s historical and sociopolitical reality .. Nigeria s inability to foster a sustainable democratic tradition has negative consequences for the country and at present, it is engaged in the fourth attempt at democracy. The quest for democracy and therefore development in Nigeria has been hindered by the
This paper is an aspect of a wider research project on the introduction of Islam into Southeast Nigeria, the only region in Nigeria that was not touched by the nineteenth century Islamic jihad and subsequent efforts to extend the borders of Islam in the country. The reputation of Southeast Nigeria as a purely Christian region survives to the present (Ottenberg,
There is a great need to study female criminality in African Societies. Therefore, this paper investigates the general characteristics of Nigerian female offenders incarcerated in a major woman's prison in Nigeria. In a preliminary study of female offenders in Nigeria, Oloruntimehin (1982) suggests that female criminality in Nigeria may be correlated with socioeconomic and family background variables. Consequently, the major
In some state?ethnoregional conflicts, unofficial mediators can play an important peacemaking role. In the bitter encounter between Nigeria and the secessionist?minded eastern region (or Biafra) in 1966–70, efforts by various states and international organizations to mediate between the adversaries proved ineffective. Moreover, rather than easing tensions, formal peace talks at Kampala and Addis Ababa proved conflict?creating, in part because the
Background The prevalence of hypertension, an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), is increasing in the developing countries and this may be connected with the economic transition in those countries. Adult hypertension is thought to be related to childhood and adolescent increases in blood pressure, and hence the need to monitor patterns in early life. This study investigates the BP patterns, and their correlates, of adolescents from different geographic areas of residence in Nigeria. Methods A total of 1,088 Nigerian adolescents from different geographic areas of residence were recruited for the study. Their blood pressures and anthropometric indices were measured using standard procedures. The association of blood pressure with height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and geographic area of residence was assessed. Results Male and female urban-dwelling adolescents had significantly (p < 0.05) higher systolic blood pressure (117.45 ± 21.53 mmHg and 114.82 ± 17.95 mmHg respectively) compared to their counterparts living in the non-urban areas (108.20 ± 12.12 mmHg and 106.03 ± 13.06 mmHg respectively), even after adjusting for age and height. Conversely, non-urban boys (but not the girls) had significantly (p < 0.05) higher diastolic blood pressure compared to their urban counterparts. Adolescents in the urban areas had higher BMI (20.74 ± 3.27 kg/m2 for males and 21.35 ± 3.37 kg/m2 for females) than those in the non-urban areas (20.33 ± 3.11 kg/m2 for males and 21.35 ± 3.37 kg/m2 for females) though the difference was significant (p < 0.05) only in the females. Blood pressures were found to increase with age, and to be associated with BMI. Conclusion These findings underscore the need for efforts to be made towards addressing adolescent blood pressure elevation (in both urban and non-urban areas) as they are a reflection of adult morbidity and mortality from hypertension and the associated disorders.
Ejike, Chukwunonso ECC; Ugwu, Chidi E; Ezeanyika, Lawrence US; Olayemi, Ayo T
Highly pathogenic A/H5N1 avian influenza (HPAI H5N1) viruses have seriously affected the Nigerian poultry industry since early 2006. Previous studies have identified multiple introductions of the virus into Nigeria and several reassortment events between cocirculating lineages. To determine the spatial, evolutionary, and population dynamics of the multiple H5N1 lineages cocirculating in Nigeria, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequences from 106 HPAI H5N1 viruses isolated between 2006 and 2008 and representing all 25 Nigerian states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) reporting outbreaks. We identified a major new subclade in Nigeria that is phylogenetically distinguishable from all previously identified sublineages, as well as two novel reassortment events. A detailed analysis of viral phylogeography identified two major source populations for the HPAI H5N1 virus in Nigeria, one in a major commercial poultry area (southwest region) and one in northern Nigeria, where contact between wild birds and backyard poultry is frequent. These findings suggested that migratory birds from Eastern Europe or Russia may serve an important role in the introduction of HPAI H5N1 viruses into Nigeria, although virus spread through the movement of poultry and poultry products cannot be excluded. Our study provides new insight into the genesis and evolution of H5N1 influenza viruses in Nigeria and has important implications for targeting surveillance efforts to rapidly identify the spread of the virus into and within Nigeria. PMID:20071565
Background Chemical injuries of the oesophagus occur worldwide. There is paucity of information on aetiopathological profile of chemical injuries of the oesophagus in Nigeria. Aim The aim of the study was to determine the aetiopathological pattern of chemical injuries of the oesophagus in Nigeria. Materials and methods This is a multi-centre hospital based study in Lagos metropolis spanning a period of 10 years. The patients' bio data, substances ingested, sources of corrosives, reasons for ingesting corrosives and patients' mental state were recorded. Results In all, there were 78 patients (61 Males, 17 Females). The offending agents were acids in 55.1% of cases and it was accidental ingestion in 62 patients. The highest incidence of 57.6% was found in the middle 1/3 of the oesophagus. Conclusion Accidental ingestion of acids is the commonest cause of oesophageal injuries in Nigeria. The incidence of severe strictures necessitating oesophageal substitution could be reduced if early management of corrosive oesophagitis improves in Nigeria.
...into account ongoing security issues in and around...spending as it reforms Nigeria's healthcare policies...The success of Nigeria's telecommunications...e-health and digital security services. Current bandwidth in Nigeria is provided...
Prevalence of hookworm and other helminthes infections from year 2004 till May, 2007 was carried out in both the State Specialist Hospital and Federal Medical Centre, in Ekiti State. Of the 2,686 recorded and examined, 1,246 persons representing 46.3% were infected with helminthes while 53.7% were infected with other helminthes like Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichura. At State Specialist Hospital
Port Harcourt City is the capital of Rivers State, Nigeria. Many centuries ago the present day location called Port Harcourt was inhabited only by the minority Ikwerre ethnic group, but today Port Harcourt is a metropolitan city, with over a million people (made up of Ikwerre and largely non Ikwerre indigenes from other parts of Nigeria, and a significant number
This study describes the spatial and temporal variations in the physiologic climate of Nigeria for 1951-2009 in terms of effective temperature (ET), temperature-humidity index (THI), relative strain index (RSI) and perception of 3,600 sampled populations. The main hypotheses are that (i) the existing vegetation-based ecological region could adequately elucidate the physiologic climate of the country, and (ii) physiologic stress has significantly increased over the years (1951-2009). Trends and changes in the selected indices (ET, THI and RSI) were examined over two time slices: 1951-1980 and 1981-2009. The results show that (1) the montane region was the most comfortable physiologic climate in Nigeria, and the regions around the Rivers Niger and Benue troughs were the most uncomfortable in most parts of the year, (2) physiologic stress in most parts of Nigeria has significantly increased in 1981-2009 over 1951-1980 (p ? 0.05), (3) coping strategies to the uncomfortably hot and cold climate in Nigeria are limited to dressing mode, clothing materials and use of air conditioners or fan, (4) ET, THI and RSI results could be similar, and complementary; but each is with its strengths and weaknesses for annual or seasonal representations, which the others complemented for the interpretation of the physiologic climate of Nigeria. The study concluded that the relationship between the ecological classification of Nigeria and physiologic climate is rather complex, and the former could not elucidate the latter. The study cited inadequate meteorological data, especially on wind chill, and health records as limiting factors of studies on the Nigerian physiologic climates and the effect of extreme thermal conditions on the people. PMID:22610082
Nigeria is a major Oil Producer and member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). The country's economy is mostly dependent on Crude Oil, which is produced in the Niger Delta region. The challenges of the long term neglect of these Oil Producing Areas, is succinctly reported by Tom O'Neill, \\
Walter G. Ollor; Peter O. Jack; Takeshi Utsumi; Hans R. Herren
The Niger delta region of the Republic of Nigeria is Africa`s largest oil producing area. It is clear that Nigeria will continue to contribute significantly to world petroleum production well into the 21st century: with increases in recoverable oil reserves in the Niger delta onshore and offshore; the promising potential of the Niger delta deepwater region; and a lesser but not insignificant contribution from the unexplored onshore Benue trough, part of the mid-African rift system, which has already proved to hold substantial oil reserves in the Doba basin of neighboring Chad. This is the first of five parts on Nigeria`s oil and gas potential. The later articles deal with Niger delta oil reserves and production, Niger delta gas reserves, the delta`s deepwater region, and the Benue trough and onshore cretaceous rift basins. This article deals with the geologic setting of the Niger delta-Benue trough region, the synrift deposits, marine sedimentation, margin evolution, geologic strata and reservoirs, reservoir character, structure and traps, hydrocarbon types, geotemperatures, and source rock quality.
Thomas, D. [Thomas and Associates, Hastings (United Kingdom)
\\u000a The Enugu USA Medical Mission is a humanitarian year round mission to provide free health care to the people of Enugu State\\u000a of Nigeria who are underserved and less privileged. The purpose of the Enugu USA Medical Mission is to contribute to solutions\\u000a that solve health issues. Toxic chemicals contaminate drinking waters, build up in human organs and bones, and
Godfrey A. Uzochukwu; Mary E. Uzochukwu; Ethelbert Odo
This paper examines financing higher education in Nigeria in the context of the deregulation policy. Higher education should be financed well. Both public and the private sectors should not be left out in the financing higher education. Factors affecting financing of higher education and possible sources of funding were also discussed. Private initiative was recommended as a compliment to public
Using a sample of Hausa?Fulani, Yoruba, Ibo, and all other women from the 1990 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey, this study examines ethnic fertility differentials in Nigeria within the context of the social characteristics and cultural hypotheses. Among all women, we find the net fertility of Hausa?Fulani women to be lower than that of Other women; with no statistically significant
Nigeria's desire to venture into space technology was first made known to ECA/ OAU member countries at an inter-governmental meeting in Addis Ababa, 1976. The Nigerian space research is highly rated in Africa in terms of reputation and scientific results. The National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA), Nigeria's space research coordinating body; has taken a more active role to help Nigeria's space research community to succeed internationally. The paper presents recent examples of Nigeria's successes in space and its detailed applications in areas such as remote sensing, meteorology, communication and Information Technology. and many more. It gave an analysis of the statistics of Nigerian born space scientists working in the other space-faring nations. The analysis have been used to develop a model for increasing Nigerian scientist's involvement in the development of space research in Nigeria. It concluded with some thoughts on the current and future of Nigeria's space borne scientific experiments, policies and programs.
Macromineral composition of different forage species and soils and forage in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and crude protein concentrations in three agricultural zones of Benue State were studied. The zones consisted of Tiv zone (Zone A), Igala zone (Zone B), and Idoma zone (Zone C), each of which was made up of three sites. Site I was Fulani cattle
P. O. Ogebe; J. A. Ayoade; L. R. McDowell; N. S. Wilkinson; F. G. Martin
The involvement of the World Bank in the funding of the Nigerian Agricultural Development Programmes (ADPs) has shown that a properly functioning extension service with positively disposed government policy can help transform agriculture in the country. This study used data from ninety-six (96) farmers and sixteen (16) extension officers of the Ogun State ADP to examine the implications and aftermath
The effect of different extraction methods on the qualityof crude palm oil processed using traditional (local) and mechanical methods in selected areas of Rivers and BayelsaStates and their storage stability were investigated.Certain quality determining parameters such as free fatty acids (FFA), peroxide value (PV), saponification value (SV),moisture, impurities and volatile matter (MIV) content weredetermined prior to and after storage for
Monday O. Akusu; Simeon C. Achinewhu; Jonathan Mitchell
This study was undertaken to determine the adoption of improved cocoyam production, processing and storage technologies among small-holder cocoyam farmers in Enugu-North Agricultural Zone in Enugu state. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 cocoyam farmers disaggregated into 60 males and 60 female in 2008. Adoption scale analysis was employed to analyze the level of adoption of
B. C Okoye; A. C Okoye; M. U Dimelu; C. C Agbaeze; O. N Okoroafor; A. B Amaefula
A detailed general information questionnaire was used to elicit informationfrom 400 households in two urban and two rural communities each in Anambraand Enugu states in Nigeria. The results showed that over 85% of the samplepopulation in both states were familiar with fermentation as a food processing method. Only 1.01% was familiar with germination as a processingstep in traditional food preparation.
This study documented what retail pharmacists and operators of patent medicine shops prescribe for childhood diarrhoeas in Borno State in the northeastern part of Nigeria. Data was generated by a combination of open and confederates survey of 135 pharmacies and patent medicine shops in the state. The study found that retail pharmacies and patent medicine shop operators, in the overwhelming
Calabar, the capital city of Cross River State is located on a fan shaped alluvial formation of the Niger delta region, south-south of Nigeria. It is characterized by fast growth in population, economic activities and urbanization, like most coastal cities of the world. The challenges of climate change, rapid land use changes and the fragile geomorphic state of the city
During a survey of the prevalence of Candida spp. in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria, two atypical C. albicans isolates were recovered. These two yeasts were germ tube positive, chlamydospore-negative and gave a green color on CHROMagar Candida. Molecular analysis performed by amplification of the hwp1 gene showed that these two isolates belonged to C. africana, a newly proposed Candida species closely related to C. albicans. Based on the presence or absence of an intron in DNA sequences encoding rRNA, the two C. africana, including all C. albicans isolates examined, were found to belong to genotype A and no other genotypes or species such as C. dubliniensis were found. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation of C. africana in Nigeria. PMID:22380533
The agricultural sector in Nigeria is particularly important for the country's food security, natural resources, and growth agenda. The cultivable areas comprise more than 70% of the total area; however, the cultivated area is about the 35% of the total area. The most important components in the food basket of the nation are cereals and tubers, which include rice, maize, corn, millet, sorghum, yam, and cassava. These crops represent about 80% of the total agricultural product in Nigeria (from NPAFS). The major crops grown in the country can be divided into food crops (produced for consumption) and export products. Despite the importance of the export crops, the primary policy of agriculture is to make Nigeria self-sufficient in its food and fiber requirements. The projected impacts of future climate change on agriculture and water resources are expected to be adverse and extensive in these area. This implies the need for actions and measures to adapt to climate change impacts, and especially as they affect agriculture, the primary sector for Nigerian economy. In the framework of the Project Climate Risk Analysis in Nigeria (founded by World Bank Contract n.7157826), a study was made to assess the potential impact of climate change on the main crops that characterize Nigerian agriculture. The DSSAT-CSM (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer - Cropping System Model) software, version 4.5 was used for the analysis. Crop simulation models included in DSSAT are tools that simulate physiological processes of crop growth, development and production by combining genetic crop characteristics and environmental (soil and weather) conditions. For each selected crop, the models were calibrated to evaluate climate change impacts on crop production. The climate data used for the analysis are derived by the Regional Circulation Model COSMO-CLM, from 1971 to 2065, at 8 km of spatial resolution. The RCM model output was "perturbed" with 10 Global Climate Models to have a wide variety of possible climate projections for the impact analysis. Multiple combinations of soil and climate conditions and crop management and varieties were considered for each Agro-Ecological Zone (AEZ) of Nigeria. A sensitivity analysis was made to evaluate the model response to changes in precipitation and temperature. The climate impact assessment was made by comparing the yield obtained with the climate data for the present period and the yield obtainable under future climate conditions. The results were analyzed at state, AEZ and country levels. The analysis shows a general reduction in crop yields in particular in the dryer regions of northern Nigeria.
This study examined access of rural women to forest resources and its impact on rural household welfare in North Central Nigeria. Three states out of 6 states in the study area were purposively selected to cover 3 ethnic groups. A state was selected to cover at least one ethnic group. 4 villages were randomly selected in each state to make
Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (28±1°C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.
Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.
Purpose – This paper sets out to investigate the various inhibiting factors to individual home ownership in Nigeria. It aims to establish just how feasible home ownership is in Nigeria. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Secondary data were obtained from journals, government publications and technical reports. The sources are sorted into sections: prices of the houses, inflation rate, income levels of Nigerians. Findings
This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Federation of Nigeria. The report's introduction asserts that the rule by decree of Nigeria's present military regime has…
Lacroix, Anne Laurence; Shoenberg, Cheryl; Schonveld, Ben
|This monograph describes the language planning situation in Nigeria, one of the most multilingual countries in Africa. It is divided into four sections. The first section presents the language profile of Nigeria and provides a background of the general language situation in the country. The second section discusses language spread and use. It…
Nigeria is the largest oil producer in Africa and has been a member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) since 1971. In 2011, Nigeria produced about 2.53 million barrels per day (bbl/d) of total liquids, well below its oil productio...
The sudden and rapid growth in access to telephones in Nigeria has certainly raised major questions for telecommunications scholars. Access to telephones in Nigeria had been marginal by the end of the twentieth century with the teledensity rate well below 1:100 for a country of estimated 130 million persons (Ajayi, Salawu and Raji 1999). Today, over 10 million Nigerians have
|Nearly one third of Nigeria's total population of 148.1 million is between the ages of 10 and 24. Nigerian adolescents' sizeable share of the population makes them integral to the country's social, political and economic development. Nigeria's development is compromised by the sexual and reproductive health issues afflicting its youth. Lack of…
Nigeria is at an important point in its history. Able to initially prosper because of its oil wealth, numerous international ties, and a large, diverse population, Nigeria is now troubled because of internal issues such as ethnic and religious tensions, s...
|This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Federation of Nigeria. The report's introduction asserts that the rule by decree of Nigeria's present military regime has…
Lacroix, Anne Laurence; Shoenberg, Cheryl; Schonveld, Ben
Detailed study of 3D seismic data from deepwater Nigeria has revealed the presence of features interpreted to be mud volcanoes. They occur in an upper slope environment seen as 1–2km circular features at the seabed. Seabed cores from the mud volcanoes contain oil, gas and sand\\/shale–clast content richer than the seabed background. Pliocene fossils have been identified in the cores,
The HIV/AIDS pandemic is one of the worst epidemics that have been experienced by humankind. It is indeed a major event of our time. The pandemic has killed so many people around the world and Sub-Saharan Africa is the worst hit. The nature of the pandemic lent it to stigma and discrimination, which have made caring for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) a big problem. It has also brought so much suffering on PLWHA around the world. This article examines the role of culture and the family in the care for PLWHA in Anambra State. Quantitative and Qualitative data collection methods (questionnaire and in-depth interviews) are used to elicit information from respondents. A total of 1000 copies of a questionnaire were administered on adult males and females and 914 were completed and analyzed. Furthermore, in-depth interviews were conducted on 10 opinion leaders using an interview guide. Data were analyzed in themes based on the objectives and the data from in-depth interviews were used to support data from the questionnaire. The results showed that certain cultural practices such as cultural obligations to sick, blood relations, collective ownership of children, affinity to blood relations, and strong marital bond enhance care and support for PLWHA. Also, the burden of care for PLWHA was found to be on the family in the study area. In conclusion, cultural practices and the family play major roles in the care for PLWHA in the area and should be harnessed in order to make life more comfortable for PLWHA. PMID:21113852
A study carried out in four villages in two local government areas of Oyo State in the southwestern part of Nigeria, revealed that intestinal helminthiasis is still very prevalent in Nigeria. Ascaris is the most common helminth encountered and multiple infestation is also quite common. Schoolchildren and pre-school children are the greatest sufferers of Ascaris, while students and farmers are the greatest target for hookworm. The usefulness of a community-based distribution programme of health services using trained traditional birth attendants and voluntary health workers for data collection and distribution of antihelminth drugs is discussed. PMID:2558560
Studies on the nutrient composition of commonly used complementary foods in North Western Nigeria were carried out using Kaduna, Kebbi and Niger states as case studies. Ready to eat complementary food samples were collected from mothers with children older than 6 months but younger than 24 months and evaluated for its nutrient components using standard procedures. Results obtained showed that
K. M. Anigo; D. A. Ameh; S. Ibrahim; S. S. Danbauchi
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the psychosocial factors that predict mentoring among nurses. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study adopted a survey research design. Questionnaires were used to collect data on self-esteem, locus of control, emotional intelligence and demographic factors from 480 nurses (males 230; females =250) from five states in southwestern Nigeria. Data analysis included regressing
Purpose – The paper sets out to focus the attention of scholars and policy-makers on the urgency of Nigeria's worsening debt crisis, with a view to suggesting initiatives which can be instrumental in preventing a further deterioration of the crisis. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The recommendations suggested specifically addressed stated research objectives. The research framework attempted to evaluate the role played by
Richard O. Omotoye; Hari P. Sharma; Christopher Ngassam; Maxwell Eseonu
The current work examined the structure of household waste management system, collection and disposal within the context of a wider research on integrated solid waste management in households. A sample of 30 households from eleven selected residential areas with a focus group of 60 respondents in Ojo Local Government Area, Lagos State, Nigeria was used. The selected residential areas were
|The study focused on constraints affecting the utilization of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for agricultural extension activities by Agricultural Extension Officers in Nigeria's Niger Delta Region. Data were derived from 160 extension officers affiliated to both public and private extension organizations in four states of the…
|Many issues such as the increasing cases of unsatisfied demand for admission, moral decadence among students, incessant strikes, student unrest and cultism, among others necessitated the establishment of private alongside the federal and state universities in Nigeria. It is however expected that the advent of private universities will provide…
The objective of this study is to report the prevalence and reduction in geohelminthic infection among Primary School children living in riverine communities of Delta State, Nigeria. Stool samples from randomly selected Primary School pupils were obtained before and after treatment with a single 200 mg dose of albendazole. The Kato-Katz method was used in the processing of the stool
Oyewole F MPH; Sanyaolu A; Faweya T MPH; Ukpong M; Soremekun B
The study assessed rural youth response to improved farming practices and determined those variables affecting their adoption decisions in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Data were obtained from 332 young farmers sampled from 4 states in the region and analyzed using frequency tables and logistic regression. Results show an above average response to fishery (66.7%) and livestock (60%) technologies
The paper traces the evolution of ethnic identities in Nigeria from the context of relations between coastal city-states and their hin terland. It shows that the promotion of difference between coastal peoples and their imm ediate hinterland neighbours and the use of the former to administer the latter in t he early colonial period led to the emergence and politicisation
This study is an investigation of the managerial strategies to conflict management in non-profit making organizations in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. The essences of this study are to device effective strategies to conflict management and make appropriate recommendations for an effective conflict resolution, aimed at ensuring organizational development, productivity and societal growth. The study adopted the descriptive study pattern
Austin O. Oparanma; Donald I. Hamilton; John Ohaka
|The study aimed at assessing rural youth participation in agriculture, their access to production resources and services and the effects of youths' access to inputs and services on farm productivity and youths' welfare. The study was conducted in three states (each randomly selected from the three agro-ecological zones of northern Nigeria). Two…
Auta, Sarah Jehu; Abdullahi, Yusuf M.; Nasiru, Mohammed
Two hundred and fifty households comprising in general three adults and four children were randomly sampled in and around Nsukka Local Government Area in Anambra State, Nigeria, to investigate the patterns of consumption and utilisation of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata), with the long?term aim of finding ways of maximising its production and consumption. Information was obtained by means of a
Credit contracts play a direct role in pooling risk between households in northern Nigeria. Repayments owed by borrowers depend on realizations of random shocks by both borrowers and lenders. The paper develops two models of state-contingent loans. The first is a competitive equilibrium in perfectly enforceable contracts. The second permits imperfect information and equilibrium default. Estimates of both models indicate
This paper is focused on women education in Nigeria. It traces the genesis of western education in Nigeria and bias that existed from the traditional Nigerian society against women education. It identified and discussed barriers to women education in Nigeria. Recent trend in enrolment at various levels of education shows improvement in favor of women. In view of this realization, this paper argues that if the current momentum is sustained, women will not only achieve equal status to men in educational attainment but also have the tendency to surpass men within the next ten to fifteen years. The implications could be outreaching as the paper proffers some recommendations.
A prospective study of the maternal mortality and morbidity and other related social problems among 144 cases of procured abortion in Ilorin, Nigeria over a 24-month period is presented. A mortality rate of 90.3 per thousand procured abortions was recorded. Genital sepsis, haemorrhagic anaemia, gut injury, uterine perforation and vesico vaginal fistulae (VVF) were encountered. Poor referral system, late presentation, poor blood transfusion services and inadequate availability of drugs had adverse effects on the patients. The implications (the menace and frequency) of these and possible measures like improving the literacy level, the moral standards, contraceptive practice and family life education (sex education) are discussed. PMID:7498012
Increasingly, faith-based organisations are being asked to participate in HIV prevention and care activities. This paper presents formative research on HIV/AIDS prevention messages, activities and policies within six religious institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria, at urban and rural sites. Data collection methods included a review of written HIV policies gathered from national church and mosque offices and 48 key informant interviews. The study highlights differences in messages between mainstream and Pentecostal Christians and Muslims. Although all groups stated a core message of abstinence outside marriage and faithfulness within marriage, Pentecostal churches tended to have more messages of punishment and condemnation for people infected with HIV. Urban churches/mosques tended to have more HIV resources and programmes. Attitudes towards condom use varied by denomination and individual; although few saw a role for religious institutions to promote condoms there were exceptions voiced. These findings indicate that religious organisations are already playing a role in HIV prevention but their responses are not uniform. Public health organisations and policy-makers should be aware of these denominational differences as they engage with religious institutions and leaders in HIV prevention and care. PMID:20155545
In this article the author outlines and discusses the influence of Koranic schools, and their students ( almagiri) on the rise of fundamentalism and the spreading of militant Islam in Northern Nigeria. The author contends that while Islamic fundamentalism is the banner of both the Western-oriented Muslims and traditional Nigerian Muslims, it differs in expression in Northern Nigeria. The article shows that these differences result from the influence of the Koranic schools on the traditional teachers ( ulama) and their students on the one hand, and Western universities, Wahhabi Arabs, and Western-oriented teachers and their students on the other. The origins of the Koranic school curriculum in Nigeria, the training of traditional Muslim teachers, and the lifestyle of the students are discussed. The author shows how certain socialization patterns found in the Koranic schools and `almagiri' system seem congruent with the political attitudes and values stressed by spokesmen of militant Islamic sects in Northern Nigeria.
The 2011 general election in Nigeria was internationally recognized as the most open and transparent to date. Greater voter turn out and increased voter confidence in fair election results were reported by both the European Union Election Observation Miss...
The people of Nigeria have many grievances with their elected government. They can be grouped into three major areas or categories: poor governance, through rampant misadministration and widespread corruption; poor economic development and staggering leve...
Maternal deaths in developing countries are rooted in womens powerlessness and their unequal access to employment, finance, education, basic health care, and other resources. Nigeria is Africa's most populous country, and it is an oil producing country, but Nigeria has one of the worst maternal mortality rates in Africa. These deaths were linked to deficiencies in access to health care including poor quality of health services, socio-cultural factors, and access issues related to the poor status of women. To address these problems, a participatory approach was used to bring Christian women from various denominations in Eastern Nigeria together. With technical assistance from a research unit in a university in Eastern Nigeria, the women were able to implement a Safe Motherhood project starting from needs assessment to program evaluation. Lessons learned from this program approach are discussed. PMID:15011945
Crime in Nigeria threatens to destabilize the most populous and strategically important country in Africa. Using theories of crime and exploratory factor analysis (a statistical technique for data reduction), this paper develops models of crimes against p...
Misinterpretation of the laws of the marketplace have already brought Nigeria to the brink of a catastrophe in 1978, when the government had built up heavy stocks expecting a substantial increase in price. When it did not materialize and the production had to be dropped to 50% of the previous rate, in a country where crude constitutes 90% of the export revenues, the system was changed. The new plan is intended to reduce the dependence of Nigeria on oil exports. The production rate is set at between 2.2 and 2.5 million bpd. Due to a significant increase in domestic demand, the 2 existing refineries cannot fill the gap; 2 more refineries are planned. There also are substantial gas reserves; the associated gas, now flared, is to be recovered. A gas liquefaction plant also is in operation, with one-half of the output going to Europe and one-half to the US. Some of the oil and gas is earmarked for local petrochemical plants.
Exploration databases can be more valuable when sorted by play type. Play specific databases provide a system to organize E & P data used in evaluating the range of values of parameters for reserve estimation and risk assessment. It is important both in focusing the knowledge base and in orienting research effort. A play in this context is any unique combination of trap, reservoir and source properties with the right dynamics of migration and preservation that results in hydrocarbon accumulation. This definitions helps us to discriminate the subtle differences found with these accumulation settings. About 20 play types were identified around the Niger Delta oil province in Nigeria. These are grouped into three parts: (1) The proven plays-constituting the bulk of exploration prospects in Nigeria today. (2) The unproven or semi-proven plays usually with some successes recorded in a few tries but where knowledge is still inadequate. (3) The unproven or analogous play concept. These are untested but geologically sound ideas which may or may not have been tried elsewhere. With classification and sub grouping of these play types into specific databases, intrinsic attributes and uniqueness of each of them with respect to the four major risk elements and the eight parameters for reserve estimation can be better understood.
This paper analyzes gangs in Nigeria, providing an updated examination of their current strategies and activities. The premise\\u000a of this analysis partly draws on Social Identity Theory, with respect to gang affiliation. Particularly explored are (1) gang\\u000a cultism as a common phenomenon on college campuses in Nigeria (through their malicious, secret, fraternity-like activities)\\u000a and (2) the role of Islam in
The study examines the place of the military in the unprecedented ten-year survival of Nigeria’s democracy. Two competing hypotheses are presented. Was democratic stability a product of (1) improvements in democratic governance or (2) characterized with the Nigerian armed forces? Although neither hypothesis can be rejected, military factors appear to provide the strongest explanation.
Nigeria s desire to venture into space technology was first made known to ECA OAU member countries at an inter-governmental meeting in Addis Ababa 1976 The Nigerian space research is highly rated in Africa in terms of reputation and scientific results The National Space Research and Development Agency NASRDA Nigeria s space research coordinating body has taken a more active role to help Nigeria s space research community to succeed internationally The paper presents recent examples of Nigeria s successes in space and its detailed applications in areas such as remote sensing meteorology communication and Information Technology and many more It gave an analysis of the statistics of Nigerian born space scientists working in the other space-faring nations The analysis have been used to develop a model for increasing Nigerian scientist s involvement in the development of space research in Nigeria It concluded with some thoughts on the current and future of Nigeria s space borne scientific experiments policies and programs
The epidemiological situation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is uncertain in Nigeria, where the disease is endemic, and the majority of outbreaks are unreported. Control measures for FMD in Nigeria are not being implemented due to the absence of locally produced vaccines and an official ban on vaccine importation. This study summarizes the findings of a 3-year study aimed at quantifying the seroprevalence of FMD, its distribution in susceptible species and the genetic diversity of FMDV isolated from the Plateau State of Nigeria. A 29% FMD prevalence was estimated using 3ABC enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (3ABC ELISA). Farms with suspected FMD nearby, with contact with wildlife, that used drugs or FMD vaccines or with >100 animals, and animals of large ruminant species and in pastures other than nomadic grazing were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with FMD. Antibodies against five FMDV serotypes, (A, O, SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3) were detected by the virus neutralization test (VNT) at various titres (<100->800) from all tested sera from most parts of the region. This is probably the first report of the presence of FMDV SAT3 in Nigeria. Further studies to investigate the potential probable presence and prevalence of SAT 3 virus in Nigeria are required. Tissue samples collected from clinical animals were positive for FMDV. Virus isolates were sequenced and confirmed as serotype A. All of the isolates showed marked genetic homogeneity with >99% genetic identity in the VP1 region and were most closely related to a previously described virus collected from Cameroon in 2000. This study provides knowledge on the epidemiological situation of FMD in Plateau State, Nigeria, and will probably help to develop effective control and preventive strategies for the disease in Nigeria and other countries in the West African subregion. PMID:23347819
Ehizibolo, D O; Perez, A M; Carrillo, C; Pauszek, S; Alkhamis, M; Ajogi, I; Umoh, J U; Kazeem, H M; Ehizibolo, P O; Fabian, A; Berninger, M; Moran, K; Rodriguez, L L; Metwally, S A
This paper examines the issue of ethnic conl1icts and thcir implications for democracy in Nigeria. Ethnic conflict and distrust is identified as the bane of former democratic experiments in Nigeria. Moreover, since the late 1980s, ethnicity in Nigeria has assumed disturbing new dimensions. The most crucial of these arc the issues of marginalisation and agitations by ethnic minorities. Marginalisation breeds
The study examined the effect of Road Traffic Accident Injuries on Productivity in Nigeria with a view towards reducing the incidence of Road Traffic crashes and improving road safety in Nigeria. The data used included number of passengers who sustained injuries in road traffic accidents in Nigeria for 2007. Data were also acquired on productivity in the labour sector of
Background. A single-center ESRD care experience in a Nigerian teaching hospital is presented as a surrogate case to demonstrate the prevailing ESRD care situation in Nigeria and most SSA countries. Methods. The data of 320 consecutive ESRD patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis treatment during a seven-year period were retrospectively analyzed. Results. Over 80% of the subjects funded dialysis treatments from direct out of pocket payment. The mean duration on dialysis before dropout was 5.2 ± 7.6 weeks, with majority 314 (98.1%) of the patients unable to sustain dialysis above 12 weeks. Total dialysis sessions during the 7-year period was 1476 giving an average weekly dialysis session of 0.013 (0.05 hour/week) per patient per week. One hundred and twenty-eight (40%) patients died within 90 days of entry into dialysis care. Conclusions. ESRD care in this single centre was characterized by gross dialysis inadequacy and case fatality due to the inability to access and afford care. The opportunities for kidney transplantation are also very low. Poverty and the absence of government support for ESRD care are responsible for the poor outcomes. A global focus on ESRD care in SSA countries has thus become imperative.
Alasia, Datonye Dennis; Emem-Chioma, Pedro; Wokoma, Friday Samuel
The position of Nigeria as a strong economic force, especially among developing states of sub-Saharan Africa, cannot be over-emphasised. Therefore, trends in the country’s development of the law serve as good index to a proper appreciation of trends in emerging states. The need to engender a safe building culture has made it imperative that governments implement policies that effectively check
Nigeria's desire to maximize the benefits of space technology for its sustainable development, has become a reality with the establishment of the National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA) in May 1999 and the approval of the national Space Policy and Programmes in July 2001. In November, 2000, the Federal Government took a bold step with the signing of an agreement with the Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) of United Kingdom (UK) for the design, construction and launch of a medium resolution micro-satellite - NigeriaSat-1 with a Ground Sampling Distance of thirty-two (32) meters. The agreement also covers the Know-How-Technology-Training (KHTT) to Nigerian Engineers and Scientists for a period of 18th months at SSTL‘s facility in the U.K.. NigeriaSat-1 was successfully launched into Leo Earth Orbit on 27th September, 2003. NigeriaSat- 1 is one of the five (5) satellites belonging to Nigeria, Algeria, Turkey, United Kingdom and China being operated in a Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC). The launch of NigeriaSat-1 has promoted access to information which has become a strategy for mass socio-economic development, as information underscores all developmental effort be it in education, provision of health services, marketing, construction industry, tourism, defense, etc. As a follow-up to the successful launch of NigeriaSat-1, the government of Nigeria started the implementation of a Nigerian communication satellite (NigcomSat-1) to address the problem of communication which is the greatest drawbacks to the socio-economic development of the country, particularly in the areas of rural telephone, tele-education, tele-medicine, egovernment, e-commerce and real-time monitoring services. NigcomSat-1, which carries 40- hybrid transponders in the C, KU, KA and L bands, has a 15 years life span and coverage of the African continent, Middle East and part of Europe was launched in May 2007. To satisfy geospatial data needs in sectors such as survey, housing, defence and security and urban renewal, and large scale mapping community, NASRDA has embarked on the development of a higher resolution satellite NigeriaSat-2 which carries spatial resolution pay loads of 2.5 and 5 meters in panchromatic and multi-spectral bands respectively. In addition, the satellite has been designed to provide stereo-imaging capability. It also carries a 32m resolution payload to ensure the continuity of NigeriaSat-1 data beyond its 2008 lifespan. The launch of NigeriaSat-2 is being planned for 2009. Furthermore, Nigeria's concern over the incessant cloud cover of a large area of its southern part has informed NASRDA's quest to acquire capacity for SAR-based image interpretation and application to socio-economic development. The programme will eventually lead to the acquisition of a SAR-based micro-satellite (NigeriaSat-3) in the near future.
This study aimed at characterizing the phenotypic and toxigenic status of circulating strains of cholera during outbreaks in Nigeria, employing molecular typing techniques. Two hundred and one samples of rectal swabs, stool, vomitus, water (from the well, borehole, sachet, stream, and tap) and disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite) were collected from three states in the country. The samples were inoculated on thiosulphate-citrate bile salt-sucrose (TCBS), Cary-Blair transport medium and smeared on glass slides for direct examination. The Vibrio cholerae isolates were serotyped, biotyped, and characterized using PCR of the cytotoxin gene A (ctxA), wbeO1, and wbfO139 gene primer. Of the 201 samples screened, 96 were positive for V cholerae O1 (48%), with 69 (72%) positive for ctxA gene. The results from this study showed that the circulating strains of cholera in Nigeria were of Ogawa serotype, also observed in other outbreaks in Nigeria (1991, 1992, and 1996). However, the strains were of the Classical biotype and were mainly (72%) ctxA gene-positive. This current investigation has confirmed the production of cholera toxin by the circulating strains, and this could be harnessed for possible cholera vaccine production in Nigeria. PMID:23930335
This study aimed at characterizing the phenotypic and toxigenic status of circulating strains of cholera during outbreaks in Nigeria, employing molecular typing techniques. Two hundred and one samples of rectal swabs, stool, vomitus, water (from the well, borehole, sachet, stream, and tap) and disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite) were collected from three states in the country. The samples were inoculated on thiosulphate-citrate bile salt-sucrose (TCBS), Cary-Blair transport medium and smeared on glass slides for direct examination. The Vibrio cholerae isolates were serotyped, biotyped, and characterized using PCR of the cytotoxin gene A (ctxA), wbeO1, and wbfO139 gene primer. Of the 201 samples screened, 96 were positive for V. cholerae O1 (48%), with 69 (72%) positive for ctxA gene. The results from this study showed that the circulating strains of cholera in Nigeria were of Ogawa serotype, also observed in other outbreaks in Nigeria (1991, 1992, and 1996). However, the strains were of the Classical biotype and were mainly (72%) ctxA gene-positive. This current investigation has confirmed the production of cholera toxin by the circulating strains, and this could be harnessed for possible cholera vaccine production in Nigeria.
Among several related phenomena, this study presents as its focal points the examination of some of the variables that influence and shape the structure of sociopolitical, cultural and socioeconomic relations in the course of national integration in Nigeria. The exploitation of petroleum resources since 1958 in the Niger Delta has largely influenced the course of the political as well as the socioeconomic development of Nigeria. Due to its rich petroleum resources, the Rivers territory ranked high in the political calculus of both the Federal Government and secessionist Biafra. The central thesis of this study is that oil is the single glue that has held the Federation of Nigeria together in the last two decades, and prevented it from being balkanized. This study attempts to put into perspective the various eruptions and episodes of secessionist tendencies and agitations in Nigeria. The ebb and flow of separatist agitations seem to reflect the changing geoeconomic, socioeconomic, and sociopolitical environment of the country. Should the petroeconomy collapse, and/or oil losses its significance in the international economy, what will happen to Nigeria as a nation. The present study points up the need to develop other sources of economic interdependence via the proper utilization of the enormous oil revenues before it is written off as a lost opportunity.
The relative influences of marriage patterns, education, and religion on the high level of fertility in the East-Central state of Nigeria are examined, with data drawn from a KAP survey of 755 men and 916 women (745 rural and 171 urban). Polygynous marriages existed in 31% of rural and 7% of urban households surveyed. Fertility was relatively lower in all marriage duration groups among polygynists, but the differences were not significant (contingency coefficient 0.01000). Results are limited, however, by the instability of polygyny status, the subfecundity factor, the index of fertility used, and the older age of polygynously married women. 53% of rural women surveyed were Catholic, and their fertility was higher than that of non-Catholics (contingency coefficient 0.01217). But it cannot be ensured that the religious differential is solely a function of pronatalist religious belief or partly a reflection of ethnic differences or an attempt by the Ibos to ensure an increase in population to maximize their share of federal allocations. Uneducated women were more fertile than their educated counterparts (contingency coefficient 0.03129), implying that fertility will decline as the literacy level in the state improves. The potential of education to effectuate a decline in fertility is illustrated by the observation that education tends to give religious people the same liberal attitudes toward family planning as are held by those who are less religious. The gap between knowledge of birth control methods and the practice of family planning is a greater obstacle to fertility control than religiousity, and this gap is greater among those with lower levels of education. PMID:12259165
Viral diseases constitute obstacles to pepper production in the world. In Nigeria, pepper plants are primarily affected by pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Pepper leaf curl Virus (TLCV), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Pepper mottle virus (PMV) and a host of other viruses. The experiment was carried out with a diagnostic survey on the experimental field of the National Horticultural Research Institute, Ibadan, Nigeria and on pepper farms in six local government areas within Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria, forty samples were collected from each of the farms. Diseased samples were obtained from the field and taken to the laboratory for indexing. In ELISA test some of the samples from the pepper farms showed positive reaction to single infection with PVMV (36.79%), CMV (22.14%) while some others showed positive reaction to mixed infection of the two viruses (10%) but some also negative reaction to PVMV and CMV antisera (31.07).
This study is aimed at examining the publication output differences between librarians and academics at Niger Delta University and Delta State University in Nigeria. The study employed a comparative method. The study comprises focus groups made up of thirty librarians and forty academics (teaching staff) from Niger Delta University (NDU), Amassoma, Bayelsa State; and Delta State University (Delsu), Abraka, Delta
Major strides towards national tobacco control have been made since Nigeria became signatory to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in June 2004. The Nigerian senate passed a bill on March 15, 2011 which is expected to be signed into law shortly, to regulate and control production, manufacture, sale, advertising, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco or tobacco products. This paper highlights how the proposed tobacco control law provides a unique opportunity to domesticate the WHO FCTC, expand on smokeless tobacco regulation and develop a science base to improve tobacco control measures in Nigeria.
Major strides towards national tobacco control have been made since Nigeria became signatory to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in June 2004. The Nigerian senate passed a bill on March 15, 2011 which is expected to be signed into law shortly, to regulate and control production, manufacture, sale, advertising, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco or tobacco products. This paper highlights how the proposed tobacco control law provides a unique opportunity to domesticate the WHO FCTC, expand on smokeless tobacco regulation and develop a science base to improve tobacco control measures in Nigeria. PMID:22713586
The current strategy for interrupting transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is annual mass drug administration (MDA), at good coverage, for 6 or more years. We describe our programmatic experience delivering the MDA combination of ivermectin and albendazole in Plateau and Nasarawa states in central Nigeria, where LF is caused by anopheline transmitted Wuchereria bancrofti. Baseline LF mapping using rapid blood
Frank O. Richards; Abel Eigege; Emmanuel S. Miri; Alphonsus Kal; John Umaru; Davou Pam; Lindsay J. Rakers; Yohanna Sambo; Jacob Danboyi; Bako Ibrahim; Solomon E. Adelamo; Gladys Ogah; Danjuma Goshit; O. Kehinde Oyenekan; Els Mathieu; P. Craig Withers; Yisa A. Saka; Jonathan Jiya; Donald R. Hopkins
The study investigates the operations of an informal initiative; the “barro’ boys” in the primary sub-system of urban solid waste management. The study is focused on 2 of the 20 local government councils in Lagos State, Nigeria. All the barro’ boys identified in Mushin and Kosofe local government areas were purposively sampled through structured interview. Information on the residents’ perception
|This paper reports part of the results of research on chemical problem solving behavior of pre-service teachers in Plateau and Northeastern states of Nigeria. Specifically, it examines and describes the methods used by 204 pre-service teachers in solving quantitative problems from four topics in chemistry. Namely, gas laws; electrolysis;…
A community survey of treatment regimens for acute diarrhoea in children was carried out in 10 villages in the Ona Ara Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria, using a combination of qualitative (focus-group discussions) and quantitative (weekly surveillance of diarrhoea) methods. Focus-group discussions were conducted with parents of children aged less than 5 years, while a surveillance of diarrhoea
Olayemi O. Omotade; Adebowale A. Adeyemo; Clara M. Kayode; Oladimeji Oladepo
Intra-state conflicts in Africa have been attributed to various factors such as the end of the Cold War, globalization, sustained population growth, environmental scarcity and violent youth culture. Extracts from these dominant global perspectives, collocated and mixed with the economic crisis thesis at the national level, constitute the mainstream analytical scheme for understanding the proliferation of communal conflicts in Nigeria.
Over a period of three months (January to March), ovarian morphology and estradiol-17? concentrations in serum and follicular fluid were studied in 110 Bunaji (Bos indicus) cows slaughtered at Bodija abattoir, Ibadan, Nigeria, in order to determine the reproductive state and history of such cattle. Macroscopic examination of the ovaries revealed that 70 (63.6%) of the cows were undergoing active
Maxwell N. Opara; Charles I. Okoli; Udo Herbert; Oyewole Adeyemo
Purpose – The Lagos State land use charge (LUC) 2001 represents a radical and wholesome restructuring of the entire erstwhile land-based tax system in the state, and the first of its kind in Nigeria. The purpose of this paper is to examine how this maiden holistic intervention in property tax administration in Nigeria has fared in its first nine years.
Penetrating chest trauma occurs worldwide, and various accounts of it have been reported in the literature.(1)(-)(5) Blunt trauma is not usually associated with military or civilian violence, while penetrating chest trauma often is. Penetrating chest trauma is frequently caused by gunshots and non gunshot-related incidents such as stabs, traffic accidents, and impalements. This prospective study was conducted to determine a pattern of penetrating thoracic injuries, including their causes, the role of surgery, and intervention outcomes. In this study, we treated 168 patients (142 males and 26 females, giving a male-to-female ratio of 5.5:1). Gunshots caused 60.1% of the injuries while traffic accidents caused 27.3% of the injuries. Chest tube insertion alone was the main treatment initiated. This technique was used on 73.8% of the patients. To reduce the occurrence of penetrating chest trauma in Lagos, Nigeria, study results suggest that the Nigerian people and their property need greater security, and that pre-hospital level of care for trauma victims must improve. PMID:15905335
This study aims at identifying and analyzing food security measures in Borno State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was applied on 1,200 households. Cost-of-Calories (COC) method and Logit model are used as analytical techniques for the study. Based on the recommended daily energy levels of 2,250 kcal, food insecurity line (s) for the households is N23, 700.12 or US $176.87
P. S. Amaza; Joseph Chinedu Umeh; J. Helsen; A. O. Adejobi
Street-by-street distribution of urban horticultural garden in Eti-Osa local government area of Lagos State, Nigeria was carried out with a view to understanding their socio-spatial effects on urban land use and development. The local government has two residential communities (Ikoyi and Victoria Island). A total number of 75 gardens were identified and the study purposively selected all of them for
Albert Ayorinde Abegunde; Emmanuel Olufemi Omisore; Fumbi Oluodo; Daniel Olaleye
A list of 53 primary schools was obtained from Ikorodu Local Government of Lagos State, Nigeria. Five primary schools were chosen from the list by numerical series which had a total of 4,515 pupils representing 13.6#pc of the total primary school population. Two hundred and fifty pupils were chosen randomly using Fisher#shYates random sample table. The following information enumerated from
A total of 4,287 primary school children, comprising 1,740 males and 2,547 females in Arochukwu local government area of Abia\\u000a stateNigeria were examined for clinical signs of dermatophytoses. About 873 (20.4%), consisting of 505 males and 368 females\\u000a had lesions consistent with dermatophytoses. The disease was more prevalent in males (29%) than females (14.4%) in a ratio\\u000a of approximately
A survey of cocoa farmers in Bendel, Ogun, Ondo and Oyo States of Nigeria, carried out in 1985, showed that almost all the farmers intercropped other crops with cocoa. The intercrops included food crops such as plantain (92.3), cocoyam (85.7%), cassava (51.3%), yam (41.3%), maize (38.9%), melon (31.4%), cowpea (28.6%) and pineapple (26.0%) and tree crops such as oil palm
The objectives of this study are twofold. First it aims to establish empirical grounds for pricing the services of a new environmental\\u000a management initiative in Enugu state, Nigeria. A joint initiative of the UK Department for International Development (DfID),\\u000a Enugu State Environmental Protection Agency (ENSEPA) and the State and Local Government Programme (SLGP). The second is to\\u000a test the empirical
This paper traces the history of colonial social control and Policing in Nigeria, and also reviews the literature and examines how colonialism demonized, discredited, and supplanted the traditional system of policing. It establishes that in place of the old (traditional) system, colonialism imposed a new (but alien) militarized policing geared toward the colonial needs of political oppression and economic exploitation
In the last two decades, the federal government of Nigeria has employed several strategies in an effort to resolve the ongoing crisis in its Niger Delta Region. Two main approaches were adopted concurrently by both military and civilian regimes within the...
The practice of geophagy, widespread among tropical peoples, has apparently been hitherto unreported among the Tiv of Nigeria. The custom is often recorded simply as a component of a culture, but this study suggests that it has a nutritional role, and that it thus has an origin outside the culture itself. Geophagical clays generally are mined from the B soil
For several months now,the chronic political instability in the Niger Delta, the principal area of hydrocarbons exploita- tion in Nigeria, the world's eleventh largest oil producer ,has provided the media with spectacular stories of violence. Hardly a week goes by without an act of sabotage against a n industrial facility,the kidnapping of an employee of an oil company (foreign or
The Vision 2010 Committee was inaugurated in 1996, with a mandate to develop a blueprint of measures to ensure the realization of Nigeria's potential as an independent country by the year 2010. The Committee submitted its report in 1997. This paper analyses the basic policy objectives—to seek a safe and healthy environment that secures the economic and social well-being of
An attempt was made to determine the annual economic losses due to bovine fascioliasis in Nigeria. The estimates were based on an average annual disease incidence of 2·5%, an assumed mortality rate of 1%, a total liver condemnation rate of 7%, a cattle population of 10 million and an annual slaughter rate of 10%.
Educational equipment is very important for supplementing the efforts of the teacher, and most educational institutions in Nigeria, especially the secondary and tertiary ones, spend substantial allocations of their annual budgets for purchasing educational hardware. However, much of the purchased equipment is abandoned in the stores, offices or classrooms shortly after acquisition. This paper describes a questionnaire survey of technicians
A global new deal (describing a comprehensive programme designed to respond to multiple crises in financial, economic, environmental and social sectors) recently adopted by advanced countries comprises sustainable (renewable and efficient) energy and environmentally-friendly technologies. Despite the abundance of natural renewable energy resources in Nigeria, sustainable energy remains ignored and underplayed. Aetiological method and concept of postneoliberalism were used to
IN 2001, A TEAM of health care providers from Tennessee undertook a medical mission to the Nigerian Christian Hospital in Aba, Nigeria.DURING A 10-DAY PERIOD, the surgical team applied US and AORN standards when possible, but found they also had to accept some of the local standards because of the lack of medical supplies, cleaning supplies, and properly functioning equipment
Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium, Vibrio cholera. Choleragenic V. cholera O1 and O139 are the only causative agents of the disease. The two most distinguishing epidemiologic features of the disease are its tendency to appear in explosive outbreaks and its predisposition to causing pandemics that may progressively affect many countries and spread into continents. Despite efforts to control cholera, the disease continues to occur as a major public health problem in many developing countries. Numerous studies over more than a century have made advances in the understanding of the disease and ways of treating patients, but the mechanism of emergence of new epidemic strains, and the ecosystem supporting regular epidemics, remain challenging to epidemiologists. In Nigeria, since the first appearance of epidemic cholera in 1972, intermittent outbreaks have been occurring. The later part of 2010 was marked with severe outbreak which started from the northern part of Nigeria, spreading to the other parts and involving approximately 3,000 cases and 781 deaths. Sporadic cases have also been reported. Although epidemiologic surveillance constitutes an important component of the public health response, publicly available surveillance data from Nigeria have been relatively limited to date. Based on existing relevant scientific literature on features of cholera, this paper presents a synopsis of cholera epidemiology emphasising the situation in Nigeria. PMID:22937199
Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium, Vibrio cholera. Choleragenic V. cholera O1 and O139 are the only causative agents of the disease. The two most distinguishing epidemiologic features of the disease are its tendency to appear in explosive outbreaks and its predisposition to causing pandemics that may progressively affect many countries and spread into continents. Despite efforts to control cholera, the disease continues to occur as a major public health problem in many developing countries. Numerous studies over more than a century have made advances in the understanding of the disease and ways of treating patients, but the mechanism of emergence of new epidemic strains, and the ecosystem supporting regular epidemics, remain challenging to epidemiologists. In Nigeria, since the first appearance of epidemic cholera in 1972, intermittent outbreaks have been occurring. The later part of 2010 was marked with severe outbreak which started from the northern part of Nigeria, spreading to the other parts and involving approximately 3,000 cases and 781 deaths. Sporadic cases have also been reported. Although epidemiologic surveillance constitutes an important component of the public health response, publicly available surveillance data from Nigeria have been relatively limited to date. Based on existing relevant scientific literature on features of cholera, this paper presents a synopsis of cholera epidemiology emphasising the situation in Nigeria.
|Background: The limited literature that exists about intellectual disabilities (ID) in Nigeria suggests that perceptions of ID may be shaped by social and cultural beliefs, and that socio-economic factors have prevented the development of policy and services. The present study sought to explore these suggestions in more detail by administering…
Ethnic diversity, the albatross of many nations, has caused conflicts and wars all over the world. It has hindered the sustainable development of the culture of peace and equity in Nigeria. The objective of this article is to demonstrate the various public measures instituted to cope with the problem of ethnic diversity, and their effects. To achieve this objective, the
The problem I want to examine is how to characterize the relationship between ethnicity and federalism in Nigeria. I want to illustrate how the dynamics of ethnicity, by which I mean its manipulation as a political resource of conflict and accommodation by the political elite, has shaped the development of federalism in the country. In what follows I attempt to
Among several related phenomena, this study presents as its focal points the examination of some of the variables that influence and shape the structure of sociopolitical, cultural and socioeconomic relations in the course of national integration in Nigeria. The exploitation of petroleum resources since 1958 in the Niger Delta has largely influenced the course of the political as well as
Nigeria has not evolved political formulas that explicitly allow religion or religious authorities to define legitimacy. There have, however, been struggles carried out in religious terms over constitutional mechanisms for adjudicating conflict. Religion also has been an element in the conflict between ethnic-language groups. Finally, religion provides a language, a set of values, and institutions through which groups struggle and
Traditional fermented condiments (dawadawa, iru, ogiri) based on vegetable proteins, and consumed by different ethnic groups in Nigeria have been the pride of culinary traditions for centuries. It is evident that these products have played a major role in the food habits of communities in the rural regions serving not only as a nutritious non-meat proteins substitute but also as
This discussion of the difficulties involved in acquiring materials for academic libraries in Nigeria uses statistics at one university to demonstrate the drop in foreign exchange based orders. Alternatives to overseas purchasing, including local purchasing, gifts and exchanges, and resource sharing programs, are also discussed. (CLB)
Fifteen children and 23 adults with complications of chronic pancreatitis were managed in Zaria, Nigeria from 1971 to 1987. They comprised 26 patients with chronic pseudocysts, 9 with chronic abdominal pain, and 3 with obstructive jaundice. Internal drainage was performed for 22 (85%) of the pseudocysts, with resection and external drainage, respectively, in 2 each. A longitudinal pancreaticojejunostomy was performed
This article analyzes the trends and conditions of imprisonment in Nigeria. The analysis reveals an upsurge in prisons admissions, and a high proportion of detainees and inmates remanded pending trial. High rates of custodial morbidity, mortality and overcrowding, poor health care, and inadequate nutrition and food prevail in Nigerian prisons. The rate of execution increased between 1984 and 1990 under
The Meren Water Injection Project, which is one of the largest in West Africa in terms of injection volume, secondary reserves to be recovered and cost, is located in the Meren field offshore Nigeria. This study presents an updated comprehensive plan to deplete 7 reservoir units in sands that have been producing under solution gas drive and gravity segregation with
Surrounded by the Benue trough, the Middle Niger River depression, the Niger River delta, and the Abakaliki anticlinorium, Nigeria's Anambra basin probably holds a thick, unexplored sequence with significant hydrocarbon potential. The basin's sediment could be 16,000 ft thick; a Bouguer gravity survey indicates two parallel northeast-southwest trending gravity lows (the Anambra low and the Awka depression) separated by the
In 1959, the regional government of Western Nigeria established the 1st television station in Nigeria and in Africa. Even though it promoted the station as a means to educate the people about development and the world, it initially served as a means for an opposition leader to address the people of Western Nigeria. The regional governments of Eastern and Northern Nigeria and the federal government in Lagos followed and started their own TV stations in the early 1960s. All 4 of these stations basically existed to serve partisan political objectives for the various governments. Any stations established after these 4 continued this same political and regionalistic heritage. In 1973, a new surge of regional consciousness occurred after the now military government allowed the division of the country into 19 states. This change, the concurrent oil boom, and the effectiveness and importance of existing TV broadcasting led to a new surge of state owned TV stations. 3 years later, the military government established the National Television Authority (NTA) to coordinate nationwide coverage. The NTA then acquired existing TV stations. This event slowed the growth of TV broadcasting until 1979 when military government rule ended. The 5 political parties vying for election in the states revoked the NTA charter and a proliferation of TV stations occurred. This also happened because the civilian administration was disorganized. As regionalization played a role in the broadcasting of political propaganda, so did it play a role in educational programming, Despite TV broadcasting's political ties, it has been successful in producing quality educational programs for schools and colleges nationwide via the NTA network with the assistance of UNESCO. PMID:12342789
This study situates the process of educational decentralization in the narrower context of social justice. Its main object, however, is to analyze the implications of decentralization for strategies of equity and social justice in Nigeria. It starts from the premise that the early optimism that supported decentralization as an efficient and effective educational reform tool has been disappointed. The author maintains that decentralization — on its own — cannot improve education service delivery, the capacities of subordinate governments, or the integration of social policy in broader development goals. If the desired goals are to be met, public spending must be increased, greater tax revenues must be secured, and macro-economic stabilization must be achieved without re-instituting the welfare state.
A survey of the post-harvest fruit rot diseases of tomato was conducted in five states of Nigeria. During severe infections, the diseases could cause 25% loss at harvest and 34% loss of the remaining product in transit, storage and market stalls; thus giving an overall loss of about 50% of the product. Two types of rots, soft and dry were recognised. The soft rot was found to account for about 85% and the dry rot about 15% of the overall loss. Erwinia carotovora, Rhizopus oryzae, R. stolonifer, Fusarium equiseti, F. nivale and F. oxysporum were established as the soft rot pathogens; while Aspergillus aculeatus, A. flavus, Cladosporium tenuissimum, Corynespora cassiicola, Curvularia lunata, Penicillium expansum P. multicolor and Rhizoctonia solani were established as the dry rot pathogens of tomato fruits in Nigeria. PMID:471028
The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the She oil company, through investment and crude oil exploration, benefits socio-economic growth in Nigeria in general and in the Niger Delta of Nigeria in particular. In 1998, the United Nations Special Rapporteur's report on Nigeria accused Nigeria and Shell of violating human rights and failing to protect the environment, and
A pilot study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of establishing a heart surgery programme in northern Nigeria. During three medical missions by a visiting US team, in partnership with local physicians, 18 patients with heart diseases underwent surgery at two referral hospitals in the region. Sixteen (88.9%) patients underwent the planned operative procedure with an observed 30-day mortality of 12.5% (2/16) and 0% morbidity. Late complications were anticoagulant related in mechanical heart valve patients and included a first-trimester abortion one year postoperatively, and a death at two years from haemorrhage during pregnancy. This has prompted us to now consider bioprosthetics as the valve of choice in women of childbearing age in this patient population. This preliminary result has further stimulated the interest of all stakeholders on the urgency to establish open-heart surgery as part of the armamentarium to combat the ravages of heart diseases in northern Nigeria. PMID:22453514
Nwiloh, J; Edaigbini, S; Danbauchi, S; Babaniyi, I; Aminu, M; Adamu, Y; Oyati, A
The general features of occupational radiation protection dosimetry in Nigeria within the period 1990-1999 have been summarised. About 640 personnel, representing about 25% of the estimated number of radiation workers in Nigeria, were monitored by the TL dosimetry technique during the period, with the majority being the personnel of the teaching hospitals across the country. Most private establishments, especially the X ray diagnostic centres, operate without dosimetry coverage or supervision by a regulatory authority. The weighted mean of the annual effective dose ranged between 0 and 28.97 mSv with the upper limit of collective effective dose being 18.47 man.Sv per year. The individual risk estimate due to this is about 1.5 x 10(-3) per year and this was among the medical personnel. The value could be more if all radiation workers in the country were monitored. PMID:11468807
|In this paper, the authors examined health related challenges facing Nigeria. They argued that the relationship between literacy and health in today's knowledge-based economy further puts pressure on countries like Nigeria to raise its literacy rates if it is to compete in the global market. This line of thought is based on the fact that in…
The events that circumscribed the parameters of today's counseling in Nigeria are many and varied regarding their influence in shaping the development of the profession in the country. The authors review these events and the current status of counseling in Nigeria, including the challenges faced in the profession. Future trends and suggestions for…
|The events that circumscribed the parameters of today's counseling in Nigeria are many and varied regarding their influence in shaping the development of the profession in the country. The authors review these events and the current status of counseling in Nigeria, including the challenges faced in the profession. Future trends and suggestions…
The ecological distribulion of three varanid lizards (Varanus exanthematicus, K niloticus niloticus, and V. niloticus ornatusj in Nigeria is studied in the present paper, from both literature records and long-term field ecological research. V. exanthematicus is present only in central and northern Nigeria, where it seerns to be widespread and locally cornrnon in the Guinea savanna vegetation zone, but rnay
Nigeria's determined efforts to promote Tourism Industry since 1991 were enumerated. This includes the establishment of the National Policy on Tourism and the National Tourism Development Corporation (NTDC) with the objective of making Nigeria the ultimate tourism destination in Africa. Tourism spatial and attribute data gathered were classified into three categories - Cultural, Ecological and Modern day tourism. A relational
|The greatest current threat to humanity, most especially in the developing countries of the world, is HIV/AIDS. The first case of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria was in 1986 in Lagos. Due to inaction and denial by the people, there was a rapid but subtle transmission of the virus within Nigeria's various populations and communities. Presently, the disease…
Soyinka, Femi; Ogundare, Dipo; Olowookere, Kemi; Akinsola, Yemisi; Alade, Adeyemi; Moronkola, O. A.
The political landscape of Nigeria has undergone a dramatic transformation since independence in 1960. Nigeria has spent most of after independence years struggling with political, social, and economic failure. Repeated attempts to sustain and consolidate democratic government have faltered. The resurgence of ethnic and religious conflicts all over the country has once again fueled pessimism concerning not only the future
In Nigeria, the dominant type of basement rock intersected by wells drilled for hydrocarbons, limestone, or water is granite. The three sedimentary basins in Nigeria are underlain by continental crust except in the Niger delta, where the basement rock is interpreted to be oceanic crust. Most of the wells that penetrated the basement are in the Eastern Dahomey embayment of
Studies in leaf anatomy of 25 Ficus species in Nigeria have been undertaken to unravel the relationship among the species with a view to providing a set of stable taxonomic characters. Anatomy of the lamina and midrib featured characters that are described in detail for the first time in the Ficus species of Nigeria thus providing the basis for infra-generic
Ethnic differences influence entrepreneurship development as well as its success or failure. In Nigeria, ethnicity is one of the keys to understanding pluralistic nature of our society. One thing to note is that the various ethnic groups in Nigeria have achieved varying levels of success in their entrepreneurship development and its subsequent success. Thus, this paper tried to evaluate the
The article focuses on the role of higher education in generating or mitigating inequality among ethno-regional groups and its impact on ethnic relations with evidence from Nigeria. It shows that access to education in Nigeria has been politicised. This is because of the perceived role of education in engendering political and socio-economic inequalities. It assesses the intervention mechanisms of successive
The democratic consolidation in Nigeria is threatened by ethnic politics in which Nigerians struggle to contest and win elections outside their ethnic domains. This situation aggravates political marginalization and exacerbates ethnic conflicts and exclusionary politics in Nigeria. Through qualitative methods of study, this paper examines the construction of political identity from ethnic nationalism and legitimization of space, by explaining how
Nigeria is the African country that implemented ethnic party bans most systematically. At different points in time, a total of at least 64 parties has been denied registration for failing to demonstrate ‘national presence’. Nigeria is also the African country with the longest record in institutional engineering. Ethnic party bans are one instrument in a broader repertoire of incentives for
The increasing spate of fluctuations in the world price of crude oil and the global food crisis in recent years have been issues of concern to policymakers the world over. Since the first oil shock in 1974, oil has annually produced over 90 per cent of Nigeria's export income. In 2000, Nigeria received 99.6 per cent of its export income
In this paper, the authors examined health related challenges facing Nigeria. They argued that the relationship between literacy and health in today's knowledge-based economy further puts pressure on countries like Nigeria to raise its literacy rates if it is to compete in the global market. This line of thought is based on the fact that in…
|The purpose of this study is to determine how adult and non formal education is financed in Nigeria; and to examine areas or forms of and the problems of financing adult and non-formal education in Nigeria. Survey research was used in order to carry out the study. Three hundred and twenty five (325) respondents from government agencies,…
River Asa, an important tributary to the Niger River, the main stream of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the longest river that flows across Ilorin City in western Nigeria, was chosen as a case study in order to investigate the variations in the quality of its water at different locations. This was necessitated by the peoples' consideration of water
\\u000a Nigeria’s remote Taraba region harbours a wealth of wildlife. This diversity has been greatly reduced in many locales. We\\u000a explored local attitudes towards monkeys and chimpanzees through a questionnaire survey, with the goal of identifying factors\\u000a that may aid conservation measures. This so-called ethno-primatological approach ultimately aims to mitigate the cultural\\u000a and perceptive isolation of non-local conservationists and primatologists.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Interviewees
Gilbert Nyanganji; Andrew Fowler; Aylin McNamara; Volker Sommer
That depressive illness is universal can not be argued, but the severity, age of onset, manifestation, and the characteristics of those affected by the illness in different parts of the world, are issues yet to be properly resolved. This retrospective study from the northern part of Nigeria shows that 42% of all first contact patients received the diagnosis of depression. Depression was diagnosed more frequently in married women than single women. PMID:6605667
A retrospective study of bacterial infection in 71 burned patients over a 5-year period (1993–1997) was carried out. The commonest colonizing organism was Klebsiella species (26.7%) followed by Staph aureus (25.6%). There was a very high degree of resistance by these organisms to commonly available antibiotics in Nigeria, with the result that more expensive antibiotics such as the cephalosporins were
Levels of lead were determined in the milk of 34 Fulani women in Plateau State in northern Nigeria. The Fulani are nomadic, semi-pastoralists who inhabit the western Sahel, including the countries of Mali, Burkino Faso, the Republic of Niger, Nigeria and Chad. The mean age of the women in this study was 26.0 +/- 7.5 years and their mean body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was 19.4 (range, 14.5-24.0). Their average parity was 4 (range, 1-10). Milk was collected 2-24 weeks postgestation (mean, 11 weeks). Fifteen of the 34 milk specimens contained measurable lead (limit of detection, 4.6 microg/dL); the milk of the other 19 women (56%) did not contain a detectable level of lead. The data were not normally distributed. The median lead concentration of all 34 milk specimens, determined by end on plasma-axial view spectrometry, was 6.7 microg/dL (range, < 4.6-130 microg/dL). Given the mean weight of the 34 infants in the study (4.6 kg) and assuming that each infant consumed 0.7 L/day of milk, the average lead intake of these exclusively breastfed infants was 9.9 microg/kg/day, a value which is twice the daily permissible intake (DPI) of 5.0 microg/g/day set by the World Health Organization in 1972. These data indicate that some exclusively breastfed Fulani infants in the Jos Plateau are at risk of injury from lead derived from their mothers' milk, and raise questions about the actual blood levels in these nursing infants and the source(s) of the maternal lead.
VanderJagt, D. J.; Okolo, S. N.; Romero, L.; Millson, M.; Glew, R. H.
Cannabis dependence is fast becoming a public health problem in Nigeria. Prevalent studies indicate that up to 9% of secondary school students and 33% of University undergraduates (i.e., one in every three students) abuse cannabis. Cases of cannabis dependence seen in hospital practise in Nigeria are usually associated with psychotic illness and there is a strong feeling among psychiatrists in the country that the cannabis abuse is contributory to the precipitation of the psychosis. If this is true, then abstinence from cannabis abuse is necessary in order to reduce the possibility of relapse of the psychotic illness when this has been treated. The paper to be presented describes a method of treatment which has been developed and tried in an Ife University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. This treatment is a form of behaviour therapy and its cost has been estimated at about US+12, which was found to be within reach of most patients. Patients who have undergone a course of this treatment (one course of 3 treatments) have abstained from cannabis for an average period of 9 months. A single treatment administered within this period further prolongs the period of abstinence. Further work is recommended to explore the range of application of this method of treatment, for example, the personality types for whom it is most suitable and those in whom it would contraindicated. PMID:6606553
Nigeria with an estimated $350 per capital annually still ranks near the bottom 158 out of 177 countries in the UN Human Capital Development Index in terms of per capita income, with more than half of the population living in poverty. Over the past decade U5MR is estimated to be 201 deaths/1000 lives births,the high rates of child mortality especially the 0-5 years shows the total breakdown of social and economic well-being of the country .This paper examined child health care demand in Nigeria using the Nested Multinomial Logit Model estimation technique.The study used parents' education as a proxy for child education,while the decision to make a choice of the health facilities was also assumed to be that of the House-Hold head. The study found out that female child has a higher probability of seeking health care facility ahead of their male counterpart. Also, the household head educational level was found to be a determinant of health care seeking behavior of the child. Empirical evidence also revealed that that the probability of seeking healthcare increases with household size and that demand for child health care in Nigeria is non linear in nature.Based on this, the paper recommends the need to show greater commitment to child health care and that government should reduce the problems militating against effective performance of the health sector such as, inefficiency, wasteful use of resources, low quality of service and poor enabling environment. PMID:23121749
Nigeria has the largest number of HIV/AIDS cases in West Africa, with 3.3 million people estimated to be living with the disease. The country remains a fragile democratic state and has allocated insufficient resources to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS among its citizens. The preponderance of President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) dollars, expert knowledge, conservative ideology and activities has shaped the direction of HIV/AIDS sexual-transmission prevention programmes in Nigeria. PEPFAR channels significant resources through Nigerian faith-based organisations (FBOs), and considers these organisations integral for HIV prevention strategies. In many instances, HIV/AIDS prevention programmes managed by FBOs reflect their ideologies of morality and sexuality. There is a convergence of religious ideology concerning morality and HIV infectivity between American and Nigerian conservatives; this produces a fertile ground for the influence and expansion of the conservative activities of PEPFAR in Nigeria. The paper highlights this nexus and draws attention to the biopolitical underpinning of PEPFAR in shaping Nigeria's HIV prevention programmes. The paper further notes both positive and negative effects of PEPFAR activities and attempts by the Obama administration to redirect PEPFAR to a more holistic approach in order to optimise outcomes. PMID:23391163
Universities have come under serious attack because of their lackluster response to HIV/AIDS. This article examines the response of National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) and its strategic responses in combating HIV/AIDS epidemic. This is achieve