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Sample records for ibom state nigeria

  1. Business Studies Academic Performance Differences of Secondary School Juniors in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udoukpong, Bassey E.; Emah, Ime E.; Umoren, Shirley E.

    2012-01-01

    The research examined the differences in the academic performance in Business Studies of a sampled secondary school junior students in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. A sample of 290 (138 male and 152 female) Junior Secondary Three (9th grade) students was surveyed. The students' variables' being examined vis-à-vis academic performance in Business…

  2. Entrepreneurship Education and Career Intentions of Tertiary Education Students in Akwa Ibom and Cross River States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekpoh, Uduak Imo; Edet, Aniefiok Oswald

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of entrepreneurship education on career intentions among 500 students drawn from two universities in Akwa Ibom and Cross River States of Nigeria. The study adopted a survey design. Two research questions and two hypotheses were raised for the study. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire titled…

  3. Prevalence of Hypertension in Akwa Ibom State, South-South Nigeria: Rural versus Urban Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    Akpan, Effiong Ekong; Ekrikpo, Udeme E.; Udo, Aniema I. A.; Bassey, Bassey Edet

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increasing trend in the prevalence of hypertension in rural communities compared to that of the urban communities. This study was therefore carried out to determine the prevalence of hypertension and its predictors (if any) in both urban and rural communities of Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. Subjects and Method. This was a cross-sectional study of urban and rural communities of Akwa Ibom State for the prevalence of hypertension and its predictors. Two urban cities and two rural communities were randomly selected from the three senatorial districts of the state. Hypertension was defined based on the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of Hypertension. Results. Nine hundred and seventy-eight (978) participants were recruited from rural areas and five hundred and ninety (590) from urban centers. The rural populace had higher systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure than the urban populace (P < 0.001, < 0.002, < 0.001, resp.). The prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher in the rural populace than in the urban populace [44.3% (95% CI 41.147.4%) versus 28.6% (95% CI 24.932.3%)]. Age, BMI, and proteinuria were independent predictors of hypertension occurrence. Conclusion. There is an epidemiologic change in the prevalence of hypertension in the rural communities of Nigeria. PMID:26171244

  4. Comparative Analysis of Selected Motor Fitness Profile of Football Referees in Cross River and AKWA IBOM States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogabor, J. O.; Sanusi, M.; Saulawa, A. I.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare selected motor fitness profile of football referees in Cross River and Akwa Ibom States. Motor fitness profiles compared were running speed and agility of the referees. Standardized equipment and procedures were employed in the tests. To achieve the objectives of the study, two research hypotheses were…

  5. Fertility level in urban Nigerian societies: recent observations from Eket Urban of Akwa Ibom state of south eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Etukudo, I W

    1990-12-01

    Between November-December 1990 a fertility survey of 614 urban women 15-49 years old in Eket In Akwa Ibom State of southeastern Nigeria was conducted to determine fertility levels and their relevance to population and socioeconomic planning in Nigeria. 75% of the women were literate and 95.2% were married. The number of children ever born increased as age increased. The numbers ranged from 2.26 for 15-19 year olds to 7.14 for 45-49 year olds. Mean family size equalled 5.61. That of their mothers was 7.25 and that of their grandmothers 7.14. The relative young sample population accounted for the comparatively low family size. The total fertility rate compared favorably with completed family size (7.27 and 7.14, respectively). Age specific fertility rates were highest in 20-24 year old women (304) and 30-34 year old women (281) and lowest in 40-44 year old women (194) and in 45-49 year old women (70). Pregnancy rates were highest in 30-34 year old women (25.1%) and lowest in 45-49 year old women (0). Despite the dissemination of family planning information and a relatively high percentage of educated women and women who work in professional positions in Eket, fertility is very high. Like the rest of Nigeria, the population in the early 1990s in Eket was expanding very rapidly. This coupled with falling mortality rates indicated a large percentage of children 15 years old to support which seriously strained the economy. Besides high fertility affected significantly the health of mothers and children, yet rapid population growth did not allow Nigeria to develop an adequate health care system. The government should use these findings and those of other small scale surveys to develop a sound population policy and population programs which include compulsory population education for children and adults. The policy should be integrated within socioeconomic planning PMID:12343743

  6. Results of a 1 year Special Action Project for the Elimination of Leprosy (SAPEL) in poorly accessible areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ebenso, B E

    1999-03-01

    This article reports the outcome of a Special Action Project for the Elimination of Leprosy (SAPEL), including the implementation of multidrug therapy (MDT) in difficult situations in Akwa Ibom State in Nigeria. Twenty-two fishing villages and five communities in areas of gully erosion participated in the project from August 1996 to September 1997. Seven new cases were detected and treated with MDT. Twenty-one out of 22 defaulters examined resided in the mainland part of the project area and not in the fishing villages. Considerable difficulties were encountered with regard to the exorbitant cost of transport, physical attacks on the teams and the lack of reliable information on population figures for the project area. The discussion includes attention to the cost-effectiveness of the SAPEL approach under the conditions described and the need to develop better monitoring of treatment and community participation in poorly accessible areas. PMID:10405545

  7. A survey of the repository of groundwater potential and distribution using geoelectrical resistivity method in Itu Local Government Area (L.G.A), Akwa Ibom State, southern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibuot, J. C.; Akpabio, G. T.; George, N. J.

    2013-12-01

    Vertical electrical sounding (VES), employing a Schlumberger electrode configuration, was used to investigate the sediments and aquifer repositories in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom state, southern Nigeria. This was done in sixteen (16) locations/communities with the maximum current electrode spread ranging between 800-1000m. The field data were interpreted using forward and iterative least square inversion modeling, which gives a resolution with 3-5 geoelectric layers. The observed frequencies in curve types include 31.25% of AKH, 18.8% of AAK and HK and 6.25% of K, QHK, AKH, KA and KHQ, respectively. These sets of curves show a wide range of variabilities in resistivities between and within the layers penetrated by current. The presence of K and H curve types in the study area indicates the alteration of the geomaterials with limited hydrologic significance to the prolific groundwater repository. A correlation of the constrained nearby borehole lithology logs with the VES results shows that the layers were all sandy formations (fine and well sorted sands to gravelly sands or medium to coarse-grained sands as described by nearby lithology logs) with some wide ranges of electrical resistivity values and thicknesses caused by electrostratigraphic inhomogeneity. The geologic topsoil (motley topsoil) is generally porous and permeable and as such the longitudinal conductance ( S) values for the covering/protective layer is generally less than unity of Siemens ( S < 1?-1), the value considered for efficient protection of the underlying aquifers by the topmost and overlying layer. The spatial orientations and the leveling patterns of the most economically viable potential groundwater repository within the maximum current electrode separations has been delineated in 2-D and 3-D contoured maps. The estimated depth range for the desired groundwater repository is 32.6-113.1m and its average depth value is 74.30m. The thickness of this layer ranges from 27.9-103m while its average depth has been evaluated to be 63.02m. Also, its resistivity range and average value have been estimated to be 507-5612m and 3365.125?m

  8. A survey of the repository of groundwater potential and distribution using geoelectrical resistivity method in Itu Local Government Area (L.G.A), Akwa Ibom State, southern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibuot, J.; Akpabio, G.; George, N.

    2013-12-01

    Vertical electrical sounding (VES), employing a Schlumberger electrode configuration, was used to investigate the sediments and aquifer repositories in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom state, southern Nigeria. This was done in sixteen (16) locations/communities with the maximum current electrode spread ranging between 800-1000m. The field data were interpreted using forward and iterative least square inversion modeling, which gives a resolution with 3-5 geoelectric layers. The observed frequencies in curve types include 31.25% of AKH, 18.8% of AAK and HK and 6.25% of K, QHK, AKH, KA and KHQ, respectively. These sets of curves show a wide range of variabilities in resistivities between and within the layers penetrated by current. The presence of K and H curve types in the study area indicates the alteration of the geomaterials with limited hydrologic significance to the prolific groundwater repository. A correlation of the constrained nearby borehole lithology logs with the VES results shows that the layers were all sandy formations (fine and well sorted sands to gravelly sands or medium to coarse-grained sands as described by nearby lithology logs) with some wide ranges of electrical resistivity values and thicknesses caused by electrostratigraphic inhomogeneity. The geologic topsoil (motley topsoil) is generally porous and permeable and as such the longitudinal conductance (S) values for the covering/protective layer is generally less than unity of Siemens (S < 1?-1), the value considered for efficient protection of the underlying aquifers by the topmost and overlying layer. The spatial orientations and the leveling patterns of the most economically viable potential groundwater repository within the maximum current electrode separations has been delineated in 2-D and 3-D contoured maps. The estimated depth range for the desired groundwater repository is 32.6-113.1m and its average depth value is 74.30m. The thickness of this layer ranges from 27.9-103m while its average depth has been evaluated to be 63.02m. Also, its resistivity range and average value have been estimated to be 507-5612m and 3365.125?m

  9. Cassava Intake and Vitamin A Status among Women and Preschool Children in Akwa-Ibom, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    De Moura, Fabiana F.; Moursi, Mourad; Lubowa, Abdelrahman; Ha, Barbara; Boy, Erick; Oguntona, Babatunde; Sanusi, Rasaki A.; Maziya-Dixon, Busie

    2015-01-01

    Background As part of the HarvestPlus provitamin A-biofortified cassava program in Nigeria we conducted a survey to determine the cassava intake and prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among children 6-59 months and women of childbearing age in the state of Akwa Ibom. Methods A cluster-randomized cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011 in Akwa Ibom, Nigeria. The usual food and nutrient intakes were estimated using a multi-pass 24-hour recall with repeated recall on a subsample. Blood samples of children and women were collected to analyze for serum retinol, serum ferritin, and acute phase proteins as indicators of infection. Vitamin A deficiency was defined as serum retinol <0.70 ?mol/L adjusted for infection. Results A total of 587 households of a mother-child dyad participated in the dietary intake assessment. Cassava was very widely consumed in Akwa Ibom, mainly as gari or foofoo. Daily cassava consumption frequency was 92% and 95% among children and women, respectively. Mean (SD) cassava intake (expressed as raw fresh weight) was 348 317 grams/day among children and 940 777 grams/day among women. Intakes of most micronutrients appeared to be adequate with the exception of calcium. Median vitamin A intake was very high both for children (1038 ?g RAE/day) and women (2441 ?g RAE/day). Red palm oil and dark green leafy vegetables were the main sources of vitamin A in the diet, with red palm oil alone contributing almost 60% of vitamin A intake in women and children. Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency ranged from moderate (16.9 %) among children to virtually non-existent (3.4 %) among women. Conclusion Consumption of cassava and vitamin A intake was high among women and children in Akwa Ibom with a prevalence of vitamin A deficiency ranging from moderate in children to non-existent among women. The provitamin A biofortified cassava and other vitamin A interventions should focus dissemination in states where red palm oil is not widely consumed. PMID:26083382

  10. PAH depositional history and sources in recent sediment core from Ukwa Ibom Lake, S. E. Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyo-Ita, O E; Oyo-Ita, I O

    2013-04-01

    Analyses of recent sediment core from the Ukwa Ibom Lake show evidence of aquatic production, terrigenous, combustion and petroleum inputs. Total organic carbon/total nitrogen values (>10) for the sediments indicate greater wash-in of land-plant organic matter relative to algal production. The characteristic combustion ratios, fluoranthene/fluoranthene+pyrene (>0.50), anthracene/anthracene+phenanthrene (>0.10), benzo(a)anthracene/benzo(a)anthracene+chrysene (>0.35) as well as 1,7/1,7+2,6-dimethylphenanthrene (>0.70) were observed for the top section only. These results coincided with the most recent pave-road extension exercise involving tree logging and burning of bush. The highest total PAH concentration (91.13ng/g dry weight (dw)) observed for the bottom section coincided with the period of inhabitation of the lake catchments (~5 decades ago) when discharge to the Lake water of domestic sewage and mill waste water were prevalent. The regular decline in total PAH concentrations upcore is a reflection of the ban placed on indiscriminate dumping of wastes following relocation of the inhabitants of the catchments. Besides the local depositional history, the irregular decrease in unresolved complex mixture (UCM) profiles suggests regional contaminant influx from the adjacent upper Cross River estuary, especially during intense rainfall event. The non-uniformity in methylphenanthrene indices (MPI-1 and MPI-2) shows evidence of importation and utilization of petroleum products of different thermal maturity histories into the Nigerian economy. PMID:22821212

  11. A Comparative Analysis of the Availability of Information Resources on Ibibio Culture in the University of Uyo and Akwa Ibom State Public Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okon, Henry Itohowo; Simon, Jehu S.; Akai, Iniobong

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the results of a survey of the available holdings of information resources on Ibibio culture in the University of Uyo Library and Akwa Ibom State Library. The specific objectives of the study were to determine the different size of information resources on funeral, fattening (Mbobo), taboos, myths as well as dissemination in the…

  12. Impact of Sex Education in Kogi State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sule, H. A.; Akor, J. A.; Toluhi, O. J.; Suleiman, R. O.; Akpihi, L.; Ali, O. U.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate the impact of family sex education in secondary schools on students in Kogi State, Nigeria. The descriptive survey design was used for the study. A total of 1,960 secondary school students were drawn by stratified random sampling from 40 schools within Kogi State, Nigeria. Three research questions were…

  13. Nigeria.

    PubMed

    1987-08-01

    Nigeria, located on the western coast of Africa, is bordered by Cameroon and Chad on the east, by the Gulf of Guinea on the south, by Niger on the north, and by Benin on the west. It is the most populous country in Africa, accounting for 1 in 4 of sub-Saharan Africa's people. While only 25% of Nigerians are urban dwellers, there are 24 cities with populations that exceed 100,000. There is wonderful diversity because of the 250 ethnic groups which comprise Nigeria. The country gained full independence on October 1, 1960 as a federation of 3 regions under a constitution that provided for a parliamentary form of government. This constitution provided a substantial measure of self-government for each of the 3 regions. In 1963, Nigeria proclaimed itself a federal republic and rewrote its constitution; a 4th region was established that same year. In an effort to resolve some of the increased tensions among the ethnic groups, the 4 regions became 12 states; civil war ensued in response to the establishment of the Republic of Biafra. Biafra was defeated and then reconciliation was rapid and effective. Economic development became the focus for Nigeria. Many changes in the government occurred in the years following, and in 1983, there was a military takeover. There are currently 19 states which receive most of their revenue from the federal government according to a formula based on population and other factors. Since 1986, the country has been involved in a public discussion of its political future which will serve as a prelude to the proposed return to civilian rule in 1990. It will hopefully result in the creation of a stable political system. Since the oil boom of the 1970s, the economy of Nigeria has shifted from an agriculturally-based to an oil-based economy. They now rely on oil for more than 95% of export earnings and 70% of federal budget resources. With changes in that market, Nigeria has had to reevaluate their development plans and transportation and communications networks are an important part of the development. The US is involved in providing economic aid to Nigeria. At the present time, Nigeria is producing small arms and light armored vehicles and is attempting to increase both of those capabilities. Nigerian foreign policy has focused largely in Africa and is, to this end, very active in African organizations. It condemns apartheid and advocates the imposition of mandatory comprehensive economic sanctions against South Africa. Relations with the US are cordial; there is frequent travel between the 2 countries and there are currently between 15-20,000 Nigerians studying in the US. PMID:12177964

  14. Heavy Metals in Seafood and Farm Produce from Uyo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Orisakwe, Orish E.; Mbagwu, Herbert O. C.; Ajaezi, Godwin C.; Edet, Ukeme W.; Uwana, Patrick U.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to obtain representative data on the levels of heavy metals in seafood and farm produce consumed by the general population in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, a region known for the exploration and exploitation of crude oil. Methods: In May 2012, 25 food items, including common types of seafood, cereals, root crops and vegetables, were purchased in Uyo or collected from farmland in the region. Dried samples were ground, digested and centrifuged. Levels of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, nickel, cobalt and chromium) were analysed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Average daily intake and target hazard quotients (THQ) were estimated. Results: Eight food items (millet, maize, periwinkle, crayfish, stock fish, sabina fish, bonga fish and pumpkin leaf) had THQ values over 1.0 for cadmium, indicating a potential health risk in their consumption. All other heavy metals had THQ values below 1.0, indicating insignificant health risks. The total THQ for the heavy metals ranged from 0.389 to 2.986. There were 14 items with total THQ values greater than 1.0, indicating potential health risks in their consumption. Conclusion: The regular consumption of certain types of farm produce and seafood available in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, is likely adding to the body burden of heavy metals among those living in this region. PMID:26052462

  15. Determinants of Internet use in Imo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anunobi, C. V.; Mbagwu, F. C.

    2009-01-01

    The research was designed to determine the use of internet in Imo state, Nigeria with a view to enlighten societal stakeholders on their implications to development. Self designed questionnaire was distributed to users from five internet centers in the three local government areas of Imo State. 219 (73%) of the 300 distributed questionnaires were…

  16. Understanding Women's Associations in Nigeria: The Case of Oun State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deji, O. F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper has analyzed the characteristic features of women's associations and problems inhibiting their effective participation in rural development projects in Osun State, Nigeria. One rural local government area was purposively selected in each of the six administrative zones in Osun State, based on high degrees of ruralness. A list of

  17. Determinants of Internet use in Imo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anunobi, C. V.; Mbagwu, F. C.

    2009-01-01

    The research was designed to determine the use of internet in Imo state, Nigeria with a view to enlighten societal stakeholders on their implications to development. Self designed questionnaire was distributed to users from five internet centers in the three local government areas of Imo State. 219 (73%) of the 300 distributed questionnaires were

  18. Nigeria.

    PubMed

    1981-11-01

    Nigeria's 1980 population size is 77,082,000 with a midestimate of 149,965,000 by the year 2000. Population growth is estimated at 3% and the government believes that this rate is satisfactory given a longrun perspective even though problems such as pressure on resources and unemployment do exist. Life expectancy is 47.5 years and morbidity and mortality trends are considered unacceptable; there is a policy to reduce mortality through primary health care. The crude birth rate is 49.8% which is deemed satisfactory while admitting such problems as low levels of maternal and child health, short birth intervals, and malnutrition. Integration of family planning within a maternal health policy is the current practice while abortion is restricted and contraceptives are available only through the government. 20.4% of the population live in urban areas and the rate of urban growth is 5.5%. Policies exist to encourage rural-urban migration and to slow down the growth of Greater Lagos by developing a new national capital. The government of Nigeria approaches population as a quality of life matter; policies emphasize lowering morbidity and mortality and keeping urbanization within manageable proportions. Censuses have been conducted since 1866 although the 1st modern census was in 1952/53, and the latest is the 1962 census. The National Population Commission which implements population policy and coordinates external support for family planning is located within the Central Planning Office. The government plans to establish a federal population unit attached to the Central Planning Office, as well as to develop state units. PMID:12311800

  19. Functional Literacy Empowerment for Nomadic Herdsmen in Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olateju, Mojisola Ajibike

    2010-01-01

    The need for adequate functional English literacy and numeracy instruction for the herdsmen in Osun State in Nigeria arose as a result of the persistent clashes between the herdsmen and their neighbours. In all, 48 participants (22 adults and 26 children and youths) took part in the International Reading Association assisted functional literacy…

  20. Functional Literacy Empowerment for Nomadic Herdsmen in Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olateju, Mojisola Ajibike

    2010-01-01

    The need for adequate functional English literacy and numeracy instruction for the herdsmen in Osun State in Nigeria arose as a result of the persistent clashes between the herdsmen and their neighbours. In all, 48 participants (22 adults and 26 children and youths) took part in the International Reading Association assisted functional literacy

  1. Current Trends of Immunization in Nigeria: Prospect and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Ophori, Endurance A.; Tula, Musa Y.; Azih, Azuka V.; Okojie, Rachel; Ikpo, Precious E.

    2014-01-01

    Immunization is aimed at the prevention of infectious diseases. In Nigeria, the National Programme on Immunization (NPI) suffers recurrent setbacks due to many factors including ethnicity and religious beliefs. Nigeria is made up of 36 states with its federal capital in Abuja. The country is divided into six geo-political zones; north central, north west, north east, south east, south west and south south. The population is unevenly distributed across the country. The average population density in 2006 was estimated at 150 people per square kilometres with Lagos, Anambra, Imo, Abia, and Akwa Ibom being the most densely populated states. Most of the densely populated states are found in the south east. Kano with an average density of 442 persons per square kilometre, is the most densely populated state in the northern part of the country. This study presents a review on the current immunization programme and the many challenges affecting its success in the eradication of childhood diseases in Nigeria. PMID:25237283

  2. Influence of Marital Status on Attitude of Midwives towards OSCE and Their Performance in the Examination in Akwa Ibom and Cross River States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Emon Umoe; Mgbekem, Mary Achi; Nsemo, Alberta David; Ojong-Alacia, Mary Manyo; Nkwonta, Chigozie A.; Mobolaji-Olajide, O. M.

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated the influence of marital status on the midwives' attitude towards OSCE and how this affects their performance in the examination. Two hypotheses guided the study. HO 1 sort to find out if there exist a significant influence of marital status of midwives on their attitude towards OSCE as well as performance in…

  3. PIXE analysis of Thaumatococcus danielli in Osun State of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Osinkolu, G. A.; Pelemo, D. A.; Obiajunwa, E. I.; Oladele, A. T.

    2014-01-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was employed for the determination of elemental compositions of Thaumatococcus danielli (T. danielli) {Marantaceae} (Benn.) Benth [miraculous berry] in Osun State of Nigeria. The objective is to show the usefulness of T. danielli and especially the beneficial effects of the mineral concentrations from the leaves and fruits of T. danielli. The results show the detection of seventeen elements at different concentrations, and their beneficial effects to humans were discussed.

  4. Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Hillian, John

    Nigeria is Africa's most populous nation, and one of its richest. During the 1970s, oil prices fueled rapid development. With world-wide crude oil prices now fluctuating, the future of this diverse, turbulent country is uncertain. The unit contains three sections: the Text, Suggestions for the Teacher, and the Slide-Tape Script. An overview of the

  5. Socioeconomic status and obesity in Abia State, South East Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Chuku, Abali; Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Okafor, Godwin Oguejiofor Chukwuebuka; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in developed and emerging economies. There is a paucity of data from Nigeria on the association between socioeconomic status and obesity. The aim of this study is to highlight that association in Abia State, South East Nigeria. Material and methods This was a cross-sectional survey in South East Nigeria. Participating subjects were recruited from the three senatorial zones of Abia state. A total of 2,487 adults took part in the study. The subjects were classified based on their monthly income and level of educational attainment (determinants of obesity). Monthly income was classified into three groups: low, middle, and upper income, while educational level was classified into four groups: no formal education, primary, secondary, and tertiary education. Body mass index of subjects was determined and used for defining obesity. Data on blood pressure and other anthropometric measurements were also collected using a questionnaire, modified from the World Health Organization STEPwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance. Results Overall, the prevalence of obesity in low, middle, and upper income groups was 12.2%, 16%, and 20%, respectively. The overall prevalence of obesity in individuals with no formal education, primary, secondary, and tertiary education was 6.3%, 14.9%, 10.5%, and 17.7%, respectively. Educational status was found to be significantly associated with obesity in women, but not in men, or in the combined group. However, level of income was observed to be significantly associated with obesity in men, women, and in the combined group. Conclusion Sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors are important determinants of obesity in our study population, and therefore may be indirectly linked to the prevalence and the outcomes of cardiovascular disease in Nigeria. PMID:24204167

  6. Adoption of Aquaculture Technology by Fish Farmers in Imo State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Nwachukwu; Roseline, Onuegbu

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluated the level of adoption of aquaculture technology extended to farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. To improve aquaculture practice in Nigeria, a technology package was developed and disseminated to farmers in the state. This package included ten practices that the farmers were supposed to adopt. Eighty-two respondents were randomly

  7. Entrepreneurship Education and Graduates Unemployment in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emunemu, B. O.; Kasali, O. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated entrepreneurship and graduates' unemployment in Nigeria.The problem of unemployment in Nigeria has become endemic. There have been reported cases of under-employment, seasonal, casual and full blown unemployment. Previous studies on unemployment and factors influencing it in Nigeria identify poor educational standards,…

  8. Entrepreneurship Education and Graduates Unemployment in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emunemu, B. O.; Kasali, O. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated entrepreneurship and graduates' unemployment in Nigeria.The problem of unemployment in Nigeria has become endemic. There have been reported cases of under-employment, seasonal, casual and full blown unemployment. Previous studies on unemployment and factors influencing it in Nigeria identify poor educational standards,

  9. HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, and Opinions among Adolescents in the River States of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodi, Ben E.

    2005-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa remains the epicenter of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic (Taylor et al., 2003; UNAIDS/UNICEF/WHO, 2000; Eaton, Flishera and Arob, 2002; Prat, et al., 2000). Nigeria is one of the most afflicted sub-Saharan nations (UNAIDS, 2002). Rivers State, a major industrial area of Nigeria and the nerve center of the oil industry, represents a…

  10. Adoption of Improved Cotton Production Technologies in Katsina State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeniji, O. B.; Voh, J. P.; Atala, T. K.; Ogungbile, A. O.

    The research broadly aims at providing information on the technology adoption behaviour of cotton farmers in Katsina State of Nigeria., The study was conducted in 2001 farming season in the Sudan savanna ecological zone where Samcot 8, 9, 10 and other production packages have been introduced to farmers. The sample consisted of 250 farmers selected from Funtua, Daudawa and Malumfashi, in Katsina State. The results indicated a high rate of awareness in the zone. The main sources of information were extension agents and the use of radio. The rate of adoption of improved practice was 78%. The results showed that most sampled farmers were not aware of the complete set of technologies studied. Among the technologies, farmer`s awareness of herbicides was least (15%) while the use of fertilizer recorded (85%). The major reasons for non adoption of improved technologies were inadequate knowledge and non-availability of these technologies.

  11. Conservation of indigenous medicinal botanicals in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kayode, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    The rapid appraisal method was used to identify the botanicals used ethnomedicinally from a total of 300 randomly selected respondents drawn from the existing three geo-political zones of Ekiti State, Nigeria. The results obtained revealed that about 40% of the 71 botanicals identified presently rare. Most of the presently abundant botanicals are species primarily cultivated for other purpose other than medicine. Most of the identified species are valued for their curative effects on malaria and fever, the predominant diseases in the study area. The need for the conservation of the rare species cannot be over emphasised as most rural dwellers in the study area depend mostly on herbs from these species. Strategies towards the attainment of this goal are proposed. PMID:16909472

  12. Conceptualizations of Scientific Concepts, Laws, and Theories Held by Kwara State, Nigeria Secondary School Science Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunniyi, Meschach B.; Pella, Milton O.

    1980-01-01

    Reported is a study designed to determine conceptualizations of scientific concepts, laws and theories (linguistic structure of science) held by 80 Kwara State, Nigeria, secondary school science teachers relative to conceptualizations identified with seven philosophers of science. (Author/DS)

  13. Technical Efficiency and Productivity of Yam in Kogi State Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekunwe, Peter A.; Orewa, Sylvester I.

    The study examined the technical efficiency and productivity of yam in Kogi States of Nigeria. Specifically the study examined the socioeconomic characteristics of yam producers in Kogi State, determined the technical efficiency and productivity of yam farmers in the study areas and made recommendations on ways of improving the efficiency of yam production in Kogi State. Primary data were collected using a set of structured questionnaire from 200 selected Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) contact yam farmers from the State. A multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting the farmers. The first stage was a purposive sampling of 5 Local Government Areas (LGAs) each from Kogi States. The LGAs selected were Omala, Ofu, Ankpa, Dekina and Ida. This was based on the high concentration of the population of yam producers and the availability of market for yam products. The second stage involved a simple random sampling of 5 villages from each LGA and 8 yam farmers from each village. In all 200 yam farmers were interviewed by trained enumerators. Out of the 200 only 144 copies of the questionnaires were found adequate and used in the analysis for the study. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation, as well as the stochastic frontier production function. Results from the study showed that on the average more males (98.6%) were involved in yam production as compared to 1.4% in the case of female. The mean age of farmers was 53 years. The average years of schooling by farmers was about 4 years suggesting that the farmers were not well educated. The average farming years was 25 years. In terms of cropping pattern all the farmers practiced sole yam cropping. Their average farm sizes were 0.97 ha. The technical efficiency of the farmers in the State varied. The technical efficiency of farmers varied from 0.05 to 0.95 with a mean of 0.62, while only about 23% of the farmers had technical efficiencies exceeding 0.80. The results also showed that yam production was profitable in State with net profit of N 108,299.67 ha-1.

  14. Management of immunization solid wastes in Kano State, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Oke, I.A.

    2008-12-15

    Inadequate management of waste generated from injection activities can have a negative impact on the community and environment. In this paper, a report on immunization wastes management in Kano State (Nigeria) is presented. Eight local governments were selected randomly and surveyed by the author. Solid wastes generated during the Expanded Programme on Immunization were characterised using two different methods: one by weighing the waste and the other by estimating the volume. Empirical data was obtained on immunization waste generation, segregation, storage, collection, transportation, and disposal; and waste management practices were assessed. The study revealed that immunization offices were accommodated in either in local government buildings, primary health centres or community health care centres. All of the stations demonstrated a high priority for segregation of the infectious wastes. It can be deduced from the data obtained that infectious waste ranged from 67.6% to 76.7% with an average of 70.1% by weight, and 36.0% to 46.1% with an average of 40.1% by volume. Non-infectious waste generated ranged from 23.3% to 32.5% with an average of 29.9% by weight and 53.9% to 64.0% with an average of 59.9% by volume. Out of non-infectious waste (NIFW) and infectious waste (IFW), 66.3% and 62.4% by weight were combustible and 33.7% and 37.6% were non-combustible respectively. An assessment of the treatment revealed that open pit burning and burial and small scale incineration were the common methods of disposal for immunization waste, and some immunization centres employed the services of the state or local government owned solid waste disposal board for final collection and disposal of their immunization waste at government approved sites.

  15. Determinants of Adoption of Improved Fish Production Technologies among Fish Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofuoku, A. U.; Olele, N. F.; Emah, G. N.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate the determinants of improved fish production technologies in Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample population of 250 fish farmers from ten randomly selected Local Government Areas of Delta State. The data were elicited from respondents with the use of structured interview schedule while

  16. Determinants of Adoption of Improved Fish Production Technologies among Fish Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofuoku, A. U.; Olele, N. F.; Emah, G. N.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate the determinants of improved fish production technologies in Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample population of 250 fish farmers from ten randomly selected Local Government Areas of Delta State. The data were elicited from respondents with the use of structured interview schedule while…

  17. Ethnobotanical Potentials of Common Herbs in Nigeria: A Case Study of Enugu State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiyeloja, A. A.; Bello, O. A.

    2006-01-01

    Research was carried out on the ethnobotanical potentials of common herbs in Nigeria using Enugu State as a case study. A total of 200 questionnaires were administered on herb sellers in major herb markets in the state. In all, 96 different plant species were encountered in the markets. Attempts were made to write the names of the species both in

  18. Lecturers' Perception of Research Activities for Knowledge Production in Universities in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchendu, C. C.; Osim, R. O.; Odigwe, F. N.; Alade, F. N.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined lecturers' perception of research activities for knowledge production in universities in Cross River State, Nigeria. Two hypotheses were isolated to give direction to this investigation. 240 university lecturers were sampled from a population of 1,868 from the two universities in Cross River State, using stratified random

  19. Youth Empowerment in Higher Education for Sustainable Development of Developing Communities in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekpiken, William E.; Ukpabio, Godfrey U.

    2015-01-01

    This paper was an attempt to examine youth empowerment in higher education for sustainable development of developing communities in Cross River State in Nigeria. In Cross River State developing communities, youths are in the majority and form a very strong formidable force in the society we live, study, but are not empowered while in school nor…

  20. The Effective Management of Primary Schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria: An Analytical Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemi, T. O.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the management of education in primary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria. As a correlational research, the study population comprised all the 694 primary schools in the State. Out of this, a sample of 320 schools was selected through the stratified random sampling technique. Two instruments were used to collect data for the…

  1. Gender, Geographic Locations, Achievement Goals and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students from Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K.J.

    2013-01-01

    The paper examined gender, geography location, achievement goals and academic performance of senior secondary school students in Borno State, Nigeria. The sample consists of 827 students from 18 public boarding secondary schools across South and North of Borno State: 414 (50.1 per cent) males and 413 (49.9 per cent) are females; 414 (50.1 per

  2. Factors Responsible for Career Choice among Sampled Nigerian Teenagers in Bendel State of Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odebunmi, Akin

    Male and female students in four urban locations of Bendel State of Nigeria were administered a questionnaire on choice of careers. The sample consisted of 640 students, 160 in each location ranging in age from 14 to 17. It was hypothesized that factors influencing career choice were money-yielding prospects, desire to work in state of origin,

  3. Teachers' Teaching Experience and Students' Learning Outcomes in Secondary Schools in Ondo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemi, T. O.

    2008-01-01

    This article examined teachers' teaching experience and students' learning outcomes in the secondary schools in Ondo State Nigeria. As a correlational survey, the study population comprised all the 257 secondary schools in the State. This population was made up of 147 rural schools and 110 urban schools. It was also made up of 12 single sex

  4. Lecturers' Perception of Research Activities for Knowledge Production in Universities in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchendu, C. C.; Osim, R. O.; Odigwe, F. N.; Alade, F. N.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined lecturers' perception of research activities for knowledge production in universities in Cross River State, Nigeria. Two hypotheses were isolated to give direction to this investigation. 240 university lecturers were sampled from a population of 1,868 from the two universities in Cross River State, using stratified random…

  5. Status of Health Appraisal Services for Primary School Children in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojugo, Augustine I.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the status of the health appraisal services provided for primary school children in Edo State, Nigeria. Using the cross-sectional survey design a total of 1506 primary school children were selected from across the state as the study participants. The analysis of data collected through a 14-item

  6. Impact of Principal Leadership on Catholic High School Students' Academic Achievement in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imhangbe, Osayamen Samson

    2012-01-01

    Over the years, students of Catholic High/Senior secondary schools in Edo state, Nigeria have maintained a significantly higher level of academic achievement than their counterparts in public schools in the state. This development has not only been a cause of serious concern for parents of students who attend public High/Senior secondary schools

  7. Case based rubella surveillance in Abia State, South East Nigeria, 20072011

    PubMed Central

    Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Rubella infection has the potential of causing severe fetal birth defects collectively called congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) if the mother is infected early in pregnancy. However, little is known about rubella and CRS epidemiology in Nigeria and rubella vaccines are still not part of routine childhood immunization in Nigeria. Methods. Analysis of confirmed cases of rubella in Abia State, Nigeria from 2007 to 2011 detected through Abia State Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response system. Results. Of the 757 febrile rash cases, 81(10.7%) tested positive for rubella immunoglobulin M (IgM). New rubella infection decreased from 6.81/1,000,000 population in 2007 to 2.28/1,000,000 in 2009 and increased to 6.34/1,000,000 in 2011. The relative risk of rubella was 1.5 (CI [0.982.28]) times as high in females compared to males and 1.6 times (CI [0.902.91]) as high in rural areas compared to urban areas. Eighty six percent of rubella infections occurred in children less than 15 years with a high proportion of cases occurring between 5 and 14 years. Conclusion. Rubella infection in Abia State, Nigeria is predominantly in those who are younger than 15 years old. It is also more prevalent in females and in those living in rural areas of the state. Unfortunately, there is no surveillance of CRS in Nigeria and so the public health impact of rubella infection in the state is not known. Efforts should be made to expand the rubella surveillance in Nigeria to incorporate surveillance for CRS. PMID:25289179

  8. Policy Imperative, Management Challenge: A Case Study in College of Education Reform from Kwara State in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Harold G.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, Kwara State in Nigeria embarked on a process of college of education reform. This article explores the strategic and managerial issues associated with that process. It sets out the policy imperative for reform within the context of an urgent need to improve the quality of education in Nigeria and traces progress over a four year period,

  9. Management of Re-Occurring Cases of Examination Malpractice in Plateau State Collage of Health Technology Pankshin, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusu, Paul Bot; Gotan, Anthony; Deshi, Jummai M.; Gambo, Barashe

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria's educational system is gradually degenerating, as the sanctity of education process has been affected by malpractice. The purpose of this paper was to assess re-occurring incidence of examination malpractice in Plateau State College of Health Technology Pankshin, Nigeria. It looked at cases of examination malpractice and students'

  10. Tested, Trusted, Yet Frustrating: An Investigation into the Effectiveness of Environmental Radio Jingles in Oyo State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojebode, Ayo

    2005-01-01

    Radio stations have used jingles for environmental education and communication in Nigeria for decades though not much has been done to study the impact of such use--which is the purpose of this article. Through 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) in six local government areas of Oyo state, Nigeria, interviews with the program directors of two radio

  11. Tested, Trusted, Yet Frustrating: An Investigation into the Effectiveness of Environmental Radio Jingles in Oyo State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojebode, Ayo

    2005-01-01

    Radio stations have used jingles for environmental education and communication in Nigeria for decades though not much has been done to study the impact of such use--which is the purpose of this article. Through 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) in six local government areas of Oyo state, Nigeria, interviews with the program directors of two radio…

  12. Teaching Clothing and Textiles: An Appraisal by Students in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arubayi, D. O.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to find out how students appraise the teaching of Clothing and Textiles in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State, Nigeria. To do this two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to give direction to the study. The target population consisted of 660 Home Economics Students enrolled in Home Economics in

  13. Sustainability of Farm Credit Delivery by Cooperatives and NGOs in Edo and Delta States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alufohai, G. O.

    2006-01-01

    The paper examined the sustainability rates of co-operatives and NGOs in farm credit delivery in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. The Subsidy Dependence Indices (SDI) and the capital formation rates were determined using both primary and secondary data obtained from 80 and 20 purposively selected cooperatives and NGOs respectively, based on their…

  14. Conflict Resolution Strategies in Non-Government Secondary Schools in Benue State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oboegbulem, Angie; Alfa, Idoko Alphonusu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated perceived CRSs (conflict resolution strategies) for the resolution of conflicts in non-government secondary schools in Benue State, Nigeria. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided this study. Proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used in drawing 15% of the population which gave a total of 500

  15. Teaching Clothing and Textiles: An Appraisal by Students in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arubayi, D. O.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to find out how students appraise the teaching of Clothing and Textiles in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State, Nigeria. To do this two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to give direction to the study. The target population consisted of 660 Home Economics Students enrolled in Home Economics in…

  16. Entrepreneurial Training Needs of Illiterate Women in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingwu, Emmanuel U.; Okey, Stella-Maris A.

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve on the curriculum and participation rate of adult learners in the current Adult Basic Education (ABE) program in Nigeria, this explorative study investigated the entrepreneurial (or vocational) training needs of illiterate women in Cross River State (CRS). Three research questions were posed to elicit from the participants…

  17. Parental Involvement as a Correlate of Pupils' Achievement in Mathematics and Science in Ogun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatoye, R. Ademola; Agbatogun, A. Olajumoke

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the achievement of pupils in the public and private primary schools in mathematics and science. The descriptive survey research design was employed to carry out this study. Four hundred and eighty (480) pupils from thirty primary schools in Ogun State, Nigeria were randomly selected for this study. From the results of this

  18. Laboratory Teaching: Implication on Students' Achievement in Chemistry in Secondary Schools in Ebonyi State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akani, Omiko

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigation of the roles of the laboratory in students' academic achievement in chemistry in secondary schools in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. Four research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. A sample of 240 students selected through simple random sampling technique from ten secondary schools in the 3 Education Zones…

  19. Participation of Elderly Women in Community Welfare Activities in Akinyele Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odebode, Stella O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper assessed the participation of elderly women in community welfare activities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 elderly women from six out of the twelve political wards in the study area. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used to elicit information from the

  20. Personality Variables as Correlates of Marital Adjustment among Married Persons in Delta State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebenuwa-Okoh, E. E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which emotional expression, communication flow, financial management and work involvement predict marital adjustment among married persons in Delta State, Nigeria. One question was raised and one hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. 2561 married persons were selected through the use of purposive sampling…

  1. Farmers' Adoption of Soil Conservation Technologies: A Case Study from Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junge, B.; Deji, O.; Abaidoo, R.; Chikoye, D.; Stahr, K.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the attitude of farmers towards erosion and the adoption of appropriate soil conservation technologies (SCTs). For the survey, farmers were selected from the communities Esa Oke, Elwure and Owode-Ede and Akoda in Osun State in Nigeria. In the first three communities farmers did receive training on

  2. Assessment of Users Information Needs and Satisfaction in Selected Seminary Libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adekunjo, Olalekan Abraham; Adepoju, Samuel Olusegun; Adeola, Anuoluwapo Odebunmi

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed users' information needs and satisfaction in selected seminary libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria. This paper employed the descriptive survey research design, whereby the expost-facto was employed with a sample size of three hundred (300) participants, selected from six seminaries located in Ibadan, Oyo and Ogbomoso, all in Oyo

  3. Gender Factor in Utilisation of Library Resources at Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adomi, Esharenana E.; Ogbomo, Monday O.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses results of a survey of gender factors in library resource use at Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria (Africa). Highlights include reasons for library use, how library materials are located, materials consulted, relevance of library materials to information needs, frequency of use, and factors inhibiting effective use of the library.

  4. Assessment of Users Information Needs and Satisfaction in Selected Seminary Libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adekunjo, Olalekan Abraham; Adepoju, Samuel Olusegun; Adeola, Anuoluwapo Odebunmi

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed users' information needs and satisfaction in selected seminary libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria. This paper employed the descriptive survey research design, whereby the expost-facto was employed with a sample size of three hundred (300) participants, selected from six seminaries located in Ibadan, Oyo and Ogbomoso, all in Oyo…

  5. Information and Communication Technologies in Enhancing Learning Ability in Secondary Schools in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osagie, Roseline O.

    2012-01-01

    The dismal results of 2011, 2010, 2009, and previous years WAEC and NECO Senior School Certificate Examinations (SSCE) show the pitiable state of education in secondary schools in Nigeria. The youths of today live in a digital age. Web technologies and sites have become an integral part of the youth culture. Today's youths use the web tools to

  6. Some Issues in Formal Music Education in Nigeria: A Case Study of Kwara State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emielu, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Every educational system has its goals and objectives, curricula and modes of implementation. There is however the need for periodic assessment and evaluation. Specifically, this research paper sets out to evaluate the success or otherwise of the music education delivery system in Kwara state of Nigeria and its implications for the goals of music

  7. Dimensions of Job Stress among Public Secondary School Principals in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olayiwola, Shina

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the dimensions of job stress among public secondary school principals in Oyo State, Nigeria. It also determined difference in job stress between demographic characteristics of principals (gender and years of experience) and school variables (type of school and location of the school). Descriptive survey design was adopted. The

  8. Analysis of Classroom Management Problems in Primary Schools in Delta State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oghuvbu, Enamiroro Patrick; Atakpo, Theresa Edirin

    2008-01-01

    This article identifies classroom management problems, their causes, and possible ways to reduce these problems in primary schools located in Delta State, Nigeria. A total of 600 teachers selected from twelve local government areas participated in this study. Data were collected in a checklist containing 27 items and a two section questionnaire

  9. Farmers' Adoption of Soil Conservation Technologies: A Case Study from Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junge, B.; Deji, O.; Abaidoo, R.; Chikoye, D.; Stahr, K.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the attitude of farmers towards erosion and the adoption of appropriate soil conservation technologies (SCTs). For the survey, farmers were selected from the communities Esa Oke, Elwure and Owode-Ede and Akoda in Osun State in Nigeria. In the first three communities farmers did receive training on…

  10. Information and Communication Technologies in Enhancing Learning Ability in Secondary Schools in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osagie, Roseline O.

    2012-01-01

    The dismal results of 2011, 2010, 2009, and previous years WAEC and NECO Senior School Certificate Examinations (SSCE) show the pitiable state of education in secondary schools in Nigeria. The youths of today live in a digital age. Web technologies and sites have become an integral part of the youth culture. Today's youths use the web tools to…

  11. Sustainability of Farm Credit Delivery by Cooperatives and NGOs in Edo and Delta States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alufohai, G. O.

    2006-01-01

    The paper examined the sustainability rates of co-operatives and NGOs in farm credit delivery in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. The Subsidy Dependence Indices (SDI) and the capital formation rates were determined using both primary and secondary data obtained from 80 and 20 purposively selected cooperatives and NGOs respectively, based on their

  12. Emotional Abuse of Secondary School Students by Teachers in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluede, Oyaziwo; Ojugo, A. I.; Okoza, Jolly

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the forms of emotional abuse experienced by students and the percentage of victims that experience the various forms of emotional abuse. The survey design was adopted for this study. A total of 1,559 students drawn from public secondary schools in Edo State, Nigeria, who were randomly selected through the multi-stage

  13. Identification and prevalence of tetracycline resistance in enterococci isolated from poultry in Ilishan, Ogun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ayeni, Funmilola A.; Odumosu, Bamidele Tolulope; Oluseyi, Adekola E.; Ruppitsch, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tetracycline is one of the most frequently used antibiotics in Nigeria both for human and animal infections because of its cheapness and ready availability. The use of tetracycline in animal husbandry could lead to horizontal transfer of tet genes from poultry to human through the gut microbiota, especially enterococci. Therefore, this study is designed to identify different enterococcal species from poultry feces in selected farms in Ilishan, Ogun State, Nigeria, determine the prevalence of tetracycline resistance/genes and presence of IS256 in enterococcal strains. Materials and Methods: Enterococci strains were isolated from 100 fresh chicken fecal samples collected from seven local poultry farms in Ilishan, Ogun State, Nigeria. The strains were identified by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates to vancomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, amoxycillin/claulanate, and of loxacin were performed by disc diffusion method. Detection of tet, erm, and van genes and IS256 insertion element were done by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Results: Sixty enterococci spp. were identified comprising of Enterococcus faecalis 33 (55%), Enterococcus casseliflavus 21 (35%), and Enterococcus gallinarium 6 (10%). All the isolates were resistant to erythromycin (100%), followed by tetracycline (81.67%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (73.33%), ofloxacin (68.33%), vancomycin (65%), and gentamicin (20%). None of the enterococcal spp. harbored the van and erm genes while tet(M) was detected among 23% isolates and is distributed mostly among E. casseliflavus. IS256 elements were detected only in 33% of E. casseliflavus that were also positive for tet(M) gene. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that tetracycline resistance gene is present in the studied poultry farms in Ilishan, Ogun State, Nigeria and underscores the need for strict regulation on tetracycline usage in poultry farming in the studied location and consequently Nigeria. PMID:26957873

  14. State Variations in Womens Socioeconomic Status and Use of Modern Contraceptives in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Lamidi, Esther O.

    2015-01-01

    Background According to the 2014 World Population Data Sheet, Nigeria has one of the highest fertility and lowest contraceptive prevalence rates around the world. However, research suggests that national contraceptive prevalence rate overshadows enormous spatial variations in reproductive behavior in the country. Objective I examined the variations in womens socioeconomic status and modern contraceptive use across states in Nigeria. Methods Using the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data (n = 18,910), I estimated the odds of modern contraceptive use among sexually active married and cohabiting women in a series of multilevel logistic regression models. Results The share of sexually active, married and cohabiting women using modern contraceptives widely varied, from less than one percent in Kano, Yobe, and Jigawa states, to 40 percent in Osun state. Most of the states with low contraceptive prevalence rates also ranked low on womens socioeconomic attributes. Results of multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that women residing in states with greater shares of women with secondary or higher education, higher female labor force participation rates, and more women with health care decision-making power, had significantly higher odds of using modern contraceptives. Differences in womens participation in health care decisions across states remained significantly associated with modern contraceptive use, net of individual-level socioeconomic status and other covariates of modern contraceptive use. Conclusion Understanding of state variations in contraceptive use is crucial to the design and implementation of family planning programs. The findings reinforce the need for state-specific family planning programs in Nigeria. PMID:26258578

  15. AAR in concrete of Asejire spillway (OYO state - Nigeria)

    SciTech Connect

    Lamaudiere, J.P.; Spaeti, F.

    1995-12-31

    The Asejire dam at Ibadan, Nigeria was constructed in the late sixties for the purpose of providing water for the city of Ibadan (presently about 4,5 million inhabitants). It is located on the Oshun river approximately fifteen miles from the city. In 1982 cracks were observed on the wing walls and although these continued to develop, no attempt was made at that time to investigate their causes and no repair was carried out. In 1989 the SGI ENGINEERING Group of Geneva, Switzerland was appointed as the consultant for the complete refurbishment of the Asejire water scheme. The consortium Degremont-Poat-Clemessy was awarded the contract for the project. The African Development Bank and the Nigerian Government have provided the loan to finance the project.

  16. Technical Education in Nigeria: The Way Forward. Summary of Proceedings of the Workshop on Technical Education: A Foundation for a Healthy Economy (Ota, Ogun State of Nigeria, March 1-2, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This summary of proceedings includes papers from and about a workshop on technical education in Nigeria and the lessons Nigeria may gain by examining the vocational and technical education systems of Germany, the United States, Great Britain, and Japan. The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Iyorchia Ayu); "Introduction: A Time for Action

  17. Effect of highways and local activities on the quality of underground water in Ogun State, Nigeria: a case study of three districts in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Odukoya, Olusegun O; Onianwa, Percy C; Sanusi, Olanrewaju I

    2010-09-01

    The effect of highways and local activities on the quality of groundwater in Ogun State, Nigeria was investigated. This was done by collecting groundwater samples from three different districts in the state, located in Southwestern Nigeria. The water samples collected at 5 m from the highway and control samples collected at 3 km from the highway were analyzed for the following physicochemical parameters: pH, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, alkalinity, total hardness, total solid, suspended solid, dissolved solid, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, phenol, and the metals-lead, zinc, iron, aluminum, sodium, and potassium. The levels of chromium, copper, and cadmium in the samples were below the detectable limit. The levels of the parameters show that there are significant differences between those in the samples and the controls (F test) except for phosphate and phenol. Also, anthropogenic sources (local activities) elevate the levels of different specific parameters, which are related to these activities. Good correlation was observed between traffic density and lead levels as well as between conductivity and dissolved solids. Comparisons with the World Health Organization guidelines indicate that most of the water samples are not suitable for human consumption. PMID:19626447

  18. Prevalence and significance of parasites of horses in some States of northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ehizibolo, David O; Kamani, Joshua; Ehizibolo, Peter O; Egwu, Kinsley O; Dogo, Goni I; Salami-Shinaba, Josiah O

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and significance of parasites of horses in northern Nigeria. Blood and faecal samples were randomly collected from 243 horses from different stables in some states of northern Nigeria for laboratory analyses. Fifty-seven horses (23.5%) were found infected with parasites. The hemoparasites detected, 21 (8.6%), include Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma evansi. The endoparasites encountered, 29 (11.9%) were Strongylus spp., Strongyloides spp., Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Paragonimus spp. and Dicrocoelium spp., 3 (1.2%) was Eimeria spp. Four horses (1.6%) had mixed infection of hemo- and endoparasites. This preliminary finding shows that parasitism is a problem in the horse stables examined, and calls for proper stable hygiene, routine tick control and regular deworming programme. PMID:24833991

  19. Endemicity and striking manifestations of onchocerciasis in Shao, Kwara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Edungbola, L D; Watts, S J; Kayode, O O

    1987-09-01

    A house-to-house screening exercise was carried out in Shao, Kwara State, Nigeria, to determine the status of onchocerciasis in the town. The results of skin snips taken from 2018 subjects revealed that, with an overall infection rate of 54.6%, the community is mesoendemic for river blindness. The prevalence and intensity of the infection were significantly higher for adults than for children, for males than for females and for farmers than for other occupational groups (P less than 0.01). The severity and frequency of occurrence of striking manifestations of onchocerciasis, including blindness, hernias, hanging groins, 'leopard skin' and scrotal elephantiasis, strongly suggest that the community had a history of long-standing onchocerciasis. The desirability for the implementation of a nation-wide control programme in Nigeria to complement the ongoing control efforts in the Volta River Basin Areas, is highlighted. PMID:2829608

  20. Occurrence and distribution of Chrysops species in Akamkpa community of Cross River State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iboh, C I; Okon, O E; Arong, G A; Asor, J E; Opara, K N

    2012-12-01

    Chrysops species have been recognized for its role as vectors in the transmission of human loiasis in Nigeria. This investigation was aimed at studying the occurrence and distribution of Chrysops species in Akamkpa community, Cross River State. Two fly boys were used as human baits in the collection of adult Chrysops from each of the various villages in Akamkpa community, cross river state, Nigeria. Two species of Chrysops were identified. Chrysops dimidiata recorded significantly higher prevalence of 69.7% than Chrysops silacea 30.3% in all the sampling sites (p<0.05). Out of the 1299 Chrysops species caught in the entire study, the highest prevalence was reported during the late rainy season 916 (70.5%), while the least prevalence of 137 (10.6%) was reported during the late dry season (p<0.05). Two biting peaks 9-10 am and 3-4 pm were identified for Chrysops at all the sampling sites. Fly abundance was found to be higher in the morning hours than in the afternoon. The knowledge of the occurrence and distribution of Chrysops vectors will aid in the ongoing control program for human loiasis in Nigeria and the neighbouring countries where the vectors exist. PMID:24261117

  1. Living with vesico-vaginal fistula: experiences of women awaiting repairs in Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okoye, Uzoma O; Emma-Echiegu, Nkechi; Tanyi, Perpetua L

    2014-10-01

    Vesico-vaginal fistula (VVF) is one of maternal health problems confronting public health workers in Nigeria today. Information on how women suffering from this condition cope is important in that it can inform the design and delivery of programmes and interventions to address the challenges that face victims of VVF. The objective of this study was to highlight how women living with VVF cope with the health problem in Ebonyi state, Nigeria. In-depth interviews were conducted with ten women awaiting repairs at the National Fistula Centre at Abakaliki in Nigeria. Six of the women have lived with the health problem for more than ten years. Findings show that nearly all the women attributed their health problem to supernatural causes. The women stated that they go through a lot of physical and emotional problems. Some of the ways they have devised of physically coping with the problem include bathing regularly and use of strips of old wrappers as pads. Many of them cope emotionally and financially by attending religious gatherings and having some form of income yielding business. The study recommends the need for repairs to go hand in hand with vocational training so that they will have some income yielding business after repairs. PMID:26891522

  2. Redefining the HIV epidemic in Nigeria: from national to state level

    PubMed Central

    Mahy, Mary; Nzima, Masauso; Ogungbemi, Michael K.; Ogbang, Doris A.; Morka, Mercy Chinenye; Stover, John

    2014-01-01

    Background: Governments are increasingly recognizing the need to focus limited HIV resources on specific geographic areas and specific populations to have a greater impact. Nigeria, with the second largest HIV epidemic in the world, is an important example of where more localized programming has the potential to improve the efficiency of the HIV response. Methods: Using Spectrum software we modelled the Nigerian HIV epidemic using two methods: First, we created national HIV estimates using trends in urban and rural areas. Second, we created national HIV estimates using trends from each of the 37 states in Nigeria and aggregated these results. In both instances we used HIV surveillance data from antenatal clinics and household surveys and aggregated the trends to determine the national epidemic. Results: The state models showed divergent trends in the 37 states. Comparing the national results calculated from the two methods resulted in different conclusions. In the aggregated state files, adult HIV incidence in Nigeria was stable between 2005 and 2013 (change of −6%), whereas the urban and rural file suggested incidence was decreasing over the same time (change of −50%). This difference was also reflected in the HIV prevalence trends, although the two methods showed similar trends in AIDS-related mortality. The two models had similar adult HIV prevalence in 2013: 3.0% (2.0–4.5%) in the aggregated state files versus 3.2% (3.0–3.5%) in the urban/rural file. Conclusion: The state-level estimates provide insight into the variations of the HIV epidemic in each state and provide useful information for programme managers. However, the reliability of the results is highly dependent on the amount and quality of data available from each sub-national area. PMID:25406749

  3. Factors Associated with Psychosocial Services in Ogun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Amoran, Olorunfemi Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Belonging to a social network group may influence a person's decisions to engage in desired behavior. Aim: The objective of our study was to determine factors associated with utilization of psychosocial group services among people living with human immunodeficiency virus acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (PLWHAs) in a Teaching Hospital in Sagamu, Southwestern Nigeria. Settings and Design: This was an analytical cross-sectional study. All consenting PLHAs who attended the anti-retroviral clinic (ART) clinic during the study period were recruited into the study. Materials and Methods: A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect relevant information and a total of 205 PLWHAs were interviewed. Statistical Analysis Used: The data analysis focused on univariate frequency table and bivariate cross tabulations that identify important relationships between the variables. Odds ratio (OR) at 95% confidence level (CI) and Chi-squared and t-tests were also computed. Results: The overall point utilization of psychosocial services among the PLWHAs was 23.4%. Utilization of psychosocial services was statistically significantly associated with religion (?2 = 11.74, P = 0.003), disclosure of human immunodeficiency virus status (?2 = 9.18, P = 0.01) and satisfactory self-reported health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) (?2 = 5.67, P = 0.017) while sex (?2 = 0.02, P = 0.96), education (?2 = 4.67, P = 0.32) tribe (?2 = 1.46, P = 0.48) adherence to ART drugs (?2 = 0.44, P = 0.51), mental health status (?2 = 0.64, P = 0.42) and occupation (?2 = 3.61, P = 0.61) were not. The only predictor of utilization of psychosocial group services was religion (OR = 0.44, CI = 0.23-0.84). Conclusion: This study shows the effectiveness of the psychosocial networks group in improving the overall HRQOL of the PLWHAs. PMID:24479090

  4. Serological Survey for Avian Influenza in Turkeys in Three States of Southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oluwayelu, Daniel Oladimeji; Aiki-Raji, Comfort Oluladun; Adigun, Oladunni Taiwo; Olofintuyi, Opeyemi Kazeem; Adebiyi, Adebowale Idris

    2015-01-01

    Since the first outbreak of avian influenza (AI) in Nigeria in 2006, there has been continuous monitoring of the disease in chickens with little attention given to turkeys. As part of on-going surveillance for AI in southwest Nigeria, we used a competitive ELISA to detect anti-AI virus antibodies in 520 turkey sera obtained from poultry farms in Oyo, Osun, and Ondo states while haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies against low pathogenic AI viruses (LPAIVs) were detected using H3N8 and H5N2 subtype-specific antigens. The overall seroprevalence obtained by ELISA was 4.4% (23/520). Of the 23 ELISA-positive samples, 18 were positive for anti-AIV H3N8 antibodies only and four were positive for both anti-AIV H3N8 and H5N2 antibodies indicating a mixed infection, while five were negative for antibodies to either of the two AIV subtypes. Considering that turkeys have been implicated as a mixing vessel for generating influenza virus reassortants of human and avian origin, the detection of antibodies to LPAIV H3N8 and H5N2 in these turkeys is of public health concern. We advocate further studies to determine the potential role of turkeys in the zoonotic transmission of AIVs in Nigeria. Additionally, the practice of rearing turkeys with chickens should be discouraged. PMID:26664747

  5. Serological Survey for Avian Influenza in Turkeys in Three States of Southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oluwayelu, Daniel Oladimeji; Aiki-Raji, Comfort Oluladun; Adigun, Oladunni Taiwo; Olofintuyi, Opeyemi Kazeem; Adebiyi, Adebowale Idris

    2015-01-01

    Since the first outbreak of avian influenza (AI) in Nigeria in 2006, there has been continuous monitoring of the disease in chickens with little attention given to turkeys. As part of on-going surveillance for AI in southwest Nigeria, we used a competitive ELISA to detect anti-AI virus antibodies in 520 turkey sera obtained from poultry farms in Oyo, Osun, and Ondo states while haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies against low pathogenic AI viruses (LPAIVs) were detected using H3N8 and H5N2 subtype-specific antigens. The overall seroprevalence obtained by ELISA was 4.4% (23/520). Of the 23 ELISA-positive samples, 18 were positive for anti-AIV H3N8 antibodies only and four were positive for both anti-AIV H3N8 and H5N2 antibodies indicating a mixed infection, while five were negative for antibodies to either of the two AIV subtypes. Considering that turkeys have been implicated as a mixing vessel for generating influenza virus reassortants of human and avian origin, the detection of antibodies to LPAIV H3N8 and H5N2 in these turkeys is of public health concern. We advocate further studies to determine the potential role of turkeys in the zoonotic transmission of AIVs in Nigeria. Additionally, the practice of rearing turkeys with chickens should be discouraged. PMID:26664747

  6. The impact of declining vaccination coverage on measles control: a case study of Abia state Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Ahaneku, Hycienth Peterson

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Efforts at immunizing children against measles was intensified in Nigeria with nation-wide measles vaccination campaigns in 2005 - 2006, 2008 and 2011 targeting children between 9 and 59 months. However, there were measles outbreaks in 2010 and 2011in Abia state Nigeria. This study seeks to find out if there is any association between measles immunization coverage and measles outbreak. Methods This is a descriptive analysis of the 2007 to 2011 Abia state measles case-based surveillance data supplied to Abia state World Health Organization office and Abia State Ministry of Health by the disease surveillance and notification officers. Results As the proportion of cases with febrile rash who were immunized decreased from 81% in 2007 to 42% in 2011, the laboratory confirmed cases of measles increased from two in 2007 to 53 in 2011.Of the laboratory confirmed cases of measles, five (7%) occurred in children < 9 months, 48 (64%) occurred in children 9 - 59 months and 22 (29%) occurred in children < 59 months old. Seventy five percent of all laboratory confirmed cases of measles occurred in rural areas. Conclusion Efforts should be made to increase measles immunization in children between 9 and 59 months as most cases of measles occurred in this age group as immunization coverage dropped. In addition, further studies should be carried out to determine the cause of the disproportional incidence of measles in rural areas in Abia state bearing in mind that measles immunization coverage in urban and rural areas was not markedly different PMID:24244791

  7. Non-traumatic Ocular Findings in Industrial Technical Workers in Delta State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Omoti, A. E.; Edema, O. T.; Akinsola, F. B.; Aigbotsua, P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the pattern of non-traumatic ocular disorders in industrial technical workers in the Delta state, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study of the pattern of non-traumatic ocular disorders among industrial technical workers in 3 factories in Ughelli North local Government Area of Delta state, Nigeria was conducted between February, 2002 and May, 2002. In addition to the demographic, the workers were studied for the presence of any non-trauma related ocular findings. Visual acuity of these workers was obtained as well as ocular examination was performed by using the Snellen's chart, pen torch, ophthalmoscope, Perkins hand-held tonometer, Ishihara plates. Patients were refracted if their visual acuity was less than normal. Results: Five hundred technical workers were screened that included 200 (40%) from the construction industry, 180 (36%) from the rubber factory and 120(24%) from the oil mill. All the workers studied were males. Ocular disorders were seen in 664 (66.4%) of the eyes. The most common ocular disorders were pingueculum 215 (21.5%), presbyopia 97 (9.7%), refractive error 94 (9.4%), pterygium 86 (8.6%) and chronic conjunctivitis 45 (4.5%). None of the workers was blind from non-traumatic causes. Only 36 (7.2%) workers wore any protective eye devices at work. Conclusion: Non-traumatic ocular disorders are common in the industrialized technical workers in the Delta state of Nigeria. The use of protective eye devices is low in these workers and suggests that measures to implement ocular safety should be undertaken in these industries. PMID:20142956

  8. Nitrate contents of well, raw, treated and pipe borne water in Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Gbodi, T.A.; Atawodi, S.E.

    1987-04-01

    Nitrate content of water available to man and animals in a rural community in Plateau State, Nigeria was determined. Water samples were obtained from artesian wells, raw untreated surface water, treated raw water, and pipe borne water. The examination of the samples was over a period of 3 mo at weekly intervals. Sixty percent of the artesian wells sampled had nitrate concentration above 5-50 ppm in June and August, while samples from other sources had less than 1 ppm. The proximity of pit latrines to some of the wells may have been responsible for high nitrate content of the well water.

  9. Parental Involvement, Interest in Schooling and Science Achievement of Junior Secondary School Students in Ogun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatoye, R. A.; Ogunkola, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relative and combined influences of parental involvement and interest in schooling on science achievement of selected Junior Secondary School students in Ogun State, Nigeria. Twelve secondary schools were selected from the four administrative divisions of the State. A sample of 360 students participated in the study and

  10. Parental Involvement, Interest in Schooling and Science Achievement of Junior Secondary School Students in Ogun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatoye, R. A.; Ogunkola, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relative and combined influences of parental involvement and interest in schooling on science achievement of selected Junior Secondary School students in Ogun State, Nigeria. Twelve secondary schools were selected from the four administrative divisions of the State. A sample of 360 students participated in the study and…

  11. Application of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) in the Management of Universities in the North-Central State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oboegbulem, Angie Ijeoma; Godwin, Ochai

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the application of ICT (information and communication technology) in the management of universities in the north-central Nigeria. The study was a descriptive survey. The population of the study comprised 1,294 respondents in federal and state universities (763 in federal and 531 in state universities). The sample size

  12. The Role of Counselling and Parental Encouragement on Re-Entry of Adolescents into Secondary Schools in Abia State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alika, Henrietta Ijeoma; Ohanaka, Blessing Ijeoma

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the role of counselling, and parental encouragement on re-entry of adolescents into secondary school in Abia State, Nigeria. A total of 353 adolescents who re-entered school were selected from six secondary schools in the State through a simple random sampling technique. A validated questionnaire was used for data analysis.

  13. The Private Cost of National Certificate in Education (NCE) through National Teachers Institute Distance Learning Programme in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borode, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The study set out to examine the private cost of a National Certificate in Education, through the distance learning mode as organized by the National Teachers Institute (NTI) Ekiti State branch in Nigeria. This was to open the eyes of the prospective students to know what on the average he has to spend, and also to provide data for the state

  14. National health insurance scheme: how protected are households in Oyo State, Nigeria from catastrophic health expenditure?

    PubMed Central

    Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi; Fatiregun, Akinola Ayoola

    2014-01-01

    Background: The major objective of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Nigeria is to protect families from the financial hardship of large medical bills. Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE) is rampart in Nigeria despite the take-off of the NHIS. This study aimed to determine if households enrolled in the NHIS were protected from having CHE. Methods: The study took place among 714 households in urban communities of Oyo State. CHE was measured using a threshold of 40% of monthly non-food expenditure. Descriptive statistics were done, Principal Component Analysis was used to divide households into wealth quintiles. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were done. Results: The mean age of household respondent was 33.5 years. The median household income was 43,500 naira (290 US dollars) and the range was 7,000680,000 naira (46.74,533 US dollars) in 2012. The overall median household healthcare cost was 890 naira (5.9 US dollars) and the range was 10-17,700 naira (0.1118 US dollars) in 2012. In all, 67 (9.4%) households were enrolled in NHIS scheme. Healthcare services was utilized by 637 (82.9%) and CHE occurred in 42 (6.6%) households. CHE occurred in 14 (10.9%) of the households in the lowest quintile compared to 3 (2.5%) in the highest wealth quintile (P= 0.004). The odds of CHE among households in lowest wealth quintile is about 5 times. They had Crude OR (CI): 4.7 (1.316.8), P= 0.022. Non enrolled households were two times likely to have CHE, though not significant Conclusion: Households in the lowest wealth quintiles were at higher risk of CHE. Universal coverage of health insurance in Nigeria should be fast-tracked to give the expected financial risk protection and decreased incidence of CHE. PMID:24847483

  15. Screening for Common Occupational Health Diseases Among Long Distance Professional Drivers in Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Amoran, Olorunfemi Emmanuel; Salako, Albert Adekunle; Jeminusi, Olubunmi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Long term exposure to hazards at the work place is injurious to health and usually leads to diseased conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the occupational health problems associated with driving among the professional drivers in Sagamu, Ogun state, Nigeria. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study. Total sample of all the consenting professional drivers in the five interstate motor parks, including the cement factory [WAPCO] in the local government area, were recruited into the study. An interviewer administered structured questionnaire was administered by trained health workers and respondents were screen for common occupational health problems. Results: A total of 400 professional drivers were interviewed, all [100%] of them were males with age range from 21 to 59 yrs and nearly half [42%] were non indigenes. Only half, 208 [52%] of them were married with majority, 232 [58.0%] working for about 12 hrs daily and 46% of them had been working for 5 yrs or more. Most, 382 [95.5%] had been educated on HIV/AIDS before and 313 [78.3%] of them had multiple sexual partners. Only 241 [60.3%] used condom at the last sexual act and 55 [13.5%] had ever been tested for HIV/AIDS. Common occupational health diseases were renal tubular acidosis (RTA) 52 [13%] in the last one year and most of them currently have myalgia 352 [88.0%], upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) 20 [5.0%], sexually transmitted diseases (STD) 15 [3.8%], short sightedness 41 [10.3%], and Hypertension 90 [22.5%]. Conclusions: The study shows that common occupational diseases among long distance professional drivers in Western Nigeria were myalgia, upper respiratory tract infection, hypertension, short sightedness, sexually transmitted diseases, and RTA. Prevention and control of these common diseases among the drivers will lead to reduction of road traffic accidents in Western Nigeria and other low income countries. PMID:24829742

  16. Factors associated with interruption of treatment among Pulmonary Tuberculosis patients in Plateau State, Nigeria. 2011

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Luka Mangveep; Hadejia, Idris Suleiman; Nguku, Patrick; Dankoli, Raymond; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Akhimien, Moses Obiemen; Ogiri, Samuel; Oyemakinde, Akin; Dalhatu, Ibrahim; Nwanyanwu, Okey; Nsubuga, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nigeria has one of the highest tuberculosis (TB) burdens in the world with estimated incidence of 133 per 100,000 populations. Multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) is an emerging threat of the TB control in Nigeria caused mainly by incomplete treatment. This study explored factors that affect adherence to treatment among patients undergoing direct observation of TB treatment in Plateau state, Nigeria. Methods Between June and July 2011, we reviewed medical records and interviewed randomly selected pulmonary TB patients in their eighth month of treatment. Information on patients? clinical, socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics was collected using checklist and structured questionnaire for knowledge of treatment duration and reasons for interruption of treatment. We conducted focus group discussions with patients about barriers to treatment adherence. Data were analyzed with Epi Info software. Results Of 378 records reviewed, 229 (61%) patients were male; mean age 37.6 13.5 years and 71 (19%) interrupted their treatment. Interruption of treatment was associated with living > 5 km from TB treatment site (AOR: 11.3; CI 95%: 5.7-22.2), lack of knowledge of duration of treatment (AOR: 6.1; CI 95%: 2.8-13.2) and cigarette smoking (AOR: 3.4; CI 95%: 1.5- 8.0). Major reasons for the interruption were lack of transport fare (40%) and feeling well (25%). Focused group discussions revealed unfriendly attitudes of health care workers as barriers to adherence to treatment. Conclusion This study revealed knowledge of the patients on the duration of treatment, distance and health workers attitude as the major determinants of adherent to TB treatment. Training for health care workers on patient education was conducted during routine supportive supervision. PMID:24711884

  17. Hypertension in rural communities in Delta State, Nigeria: Prevalence, risk factors and barriers to health care

    PubMed Central

    Ncama, Busisiwe P.; Sartorius, Benn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hypertension is a global health challenge and its prevalence is increasing rapidly amongst adults in many African countries. Some studies on the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension have been conducted in Nigeria, but none within Delta State. We assessed the prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors amongst adults in three villages in the Ibusa community in Delta State, Nigeria. Method Homesteads were randomly selected and all consenting adults (≥ 18 years of age) were recruited for this cross-sectional study (134 individuals: 48 men, 86 women). Sociodemographic data and anthropometric measurements (weight, height and abdominal circumference) were recorded. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg. Result Hypertension prevalence in this rural community was 44%. Results from one village (Ogboli: 82%) and ethnic group (Ibo: 50%) were significantly higher than in others in the same variable category. Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested increasing age, increasing body mass index and high salt intake as prominent risk factors for hypertension. Lack of funds and equipment shortage in clinics were most often reported as barriers to health care. Conclusion A nutritional education programme to promote low-cholesterol and low-salt diets is recommended to specifically target people in higher-risk areas and of higher-risk ethnicity. Local barriers to accessing health care need to be addressed. PMID:26842522

  18. Intersection between Alcohol Abuse and Intimate Partner's Violence in a Rural Ijaw Community in Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisibe, Seiyefa; Ordinioha, Best; Dienye, Paul O.

    2012-01-01

    According to the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey, the south-south zone of Nigeria had the highest prevalence of domestic violence. This study is to find out if this is related to the widespread consumption of alcohol in the region. The study was carried out in Okoloba, a rural Ijaw community in Bayelsa State, where alcohol is produced…

  19. Effects of Training Programme on HIV/AIDS Prevention among Primary Health Care Workers in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajuwon, Ademola; Funmilayo, Fawole; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Osungbade, Kayode; Asuzu, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to train primary health care workers to be trainers and implementers of community-based AIDS prevention activities in Oyo State, Nigeria, by describing an evaluation of the project. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 148 primary health care workers recruited from the 33 local government areas (LGA) of the

  20. Western and Traditional Educational Background of Midwives and Delivery Pain Control among Women in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyira, Emilia James; Emon, Umoe Duke; Essien, N. C.; Ekpenyong, Affiong Onoyom

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to investigate western and traditional educational background of midwives with regard to their effectiveness in delivery pain control in Cross River State-Nigeria. To achieve this purpose, two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the investigation. The study adopted the survey design. The sample consisted of 360 post-natal…

  1. Sports Participation and Social Personality Variable of Students in Secondary Schools in Central Senatorial District of Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edim, M. E.; Odok, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    The main thrust of this study was to investigate sports participation and social personality variable of students in secondary schools in Central Senatorial District of Cross River State, Nigeria. To achieve the purpose of this study, one hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. Literature review was carried out according to the variable of…

  2. Intersection between Alcohol Abuse and Intimate Partner's Violence in a Rural Ijaw Community in Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisibe, Seiyefa; Ordinioha, Best; Dienye, Paul O.

    2012-01-01

    According to the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey, the south-south zone of Nigeria had the highest prevalence of domestic violence. This study is to find out if this is related to the widespread consumption of alcohol in the region. The study was carried out in Okoloba, a rural Ijaw community in Bayelsa State, where alcohol is produced

  3. A Study of the Nature of Incidental Physical Science Knowledge Possessed by Elementary School Children in Western State of Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taiwo, Adediran A.

    This study was designed to examine the amount of incidental physical science knowledge possessed by fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students in elementary schools in Western State of Nigeria, and to determine what relationship exists between the amount of such knowledge and the pupils' performance on science-related Piagetian tasks. The pupils

  4. A Review of Special Education Services Delivery in the United States and Nigeria: Implications for Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Eskay; Onu, Victoria; Janeth, Igbo

    2012-01-01

    Both Nigeria and the United States represent developing and developed countries respectively, and special education policy between these two countries are different. Both countries have contributed to help learners with exceptionalities in their policies. These policies help in the formulation and implementation of special education programmes for…

  5. Influence of Retraining Programme on Self-Esteem of Primary School Teachers in Ebonyi State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igbo, Janet N.; Eze, Justina U.; Eskay, M.; Onu, V. C.; Omeje, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of retraining programme on self-esteem of primary school teachers in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. The study was guided by one research question and a null hypothesis. A purposively selected sample of 775 primary school teachers who attended capacity building retraining programme provided the data collected using…

  6. Predictive Factors in Undergraduates' Involvement in Campus Secret Cults in Public Universities in Edo State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azetta Arhedo, Philip; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Adomeh, Ilu O. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the predictive factors in undergraduates' involvement in campus secret cults in public universities in Edo State of Nigeria. The study employed the descriptive method, specifically the survey format. A random sample of three hundred and eighty (380) undergraduates was drawn from the two public universities. Data were elicited

  7. Psychosocial Care in Complementary Feeding of Children: A Comparative Study of the Urban and Rural Communities of Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunba, Beatrice Olubukola

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial care in complementary feeding of children under two years of age. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Osun State of Nigeria within Sub-Saharan Africa, and 450 mothers were interviewed of which 337 were from the urban and 113 from the rural communities. Results revealed that 37.4% of the respondents

  8. Violation of Students' Legal Rights as Correlate of Organization Climate in Imo State Secondary Schools, in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anuna, M. C.; Mbonu, F. O.; Amanchukwu, R. N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether violation of students' legal rights has relationship with organizational climate in secondary schools in Imo State, Nigeria. Three research questions and null hypothesis were put forward and tested in order to make one's decisions on the issues investigated. Relevant literature to the study was

  9. Assessing Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Learning Strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoza, Jolly; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Owens-Sogolo, Osasere

    2013-01-01

    This study examined metacognitive awareness of learning strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria. The study was an exploratory one, which utilized descriptive statistics. A total number of 1200 students drawn through multistage proportionate random sampling technique participated in the study. The study found that secondary

  10. Effects of Age and School Location on the Perceptions of Principals on Alcohol Use in Bendel State, Nigeria: A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arubayi, Eric A.

    1988-01-01

    Investigated effects of age and school location on the perceptions of alcohol use by students among randomly selected secondary school principals (N=98) in Bendel State, Nigeria. Results showed that age and location of school had no effects on the principals' perceptions of alcohol use or misuse. (Author)

  11. A Perception of Examination Malpractice and Pupil's Academic Performance in Primary Science in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius-Ukpepi, Bernedette Umali; Enukoha, Obinna I.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study was to determine perception of examination malpractice and academic performance in Primary Science among sixth grade in Cross River State, Nigeria. In order to achieve the set objectives of this study, three hypotheses were formulated and tested. Two instruments were used for data collection. They were perception of

  12. Psychosocial Care in Complementary Feeding of Children: A Comparative Study of the Urban and Rural Communities of Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunba, Beatrice Olubukola

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial care in complementary feeding of children under two years of age. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Osun State of Nigeria within Sub-Saharan Africa, and 450 mothers were interviewed of which 337 were from the urban and 113 from the rural communities. Results revealed that 37.4% of the respondents…

  13. Public Perception of the Millennium Development Goals on Access to Safe Drinking Water in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eni, David D.; Ojong, William M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the public perception of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of environmental sustainability with focus on the MDG target which has to do with reducing the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water in Cross River State, Nigeria. The stratified and systematic sampling techniques were adopted for the study,…

  14. Spatial distribution of urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria using geographical information system and school based questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Adie, H A; Okon, O E; Arong, G A; Braide, E I; Ekpo, U F

    2013-10-15

    Urinary schistosomiasis is a serious disease in Cross River State, Nigeria. Dearth of information on its distribution has hampered the implementation of focused control of the disease. The availability of a rapid method for mapping the disease necessitated this research to provide data for control of Urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria. The study used a rapid validated school-based questionnaire method in mapping schistosomiasis. Geographical information system (GIS) software tools were used to produce a spatial map for prevalence of infection and areas at risk for urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State. Data analysis with SPSS package revealed that 9,993 (10.2%) female and 10,328 (10.0%) male pupils in 218 schools passed blood in urine in one month out of 199,794 pupils interviewed. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence between male and female pupils with infection (p < 0.005). The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis using questionnaire method correlated positively with the filtration method used in determining the egg output (r = 0.71, p < 0.001). Endemic schools were distributed in thirteen Local Government Areas of Cross River State, Nigeria. Yala and Yakurr LGAs had the highest number of schools that reported schistosomiasis with 39 (59%) and 13 (59%), respectively. Odukpani LGA had the lowest prevalence of 1 (0.2%). The overall results showed a mean urinary schistosomiasis prevalence of 10.2% for Cross River State, Nigeria. The findings of this study would guide Government and other relevant agencies in the implementation of control strategies for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria. PMID:24506017

  15. Improving maternal and child healthcare programme using community-participatory interventions in Ebonyi State Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ndukwe, Chinwendu Daniel; Ezeoha, Abel Abeh; Urochukwu, Henry Chukwuemeka; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla

    2014-01-01

    In Nigeria, the government is implementing the Free Maternal and Child Health Care Programme (FMCHCP). The policy is premised on the notion that financial barriers are one of the most important constraints to equitable access and use of skilled maternal and child healthcare. In Ebonyi State, Southeastern Nigeria the FMCHCP is experiencing implementation challenges including: inadequate human resource for health, inadequate funding, out of stock syndrome, inadequate infrastructure, and poor staff remuneration. Furthermore, there is less emphasis on community involvement in the programme implementation. In this policy brief, we recommend policy options that emphasize the implementation of community-based participatory interventions to strengthen the governments FMCHCP as follows: Option 1: Training community women on prenatal care, life-saving skills in case of emergency, reproductive health, care of the newborn and family planning. Option 2: Sensitizing the community women towards behavioural change, to understand what quality services that respond to their needs are but also to seek and demand for such. Option 3: Implementation packages that provide technical skills to women of childbearing age as well as mothers groups, and traditional birth attendants for better home-based maternal and child healthcare. The effectiveness of this approach has been demonstrated in a number of community-based participatory interventions, building on the idea that if community members take part in decision-making and bring local knowledge, experiences and problems to the fore, they are more likely to own and sustain solutions to improve their communities health. PMID:25337602

  16. Prevalence of tet genes mediating tetracycline resistance in Escherichia coli clinical isolates in Osun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olowe, O A; Idris, O J; Taiwo, S S

    2013-06-01

    The occurrence of tetracycline resistance determinants in 203 Escherichia coli isolates recovered from clinical samples at three different hospitals in Nigeria between June 2009 and May 2010 was investigated. The isolates were subjected to standard procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility to a panel of eight antibiotics was also performed, and resistance genes were detected with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. One hundred and six E. coli isolates (52.2%) were obtained at LAUTECH Teaching Hospital Osogbo, 85 (41.9%) from OAUTHC Ile Ife and 12 (5.9%) from Osun State Hospital Asubiaro Osogbo. Result of the disk diffusion antibiotic susceptibility test showed 96.1% isolates to be resistant to ampicillin, 77.8% to tetracycline, 37.9% to cotrimoxazole, 38.4% to nalidixic acid, 20.7% to ofloxacin, 17.7% to ceftriaxone, 11.8% to gentamycin, and 2% to nitrofurantoin. One hundred and sixty two (79.9%) isolates had minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of tetracycline ??128 ?g/ml. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detected tetA gene in 89 (43.8%) isolates, tetB gene in 65 (32.0%), and both tetA and tetB genes in 9 (4.4%) isolates. The study demonstrated a relatively high level of gene mediated antibiotic resistance to tetracycline and other antibiotics in E. coli clinical isolates in Southwest region of Nigeria. PMID:24265930

  17. Prevalence of tet genes mediating tetracycline resistance in Escherichia coli clinical isolates in Osun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Idris, O. J.; Taiwo, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of tetracycline resistance determinants in 203 Escherichia coli isolates recovered from clinical samples at three different hospitals in Nigeria between June 2009 and May 2010 was investigated. The isolates were subjected to standard procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility to a panel of eight antibiotics was also performed, and resistance genes were detected with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. One hundred and six E. coli isolates (52.2%) were obtained at LAUTECH Teaching Hospital Osogbo, 85 (41.9%) from OAUTHC Ile Ife and 12 (5.9%) from Osun State Hospital Asubiaro Osogbo. Result of the disk diffusion antibiotic susceptibility test showed 96.1% isolates to be resistant to ampicillin, 77.8% to tetracycline, 37.9% to cotrimoxazole, 38.4% to nalidixic acid, 20.7% to ofloxacin, 17.7% to ceftriaxone, 11.8% to gentamycin, and 2% to nitrofurantoin. One hundred and sixty two (79.9%) isolates had minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of tetracycline ??128 ?g/ml. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detected tetA gene in 89 (43.8%) isolates, tetB gene in 65 (32.0%), and both tetA and tetB genes in 9 (4.4%) isolates. The study demonstrated a relatively high level of gene mediated antibiotic resistance to tetracycline and other antibiotics in E. coli clinical isolates in Southwest region of Nigeria. PMID:24265930

  18. A techno-economic analysis of aquaculture business in Ogun State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kareem, R. O.; Williams, S. B.

    2009-05-01

    Fish supplies 25% of the total protein source in developing countries. A techno-economic analysis was performed for developing a good business proposal for aquaculture loans to enhance aquaculture development in Nigeria. A case study of catfish Clarias gariepinus framing was conducted in Abeokuta North Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The results show that the fixed cost is N18 338 per year, and the variable cost is N459 700 per year, accounting for the largest amount of the total; therefore, a profit of N43 289 per month can be made. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess any risk(s) that associated with unfavorable changes in government policy with particular reference to monetary policy. Positive net present value shows that the investment in fish farm is economically feasible and the net investment ratio is 3.52. Also, the benefit-cost ratio is 2.17. The internal rate of return (IRR) is 21% showing that the enterprise is able to offset the interest being charged on the loan. It is therefore worthwhile to invest into fish farm business in the study area. The study suggests that to better sustain the local aquaculture business, the government should create a good conducive environment to foster development of the fish farming. Government intervention is urgently needed to solve problems such as in traditional land tenure, grant credit facilities and subsidies, to enhance the aquacultural development in the country.

  19. Improving maternal and child healthcare programme using community-participatory interventions in Ebonyi State Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ndukwe, Chinwendu Daniel; Ezeoha, Abel Abeh; Urochukwu, Henry Chukwuemeka; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla

    2014-10-01

    In Nigeria, the government is implementing the Free Maternal and Child Health Care Programme (FMCHCP). The policy is premised on the notion that financial barriers are one of the most important constraints to equitable access and use of skilled maternal and child healthcare. In Ebonyi State, Southeastern Nigeria the FMCHCP is experiencing implementation challenges including: inadequate human resource for health, inadequate funding, out of stock syndrome, inadequate infrastructure, and poor staff remuneration. Furthermore, there is less emphasis on community involvement in the programme implementation. In this policy brief, we recommend policy options that emphasize the implementation of community-based participatory interventions to strengthen the government's FMCHCP as follows: Option 1: Training community women on prenatal care, life-saving skills in case of emergency, reproductive health, care of the newborn and family planning. Option 2: Sensitizing the community women towards behavioural change, to understand what quality services that respond to their needs are but also to seek and demand for such. Option 3: Implementation packages that provide technical skills to women of childbearing age as well as mothers' groups, and traditional birth attendants for better home-based maternal and child healthcare. The effectiveness of this approach has been demonstrated in a number of community-based participatory interventions, building on the idea that if community members take part in decision-making and bring local knowledge, experiences and problems to the fore, they are more likely to own and sustain solutions to improve their communities' health. PMID:25337602

  20. Comparative Analysis of Pathogenic Organisms in Cockroaches from Different Community Settings in Edo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Orue, Philip Ogbeide; Iyamu, Mercy Itohan; Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetiyan; Isaac, Osesojie

    2014-01-01

    Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents. PMID:24850961

  1. Distribution of Vibrio species in Shellfish and Water Samples Collected from the Atlantic Coastline of South-East Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Eyisi, Onyedikachukwu A.L.; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.

    2013-01-01

    Crayfish, lobster, and sea-water samples collected from five fishing islands on the Atlantic coastBight of Biafra (Bonny)belonging to Ibaka Local Government Area of Akwa-Ibom State of Nigeria were bacteriologically evaluated on thiosulphate citrate bile-salt sucrose (TCBS) agar for Vibrio load and pathotypes. Mean log10 Vibrio counts of 7.642.78 cfu/g (in crayfish), 5.073.21 cfu/g (in lobster), and 3.062.27 cfu/mL (in sea-water) were obtained in rainy season (June-July) while counts in the dry season (November-December) were 6.251.93 cfu/g, 5.991.54 cfu/g, and 3.841.78 cfu/mL respectively. The physicochemical measurements (temperature, pH, and total dissolved solutes) of the sea-water did not vary significantly in the two seasons across all five islands. Vibrio species isolated were Vibrio cholerae (both O1 and non-O1 serotypes), V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. mimicus, and V. fluvialis. Both Ogawa and Inaba subtypes of V. cholerae O1 serotype were found. In addition, the Hikojima subtype, which had not been previously reported in the region, was isolated in two samples. The results show that these Vibrio species are endemic in the area. PMID:24288944

  2. Sociocultural Factors Associated With Abuse of Mentally Impaired Persons in Imo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chukwu, Ngozi E; Onyeneho, Nkechi G

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sociocultural factors associated with abuse of mentally impaired persons (MIP) in Imo state, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of 1,147 persons aged 10 years and above who had at least one MIP in their household was conducted. Six in-depth interviews and 21 focus group discussion (FGD) sessions with 160 study participants comprising adult male and female members of the communities, respectively, were conducted. The study established that a multitude of cultural and social factors shape the attitude of individuals toward mental impairment and MIPs. It was found that cultural perceptions of the cause of mental impairment as supernatural and evil forces were widespread within the study communities. Among those surveyed, 74.6% were aware that MIPs are victims of abuse. Perpetrators identified were mostly relatives and persons close to MIPs. The findings provide useful insights into gaps in conventional understanding of mental impairment and abuse of MIPs in Imo State. PMID:26470398

  3. Determinants of Youths` Participation in Rural Agriculture in Imo State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nnadi, F. N.; Akwiwu, C. D.

    The lack of empirical data on the determinants of youths` participation in rural agriculture necessitated this study that investigated the rate of youths` participation, agricultural activities participated in and the factors that determined their participation in Imo State, Nigeria. Data were generated from 230 youths from the three agricultural zones of the state using questionnaire and interview schedule. These were analyzed with the aid of frequency tables, simple percentage counts and logit regression model at 0.05 level of significance. The results indicated about 84% participation in land clearing, planting, fertilizer application, collection of fodder for livestock etc. The participation was determined by their ages, education, marital status, parents` income, parents` occupation, household size and youths` dependence status. It was recommended that institutional support services for agriculture should be extended to the youths and intervention strategies for youths` agricultural activities should be guided and guarded by their ages, education, marital status, parents` income, parents` occupation, family size and youths` dependence status.

  4. Prevalence of bovine campylobacteriosis in indigenous cattle of three states in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bawa, E K; Adekeye, J O; Oyedipe, E O; Omoh, J U

    1991-08-01

    A survey of bovine campylobacteriosis in breeding bulls and cows was carried out in the states of Kaduna, Kano and Borno. Six hundred and eighty nine cattle composed of 585 and 104 breeding bulls and cows respectively were sampled. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis was isolated from 12 bulls while Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus was isolated from three of them. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus was isolated from four cows while Campylobacter fetus subsp. veneralis was isolated from one cow. The overall prevalence of campylobacteriosis in the three states was 2.9% (20/689). The result of the study identifies Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis as the agent of enzootic infertility in Nigeria and suggests that it may be a significant problem. PMID:1763437

  5. Indigenous knowledge system for treatment of trypanosomiasis in Kaduna state of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, S E; Ameh, D A; Ibrahim, S; Andrew, J N; Nzelibe, H C; Onyike, E O; Anigo, K M; Abu, E A; James, D B; Njoku, G C; Sallau, A B

    2002-02-01

    A survey was carried out in Kaduna State of Nigeria to establish the indigenous knowledge system for treating trypanosomiasis in domestic animals. Questionnaire and interviews were, respectively, administered to, or conducted with about 200 livestock farmers and traders spread around the state. Data obtained revealed the use of several plants either alone or in combination, for the treatment and management of trypasonomiasis. The most common plants encountered were Adansonia digitata, Terminalia avicennoides, Khaya senegalensis, Cissus populnea, Tamarindus indica, Lawsonia inermis, Boswellia dalzielli, Pseudocedrela kotschi, Syzyium quinensis, Sterculia setigera, Afzelia africana, Prosopis africana, Lancea kerstingii. The method of preparation and mode of administration of some of these plants in the treatment of trypanosomiasis are reviewed and discussed. PMID:11801393

  6. Public Health Implications and Risk Factors Assessment of Mycobacterium bovis Infections among Abattoir Personnel in Bauchi State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Sa'idu, A. S.; Okolocha, E. C.; Dzikwi, A. A.; Gamawa, A. A.; Ibrahim, S.; Kwaga, J. K. P.; Usman, A.; Maigari, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic infectious and contagious zoonotic disease of domestic animals, wild animals, and humans. It poses a public health threat and economic losses due to abattoir condemnation of infected carcasses during meat inspection of slaughtered animals. Bovine tuberculosis is widespread in Africa including Nigeria affecting both cattle and humans, particularly Northern Nigeria. A prospective survey was conducted from June to August 2013 in the three Zonal abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria. A total of 150 structured close-ended questionnaires were administered to abattoir personnel to assess their level of awareness of bTB. This study was aimed at determining the level of public health awareness, attitude, and practices of abattoir workers of bTB in Bauchi State, Nigeria. There was a statistically significant association between respondents' awareness of bTB and their occupational status, age, and duration of exposure to cattle carcasses (P < 0.05); the odds of being aware of bTB were 9.4, 7.3, and 2.1, respectively. In conclusion, these demonstrate the urgent need for public health authorities to intervene in bTB control. The risk of bTB transmission as indicated by the personnel's practices and awareness levels in Bauchi State could be prevented through the use of protective clothing (PPEs). PMID:26464954

  7. Phenotypic and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Ekiti State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olowe, Olugbenga Adekunle; Kukoyi, Olayinka Oluwatoyin; Taiwo, Samuel Sunday; Ojurongbe, Olusola; Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele; Bolaji, Oloyede Samuel; Adegoke, Abiodun Adebimpe; Makanjuola, Olufunmilola Bamidele; Ogbolu, David Olusoga; Alli, Oyebode Terry

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The characteristics and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Staphylococcus aureus differs according to geographical regions and in relation to antibiotic usage. The aim of this study was to determine the biochemical characteristics of the prevalent S. aureus from Ekiti State, Nigeria, and to evaluate three commonly used disk diffusion methods (cefoxitin, oxacillin, and methicillin) for the detection of methicillin resistance in comparison with mecA gene detection by polymerase chain reaction. Materials and methods A total of 208 isolates of S. aureus recovered from clinical specimens were included in this study. Standard microbiological procedures were employed in isolating the strains. Susceptibility of each isolate to methicillin (5 ?g), oxacillin (1 ?g), and cefoxitin (30 ?g) was carried out using the modified KirbyBauer/Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute disk diffusion technique. They were also tested against panels of antibiotics including vancomycin. The conventional polymerase chain reaction method was used to detect the presence of the mecA gene. Results Phenotypic resistance to methicillin, oxacillin, and cefoxitin were 32.7%, 40.3%, and 46.5%, respectively. The mecA gene was detected in 40 isolates, giving a methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) prevalence of 19.2%. The S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin (82.7%) and tetracycline (65.4%), but largely susceptible to erythromycin (78.8% sensitive), pefloxacin (82.7%), and gentamicin (88.5%). When compared to the mecA gene as the gold standard for MRSA detection, methicillin, oxacillin, and cefoxitin gave sensitivity rates of 70%, 80%, and 100%, and specificity rates of 76.2%, 69.1%, and 78.5% respectively. Conclusion When compared with previous studies employing mecA polymerase chain reaction for MRSA detection, the prevalence of 19.2% reported in Ekiti State, Nigeria in this study is an indication of gradual rise in the prevalence of MRSA in Nigeria. A cefoxitin (30 ?g) disk diffusion test is recommended above methicillin and oxacillin for the phenotypic detection of MRSA in clinical laboratories. PMID:23990730

  8. Institutional and production characteristics among smallholder pig producers in Enugu State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chah, Jane M; Dimelu, Mebel U; Ukwuani, Stella U

    2014-10-01

    A study on the institutional and production characteristics of pig farming in Enugu State, Nigeria, was conducted using 80 randomly selected smallholder pig producers. Data were collected by using an interview schedule. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze data. The mean number of pigs owned by smallholder producer was 18. Only 20.0 and 6.3 % of the producers had access to credit and to extension services, respectively. Ninety percent of the respondents practiced intensive management system. The major housing type used by producers was cement brick walls with aluminum roofing sheets (97.6 %). The majority (80 %) of producers reared mostly crossbred pigs and family labor (68.7 %) was most prevalent. Fourteen (50 %) of the 28 routine management practices were always performed by the pig producers. Extension service providers should intensify efforts to provide producers with appropriate management practices and training for effective disease control and improve productivity. PMID:24906223

  9. Geographical information system and predictive risk maps of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ekpo, Uwem F; Mafiana, Chiedu F; Adeofun, Clement O; Solarin, Adewale RT; Idowu, Adewumi B

    2008-01-01

    Background The control of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria remains inert due to lack of reliable data on the geographical distribution of the disease and the population at risk. To help in developing a control programme, delineating areas of risk, geographical information system and remotely sensed environmental images were used to developed predictive risk maps of the probability of occurrence of the disease and quantify the risk for infection in Ogun State, Nigeria. Methods Infection data used were derived from carefully validated morbidity questionnaires among primary school children in 20012002, in which school children were asked among other questions if they have experienced "blood in urine" or urinary schistosomiasis. The infection data from 1,092 schools together with remotely sensed environmental data such as rainfall, vegetation, temperature, soil-types, altitude and land cover were analysis using binary logistic regression models to identify environmental features that influence the spatial distribution of the disease. The final regression equations were then used in Arc View 3.2a GIS software to generate predictive risk maps of the distribution of the disease and population at risk in the state. Results Logistic regression analysis shows that the only significant environmental variable in predicting the presence and absence of urinary schistosomiasis in any area of the State was Land Surface Temperature (LST) (B = 0.308, p = 0.013). While LST (B = -0.478, p = 0.035), rainfall (B = -0.006, p = 0.0005), ferric luvisols (B = 0.539, p = 0.274), dystric nitosols (B = 0.133, p = 0.769) and pellic vertisols (B = 1.386, p = 0.008) soils types were the final variables in the model for predicting the probability of an area having an infection prevalence equivalent to or more than 50%. The two predictive risk maps suggest that urinary schistosomiasis is widely distributed and occurring in all the Local Government Areas (LGAs) in State. The high-risk areas (? 50% prevalence) however, are confined to scatter foci in the north western part of the State. The model also estimated that 98.99% of schools aged children (514 years) are living in areas suitable for urinary schistosomiasis transmission and are at risk of infection. Conclusion The risk maps developed will hopefully be useful to the state health officials, by providing them with detailed distribution of urinary schistosomiasis, help to delineate areas for intervention, assesses population at risk thereby helping in optimizing scarce resources. PMID:18513442

  10. Status of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Primary School Children in Rivers State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abah, A E; Arene, F O I

    2015-01-01

    Status of intestinal parasitic infections among primary school children in Rivers State, Nigeria, was investigated between January and December 2011. A total of 3,826 stool samples were collected from school children (1,828 males and 1998 females) in 36 primary schools from 13 local government areas of Rivers State. The samples were analyzed using wet saline/iodine and formol ether concentration methods. Of the 3,826 stool samples examined, 1059 (27.66%) were positive for different intestinal parasites, namely, Ascaris lumbricoides (51.78%), hookworm sp. (25.0%), Trichuris trichiura (15.18%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.14%), Taenia sp. (0.89%), and Enterobius vermicularis (0.01%). The prevalence of the infection was generally higher in males (57.60%) than females (42.40%). The differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Among these intestinal parasites, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm sp., and Trichuris trichiura were found in all the 13 local government areas studied while Strongyloides stercoralis was found in 12, Taenia sp. in five, and Enterobius vermicularis in only one community in Ahoada Local Government Area. The overall infection rate remains high and would require coordinated deworming of the school children within the state. PMID:26600945

  11. Status of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Primary School Children in Rivers State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abah, A. E.; Arene, F. O. I.

    2015-01-01

    Status of intestinal parasitic infections among primary school children in Rivers State, Nigeria, was investigated between January and December 2011. A total of 3,826 stool samples were collected from school children (1,828 males and 1998 females) in 36 primary schools from 13 local government areas of Rivers State. The samples were analyzed using wet saline/iodine and formol ether concentration methods. Of the 3,826 stool samples examined, 1059 (27.66%) were positive for different intestinal parasites, namely, Ascaris lumbricoides (51.78%), hookworm sp. (25.0%), Trichuris trichiura (15.18%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.14%), Taenia sp. (0.89%), and Enterobius vermicularis (0.01%). The prevalence of the infection was generally higher in males (57.60%) than females (42.40%). The differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Among these intestinal parasites, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm sp., and Trichuris trichiura were found in all the 13 local government areas studied while Strongyloides stercoralis was found in 12, Taenia sp. in five, and Enterobius vermicularis in only one community in Ahoada Local Government Area. The overall infection rate remains high and would require coordinated deworming of the school children within the state. PMID:26600945

  12. Prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria: results of a population-based house-to-house survey

    PubMed Central

    Ijezie, Innocent Chukwuonye; Chuku, Abali; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective Abdominal obesity is associated with the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes and hypertension. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Materials and methods We carried out a cross-sectional study aimed at ascertaining the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Participants in the study were recruited from communities in the three senatorial zones in the state. Screening for abdominal obesity was carried out in these subjects using waist circumference (the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel criteria were used). The World Health Organization Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of chronic disease risk factors was used. Body mass index, anthropometric measurements, and other relevant data were also collected. Results Data on waist circumference were obtained from 2,807 subjects. The prevalence of obesity using body mass index in the population was 11.12%. In men and women, it was 7.73%, and 14.37%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in the population was 21.75%. In men and women, it was 3.2% and 39.2%, respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of abdominal obesity is high in Nigeria, and needs to be monitored because it is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:23946664

  13. Cattle cruelty and risks of meat contamination at Akinyele cattle market and slaughter slab in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeyemo, Olanike K; Adeyemi, Isaac G; Awosanya, Emmanuel J

    2009-12-01

    Cattle transported to the government-run cattle market and slaughter slab in Akinyele, Oyo State, Nigeria on their final voyage are facing a disturbingly cruel, filthy and unsafe environment that is also raising the risk of contamination of meat sold for human consumption. This report gives a picture of what the cattle have to go through before they are slaughtered. This study also reveals cattle awaiting slaughter in abysmal health conditions, cows pulled with extreme force towards lairage and slaughter slab. Equally disturbing is the filthy situation inside the abattoir where the risk of contamination of meat is significant. Also, poor meat handling, transportation and sales practices subject meat to contamination leading to poor quality and exposure of human consumers to health risk. Development of hygienic slaughter slab operations, improved transportation system for both livestock and meat is therefore recommended; not only for Akinyele, but all abattoirs and slaughter slabs in Nigeria. PMID:19440852

  14. The Menace of Schistosomiasis in Nigeria: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Regarding Schistosomiasis among Rural Communities in Kano State

    PubMed Central

    Dawaki, Salwa; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Ithoi, Init; Ibrahim, Jamaiah; Abdulsalam, Awatif M.; Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Sady, Hany; Nasr, Nabil A.; Atroosh, Wahib M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most common neglected tropical diseases, especially in the developing countries in Africa, Asia and South America, with Nigeria having the greatest number of cases of schistosomiasis worldwide. This community-based study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) regarding schistosomiasis among rural Hausa communities in Kano State, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 551 participants from Hausa communities in five local government areas in Kano State, North Central Nigeria. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information as well as KAP data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Moreover, faecal and urine samples were collected and examined for the presence of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium eggs respectively. Results The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 17.8%, with 8.9% and 8.3% infected with S. mansoni and S. haematobium respectively, and 0.5% had co-infection of both species. Moreover, 74.5% of the participants had prior knowledge about schistosomiasis with 67.0% of them how it is transmitted and 63.8% having no idea about the preventive measures. Three-quarters of the respondents considered schistosomiasis a serious disease while their practices to prevent infections were still inadequate, with only 34.7% of them seeking treatment from clinics/hospitals. Significant associations between the KAP and age, gender, education and employment status were reported. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age, gender, history of infection and educational level of the respondents were the most important factors significantly associated with the KAP on schistosomiasis among this population. Conclusions Schistosomiasis is still prevalent among Hausa communities in Nigeria and participants’ knowledge about the disease was poor. Mass drug administration, community mobilization and health education regarding the cause, transmission and prevention of schistosomiasis and education about good personal and sanitary hygiene practices should be considered in order to significantly reduce the prevalence and morbidity of infection within these communities. PMID:26606264

  15. Benign breast lesions in Bayelsa State, Niger Delta Nigeria: a 5 year multicentre histopathological audit

    PubMed Central

    Uwaezuoke, Stanley Chibuzo; Udoye, Ezenwa Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There has been no previous study to classify benign breast lesions in details based on histopathologically confirmed diagnosis in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. This study therefore aims to review all cases of benign breast lesions seen in all the three centres in Bayelsa State with histopathology services over a five year period for a comprehensive baseline data in our community for management, research and education. Methods This is a multicentre retrospective descriptive study based on histopathological diagnosed benign breast lesions from January 2009 to December 2013. Archival results and slides on benign breast lesions were retrieved and analysed using simple statistical methods. Results A total of 228 benign breast lesions (68.3%) were seen among 334 histopathologically diagnosed breast diseases. The male to female ratio was 19.7:1. Peak age incidence was the third decade (43%) with a mean age of 29.1years. Fibroadenoma was the most common benign breast disease (BBD) accounting for 45.6% of all the cases followed by fibrocystic change (23.1%). The mean ages of fibroadenoma and fibrocystic change were 23.1years and 31.1years respectively. Inflammatory breast lesions constituted 8.3%. We recorded only 2 cases (0.9%) of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) with no case of atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) within the study period. Gynaecomastia (4%) was the main male breast lesion in the study. Conclusion Benign breast diseases are the most common breast lesions in Bayelsa State. Fibroadenoma is the most common lesion followed by fibrocystic change. The incidence of atypical hyperplasia recorded was rather low in the state. PMID:25995790

  16. Nutritional status and intelligence quotient of primary schoolchildren in Akure community of Ondo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ijarotimi, O S; Ijadunola, K T

    2007-05-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 402 children (10-15 years) randomly selected from twelve public and private primary schools in Akure community of Ondo State, Nigeria. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on children's demographic features and parent's socio-economic characteristics. The subject's weight, height, height-for-age and weight-for-height z-score were measured and determined respectively. Raven Standard Progressive Matrices consisted of 60 questions was administered in a quiet classroom within 60 minutes to assess intelligence quotient (IQ) of the children. The means of measured parameters were: age, 11.5 +/- 0.08 years; weight, 33.3 +/- 0.35 kg; height, 1.4 +/- 0.0 m; height-for-age z-score, -0.003 +/- 0.04; weight-for-height z-score -7.2E-7 +/- 0.1 and IQ, 20.9 +/- 0.56 (34.8%). The occupations of the children's parents were civil service (43.3%), petty business (21.9%), farming (15.8%), vocational jobs (16.0%) and none (3.2%). The majority of the parents (31.8%) had secondary school education. Parents with no formal education, primary education, tertiary education and higher degrees accounted for 7.2%, 30.6%, 22.9% and 7.4%, respectively. Monthly incomes ranged between $38.5 and 230.8. Weight-for-height z-score of the children showed that 49.8% were normal, 40% mildly wasted, 9.7% moderately wasted and 0.5% severely wasted. Height-for-age z-score was 50% normal, 35.1% mildly stunted, 13.4% moderately stunted and 1.5% severely stunted. IQ scores were 5% superior 11.2% above average, 11.4% average, 8.2% below average and 64.2% intellectual deficit. The interrelationship between height-for-age, IQ and socio-demographic characteristics showed that there were insignificant differences between the age groups, gender and socio-economic status of the pupils. Conclusively, this study showed that the proportion of malnourished and intellectual deficit among the studied population were high. However, it is not clear whether the findings are specific to the studied population alone or applicable to other parts of Nigeria. Further studies are therefore needed to confirm these findings. PMID:17722408

  17. Occurrence of tick-transmitted pathogens in dogs in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia rossi, transmitted by Haemaphysalis elliptica in South Africa, has also been reported from Nigeria. Although H. leachi (sensu lato) is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, published literature on the occurrence of canine babesiosis is meagre. It has been postulated that the genotype of Babesia rossi Erythrocyte Membrane Antigen 1 (BrEMA1) may be linked to virulence of the specific isolate. The primary objective of this study was to detect and characterise tick-borne pathogens in dogs presented to a veterinary hospital using molecular techniques. In B. rossi-positive specimens, we aimed to determine whether the BrEMA1 gene occurred and to compare genotypes with those found in other isolates. Lastly, we wished to identify the tick species that were recovered from the sampled dogs. Methods Blood specimens (n?=?100) were collected during January to March 2010 from domestic dogs presented at an animal hospital in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. They were screened for the presence of Babesia/Theileria and Ehrlichia/Anaplasma genomic DNA using PCR and Reverse Line Blot (RLB) assays. Positive B. rossi specimens were tested for the presence of the BrEMA1gene using an RT-PCR. In addition, ticks were collected from dogs found to be infested during sampling. Results On RLB, 72 (72%) of the specimens were positive for one or more haemoparasites. Of the positive specimens, 38 (53%) were infected with B. rossi; 9 (13%) with Theileria sp. (sable); 5 (7%) with either Ehrlichia canis or Anaplasma sp. Omatjenne, respectively; 3 (4%) with Theileria equi; and 1 (1%) with B. vogeli and E. ruminantium, respectively. Co-infections were detected in 13 (18%) of the specimens. Results of RT-PCR screening for the BrEMA1 gene were negative. A total of 146 ticks belonging to 8 species were collected and identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus 107 (73%), Haemaphysalis leachi (sensu stricto) 27 (18%), R. turanicus 3 (2%), and Amblyomma variegatum, H. elliptica, R. lunulatus, R. muhsamae and R. senegalensis 1 (1%), respectively. Conclusions Up to 8 tick-borne pathogens possibly occur in the dog population at Jos, with B. rossi being the most prevalent. The absence of the BrEMA1 gene suggests that B. rossi occurring in that area may be less virulent than South African isolates. PMID:24661795

  18. Ethnobotanical study of plants used in treating hypertension in Edo State of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Gbolade, Adebayo

    2012-10-31

    A study was undertaken in 12 local government areas (LGAs) of Edo State located in central southern Nigeria, representing 66.6% coverage, in order to obtain an inventory of the major medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension. One hundred and eighty nine respondents who were mainly traditional medical practitioners and were knowledgeable in the medicinal plants for treating hypertension were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers. The inventory of medicinal plants is summarized in a synoptic table, which contains the scientific, vernacular and common names of the plants/frequency of citation, the part of the plant and method of preparation of recipes. The study indicated 70 plants belonging to 67 genera in 43 families are commonly prescribed. Of these plants, 39 species are cultivated, 29 species grow in the wild, while only 2 both grow wild and also cultivated. Ninety three herbal antihypertensive recipes are recognized and are mainly prepared as decoctions, infusions, powders and juice. The leaf (43%) represented the dominant morphological part often included in recipes. Plants frequently included in antihypertensive recipes were Allium species, Persea americana, Acalypha godseffiana, Zingiber officinale, Sida acuta, Hunteria umbellata, Rauwolfia vomitoria, Viscum album and Aframomum melegueta. PMID:22975417

  19. Natural radioactivity of the tar-sand deposits of Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasasi, M. K.; Oyawale, A. A.; Mokobia, C. E.; Tchokossa, P.; Ajayi, T. R.; Balogun, F. A.

    2003-06-01

    A combination of gamma spectrometry and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the presence and level of radioactivity of radionuclides in bituminous sand and overburden obtained from bituminous sand deposits in Ondo State Nigeria for the purpose of providing baseline data and assessing its impact on the environment. The radionuclides identified with reliable regularity belong to the decay series of naturally occurring radionuclides headed by 238U and 232Th. The non-decay series of naturally occurring 40K was found to be below the limit of detection. The average specific activity concentration values obtained for 214 Bi, 208Tl, and 226Ra in the overburden are 165.642.91, 150.252.91 and 60.972.27 Bq kg -1, respectively. The measured activity in the bituminous sand layer is so low that it can be said to be non-radioactive. The result of the EDXRF supports the presence of radioelements in the overburden, which are likely to be embedded in accessory minerals like zircon and tourmaline. Thus, surface exploration technique using soil-gas radon measurement will not yield the desired result. Furthermore, the level of radioelements and associated decay daughter 222Rn is not expected to cause any health hazard.

  20. Bacteriological contamination of well water in Makurdi town, Benue State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mile, I I; Jande, J A; Dagba, B I

    2012-11-01

    Bacteriological contamination of well water in Makurdi town, of Benue State, Nigeria was investigated. A total of 15 water samples were collected from hand dug wells and analyzed for total bacteria count as it affect the quality of drinking water for both wet and dry season. The analysis was done according to standard methods of water examination and as reported in WHO guide limit for drinking water. The investigation revealed that the wells examined were highly contaminated with bacteria. Wells 6 and 7 showed highest total bacteria counts of 7.0 x 10(5)/100 mL and 8.2 x 10(5)/100 mL in the wet season, while wells 7 and 2 showed highest total bacteria counts of 8.0 x 10(5)/100 mL and 5.5 x 10(5)/100 mL in the dry season. The contamination of all wells could be due to improper construction of wells, refuse dumping sites and various human activities around the wells. Water generally from these wells is not safe for drinking except some form of treatment is carried out. PMID:24163949

  1. Lymphatic filariasis baseline survey in two sentinel sites of Ogun state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okorie, Patricia Nkem; Davies, Emmanuel; Ogunmola, Olushola Omoniyi; Ojurongbe, Olusola; Saka, Yisa; Okoeguale, Bridget; Braide, Ekanem Ikpi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In preparation for Mass Drug Administration by National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme, a baseline epidemiological investigation on lymphatic filariasis (LF) was conducted in two sentinel sites of Ogun State, Nigeria. The study was carried out in Ado-Odo Ota and Abeokuta South Local Government Areas (LGAs) to determine LF prevalence, microfilarial density and the abundance of Wucheraria bancrofti in the mosquito vectors. Methods Microscopic examination of thick blood smears of 299 and 288 participants from Ado-Odo Ota and Abeokuta South LGAs was conducted. Visual observations of clinical manifestations of chronic infection and questionnaire administration were also conducted. Indoor resting mosquitoes were collected using the pyrethrum spray technique and CDC light traps and mosquitoes were dissected for filarial larvae. Results Microfilaria prevalences were 4.0% and 2.4% in Ado-odo Ota and Abeokuta South LGAs. The microflarial density (mfd) was 30.6mf/ml and 23.9 mf/ml in the same areas. No clinical manifestations of the infection were found at both sites. Knowledge of LF by inhabitants was very low in the two areas. Anopheles gambiae s.l and Culex species mosquitoes were collected but none was found positive for stage L3 infective larvae. Conclusion Mass awareness campaigns on the goal of mass drug administration, cause of LF, mode of transmission, the relationship between infection and clinical signs/symptoms is advocated so as to increase acceptance and support of the control programme by the community. PMID:26185587

  2. Viral Agents of Diarrhea in Young Children in Two Primary Health Centers in Edo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Imade, Paul Erhunmwunse; Eghafona, Nosakhare Odeh

    2015-01-01

    Enteric viruses have been shown to be responsible for diarrhea among children during their early childhood. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of rotavirus, adenovirus, and norovirus infection in young children with diarrhea in two primary health centers in Edo State, Nigeria. A total of 223 stool specimens were collected from children aged 036 months with clinical signs of diarrhea and 59 apparently healthy age-matched children as control. These specimens were investigated for three viral agents using immunochromatographic technique (ICT). The overall results showed that at least one viral agent was detected in 95/223 (42.6%) of the children with diarrhea while the control had none. The prevalence of rotavirus was 28.3%, adenovirus 19.3%, and norovirus 3.6%. There was a significant association between age group and infection (P < 0.0001). Seasonal pattern of enteric viruses was not statistically significant (P = 0.17). The overall coinfection rate was 7.6% and rotavirus-adenovirus coinfection had the highest with 5.4%. Rotavirus was the most prevalent viral agent. Coinfections are not uncommon among the population studied. The most commonly associated clinical symptom of viral diarrhea in this study was vomiting. Viral diagnostic tests are advocated for primary health care facilities in this locality. PMID:26064123

  3. Antinutrients Evaluation of Staple Food in Ebonyi State, South-Eastern, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edeogu, C. O.; Ezeonu, F. C.; Okaka, A. N. C.; Ekuma, C. E.; Eiom, S. O.

    Evaluating the levels of antinutrients in the staple foods is an important aspect of nutritional studies. The levels of these antinutrients were quantitatively estimated in staple foods in a major food producing rural areas of Ebonyi State, South-Eastern Nigeria using spectrophotometric method. Results indicated that phytate was not detected in tubers while legumes recorded the highest mean values of phytate (260.07 mg gG1). The oxalate levels of legumes were significantly high compared to tubers and cereals (p< 0.000). Tubers had the highest mean. Concentration of cyanogenic glycoside 15.20 mg gG1 followed by legumes while cereals were the least correlation analysis shows that the cyanogenic glycoside was negatively related to all other antinutrients except tannin. Also tannin was related to all other antinutrients except cyanogenic glycoside. Interestingly, all other antinutrients were positively related to each other except cyanogenic glycoside and tannins. The consumption of staple foods rich in these antinutrients pose a health risk to livestock and poor communities that reside around the study sites, especially children.

  4. Zika virus infections in Nigeria: virological and seroepidemiological investigations in Oyo State.

    PubMed

    Fagbami, A H

    1979-10-01

    A study of Zika virus infections was carried out in four communities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Virus isolation studies between 1971 and 1975 yielded two virus isolations from human cases of mild febrile illness. Haemagglutination-inhibition tests revealed a high prevalence of antibodies to Zika and three other flaviviruses used. The percentages of positive sera were as follows: Zika (31%), Yellow fever (50%), West Nile (46%), and Wesselsbron (59%). Neutralization tests showed that 40% of Nigerians had Zika virus neutralizing antibody. Fifty per cent of zika virus immune persons had neutralizing antibody to Zika alone or to Zika and one other flavivirus. A total of 121 sera had antibody to Zika virus; of these 48 (40%) also showed antibody to two other flaviviruses, and 12 (10%) had antibodies to three or more other viruses. The percentage of neutralizing antibodies to other flaviviruses in Zika virus immune sera was 81% to Dengue type 1, 58% to Yellow fever, 7% to Wesselsbron, 6% to West Nile and 3% to Uganda S. PMID:489960

  5. Demographic and Ecological Survey of Dog Population in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Otolorin, Gbeminiyi Richard; Umoh, Jarlath U.; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu

    2014-01-01

    Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1?:?7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic and 465/747 (62.2%) were males. A total of 319/500 (63.8%) of the households had fences that restrained dog movement and there was no incidence of dog bite in 447/500 (89.4%) of the households surveyed. There were statistical associations between vaccination against antirabies and breeds of dogs (?2 = 79.8, df = 2, P < 0.005). Exotic breed (adjusted OR = 0.39; CI = 0.230.65) and local breed of dogs (adjusted OR = 0.08; CI = 0.040.14) had less odds of being vaccinated as compared to crossbreed of dogs. About 126 dogs (2.5 dogs per street) were estimated from street counts survey. The relative high dog to human ratio and low vaccination coverage of owned dogs population pose public health concerns requiring adequate public health education and proper antirabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the study area. PMID:25002978

  6. Perceived Effects of Occupational Hazards on Farmers' Productivity in Kwara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akangbe, Jones Adebola; Komolafe, Sola Emmanuel; Oduwaiye, Muyiwa Olarinde

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the perceived effects of occupational hazards on farmers' productivity in Kwara State, Nigeria. A total of 160 respondents were selected using a multi-stage random sampling technique. Descriptive statistical techniques such as frequency count, percentages as well as Pearson Product Moment correlation analysis for empirical analysis were used. The results show common agricultural production to include maize, yam and cassava. The results also revealed prevalent occupational hazards that include cut/injury from farm tools, malaria due to mosquito bite, and general body pain. The findings further revealed that injury from farm tools and general body pain had high effects on agricultural productivity. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis showed no significant relationship (P?0.05) between selected socio-economic characteristics with the perceived effects of occupational hazards on productivity. Based on the findings, the study concludes that occupational (farming) hazards, most especially general body pain, had negative effects on agricultural productivity. The study recommends that government and relevant agencies should encourage farmers by providing for them protective equipment at subsidized cost through extension agents who will train farmers on their use. Also, public health agents should educate farmers on personal health care practices in order to ensure good health status of farmers. PMID:26370039

  7. Zika virus infections in Nigeria: virological and seroepidemiological investigations in Oyo State.

    PubMed Central

    Fagbami, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    A study of Zika virus infections was carried out in four communities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Virus isolation studies between 1971 and 1975 yielded two virus isolations from human cases of mild febrile illness. Haemagglutination-inhibition tests revealed a high prevalence of antibodies to Zika and three other flaviviruses used. The percentages of positive sera were as follows: Zika (31%), Yellow fever (50%), West Nile (46%), and Wesselsbron (59%). Neutralization tests showed that 40% of Nigerians had Zika virus neutralizing antibody. Fifty per cent of zika virus immune persons had neutralizing antibody to Zika alone or to Zika and one other flavivirus. A total of 121 sera had antibody to Zika virus; of these 48 (40%) also showed antibody to two other flaviviruses, and 12 (10%) had antibodies to three or more other viruses. The percentage of neutralizing antibodies to other flaviviruses in Zika virus immune sera was 81% to Dengue type 1, 58% to Yellow fever, 7% to Wesselsbron, 6% to West Nile and 3% to Uganda S. PMID:489960

  8. Knowledge, attitude and practice towards child adoption amongst women attending infertility clinics in Lagos State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kofoworola, Odeyemi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Child adoption is a recommended alternative form of infertility management. Infertility is of public health importance in Nigeria and many other developing nations. This is a result of its high prevalence and especially because of its serious social implications as the African society places a passionate premium on procreation in any family setting. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of child adoption amongst women attending infertility clinics in teaching hospitals in Lagos State and to determine the factors that influence their attitude and practice towards it. Method A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. Data were collected by using a structured questionnaire which was interviewer-administered. The study was conducted in the two teaching hospitals in Lagos State (LUTH [Lagos University Teaching Hospital] and LASUTH [Lagos State University Teaching Hospital]) from amongst 350 women attending the gynaecological clinics. All the patients under management for infertility at the gynaecology clinics during the period of the study were interviewed. Results Many respondents (85.7%) had heard of child adoption and 59.3% of them knew the correct meaning of the term. More than half of the respondents (68.3%) said that they could love an adopted child but less than half of them (33.7%) were willing to consider adoption. Only 13.9% has ever adopted a child. The major reason given for their unwillingness to adopt was their desire to have their own biological child. Factors that were favourable towards child adoption were Igbo tribe identity, an age above 40 years, duration of infertility above 15 years, and knowing the correct meaning of child adoption. Conclusion There is a poor attitude to adoption even amongst infertile couples. Interventions need to be implemented to educate the public on child adoption, to improve their attitude towards adoption and to make it more acceptable.

  9. GENDER-RELATED FACTORS INFLUENCING WOMEN'S HEALTH SEEKING FOR TUBERCULOSIS CARE IN EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Oshi, Daniel C; Oshi, Sarah N; Alobu, Isaac N; Ukwaja, Kingsley N

    2016-01-01

    This is a qualitative, descriptive study to explore gender-related factors that influence health seeking for tuberculosis (TB) care by women in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. In-depth interviews based on interview guides were conducted with participants selected through purposive sampling in communities in the state. The results show that gender relations prohibit women from seeking care for symptoms of TB and other diseases outside their community without their husbands' approval. Gender norms on intra-household resource ownership and control divest women of the power to allocate money for health care seeking. Yet, the same norms place the burden of spending on health care for minor illnesses on women, and such repeated, out-of-pocket expenditures on health care at the village level make it difficult for women to save money for use for health care seeking for major illnesses such as TB, which, even if subsidized, still involves hidden costs such as transport fare. The opening hours of TB clinics do not favour their use by most women as they are open when women are usually engaged in income-generating activities. Attending the clinics may therefore entail opportunity costs for many women. People with chronic, infectious diseases such as TB and HIV are generally stigmatized and avoided. Women suffer more stigma and discrimination than men. Stigma and discrimination make women reluctant to seek care for TB until the disease is advanced. Policies and programmes aimed at increasing women's access to TB services should not only take these gender norms that disempower women into explicit consideration but also include interventions to address them. The programmes should integrate flexible opening hours for TB treatment units, including introduction of evening consultation for women. Interventions should also integrate anti-stigma strategies led by the community members themselves. PMID:26627885

  10. Monitoring of mass distribution interventions for trachoma in Plateau State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, Elizabeth A; King, Jonathan D; McPherson, Scott; Jip, Falam N; Patterson, Amy E; Mosher, Aryc W; Evans, Darin S; Emerson, Paul M

    2013-01-01

    Mass drug administration (MDA) with antibiotics is a key component of the SAFE strategy for trachoma control. Guidelines recommend that where MDA is warranted the whole population be targeted with 80% considered the minimum acceptable coverage. In other countries, MDA is usually conducted by salaried Ministry of Health personnel (MOH). In Plateau State, Nigeria, the existing network of volunteer Community Directed Distributors (CDD) was used for the first trachoma MDA. We conducted a population-based cluster random survey (CRS) of MDA participation to determine the true coverage and compared this to coverage reported from CDD registers. We surveyed 1,791 people from 352 randomly selected households in 24 clusters in three districts in Plateau State in January 2011, following the implementation of MDA. Households were enumerated and all individuals present were asked about MDA participation. Household heads were questioned about household-level characteristics and predictors of participation. Individual responses were compared with the CDD registers. MDA coverage was estimated as 60.3% (95% CI 47.9-73.8%) by the survey compared with 75.8% from administrative program reports. CDD registration books for comparison with responses were available in 19 of the 24 clusters; there was a match for 658/682 (96%) of verifiable responses. CDD registers did not list 481 (41.3%) of the individuals surveyed. Gender and age were not associated with individual participation. Overall MDA coverage was lower than the minimum 80% target. The observed discrepancy between the administrative coverage estimate from program reports and the CRS was largely due to identification of communities missed by the MDA and not reported in the registers. CRS for evaluation of MDA provides a useful additional monitoring tool to CDD registers. These data support modification of distributor training and MDA delivery to increase coverage in subsequent rounds of MDA. PMID:23326617

  11. Compliance with intermittent presumptive treatment and insecticide treated nets use during pregnancy in Enugu State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onyeneho, Nkechi G; Idemili-Aronu, Ngozi; Okoye, Ijeoma; Ugwu, Chidi; Iremeka, Felicia U

    2014-07-01

    To identify key socio-demographic and knowledge factors associated with compliance with recommended use of commodities for preventing malaria in pregnancy (MIP) in Enugu State, Nigeria. Cross-sectional study of 720 women who delivered within 6 months preceding the survey in three local government areas in Enugu State was conducted using a structured questionnaire. About half (51.6%) of the women used IPTp1 while 25.9% took IPTp2 as recommended during their most recent pregnancy. Forty-one percent of the women slept under insecticide treat nets (ITN) during the most recent pregnancy but only 15.4% did so as recommended every night. Socio-demographic and knowledge factors associated with compliance were identified. Compliance with intermittent presumptive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) recommendation was more common among those in the rural setting (26.9%) compared to the peri-urban (20.3%) and urban (17.3%) (P = 0.032). Those with good knowledge of the causes, effects and prevention of malaria during pregnancy complied more (23.7%) than those with poor knowledge (17.0%) (P = 0.020). With respect to sleeping under ITN, more of those with post secondary education, good knowledge of MIP and currently living with a partner used ITN every night during the last pregnancy. Knowledge about the MIP issues and having a partner influence compliance with relevant preventives. Efforts to increase compliance with recommended practices to prevent MIP should focus on providing health education to pregnant women and their partners, who reinforce what the women are told during antenatal care. More qualitative studies need to be conducted on this subject. PMID:24043556

  12. Source to point of use drinking water changes and knowledge, attitude and practices in Katsina State, Northern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onabolu, B.; Jimoh, O. D.; Igboro, S. B.; Sridhar, M. K. C.; Onyilo, G.; Gege, A.; Ilya, R.

    In many Sub-Saharan countries such as Nigeria, inadequate access to safe drinking water is a serious problem with 37% in the region and 58% of rural Nigeria using unimproved sources. The global challenge to measuring household water quality as a determinant of safety is further compounded in Nigeria by the possibility of deterioration from source to point of use. This is associated with the use of decentralised water supply systems in rural areas which are not fully reticulated to the household taps, creating a need for an integrated water quality monitoring system. As an initial step towards establishing the system in the north west and north central zones of Nigeria, The Katsina State Rural Water and Sanitation Agency, responsible for ensuring access to safe water and adequate sanitation to about 6 million people carried out a three pronged study with the support of UNICEF Nigeria. Part 1 was an assessment of the legislative and policy framework, institutional arrangements and capacity for drinking water quality monitoring through desk top reviews and Key Informant Interviews (KII) to ascertain the institutional capacity requirements for developing the water quality monitoring system. Part II was a water quality study in 700 households of 23 communities in four local government areas. The objectives were to assess the safety of drinking water, compare the safety at source and household level and assess the possible contributory role of end users Knowledge Attitudes and Practices. These were achieved through water analysis, household water quality tracking, KII and questionnaires. Part III was the production of a visual documentary as an advocacy tool to increase awareness of the policy makers of the linkages between source management, treatment and end user water quality. The results indicate that except for pH, conductivity and manganese, the improved water sources were safe at source. However there was a deterioration in water quality between source and point of use in 18%, 12.5%, 27% and 50% of hand pump fitted boreholes, motorised boreholes, hand dug wells and streams respectively. Although no statistical correlation could be drawn between water management practices and water quality deterioration, the survey of the study households gave an indication of the possible contributory role of their knowledge, attitudes and practices to water contamination after provision. Some of the potential water related sources of contamination were poor source protection and location, use of unimproved water source and poor knowledge and practice of household water treatment methods, poor hand washing practices in terms of percentage that wash hands and use soap. Consequently 34 WASH departments have been created at the local government level towards establishment of a community based monitoring system and piloting has begun in Kaita local government area.

  13. Countdown to 2015: Tracking Maternal and Child Health Intervention Targets Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling in Bauchi State Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abegunde, Dele; Orobaton, Nosa

    2015-01-01

    Background Improving maternal and child health remains a top priority in Nigerias Bauchi State in the northeastern region where the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and infant mortality rate (IMR) are as high as 1540 per 100,000 live births and 78 per 1,000 live births respectively. In this study, we used the framework of the continuum of maternal and child care to evaluate the impact of interventions in Bauchi State focused on improved maternal and child health, and to ascertain progress towards the achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5. Methods At baseline (2012) and then at follow-up (2013), we randomly sampled 340 households from 19 random locations in each of the 20 Local Government Areas (LGA) of Bauchi State in Northern Nigeria, using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) technique. Women residents in the households were interviewed about their own health and that of their children. Estimated LGA coverage of maternal and child health indicators were aggregated across the State. These values were then compared to the national figures, and the differences from 2012 to 2014 were calculated. Results For several of the indicators, a modest improvement from baseline was found. However, the indicators in the continuum of care neither reached the national average nor attained the 90% globally recommended coverage level. The majority of the LGA surveyed were classifiable as high priority, thus requiring intensified efforts and programmatic scale up. Conclusions Intensive scale-up of programs and interventions is needed in Bauchi State, Northern Nigeria, to accelerate, consolidate and sustain the modest but significant achievements in the continuum of care, if MDGs 4 and 5 are to be achieved by the end of 2015. The intentional focus of LGAs as the unit of intervention ought to be considered a condition precedent for future investments. Priority should be given to the re-allocating resources to program areas and regions where coverage has been low. Finally, systematic considerations need to be given to the design of strategies that address the demand for health services. PMID:26086236

  14. Assessment of knowledge about childhood autism among paediatric and psychiatric nurses in Ebonyi state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is increasing public and professional awareness of autism spectrum disorders with early recognition, diagnosis and interventions that are known to improve prognosis. Poor knowledge about childhood autism among paediatric and psychiatric nurses who are members of multidisciplinary teams that care for such children may be a major barrier to early interventions that could improve quality of life and prognosis in childhood autism. Factors that influence knowledge about childhood autism among these nurses are not known. This study assessed knowledge about childhood autism among paediatric and psychiatric nurses in Ebonyi state, Nigeria and determined the factors that could be influencing such knowledge. Methods Forty specialist paediatric and forty psychiatric nurses, making a total sample of eighty, were randomly selected from all the health care facilities in Ebonyi state, Nigeria. A socio-demographic questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW) questionnaire were administered to them and the study was a point survey. Results The total mean score on the KCAHW questionnaire among the nurses that participated in the study was 12.56 3.23 out of a total of 19 possible. The mean score for the paediatric nurses was 11.78 3.64 while psychiatric nurses had mean score of 13.35 2.58. The mean scores in Domain 1 were 6.17 1.75 for the paediatric nurses and 6.52 1.43 for the psychiatric nurses. The mean scores in Domain 2 were 0.65 0.48 for the paediatric nurses and 0.80 0.41 for the psychiatric nurses. Domain 3 showed mean scores of 1.97 1.25 for the paediatric nurses while psychiatric nurses scored 2.62 1.23. Domain 4 yielded the mean scores of 2.97 1.54 and 3.42 0.98 for the paediatric and psychiatric nurses respectively. There was significant relationship between the total mean score on the KCAHW questionnaire for the two groups and the area of specialisation of the nurses (t = -2.23, df = 78, p = 0.03) and there was also significant relationship between previous involvement in managing children with childhood autism as a specialist paediatric or psychiatric nurse and the total mean score on the KCAHW questionnaire (t = 6.90, df = 78, p = 0.00). Conclusion The scores reflect deficits in knowledge about childhood autism among the study cohorts. Paediatric and psychiatric nurses as members of multidisciplinary teams that care for children with childhood autism are expected to provide holistic care and adequate counselling to the families of these children. Unfortunately in this environment, they are not fully equipped with enough knowledge about childhood autism. Education on childhood autism is therefore needed and can be provided through continuing medical education and emphasizing childhood autism in their training curriculum. This will enhance early identification and diagnosis of childhood autism with early interventions that are known to improve prognosis. PMID:21214953

  15. Determinants of routine immunization coverage in Bungudu, Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria, May 2010

    PubMed Central

    Gidado, Saheed; Nguku, Patrick; Biya, Oladayo; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Nsubuga, Peter; Akpan, Henry; Oyemakinde, Akin; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Suleman, Idris; Abanida, Emmanuel; Musa, Yusuf; Sabitu, Kabir

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Immunization is a cost-effective public health intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases. The Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey of 2008 indicated that only 5.4% of children aged 12-23 months in Bungudu, Zamfara State were fully immunized. We conducted this study to identify the determinants of routine immunization coverage in this community. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study. We sampled 450 children aged 12-23 months. We interviewed mothers of these children using structured questionnaire to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge on immunization, vaccination status of children and reasons for non-vaccination. We defined a fully immunized child as a child who had received one dose of BCG, three doses of oral polio vaccine, three doses of Diptheria-Pertusis-Tetanus vaccine and one dose of measles vaccine by 12 months of age. We performed bivariate analysis and logistic regression using Epi-info software. Results The mean age of mothers and children were 27 years (standard error (SE): 0.27 year) and 17 months (SE: 0.8 month) respectively. Seventy nine percent of mothers had no formal education while 84% did not possess satisfactory knowledge on immunization. Only 7.6% of children were fully immunized. Logistic regression showed that possessing satisfactory knowledge (Adjusted OR=18.4, 95% CI=3.6-94.7) and at least secondary education (Adjusted OR=3.6, 95% CI=1.2-10.6) were significantly correlated with full immunization. Conclusion The major determinants of immunization coverage were maternal knowledge and educational status. Raising the level of maternal knowledge and increasing maternal literacy level are essential to improve immunization coverage in this community. PMID:25328628

  16. Current status of traditional mental health practice in Ilorin Emirate Council area, Kwara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Makanjuola, A B; Adelekan, M L; Morakinyo, O

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-seven traditional mental health practitioners (TMHPs) and 16 patients' relatives (PR) were studied with a view to gaining an understanding of the current status of traditional mental health practice in five local government areas in Ilorin Emirate Council Area, Kwara State, Nigeria. Data was collected using Practitioners' Questionnaire (PQ), Patients' Relatives' Questionnaire (PRQ), Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and observation of TMHPs in their clinics. Factors which affect utilization of traditional mental health services were also reviewed. We found that TMHPs still enjoy considerable patronage from the populace, are more in numerical strength, and are more widely and evenly dispersed in the community than orthodox mental health practitioners (OMHPs). About 74% of TMHPs expressed interest in attending seminars aimed at improving their skills. Most of the patients' relatives expressed the belief that only traditional healers can understand the supernatural aetiological basis of mental disorders, and can therefore offer more effective care than OMHPs. Some of the negative practices observed were (i) infliction of corporal punishment and physical restraints on patients by some TMHPs resulting in wounds, which often become septic (ii) low level of hygiene at the clinics and (iii) lack of adequate follow-up care. In conclusion, since TMHPs still play a major role in the treatment of the mentally ill in this environment, OMHPs should assist them in improving on some of the negative practices identified. Thus, there is an urgent need to organize a training programme for TMHPs to expose them to the general rules of hygiene in medical care, basic principles of orthodox mental health practice, including human treatment of the mentally ill. PMID:10821086

  17. Cyanide and Aflatoxin Loads of Processed Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Tubers (Garri) in Njaba, Imo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Ojiako, Okey A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The present study sought to investigate the role of palm oil, in conjunction with the duration of fermentation, on cyanide and aflatoxin (AFT) loads of processed cassava tubers (Garri). Materials and Methods: Matured cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tubers were harvested from three different locations (Akunna, Mkporo-Oji and Durungwu) in Njaba Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. The cassava tubers were processed into Garri according to standard schemes with required modifications and measured for cyanide content using titrimetric methods. Samples of Garri for determination of AFT levels were stored for 30 days before the commencement of spectrophotometric analysis. Results: Cyanide content of peeled cassava tubers was within the range of 4.07 ± 0.16-5.20 ± 0.19 mg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) equivalent/100 g wet weight, whereas the various processed cassava tubers was within the range of 1.44 ± 0.34-3.95 ± 0.23 mg HCN equivalents/100 g. For the 48 h fermentation scheme, Garri treated with palm oil exhibited marginal reduction in cyanide contents by 0.96%, 3.52% and 3.69%, whereas 4 h fermentation scheme is in concurrence with palm oil treatment caused 4.42%, 7.47% and 5.15% elimination of cyanide contents compared with corresponding untreated Garri samples (P > 0.05). Levels of AFT of the various Garri samples ranged between 0.26 ± 0.07 and 0.55 ± 0.04 ppb/100 g. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in AFT levels among the various samples in relation to their corresponding sources. Conclusion: The present study showed that the 48 h fermentation scheme for Garri production caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction, but did not obliterate the cyanide content of cassava tubers. Conversely, the 48 h fermentation scheme promoted the elevation of AFT levels, but was relatively reduced in Garri samples treated with palm oil. PMID:24403736

  18. Nigeria`s Escravos gas project starts up

    SciTech Connect

    Nwokoma, M.

    1998-04-20

    Nigeria`s Escravos gas project, Delta state, officially began late last year. The project -- 6,650 b/d of LPG and 1,740 b/d of condensate from 165 MMscfd of gas -- is the first attempt to rid Nigeria of incessant flares that have lit the Delta skies. Operator Chevron Nigeria Ltd. believes that the Escravos project will enable the joint venture to utilize a significant portion of the gas reserves, thus reducing gas flaring. The paper describes the background of the project, the gas fields, transport pipeline, process design, construction, and start-up.

  19. Maternal mortality in health institutions with emergency obstetric care facilities in Enugu State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onah, H E; Okaro, J M; Umeh, U; Chigbu, C O

    2005-08-01

    In order to assess the current level of maternal mortality in health institutions with comprehensive emergency obstetric care in Enugu State, South Eastern Nigeria, a retrospective analysis of maternal deaths for the years 1999-2003 was carried out to establish the maternal mortality ratios in the eligible health institutions. Each maternal death was studied in detail to establish the socio-demographic characteristics of the women who died; their referral sources, type of delay (if any), medical causes of death and their preventability. In-depth interviews of the service providers were carried out to throw more light on the maternal mortality situation in the state. Five out of seven eligible health institutions were studied. Within the 5-year period (1999-2003), there were 141 maternal deaths and 18,257 live births giving a maternal mortality ratio of 772 maternal deaths per 100,000. The folders of 89 out of the 141 women who died were retrieved. Of these 89 maternal deaths, 51.7% of them were unemployed, 52.4% were referred from private hospitals; type 3 delay was the commonest type of delay encountered in the care of the women. Referral delay was the main cause of delay accounting for 46.4% of all cases of type 3 delay. The leading causes of maternal deaths among the women were obstetric haemorrhage (19.1%), sepsis (18.0%), prolonged obstructed labour/ruptured uterus (16.9%) and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (16.9%). The in-depth interviews corroborated the high maternal mortality ratio recorded and the type 3 delays in tackling obstetric emergencies. It also showed some discrepancies between reality and the health providers' perception of the magnitude of maternal mortality situation in the state. It was concluded that in health institutions in Enugu State with comprehensive emergency obstetric care facilities, the maternal mortality ratio remains high due to type 3 delays. Most of the referrals come from private hospitals, hence the need to retrain the private practitioners in emergency obstetric care. PMID:16234142

  20. Primary School Environment Trend, Class-Ratio and Head Teachers Overcrowded Classrooms Management Strategies in Northern Senatorial District of Ondo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babatunde, Ehinola Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Primary school Enrolment Trend, Class-Ratio and Head Teachers overcrowded classrooms management strategies in Northern Senatorial District of Ondo State, Nigeria was investigated. The purpose of the study is to examine the current enrolment trend in public primary schools in northern senatorial District of Ondo State. Also, is to ascertain the

  1. Delivery Pain Anxiety/Fear Control between Midwives among Women in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyira, Emilia James; Mgbekem, Mary; Osuchukwu, Easther Chukwudi; Affiong, Ekpenyong Onoyom; Lukpata, Felicia E.; Ojong-Alasia, Mary Manyo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine background of midwives the effectiveness in delivery pain and anxiety/fear control of expectant mothers in Nigeria. Methods: Two null hypotheses were formulated. The survey design with sample of 360 post-natal women was selected from a population of 78,814 through the polio immunization registers of selected health center in…

  2. Information Needs and Seeking Behaviours of Nurses: A Survey of Two Hospitals in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baro, Emmanuel E.; Ebhomeya, Loveth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the information needs of nurses in two hospitals in Nigeria and the ways in which they went about attempting to meet those needs. Design/methodology/approach: The study is a descriptive survey of nurses at the Federal Medical Center (FMC), Yenagoa, and Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital

  3. Information Needs and Seeking Behaviours of Nurses: A Survey of Two Hospitals in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baro, Emmanuel E.; Ebhomeya, Loveth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the information needs of nurses in two hospitals in Nigeria and the ways in which they went about attempting to meet those needs. Design/methodology/approach: The study is a descriptive survey of nurses at the Federal Medical Center (FMC), Yenagoa, and Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital…

  4. Impact of Sexual Harassment on Women Undergraduates' Educational Experience in Anambra State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okeke, Carina Maris Amaka

    2010-01-01

    Sexual harassment in educational settings is a common problem globally. While it is well addressed in college and university campuses in most developed countries of the world through specific policies and mechanisms of enforcement, it remains a taboo topic in African colleges and universities particularly in Nigeria. This study investigated the

  5. Impact of Sexual Harassment on Women Undergraduates' Educational Experience in Anambra State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okeke, Carina Maris Amaka

    2010-01-01

    Sexual harassment in educational settings is a common problem globally. While it is well addressed in college and university campuses in most developed countries of the world through specific policies and mechanisms of enforcement, it remains a taboo topic in African colleges and universities particularly in Nigeria. This study investigated the…

  6. Time is (still) of the essence: quantifying the impact of emergency meningitis vaccination response in Katsina State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Matthew J.; Fermon, Florence; Nackers, Fabienne; Llosa, Augusto; Magone, Claire; Grais, Rebecca F.

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2009, a large meningitis A epidemic affected a broad region of northern Nigeria and southern Niger, resulting in more than 75 000 cases and 4000 deaths. In collaboration with state and federal agencies, Mdecins Sans Frontires (MSF) intervened with a large-scale vaccination campaign using polysaccharide vaccine. Here the authors analyze the impact (cases averted) of the vaccination response as a function of the timing and coverage achieved. Methods Phenomenological epidemic models were fitted to replicate meningitis surveillance data from the Nigerian Ministry of Health/WHO surveillance system and from reinforced surveillance conducted by MSF in both vaccinated and unvaccinated areas using a dynamic, statespace framework to account for under-reporting of cases. Results The overall impact of the vaccination campaigns (reduction in meningitis cases) in Katsina State, northern Nigeria, ranged from 4% to 12%. At the local level, vaccination reduced cases by as much as 50% when campaigns were conducted early in the epidemic. Conclusions Reactive vaccination with polysaccharide vaccine during meningitis outbreaks can significantly reduce the case burden when conducted early and comprehensively. Introduction of the conjugate MenAfriVac vaccine has reduced rates of disease caused by serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis in the region. Despite this, reactive campaigns with polysaccharide vaccine remain a necessary and important tool for meningitis outbreak response. PMID:25193978

  7. Relative Contributions of Selected Teachers' Variables and Students' Attitudes toward Academic Achievement in Biology among Senior Secondary School Students in Ondo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gbore, L. O.; Daramola, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relative contributions of selected teachers' variables and students' attitude towards academic achievement in biology among senior secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. It involved descriptive survey research and ex-post facto research designs. The sample, 360 respondents which consists of 180 biology teachers and

  8. Evaluation of Teachers' Activities in the Use of Animated Instructional Resource Materials in Biology Teaching in Senior Secondary Schools in Bauchi State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwasu, I. A.; Abubakar; Ema, E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a profile on how teachers in senior secondary schools in Bauchi state Nigeria utilise animated instructional resource (AIR) in the teaching of biology. A structured questionnaire used to generate data on the availability, accessibility and application of the AIR for classroom instruction by teachers. The instrument for data

  9. Relative Contributions of Selected Teachers' Variables and Students' Attitudes toward Academic Achievement in Biology among Senior Secondary School Students in Ondo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gbore, L. O.; Daramola, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relative contributions of selected teachers' variables and students' attitude towards academic achievement in biology among senior secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. It involved descriptive survey research and ex-post facto research designs. The sample, 360 respondents which consists of 180 biology teachers and…

  10. Guidelines on How to Read a Physics Textbook and the Assessment of the Readability of Recommended Physics Textbooks in Secondary Schools in Osun State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinbobola, Akinyemi Olufunminiyi

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the readability of the four recommended physics textbooks in senior secondary schools in Osun State of Nigeria. A total of 25 physics teachers and 300 senior secondary three (SS3) physics students were randomly selected in the 12 secondary schools used for the study. A survey design was used for the study. Results showed that…

  11. Teacher Self-Efficacy Enhancement and School Location: Implication for Students' Achievement in Economics in Senior Secondary School in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durowoju, Esther O.; Onuka, Adams O. U.

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigated the effect of teacher self-efficacy enhancement and school location on students' achievement in Economics in Senior Secondary School in Ibadan Metropolis of Oyo State, Nigeria. Three hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted in the study. Four Local Government Areas (two…

  12. Mode of Entry as a Predictor of Success in Final Year Bachelor of Education Degree Examinations in Universities in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemi, T. O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the mode of entry as a predictor of success in final year bachelor of education degree examinations in universities in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria. As an ex-post facto and correlational research, the study population comprised all the 1810 final year 400 level students in the two universities offering education courses,

  13. Effect of Instruction in Emotional Intelligence Skills on Locus of Control and Academic Self-Efficacy among Junior Secondary School Students in Niger State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umaru, Yunusa; Umma, Abdulwahid

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of instruction in emotional intelligence Skills on locus of control and academic self-efficacy among junior secondary school students in Niger state, Nigeria. This study employed a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group, pre-test - post-test design. The population of this study was 105,034 secondary…

  14. Toxic elements in groundwater of Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest, Nigeria and their human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Ayedun, H; Gbadebo, A M; Idowu, O A; Arowolo, T A

    2015-06-01

    A good quality drinking water is essential for human survival. However, a large percentage of the populations in most developing countries (Nigeria inclusive) do not have access to potable water. This study was therefore conducted to assess the extent of risk arising from consumption of toxic elements in groundwater samples collected from Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest, Nigeria. Twelve toxic elements concentrations (As, Mn, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Al, Ti, V, Hg, Li, and Sn) were determined from 170 groundwater samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and the physicochemical parameters were determined using standard methods. The pH results revealed that most of the water samples were slightly acidic. Of the twelve toxic elements, only Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Al have concentrations higher than the WHO recommended limit in drinking water. The average dose of Mn and Al consumed daily from groundwater by an adult in Lagos state is 3.4 and 23.2 (?g/kg body weight), respectively. Similarly, an adult in Ogun State consumed an average daily dose of 6.09 and 25 (?g/kg body weight) Mn and Al, respectively. A greater threat was posed to children and infants. The order for risk of cancer in groundwater from Lagos State was Pb > Cr > As > Cd while the order in Ogun State groundwater was Cr > Cd?> As > Pb. The relative high concentrations of Mn, Al, and Pb obtained in this study can be attributed to industrial and anthropogenic activities in the study area. Treatment of groundwater before consumption is recommended to avoid possible adverse cumulative effect. Improved waste disposal methods and regular monitoring of toxic elements in groundwater of the study area should be adopted to safeguard human health. PMID:25971518

  15. HIV/Tuberculosis Co-Infection among Patients Attending a Referral Chest Clinic in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeh, E. U.; Ishaleku, D.; Iheukwumere, C. C.

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) coinfection rate was investigated among patients referred to a chest clinic in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Out of the 344 patients who presented with respiratory problems at the clinic, 44.8% had M. tuberculosis infection, 24.7% HIV infection and 12.8% HIV/tubercle bacilli co-infection. Coinfection rate in HIV infected persons (HIV+) was 51.8 and 28.6% in those with M. tuberculosis infection. The relative risk of HIV positive persons being coinfected was 1.075, while it was 0.401 for TB infected persons. The estimated Odds Ratio (OR) shows that the risk of co-infection was 2.68 times higher among HIV+ persons than among those with tuberculosis. The attributable risk was 45% and shows the extent to which co-infection could be attributed to HIV infection. A key socio-economic variable, eating in groups, was significantly correlated with coinfection (r = 0.107; p< 0.05). The results of this study may provide a useful policy guide in the formulation of HIV and tuberculosis control measures in Nigeria.

  16. An evaluation of the knowledge and practices of trained traditional birth attendants in Bodinga, Sokoto State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akpala, C O

    1994-02-01

    To improve Maternal and Child Health services especially in the rural areas, a programme to train traditional birth attendants (Ungo Zoma) was established by the Sokoto State government of Nigeria in 1975. The impact of the training programme on the knowledge and practices of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in a rural community in the state was studied. Seventy-four TBAs, consisting of 43 trained and 31 untrained attendants, were interviewed. Statistically significant differences were observed in the proportion of both groups of TBAs able to recognize high risk pregnancies and deliveries for referral to health institutions. In contrast to the trained attendants, none of the untrained TBAs offered any of the following Maternal and Child Health services: antenatal care, advice on immunization of children or their mothers during pregnancy, and family planning. Suggestions for improving the knowledge and practices of the TBAs in Sokoto as well as in other communities wishing to embark on similar programmes are offered. PMID:8107173

  17. Taboos of childbearing and child-rearing in Bendel state of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iweze, F A

    1983-01-01

    Certain marriage, childbearing, and child rearing practices within the Bendel State of Nigeria are outlined. In the rural communities early marriage is encouraged in order to ensure partners for eligible bachelors and "maidens of good repute." Childbearing and child rearing is incorporated within the framework of the extended family system, including monogamous and polygamous forms of marriages. Most marriages take place for the major purpose of childbearing. In Bendel State 2 types of birth attendants are prevalent. The traditional birth attendant (TBA) who does not have formal schooling and who acquires her skill and knowledge from either a relation or friend by means of an informal apprenticeship. In contrast the midwife has a formal--basic and professional--education and can only practice independently after passing the prescribed national examination and being registerd by the Nigerian Nursing and Midwifery Council. The midwife is responsible for the care of the woman during the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum period. She is also responsible for the care of the baby during the same period and up to the age of 28 days. From the 3rd month of pregnancy onward, the midwife will carry out regular abdominal massage and palpation. This technique is used to loosen the nerves and relax the muscles, facilitating an easy pregnancy and delivery as well as correcting malpresentations. The mother to be will also make a paste with kola nuts and rub the paste on her abdomen every day to prevent thrush and other skin infections in the newborn baby. In the northern parts of the state, the young primigravida is sent to her parents for circumcision. This practice is dying out as the young mothers to be become more knowledgeable about the risk of infection and other problems. During pregnancy the husband tries to support all his wife's needs. The mother to be is encouraged to avoid places where people fight and quarrel so that the baby is peace loving when born. After birth, the placenta is disposed of with care because it is regarded as part of the baby even after birth. The mother is given a warm bath and a specially prepared oil is applied over her body. The abdomen is bound tightly with a cloth believing it will help the abdominal muscles regain their tone and maintain the prepregnancy figure. Much importance is attached to the 1st bath of the baby, for it is believed that lifelong body odor can be prevented at this stage. Lactation is encouraged by giving the mother palm wine to drink or an unripe paw paw is crushed and the liquid is given to the mother to drink. These liquids are believed to have an almost immediate effect on the mammary glands. As soon as the baby is born, the mother or grandmother talks to the baby with words of praise and blessing. It is believed that a baby talked to in this manner grows to be happy and peace loving. PMID:6552278

  18. Causes, Effects and Strategies for Eradicating Cultism among Students in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria--A Case Study of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka Anambra State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinwe, Udoh Victoria; Mag, Ikezu Uju Joy

    2015-01-01

    The issue of cultism has in spite of many efforts at reducing it, soared up in the Nigeria's tertiary institutions. Cultism has cast gloom over the educational sector. It is repeatedly said that the youths are the future leaders but it is a little wonder what the future holds for the youth of this country which has a good proportion of her youth

  19. Monitoring maternal, newborn, and child health interventions using lot quality assurance sampling in Sokoto State of northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abegunde, Dele; Orobaton, Nosa; Shoretire, Kamil; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Mohammed, Zainab; Abdulazeez, Jumare; Gwamzhi, Ringpon; Ganiyu, Akeem

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality ratio and infant mortality rate are as high as 1,576 per 100,000 live births and 78 per 1,000 live births, respectively, in Nigeria's northwestern region, where Sokoto State is located. Using applicable monitoring indicators for tracking progress in the UN/WHO framework on continuum of maternal, newborn, and child health care, this study evaluated the progress of Sokoto toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 by December 2015. The changes in outcomes in 20122013 associated with maternal and child health interventions were assessed. Design We used baseline and follow-up lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) data obtained in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In each of the surveys, data were obtained from 437 households sampled from 19 LQAS locations in each of the 23 local government areas (LGAs). The composite state-level coverage estimates of the respective indicators were aggregated from estimated LGA coverage estimates. Results None of the nine indicators associated with the continuum of maternal, neonatal, and child care satisfied the recommended 90% coverage target for achieving MDGs 4 and 5. Similarly, the average state coverage estimates were lower than national coverage estimates. Marginal improvements in coverage were obtained in the demand for family planning satisfied, antenatal care visits, postnatal care for mothers, and exclusive breast-feeding. Antibiotic treatment for acute pneumonia increased significantly by 12.8 percentage points. The majority of the LGAs were classifiable as low-performing, high-priority areas for intensified program intervention. Conclusions Despite the limited time left in the countdown to December 2015, Sokoto State, Nigeria, is not on track to achieving the MDG 90% coverage of indicators tied to the continuum of maternal and child care, to reduce maternal and childhood mortality by a third by 2015. Targeted health system investments at the primary care level remain a priority, for intensive program scale-up to accelerate impact. PMID:26455491

  20. Using community volunteers to promote exclusive breastfeeding in Sokoto State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Asma Misbah; Oche, Oche Mansur; Sadiq, Umar Abubakar; Kabiru, Sabitu

    2011-01-01

    Background Exclusive Breastfeeding (EBF) refers to the practice of feeding breast milk only, (including expressed breast milk) to infants; and excluding water, other liquids, breast milk substitutes, and solid foods. Inadequately breastfed infants are likely to be undernourished and have childhood infections. EBF knowledge and infant feeding practices have not been studied sufficiently in Sokoto State, Nigeria. We describe the results of a randomized community trial to promote Exclusive Breastfeeding (EBF) in two local government areas Kware and Bodinga selected as intervention and control groups respectively. Methods During advocacy meetings with community leaders, a Committee was formed. Members of the Committee were consulted for informed consent and selection of ten female volunteers who would educate mothers about breastfeeding during home visits. Participants comprised mothers of infants who were breastfeeding at the time of the study. A total of 179 mothers were recruited through systematic random sampling from each community. Volunteers conducted in-person interviews using a structured questionnaire and counseled mothers in the intervention group only. Results At baseline, intervention and control groups differed significantly regarding maternal occupation (P=0.07), and age of the index child (P=0.07). 42% of infants in the intervention group were up to 6 months old and about 30% of them were exclusively breastfed. Intention to EBF was significantly associated with maternal age (P=0.01), education (P=0.00) and women who were exclusively breastfeeding (P=0.00). After counseling, all infants up to 6 months of age were exclusively breastfed. The proportion of mothers with intention to EBF increased significantly with maternal age (P=0.00), occupation (P=0.00) and women who were exclusively breastfeeding (P=0.01). Post-intervention surveys showed that source of information and late initiation of breastfeeding was not significantly associated with intention to EBF. Mothers who reported practicing EBF for 6 months, were older (P=0.00) multi-parous (P=0.05) and more educated (P=0.00) compared to those who did not practice EBF. Among them, significantly increased proportion of women agreed that EBF should be continued during the night (P=0.03), infant should be fed on demand (P=0.05), sick child could be given medication (P=0.02), EBF offered protection against childhood diarrhea (P=0.01), and helped mothers with birth spacing (P=0.00). Conclusion This study shows that there is a need for reaching women with reliable information about infant nutrition in Sokoto State. The results show decreased EBF practice among working mothers, young women, mothers with poor education and fewer than five children. Counseling is a useful strategy for promoting the duration of EBF for six months and for developing support systems for nursing mothers. Working mothers may need additional resources in this setting to enable them to practice EBF. PMID:22187590

  1. Social and health reasons for lime juice vaginal douching among female sex workers in Borno State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kullima, Abubakar A.; Kawuwa, Mohammed B.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Vaginal douching with lime juice and other agents has been perceived to enhance sexual excitement through sensations of vaginal dryness, tightness or warmth, as well as prevent sexually transmitted infections and restore and tighten the vagina after delivery. Its effectiveness as a contraceptive has also been reported. However, the social and health reasons/consequences of such a practice have not been adequately documented in the communities of Borno State, Nigeria. Objectives This study aimed to determine the extent of, reasons for, and the reproductive health effects of, the use of lime juice for vaginal douching among the commercial sex workers (CSWs) in selected areas of the three senatorial regions of Borno State, Nigeria. Method This was a community-based descriptive study conducted among female CSWs in selected communities of Borno State, Nigeria. A sample of 194 CSWs were randomly selected and interviewed on their sexual history and douching practices. Results One hundred and twenty (62%) respondents admitted practicing vaginal douching with lime juice, with 85% having been CSWs for a period greater than three years. More than half douched for sexual pleasure, hygiene and contraception. Significantly more lime juice users had increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) than non-users. Users had a higher prevalence of HIV infection than non-users. The Papanicouleaua (pap) smear test for cervical lesions also showed that moderate to severe dysplastic changes were more prevalent among lime-juice users. Conclusion Many CSWs in this community use lime juice for douching, for various reasons. Indications are that its use is associated with a higher prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infections and dysplastic cervical changes. Owing to confounding issues, such as the number of sexual partners, frequency of sexual exposure per day and the duration of exposure, it cannot, therefore, be deduced that douching with lime juice is the only reason for the higher prevalence of STIs and HIV. Nevertheless, there is an obvious need to mount extensive campaigns to educate the CSW on the possible risks of using such a practice.

  2. Health and ecological hazards due to natural radioactivity in soil from mining areas of Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Ibrahim, Umar; Akpa, Chidozie Timothy; Garba, Nuraddeen Nasiru; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2015-01-01

    Nasarawa State is located in north central Nigeria and it is known as Nigeria's home of solid minerals. It is endowed with barite, copper, zinc, tantalite and granite. Continuous releases of mining waste and tailings into the biosphere may result in a build-up of radionuclides in air, water and soil. This work therefore aims to measure the activity concentration levels of primordial radionuclides in the soil/sediment samples collected from selected mines of the mining areas of Nasarawa State. The paper also assesses the radiological and radio ecological impacts of mining activities on the residents of mining areas and their environment. The activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) in the surface soils/sediment samples were determined using sodium iodide-thallium gamma spectroscopy. Seven major mines were considered with 21 samples taken from each of the mines for radiochemistry analysis. The human health hazard assessment was conducted using regulatory methodologies set by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, while the radio ecological impact assessment was conducted using the ERICA tool v. 1.2. The result shows that the activity concentrations of (40)K in the water ways of the Akiri copper and the Azara barite mines are 60 and 67% higher than the world average value for (40)K, respectively. In all mines, the annual effective dose rates (mSv y(-1)) were less than unity, and a maximum annual gonadal dose of 0.58 mSv y(-1) is received at the Akiri copper mine, which is almost twice the world average value for gonadal dose. The external hazard indices for all the mines were less than unity. Our results also show that mollusc-gastropod, insect larvae, mollusc-bivalve and zooplankton are the freshwater biotas with the highest dose rates ranging from 5 to 7 µGy h(-1). These higher dose rates could be associated with zinc and copper mining at Abuni and Akiri, respectively. The most exposed terrestrial reference organisms are lichen and bryophytes. In all cases, the radio ecological risks are not likely to be discernible. This paper presents a pioneer data for ecological risk from ionizing contaminants due to mining activity in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Its methodology could be adopted for future work on radioecology of mining. PMID:25848858

  3. A Note on the Spatio Temporal Variations in the Temperature and Relative Humidity over Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eludoyin, A. O.; Akinbode, O. M.; Archibong, E. O.

    2007-07-01

    This study was carried out in one of the Administrative State Capitals in the southwestern part of Nigeria. Its aim is to serve as a baseline data for highlighting the effect of spatial distribution of settlements, population, and socioeconomic activities on urban air temperature and relative humidity. The main objective of the study is to assess the impact of urban growth on the microclimate of the administrative city. Temperature and relative humidity data from 1992 to 2001 were obtained from the three existing meteorological stations in Akure, the Administrative Capital of Ondo State, Nigeria, namely the Federal Ministry of Aviation, Akure Airport station (FMA), Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) and the Federal School of Agriculture (SOA). Air temperature and relative humidity measurements along primary roads and in the built up areas were obtained from seventeen stations, using sling psychrometer. The data were subsequently analysed for spatial and temporal variations. The results obtained indicated that while the maximum, average and minimum temperatures showed significant annual variations, the spatial variations among the existing meteorological stations were not significant. The city is characterized by increasing annual mean temperatures whose maximum was significantly higher than that of Ondo town another important town within the state. The annual mean temperatures ranged between 26.2C and 30.4C. Minimum and maximum temperatures varied from 12.3C to 26C and 22.5C to 39.6C, respectively while the relative humidity ranged between 27.5% and 98.2%. Urban `heat island' intensity was exhibited around central business district of the Oba market. 2007 American Institute of Physics

  4. Knowledge of nutritional and health needs of children among rural residents of Enugu north senatorial zone in Enugu State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okoye, Uzoma O; Ngwu, Christopher N; Tanyi, Perpetua L

    2015-01-01

    The article assessed knowledge of the nutritional and health needs of children among rural dwellers in Nigeria. Focus group discussions were conducted with all male and female groups in four purposively chosen rural communities in Nsukka Senatorial zone of Enugu State. These generated data on participants' knowledge on the nutritional and health needs of the children as well as their socio-demographic characteristics. All the participants were married with mean age of 41 and 36 years for males and females, respectively. The participants had six and four children on the average for male and female participants, respectively. Findings show that participants demonstrate knowledge of basic dietary needs of children; however, actual practice is lacking. Men believe women have the sole responsibility for children's nutrition. Exclusive breastfeeding is not adhered to by participants. Some reservation still exists about immunization. Sustained health education on exclusive breastfeeding and child immunization targeting both sexes is still needed. PMID:25856806

  5. Antimicrobials in animal production: usage and practices among livestock farmers in Oyo and Kaduna States of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Olufemi Ernest; Fabusoro, Eniola; Majasan, Ademola Adetokunbo; Dipeolu, Morenike Atinuke

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobials have proven to be important for sustainable livestock production by their use as growth promoters and in the control of animal infections. However, injudicious use of antimicrobials could accelerate the emergence and spread of resistant bacterial strains with attendant socioeconomic and public health issues. This work assessed antimicrobial usage in animal production with emphasis on usage and practices by livestock producers in Oyo and Kaduna States of Nigeria. Data on antimicrobial usage were collected through interviews, questionnaire and focus group discussions. Four hundred and fifty-four farmers in 11 communities within 11 Local Government Areas of Oyo and Kaduna States of Nigeria were sampled in a multi-stage sampling procedure. The study showed that antimicrobial agents were widely distributed, readily accessible and commonly used in animal production. Fluoroquinolones and other critically important antimicrobials for human medicine were widely used in animals as prophylactics. Potentially harmful antimicrobials including furazolidones and chloramphenicol already banned for use in humans and animals were freely marketed and used in livestock production. Most of the respondents believed that veterinarians should be responsible for the administration of antimicrobials to animals, but in practice, they buy and administer antimicrobials without consulting veterinary professionals. It was observed that the ready availability of antimicrobial agents promoted the use of antimicrobials in livestock production and may encourage non-adherence to hygienic principles and management laxity in farm operations. The non-involvement of veterinary professionals and laboratory investigations in disease diagnosis prior to antimicrobial use could lead to improper usage that contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacterial strains. Responsible antimicrobial stewardship and strict regulations are vital to prolonging the benefits derivable from the use of antimicrobials. PMID:26526955

  6. Managing the Recurrent Cost of University Education in Nigeria: A Case of Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oni, Abimbola Oluranti

    2013-01-01

    The education sector especially higher education in Nigeria faces financial challenges. The recurrent cost of university education constitutes about 95% of the total cost incurred by the government in Nigeria. However, the Nigerian government is unable to meet the UNESCO recommendation that 26% of national budgets should be allocated to education.

  7. Lecturers' Awareness and Utilization of Instructional Media in the State-Owned Colleges of Education, South-West Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakomogbon, Micheal Ayodele; Olanrewaju, Olatayo Solomon; Soetan, Aderonke Kofo

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the awareness and utilization of instructional media (IM) based on gender of the lecturers of tertiary institutions in Nigeria. It was a descriptive type of survey research. All lecturers of Colleges of Education in Southwest geo-political zone of Nigeria formed the population. Some 621 lecturers were randomly selected.…

  8. Assessment of Mobile Health Nursing Intervention Knowledge among Community Health Nurses in Oyo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Titilayo, Odetola D; Okanlawon, FA

    2014-01-01

    Maternal mortality is high in Nigeria especially in rural areas due to knowledge deficit about expected care and labour process, socio-cultural belief, health care workers’ attitude, physical and financial barriers to quality health care access. Mobile health (m-health) technology which is the use of mobile telecommunication devices in health care delivery reduces costs, improves care access, removes time and distance barriers and facilitates patient-provider communications needed to make appropriate health decisions. Previous studies empowering nurses with m-health knowledge resulted in improved uptake of health care services. There exists a literature dearth about knowledge and perception of nurses in Nigeria. This study became expedient to empower nurses working at the grassroots with the knowledge of m-health and assess the impact of educational training on their perception of its effectiveness. This quasi-experimental study carried out in four randomly selected LGAs across Oyo South Senatorial district involved participants at experimental (20 nurses) and control levels (27 nurses). A validated 25-item questionnaire explored nurses’ perception, knowledge and perceived effectiveness of m-health in improving uptake of maternal health services in Nigeria among both groups before intervention. Intervention group nurses had a training equipping them with knowledge of m-health nursing intervention (MNHI) for a period of one week. Their perception, knowledge and perceived effectiveness were re-assessed at three-months and six-months after MHNI. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and repeated measures ANOVA at 5% significance level. In the EG, knowledge score significantly increased from 21.9±4.5 at baseline to 23.6±4.6 and 23.2±5.6 at three-month and six-month respectively while there was no significant difference in knowledge score among CG over the study period. A very significant difference was shown in the knowledge and perception of mobile health and its effectiveness at P1 (p= 0.012 and 0.017) but this significance faded away 6 months after (p= 0.312 and 0.598) respectively. The study was effective as it improved the knowledge and perceived effectiveness of m-health among PHC nurses. However, the improvement dwindled after 6 months. Thus, similar training and retraining should be conducted periodically to update nurses’ knowledge and improve clients’ access to quality health information, education and therapeutic communication. PMID:26688606

  9. Prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with anaemia in pregnancy in a primary health centre in Rivers State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dienye, Paul O.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Anaemia, though a common problem in Nigeria, has not been adequately studied amongst pregnant women in primary health care facilities. Objective This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of anaemia and socio-demographic factors associated with anaemia in pregnancy in a primary health centre in Rivers State, Nigeria. Methodology This is a cross-sectional study carried out in a primary health centre. Association between variables was analysed using the Chi-square test. Results Two hundred and twenty-seven pregnant women whose ages ranged from 16 to 40 years with a mean age of 26.8 4.3 years were recruited for the study. The haemoglobin concentration ranged from 6 g/dL 15 g/dL with a mean of 10.10 1.27g/dL. A total of 142 (62.6%) participants were anaemic. Anaemia was observed to be least prevalent in women within the extremes of reproductive age (? 20 years and 3640 years). There was no statistically significant association between age, educational level and marital status (p > 0.05). The association of anaemia with social class was statistically significant (p = 0.000). Severe anaemia was not a common finding amongst the patients but it was significantly associated with educational status (p = 0.02) and socio-economic status (p = 0.03). Conclusion The prevalence of anaemia amongst the pregnant participants in the primary health centre was high. Out of all the socio-demographic characteristics, only socio-economic status was significantly associated with anaemia. It is recommended that the socio-economic status of women should be enhanced in line with the Millennium Development Goals to prevent anaemia and to enhance pregnancy outcomes.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection in slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir, Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okeke, Lilian Akudo; Cadmus, Simeon; Okeke, Ikenna Osemeka; Muhammad, Maryam; Awoloh, Oluchi; Dairo, David; Waziri, Endie Ndadilnasiya; Olayinka, Adebola; Nguku, Patrick Mboyo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is widespread yet poorly controlled in Nigeria hence posing a public health threat. This study determined the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and factors associated with MTC among slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir in Plateau State, Nigeria. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in which we collected 168 lung samples systematically from 485 slaughtered cattle from May-June, 2012, and tested for acid fact bacilli (AFB) using Ziehl-Neelsen test and a duplex polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) for MTC detection. Data on cattle socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors for zoonotic BTB infection was obtained and analyzed using Epi info version 3.5.3 to determine frequency, proportions, and prevalence odds ratios. Multiple logistic regression was done at 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Results The mean age of the cattle was 5.6 1.3 years and (108) 64.3% were females. Majority were indigenous White Fulani breed of cattle (58.5%) and about half (54.8%) were slightly emaciated. Prevalence of MTB complex was 21.4% by AFB test and 16.7% by duplex PCR. Of 33 (19.6%) lungs with lesions, 27 (81.8%) were positive for AFB; while of 135 (80.4%) lungs without lesions, 9 (6.7%) were positive for AFB. Lungs with lesions were 52 times more likely to test positive to AFB test compared to tissues without lesions (AOR=52.3; 95% CI: 16.4-191.8) Conclusion The presence of MTC in cattle signifies its potential risk to public health. Presence of lesions on lungs is a reliable indicator of MTC infection that meat inspectors should look out for. PMID:25328626

  11. Preventive and social cost implications of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak on selected organizations in Lagos state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olugasa, Babasola Oluseyi; Oshinowo, Oluwafunmilola Yemisi; Odigie, Eugene Amienwanlen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As Ebola virus disease (EVD) continues to pose public health challenge in West Africa, with attending fears and socio-economic implications in the current epidemic challenges. It is compelling to estimate the social and preventive costs of EVD containment in a Nigerian city. Hence, this study was to determine the social and preventive cost implications of EVD among selected public institutions in Lagos, Nigeria, from July to December, 2014. Methods Questionnaires and key-informants interview were administered to respondents and administrators of selected hospitals, hotels and schools in Eti-Osa Local Government Area of Lagos State. Knowledge of disease transmission, mortality and protocols for prevention, including cost of specific preventive measures adopted against EVD were elicited from respondents. Descriptive statistics and categorical analysis were used to summarize and estimate social and preventive costs incurred by respective institutions. Results An estimated five million, nineteen thousand, three hundred and seventy-nine Naira and eighty kobo (N5,019,379.80) only was observed as direct and social cost implication of EVD prevention. This amount translated into a conservative estimate of one billion, twenty-seven million, ninety-four thousand, seven hundred and fifty-six Naira (N1,027,094,756.10) for a total of four thousand schools, two hundred and fifty-three hospitals and one thousand, four hundred and fifty one hotels in Lagos during the period (July 20-November 20, 2014). Conclusion The high cost of prevention of EVD within the short time-frame indicated high importance attached to a preventive policy against highly pathogenic zoonotic disease in Nigeria. PMID:26740848

  12. The Insecticide Susceptibility Status of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Farm and Nonfarm Sites of Lagos State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ayorinde, A.; Oboh, B.; Oduola, A.; Otubanjo, O.

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria is one of the malaria-endemic countries. In Lagos State, Nigeria, various malaria vector control programs including the use of chemical insecticides are currently being implemented. This study was designed to provide information on the susceptibility status of some nontargeted vectors such as Aedes aegypti. Adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from two farm sites and a nonfarm site were exposed to World Health Organization test papers impregnated with Deltamethrin (0.05%), Permethrin (0.75%), and DDT (4%) insecticides. The Knockdown time (KdT50 and KdT95) and percentage mortality after 24 h post exposure were determined. In all the exposed mosquito populations to permethrin, mortality rate > 98% (susceptibility) was recorded, whereas mortality rates < 95.8% (resistance) and > 98% (susceptibility) to deltamethrin were observed in the nonfarm site and farm sites mosquito populations, respectively. All the mosquito populations were resistant to DDT in 2 yr. The KdT50 of the populations to DDT increased (60.2–69.6) in one of the farm sites and the nonfarm site (68.9–199.96), while a decrease (243–63.4) in another farm site in 2 yr. Significant difference (P < 0.05) in KdT50 was recorded between the farm and nonfarm sites Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in the second year after exposure to deltamethrin and DDT. An increase in KdT95 after exposure to deltamethrin in the first year was recorded. Higher KdT values and lower mortality rates in Ae. aegypti populations in the nonfarm sites are indications there are existing factors selecting for insecticide resistance outside agricultural use of insecticides. PMID:26106087

  13. The Insecticide Susceptibility Status of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Farm and Nonfarm Sites of Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ayorinde, A; Oboh, B; Oduola, A; Otubanjo, O

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria is one of the malaria-endemic countries. In Lagos State, Nigeria, various malaria vector control programs including the use of chemical insecticides are currently being implemented. This study was designed to provide information on the susceptibility status of some nontargeted vectors such as Aedes aegypti. Adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from two farm sites and a nonfarm site were exposed to World Health Organization test papers impregnated with Deltamethrin (0.05%), Permethrin (0.75%), and DDT (4%) insecticides. The Knockdown time (KdT50 and KdT95) and percentage mortality after 24 h post exposure were determined. In all the exposed mosquito populations to permethrin, mortality rate?> 98% (susceptibility) was recorded, whereas mortality rates ?98% (susceptibility) to deltamethrin were observed in the nonfarm site and farm sites mosquito populations, respectively. All the mosquito populations were resistant to DDT in 2 yr. The KdT50 of the populations to DDT increased (60.2-69.6) in one of the farm sites and the nonfarm site (68.9-199.96), while a decrease (243-63.4) in another farm site in 2 yr. Significant difference (P?

  14. The socio-cultural context of health behaviour among Esan communities, Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omorodion, F I

    1993-10-01

    This paper reports on health beliefs and their influence on treatment decisions and behaviour among the Esan people of mid-west Nigeria. The sources for the study are my own experience of growing up in Esan society, anthropological field work, and focus groups. The research revealed a transitional society where both traditional and modern medicine are employed and where the choice between them is determined by belief systems which are themselves in the process of change, as well as by distance and costs. The traditional health-belief system was one which placed most responsibility and blame upon women, and a system of social control over the adult female population. Changing health beliefs are less the result of the introduction of a new health philosophy than of the retreat, under the impact of Christianity, of traditional religion which embodied the older health philosophy. PMID:10146569

  15. Local poultry biosecurity risks to highly pathogenic avian influenza in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Paul, Abdu A; Assam, Assam; Ndang, Tabe-Ntui L

    2013-01-01

    The study appraised local poultry biosecurity risks to highly pathogenic avian influenza by assessing farmers' knowledge, beliefs and poultry practices using a standard questionnaire. Farmers' knowledge on transmission and prevention was high but low on disease recognition. Radio was ineffective at informing Islamic educated farmers. Extensive knowledge on transmission and protection did not result in behavioural change as farmers engaged in risky practices of selling, eating or medicating infected poultry and not reporting poultry death. Islamic educated farmers do not believe highly pathogenic avian influenza is a serious and preventable disease. Women are more likely to self medicate when experiencing influenza-like illness. Audio-visual aids would improve avian influenza recognition while involvement of community leaders would enhance disease reporting. Outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in local poultry in Nigeria would follow a similar pattern in Southeast Asia if the risk perception among farmers is not urgently articulated. PMID:22869337

  16. Health and environmental implications of rural female entrepreneurship practices in osun state Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akinbami, Catherine A O; Momodu, Abiodun S

    2013-09-01

    In rural Nigeria, food processing is mostly engaged in by women and children. Most of these processes are done using outdated technologies that make use of traditional woodstoves. This article presents the health and environmental implications of the rural female entrepreneurs involved in food processing and proffer means of bettering the lot of these women to handle these hazards. A partially structured questionnaire and focus group discussion was used to capture data from respondents. The study revealed that about 73% of women involved in direct production of garri and palm oil processing could be at risk of early death or disability-adjusted life years from the mentioned diseases. The article concludes that the rural female entrepreneur needs to be better positioned to handle these hazards, for her health, that of her children, as well as for the environment. PMID:23341202

  17. Analysis of women's reproductive health situation in Bida Emirate of Niger State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Yahaya, Mohammed Kuta

    2002-04-01

    This study examined the reproductive health situation in Bida Emirate of Nigeria, with a view to advancing frontiers in communication support for reproductive health education. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to randomly select 1,200 women respondents that participated in the study. Data was obtained on reproductive health and rights, reproductive health history, and personal and social characteristics of respondents. Data analyses showed that majority (68.1%) of respondents were aware of existing methods of birth control, while 31.9% were not. On the use of methods, abstinence, breastfeeding and use of condoms recorded 42.8%, 22% and 40.3% respectively. Respondents rarely used traditional methods of birth control. Forty five per cent blamed their husbands for not using family planning methods. Surprisingly, 84.8% of respondents had no idea of what HIV/AIDS is all about; only 13% and 3.1% could describe gonorrhoea and AIDS respectively. Results further revealed that there is no significant relationship between personal and social characteristics of respondents (religion, marital status and position, etc) and their attitude towards family planning. However, rural and urban women significantly differed in their health status (t = 0.2729; p < 0.001). Similar trend was observed for attitude towards family decision-making (t = 40; p < 0.001), sexuality and STD prevention (t = 90; p < 0.001), and maternity/childcare (t = 0.001; p < 0.001). In conclusion, the study reveals that there is a wide gap between social expectations of women's reproductive health and cultural realities in Nupeland of Nigeria. The study thus recommends, among others, the need for sustainable safe motherhood campaign in culture bound societies. PMID:12476729

  18. Examining geographic and socio-economic differences in outpatient and inpatient consumer expenditures for treating HIV/AIDS in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onwujekwe, Obinna E; Ibe, Ogochukwu; Torpey, Kwasi; Dada, Stephanie; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Sanwo, Olusola

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The expenditures on treatment of HIV/AIDS to households were examined to quantify the magnitude of the economic burden of HIV/AIDS to different population groups in Nigeria. The information will also provide a basis for increased action towards a reduction of the economic burden on many households when accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods A household survey was administered in three states, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom and Anambra, from the South-East, North-East and South-South zones of Nigeria, respectively. A pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from a minimum sample of 1200 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Data were collected on the medical and non-medical expenditures that patients incurred to treat HIV/AIDS for their last treatment episode within three months of the interview date. The expenditures were for outpatient visits (OPV) and inpatient stays (IPS). The incidence of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) on ART treatment services was computed for OPV and IPS. Data were disaggregated by socio-economic status (SES) and geographic location of the households. Results The average OPV expenditures incurred by patients per OPV for HIV/AIDS treatment was US$6.1 with variations across SES and urban-rural residence. More than 95% of the surveyed households spent money on transportation to a treatment facility and over 70% spent money on food for OPV. For medical expenditures, the urbanites paid more than rural dwellers. Many patients incurred CHE during outpatient and inpatient visits. Compared to urban dwellers, rural dwellers incurred more CHE for outpatient (p=0.02) and inpatient visits (p=0.002). Conclusions Treatment expenditures were quite high, inequitable and catastrophic in some instances, hence further jeopardizing the welfare of the households and the PLHIV. Strategically locating fully functional treatment centres to make them more accessible to PLHIV will largely reduce expenditures for travel and the need for food during visits. Additionally, financial risk-protection mechanisms such as treatment vouchers, reimbursement and health insurance that will significantly reduce the expenditures borne by PLHIV and their households in seeking ART should be implemented. PMID:26838093

  19. Utilisation of Pangolin (Manis sps) in traditional Yorubic medicine in Ijebu province, Ogun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Concern about the use of endangered and threatened species in traditional medicine escalated as populations of many species plummeted because of poaching for the medicinal trade. Nigeria is known for a long and valued tradition of using wild animals and plants for medicinal purposes. Despite this, studies on medicinal animals are still scarce when compared to those focusing on medicinal plants. Utilisation of wild animals in traditional Yorubic medical practices was indiscriminate as it involved threatened species. By touting the medicinal properties of these species, traditional medicine fuel continuing demand, thereby subjecting such species to further threats. This paper examined the use and commercialisation of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes amongst the Ijebus, South-western Nigeria, and the implications of this utilisation for the conservation of this species. Methods Traditional Yorubic medical practitioners (tymps) (16) and dealers in traditional medicinal ingredients (56) in public markets in Ijebu province, Nigeria, were interviewed using open-ended questionnaires. The dynamic stock movement of pangolins in the stalls of dealers was also monitored to determine quantity of pangolins sold into the traditional Yorubic medicinal practices. Specific conditions treated and the parts required were also documented. Results A total of 178 whole pangolin carcasses were sold into traditional medical practices. Above 55% of respondents had just primary education, over 90% of respondents were not aware of either the conservation status of this species or the existence of any legal machinery regulating its trade and utilisation, while 14% admitted to giving contracts to hunters for deliberate search for this animal when needed. More than 98% of respondents have no other means of livelihood. The trade was female dominated while the healing practice had more males. Pangolins were used in various preparations to treat a total of 42 conditions. These include infertility, gastro-intestinal disorders, safe parturition, stomach ulcers, rheumatism and fibroid. Traditional Yorubic medicine also accommodated some situations that are out of the range of conventional medicine like boosting sales, conferring invisibility, removing bad luck, appeasing/wading off witches cum evil forces and money rituals. Some of these situations specifically require juvenile, or even pregnant female animals. Conclusion Traditional Yorubic medical practices eats deep into the reproductive base of the species, presently listed in Appendix II of CITES and Schedule I of the Nigerian Decree 11 (1985), both of which recommended strict control in sales and utilisation of this species. Its numerous medicinal values, folk culture and financial benefits of these activities are the main factors promoting the commercialisation and use of this species. Pharmacological studies on the various preparations are required to identify the bioactive compounds in them. There is a need for improved and urgent measures to conserve populations of this species in-situ. Massive education and enlightenment is urgently needed for the populace to have the necessary awareness and orientation about the conservation of this species. PMID:19961597

  20. Poor Availability of Skilled Birth Attendants in Nigeria: A Case Study of Enugu State Primary Health Care System

    PubMed Central

    Nkwo, Peter O; Lawani, Lucky O; Ubesie, Agozie C; Onodugo, Vincent A; Obu, Herbert A; Chinawa, Josephat M

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Government of Enugu State plans to offer free perinatal services at the primary health care (PHC) centers in order to improve perinatal outcomes in the state, but it was not clear whether there are skilled birth attendants (SBAs) at the PHC level to implement the program. Aims: To determine whether there are sufficient numbers of SBAs in the public PHC system in Enugu State of Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional survey involved enumeration of health workers who worked at each public PHC facility in Enugu State and included verification of the qualifications and trainings of each health worker. Data analysis was performed with the help of Stata statistical package version 13 and results were presented in tables and as simple proportions. Results: There were 55 nurses and no midwife or doctor in the 152 PHC clinics studied. This number represents 0.36 nurses per health facility or about 9% (i.e., 55/608) of a minimum of 608 SBAs required for 24-h perinatal services at the 152 PHC clinics. There were 1233 junior community health extension worker/community health extension workers (JCHEW/CHEWs), averaging 8.1 JCHEW/CHEWs per PHC clinic. Conclusions: Enugu State has an acute shortage of SBAs. We recommend employment of qualified SBAs and in-service training of the JCHEW/CHEW and nurses to upgrade their midwifery skills. Incorporation of competency-based midwifery training into the pre-service training curricula of nurses and JCHEW/CHEW would provide a more sustainable supply of SBAs in Enugu state. PMID:25745571

  1. Mass immunization with inactivated polio vaccine in conflict zones - Experience from Borno and Yobe States, North-Eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    M Shuaibu, Faisal; Birukila, Gerida; Usman, Samuel; Mohammed, Ado; Galway, Michael; Corkum, Melissa; Damisa, Eunice; Mkanda, Pascal; Mahoney, Frank; Wa Nganda, Gatei; Vertefeuille, John; Chavez, Anna; Meleh, Sule; Banda, Richard; Some, Almai; Mshelia, Hyelni; Umar, Al-Umra; Enemaku, Ogu; Etsano, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    The use of Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) in routine immunization to replace Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) is crucial in eradicating polio. In June 2014, Nigeria launched an IPV campaign in the conflict-affected states of Borno and Yobe, the largest ever implemented in Africa. We present the initiatives and lessons learned. The 8-day event involved two parallel campaigns. OPV target age was 0-59 months, while IPV targeted all children aged 14 weeks to 59 months. The Borno state primary health care agency set up temporary health camps for the exercise and treated minor ailments for all. The target population for the OPV campaign was 685 674 children in Borno and 113 774 in Yobe. The IPV target population for Borno was 608 964 and for Yobe 111 570. OPV coverage was 105.1 per cent for Borno and 103.3 per cent for Yobe. IPV coverage was 102.9 per cent for Borno and 99.1 per cent for Yobe. (Where we describe coverage as greater than 100 per cent, this reflects original underestimates of the target populations.) A successful campaign and IPV immunization is viable in conflict areas. PMID:26538455

  2. A two-year study of organised family planning services in a developing country: experiences in Bendel State of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogbeide, D O; Edebiri, A A

    1984-06-01

    The characteristics of new acceptors at the family planning clinics operated by the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria (PPFN), in the Bendel State of Nigeria, were analyzed in reference to age at 1st clinic attendance, number of living children, and educational achievement. The PPFN operates several clinics in Benin City and provides services throughout the state via mobile social workers. Data for the study was obtained from the clinics' records for 1131 new acceptors in 1975 and for 2144 new acceptors in 1979. 1975 marked the time when family planning services were made widely available, and 1979 was the last year for which information was available. Among new acceptors in 1975, 23.6% were either uneducated or had less than 6 years of education, 44.7% had 6-9 years of education, 22.7% had secondary education, and 8.5% were currently enrolled as secondary students. Respective figures for the 1979 acceptors were 21.2%, 60.6%, 14.5%, and 3.3%. THe average number of children decreased as education levels increased. The respective average number of children for the 1975 and 1979 acceptors for the first 3 educational catagories noted above were 6.42 and 6.63, 3.26 and 3.98, and 29.3 and 1.73. The variations in the average number of children were, to a large degree, a function of the age at 1st clinic attendance. Women with less education tended to present at the clinics at a later age than the more educated acceptors. Among the noneducated or the least educated women, the age category with the highest percentage of new acceptors was the 35-39 year old group (1975) and the 40-44 year old group (1979). Among women with 6-9 years of schooling, the age category with the highest percentage was the 25-29 year old group (1975 and 1979). Among women with more education, the age category with the highest representation of new acceptors was the 20-24 year old group (1975 and 1979). The mean number of children for all acceptors aged 40-45 years was 7.23 in 1975 and 7.33 in 1979. The tendency for less educated women to present at the clinic at later ages than the more educated women may indicate that less educated women have less exposure to health education. The findings suggest that the government should provide broader support for family planning and ensure that less educated women receive sufficient family planning information. PMID:6545188

  3. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and its determinants among persons living with HIV/AIDS in Bayelsa state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Suleiman, Ismail A.; Momo, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background: A high level of adherence is required to achieve the desired outcomes of antiretroviral therapy. There is paucity of information about adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy in Bayelsa State of southern Nigeria. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the level of adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy among the patients, evaluate the improvement in their immune status and identify reasons for sub-optimal adherence to therapy. Methods: The cross-sectional study involved administration of an adapted and pretested questionnaire to 601 consented patients attending the two tertiary health institutions in Bayesla State, Nigeria: The Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa and the Niger-Delta University Teaching Hospital Okolobiri. The tool was divided into various sections such as socio-demographic data, HIV knowledge and adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy. Information on the patient’s CD4+ T cells count was retrieved from their medical records. Adherence was assessed by asking patients to recall their intake of prescribed doses in the last fourteen days and subjects who had 95-100% of the prescribed antiretroviral drugs were considered adherent. Results: Three hundred and forty eight (57.9%) of the subjects were females and 253 (42.1%) were males. The majority of them, 557 (92.7%) have good knowledge of HIV and combined anti-retroviral therapy with a score of 70.0% and above. A larger proportion of the respondents, 441 (73.4%), had ≥95% adherence. Some of the most important reasons giving for missing doses include, “simply forgot” 147 (24.5%), and “wanted to avoid the side-effects of drugs” 33(5.5%). There were remarkable improvements in the immune status of the subjects with an increment in the proportion of the subjects with CD4+ T cells count of greater than 350 cells/mm3 from 33 (5.5%) at therapy initiation to 338 (56.3%) at study period (p<0.0001). Conclusion: The adherence level of 73.4% was low which calls for intervention and improvement. The combined antiretroviral therapy has significantly improved the immune status of the majority of patients which must be sustained. “Simply forgot” was the most important reason for missing doses. PMID:27011771

  4. Knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes to female genital mutilation (FGM) in Shao community of Kwara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Amusan, O A; Asekun-Olarinmoye, E O

    To determine the level of knowledge, belief, and assess the attitude to female genital mutilation (FGM) and its complications in Shao community, Nigeria, a cross-sectional descriptive study with a health education intervention was used. A majority of respondents (99.5%) understood female circumcision to mean cutting off parts of the female genitals. There was a high level of knowledge regarding most of the complications of FGM as more than 50% of respondents knew at least four complications of FGM. Awareness of the global anti-FGM campaign was also high (78.8%). The most common reasons proffered for the practice of FGM were based on tradition or religion. Paternal grandfathers (50.0%) and fathers (21.0%) were cited as decision makers in the family most often responsible for requesting FGM. Post-intervention results showed that there was a statistically significant increase in the proportion of respondents who know more complications of FGM and who have no intention of circumcising future female children. Despite a high level of knowledge regarding the complications of FGM and a high level of awareness of the global campaign against it, there still exists a high prevalence of practice of FGM in this community. FGM remains a pressing human rights and public health issue. It is our recommendation that this health education intervention strategy be replicated nationwide especially using mass media. PMID:18573755

  5. Toxicological study of the Anam River in Otuocha, Anambra State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Igwilo, Innocent O; Afonne, Onyenmechi Johnson; Maduabuchi, Ugwuona John-Moses; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2006-01-01

    The authors studied the quality of water and soil samples from the Anam River in Nigeria. Using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, they analyzed levels of lead, cadmium, copper, and nickel. They also analyzed sulfates, nitrates, biological oxygen demand, total hardness, total dissolved solids, pH values, electrical conductivity, chloride, and salinity. The ranges of detected metals were 0.002-0.005 mg/L for cadmium, 0.008-0.016 mg/L for lead, and 0.580-1.345 mg/L for copper. In the soil samples, the authors detected cadmium (0.07-3.45 ppm), copper (4.38-13.54 ppm), lead (0.59-7.34 ppm), and nickel (0.36-5.64 ppm). The mean values of the chemical parameters were 11.34 +/- 1.20 mg/L for total hardness, 4.43 +/- 1.54 mg/L for biological oxygen demand, 20.00 +/- 0.00 mg/L for total dissolved solids, and 0.22 +/- 0.05 mg/L for nitrates. Chloride, salinity, electrical conductivity, and pH values were 8.00 +/- 1.73 mg/L, 14.44 +/- 3.13 mg/L, 19.33 +/- 0.67 ps cm-L, and 7.09 +/- 0.05, respectively. The World Health Organization guidelines for the parameters in soil were exceeded. PMID:17891888

  6. Assessment of Tannery Industrial Effluents from Kano Metropolis, Kano State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akan, J. C.; Moses, E. A.; Ogugbuaja, V. O.; Abah, J.

    The aim and objective of the study was to determined pollutant levels in tannery industrial effluent from kano metropolis, Nigeria. Effluents from five tannery industries were characterized and the major sources of industrial pollution determined. Levels of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, Pb and Cr) were determined using Atomic absorption Spectrophotomeric method, while pH, Eh, DO, TDS, Temperature, sulphate, nitrate and phosphate were also determined using standard procedure. The results of the study showed that effluent quality discharged between tanneries differed significantly. Effluent chromium concentrations varied between 1.02`0.13 to 1.56`0.06 mg LG1, which are above WHO and FEPA limit of 1.0 mg LG1. Hafawa Enterprise Tannery, Unique Leather Finishing had significantly high lead concentrations, while Great Northern Tannery could be a potential source of Iron contamination in this area. Mean levels of Zn for Tannorth Tannery Limited were above maximum permissible limits set by FEPA and WHO. Mean levels of sulphate, nitrate and dissolved Oxygen were also above maximum permissible limits for the entire tanneries studied. Mean values of pH total dissolved solid, phosphate, temperature, Cu, Co, Mn and Redox potential generally were below maximum and minimum permissible limits for effluent discharged into rivers. The monthly variations in the entire tannery fell within the range set up by FEPA and WHO for the discharged of tannery effluent into river. The study serves to generate relevant baseline information for Kano industrial estate.

  7. An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onyeneho, Sylvester N.; Hedberg, Craig W.

    2013-01-01

    One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they clean and sanitize food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens (r = 0.999), cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge (r = 0.992), and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge (r = 0.878). The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri. PMID:23917815

  8. Tobacco related knowledge and support for smoke-free policies among community pharmacists in Lagos state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Poluyi, Edward O.; Odukoya, Oluwakemi O.; Aina, Bolajoko; Faseru, Babalola

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are no safe levels of exposure to second hand smoke and smoke-free policies are effective in reducing the burden of tobacco-related diseases and death. Pharmacists, as a unique group of health professionals, might be able to play a role in the promotion of smoke-free policies. Objective: To determine the tobacco-related knowledge of community pharmacists and assess their support for smoke-free policies in Lagos state, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study design using both quantitative and qualitative methods was employed. Two hundred and twelve randomly selected community pharmacists were surveyed using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. In addition, one focus group discussion was conducted with ten members of the Lagos state branch of the Association of Community Pharmacists of Nigeria. Results: The quantitative survey revealed that the majority (72.1%) of the respondents were aged between 20 and 40 years, predominantly male (60.8%), Yoruba (50.2%) or Igbo (40.3%) ethnicity and had been practicing pharmacy for ten years or less (72.2%). A majority (90.1%) of respondents were aware that tobacco is harmful to health. Slightly less (75.8%) were aware that second hand smoke is harmful to health. Among the listed diseases, pharmacists responded that lung (84.4%) and esophageal (68.9%) cancers were the most common diseases associated with tobacco use. Less than half of those surveyed associated tobacco use with heart disease (46.9%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (27.8%), bladder cancer (47.2%), peripheral vascular disease (35.8%) and sudden death (31.1%). Only 51.9% had heard of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). A little over half of the respondents (53.8%) were aware of any law in Nigeria controlling tobacco use. The majority of respondents supported a ban on smoking in homes (83.5%), in public places (79.2%), and in restaurants, nightclubs and bars (73.6%). For every additional client attended to daily, knowledge scores increased by 0.022 points. Current smokers were 1.3 times less likely to support smoke-free policies compared with non-smokers. The findings emanating from the focus group discussion reinforced the fact that the pharmacists were in support of smoke-free policies particularly in homes and public places. It also demonstrated that most of them were aware of the health risks associated with tobacco use and second hand smoke however some misconceptions seemed to exist. Conclusion: The pharmacists surveyed expressed support of smoke-free policies and most of them were aware of the health risks associated with tobacco use. However, awareness of WHO FCTC and country-level tobacco legislation was low. Current smokers were less likely to support smoke-free policies. Community pharmacists should therefore be considered worth engaging for the promotion of smoke-free policies. Efforts should also be made to educate pharmacists about country level smoke-free laws. PMID:25883686

  9. Relative Technical Efficiency of Cassava Farmers in the Three Agro-Ecological Zones of Edo State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhabor, P. O.; Emokaro, C. O.

    This study employed the use of the Stochastic Frontier Production Function in the comparative economic analysis of the relative technical efficiency of cassava farmers in the three agro-ecological zones of Edo State. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 156 cassava farmers from the three agro-ecological zones of the State and the differences in the results obtained were discussed. The empirical estimates showed individual technical efficiency values that ranged from 23 to 95%, 43 to 97% and 52 to 98% with a mean of 72, 83 and 91%, for Edo South, Edo North and Edo Central agro-ecological zones, respectively. This shows that systemic differences in relative technical efficiency levels exist between the three zones and these differences were shown to be related to particular farmer`s characteristics. Non-physical factors that served as determinants of technical inefficiency in the three zones were, farmers level of education, age, farming experience and variety of planting materials used. Gender and family size were however, not found to be significant determinants of the technical inefficiency of cassava farmers in the State. Apart from this estimates serving as a guide to potential investors in the cassava industry in the State, the relative variations in technical efficiency is also an indication of the gaps that exist in the current production technologies employed by cassava farmers in the three agro-ecological zones of the State. The gaps should serve as intervention points for government and non-governmental agencies as well as other stakeholders in the emerging cassava industry in Nigeria.

  10. Correlates of the Quality of life of Adolescents in families affected by HIV/AIDS in Benue State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akpa, Onoja Matthew; Bamgboye, Elijah Afolabi

    2015-01-01

    It was estimated that over 260,000 children are living with HIV/AIDS while close to 2 million are directly or indirectly affected by the disease in Nigeria. Improvements in treatments for infected children have been documented in the literature but there is a gross knowledge gap on the impact of HIV/AIDS on the quality of life and psychosocial functioning (PSF) of affected children in Nigeria. We comparatively explored the association of quality of life with PSF and other factors among adolescents in families affected by HIV/AIDS (FAHA) and in families not affected by HIV/AIDS (FNAHA). Data was extracted for 960 adolescents from a State wide cross-sectional study in which participants were selected through multistage sampling techniques. Data was collected using questionnaires consisting of demographic information, adapted WHO-QOL BREF and the Strength & Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ). The quality of life scores were categorized into Poor, Moderate and High based on the amount of standard deviation away from the mean while the SDQ scores were categorized into normal, borderline and abnormal based on the SDQ scoring systems. Chi-square test and independent t-test were used for bivariate analyses while logistic regression was used for multivariate analyses at 5% level of significance. Proportion with poor quality of life (27.0%) was significantly higher among adolescents in FAHA than in FNAHA (p=0.0001). Adolescents in FAHA (OR:2.32; 95%CI:1.67-4.09) were twice more likely to have poor quality of life than those in FNAHA. In FAHA, adolescents on the borderline of PSF (OR:2.19; 95%CI:1.23-3.89) were twice more likely to have poor quality of life than those with normal PSF. Adolescents in FAHA have poorer quality of life than those in FNAHA and also face additional burdens of psychosocial dysfunctions. Interventions focusing on functional social support and economic empowerment will benefit adolescents in FAHA in the studied location. PMID:26587049

  11. Salmonella and Escherichia coli contamination of poultry meat from a processing plant and retail markets in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeyanju, Gladys Taiwo; Ishola, Olayinka

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella spp and Escherichia coli are the two most important food-borne pathogens of public health interest incriminated in poultry meat worldwide. This study is to access their levels in frozen poultry meat obtained in Ibadan, Oyo State and compare those obtained from a commercial Nigerian-registered poultry company having a broiler-processing plant, Sayed Farms Ltd(R), with that obtained from retail stores. These retail stores source their products as illegal imports from neighboring Benin Republic or Togo because of a ban imposed by Government policy in Nigeria since July 2002 (USDA, GAIN report #NI2025:1-6, 2002). Microbiological Standards and Guidelines by USDA (National Agricultural library) (USDA 2011) and NCCLS guidelines (from Global Salm-Surv, 2003) were used during the research work. The study was approved by the Ethical Research Review Board (ERRB, Research Management Office 2011), University of Ibadan, Nigeria. A total of one hundred and fifty-two (152) frozen poultry meat samples comprising ninety-nine retail poultry (53 chicken and 46 turkey) and 53 chicken from the processing plant were accessed. ISO Standards catalogue 07.100.30 (2011) was used in accessing the levels of Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae counts and Aerobic plate count. ISO 6579: 2002 was used for Salmonella isolation and ISO-16654:2001 for Escherichia coli isolation. There was a higher level of Aerobic plate counts and Enterobacteriaceae counts in frozen retail poultry meat than from the processing plant. Salmonella contamination from the ninety-nine poultry samples (53 chicken and 46 turkey) obtained from retail markets was at 33% [chicken 32.1% (17/53) and turkey 34.8% (16/46)] while Escherichia coli at 43.4% [chicken 47.2% (25/53) and turkey 39.1% (18/46)]. From the processing plant, twelve (12) Salmonella isolates were obtained and prevalence rate calculated as 22.6% while three (3) Escherichia coli isolates at 5.7% was obtained. Antibiotic sensitivity for isolates using eight different Gram-negative antibiotics showed different resistance patterns. Nitrofurantion and augmentin showed a decrease in their sensitivity to isolates than they normally should. Salmonella enterica spp. showed 93% resistance to tetracycline and 100% resistance to augmentin and amoxicillin, while Escherichia coli showed 100% resistance to augmentin and amoxicillin. PMID:25674440

  12. Study of Landcover Change in Yelwa-Heipang Area of Plateau State, North-Central Nigeria: A Geoinformatics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunmola, J. K.; Gajere, E. N.; Jeb, D. N.; Agene, I. J.

    2014-11-01

    This study is a research programme carried out to detect the change in land use/land cover of Yelwa-Heipang area of Plateau State, North Central Nigeria. It lies within the South-Eastern part of the Jos-Plateau. It is about 40 km South of Jos city. It is located between latitude 935'16.65" N, longitude 852'29.91" E and Latitude 938'38.92" N, longitude 857'03.87" E (Naraguta topomap, sheet 168S.E). Two sets of Landsat images of 1975, 1986 and NigeriaSat-X image of 2012 were subjected to various image processing techniques and a supervised classification was carried out on the various images using ILWIS (Integrated land and water information system) software. The classification scheme used are bare-surface, built-up, farmland and vegetation. A follow up field work was carried out to confirm the results of the classification. The results were subjected to various statistical analyses and it shows natural vegetated area coverage increased from 5.80 sqkm in 1975 to 18.47 sqkm in 1986 and later reduced to 16.85 sqkm in 2012. Non-vegetated area which comprised built-up area, farmlands and bare surface, decreased from 42.2 sqkm in 1975 to 33.82 sqkm in 1986, then to 35.86 sqkm in 2012.The rate of change of natural vegetation between 1975 and 1986 was 1.152 sqkm per annum, while that of 1986 and 2012 was 0.108 sqkm per annum. Loss of naturally vegetated area in Yelwa-Heipang Barkin-Ladi is mainly as a result of urban growth and expansion, farming and gully erosion. Another important issue in the study area is the problem of soil erosion. In the past mining activity had led to accelerated gully erosion which has stripped substantial areas of lands of their vegetations. This has led to the formation of bare surface. Land cover of the study area during the period between 1975 and 2012 changed from a forested area to other land uses as a result of increase in population, demand for land for agricultural purposes and increase in the demand for firewood.

  13. Exploring Consumer Perceptions and Economic Burden of Onchocerciasis on Households in Enugu State, South-East Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ibe, Ogochukwu; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Ajuba, Miriam; Okonkwo, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Onchocerciasis or river blindness constitutes a major burden to households especially in resource-poor settings, causing a significant reduction in household productivity. There has been renewed interest from policy makers to reduce the burden of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) such as onchocerciasis on individuals and households. This paper provides new information on the patient’s perceptions of onchocerciasis and its economic burden on households in South-eastern Nigeria. The information will be useful to health providers and policy makers for evidence-informed resource allocation decisions. Methods Information was generated from a cross-sectional household survey conducted in Achi community, Oji River Local Government Area (LGA) of Enugu State, Southeast Nigeria. A pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. A total of 747 households were visited randomly and data were collected using pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire from 370 respondents. The respondents’ knowledge of the cause of symptoms of the disease, costs incurred for seeking treatment and productivity losses were elicited. Data were analyzed using tabulations and inferential statistics. A socio-economic status (SES) index was used to disaggregate some key variables by SES quintiles for equity analysis. Results Many people had more than one type of manifestation of onchocerciasis. However, more than half of the respondents (57%) had no knowledge of the cause of their symptoms. Male respondents had significantly more knowledge of the cause of symptoms than females (P = 0.04) but knowledge did not differ across SES (P = 0.82). The average monthly treatment cost per respondent was US$ 14.0. Drug cost (US$10) made up about 72% of total treatment cost. The per capita productivity loss among patients was US$16 and it was higher in the poorest (Q1) (US$20) and the third SES quintiles (Q3) (US$21). The average monthly productivity loss among caregivers was US$3.5. Conclusion Onchocerciasis still constitutes considerable economic burden on patients due to the high cost of treatment and productivity loss. Prioritizing domestic resource allocation for the treatment of onchocerciasis is important for significant and sustained reduction in the burden of the disease. In addition, focused health promotion interventions such as health education campaigns should be scaled up in onchocerciasis-endemic communities. PMID:26618633

  14. The effect of Ebola Virus Disease outbreak on hand washing among secondary school students in Ondo State Nigeria, October, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Alele, Faith Osaretin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hand washing with soap and water is one of the cheapest, most effective ways of limiting the spread of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). Despite its importance the prevalence of hand washing was low before the EVD outbreak in Nigeria. This study aimed at determining the factors associated with improved hand washing practices following the EVD outbreak. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study of 440 students from a secondary school in Owo, Ondo State was done. Data was collected in October 2014 when Nigeria was yet to be declared EVD free. Systematic random sampling was used. A semi-structured, interviewer administered questionnaire was used. Data was analysed with epi info version 7, descriptive statistics were done, Chi square test was used for the assessment of significant associations between proportions. Determinants of good hand washing practices was identified using logistics regression analysis at 5% level of significance. Results Of 440 respondents, mean age was 13.71.9 years. Females were 48.2%. Only 4.6% have never heard of Ebola Virus Disease.Level of hand washing with soap and water improved by62.6%. Significant improvement in hand washing was in 75.8% of those who heard through social media (p < 0.001), 70.5% of Newspaper readers(p < 0.001), 65.6% of radio listeners (p = 0.001), 75.4% of family members p < 0.001, 76.3% talk in church p < 0.001, 77.6% peers p = 0.02, 72.4% TV p < 0.001.Change in hand washing practices was associated with watching television (AOR: 2.2; CI 95%: 1.1-4.3) and listening to health education in church (AOR: 2.4; CI 95%: 1.2-4.7).Major reason for change in hand washing practices was because of EVD deadly nature, 170(40.5%). Conclusion Watching health education messages on television and listening to it in church are the determinants of change in hand washing practices. Promotion of hand washing with soap and water needs to be sustained to prevent other diseases. Training of students on prevention of EVD was conducted in selected schools. PMID:26740852

  15. A geospatial approach to evaluation of accessibility to secondary educational institution in Ogun State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunyemi, S. A.; Muibi, K. H.; Eguaroje, O. E.; Fabiyi, O. O.; Halilu, A. S.

    2014-06-01

    The study therefore examined the spatial distribution of secondary school and the accessibility levels to students in Yewa South local Government area of Nigeria and the factors that give rise to them with a view to providing a framework for effective placement of students. Primary and secondary data were used for the study. Primary data was collected using questionnaire and a hand-held GPS receiver used to capture the coordinate points of schools and other relevant data. Secondary data include administrative map, population figures of both students and Teachers, Names and addresses of the secondary schools in the study area, the school placement sheet and list of schools. The data analysis was carried out using network analysis. School location, number of secondary schools in each ward and the total area were used to determine the pattern of distribution of secondary schools in the study area. Settlements, roads, schools location, number of secondary schools, ward and school enrolments were used to generate both school accessibility and effective placement measure using network analysis. Network analyses were also performed to evaluate nearest school to student and a set of origin-destination (OD) matrix. However, the whole of 25 secondary schools in Yewa south were considered for network analysis ward by ward, and the results of the distance students travel from their settlements to their various schools were shown for all the secondary schools in each ward. Out of 415 Students, 210 students travel below 2 km to their schools which constitute 50.60% total number of students in the local government area while 205 students travel above 2 km to their schools which constitute 49.40%.

  16. Water level regulation and control of schistosomiasis transmission: a case study in Oyan Reservoir, Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed Central

    Ofoezie, I. E.; Asaolu, S. O.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of different water discharge patterns from the artificial Oyan Reservoir in Ogun State, Nigeria, on water level fluctuations and on schistosomiasis transmission was investigated between August 1990 and March 1993 to determine the impact of water level regulation on schistosomiasis transmission and control. The results show that transmission was greatly influenced by the pattern of water discharge during the hot dry season (January-April). A high discharge during this period of no rainfall, high temperatures, and intense sunshine stimulated rapid water level fluctuations and lake draw-down, which led to significant reductions in all indices of schistosomiasis transmission, i.e. snail density, snail infection rates, human water contact patterns, and incidence of infection. Although these results support continuous water discharges from the reservoir during the hot dry season, this may run counter to current water management policies. Further investigation is therefore required to harmonize the potential benefits in this type of discharge pattern with the objectives of efficient water management in artificial reservoirs. PMID:9447776

  17. Hepatitis C Virus infection in apparentenly healthy individuals with family history of diabetes in Vom, Plateau State Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nwankiti, Obinna O; Ndako, James A; Echeonwu, Georgebest ON; Olabode, Atanda O; Nwosuh, Chika I; Onovoh, Ema M; Okeke, Lilian A; Akinola, Jumoke O; Duru, Boniface N; Nwagbo, Ijeoma O; Agada, Godwin O; Chukwuedo, Anthony A

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important public health problem worldwide. Its association with, and predisposing nature for diabetes mellitus (DM) has been long established. This research was carried out to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) amongst people with possible genetic predisposition to diabetes mellitus living in and around Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria. 188 subjects were screened after they filled a structured questionnaire to determine some of their demographic data, social habits and possible risk factors. 5 ml of blood was collected from each subject and sera separated out. Biotech's third generation ELISA Kit for HCV antibodies was used for the screening. Liver enzyme analysis was carried out on positive samples to determine their disease status. A prevalence of 14.36% was recorded with the highest seropositive group being those in the age bracket of 18 37 years. 13(13.40%) of males and 14(15.38%) of females were sero-positive. Liver enzyme analysis of sero-positive subjects showed increased levels which may imply early onset of liver damage. These result showed that these individuals could later suffer diabetes which may be triggered by their HCV infection if not treated. This is not over-looking the economic significance of their ill health, assuming they progress to cirrhotic HCV or develop hepatocelluar carcinoma due to HCV chronicity. PMID:19619316

  18. Distribution of ABO, Rhesus blood and haemoglobin electrophoresis among the undergraduate students of Niger Delta State University, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Egesie, U G; Egesie, O J; Usar, I; Johnbull, T O

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of ABO, Rhesus blood groups and haemoglobin electrophoresis among 200 undergraduate students of Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State, Nigeria randomly selected were studied. Blood samples were collected by venepuncture from the antecubital vein. The blood sample were transferred into EDTA bottle and mixed. The determination of the ABO, Rhesus (RhD) blood groups and haemoglobin electrophoresis was done. The results showed that blood group O had the highest percentage distribution of 49% followed by blood groups A and B with 22% respectively and the least percentage distribution of 7% was blood group AB. Rh-D positive rate was 98% and it was 2% for Rh-D negative. The percentage distribution for the haemoglobin electrophoresis pattern for HbAA, HbAS, HbSS, HbAC and HbSC were 66%, 26%, 2%, 2%, and 4% respectively. HbAA and HbAS occurred more frequently than other haemoglobin variants in this study. PMID:19434205

  19. Knowledge, Attitude, and Preventive Practices among Prison Inmates in Ogbomoso Prison at Oyo State, South West Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Saliu, Abdulsalam; Akintunde, Babatunde

    2014-01-01

    Prisoners are at special risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because of overcrowded prisons, unprotected sex and sexual assault, occurrence of sexual practices that are risky to health, unsafe injecting practices, and inadequate HIV prevention, care, and support services. This study aimed to describe the knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices towards HIV/AIDS by male inmates in Ogbomoso Prison at Oyo State, South West Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study. A simple random sampling method was employed to select 167 male participants and data were collected using pretested structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The data were collated and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Fifty (29.9%) were in the age group 2024 years with mean age of 30.99 11.41. About half (50.3%) had been married before incarceration. Family and friends (30%), health care workers (25%), prison staff (20%), and mass media (25%) were the commonest sources of information on HIV/AIDS. Knowledge about HIV was found to be high (94.6%). About 68.9% believed that people with the disease should be avoided. The knowledge about HIV/AIDS among inmates was high, but misconceptions about HIV/AIDS are still rife among the prisoners and educational programs would be required to correct this. PMID:25763397

  20. Epidemiology of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes in the tropical rainforest of Imo State, south-east Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anosike, Jude C; Nwoke, Bertram E B; Okere, Anthony N; Oku, Ene E; Asor, Joe E; Emmy-Egbe, Ifeyinwa O; Adimike, Desmond A

    2007-01-01

    The study of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes was carried out in the tropical rainforest of Imo State Nigeria (two rural areas and two forest reserves in some parts of Orlu Senatorial Zone) between May-October 2002. Using standard entomological procedures, two macrohabitats (natural tree-holes and bamboo traps) and two microhabitats (leaf axils of cocoyams/pineapples and leaf axils of plantain/banana) were sampled for various mosquito species. Mosquitoes were recovered from all the various biotypes sampled. Types of mosquitoes species encountered, their relative abundance, as well as genera varied significantly during the study (p<0.05). Four genera of mosquitoes: Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Toxorhynchites were recovered while 16 species of mosquitoes encountered include: Aedes aegypti, Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni, Ae. albopictus, Ae. stokesi, Ae. taylori, Ae. apicoargenteus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. trigripes, Cx. decens, Anopheles gambiae, An. funiestus, An. coustani and Toxorhynchites viridibasis. Most of the mosquitoes showed oviposition preferences for one or more habitats. The presence of Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni and Ae. aegypti indicate that the study areas were at risk of yellow fever epidemic. The presence of Anopheles and Culex species ensured endemicity of malaria and filariasis, while the recovery of Ae. albopictus in this region suggests a possible outbreak of dengue fever in future if not properly controlled. PMID:17655174

  1. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in milk and milk products in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ivbade, Akhigbe; Ojo, Olufemi Ernest; Dipeolu, Morenike Atinuke

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 is a major cause of food-borne illnesses in humans. This study investigated the presence of STEC O157 in milk and milk products in Ogun State, Nigeria. Of a total of 202 samples 10 (5%) were positive for STEC O157 including 1 (2%) of 50 raw milk samples, 3 (6%) of 50 samples of fresh local cheese, 1 (2%) of 50 samples of fried local cheese and 5 (9.6%) of 52 fermented milk samples. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the prevalence of STEC O157 among the sample types. Of 10 isolates, shiga toxin 1 gene (stx1) was detected only in 2 samples (20%), shiga toxin 2 (stx2) was extracted only in 6 samples (60%), stx1 /stx2 in 2 samples (20.0%), intimin gene (eaeA) in 5 samples (50%), and enterohaemolysin (E-hlyA) gene was isolated in 7 (70%) samples. Rates of resistance of the STEC O157 isolates were: amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 100%, ampicillin 100%, chloramphenicol 60%, nalidixic acid 20%, norfloxacin 10%, streptomycin 30%, sulphamethoxazole/trimethprim 20%, and tetracycline 90%. The isolates were all susceptible to ciprofloxacin and neomycin. The presence of virulent multidrug resistant E. coli O157 strains in milk and milk products as revealed by this study unveils a risk of human exposure to these potentially fatal pathogens following consumption of contaminated products. PMID:25273960

  2. Acceptance and Utilisation of Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine and Insecticide-Treated Nets among Pregnant Women in Oyo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adeola, Aderonke A.; Okwilagwe, Eugenia A.

    2015-01-01

    The study is an investigation of the acceptance and utilisation of Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (Fansidar), the drug of choice for Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy, and Insecticide-Treated Nets among pregnant women who access different health facilities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Pregnant women (582) attending government primary healthcare antenatal clinics and 50 attending faith clinics purposively selected responded to structured instruments that were analysed using percentages, t-test correlation, and multiple regression. Acceptance and utilisation of RBM tools were higher in government clinics than faith clinics and in rural areas. Pregnant women in government clinics, 60.8% and 66.8%, and faith clinics, 18% and 38.0%, utilised Roll Back Malaria tools, significant at t(630) = 5.81, p ≤ 0.05, and t(630) = 3.99, p ≤ 0.05, respectively. Pregnant women in rural locations who accessed government clinics utilised Roll Back Malaria tools more than those in urban areas, t(580) = −641, p ≤ 0.05. Number of pregnancies, educational qualification of the pregnant women, and marital status significantly and consistently influenced acceptance and utilisation of these tools. To ensure that set targets are met, the utilization of RBM tools among the two categories of pregnant women can be improved by increasing the supply of the tools and ensuring that treatment is free. PMID:26839732

  3. International note: awareness and context of cyber-harassment among secondary school students in Oyo state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olumide, Adesola O; Adams, Patricia; Amodu, Olukemi K

    2015-02-01

    We determined the awareness and context of cyber-harassment among secondary school students (653 survey respondents and 18 in-depth interviewees) in Oyo state, Nigeria. Respondents' mean age was 14.2 2.2 years and 53.9% were aware of cyber-harassment occurring in their school or among their friends. Cyber-harassment was often perpetrated via phone calls (62.5%), text messaging (36.9%), chat rooms (28.7%), through pictures or video clips sent via mobile phones (11.9%), emails (6.8%) or websites (5.9%). Cyber-harassment behaviours mentioned were the use of abusive words (25.4%), saying mean things or making fun of the victim (13.9%), solicitations for relationships (7.9%) or sex (6.8%) and spreading rumours about the victim (6.8%). In-depth interviewees recounted experiences of cyber-harassment suffered by their friends. Many were relationship-related, sexual solicitations and threats and corroborated quantitative findings. Respondents are aware of cyber-harassment occurring among students in the study area. Comprehensive interventions to address the problem need to be instituted. PMID:25544425

  4. Evaluation of aquifer protective capacity of overburden unit and soil corrosivity in Makurdi, Benue state, Nigeria, using electrical resistivity method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obiora, Daniel N.; Ajala, Adeolu E.; Ibuot, Johnson C.

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents result of 30 vertical electrical soundings carried out in Makurdi, Benue state capital, north-central Nigeria to evaluate aquifer protective capacity and soil corrosivity of overburden units in the study area. This was done using the Schlumberger electrode array to obtain the data and was modelled using computer iteration (Winresist software). The field data gives a resolution with 3-4 geoelectric layers and the observed frequencies in curve types include: 30% of KQ, 16.67% of QH, 6.67% of AA and K, 3.33% of HA, Q and A, 10% of H, KH and HK. Using the longitudinal unit conductance (S), the protective capacities of the study area were classified as 36.67% weak, 10% poor, 40% moderate, and 13.33% as good. The corrosivity ratings of the study area show that 10% is strongly corrosive, 23% moderately corrosive, 37% slightly corrosive, and 30% noncorrosive The results reasonably provide information on areas where industries can be sited and iron pipes can be laid in order to safeguard the hydrological setting for resident's safety in the study area. Regions with moderate/good protective capacity are good sites for locating boreholes.

  5. Effect of thermal environment on the temporal, spatial and seasonal occurrence of measles in Ondo state, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omonijo, Akinyemi Gabriel; Matzarakis, Andreas; Oguntoke, Olusegun; Adeofun, Clement Olabinjo

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the temporal and spatial dynamics, as well as the seasonal occurrence of measles in Ondo state, Nigeria, to better understand the role of the thermal environment in the occurrence of the childhood killer disease measles, which ranks among the top ten leading causes of child deaths worldwide. The linkages between measles and atmospheric environmental factors were examined by correlating human-biometeorological parameters in the study area with reported clinical cases of measles for the period 1998-2008. We also applied stepwise regression analysis in order to determine the human-biometeorological parameters that lead to statistical changes in reported clinical cases of measles. We found that high reported cases of measles are associated with the least populated areas, where rearing and cohabitation of livestock/domestic animals within human communities are common. There was a significant correlation ( P < 0.01) between monthly cases of measles and human-biometeorological parameters except wind speed and vapour pressure. High transmission of measles occurred in the months of January to May during the dry season when human thermal comfort indices are very high. This highlights the importance of the thermal environment in disease demographics since it accounted for more than 40% variation in measles transmission within the study period.

  6. Epidemiology and associated risk factors of hepatitis e virus infection in plateau state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Junaid, Surajudeen A; Agina, Samuel E; Abubakar, Khadijah A

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study in Nigeria was undertaken to determine the epidemiology, seroprevalence, and associated risk factors, of hepatitis E virus (HEV). A total of 462 subjects were used for the study, categorized into four groups: apparently healthy persons, pregnant women, HIV positive subjects, and animal handlers. Information was obtained from subjects using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for HEV antibodies (IgG and IgM) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Results obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 statistical software. The overall seroprevalence of IgG and IgM was 42.7 and 0.9%, respectively. Animal handlers had the highest seroprevalence (66.7%). The associated risk factors for IgM seroprevalence were rural dwelling (P = 0.039, odds ratio (OR) 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-15.4), blood transfusion (P < 0.001, OR 9.6, 95% CI 2.6-35.6), attending to animals (P = 0.032, OR 4.9, 95% CI 0.9-26.6), and waste disposal (P < 0.001). Factors associated with IgG were age (P = 0.044), location (P < 0.001), marital status (P < 0.001), formal education (P < 0.001), farming as occupation (P < 0.001), rural dwelling (P = 0.001), waste disposal (P < 0.001), alcohol consumption (P = 0.001, OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.4-4.0), open defecation (P < 0.001, OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-5.7), attending to animals (P < 0.001, OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6-3.4), consuming unwashed fruits/vegetables (P < 0.001, OR 4.2, 95% CI 0.3-54.1), and stream/river as a source of drinking water (P < 0.001, OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.6-7.8). Preventive public health measures should be reinforced among all communities, particularly domestic animal handlers and pregnant women. Potable water should be provided for all communities. Data suggest that HEV remains an under-recognized and significant public health problem, warranting further attention and research. PMID:25512696

  7. Epidemiology and Associated Risk Factors of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Junaid, Surajudeen A; Agina, Samuel E; Abubakar, Khadijah A

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study in Nigeria was undertaken to determine the epidemiology, seroprevalence, and associated risk factors, of hepatitis E virus (HEV). A total of 462 subjects were used for the study, categorized into four groups: apparently healthy persons, pregnant women, HIV positive subjects, and animal handlers. Information was obtained from subjects using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for HEV antibodies (IgG and IgM) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Results obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 statistical software. The overall seroprevalence of IgG and IgM was 42.7 and 0.9%, respectively. Animal handlers had the highest seroprevalence (66.7%). The associated risk factors for IgM seroprevalence were rural dwelling (P = 0.039, odds ratio (OR) 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.715.4), blood transfusion (P < 0.001, OR 9.6, 95% CI 2.635.6), attending to animals (P = 0.032, OR 4.9, 95% CI 0.926.6), and waste disposal (P < 0.001). Factors associated with IgG were age (P = 0.044), location (P < 0.001), marital status (P < 0.001), formal education (P < 0.001), farming as occupation (P < 0.001), rural dwelling (P = 0.001), waste disposal (P < 0.001), alcohol consumption (P = 0.001, OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.44.0), open defecation (P < 0.001, OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.45.7), attending to animals (P < 0.001, OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.63.4), consuming unwashed fruits/vegetables (P < 0.001, OR 4.2, 95% CI 0.354.1), and stream/river as a source of drinking water (P < 0.001, OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.67.8). Preventive public health measures should be reinforced among all communities, particularly domestic animal handlers and pregnant women. Potable water should be provided for all communities. Data suggest that HEV remains an under-recognized and significant public health problem, warranting further attention and research. PMID:25512696

  8. Sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion among secondary school students in three states in North Eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ajuwon, Ademola J; Olaleye, Adeniyi; Faromoju, Banji; Ladipo, Oladapo

    2006-01-01

    Background Interest in the reproductive health of adolescents continues to grow throughout the world. Few studies had explored the reproductive health knowledge, sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion among secondary school students in North Eastern states of Nigeria. The objectives of this descriptive survey were to collect data to plan appropriate interventions that meet the reproductive health knowledge, service and skills needs of students in Bauchi, Borno and Gombe states. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted for 624 consenting students who were randomly selected from eighteen secondary schools using an 83-item structured questionnaire. Data were collected on demographic profile, reproductive health knowledge, sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion. Results The mean age of the respondents was 16.5 years. There were slightly more males (52%) than females (48%). Students' knowledge about reproductive health was generally low even though girls had better knowledge than boys. Thirteen percent of the entire students had had sexual experience; significantly more males (19%) than females (6%) had done so (p < 0.001). Among boys the age at sexual debut ranged from 10–26 with a mean of 15.7 and median of 16. By contrast, the age at first sex among girls ranged from 10 to 18 years with a mean and median of 16.1 and 17 years respectively. Only 24% of those who were sexually active used a condom during their last sexual encounter. Overall 11% of the students reported that they had been tricked into having sex, 9% had experienced unwanted touch of breast and backside, and 5% reported rape. Conclusion Students low reproductive health knowledge and involvement in risky sexual activities predispose them to undesirable reproductive health outcomes. PMID:17187685

  9. Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains isolated from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Anambra State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Uzoewulu, Gertrude N; Lawson, Lovett; Nnanna, Ibeh S; Rastogi, Nalin; Goyal, Madhu

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we analyzed Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) genetic diversity in Anambra State, Nigeria based on spoligotyping followed by 5-loci exact tandem repeats (ETRs). Spoligotyping of 180 MTC strains isolated in 2009-2011 from pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients led to a total of 31 distinct patterns. A comparison with the SITVIT2 international database showed that all the 31 patterns could be classified as Shared-types (SITs) in this database; briefly, 26/31 SITs (n=174 isolates) matched a preexisting shared-type in the database, whereas 5/31 SITs (n=6 isolates) were newly created due to 2 or more strains belonging to an identical new pattern within this study (SIT3396) or after a match with an orphan in the database (SIT3397, SIT3398, SIT3399 and SIT3400). A total of 18/31 SITs containing 167 or 92.8% isolates were clustered within this study (2-89 isolates per cluster) while 13/31 SITs contained unique strains. Using VNTR typing, a total of 36 distinct patterns were identified; 27 patterns (n=157 isolates) matched a pattern already reported in the SITVIT2 database. Combination of both the methods generated 47 combined patterns for the 180 strains: 17 belonged to clustered isolates (n=127 isolates or 70.5%) while 30 corresponded to as many unique strains (note 23 strains could not be typed using 5-loci ETRs). No correlation was found between the spoligotyping pattern and the HIV status of the patient or drug sensitivity of the strain. This study showed that the LAM10-CAM prototype SIT61 accounted for highest number of isolates (n=89) in Anambra State, showing its relative contribution to the TB burden in the study. PMID:26927993

  10. Socio-Demographic Determinants of Maternal Health-Care Service Utilization Among Rural Women in Anambra State, South East Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Emelumadu, OF; Ukegbu, AU; Ezeama, NN; Kanu, OO; Ifeadike, CO; Onyeonoro, UU

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although, antenatal care (ANC) attendance in sub Saharan Africa is high, however this does not always translate into quality ANC care service utilization. Aim: This study therefore is aimed at exploring pattern of maternal health (MH) services utilization and the socio-demographic factors influencing it in Anambra State, South East Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A total of 310 women of reproductive age with a previous history of gestation attending ANC services between September, 2007 and August, 2008 in selected Primary Health Centers in Anambra State were studied. Responses were elicited from the study participants using a pre-tested, semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 (SPSS Inc, Chicago Illinois, USA). Association between socio-demographic characteristics and pattern of utilization of ANC and delivery services was measured using ?2-test, Regression analysis was done to identify factors associated with utilization of MH services. P < 0.05 was assumed to be significant. Results: Use of health facility was 293 (97.0%) and 277 (92,7%) out 302 women for ANC and delivery services respectively. Most women attended their first ANC consultation during the preceding pregnancy was after the first trimester and about 31% (94/298) of them had <4 ANC visits prior to delivery. Socio-demographic factors were found to be significantly associated with places where MH care services are accessed. Parity was found to be associated with timing of ANC booking and number of ANC attendance (?2 = 9.49, P = 0.05). Odds of utilizing formal health facility for MH services were found to be significantly associated with increasing age (P < 0.01) and educational status of mothers (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The study revealed high maternal service utilization and 10% fetal loss, hence the need to address the gaps of late ANC booking and low ANC visits. PMID:24971212

  11. Malaria prevalence, anemia and baseline intervention coverage prior to mass net distributions in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nigeria suffers the world’s largest malaria burden, with approximately 51 million cases and 207,000 deaths annually. As part of the country’s aim to reduce by 50% malaria-related morbidity and mortality by 2013, it embarked on mass distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Methods Prior to net distribution campaigns in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria, a modified malaria indicator survey was conducted in September 2010 to determine baseline state-level estimates of Plasmodium prevalence, childhood anemia, indoor residual spraying (IRS) coverage and bednet ownership and utilization. Results Overall age-adjusted prevalence of Plasmodium infection by microscopy was similar between Abia (36.1%, 95% CI: 32.3%–40.1%; n = 2,936) and Plateau (36.6%, 95% CI: 31.3%–42.3%; n = 4,209), with prevalence highest among children 5-9 years. P. malariae accounted for 32.0% of infections in Abia, but only 1.4% of infections in Plateau. More than half of children ≤10 years were anemic, with anemia significantly higher in Abia (76.9%, 95% CI: 72.1%–81.0%) versus Plateau (57.1%, 95% CI: 50.6%–63.4%). Less than 1% of households in Abia (n = 1,305) or Plateau (n = 1,335) received IRS in the 12 months prior to survey. Household ownership of at least one bednet of any type was 10.1% (95% CI: 7.5%–13.4%) in Abia and 35.1% (95% CI: 29.2%-41.5%) in Plateau. Ownership of two or more bednets was 2.1% (95% CI: 1.2%–3.7%) in Abia and 14.5% (95% CI: 10.2%–20.3%) in Plateau. Overall reported net use the night before the survey among all individuals, children <5 years, and pregnant women was 3.4%, 6.0% and 5.7%, respectively in Abia and 14.7%, 19.1% and 21.0%, respectively in Plateau. Among households owning nets, 34.4% of children <5 years and 31.6% of pregnant women in Abia used a net, compared to 52.6% of children and 62.7% of pregnant women in Plateau. Conclusions These results reveal high Plasmodium prevalence and childhood anemia in both states, low baseline coverage of IRS and LLINs, and sub-optimal net use—especially among age groups with highest observed malaria burden. PMID:24669881

  12. Rationale for Students' Participation in University Governance and Organizational Effectiveness in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akomolafe, C. O.; Ibijola, E. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the rationale for students' participation in university governance and organizational effectiveness. A descriptive research of survey design was adopted. The population consisted of all staff and students of Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State and Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State. 700 subjects…

  13. Knowledge and acceptance of sex education at Agbo-Oba, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ebomoyi, E; Elimian, A A

    1985-09-01

    Data on knowledge about and attitudes toward sex education was collected from 178 females and 224 males, 15 years of age or older, who resided in a random sample of 243 households in Agbo-Oba, an urban center located in the Ilorin area of Kwara, Nigeria. Nigerian youth are rarely exposed to sex education in the schools; yet, they are increasingly exposed to the portrayal of irresponsible sex and pornography in imported films, books, and magazines. The present study assessed the need for sex education in Nigerian society and examined public attitudes toward sex education. Percent distributions were used to analyze the material. 63.4% of the male respondents and 70.2% of the female respondents had some knowledge of sex education. The proportion of those with knowledge of sex education increased with educational level. In all age groups, at least 60% of the respondents knew about sex education. Respondents' sources of sex education included parents (24.6%), friends (36.8%), school teachers (18.4%), books and magazines (64.7%), health personnel (6%), and churches (1.5%). Respondent knowledge of specific components of sex education was limited. For example, only 55.45 recognized contraception as a component of sex education, and only 37.1% considered the dissemination of information on sexually transmitted diseases to be a part of sex education. Only 9.2% of the respondents were satisfied with their current level of sexual knowledge. 95.3% knew about gonorrhea, and 47.8% knew about syphilis, but only 12.2% knew about herpes, and only 7.7% knew about chancroid. 65.1% of the Moslems and 78.4% of the Christian respondents, or 74.1% of all the respondents, agreed that there was a need for sex education in Nigerian society. The proportion who agreed increased with educational level. Among those who were receptive to sex education, 88.3% said it should be taught by health personnel; 59.7%, by parents; 42.3%, by school teachers; 11.4%, by religious institutions; and 9.7%, by peers. 68.7% thought that schools were the most appropriate setting for imparting sex education. 60% of the respondents knew about oral contraceptives and condoms, but only 40% knew about other methods. 67.7% of the respondents were currently practicing contraception. 67.7% of the respondents believed that the recent influx of pornography into the country was corrupting the morals of the young. 56.3% were in favor of a government ban on the importation of these materials. Overall, the findings indicate that there is a need for sex education and that the majority of the respondents are in favor of introducing sex education into Nigerian society. In view of these findings, a national task force should be appointed to develop sex education training programs, to support and coordinate needed research, and to develop educational materials and experimental sex education courses. PMID:4043975

  14. Virulence and antimicrobial resistance of common urinary bacteria from asymptomatic students of Niger Delta University, Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onanuga, Adebola; Selekere, Tamaradobra Laurretta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria frequently occurs among all ages with the possibility of developing into urinary tract infections, and the antimicrobial resistance patterns of the etiologic organisms are essential for appropriate therapy. Thus, we investigated the virulence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of common urinary bacteria in asymptomatic students of Niger Delta University, Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria in a cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Clean catch mid-stream early morning urine samples collected from 200 asymptomatic University students of aged ranges 15–30 years were cultured, screened and common bacteria were identified using standard microbiological procedures. The isolates were screened for hemolysin production and their susceptibility to antibiotics was determined using standard disc assay method. Results: A total prevalence rate of 52.0% significant bacteriuria was detected and it was significantly higher among the female with a weak association (χ2 = 6.01, phi = 0.173, P = 0.014). The Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus isolates were most frequently encountered among the isolated bacteria and 18 (12.7%) of all the bacterial isolates produced hemolysins. All the bacterial isolates exhibited 50–100% resistance to the tested beta-lactam antibiotics, tetracycline and co-trimoxazole. The isolated bacteria were 85-100% multi-drug resistant. However, most of the isolates were generally susceptible to gentamicin and ofloxacin. The phenotypic detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases was 9 (9.6%) among the tested Gram-negative bacterial isolates. Conclusions: The observed high proportions of multidrug resistant urinary bacteria among asymptomatic University students call for the need of greater control of antibiotic use in this study area. PMID:26957865

  15. Assessing Factors that affect Childbirth Choices of People living positively with HIV/AIDS in Abia State of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Enwereji, Ezinne E.; Enwereji, Kelechi O.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Poor interpersonal relationships with women especially those living positively with HIV/AIDS can make them take risks that would expose their new born and others to infection during childbirth. The factors that influence childbirth choices of people living positively with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) deserve attention. Sometimes, women, especially PLWHA, for several reasons, resort to the use of other health care services instead of the general hospitals equipped for ante-natal care (ANC). This study aims to identify factors and conditions that determine childbirth choices of PLWHA in the Abia State of Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out using a total sample of 96 PLWHA who attend meetings with the network of PLWHA and also a purposive convenience sample of 45 health workers. Data collection instruments were questionnaire, focus group discussions and interview guides. Data was analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively using simple percentages. Results There was a low patronage for hospital services. A total of 79 (82%) PLWHA did not use hospital services due to the lack of confidentiality. In total, 61 (64%) PLWHA had their childbirth with Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) at home. Embarrassment, rejection, interpersonal conflicts with health workers, non-confidentiality, cultural stigma and stigmatization were among the factors that encouraged childbirth choices. On the whole, 82 (85%) of the PLWHA discontinued ANC services because of stigmatization. Conclusion Poor interpersonal relationships between health workers and PLWHA facilitated PLWHA childbirth choices more than other factors. PLWHA and health workers termed management of belligerent tendencies against each other as their greatest concern. Therefore, concerted effort is needed to improve health workers/PLWHA relationship in hospitals. This would minimize factors and/or conditions that encourage HIV infection. Exposing PLWHA to factors that influence childbirth at home demonstrates high risks of mother-to-child transmission, infection to others and obstetric complications. PMID:22125708

  16. Teachers' Perception and Implementation of Continuous Assessment Practices in Secondary Schools in Ekiti-State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modup, Ale Veronica; Sunday, Omirin Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the practices and implementation of continuous assessment in Ekiti State Secondary Schools with special interest in Ado Local Government. The population for the study was the whole number of teachers in Ekiti State secondary school and the sample for the study was 160 secondary school teachers who were randomly selected from…

  17. School Dropout Pattern among Senior Secondary Schools in Delta State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajaja, O. Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of dropout among secondary school students in Delta State. To guide this study, 7 research questions were asked and answered, 3 hypotheses stated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The design of study was ex post facto using the past school attendance registers as the major…

  18. Nigeria's Triumph: Dracunculiasis Eradicated

    PubMed Central

    Miri, Emmanuel S.; Hopkins, Donald R.; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Keana, Adamu S.; Withers, P. Craig; Anagbogu, Ifeoma N.; Sadiq, Lola K.; Kale, Oladele O.; Edungbola, Luke D.; Braide, Eka I.; Ologe, Joshua O.; Ityonzughul, Cephas

    2010-01-01

    This report describes how Nigeria, a country that at one time had the highest number of cases of dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) in the world, reduced the number of cases from more than 653,000 in 1988 to zero in 2009, despite numerous challenges. Village-based volunteers formed the foundation of the program, which used health education, cloth filters, vector control, advocacy for safe water, voluntary isolation of patients, and monitored program interventions and cases reported monthly. Other factors in the program's success were strong governmental support, advocacy by a former head of state of Nigeria, technical and financial assistance by The Carter Center, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the United Nations Children's Fund, the World Health Organization, and many other partners and donors. The estimated cost of the Nigerian program during 1988–2009 is $37.5 million, not including funding for water supply projects or salaries of Nigerian governmental workers. PMID:20682859

  19. Evaluation of antioxidant status of female diabetic patients in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Anambra State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okuonghae, E O P; Onyenekwe, C C; Ahaneku, J E; Ukibe, N R; Nwani, P O; Asomugha, A L; Osakue, N O; Aidomeh, F; Awalu, C C

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has become an onerous disease to developing countries such as Nigeria. Rapid acceptance of urbanisation and sedentary life styles pose an encumbrance to its prevention and management. Increased oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus has been implicated as a culprit in perpetuating antioxidant depletion and diabetic complications in diabetes mellitus individuals. This study aims to evaluate the level of antioxidant status in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) female participants visiting the out-patient diabetic clinic of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria. A total of 86 participants aged 5110 years were recruited for this study. The test group consists of 43 already confirmed type 2 diabetes mellitus females, while the control group consists of 43 apparently healthy females. The test subjects were further subgrouped into good and poor glycaemic control groups, using a cut-off of <7% for HbA1c. Whole blood was collected from participants and aliquoted into specified sample containers for analysis of the following parameters: random blood glucose (RBG; mg/dL), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c; %), glutathione reductase (GR; U/L) and total antioxidant status (TAS; mmol/L). Results from this study showed that the mean differences in RBG (197.7449.29 mg/dL) and HbA1c (9.861.44%) were significantly higher in the test group compared to the control group RBG (104.7911.33 mg/dL) and HbA1c (5.211.23%) (P<0.05). The mean differences of GR (45.8120.45 U/L) and TAS (1.811.04 mmol/L) were significantly lower in the test group compared to the control group GR (61.2114.34 U/L) and TAS (2.732.08 mmol/L) (P<0.05). The poor glycaemic test group was observed to have the highest RBG (200.3450.4 mg/dL) and HbA1c (10.231.33%) compared both to good glycaemic test group RBG (186.3845.39 mg/dL), HbA1c (6.540.45%) and non-diabetic group RBG (104.7911.33 mg/dL) and HbA1c (5.211.23%) (P<0.05). Glutathione reductase (40.6615.48 U/L) and TAS (1.801.08 mmol/L) were significantly more depleted in the poor glycaemic test group compared to the non-diabetic group GR (61.2114.34 U/L), TAS (2.732.08 mmol/L) and good glycaemic test group GR (68.3825.09 U/L), TAS (1.860.92 mmol/L) (P<0.05). Out of the 43 participants in the test group, only 18.6% had good glycaemic control and 81.4% had poor glycaemic control. There were significant negative correlations between RBG and TAS (r=-0.260; P=0.015); RBG and GR (r=-0.403; P=0.000) and HbA1c and GR (r=-0.471; P=0.000) (P<0.05). However, HbA1c and TAS showed no significant correlation (r=-0.170; P=0.119) (P>0.05). This study concludes that there is antioxidant depletion in females with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26738397

  20. A Study of the Nature of Incidental Physical Science Knowledge Possessed by Elementary School Children in Western State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taiwo, 'Diran

    1976-01-01

    A total of 979 subjects from grades four, five, and six of 12 randomly selected urban and nonurban schools in Nigeria were administered an instrument to test their knowledge of 16 scientific concepts. Results showed that the children acquired knowledge incidentally and that the urban children scored higher. (MLH)

  1. An Assessment of the Computer Literacy Level of Open and Distance Learning Students in Lagos State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osuji

    2010-01-01

    Nigeria has embraced the Open and Distance Learning (ODL) mode of education in order to make education affordable and to reach the teaming population of qualified citizens yearning to have quality education but are left out of it. Most universities in the country run the single mode conventional system of education; some run the dual mode while

  2. Correlates of Unemployed Graduates' Perceptions of the Importance of Entrepreneurial Education in Poverty Alleviation in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekuri, E. E.; Alade, F. O.; Sule, M.; Odigwe, F. N.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from the empirical research on unemployment among young graduates and the question of economic relevance of curricula of the tertiary education in Nigeria, this investigation was carried out to answer the following research question: Will unemployed graduates' perceptions of the importance of entrepreneurial education in poverty

  3. Correlates of Unemployed Graduates' Perceptions of the Importance of Entrepreneurial Education in Poverty Alleviation in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekuri, E. E.; Alade, F. O.; Sule, M.; Odigwe, F. N.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from the empirical research on unemployment among young graduates and the question of economic relevance of curricula of the tertiary education in Nigeria, this investigation was carried out to answer the following research question: Will unemployed graduates' perceptions of the importance of entrepreneurial education in poverty…

  4. Relationship between the Curriculum and Attributes of Nigerian Faculty of Education Graduates towards Teaching in Kwara State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayode, David Jimoh; Yusoff, Nurahimah BtMohd; Veloo, Arsaythamby

    2015-01-01

    University education in Nigeria has been recognized for its role in pertinent workforce training for the benefit of learners and the community. However, the role of university education in stimulating national economic growth and transformation exacerbates the need to ensure quality within the universities system. The quality and focus of the…

  5. The Utilisation of Skilled Artisans as Vocational Instructors in Secondary Schools in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whawo, D. Duwovwiji

    1993-01-01

    Investigates the feasibility of hiring skilled craftspeople to teach practical workshop skills in secondary-level prevocational courses in Nigeria. Presents results of a survey of 200 artisans to determine their willingness to teach full- or part-time and minimum salary requirements. Indicates that 85.6% were willing to teach. Discusses

  6. Blood Pressure Gradients and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Urban and Rural Populations in Abia State South Eastern Nigeria Using the WHO STEPwise Approach

    PubMed Central

    Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Tiffin, Nicki; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Background Developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) face a double burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and communicable diseases. As high blood pressure (BP) is a common global cardiovascular (CV) disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality, the relationship between gradients of BP and other CV risk factors was assessed in Abia State, Nigeria. Methods Using the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey in Abia state, Nigeria from August 2011 to March 2012. Data collected at various steps included: demographic and behavioral risk factors (Step 1); BP and anthropometric measurements (Step 2), and fasting blood cholesterol and glucose (Step 3). Results Of the 2983 subjects with complete data for analysis, 52.1% were females and 53.2% were rural dwellers. Overall, the distribution of selected CV disease risk factors was diabetes (3.6%), hypertension (31.4%), cigarette smoking (13.3%), use of smokeless tobacco (4.8%), physical inactivity (64.2%) and being overweight or obese (33.7%). Presence of hypertension, excessive intake of alcohol, smoking (cigarette and smokeless tobacco) and physical inactivity occurred more frequently in males than in females (p<0.05); while low income, lack of any formal education and use of smokeless tobacco were seen more frequently in rural dwellers than in those living in urban areas (p<0.05). The frequency of selected CV risk factors increased as BP was graded from optimal, normal to hypertension; and high BP correlated with age, gender, smokeless tobacco, overweight or obesity, annual income and level of education. Conclusion Given the high prevalence of hypertension in this part of Nigeria, there is an urgent need to focus on the reduction of preventable CV risk factors we have observed to be associated with hypertension, in order to effectively reduce the burden of NCDs in Africa. PMID:24039932

  7. Prospects of using community directed intervention strategy in delivering health services among Fulani Nomads in Enugu State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Community Directed Interventions (CDI) strategy has proven effective in increasing access to health services in sedentary populations. It remains to be seen if CDI strategy is feasible among nomads given the dearth of demographic and medical data on the nomads. This study thus characterized the nomadic populations in Enugu State, Nigeria and outlined the potentials of implementing CDI among nomads. Study design and methods This exploratory study adopted qualitative methods. Forty focus group discussions (FGD) were held with members of 10 nomadic camps in 2 LGAs in Enugu State, as well as their host communities. Thirty in-depth interviews (IDIs) were held with leaders of nomadic camps and sedentary populations. Ten IDIs with traditional healers in the nomadic camps and 14 key informant interviews with health workers and programme officers were also conducted. Documents and maps were reviewed to ascertain the grazing routes of the nomads as well as existing health interventions in the area. Results Like sedentary populations, nomads have definable community structures with leaders and followers, which is amenable to implementation of CDI. Nomads move their cattle, in a definite pattern, in search of grass and water. In this movement, the old and vulnerable are left in the camps. The nomads suffer from immunization preventable health problems as their host communities. The priority health problems in relation to CDI include malaria, measles, anemia, and other vaccine preventable infections. However, unlike the sedentary populations, the nomads lack access to health interventions, due to the mutual avoidance between the nomads and the sedentary populations in terms of health services. The later consider the services as mainly theirs. The nomads, however, are desirous of the modern health services and often task themselves to access these modern health services in private for profit health facilities when the need arises. Conclusion Given the definable organizational structure of the nomads in Enugu State and their desire for modern health intervention, it is feasible to test the CDI strategy for equitable healthcare delivery among nomads. They are willing and capable to participate actively in their own health programmes with minimal support from professional health workers. PMID:23566078

  8. Using Computers to Solve Mathematics by Junior Secondary School Students in Edo State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olusi, F. I.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of computer aided instruction and traditional method of instruction on the junior secondary school students achievement in mathematics. Four research questions and hypotheses were stated and tested in the study. The design of the study was the pre-test post-test control group experimental

  9. Perceived Sources of Occupational Stress among Primary School Teachers in Delta State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpochafo, G. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the most prevalent sources of occupational stress and also the demographic variables of gender, age and length of service among primary school teachers in Delta State. Two research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The study used a descriptive survey design. The population was the primary school teachers in

  10. Perceived Sources of Occupational Stress among Primary School Teachers in Delta State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpochafo, G. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the most prevalent sources of occupational stress and also the demographic variables of gender, age and length of service among primary school teachers in Delta State. Two research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The study used a descriptive survey design. The population was the primary school teachers in…

  11. Marketing Strategies and Students' Enrolment in Private Secondary Schools in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchendu, Chika C.; Nwafor, Innocent A.; Nwaneri, Mary G.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated marketing strategies and students' enrolment in private secondary schools in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State. One research question was raised and two null hypotheses formulated to guide the study. Thirty two (32) school administrators in 32 private secondary schools in the study area constitute the study population…

  12. Non-Timber Forest Products' Marketing in Nigeria. A Case Study of Osun State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiyeloja, Adedapo Ayo; Ajewole, Opeyemi Isaac

    2006-01-01

    Research on markets and marketing of some non-timber forest products (NTFPs) was carried out in selected locations of Osun State. The NTFPs considered are chewing sticks such as "Massularia acuminata" and bush meat like "Thryonomys swinderianus", representing both the flora and fauna aspects of NTFPs, respectively. Five Local Government Areas were

  13. Non-Timber Forest Products' Marketing in Nigeria. A Case Study of Osun State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiyeloja, Adedapo Ayo; Ajewole, Opeyemi Isaac

    2006-01-01

    Research on markets and marketing of some non-timber forest products (NTFPs) was carried out in selected locations of Osun State. The NTFPs considered are chewing sticks such as "Massularia acuminata" and bush meat like "Thryonomys swinderianus", representing both the flora and fauna aspects of NTFPs, respectively. Five Local Government Areas were…

  14. Resource Availability and Distribution in Public and Private Special Education Schools in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntukidem, Peter James; Ntukidem, Eno Peter; Eyo, Eno Etudor

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the availability and distribution of staff and facilities/equipment in private and public special needs schools in Cross River State. Sixty-nine (69) teachers and three (3) principals of these schools constituted the sample size of the study. One hypothesis and one research question were postulated to guide the study. The

  15. Assessment of Computer Literacy of Secondary School Teachers in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oluwatayo, James Ayodele

    2012-01-01

    The study assessed computer literacy of secondary school teachers in Ekiti State. Three hundred teachers (Male = 150; Female = 150) selected from 30 public schools in 15 out of 16 local government areas participated. The instrument for collecting data was a 25-item Self-Assessment of Computer Literacy questionnaire and each item was rated on a

  16. Attitude towards Pre-Marital Genetic Screening among Students of Osun State Polytechnics in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odelola, J. O.; Adisa, O.; Akintaro, O. A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the attitude towards pre-marital genetic screening among students of Osun State Polytechnics. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The instrument for data collection was self developed and structured questionnaire in four-point likert scale format. Descriptive statistics of frequency count and percentages were…

  17. School Environment and Satisfaction with Schooling among Primary School Pupils in Ondo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aina, Stephen Ileoye

    2015-01-01

    Modern school environments put emphasis on adequate and qualitative facilities to promote conducive teaching and learning environments, the deplorable conditions of the primary schools has become worrisome to the state government and education stakeholders. The study investigated the school environment and pupils' satisfaction with schooling in

  18. The Impact of Instructional Supervision on Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usman, Yunusa Dangara

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the Impact of Instructional Supervision on Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Nasarawa State with reference to Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE). Five research questions were used to guide the study to a rational conclusion. Descriptive Survey method was adopted in which Instructional Supervision

  19. School Types, Facilities and Academic Performance of Students in Senior Secondary Schools in Ondo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alimi, Olatunji Sabitu; Ehinola, Gabriel Babatunde; Alabi, Festus Oluwole

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of school types and facilities on students' academic performance in Ondo State. It was designed to find out whether facilities and students' academic performance are related in private and public secondary schools respectively. Descriptive survey design was used. Proportionate random sampling technique was used

  20. Incidence of Avian Influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria: The Epidemiology, Economic Losses and the Possible Role of Wild Birds in the Transmission of the Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ja`Afar-Furo, M. R.; Balla, H. G.; Tahir, A. S.; Haskainu, C.

    Reducing the huge economic losses due to diseases in poultry as the second largest industry in Nigeria after oil means improving the protein intake of the majority. Similarly, this will also promotes a steady income for the teeming farmers. This study investigated the incidence of the lethal avian influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria, with particular emphasis on the socio-economic and cultural activities of the poultry farmers, economic losses and the possible role of wild birds in the transmission of the disease. Data were collected from 316 and 458 direct and indirect respondents, respectively, from 6 affected villages and a town in 2 Local Government Areas (LGAs): Girei and Yola-North. Results revealed that a larger (25.71%) proportion of the respondents fell within the age range of 31-40 years, with majority (54.91%) as females. While the bulk (54.65%) of the respondents were illiterates, 95.47% of the direct respondents derived their incomes from crop production, whereas 59.17% of the indirect respondents from livestock rearing. About 26,049 birds worth N13, 454,800.00 was cumulative economic loss incurred by the poultry farmers, whereas that of the government was put at N1, 119,781.10. Of the mortalities experienced in the wildlife before the outbreak of the disease, Bubulcus ibis (64.29) and Tadarida nigeriae (86.36) were the highest. The study recommends a massive rural extension on Poultry Production with absolute biosecurity, involving all stakeholders (Veterinary Surgeons, Animal Scientists/health workers, wildlife specialists, Agricultural Economists, Information Officers etc.) in a collaborative form for high synergistic effects.

  1. Impact of intestinal helminthiases on the nutritional status of primary-school children in Osun state, south-western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oninla, S O; Onayade, A A; Owa, J A

    2010-10-01

    In January-March 2000, the impact of intestinal helminthiases on the nutritional status of 749 pupils (353 boys and 396 girls) attending public primary schools in the Ife Central local government area of Osun state, in south-western Nigeria, was investigated. Demographic, socio-economic and other relevant information was collected on the pupils, on the same day that a single stool sample was collected from each subject and examined, using Stoll's dilution egg-count technique. The weights, heights and ages of the subjects were recorded and converted to percentages of the reference medians for weight-for-height, weight-for-age and height-for-age. The overall prevalences of helminth infection detected among the 465 malnourished pupils (i.e. those with any form of under-nutrition) and the 284 well-nourished pupils were 32.9% and 25.4%, respectively (P=0.029). The nutritional indices of the pupils who were found helminth-infected were generally lower than those of the pupils who appeared free of intestinal helminths. The mean values for weight-for-height, for example, were higher in the apparently uninfected pupils than in those found infected with any intestinal helminth (P=0.02) or only with Ascaris lumbricoides (P=0.05). Similarly, the mean height-for-age of the pupils who were apparently uninfected was higher than the corresponding value for the pupils found hookworm-positive (P=0.003). The pupils who were each found infected with two or more species of intestinal infection had significantly lower weights-for-heights, weights-for-ages and heights-for-ages than the pupils who appeared to be helminth-free. The results of a multivariate logistic-regression analysis indicated that hookworm infection was a significant risk factor for underweight (P=0.015), wasting (P=0.033) and stunting (P=0.015) whereas Trichuris was only a significant risk factor for stunting (P=0.025). It appears that intestinal helminthiasis may play a causal or contributory role in the occurrence of childhood malnutrition, at least in the present study area. Steps should be taken to control both of these important health problems, through functional school-health programmes that provide regular deworming, supervised school meals and health education. PMID:21092395

  2. Assessment of the Reproductive Health Status of Adult Prison Inmates in Osun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olugbenga-Bello, A. I.; Adeoye, O. A.; Osagbemi, K. G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. All over the world, numbers of prisoners have being increasing with majority in the sexually active age group; hence diseases such as HIV, Tuberculosis and Hepatitis are more prevalent in prisons than in the community. This study thus aims to provide an overview of the reproductive health status of adult prison inmates in Osun State. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study among adult inmates in Osun State prison. Data was obtained from 209 selected respondents using pre-tested semi structured questionnaire. Result. Majority of the respondents were in the age group 2039 years with mean age of 30.9 + 7.5. 73.2% are aware of STIs, 93.3% HIV/AIDS and 81.3% contraception. 54.6% had multiple sexual partners before incarceration and 23.3% of them used condom always. 89.5% were not involved in any sexual practice inside the prison, 9.1% masturbated and 1.4% had homosexual partners. Less than 6% had access to male condoms gotten from prison staffs and prison clinics. Conclusion and recommendation. No comprehensive reproductive health care system to address reproductive health services in prisons. Respondents' knowledge about STIs, HIV/AIDS and contraception is good, but their condom usage is low compared with the knowledge. Government should put in place specific reproductive health programmes in prisons. PMID:25763387

  3. Relationship between anthropometric and haematological parameters among third trimester pregnant women in Sokoto State, Northwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bamaiyi, A J; Adelaiye, A B; Igbokwe, V U

    2013-01-01

    The pregnancy state in a woman's life is a unique state in terms of the desirable physiological changes and the exciting reversal of the changes soon after the termination of the pregnancy. It is considered essential that to guarantee a good feto-maternal outcome the attainment of optimum anthropometric and haematological parameters are key. Our study assessed the anthropometric and haematological changes and also looked at the relationship that exists between these parameters among pregnant women.We carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study which considered 160 apparently healthy, singleton, third trimester pregnant women attending ANC at the State Specialist Hospital and 58 apparently healthy non-pregnant controls sourced from the Sokoto metropolis population. Each subject or control enrolled was contacted 3 times at 2 weekly intervals. And at each occasion they are assessed for changes in the anthropometric and haematological parameters. The response rate was 93.6% (3 pregnants and 11 controls were loss to follow up). The pregnant and control subgroups mean ages were 28.02 6.81 years and 26.89 5.84 years respectively (p = 0.265). Weekly weight gains of 0.48kg among the pregnant sub-group against 0.13kg obtained in the control group were recorded. BMI increase of about 0.19kg/m2 per week among the pregnant sub-group and only 0.05kg per week in the controls. 95% of the distribution of pregnant sub-group has haemoglobin and haematocrit of ?8.9g/dL and ?26% respectively. Among the pregnant sub-group, mean weekly haemoglobin and haematocrit drop of 0.24g/dL and 0.74% were respectively recorded. A steady rise in WBC was recorded but platelets counts dropped at an average of 5.04 x 103 /?L per week. A positive correlation between BMI and haemoglobin levels was observed (r > 0 and p < 0.05). No particular regularity in the relationship between BMI and WBC was noticed. We conclude that there was optimum weight gain and good haematological indices for those with good BMI during the third trimester of pregnancy. There was a positive correlation between BMI and plasma haemoglobin level but WBC showed no particular relationship with the anthropometric changes. We therefore, recommend that good education to improve the socio- economic wellbeing of the girl-child be encouraged to boost self sufficiency for better weight gains and to facilitate access to good healthcare so that the ideal anthropometric and haematological parameters can be achieved during pregnancy to guarantee good feto-maternal outcome. PMID:24937399

  4. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has generated renewed interest in recent times, as herbal preparations are increasingly being used in both human and animal healthcare systems. Diarrhoea is one of the common clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders caused by both infectious and non-infectious agents and an important livestock debilitating condition. Plateau State is rich in savannah and forest vegetations and home to a vast collection of plants upheld in folklore as having useful medicinal applications. There is however scarcity of documented information on the medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in the state, thus the need for this survey. Ten (10) out of 17 Local Government Areas (LGAs), spread across the three senatorial zones were selected. Farmers were interviewed using well structured, open-ended questionnaire and guided dialogue techniques between October and December 2010. Medicinal plants reported to be effective in diarrhoea management were collected using the guided field-walk method for identification and authentication. Results A total of 248 questionnaires were completed, out of which 207 respondents (83.47%) acknowledged the use of herbs in diarrhoea management, while 41 (16.53%) do not use herbs or apply other traditional methods in the treatment of diarrhoea in their animals. Medicinal plants cited as beneficial in the treatment of animal diarrhoea numbered 132, from which 57(43.18%) were scientifically identified and classified into 25 plant families with the families Fabaceae (21%) and Combretaceae (14.04%) having the highest occurrence. The plant parts mostly used in antidiarrhoeal herbal preparations are the leaves (43.86%) followed by the stem bark (29.82%). The herbal preparations are usually administered orally. Conclusion Rural communities in Plateau State are a rich source of information on medicinal plants as revealed in this survey. There is need to scientifically ascertain the authenticity of the claimed antidiarrhoeal properties of these plants and perhaps develop more readily available alternatives in the treatment of diarrhoea. PMID:21745405

  5. 75 FR 82127 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: Central Nigeria Unmasked...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Central Nigeria Unmasked: Arts of... the exhibition ``Central Nigeria Unmasked: Arts of the Benue River Valley,'' imported from abroad...

  6. Strengthening primary healthcare through community involvement in Cross River State, Nigeria: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Adie, Hilary; Igbang, Thomas; Otu, Akaninyene; Braide, Ekanem; Okon, Okpok; Ikpi, Edet; Joseph, Charles; Desousa, Alexander; Sommerfeld, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In preparation for implementation of primary healthcare (PHC) services in Cross River State, a study to identify perceptions of communities and health systems concerning such interventions was conducted. Methods Existing PHC practices were documented through observation and document reviews, including facility checklists at frontline levels. Perceptions of consumers and providers on PHC were elucidated through 32 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and 78 semi-structured questionnaires. Results There was some level of implementation of the Nigerian PHC policy in the study districts. However, this policy emphasized curative instead of preventive services. Private partners perceived healthcare programmes as largely donor driven with poor release of allocations for health by government. Conclusion Both providers and consumers presented similar perceptions on the current PHC implementation and similar perspectives on services to be prioritized. These common views together with their on-going participatory experience are important platforms for strengthening community participation in the delivery of PHC. PMID:25237418

  7. Seroprevalence of fowl pox antibody in indigenous chickens in jos north and South council areas of plateau state, Nigeria: implication for vector vaccine.

    PubMed

    Adebajo, Meseko Clement; Ademola, Shittu Ismail; Oluwaseun, Akinyede

    2012-01-01

    Fowl pox is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The large size of the genome makes it a useful vector for recombinant DNA technology. Although the disease has been described in both commercial and indigenous chickens in Nigeria, data are limited on seroprevalence in free range chickens. Such data are, however, important in the design and implementation of fowl pox virus vector vaccine. We surveyed current antibody status to fowl pox virus in free range chickens by testing 229 sera collected from 10 villages in Jos North and Jos South LGA of Plateau State Nigeria. Sera were analyzed by AGID against standard fowl pox antigen. Fifty-two of the 229 (23%) tested sera were positive for fowl pox virus antibody, and the log titre in all positive specimen was >2. Thirty (21%) and twenty-two (27%) of the samples from Jos South and Jos North, respectively, tested positive. This was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.30). Generally the study showed a significant level of antibody to fowl pox virus in the study area. This observation may hinder effective use of fowl pox vectored viral vaccine. Fowl pox control is recommended to reduce natural burden of the disease. PMID:23762578

  8. Nigeria. Spotlight.

    PubMed

    Lecky, M

    1984-12-01

    Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, currently has no official population policy; however, recent news releases from the Federal Ministry of Information indicate that efforts to deal with rapid population growth may be forthcouming. Adequate census materials are lacking. In 1984 population size was estimated to be 88 million, and in 1983 the estimated crude birth rate was 48-51/1000, the estimated crude death rate was 16-18/1000, and the population growth rate was approximately 3.0%-3.5%. Other estimates for 1983 placed the infant mortality rate at 134 and life expectancy at 49 years. The total fertility rate observed in a 1981 World Fertility Study was 5.4, but this rate was questioned by investigators, who believe it is too low. World Bank projections, based on the assumption that fertility declines will begin soon, indicate that the population will reach 618 million before stabilizing toward the end of the 21st century. At the present time, only 6% of Nigeria's women of reproductive age use contraception, and most of these women contracept only for spacing purposes. Nigeria, which obtained independence in 1960, is plagued by internal strife between different ethnic groups. The northern region, populated by the Hausa is less developed economically than the southern region. The Ibo, who play a major role in the nation's commerical and government sectors, predominated in the the southeastern region, and the Yoruba are the most populous group in the southwestern region. 1/2 of the population if Muslim, 40% is Christian, and the remaining proportion practices traditional religions. During the 1960s, Nigeria derived 2/3 of it gross national product from agriculture, and especially from the export of cocoa, groundnuts, and palm oil. During the 1970s the economy changed markedly as the country began to exploit its oil reserves. By 1983, agriculture accounted for only 20% of the gross national product, and 98% of the country's total exports of US$11.3 billion were derived from oil. Oil reserves are expected to be exhausted in 15 years. To compensate for this expected loss, an effort was initiated in 1980 to revive the country's deteriorating agricultural sector. In addition, the government instituted educational programs aimed at increasing the supply of skilled labor for industrial development. PMID:12313400

  9. Assessment of the Cotton Industry Using the Global Commodity Chain Analysis Approach in Katsina State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudi, T. M.; Akpoko, J. G.; Abdulsalam, Z.

    The study examines the cotton commodity chain and assessed the share of each actor in the cotton industry and identified the constraints encountered in cotton production, marketing and processing. A sample of thirty cotton producers, 50 traders, 500 agents and 3 ginneries were selected from Funtua Local Government Area of Katsina State using both random and purposive sampling techniques. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the participants using focus group discussion and structured questionnaire during the 2004/2005 cropping season. Analysis of the data was done using descriptive statistics and budgeting technique. The farmersN budget analysis indicated that from an investment cost of N 33,146.00 ha-1, farmers obtained a revenue of N 44,544-00 ha-1, thus making a net income of N 11,398 ha-1, while the agent analysis shows that an agent is paid a commission of N 500.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchase on behalf of the merchant. The analysis of the tradersN budget revealed that from an investment cost of N 36,746.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchased, traders` N 41,700.00 (lint + seed) and a net profit of N 4,954.00 ton h-1 of seed cotton. The analysis of the ginnery budget revealed that from one ton of seed cotton processed, a ginnery is making a net profit of N 2,178.00. These analyses indicated that cotton production, marketing and processing under the current price and cost setting is profitable. In spite of the profitability in cotton business, the following problems were identified: adulteration of seed cotton with foreign materials, heterogeneous seeds resale in the market, inappropriate packaging systems, no good prices for improving the quality and no mechanism for ensuring transparency in the quality (trust between actors). There is the need for intensification and expansion of the cotton sector in terms of provision of high quality inputs, clean seed cotton, introduction of jute bags for packaging, introduction of quality control mechanisms and good prices in order to sustain the industry.

  10. Perception of HIV/AIDS among the Igbo of Anambra State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Muoghalu, Caroline Okumdi; Jegede, Samuel Ayodele

    2013-01-01

    Perception is fundamental in the fight against stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Perception generally influences discriminatory attitudes towards PLHIV which exacerbates their problems and quickens the degeneration of the disease from HIV to AIDS. This study examined the Anambra people's perception and knowledge of HIV/AIDS with the goal of creating knowledge on these issues in order to design effective intervention programmes towards the reduction of social stigmatization associated with the pandemic. The study was carried out in Idemmili North and Oyi local government areas of Anambra State. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used to elicit information from respondents who were adult males and females of 18 years and above. The research instruments were questionnaires and in-depth interview schedule. Questionnaires were administered on 1000 respondents while 13 people were interviewed in-depth. Analysis of quantitative data were conducted by using the Statistical package for Social Sciences. Univariate analysis in the form of frequencies were conducted which generated the distribution of respondents across the research variables. Furthermore, multivariate analysis were conducted to test the hypotheses and sought for relationships among variables. The qualitative data were reported in themes based on the research objectives and were analysed jointly with the quantitative data. The findings were that majority of the respondents viewed HIV/AIDS as a disease that afflict immoral people and as a punishment from God. Only a handful of them saw the disease as a disease that could afflict anybody. Also, many of the respondents said that AIDS is real but showed a low level of knowledge. It was further indicated that there were significant relationships between educational level, sex, occupation, income influence perception and peoples' reactions to HIV positive status of a relative while there were no significant relationships between these variables and knowledge of HIV/AIDS. It was concluded that these negative perceptions were as a result of the people's low level of knowledge and cultural belief systems, which see a strange illness as punishment from God for disobedience. Furthermore, the fact that most of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents had significant relationship with perception and reaction to HIV was an indication that most people in the study area had a uniform perception. It was also an indication that government HIV/AIDS awareness programmes were not effective. It was recommended that strategies for effective HIV educational programme should be sought and carried out in the study area. Effective intervention programme have the power to change behaviours and would likely change the people's negative perception and low level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS, thereby reducing stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:23808412

  11. Corruption, NGOs, and Development in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Daniel Jordan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines corruption in Nigerias development sector, particularly in the vastly growing arena of local non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Grounded in ethnographic case studies, the analysis explores why local NGOs in Nigeria have proliferated so widely, what they do in practice, what effects they have beyond their stated aims, and how they are perceived and experienced by ordinary Nigerians. It shows that even faux NGOs and disingenuous political rhetoric about civil society, democracy, and development are contributing to changing ideals and rising expectations in these same domains. PMID:24265511

  12. Application of remote-sensing data to groundwater exploration: A case study of the Cross River State, southeastern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edet, A. E.; Okereke, C. S.; Teme, S. C.; Esu, E. O.

    The Cross River State, Nigeria, is underlain by the Precambrian-age crystalline basement complex and by rocks of Cretaceous to Tertiary age. The exploration for groundwater in this area requires a systematic technique in order to obtain optimum results, but the non-availability of funds and facilities has made it extremely difficult to carry out site investigations prior to the drilling of water wells. Therefore, the failure rate is as high as 80%. In order to delineate areas that are expected to be suitable for future groundwater development, black and white radar imagery and aerial photographs were used to define some hydrological and hydrogeological features in parts of the study area. Lineament and drainage patterns were analysed using length density and frequency. Lineament-length density ranges from 0.04-1.52 lineament frequency is 0.11-5.09 drainage-length density is 0.17-0.94, and the drainage frequency is 0.16-1.53. These range of values reflect the differences in the probability of groundwater potentials. Results were then used to delineate areas of high, medium, and low groundwater potential. Study results also indicate that correlations exist between lineament and drainage patterns, lithology, water temperature, water conductivity, well yield, transmissivity, longitudinal conductance, and the occurrence of groundwater. Résumé La géologie de l'Etat de Cross River (Nigéria) est constituée d'un socle cristallin d'âge précambrien et de roches datées du Crétacé au Tertiaire. Dans cette région, l'exploration des eaux souterraines nécessite une analyse systématique pour obtenir les meilleurs résultats ; cependant le manque de moyens a rendu particulièrement difficile les recherches de sites de forage destinés au captage de l'eau. C'est pourquoi le taux d'échec a atteint 80%. Afin de délimiter les zones susceptibles de permettre la future mise en valeur des eaux souterraines, des images radar et des photos aériennes en noir et blanc ont été utilisées pour mettre en évidence certains phénomènes hydrologiques et hydrogéologiques en certains points de la région étudiée. L'analyse des réseaux de linéaments et de drainage a porté sur la densité de leurs longueurs et sur leur fréquence. La densité de longueur des linéaments s'étend de 0,04 à 1,52 et la fréquence des linéaments de 0,11 à 5,09 ; la densité des longueurs de drainage est comprise entre 0,17 et 0,94, et la fréquence du drainage entre 0,16 et 1,53. Ces gammes de valeurs rendent compte des différences dans la probabilité des potentiels en eau souterraine. Ces résultats ont ensuite été utilisés pour délimiter les zones à potentiel en eau souterraine fort, moyen et faible. Les résultats de l'étude indiquent aussi qu'il existe des corrélations entre les réseau de linéaments et de drainage, la lithologie, la température de l'eau, la conductivité de l'eau, le rendement des puits, la transmissivité, la conductance longitudinale et la présence d'eau souterraine. Resumen Bajo el Estado de Cross River, Nigeria, subyace un complejo basal cristalino del Precámbrico, así como rocas de edad entre Cretácica y Terciaria. La exploración hidrogeológica en esta área requiere una técnica sistemàtica para poder alcanzar resultados óptimos, pero la falta de medios y de infraestructura ha hecho extremadamente difícil el poder realizar investigaciones previas a la perforación de los pozos, de manera que el porcentaje de fallos se eleva al 80%. Para poder delinear las áreas adecuadas para el posterior desarrollo hidrogeológico, se han usado imágenes de radar en blanco y negro y fotografías aéreas, con el objetivo de definir algunos rasgos hidrológicos e hidrogeológicos en partes del área de estudio. Se analizaron los esquemas de lineamiento y drenaje usando densidad y frecuencia de longitudes. La densidad de longitudes de lineamiento oscila entre 0.04-1.52 y la frecuencia entre 0.11-5.09. La densidad de longitud de drenaje oscila entre 0.17-0.94 y su frecuencia entre 0.16-1.53. Estos rangos de valores reflejan las diferencias en el grado potencial de extracción de aguas subterráneas, que se dibuja en unos mapas siguiendo la clasificación de potencial alto, medio o bajo. Los resultados del estudio indican que existen correlaciones entre los esquemas de lineamiento y drenaje, litología, temperatura y conductividad del agua, descenso en el pozo, transmisividad, conductancia longitudinal y la presencia de agua subterránea.

  13. Childhood Malnutrition is Associated with Maternal Care During Pregnancy and Childbirth: A Cross-Sectional Study in Bauchi and Cross River States, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, Candyce; Enne, Joseph; Omer, Khalid; Ayara, Ndem; Yarima, Yahaya; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Background Malnutrition remains an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality; the levels of childhood malnutrition in Nigeria are among the highest in the world. The literature supports many direct and indirect causes of malnutrition, but few studies have examined the link between maternal care during pregnancy and childbirth and childhood malnutrition. This study examines this potential link in Bauchi and Cross River states in Nigeria. Design and methods In 2011, a household survey collected information about children under four years old and their mothers last pregnancy. Trained fieldworkers measured mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) of children aged 6-47 months. We examined associations with childhood malnutrition in bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results Some 4.4% of 3643 children in Cross River, and 14.7% of 2706 in Bauchi were malnourished (MUAC z-score). In both states, a child whose mother had fewer than four government antenatal care visits was more likely to be malnourished (Cross River: OR 1.85, 95%CIca 1.33-2.55; Bauchi: OR 1.29, 95%CIca 1.02-1.63). In Bauchi, a child whose mother who rarely or never discussed pregnancy and childbirth with her husband (OR 1.34, 95%CIca 1.07-1.68), and who did not have her last delivery attended by a skilled health worker was more likely to be malnourished (OR 1.50, 95%CIca 1.09-2.07). Conclusions These findings, if confirmed in other studies, suggest that poor care of women in pregnancy and childbirth could pose a longer term risk to the health of the child, as well as increasing immediate risks for both mother and child. Significance for public health Childhood malnutrition is a public health priority, accounting for almost 1/5 of global disease burden among children under five years old. Many studies have examined risk factors for childhood malnutrition, but few have examined the link between maternal care during pregnancy and childbirth and childhood malnutrition. This study, albeit a cross-sectional design, provides evidence of a link between poor care during pregnancy and childbirth and childhood malnutrition in two states of Nigeria. This is important for public health because it suggests another benefit of caring for women during pregnancy and childbirth. This could not only reduce maternal and child perinatal mortality, but also have benefits for the longer-term health and development of children. This finding could be useful for paternal advocacy; it may motivate men to support their wives during pregnancy and childbirth since through this support, fathers can also protect the future development of their children. PMID:25918695

  14. Improving Maternal Care through a State-Wide Health Insurance Program: A Cost and Cost-Effectiveness Study in Rural Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Gabriela B.; Foster, Nicola; Brals, Daniella; Nelissen, Heleen E.; Bolarinwa, Oladimeji A.; Hendriks, Marleen E.; Boers, Alexander C.; van Eck, Diederik; Rosendaal, Nicole; Adenusi, Peju; Agbede, Kayode; Akande, Tanimola M.; Boele van Hensbroek, Michael; Wit, Ferdinand W.; Hankins, Catherine A.; Schultsz, Constance

    2015-01-01

    Background While the Nigerian government has made progress towards the Millennium Development Goals, further investments are needed to achieve the targets of post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, including Universal Health Coverage. Economic evaluations of innovative interventions can help inform investment decisions in resource-constrained settings. We aim to assess the cost and cost-effectiveness of maternal care provided within the new Kwara State Health Insurance program (KSHI) in rural Nigeria. Methods and Findings We used a decision analytic model to simulate a cohort of pregnant women. The primary outcome is the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the KSHI scenario compared to the current standard of care. Intervention cost from a healthcare provider perspective included service delivery costs and above-service level costs; these were evaluated in a participating hospital and using financial records from the managing organisations, respectively. Standard of care costs from a provider perspective were derived from the literature using an ingredient approach. We generated 95% credibility intervals around the primary outcome through probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) based on a Monte Carlo simulation. We conducted one-way sensitivity analyses across key model parameters and assessed the sensitivity of our results to the performance of the base case separately through a scenario analysis. Finally, we assessed the sustainability and feasibility of this program’s scale up within the State’s healthcare financing structure through a budget impact analysis. The KSHI scenario results in a health benefit to patients at a higher cost compared to the base case. The mean ICER (US$46.4/disability-adjusted life year averted) is considered very cost-effective compared to a willingness-to-pay threshold of one gross domestic product per capita (Nigeria, US$ 2012, 2,730). Our conclusion was robust to uncertainty in parameters estimates (PSA: median US$49.1, 95% credible interval 21.9–152.3), during one-way sensitivity analyses, and when cost, quality, cost and utilization parameters of the base case scenario were changed. The sustainability of this program’s scale up by the State is dependent on further investments in healthcare. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the investment made by the KSHI program in rural Nigeria is likely to have been cost-effective; however, further healthcare investments are needed for this program to be successfully expanded within Kwara State. Policy makers should consider supporting financial initiatives to reduce maternal mortality tackling both supply and demand issues in the access to care. PMID:26413788

  15. Detection of Mycobacterium bovis in Organs of Slaughtered Cattle by DNA-Based Polymerase Chain Reaction and Ziehl-Neelsen Techniques in Bauchi State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Sa'idu, A. S.; Okolocha, E. C.; Dzikwi, A. A.; Kwaga, J. K. P.; Gamawa, A. A.; Usman, A.; Maigari, S. A.; Ibrahim, S.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic, infectious, and contagious zoonotic disease of domestic animals, wild animals, and humans. It also poses a public health threat and economic losses. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in slaughtered cattle, based on PM meat inspection, Ziehl-Neelsen staining, and PCR techniques in Bauchi State, Nigeria. A Prospective study was conducted on 800 cattle slaughtered in the three Zonal abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria. One hundred and twenty (15%) tissues from different organs had suspected bTB lesions at PM. Out of the samples examined 35 (29.2%) were AFB positive by ZN and 10 (8.3%) were confirmed positive for M. bovis by PCR, with an overall prevalence of 29.16% and 8.33%, respectively. Female had a higher prevalence rate than male cattle at 16.66% and 12.5 % by ZN and 5.00% and 3.33% by PCR, respectively (P>0.05, ?2 = 0.218). However, there was a statistically significant association (P<0.05, ?2 = 7.002) between detection of bTB and the age of cattle. ZN revealed that cattle aged 6 years and above had the highest number of positive bTB cases 67.9%, while cattle aged 35 years had the lowest 14.81%. PCR technique revealed that the cattle aged 6 and above years also had the highest percentage positive M. bovis cases of 22.84%, whereas cattle aged 35 years had the lowest and the overall prevalence rate of 8.33%. The study found a high infection rate of bTB among cattle and majority of the lesions 54.2% were from lungs. The prevalence of bTB was higher in Bauchi metropolitan abattoir which supplies larger population of the state with beef. PMID:26464955

  16. Detection of Mycobacterium bovis in Organs of Slaughtered Cattle by DNA-Based Polymerase Chain Reaction and Ziehl-Neelsen Techniques in Bauchi State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sa'idu, A S; Okolocha, E C; Dzikwi, A A; Kwaga, J K P; Gamawa, A A; Usman, A; Maigari, S A; Ibrahim, S

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic, infectious, and contagious zoonotic disease of domestic animals, wild animals, and humans. It also poses a public health threat and economic losses. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in slaughtered cattle, based on PM meat inspection, Ziehl-Neelsen staining, and PCR techniques in Bauchi State, Nigeria. A Prospective study was conducted on 800 cattle slaughtered in the three Zonal abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria. One hundred and twenty (15%) tissues from different organs had suspected bTB lesions at PM. Out of the samples examined 35 (29.2%) were AFB positive by ZN and 10 (8.3%) were confirmed positive for M. bovis by PCR, with an overall prevalence of 29.16% and 8.33%, respectively. Female had a higher prevalence rate than male cattle at 16.66% and 12.5 % by ZN and 5.00% and 3.33% by PCR, respectively (P>0.05, χ (2) = 0.218). However, there was a statistically significant association (P<0.05, χ (2) = 7.002) between detection of bTB and the age of cattle. ZN revealed that cattle aged 6 years and above had the highest number of positive bTB cases 67.9%, while cattle aged 3-5 years had the lowest 14.81%. PCR technique revealed that the cattle aged 6 and above years also had the highest percentage positive M. bovis cases of 22.84%, whereas cattle aged 3-5 years had the lowest and the overall prevalence rate of 8.33%. The study found a high infection rate of bTB among cattle and majority of the lesions 54.2% were from lungs. The prevalence of bTB was higher in Bauchi metropolitan abattoir which supplies larger population of the state with beef. PMID:26464955

  17. Co-endemicity of Plasmodium falciparum and Intestinal Helminths Infection in School Age Children in Rural Communities of Kwara State Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adedoja, Ayodele; Tijani, Bukola Deborah; Akanbi, Ajibola A.; Ojurongbe, Taiwo A.; Adeyeba, Oluwaseyi A.; Ojurongbe, Olusola

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection are major public health problems particularly among school age children in Nigeria. However the magnitude and possible interactions of these infections remain poorly understood. This study determined the prevalence, impact and possible interaction of Plasmodium falciparum and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in rural communities of Kwara State, Nigeria. Methods Blood, urine and stool samples were collected from 1017 primary school pupils of ages 4–15 years. Stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal helminths infection. Urine samples were analyzed using sedimentation method for Schistosoma haematobium. Plasmodium falciparum was confirmed by microscopy using thick and thin blood films methods and packed cell volume (PCV) was determined using hematocrit reader. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data. Results Overall, 61.2% of all school children had at least an infection of either P. falciparum, S. haematobium, or intestinal helminth. S. haematobium accounted for the largest proportion (44.4%) of a single infection followed by P. falciparum (20.6%). The prevalence of malaria and helminth co-infection in the study was 14.4%. Four species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were hookworm (22.5%), Hymenolepis species (9.8%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.9%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.6%). The mean densities of P. falciparum in children co-infected with S. haematobium and hookworm were higher compared to those infected with P. falciparum only though not statistically significant (p = 0.062). The age distribution of both S. haematobium (p = 0.049) and hookworm (p = 0.034) infected children were statistically significant with the older age group (10–15 years) recording the highest prevalence of 47.2% and 25% respectively. Children who were infected with S. haematobium (RR = 1.3) and hookworm (RR = 1.4) have equal chances of being infected with P. falciparum as children with no worm infection. On the other hand children infected with Hymenolepis spp. (p<0.0001) are more likely to be infected with P. falciparum than Hymenolepis spp. uninfected children (RR = 2.0) Conclusions These findings suggest that multiple parasitic infections are common in school age children in rural communities of Kwara State Nigeria. The Hymenolepis spp. induced increase susceptibility to P. falciparum could have important consequences on how concurrent infections affect the expression or pathogenesis of these infections. PMID:26222743

  18. Prevalence and Pattern of Soil-Transmitted Helminthic Infection among Primary School Children in a Rural Community in Imo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Odinaka, Kelechi Kenneth; Nwolisa, Emeka Charles; Mbanefo, Francis; Iheakaram, Alfreda Chinekwu; Okolo, Seline

    2015-01-01

    Background. Soil-transmitted helminthic infection is a common public health challenge of primary school children in resource challenged and developing countries. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and pattern of soil-transmitted helminthic infection among primary school children in a rural community in Imo State, Nigeria. Method. The study involved a cross-sectional survey of 284 primary school children in a rural community. Results. The overall prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthic infection (STHI) was 30.3%. Of all STHIs, hookworm was the commonest geohelminth observed, 81 (94.2%). The prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthic infection was more in males, 58 (38.4%), than in females, 28 (21.1%). This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.001). Conclusion. The high prevalence rate of soil-transmitted helminthic infection amongst the study population is worrisome. There is need for organized and routine deworming among school children in the community. PMID:26435717

  19. Prevalence and Correlates of Sexual abuse among Female Out-of- School Adolescents in Iwaya Community, Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kunnuji, Michael O N; Esiet, Adenike

    2015-03-01

    This study set out to document the prevalence and predictors of sexual intercourse with persons below the age of consent (statutory rape) and outright sex without consent (rape) among out-of-school adolescents in an urban slum in Lagos, Nigeria. Data gathered from a survey of 480 participants were employed. About 14% and 35% of the participants had been victims of rape and statutory rape respectively. Experience of rape was found to be a function of age and basic deprivation (Cox and Snell's R2 of 0.060 and a Nagelkerke's R2 of 0.108). Another model (with a Cox and Snell's R2 of 0.286 and a Nagelkerke's R2 of 0.394) shows that predictors of the experience of statutory rape include age, basic deprivation, living arrangement and previous attendance of school. In view of the overarching influence of basic deprivation on the experience of sexual abuse, an intervention programme that addresses the material conditions of adolescent girls in Nigeria is recommended. PMID:26103698

  20. Prevalence of hypertension in three rural communities of Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State, South West Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adebayo, Rasaaq A; Balogun, Michael O; Adedoyin, Rufus A; Obashoro-John, Oluwayemisi A; Bisiriyu, Luqman A; Abiodun, Olugbenga O

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hypertension is increasing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, but data are limited on hypertension prevalence. In addition, few population-based studies have been conducted recently in Nigeria on the prevalence and correlates of hypertension in both urban and rural communities. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of hypertension in adults in the three rural communities of Ipetumodu, Edunabon, and Moro, in South West Nigeria. Materials and methods One thousand adults between 15 and 90 years of age were recruited into this cross-sectional study, over a 6-month period, using a multistage proportional stratified random sampling technique. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric variables were obtained, and resting blood pressure (BP) was measured using an electronic sphygmomanometer. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on the JNC VII guidelines, the WHO/ISH 1999 guidelines, and the BP threshold of 160/95 mmHg. Results Four hundred and eighty-six men (48.6%) men and 514 women (51.4%) participated in the study. Their mean age, weight, height, and body mass index were 32.314.7 years, 6213 kg, 1.50.1 m, and 23.02 kg/m2, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 140/90 mmHg definition, was 26.4% (Male: 27.3%; Female: 25.4%). The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 160/95 mmHg definition, was 11.8% (Male: 13.5%; Female: 10.1%). There were significant positive correlations between BP and some anthropometric indicators of obesity. Conclusion The prevalence of hypertension in the three rural communities was 26.4%, indicating a trend towards increasing prevalence of hypertension. There was also a significant positive correlation between anthropometric indicators of obesity and BP in this population. PMID:24348064

  1. Measles vaccine potency and sero-conversion rates among infants receiving measles immunization in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fowotade, A; Okonko, I O; Nwabuisi, C; Bakare, R A; Fadeyi, A; Adu, F D

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the seroconversion rate of measles vaccine among infants receiving measles immunization in Ilorin, Nigeria. The pre- and post-measles vaccination sera of the children were tested using the Haemagglutination Inhibition test. The measles vaccines administered at the immunization centre were also tested for their potency using in-vitro titration method. Only 286 (71.5%) of the vacinees returned to give post-vaccination samples. All the infants screened had low pre-vaccination measles antibody titers. Thirty one (8.0%) of the infants had measles prior to vaccination. The seroconversion pattern showed that 196 (68.6%) of the infants developed protective antibody titers. Low seroconversion rate reported in this study was due to low vaccine potency. The titers of vaccines with low potency ranged between log10(-1.0)-log10(-2.25) TCID/per dose. This was beside other non specific antiviral substances exhibited virus neutralizing activity. Only 3 (50%) of the 6 vaccine vials tested had virus titers of log10(-3.25) to log10(-3.5), which fell above the cut-off point recommended by the World Health Organization for measles vaccines. The sero-conversion rate of 68.6% observed among vaccinees is far lower than the immunity level of 95% required stopping measles transmission in an endemic community. Failure of 31.4% of these infants to sero-convert post vaccination can be attributed partly to administration of sub-potent vaccines. There is need for improvement and maintenance of effective vaccine cold chain system in Nigeria. There is need also for periodic monitoring of post-vaccination antibody titers as well as vaccine potency status in order to ensure development of protective seroconversion rates. PMID:24825255

  2. Development Imperatives for the Twenty-First Century in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arikpo, Arikpo B.; Etor, Robert B.; Usang, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    Development as a growth process is what every person, nation and state seeks from day to day. The issues of development and better welfare are generally important to the average man and woman, especially in developing countries like Nigeria. Nigeria and other African countries need to instigate the principles and strategies that will bring about

  3. Nigeria: Energy for sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Eleri, E.O.

    1993-12-31

    Though an essentially contested concept, it is safe to acknowledge that the attainment of sustainable development requires that the growth and well-being of present generations are brought about in such ways that the ability of future people to meet their own needs will not be compromised. The availability of safe and sound energy as a factor of production is a key element in such a development process. Despite the abundance of energy resources, acute shortages of energy services have become endemic in Nigeria. This paper reassesses the common proposition that energy has fueled growth and development in Nigeria by its role as the chief source of state revenue and through its input into economic activities in the country. It is argued here, however, that conventional energy management in Nigeria has tended to create development flaws of its own. The article is divided into six sections: 1st, a general account of the energy and development linkages in Nigeria; 2nd, the failures of these linkages are assessed; 3rd, policy initiatives are considered that would be reconcilable to the nation`s sustainable development; 4th, the present reform agenda, its inadequacies and barriers are surveyed; 5th, the achievement of sustainable development, it is argued, will demand the re-institutionalization of the political economy of the energy sector in Nigeria, which will depend largely on the resolution of the dilemmas and conflicts in the country`s broader political and economic reforms; and 6th, an outlook is suggested for future policy development.

  4. Evidence for Stopping Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis in Some, But Not All Local Government Areas of Plateau and Nasarawa States, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    King, Jonathan D.; Eigege, Abel; Umaru, John; Jip, Nimzing; Miri, Emmanuel; Jiya, Jonathan; Alphonsus, Kal M.; Sambo, Yohanna; Graves, Patricia; Richards, Frank

    2012-01-01

    An average of six annual rounds of ivermectin and albendazole were distributed in Plateau and Nasarawa States, Nigeria, to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. From 2007 to 2008, population-based surveys were implemented in all 30 local government areas (LGAs) of the two states to determine the prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia to assess which LGA mass drug administration (MDA) could be halted. In total, 36,681 persons from 7,819 households were examined for filarial antigen as determined by immunochromatographic card tests. Overall antigen prevalence was 3.05% (exact upper 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.41%) with an upper 95% CI range by LGA of 0.50–19.3%. Among 3,233 children 6–7 years of age, overall antigen prevalence was 1.71% (exact upper 95% CI = 2.19%), too high to recommend generally halting MDA in the two-state area. However, based on criteria of < 2% antigenemia among persons > 2 years of age, stopping MDA was recommended for 10 LGAs. PMID:22855758

  5. Lead-poisoning in two distant states of Nigeria: an indication of the real size of the problem.

    PubMed

    Adeniyi, F A; Anetor, J I

    1999-01-01

    Lead is a toxic trace metal but useful in a number of industries and occupations. In view of its wide usage appropriate attention to precautionary measures against excessive exposure is desirable. The study was carried out in two phases; one based in Southwest Nigeria involving 137 subjects comprising 86 occupationally exposed subjects and 51 controls. Phase 2 of the study involved 880 occupationally unexposed subjects as follows: 115 subjects from Iseyin, 280 subjects from Shaki, 284 subject from Ogbomoso and 201 subjects from Sokoto, NorthWest Nigeria. Alcohol, salt and tobacco consumption were carefully monitored in this second phase of the study as well as sources of potable water. Lead (pb) was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). In phase one in occupationally exposed individuals PbB was significantly higher than in controls (P < 0.00.1); 95.3% of the test subjects had PbB greater than 40 microg/dl, the universal upper limit of acceptable PbB in Pb workers. About 70% had PbB greater than 55 microg/dl, a level now considered indicative of excessive exposure. Additionally, about 40% of the Pb workers had PbB of 60 microg/dl and above, a level indicative of the need to remove affected individuals from further exposure. Only about 5% of the Pb workers had PbB below 40 microg/dl. Interestingly, in the control subjects only about 18% had blood Pb levels falling within commonly acceptable PbB levels, about 7% of controls (Occupationally unexposed) had PbB level within the range considered indicative of moderate toxicity, over 8% had PbB above levels acceptable in occupational exposure, while about 4% fell within the range indicative of severe toxicity. PbB for unexposed population therefore, also give cause for toxicity. Phase 2 study revealed that excessive use of alcohol and tobacco, undue exposure to exhaust from vehicles using leaded gasoline, exclusive use of wells as sources of drinking water and increased consumption of the Nigerian table salt may all be pathways for increased Pb burden in this environment. These data suggest Pb poisoning of a high magnitude arising from occupational and environmental factors probably largely due to high gasoline Pb. Precautionary measures appear desirable by all who are occupationally or environmentally exposed to Pb. PMID:12953998

  6. Participatory Epidemiology of Ethnoveterinary Practices Fulani Pastoralists Used to Manage Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and Other Cattle Ailments in Niger State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Alhaji, N. B.; Babalobi, O. O.

    2015-01-01

    Ethnoveterinary practices are locally available and affordable to Fulani pastoralists in Niger State, Nigeria, to whom conventional veterinary services are often not readily available and are relatively expensive. This study was designed to identify and document medicinal plant and nonplant materials used by this group in the management of cattle diseases. Participatory rural appraisal tools of checklist, semistructured interview, probing, transect, and triangulations were used to assess Fulani pastoralists existing knowledge on traditional veterinary practices in nine pastoral communities spread across the state. Fifty medicinal materials and seven traditional preventive practices are in use against CBPP and other cattle disease conditions. Of these, 38 (76.0%) are medicinal plants and 12 (24.0%) are nonplant materials (edible earth materials and minerals). Family Fabaceae was most commonly mentioned while leaves were the most common parts used. Most of these materials are administered by drenching with few others mixed with feed. Proportions of plant parts used include leaves (47.4%), barks (31.6%), roots (10.6%), and 2.6% of each of rhizomes, fruits, seeds, and whole plants. Of recently used ingredients are kerosene and spent engine oil. Further research into the active ingredients of ethnoveterinary materials and dosages is necessary to guide their usage. PMID:26464953

  7. Knowledge and utilization of health information and communication technologies (HICTs) by health workers of the North-Eastern health zone of Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajiboye, Bosede Adebimpe; Adekoya, Adenike Jumoke; Alawiye, Mariam Kehinde; Oyedipe, Wuraola Janet

    2014-03-01

    The study examines the use of health information and communication technologies (HICTs) by health workers in seven state hospitals and a private hospital in the North-Eastern Zone, Ogun State, Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive and cross-sectional survey design method using a 12-point questionnaire as the instrument for extracting information on the use of HICTs. The questionnaires were personally administered by the researchers; responses were collated, analyzed and presented using descriptive statistics, which includes frequency counts, percentages, tables as well as bars. The outcome shows that a large percentage of the respondents are aware of HICTs. However, only a few have adequate knowledge of and use HICTs for healthcare delivery in spite of its importance to healthcare services. A few have access to computers and HICTs resources relevant for effective healthcare delivery in their hospitals, and only one of the hospitals examined is connected to the internet and none has a website. The paper concludes with recommendations on the need for the management boards of the hospitals examined and the health workers to avail themselves of the opportunities that abound in the use of HICTs. PMID:24517458

  8. Ocular Morbidity and Health Seeking Behaviour in Kwara State, Nigeria: Implications for Delivery of Eye Care Services

    PubMed Central

    Senyonjo, Laura; Lindfield, Robert; Mahmoud, Abdulraheem; Kimani, Kahaki; Sanda, Safiya; Schmidt, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Background There is currently limited information as to which conditions are most prevalent in communities in developing countries. This makes effective planning of eye services difficult. Methods 3,899 eligible individuals were recruited and examined in a cross-sectional survey in Asa Local Government Area, Nigeria. Those who self-reported an ocular morbidity were also asked about their health-seeking behaviour. Health records of local facilities were reviewed to collect information on those presenting with ocular morbidities. Results 25.2% (95% CI: 22.028.6) had an ocular morbidity in at least one eye. Leading causes were presbyopia and conditions affecting the lens and conjunctiva. The odds of having an ocular morbidity increased with age and lower educational attainment. 10.1% (7.713.0) self-reported ocular morbidity; 48.6% (40.456.8) of them reported seeking treatment. At the facility level, 344 patients presented with an ocular morbidity over one month, the most common conditions were red (26.3%) or itchy (20.8%) eyes. Conclusion Ocular morbidities, including many non vision impairing conditions, were prevalent with a quarter of the population affected. The delivery of eye care services needs to be tailored in order to address this need and ensure delivery in a cost-effective and sustainable manner. PMID:25165984

  9. Profile of dog bite victims in Jos Plateau State, Nigeria: a review of dog bite records (2006-2008)

    PubMed Central

    Alabi, Olaniran; Nguku, Patrick; Chukwukere, Silvester; Gaddo, Ayika; Nsubuga, Peter; Umoh, Joliath

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Dogs are the major reservoir of rabies virus in Nigeria; transmission to humans is via a bite by rabid dog. Between 2006 and 2008 National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI) rabies laboratory reported increased numbers of rabies in dogs and human dog bites. The objective of the study was to use veterinary and health records to develop a profile of bite victims and recommend appropriate public health actions. Methods We used the dog brain specimen result register of Rabies Laboratory of NVRI, from January, 2006 to December, 2008 and traced dog bite cases. Structured questionnaires were administered to persons who reported dog bite incident and could be traced. We reviewed records from Evangelical Churches of West Africa (ECWA) clinic from January, 2006 to December, 2008 to collect detailed profiles of bite victims. Results Bite victims linked to positive dog samples were traced to ECWA clinic from January, 2006 to December, 2008. Most bite victims were <16 years 141 (72.3%), male 128 (65.6%), and 48.2% had primary school education. Bites were unprovoked 184 (94.4%), mostly on arms. 54.4% victims received complete post exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Majority of the biting dogs were housed and unvaccinated. Conclusion This study provided important information on the profile of dog bite victims and highlights the need for a sustained awareness and education of children on the dangers of dog bite. It has shown lack of enforcement of regulations for licensing of dogs and rabies vaccination. PMID:25328631

  10. Water supplies in some rural communities around Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria: impact on water-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Opara, A A

    2005-07-01

    Two traditional surface water sources and one piped supply around Calabar, Nigeria were examined to reveal the community water use patterns and the impact on water-related diseases. Using questionnaires, it was shown that some communities trekked long distances (up to 5 km) to reach their supply source. The quantity of water collected per day in each of the five rural sources was inadequate (approximately 6 buckets or 90 liters). The traditional water sources were not available all year round, forcing users to trek longer distances for alternative supplies. Only 4.4% of rural water users subjected them to any further treatment, such as boiling or filtration. Fetching water was the occupation of children; they were the worst hit by water-related diseases, such as diarrhea/ dysentery, stomachache, worms and scabies/craw-craw. About 84% of the respondents were dissatisfied with their water supplies. Deaths due to apparent water-related diseases occurred among 6.3% of respondents during the twelve months preceding the study. The overall impact was a loss of school hours/days, loss of labor and general discouragement. The community served with piped treated water fared better in all respects. PMID:16295564

  11. School Discipline in the East-Central State of Nigeria After the Civil War (Being a Comparative Study of the Incidence and Intensity of Major School Offence).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwana, O. C.

    1975-01-01

    A questionnaire survey of secondary schools in Nigeria is reported that examined the following offenses: stealing, dishonesty, sex offenses, disobedience, truancy, assault and insult, drug offenses, "wickedness" (oppression of juniors and destruction of property), and strikes and mass demonstrations. (LBH)

  12. Pilot survey of oral health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study of adults in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okunseri, Christopher; Chattopadhyay, Amit; Lugo, R Ivn; McGrath, Colman

    2005-01-01

    Background Oral health studies conducted so far in Nigeria have documented prevalence and incidence of dental disease using traditional clinical measures. However none have investigated the use of an oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) instrument to document oral health outcomes. The aims of this study are: to describe how oral health affects and impacts quality of life (QoL) and to explore the association between these affects and the oral health care seeking behavior of adults in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional survey recruited 356 adults aged 1864 years from two large hospital outpatient departments and from members of a university community. Closed-ended oral health questionnaire with "effect and impact" item-questions from OHQoL-UK instrument was administered by trained interviewers. Collected data included sociodemographic, dental visits, and effects and impact of oral health on QoL. Univariate and bivariable analyses were done and a chi-square test was used to test differences in proportions. Multivariable analyses using ANOVA examined the association between QoL factors and visits to a dentist. Results Complete data was available for 83% of the participants. About 62% of participants perceived their oral health as affecting their QoL. Overall, 82%, 63%, and 77% of participants perceived that oral health has an effect on their eating or enjoyment of food, sleep or ability to relax, and smiling or laughing, respectively. Some 46%, 36%, and 25% of participants reported that oral health impact their daily activities, social activities, and talking to people, respectively. Dental visits within the last year was significantly associated with eating, speech, and finance (P < 0.05). The summary score for the oral health effects on QoL ranged from 33 to 80 with a median value of 61 (95% CI: 60, 62) and interquartile range of 5270. Multivariable modeling suggested a model containing only education (F = 6.5, pr>F = 0.0111). The mean of effects sum score for those with secondary/tertiary education levels (mean = 61.8; 95% CI: 60.6, 62.9) was significantly higher than those with less than secondary level of education (mean = 57.2; 95% CI: 57.2, 60.6). Conclusion Most adults in the study reported that oral health affects their life quality, and have little/no impact on their quality of life. Dental visits within the last year were associated with eating, speech, and finance. PMID:16042806

  13. Barriers to use of modern contraceptives among women in an inner city area of Osogbo metropolis, Osun state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Asekun-Olarinmoye, EO; Adebimpe, WO; Bamidele, JO; Odu, OO; Asekun-Olarinmoye, IO; Ojofeitimi, EO

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the knowledge and attitudes on modern contraceptive use of women living in an inner city area of Osogbo. Materials and methods Three hundred and fifty nine women of childbearing age were studied utilizing a community-based, descriptive, cross-sectional study design. A multistage random sampling technique was used in recruiting respondents to the study. A four-part questionnaire was applied dually, by interviewers and by respondents’ self administration, and the data was analyzed using the SPSS software version 17.0. Results The mean age of respondents was 28.6 ± 6.65 years. The majority (90.3%) of respondents were aware of modern methods of family planning (FP), 76.0% claimed awareness of where to obtain FP services, and 74.9% knew of at least five methods. However, only 30.6% had ever used contraceptives, while only 13.1% were current users. The most frequently used method was the male condom. The commonly perceived barriers accounting for low use of FP methods were fear of perceived side effects (44.0%), ignorance (32.6%), misinformation (25.1%), superstition (22.0%), and culture (20.3%). Some reasons were proffered for respondents’ nonuse of modern contraception. Predictors of use of modern contraceptives include the awareness of a place of FP service provision, respondents’ approval of the use of contraceptives, higher education status, and being married. Conclusion Most of the barriers reported appeared preventable and removable and may be responsible for the reported low point prevalence of use of contraceptives. It is recommended that community-based behavioral-change communication programs be instituted, aimed at improving the perceptions of women with respect to bridging knowledge gaps about contraceptive methods and to changing deep-seated negative beliefs related to contraceptive use in Nigeria. PMID:24143124

  14. Expulsion of illegals from Nigeria: round two.

    PubMed

    Adepoju, A

    1986-01-01

    Within 5 years of the initiation of the Protocol on Free Movement of Persons, and the implementation of the 1st phase regarding the right of entry for citizens of the Economic Community of West African States, Nigeria has twice evoked the very clauses of the Protocol to expel and periodically repatriate illegal aliens. The Minister of Internal Affairs gave several reasons why the influex of illegal aliens into Nigeria was difficult to control, 3 of these are: 1) Nigerian borders are too vast and porous and are hence difficult to police effectively; 2) nationals of neighboring countries -- Benin, Niger, Chad, Cameroon -- have common features, cultures, and traditions with Nigerians; and 3) identification of aliens is difficult at 1st sight once they enter Nigeria, and mix with people of the same ethnic and cultural milieu. The period of the short-lived oil boom in Nigeria, the expanded employment opportunities, and the enhanced wages consequent to the huge wage increases of the mid 1970's generated huge wage differentials between Nigeria and its neighbors. Although the events leading to the expulsion of aliens had been gradual, the actual expulsion was less dramatic and sudden than the 1983 quit order. The expulsion of illegal aliens from various parts of Africa is now a common phenomenon. Procedures to be followed before governments expel non-nationals are stated. PMID:12314919

  15. Radiological study of sachet-packaged water: a case study of the products in Owo local government area of Ondo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aladeniyi, K; Aladenika, A K

    2015-09-01

    The radioactivity levels of some sachet-packaged drinking water produced and used in Owo, a local government area of Ondo State, Nigeria, were measured. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra varied between 0.6??????0.2 Bq L(-1) and 11.6??????3.2 Bq L(-1) with an arithmetic mean????standard deviation of 6.6??????3.6 Bq L(-1), the activity concentrations of (228)Ra varied between 4.5??????2.1 Bq L(-1) and 18.6??????6.1 Bq L(-1) with an arithmetic mean????standard deviation of 12.2??????4.5 Bq L(-1) and that of (40)K varied between 22??????6 Bq L(-1) and 142??????41 Bq L(-1) with an arithmetic mean????standard deviation of 68??????45 Bq L(-1). (40)K was not detected in one sample. The resulting annual effective doses due to ingestion of the radionuclides (226)Ra and (228)Ra in the water samples varied between 2.4 mSv and 11.5 mSv with an arithmetic mean????standard deviation of 7.5??????2.8 mSv, which are higher than the recommended standards of WHO and UNSCEAR. Therefore this study shows that it is not radiologically advisable to consume any of the sachet drinking water studied. PMID:26295615

  16. Rural health and labour supplies: empirical evidence from the World Bank Assisted Agricultural Development Project in the Kwara State of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Umeh, J C

    1991-01-01

    The efforts made in this study are in two areas. First, an effort has been made to determine whether there are any health or labour supply differences between ADP and non-ADP households. Second, an effort has also been made to determine whether differences in health, housing and nutrition, if any, have an effect on labour supply. All the efforts are attempts to focus research attention on the Nigeria's resource endowment factor and at the same time assess the impact of rural infrastructure capital and thus the World Bank Assisted Agricultural Development Projects (ADP) on the rural Nigerian residents and their industry. Using 175 households, 50 from the ADP and 125 from the non-ADP areas, the discriptive statistic indicates strong mean significant differences for the descriptors of nutrition, housing and state of health among the two sample categories. The discriminant function strongly discriminates between the two sample groups while the multiple regression analysis establishes a causal relationship between the discriptors of rural healthy days and labour supply for the two sample data sets. The policy implication of the study is that the implementation of the ADP particularly the Ilorin, leads to the improvement of quality of life and greater infusion of high quality labour into the rural agricultural industry. Higher productivity and increased farm family income and enhanced rural life which results is a useful virile circle necessary for laying the bedrock for the rural development. PMID:1871606

  17. Pollution indexing and health risk assessments of trace elements in indoor dusts from classrooms, living rooms and offices in Ogun State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olujimi, Olanrewaju; Steiner, Oliver; Goessler, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are known to have a negative impact on human health especially children through oral ingestion. Total metal concentrations were determined in indoor dust from 19 locations consisting of classrooms, living rooms and offices in Ogun State, Nigeria. Digestion and instrumentation reproducibility were validated using certified reference materials (BCR 723 (Road Dust), NIST 2711a (Montana Soil) and NIST SRM 1640e (Trace element in water)). The measured and certified values showed good agreement. Potential threat levels using geo-accumulation (Igeo) and human health risk for both children and adult were assessed. The mean Igeo levels for the classified and probable carcinogens is in the order Cd (4.84) > Cr (3.28) > Pb (2.61) > Ni (2.48) > As (1.64) while other elements are in the order Zn (5.41) > Ba (4.86) > Sr (4.38) > Zn (4.27) > V (3.24) > Cu (3.14) > Hg (2.61) ≈ TI (2.61). For human health risk, ingestion was the main route of exposure followed by dermal uptake and inhalation. Hazard index values for all studied metals were lower than the safe level of 1 while Hg vapor exhibited the highest risk value (0.13) in the case of children. The carcinogenic risk for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb were all within the acceptable level (10-4-10-6), but there was potential carcinogenic risk posed by Cr for both adults and children.

  18. The Imo State (Nigeria) Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Project, 1. Description of the project, evaluation methods, and impact on intervening variables.

    PubMed

    Blum, D; Emeh, R N; Huttly, S R; Dosunmu-Ogunbi, O; Okeke, N; Ajala, M; Okoro, J I; Akujobi, C; Kirkwood, B R; Feachem, R G

    1990-01-01

    A health impact evaluation was conducted in conjunction with the Imo State Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Project in Nigeria. The project consisted of a package of water supply, sanitation, and health and hygiene education given by village-based workers. The evaluation was a quasi-experimental study covering pre-, peri- and post-intervention periods. Data were collected from 3 intervention and 2 control villages. Baseline surveys indicated that the intervention and control areas were similar with respect to most socio-demographic variables. Use of the improved water supply was high, although this was influenced by borehole-to-population ratios and household-to-borehole distances. Water collection time was consequently greatly reduced. Data from a small sample of households showed that borehole water became heavily contaminated during collection and storage, and that there was no significant change in consumption of water per person. Adults in 46% of household units in the intervention area were using ventilated improved pit latrines by the end of the study period. Use by young children (2-5 years old), however, was low. Limitations in the success of the health education component of the project were found. Although changes were found in knowledge, attitudes and practices related to water and sanitation, and in management of childhood diarrhoea, this occurred in both the intervention and control areas. PMID:2389329

  19. Work-related stress perception and hypertension amongst health workers of a mission hospital in Oyo State, south-western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Owolabi, Mojisola O.; OlaOlorun, Akintayo D.; Olofin, Ayo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Globalisation and changes in the nature of work have resulted in increasing work-related stress in people in developing countries. Work stress is at present already acknowledged as one of the epidemics of modern working life. It is associated with a number of disease conditions, such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, affective disorders, depression, disturbed metabolism (risk of Type II diabetes) and musculoskeletal disorders. Objective This study was a work site cross-sectional descriptive study carried out amongst the health workers at the Baptist Medical Centre Ogbomoso, Oyo State, south-western Nigeria. The aim of the study was to discern the prevalence of perceived work stress and to explore the relationship between perceived work stress and the presence of hypertension. Methods A total of 324 consenting health workers of the institution were administered the job demand-control questionnaire to assess work stress. A standardised questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and other personal data. Measurements of blood pressure, weight and height were carried out and body mass indices were calculated. Results More than a quarter (26.2%) of the subjects perceived themself as stressed at work. The single largest group of hypertensive subjects was seen amongst subjects with work stress. Conclusion A significant number of health workers in this study is afflicted by work-related stress and perceived work stress was found to be significantly associated with higher hypertension prevalence.

  20. The WWW in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olorunsola, R.; Adeoti-Adekeye, A.

    1997-01-01

    Before Nigeria can connect to the World Wide Web, it must have a national computer network and a series of organization-based intranets. This letter assesses Nigeria's communications infrastructure; discusses what is being done to improve it; and credits its shortcomings to low university funding, rising computers costs, currency exchange rates,

  1. Welcome to Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Iowa Univ., Cedar Falls. Geographic Alliance of Iowa.

    This lesson plans project provides information and classroom-ready lesson plans about Nigeria. These lesson plans can stand alone or be used in conjunction with one another. They have been correlated to coincide with the standards set forth in Geography for Life. Following background information "Why Study Nigeria?" (A. Shields), lesson plans are…

  2. Challenging tradition in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Supriya, K E

    1991-01-01

    In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs. PMID:12284522

  3. Prevalence and Causes of Blindness and Visual Impairment in Sokoto State, Nigeria: Baseline Data for Vision 2020: The Right to Sight Eye Care Programme

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Nasiru; Mansur, Rabiu M.; Dantani, Adamu M.; Elhassan, Elizabeth; Isiyaku, Sunday

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of low vision and blindness, identify the causes, and suggest policies for an effective eye care program based on 2005 data from Sokoto State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A stratified two-stage cluster sampling method was used to quantify the prevalence of blindness and the causes from 4 health zones in Sokoto State. Subjects were evaluated using a magnifying loupe, direct ophthalmoscope and torchlight. Data were collected based on the World Health Organization prevention of blindness coding for an eye examination. Prevalences with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and surgical coverage for causes of blindness was also analyzed. Results: The response rate was 91%. The prevalence of bilateral blindness was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.52.3%) ranging from 1.6% to 2.0% across the four health zones. The prevalence was 2.1% (95% CI: 1.62.6%) in males and 1.6% (95% CI: 1.12.1%) in females. The leading cause of bilateral blindness was cataract (51.6%), followed by uncorrected aphakia (20.9%) and glaucoma (11%). The prevalence of bilateral operable cataract was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.52.3%). The cataract surgical coverage (individuals with visual acuity <6/60) for the study was lower than the couching coverage (4.4% vs. 14.9%, respectively). Surgical coverage for trichiasis was 4.4%. The major barrier to cataract and glaucoma management was cost. Conclusions: The prevalence of blindness in Sokoto State is high yet the main causes are largely avoidable. Barriers can be reduced by appropriate health education regarding the eye care program and the provision of integrated, sustainable, affordable and equitable services. PMID:21731322

  4. Childhood Lead Poisoning Associated with Gold Ore Processing: a Village-Level InvestigationZamfara State, Nigeria, OctoberNovember 2010

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Yi-Chun; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Neri, Antonio; Durant, James; Jefferies, Taran; Medina-Marino, Andrew; de Ravello, Lori; Thoroughman, Douglas; Davis, Lora; Dankoli, Raymond S.; Samson, Matthias Y.; Ibrahim, Luka M.; Okechukwu, Ossai; Umar-Tsafe, Nasir T.; Dama, Alhassan H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: During MayJune 2010, a childhood lead poisoning outbreak related to gold ore processing was confirmed in two villages in Zamfara State, Nigeria. During JuneSeptember of that year, villages with suspected or confirmed childhood lead poisoning continued to be identified in Zamfara State. Objectives: We investigated the extent of childhood lead poisoning [? 1 child with a blood lead level (BLL) ? 10 g/dL] and lead contamination (? 1 soil/dust sample with a lead level > 400 parts per million) among villages in Zamfara State and identified villages that should be prioritized for urgent interventions. Methods: We used chain-referral sampling to identify villages of interest, defined as villages suspected of participation in gold ore processing during the previous 12 months. We interviewed villagers, determined BLLs among children < 5 years of age, and analyzed soil/dust from public areas and homes for lead. Results: We identified 131 villages of interest and visited 74 (56%) villages in three local government areas. Fifty-four (77%) of 70 villages that completed the survey reported gold ore processing. Ore-processing villages were more likely to have ? 1 child < 5 years of age with lead poisoning (68% vs. 50%, p = 0.17) or death following convulsions (74% vs. 44%, p = 0.02). Soil/dust contamination and BLL ? 45 g/dL were identified in ore-processing villages only [50% (p < 0.001) and 15% (p = 0.22), respectively]. The odds of childhood lead poisoning or lead contamination was 3.5 times as high in ore-processing villages than the other villages (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 11.3). Conclusion: Childhood lead poisoning and lead contamination were widespread in surveyed areas, particularly among villages that had processed ore recently. Urgent interventions are required to reduce lead exposure, morbidity, and mortality in affected communities. PMID:22766030

  5. The High Cost of Free Tuberculosis Services: Patient and Household Costs Associated with Tuberculosis Care in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Alobu, Isaac; lgwenyi, Chika; Hopewell, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Poverty is both a cause and consequence of tuberculosis. The objective of this study is to quantify patient/household costs for an episode of tuberculosis (TB), its relationships with household impoverishment, and the strategies used to cope with the costs by TB patients in a resource-limited high TB/HIV setting. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in three rural hospitals in southeast Nigeria. Consecutive adults with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB were interviewed to determine the costs each incurred in their care-seeking pathway using a standardised questionnaire. We defined direct costs as out-of-pocket payments, and indirect costs as lost income. Results Of 452 patients enrolled, majority were male 55% (249), and rural residents 79% (356), with a mean age of 34 (11.6) years. Median direct pre-diagnosis/diagnosis cost was $49 per patient. Median direct treatment cost was $36 per patient. Indirect pre-diagnostic and treatment costs were $416, or 79% of total patient costs, $528. The median total cost of TB care per household was $592; corresponding to 37% of median annual household income pre-TB. Most patients reported having to borrow money 212(47%), sell assets 42(9%), or both 144(32%) to cope with the cost of care. Following an episode of TB, household income reduced increasing the proportion of households classified as poor from 54% to 79%. Before TB illness, independent predictors of household poverty were; rural residence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.8), HIV-positive status (aOR 4.8), and care-seeking at a private facility (aOR 5.1). After TB care, independent determinants of household poverty were; younger age (?35 years; aOR 2.4), male gender (aOR 2.1), and HIV-positive status (aOR 2.5). Conclusion Patient and household costs for TB care are potentially catastrophic even where services are provided free-of-charge. There is an urgent need to implement strategies for TB care that are affordable for the poor. PMID:24015293

  6. A survey of malaria and some arboviral infections among suspected febrile patients visiting a health centre in Simawa, Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ayorinde, Adenola F; Oyeyiga, Ayorinde M; Nosegbe, Nwakaego O; Folarin, Onikepe A

    2016-01-01

    Most febrile patients are often misdiagnosed with malaria due to similar symptoms, such as fever shared by malaria and certain arboviral infections. This study surveyed the incidence of malaria, chikungunya and dengue infections among a number of suspected febrile patients visiting Simawa Health Centre, Ogun State, Nigeria. Venous blood samples were obtained from 60 febrile patients (age 3-70 years) visiting the centre between April and May 2014. The rapid diagnostic test (RDT) was used to detect the presence of chikungunya (CHK) antibodies (IgM), dengue (DEN) virus and antibodies (NS1, IgM and IgG) and malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax). Malarial confirmatory tests were by microscopy and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the polymorphic region of Glutamate-Rich Protein (GLURP) gene. The complexity of P. falciparum infection in the community also determined by the use of nested PCR. These three mosquito-borne infections were observed in 63% (38) of the patients. The prevalence of CHK, DEN and malarial infections singularly were 11%, 0% and 63%, respectively, whereas malaria with either CHK or DEN infections were 24% (9) and 3% (1), respectively. No subjects were positive for CHK and DEN co-infection. Malarial microscopic confirmation was in 94% (32) of the malaria RDT-positive samples, 50% (17) were successfully analysed by nested PCR and the mean multiplicity of infection was 1.6 (1-3 clones). One patient sample harboured both P. falciparum and P. vivax. The study reports the presence of some arboviral infections having similar symptoms with malaria at Simawa, Ogun State. The proper diagnosis of infectious diseases is important for controlling them. PMID:26256113

  7. Perception of quality of maternal healthcare services among women utilising antenatal services in selected primary health facilities in Anambra State, Southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Emelumadu, Obiageli F.; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Ukegbu, Andrew Ugwunna; Ezeama, Nkiru N.; Ifeadike, Chigozie Ozoemena; Okezie, Obasi Kanu

    2014-01-01

    Background: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study aimed at assessing antenatal care service attendees perception of quality of maternal healthcare (MHC) services in Anambra State, southeast Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 310 pregnant women utilising antenatal care (ANC) services in three purposively selected primary health centres (PHCs) in rural communities in Anambra State were studied. Reponses were elicited from the participants selected consecutively over a 4-month period, using a pre-tested, semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, utilisation and perception of MHC services. Data collected were analysed using SPSS version 17. Results: Findings showed that utilisation of facility for both antenatal (97.0%; 95% CI, 94.498.4%) and natal services (92.7%; 95% CI 89.295.2%) were quite high. Generally, most of the women were satisfied with MHC services (89.7%). Most of them were satisfied with the staff attitude (85.1%), waiting time (84.1%) and cost of services (79.5%). Being ?30 years (X2 = 4.61, P = 0.032), married (X2 = 9.70, P = 0.008) and multiparous (X2 = 9.14, P = 0.028), as well as utilisation of formal health facility for antenatal (X2 = 26.94, P = 0.000) and natal (X2 = 33.42, P = 0.000) services were associated with satisfaction with maternal health services. Conclusions: The study showed high level of satisfaction with quality of maternal health services among antenatal attendees and highlights the need to strengthen interventions that increase uptake of formal MHC services. PMID:24791050

  8. Awareness and knowledge of disease surveillance and notification by health-care workers and availability of facility records in Anambra state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nnebue, Chinomnso C.; Onwasigwe, Chika N.; Adogu, Prosper O. U; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu U.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Disease surveillance and notification (DSN) is part of the Health Management Information System (HMIS) which comprises databases, personnel, and materials that are organized to collect data which are utilized for informed decision making. The knowledge about DSN is very important for the reporting of notifiable diseases. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the awareness and knowledge of health-care workers about DSN, and availability of facility records in Anambra State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional one in which relevant data were collected from health-care workers selected by a multistage sampling technique. Qualitative information was also elicited by key informant interviews, whereas an observational checklist, preceded by a desk review was used to examine the availability of facility records. Results: Although 89.8% of the health-care workers were aware of the DSN system, only 33.3, 31.1, and 33.7% of them knew the specific uses of forms IDSR 001, IDSR 002, and IDSR 003 (IDSR: Integrated Diseases Surveillance and Response), respectively. Knowledge of use of the various forms at the facility and local government area (LGA) levels were generally low, although the observational checklist revealed that IDSR 001 and IDSR 002 forms were predominantly found in primary health-care facilities. HMIS forms were less likely to be available in secondary health-care facilities (?2=7.67, P=0.005). Conclusions: Regular training and retraining of concerned health-care workers on DSN at the LGA level is recommended. This should run concurrently with adequate and regular provision of IDSR forms, copies of the standard case definitions, and other necessary logistics to the health-care facilities by the local and state governments. PMID:23661882

  9. Social support seeking and self-efficacy-building strategies in enhancing the emotional well-being of informal HIV/AIDS caregivers in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Bernedette Okwuchukwu

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the relative efficacy of social support seeking (SSS) and self-efficacy building (SEB) in the management of emotional well-being of caregivers of people suffering from HIV/AIDS. It was based at the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) center in the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo state, being the first and the largest teaching hospital in Nigeria. A 3 × 2 factorial design consisting of treatment and a control group was used. The columns have two levels of gender being male and female caregivers. One-hundred and sixty-five (165) caregivers who were taking care of people that are suffering from HIV/AIDS were purposively selected and randomly assigned to the treatment groups and control. The treatment was carried out for a period of eight weeks. Two null hypotheses were tested, both at .05 levels of significance. Data were collected with the use of standardized intruments rating scale; social support scale, general self-efficacy scale and emotional well-being scale. ANCOVA was used to establish significant treatment effects with the pretest as covariate. Even though SSS and SEB were both found to be effective in enhancing the emotional well-being of informal caregivers in this study when compared to the controls, SSS was significantly more effective than SEB in achieving this goal. Since the HIV/AIDS patients cannot be adequately cared for in the hospital settings due to severe shortages of material, personnel and time, serious efforts should be made by the three levels of the health care system viz: the primary, secondary and tertiary health care systems, to encourage the employment of the psychological management of caregivers of people suffering from HIV/AIDS. Also, the psychologists, clinical psychologists and the significant others should be encouraged to employ this psychological management in the care of HIV/AIDS informal caregivers. PMID:26831832

  10. An overview of cleft care in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Butali, A; Adeyemo, W L

    2011-06-01

    This is an overview of the present state of cleft lip and palate care in Nigeria. The aim is to stimulate further discussions on the need to improve standard of care and quality of life in patients with cleft lip and palate deformities. The number of cleft surgeries and surgeons involved in cleft repairs across Nigeria is increasing due to availability of free treatment grants provided by non-governmental organisation; therefore, it has become imperative to assess the quality of surgery and quality of cleft care. It is expected that as the number of repaired cleft lip/palate increases, more patients will require secondary repair, speech therapy, and orthodontics therapy and orthognathic surgery. The following recommendations are made to improve the standard of cleft care in Nigeria: establishment of multidisciplinary team approach, formulation of policy on quality control, establishment of fellowship training in cleft care and establishment of regional specialised cleft care centre. PMID:21670785

  11. Energy sources for Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Okoroji, C.E.I.

    1982-09-01

    A public consensus has developed on the need for national energy policies and better planning in the utilization of energy resources in Nigeria. A look at Nigeria's energy future is timely as a period of rapid technological growth and industrial development begins. At the present time, Nigeria exports a relatively high percentage (92%) of the petroleum produced annually. In addition, about 95% of all produced natural gas is flared. Only a relatively minor fraction of the coal produced is used and the rest exported to West African countries. Water power in Nigeria is not yet fully developed. Although the deposits of uranium and oil sand may be substantial, the reserves are not currently known. The proportions in which mineral fuels are used are not related to their relative abundance. Based on present production rates, domestic reserves of petroleum will last 20 years, those of natural gas 63 years, and those of coal 1503 years. Nigeria is not currently and is not likely to become self-sufficient in terms of energy requirements. During the past decade, Nigeria's population has increased by 28.4%. Of vital concern for the immediate future in Nigeria are the demands on energy consumption and mineral resources resulting from increasing population pressure.

  12. Bacteriological Quality of Foods and Water Sold by Vendors and in Restaurants in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria: A Comparative Study of Three Microbiological Methods

    PubMed Central

    Ibe, Nnenne I.; Iroegbu, Christian U.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial count in prepared food or water is a key factor in assessing the quality and safety of food. It also reveals the level of hygiene adopted by food handlers in the course of preparation of such foods. This comparative study evaluated the bacteriological quality of food and water consumed in Nsukka, Enugu state, Nigeria, using three bacteria enumeration methods. Data obtained are assumed to reflect the level of personal and environmental hygiene in the study population. Ten types of foods—beans, yam, abacha, okpa, moimoi, pear, cassava foofoo, rice, agidi, and garri—and 10 water samples were evaluated for bacteriological quality, precisely determining the level of coliform contamination, using the most probable number (MPN), lactose fermentation count (LFC), and Escherichia coli count (ECC) methods. Bacterial counts differed significantly (p<0.05) among the various food samples. However, this did not differ significantly in the three methods used for the enumeration of coliforms, suggesting that any of the three methods could be validly used for such studies with confidence. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the two major coliforms identified among 98 coliform isolates obtained from the various food samples, of which 78 (79.6%) were assumed to be of human origin on account of their ability to grow at 44 °C. The level of coliform contamination in the food samples from vendors and restaurants (geometric mean count 7.64-9.21; MPN ≥50) were above the accepted 104 colony-forming unit/g or MPN ≤10 limits. The results of the study, therefore, call for stringent supervision and implementation of food-safety practices and regular education on food and personal hygiene among food vendors. PMID:22283029

  13. Bacteriological quality of foods and water sold by vendors and in restaurants in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria: a comparative study of three microbiological methods.

    PubMed

    Nkere, Chukwuemeka K; Ibe, Nnenne I; Iroegbu, Christian U

    2011-12-01

    Bacterial count in prepared food or water is a key factor in assessing the quality and safety of food. It also reveals the level of hygiene adopted by food handlers in the course of preparation of such foods. This comparative study evaluated the bacteriological quality of food and water consumed in Nsukka, Enugu state, Nigeria, using three bacteria enumeration methods. Data obtained are assumed to reflect the level of personal and environmental hygiene in the study population. Ten types of foods--beans, yam, abacha, okpa, moimoi, pear, cassava foofoo, rice, agidi, and garri--and 10 water samples were evaluated for bacteriological quality, precisely determining the level of coliform contamination, using the most probable number (MPN), lactose fermentation count (LFC), and Escherichia coli count (ECC) methods. Bacterial counts differed significantly (p < 0.05) among the various food samples. However, this did not differ significantly in the three methods used for the enumeration of coliforms, suggesting that any of the three methods could be validly used for such studies with confidence. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the two major coliforms identified among 98 coliform isolates obtained from the various food samples, of which 78 (79.6%) were assumed to be of human origin on account of their ability to grow at 44 degrees C. The level of coliform contamination in the food samples from vendors and restaurants (geometric mean count 7.64-9.21; MPN > or = 50) were above the accepted 10(4) colony-forming unit/g or MPN < or = 10 limits. The results of the study, therefore, call for stringent supervision and implementation of food-safety practices and regular education on food and personal hygiene among food vendors. PMID:22283029

  14. Perceptions of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) and barriers to adherence in Nasarawa and Cross River States in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria during pregnancy is dangerous to both mother and foetus. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) is a strategy where pregnant women in malaria-endemic countries receive full doses of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), whether or not they have malaria. The Nigerian government adopted IPTp as a national strategy in 2005; however, major gaps affecting perception, uptake, adherence, and scale-up remain. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in peri-urban and rural communities in Nasarawa and Cross River States in Nigeria. Study instruments were based on the socio-ecological model and its multiple levels of influences, taking into account individual, community, societal, and environmental contexts of behaviour and social change. Women of reproductive age, their front-line care providers, and (in Nasarawa only) their spouses participated in focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews. Facility sampling was purposive to include tertiary, secondary and primary health facilities. Results The study found that systems-based challenges (stockouts; lack of provider knowledge of IPTp protocols) coupled with individual women’s beliefs and lack of understanding of IPT contribute to low uptake and adherence. Many pregnant women are reluctant to seek care for an illness they do not have. Those with malaria often prefer to self-medicate through drug shops or herbs, though those who seek clinic-based treatment trust their providers and willingly accept medicine prescribed. Conclusions Failing to deliver complete IPTp to women attending antenatal care is a missed opportunity. While many obstacles are structural, programmes can target women, their communities and the health environment with specific interventions to increase IPTp uptake and adherence. PMID:24059757

  15. Use of Web-based training for quality improvement between a field immunohistochemistry laboratory in Nigeria and its United States-based partner institution.

    PubMed

    Oluwasola, Abideen O; Malaka, David; Khramtsov, Andrey Ilyich; Ikpatt, Offiong Francis; Odetunde, Abayomi; Adeyanju, Oyinlolu Olorunsogo; Sveen, Walmy Elisabeth; Falusi, Adeyinka Gloria; Huo, Dezheng; Olopade, Olufunmilayo Ibironke

    2013-12-01

    The importance of hormone receptor status in assigning treatment and the potential use of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapy have made it beneficial for laboratories to improve detection techniques. Because interlaboratory variability in immunohistochemistry (IHC) tests may also affect studies of breast cancer subtypes in different countries, we undertook a Web-based quality improvement training and a comparative study of accuracy of immunohistochemical tests of breast cancer biomarkers between a well-established laboratory in the United States (University of Chicago) and a field laboratory in Ibadan, Nigeria. Two hundred and thirty-two breast tumor blocks were evaluated for estrogen receptors (ERs), progesterone receptors (PRs), and HER2 status at both laboratories using tissue microarray technique. Initially, concordance analysis revealed κ scores of 0.42 (moderate agreement) for ER, 0.41 (moderate agreement) for PR, and 0.39 (fair agreement) for HER2 between the 2 laboratories. Antigen retrieval techniques and scoring methods were identified as important reasons for discrepancy. Web-based conferences using Web conferencing tools such as Skype and WebEx were then held periodically to discuss IHC staining protocols and standard scoring systems and to resolve discrepant cases. After quality assurance and training, the agreement improved to 0.64 (substantial agreement) for ER, 0.60 (moderate agreement) for PR, and 0.75 (substantial agreement) for HER2. We found Web-based conferences and digital microscopy useful and cost-effective tools for quality assurance of IHC, consultation, and collaboration between distant laboratories. Quality improvement exercises in testing of tumor biomarkers will reduce misclassification in epidemiologic studies of breast cancer subtypes and provide much needed capacity building in resource-poor countries. PMID:24095629

  16. Challenges to Effective Implementation of Christian Religious Studies Curriculum: A Study of Secondary School Pupils in Ebonyi State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Njoku, N. C.; Njoku, D. I.

    2015-01-01

    The study is designed to investigate challenges to effective implementation of Christian Religious Studies among secondary school pupils in Ebonyi state. Two research questions were raised to guide the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Ebonyi state is the area of study and the population comprised all the 232 CRS teachers in

  17. Perception of Teachers of Agriculture about Supervised Agricultural Experience Programmes (SAEP) in Secondary Schools in Ekiti and Ondo States Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Famiwole, Remi O.; Kolawole, E. B.

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the perception of teachers of agriculture about Supervised Agricultural Experience Programmes (SAEP) in secondary schools in Ekiti and Ondo States. The population used for the study consisted of 520 teachers of agricultural science in all the secondary schools in Ekiti and Ondo States. The sample used for this study was 136…

  18. Gender Difference in Students' Academic Performance in Colleges of Education in Borno State, Nigeria: Implications for Counselling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goni, Umar; wali S. B., Yagana; Ali, Hajja Kaltum; Bularafa, Mohammed Waziri

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the differences between students' gender and academic achievement in Colleges of Education in Borno State. The study set one research objective, one research question and tested one research hypothesis. the population of this study include all the NCE students from three NCE awarding institutions in the state that were…

  19. The Role of Sandwich In-Service Program in Developing Agricultural Science Teachers in Delta State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikeoji, Canice N.; Agwubike, Christian C.; Ideh, Victor

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the role of the sandwich in-service educational program of Delta State University, Abraka in developing agricultural science teachers in the state. Data were collected from 895 agricultural science teachers who completed the program between 1989-2004. However, response to the questionnaire was by 391 in-service agricultural…

  20. Parents' Socio-Economic Status as Predictor of Secondary School Students' Academic Performance in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdu-Raheem, B. O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated parents' socio-economic status on secondary school students' academic performance in Ekiti State. Descriptive research design of the survey type was adopted. The population for the study comprised all Junior Secondary School students in Ekiti State. The sample consisted of 960 students from 20 secondary schools randomly…

  1. Impact of Substance Abuse on Academic Performance among Adolescent Students of Colleges of Education in Kwara State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akanbi, Muritala Ishola; Augustina, Godwin; Theophilus, Anyio Bahago; Muritala, Muhammad; Ajiboye, Ajiboye Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the impact of substance abuse on adolescent on academic performance in colleges of education in Kwara State. The design used for the study was the survey. A sample of 150 adolescent students was randomly selected form selected departments in three colleges of education in the State. A validated instrument, Drug Habit…

  2. The Impact of Integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Diseases Interventions to Prevent Malaria Fever in Children Less than Five Years Old in Bauchi State of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abegunde, Dele; Orobaton, Nosa

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaria accounts for about 300,000 childhood deaths and 30% of under-five year old mortality in Nigeria annually. We assessed the impact of intervention strategies that integrated Patent Medicines Vendors into community case management of childhood-diseases, improved access to artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) and distributed bed nets to households. We explored the influence of household socioeconomic characteristics on the impact of the interventions on fever in the under-five year olds in Bauchi State Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional case-controlled, interventional study, which sampled 3077 and 2737 under-5 year olds from 1,588 and 1601 households in pre- and post-intervention periods respectively, was conducted from 2013 to 2015. Difference-in-differences and logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the impact attributable to the interventions: integrated community case management of childhood illness which introduced trained public and private sector health providers and the possession of nets on the prevalence of fever. Results Two-week prevalence of fever among under-fives declined from 56.6% at pre-intervention to 42.5% at post-intervention. Fever-prevention fraction attributable to nets was statistically significant (OR = 0.217, 95% CI: 0.080.33). Children in the intervention group had significantly fewer incidence of fever than children in the control group had (OR = 0.765, 95% CI: 0.670.87). Although being in the intervention group significantly provided 23.5% protection against fever (95% CI: 0.130.33), the post-intervention likelihood of fever was also significantly less than at pre-intervention (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.500.65). The intervention protection fraction against fever was statistically significant at 43.4% (OR = 0.434, 95% CI: 0.360.50). Logistic regression showed that the odds of fever were lower in households with nets (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.600.88), among children whose mothers had higher education, in the post-intervention period (OR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.330.46) and in the intervention group (OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.480.66). The odds of fever increased with higher socio-economic status of households (17.9%-19.5%). Difference-in-differences showed that the interventions significantly reduced occurrence of fever in the intervention group (OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.362.14). Conclusion The interventions were effective in reducing the prevalence and the likelihood of childhood malaria fever. Taken to scale, these can significantly reduce the burden of malaria fever in the under-five year old children. PMID:26845546

  3. Adult Learners' Demographic Variable as Predictor of Access and Participation in Literacy Programmes in Oyo and Ondo States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olojede, Adeshina Abideen; Oladitan, Idowu Oladiran

    2013-01-01

    Literacy is an indispensable foundation that enables young people and adults to engage in learning opportunities at all stages of the learning continuum. Literacy is a prerequisite for the development of personal, social, economic and political empowerment. In Nigeria, attempt to increase access to literacy education for the enhancement of

  4. Adult Learners' Demographic Variable as Predictor of Access and Participation in Literacy Programmes in Oyo and Ondo States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olojede, Adeshina Abideen; Oladitan, Idowu Oladiran

    2013-01-01

    Literacy is an indispensable foundation that enables young people and adults to engage in learning opportunities at all stages of the learning continuum. Literacy is a prerequisite for the development of personal, social, economic and political empowerment. In Nigeria, attempt to increase access to literacy education for the enhancement of…

  5. DISTRIBUTION AND UTILISATION OF IVERMECTIN (MECTIZAN): A CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC APPROACH TO THE CONTROL OF ONCHOCERCIASIS IN OLD OHAOZARA LGA, EBONYI STATE, EASTERN NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Okpara, Elom Michael; Mnaemeka, Alo Moses; Iyioku, Ugah Uchenna; Udoh, Usanga Victor

    2015-12-01

    Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a devastating, debilitating Stigmatising and incapacitating parasitic disease that is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, including Nigeria. Mass distribution of ivermectin (Mectizan) to the endemic parts of the world was initiated by the Onchocerciasis Control Programmes (OCPs). Absolute compliance to the regimen for up to 15 years has been reported to be effective in the control of the disease. The study was carried out in Ohaozara LGA, Onicha LGA and Ivo LGA. The three (3) LGAs made up the defunct Old Ohaozara LGA. A structured questionnaire was used to generate information on knowledge of Onchocerciasis and on the use of ivermectin by the inhabitants of the communities of the study areas. The distribution coverage of ivermectin in the study areas dating from 2010 to 2014 was ascertained with drug distribution charts obtained from Ebonyi State Health Management Board (ESHMB), Abakaliki (the point source of distribution in the state), and from the health centres in communities of old Ohaozara LGA (the service delivery points (SDPs) to inhabitants of the communities. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics. Utilization of the regimen was ascertained by determining the actual number of tablets of mectizan that was administered to the patients at the various health cenrtes (service delivery points (SDPs) in the communities. The percentage utilization of the regimen was determined by dividing the number of mectizan tablets administered to the patients at SDPs with the number of mectizan tablets supplied from state point source of distribution and multiplying by 100. A total of 347, 299 out of 1, 919135 tablets of mectizan supplied to the study areas from 2010 to 2014 were actually utilized, forming an overall percentage utilization of 18.10%. There was adequate supply but very poor utilization of the regimen. The poor utilization resulted from factors including locating of health centres very far from homes of some of the rural villagers, non-yearly compliance with regimen administration, poor health sensitization and education and lack of incentives orpoor incentives to the village-based health workers (VBHWs). Intensification of efforts to cover the lapses in the utilization of the regimen is advocated for a more effective control of the disease. PMID:26939245

  6. Pattern and management of sports injuries presented by Lagos state athletes at the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA games 2009) in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a dearth of information on the epidemiology of sports injuries in Nigeria. The study was aimed at documenting sports injuries sustained by Lagos state athletes during the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA Games 2009). It was also aimed at providing information on treatments offered to injured athletes. Methods The study was carried out at Amadu Bello Stadium Complex, sporting arena of the Murtala Square and the team Lagos mini clinic. Participants were accredited Lagos state athletes who at one point in time during the games required treatment from any of the members of the medical team. Demographic data of athletes, type of injuries, body parts injured and treatment modalities used were documented and analysed using descriptive statistics. Results Within the period of the games, a total of 140 sports injuries were documented from 132 athletes with an approximate male to female ratio of 2:1 and age ranging from 15-38 years. Most of the injuries reported by the athletes were "minor" injuries. Muscle strain was the most common type of injury (31.4%) followed by ligament sprains (22.9%). The lower extremities were the most injured body region accounting for 50% of all injuries. Over 60% of injuries presented by the athletes were from basketball, cricket, hockey, rugby and baseball. Cryotherapy was the most frequently used treatment modality, followed by bandaging and massage with anti-inflammatory gels. Conclusion Establishing injury prevention programmes directed at the lower extremities may help reduce the risk of injuries to the lower extremities. Since cryotherapy was the most used treatment modality, it is suggested that it should be made abundantly available to the medical team preferably in forms of portable cold sprays for easy transportation and application during the games. It is also important that physiotherapists form the core of the medical team since they are trained to apply most of these treatment modalities and they also play a major role in establishing injury prevention routines. This data provides information that will be useful to both state and federal medical teams in preparing for future games. PMID:20205785

  7. Self Efficacy and Some Demographic Variables as Predictors of Occupational Stress among Primary School Teachers in Delta State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpochafo, G. O.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated self efficacy and some demographic variables as predictors of occupational stress among primary school teachers in Delta State. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey design that utilized an expost-facto research type. A sample of one hundred and twenty primary school…

  8. Personality Traits and Socio-Demographic Variables as Correlates of Counselling Effectiveness of Counsellors in Enugu State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyekuru, Bruno U.; Ibegbunam, Josephat

    2015-01-01

    Quality personality traits and socio-demographic variables are essential elements of effective counselling. This correlational study investigated personality traits and socio-demographic variables as predictors of counselling effectiveness of counsellors in Enugu State. The instruments for data collection were Personality Traits Assessment Scale…

  9. Perception of Business Studies Teachers on the Infuence of Large Class Size in Public Secondary Schools in Yobe State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamman, Jummai; Chadi, Aishatu Mohammad; Jirgi, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    This is a survey study conducted to determine the perception of business studies teacher's on the influence of large class size in Yobe state public secondary school. Three research questions were raised to guide the study. The population comprised of one hundred and twenty (120) business studies teachers from one hundred and five (105) Secondary

  10. Politics of Leadership and Implementation of Educational Policies and Programmes of Tertiary Institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekpiken, W. E.; Ifere, Francis O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines issues of politics of leadership and implementation of Educational policies and programmes of tertiary institutions in Cross River State with a view to determine the problems are situated and suggest the way forward. It examines the concept of politics of education, concept of leadership, meaning of planning and generation of

  11. Self Efficacy and Some Demographic Variables as Predictors of Occupational Stress among Primary School Teachers in Delta State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpochafo, G. O.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated self efficacy and some demographic variables as predictors of occupational stress among primary school teachers in Delta State. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey design that utilized an expost-facto research type. A sample of one hundred and twenty primary school

  12. A Relational Study of Students' Academic Achievement of Television Technology in Technical Colleges in Delta State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umunadi, Kennedy E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the male and female students' academic achievement in the subject of television in urban and rural technical colleges in Delta State. There are two research questions and one null hypothesis formulated to guide the study. The population for the study consists of 731 students of the six technical

  13. Vocational Interest as a Correlate of Re-Entry of Girls into School in Edo State, Nigeria: Implications for Counselling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alika, Ijeoma Henrietta; Egbochuku, Elizabeth Omotunde

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between vocational interest socio-economic status and re-entry of girls into school in Edo State. The research design adopted was correlational because it sought to establish the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable. A sample size of 306 girls who re-enrolled in institutes

  14. Home Influences on the Academic Performance of Agricultural Science Students in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndirika, Maryann C.; Njoku, U. J.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the home influences on the academic performance of agricultural science secondary school students in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State. The instrument used in data collection was a validated questionnaire structured on a two point rating scale. Simple random sampling technique was used to select

  15. The Relevance of Multi Media Skills in Teaching and Learning of Scientific Concepts in Secondary Schools in Lagos State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okedeyi, Abiodun S.; Oginni, Aderonke M.; Adegorite, Solomon O.; Saibu, Sakibu O.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relevance of multi media skills in teaching and learning of scientific concepts in secondary schools. Self constructed questionnaire was administered to 120 students randomly selected in four secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos state. Data generated were analyzed using chi-square statistical

  16. Promoting Peace Education for Behaviourial Changes in Public Secondary Schools in Calabar Municipality Council Area, Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uko, E. S.; Igbineweka, P. O.; Odigwe, F. N.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the promotion of peace education for behavioural changes in public secondary schools in Calabar Municipal Council Area of Cross River State. A descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. A set of questionnaire items were validated and used for the collection of data involving 310 respondents, selected

  17. Association of Blood Lead Level with Neurological Features in 972 Children Affected by an Acute Severe Lead Poisoning Outbreak in Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Greig, Jane; Thurtle, Natalie; Cooney, Lauren; Ariti, Cono; Ahmed, Abdulkadir Ola; Ashagre, Teshome; Ayela, Anthony; Chukwumalu, Kingsley; Criado-Perez, Alison; Gómez-Restrepo, Camilo; Meredith, Caitlin; Neri, Antonio; Stellmach, Darryl; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Shanks, Leslie; Dargan, Paul I.

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) investigated reports of high mortality in young children in Zamfara State, Nigeria, leading to confirmation of villages with widespread acute severe lead poisoning. In a retrospective analysis, we aimed to determine venous blood lead level (VBLL) thresholds and risk factors for encephalopathy using MSF programmatic data from the first year of the outbreak response. Methods and Findings We included children aged ≤5 years with VBLL ≥45 µg/dL before any chelation and recorded neurological status. Odds ratios (OR) for neurological features were estimated; the final model was adjusted for age and baseline VBLL, using random effects for village of residence. 972 children met inclusion criteria: 885 (91%) had no neurological features; 34 (4%) had severe features; 47 (5%) had reported recent seizures; and six (1%) had other neurological abnormalities. The geometric mean VBLLs for all groups with neurological features were >100 µg/dL vs 65.9 µg/dL for those without neurological features. The adjusted OR for neurological features increased with increasing VBLL: from 2.75, 95%CI 1.27–5.98 (80–99.9 µg/dL) to 22.95, 95%CI 10.54–49.96 (≥120 µg/dL). Neurological features were associated with younger age (OR 4.77 [95% CI 2.50–9.11] for 1–<2 years and 2.69 [95%CI 1.15–6.26] for 2–<3 years, both vs 3–5 years). Severe neurological features were seen at VBLL <105 µg/dL only in those with malaria. Interpretation Increasing VBLL (from ≥80 µg/dL) and age 1–<3 years were strongly associated with neurological features; in those tested for malaria, a positive test was also strongly associated. These factors will help clinicians managing children with lead poisoning in prioritising therapy and developing chelation protocols. PMID:24740291

  18. Antimicrobial resistance determinants of Escherichia coli isolates recovered from some rivers in Osun State, South-Western Nigeria: Implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Titilawo, Yinka; Obi, Larry; Okoh, Anthony

    2015-08-01

    The inevitable development of resistance has sunk the great success achieved in the discovery of antimicrobial agents and dashed the hope of man in the recovery from infections and illnesses, as diseases and disease agents that were once thought to be controlled by antimicrobials are now re-emerging in new leagues resistance to therapy. A total of 300 PCR confirmed Escherichia coli isolates recovered from different river sources in Osun State, Nigeria were evaluated for their antibiogram profiling by the disc diffusion method and the resistant isolates were further profiled for their genotypic antimicrobial resistance determinants by polymerase chain reaction assays. Among the 20 antimicrobials selected from 10 families, resistance among sulfonamides, ?-lactams and tetracyclines were found to be most frequent than phenicols and aminoglycosides with a noticeable increase in the number of multi-drug resistance ranging from three to nine antimicrobials. A total of 19 resistance determinants were assessed with their prevalence and distributions obtained as follows; [sulfonamides sulI (8%), sulII (41%)], [?-lactams; ampC 22%; blaTEM, (21%), and blaZ (18%),], [tetracyclines tetA (24%), tetB (23%), tetC (18%), tetD (78%), tetK (15%), and tetM, (10%)], [phenicols; catI (37%), catII (28%), and cmIA1 (19%)] and [aminoglycosides; aacC2 (8%), aphA1 (80%), aphA2 (80%), aadA (79%) and strA (38%)]. The Pearson chi-square exact test revealed many strong significant associations among ampC, blaTEM, blaZ and tetA genes with some determinants screened. The findings signify high increase in the prevalence of multidrug resistant E. coli isolates and resistance determinants indicating increased public health risks associated with the ingestion of waters from untreated sources. Hence, a necessity for safe water supply, provision of proper sanitation facilities and good surveillance programmes to monitor antimicrobial resistance patterns in water bodies. PMID:25862994

  19. ?-Spectroscopy measurement of natural radioactivity and assessment of radiation hazard indices in soil samples from oil fields environment of Delta State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Agbalagba, E O; Avwiri, G O; Chad-Umoreh, Y E

    2012-07-01

    The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) has been carried out in soil samples collected from oil and gas field environment of Delta state, using gamma spectroscopy operated on a Canberra vertical high purity 2?2? NaI(TI) detector. The activity concentration of the samples ranges from 19.25.6Bqkg(-1) to 94.27.7Bqkg(-1) with mean value of 41.05.0Bqkg(-1) for (226)Ra, 17.13.0Bqkg(-1) to 47.55.3Bqkg(-1) with mean value of 29.74Bqkg(-1) for (232)Th and 107.010.2Bqkg(-1) to 712.438.9Bqkg(-1) with a mean value of 412.520.0Bqkg(-1) for (40)K. These values obtained are well within the world range and values reported elsewhere in other countries, but are little above some countries reported average values and some part of Nigeria. The study also examined some radiation hazard indices, the mean values obtained are, 98.512.3Bq.kg(-1), 0.8Bqkg(-1), 54.6?Gyh(-1), 0.07?Svy(-1), 0.3 and 0.4 for Radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), Representative level index (I?), Absorbed Dose rates (D), Annual Effective Dose Rates (E(ff) Dose), External Hazard Index (H(ex)) and Internal Hazard Index (H(in)) respectively. These calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate associated with it are well below their permissible limit. The soil and sediments from the study area provide no excessive exposures for inhabitants and can be use as construction materials without posing any immediate radiological threat to the public. However, oil workers in the fields and host communities are cautioned against excess exposure to avoid future accumulative dose of these radiations from sludge and sediment of this area. PMID:22310017

  20. Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) eradication: a pilot study conducted at the Ohaukwu Local Government Areas, Ebonyi State, Nigeria, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Ogamdi, S O; Onwe, F

    2001-01-01

    The incidence and the prevalence of Guinea worm disease, a major cause of disability and a frequent cause of serious permanent deformity, were both drastically reduced in Ohaukwu Local Government Communities, with the provision (through bore holes) of a safer form of drinking water. Since 1986, the Carter Center program has been working to eradicate Guinea worm. The bore holes were dug through the Wasatan Project, a Japanese-funded grant awarded to the Enugu State Ministry of Health to help provide safer drinking water in the local communities. Bore holes were dug in several communities in Ohaukwu Local Government Areas between January 1991 and June 1991. The number of Guinea worm cases in the selected communities was ascertained and recorded by health workers. There was more than a 90% reduction in the number of Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) cases after one year. Data collection began in June 1991, shortly after the completion of bore holes in the selected communities. By December 1998, when one of the villages was spot checked for Guinea worm infection, no active case was found. There is a need for post evaluation of all the villages studied to determine the current prevalence of Guinea worm disease. PMID:11456007

  1. Occurrence of Hepatitis C Virus infection in type 2 diabetic patients attending Plateau state specialist hospital Jos Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ndako, James A; Echeonwu, Georgebest O; Shidali, Nathaniel N; Bichi, Iliyasu A; Paul, Grace A; Onovoh, Ema; Okeke, Lilian A

    2009-01-01

    Background Glucose intolerance is observed more in patients with HCV infection compared with control subjects with liver disease, Initial studies suggested that Hepatitis C virus infection may be an additional risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus. This study was therefore carried out to determine the correlation of HCV infection and diabetes. Methods Three hundred (300) confirmed type 2 diabetic patients were screened for hepatitis C virus antibodies at the Plateau state specialist hospital, Jos, using Grand diagnostic test strip. Questionnaire comprising of age, sex, family history on diabetes, duration of disease and marital status were issued to subjects. Results Overall result showed that the prevalence rate of HCV infection was 33(11%). In response to diabetic status, females subjects had a higher prevalence of 178(59.3%) compared to males 122(40.7%). Those aged 47–57 recorded the highest seroprevalence 10(30.3%) to the Hepatitis C Virus, while Patients without family history of diabetes showed a higher seroprevalence of 13(39.4%). Subjects who never had any blood transfusion recorded a prevalence rate of 6(18.2%). Marital status showed no significant difference [(P = 0.275; P.0.05)]. Considering duration of developing diabetes, patients within the range of 1–10 years diabetic status recorded the highest prevalence rate 25(75.8%) compared to other ranges considered. Conclusion This study hence, suggests a relatively strong association between HCV infection and diabetes, this therefore call for an urgent approach strategy in the control and management of this disease of the endocrine system. PMID:19586535

  2. A Report of At-Scale Distribution of Chlorhexidine Digluconate 7.1% Gel for Newborn Cord Care to 36,404 Newborns in Sokoto State, Nigeria: Initial Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Orobaton, Nosakhare; Abegunde, Dele; Shoretire, Kamil; Abdulazeez, Jumare; Fapohunda, Bolaji; Lamiri, Goli; Maishanu, Abubakar; Ganiyu, Akeem; Ndifon, Eric; Gwamzhi, Ringpon; Osborne-Smith, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background With an annual estimated 276,000 neonatal deaths, Nigeria has the second highest of any country in the world. Global progress in accelerating neonatal deaths is hinged to scaled-up interventions in Nigeria. We used routine data of chlorhexidine digluconate 7.1% gel utilized by 36,404 newborns delivered by 36,370 mothers, to study lessons associated with at-scale distribution in Sokoto State, North West Nigeria. Methods and Findings Under state government leadership, a community-based distribution system overseen by 244 ward development committees and over 3,440 community-based health volunteers and community drug keepers, was activated to deliver two locally stored medicines to women when labor commenced. Newborns and their mothers were tracked through 28 days and 42 days respectively, including verbal autopsy results. 36,404 or 26.3% of expected newborns received the gel from April 2013 to December 2013 throughout all 244 wards in the State. 99.97% of newborns survived past 28 days. There were 124 pre-verified neonatal deaths reported. Upon verification using verbal autopsy procedures, 76 deaths were stillborn and 48 were previously live births. Among the previous 48 live births, the main causes of death were sepsis (40%), asphyxia (29%) and prematurity (8%). Underuse of logistics management information by government in procurement decisions and not accounting for differences in LGA population sizes during commodity distribution, severely limited program scalability. Conclusions Enhancements in the predictable availability and supply of chlorhexidine digluconate 7.1% gel to communities through better, evidence-based logistics management by the state public sector will most likely dramatically increase program scalability. Infections as a cause of mortality in babies delivered in home settings may be much higher than previously conceived. In tandem with high prevalence of stillborn deaths, delivery, interventions designed to increase mothers’ timely and regular use of quality antenatal care, and increased facility-based based delivery, need urgent attention. We call for accelerated investments in community health volunteer programs and the requisite community measurement systems to better track coverage. We also advocate for the development, refinement and use of routine community-based verbal autopsies to track newborn and maternal survival. PMID:26226017

  3. Repositioning Guidance and Counselling and Curriculum Innovation in Higher Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyilofor, Florence N. C.

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on repositioning guidance and counseling and curriculum innovation in higher education in Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was employed in the study. The study covered four Federal universities in the South-West Geopolitical zone of Nigeria, namely University of Ibadan in Oyo State; Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife

  4. Effectiveness of Animated Instructional Resource for Learning Facilitation among Secondary School Student in Bauchi Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwasu, Isaac Ali

    2015-01-01

    The study seek to reveal the importance of instructional visual in educational systems in Bauchi Nigeria. Instructional visual play very significant roles as medium of communication for learning. The research for this article was motivated by this understanding of the need. The study carried out in Nigeria in one of the most challenging state,…

  5. Stress Management Strategies of Secondary School Teachers in Nigeria. Short Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arikewuyo, M. Olalekan

    2004-01-01

    The study provides empirical evidence for the management of stress by teachers of secondary schools in Nigeria. A total of 3466 teachers, drawn from secondary schools in Ogun State of Nigeria, returned their questionnaire for the study. Data were analysed using simple percentage and chi-square. The findings indicate that teachers frequently use

  6. Health Promotion Intervention for Hygienic Disposal of Children's Faeces in a Rural Area of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jinadu, M. K.; Adegbenro, C. A.; Esmai, A. O.; Ojo, A. A.; Oyeleye, B. A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Community-based health promotion intervention for improving unhygienic disposal of children's faeces was conducted in a rural area of Nigeria. Setting: The study was conducted in Ife South Local Government area of Osun State, Nigeria. Design: The study was conducted in 10 randomly selected rural villages: five control and five active.

  7. Health Promotion Intervention for Hygienic Disposal of Children's Faeces in a Rural Area of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jinadu, M. K.; Adegbenro, C. A.; Esmai, A. O.; Ojo, A. A.; Oyeleye, B. A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Community-based health promotion intervention for improving unhygienic disposal of children's faeces was conducted in a rural area of Nigeria. Setting: The study was conducted in Ife South Local Government area of Osun State, Nigeria. Design: The study was conducted in 10 randomly selected rural villages: five control and five active.…

  8. 78 FR 76698 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Nigeria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Nigeria Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to Nigeria...

  9. Cultural, Socio-Economic and Political Influences on Special Education in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiakor, Festus E.

    The paper describes the present state of education in Nigeria with emphasis on the cultural, socio-economic, and political influences affecting special education. After a brief summary of education in Nigeria since independence (1960), the paper looks at problems identified in special education and at Section 8, that portion of the National Policy

  10. Nigeria to step up tar sands activity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    The Nigerian government has directed its Ministry of Mines, Power and Steel to assume responsibility for the exploration and exploitation of tar sands deposits in Bendel, Ondo and Oyo States. The directive resulted from a survey report by the University of Ife's geological consultancy unit on bituminous sand deposits in the area. The statement said the government was satisfied that there were large commercial quantities of the sands in the three states. The survey had reported that Nigeria could recover between 31 and 40 billion barrels of heavy crude from the tar sand deposits. Exploration for hydrocarbons is currently going on in Anambra and Lake Chad basins as well as the Benue Trough. Apart from the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, Shell Petroleum and Gulf Oil have begun exploration activities in the Ondo area. Meanwhile, Nigeria has had to import heavy crude from Venezuela, for processing at the Kaduna refinery.

  11. The use of the partograph in labor monitoring: a cross-sectional study among obstetric caregivers in General Hospital, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Asibong, Udeme; Okokon, Ita B; Agan, Thomas U; Oku, Affiong; Opiah, Margaret; Essien, E James; Monjok, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background Prolonged and obstructed labor is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in Nigeria, one of the six countries contributing significantly to the global maternal mortality crisis. The use of the partograph would engender a remarkable reduction in the number of these deaths since abnormal markers in the progress of labor would be identified early on. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the non-physician obstetric caregivers’ (OCGs) knowledge of partograph use, assess the extent of its use, determine the factors that impede its usage, and unravel the relationship between years of experience and partograph use among the respondents (OCGs) in General Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. Methodology Using a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 130 purposely selected and consenting OCGs working in the General Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. Results The majority of the respondents (70.8%) had good general knowledge of the partograph but lacked detailed and in-depth knowledge of the component parts of the partograph. Knowledge of partograph (χ2=12.05, P=0.0001) and partograph availability (χ2=56.5, P=0.0001) had a significant relationship with its utilization. Previous training (χ2=9.43, P=0.002) was significantly related to knowledge of partograph. Factors affecting utilization were: little or no knowledge of the partograph (85.4%), nonavailability (70%), shortage of staff (61.5%), and the fact that it is time-consuming to use (30%). Conclusion Lack of detailed knowledge of the partograph, nonavailability of the partograph, poor staff numbers, and inadequate training are factors that work against the effective utilization of the partograph in the study facility. Usage of this tool for labor monitoring can be enhanced by periodic training, making partographs available in labor wards, provision of reasonable staff numbers, and mandatory institutional policy. PMID:25342920

  12. Student Loans in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuta, E. J.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes the operation of the student loan program in Nigeria, including its past problems and current attempts of the Nigerian Students Loans Board to improve efficiency of loan collection. It proposes the establishment of a new Education Bank to finance student loans and other forms of investment in higher education. (Author/DB)

  13. Knowledge, attitudes and barriers towards prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV among women attending antenatal clinics in Uyam District of Zaki-Biam in Benue State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Hembah-Hilekaan, Samuel K; Swende, Terlumun Z; Bito, Terkaa T

    2012-09-01

    Benue State in north central Nigeria has one of the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rates of 9.3%, among children and adults aged 13-45 years. To improve the survival of mothers and children and to identify the major challenges in scaling-up PMTCT services, a descriptive, study was conducted to assess knowledge, attitudes and barriers to the uptake of PMTCT by 384 women attending antenatal clinics (ANC) in Uyam, Zaki-Biam, a semi-urban area of Benue State. A standard questionnaire was used for data collection. A high number of subjects knew that unprotected sexual intercourse is a risk factor for transmission, with most 281 (73.2%) of them aware that an HIV infected woman could get pregnant; while 275 (71.6%) knew that infection can be transmitted from the mother to her unborn child. Only 214 (55.7%) of the study participants had done the HIV test in pregnancy because of, inadequate VCT centers, issues of stigma and absence of family support including attitudes of staff. Age, parity and socio- economic status, as well as location influenced the responses of respondents. In spite of the increasing public awareness in Nigeria about HIV/AIDS, there still exist gaps as a result of different levels of education and access to information, coupled with lack of trained personnel and adequately equipped health care facilities. To improve survival and probably eliminate HIV/AIDS, the integration of PMTCT into primary health care services in Nigerian communities should be considered. PMID:23437497

  14. A Multilevel Analysis of Late Entry in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delprato, Marcos; Sabates, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how factors operating at the state and community levels are associated with the prevalence of late school enrolment in Nigeria. We investigate the following three research themes. First, whether late entry varies across states and across communities and how much of this variation can be explained by the composition of

  15. FIRST REPORTS OF CLINICAL PHARMACOKINETICS IN NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Michael, O.S.

    2015-01-01

    The German Friedrich Hartmut Dost (1910-1985) introduced the word Pharmacokinetics. Clinical pharmacokinetics is the direct application of knowledge regarding a drug's pharmacokinetics to a therapeutic situation in an individual or a population. It is the basis of therapeutic drug monitoring with the ultimate goal of keeping drugs safe. This branch of pharmacology has become the most relevant to the sub-specialty of clinical pharmacology. First reports of Clinical Pharmacokinetics in Nigeria can be credited to two gifted Nigerians, Prof Ayodele O. Iyun and Prof Lateef A. Salako, both of whom were affiliated to the great institutions- University of Ibadan (UI) and the Teaching Hospital, University College Hospital (UCH). Prof A.O Iyun was Nigeria's first home-trained Clinical Pharmacologist, while Prof L.A. Salako played a most significant role in the creation of the Department of Clinical Pharmacology, UCH. This edition of the Chronicles highlights a few of the first reports of this exciting branch of pharmacology in Nigeria. This historical review is based on publications listed on the United States National Library of Medicine database (PUBMED). PMID:26807087

  16. An Examination of Critical Problems Associated with the Implementation of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejere, Emmanuel Iriemi

    2011-01-01

    It is hardly debatable that implementation is the bane of public policies and programmes in Nigeria. A well formulated policy or programme is useless if not properly implemented as its stated objectives will not be realized. The Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme was introduced in Nigeria in September 1999 by the Obasanjo's administration.

  17. Perception and knowledge of mothers on causes and treatment of rickets associated knee deformity in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adegbehingbe, O O; Adegbenro, C A; Awowole, I O; Tomori, P O; Oyelami, O A

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive cross-sectional community-based study was carried out in Ile-Ife, Nigeria to assess the knowledge of mother's on the aetiology of rickets associated knee deformities and the cultural perception of its treatment. Data collection was done using interviewer based semi structured questionnaires. A total of 464 questionnaires were administered with a response rate of 86.9%. Over half (59.8%; N=241) and 36.5% (147) of the mothers were aware of children with knee deformity and rickets, respectively. Ninety-one (22.6%) mothers had the correct knowledge and perception of the true meaning of rickets. Rickets associated knee deformity aetiology was wrongly perceived to be mainly hereditary (53.8%), cancer (50.9%) and bone infection (48.1%). Very low proportions of mothers had correct knowledge on the causes of rickets such as inadequate exposure to sunshine (21.3%) or inadequate intake of calcium (21.1%). The knowledge of aetiology of rickets was influenced by education (P<0.02), skilled occupation (P<0.0001) and the previous birth of a child with knee deformity from rickets (P<0.001). The mother's cultural perceptions of treatment for childhood rickets associated knee deformities was significantly affected by age (P<0.001), education, (P<0.001), skilled occupation (P<0.000), history of knee deformity (P<0.04) and mothers with children diagnosed to have knee deformity (P<0.004). Lack of finance, poor compliance to treatment, too long treatment periods, lack of information on where to seek for treatment and unaffordable treatment were among the important factors affecting completeness of treatment of knee deformity due to rickets. In conclusion, the awareness of mothers about rickets in Nigeria is still very low. It is a major reason for late presentation or complete failure to seek for adequate treatment of the knee deformity due to rickets. Increase and sustain public health enlightenment programmes are necessary for prevention. Health policy should incorporate free surgical fees for the established knee deformity to encourage community participation in the management of the condition. PMID:19445104

  18. Inclusive Early Childhood Education in Nigeria: The Journey so Far

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salami, Ishola Akindele

    2014-01-01

    The education of children with special educational needs in Nigeria is recognized and supported by at least three policy documents. All the three documents state that inclusion or integration should be at the heart of education designed to meet the needs of children with special educational needs. But since 2004, when government started providing…

  19. Retrenched Journals: Further on the World Bank Loan in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olorunsola, R.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews collection development difficulties encountered at Nigeria's University of Ilorin as a result of the inflation of serial subscription prices and the poor state of the Nigerian economy in the 1980s. Describes the library's successful use of the World Bank loan of 1990-1993 to fund journal renewals and purchases. (JMV)

  20. Globalizing Higher Education Access in South-West Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olayiwola, Mohammed Mubashiru; Kolawole, Oladipupo Fatai; Moyosore, Onabanjo Florence

    2013-01-01

    Education is central to national interest and cannot be solely determined by market forces. Thus, the role of the state in making education policy and funding education to embrace access cannot be overemphasized. The influence of globalization on Higher Education access in Southwest Nigeria as it affects policy making was investigated through the

  1. Problems and Prospects of Education Resource Centres in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekanem, Johnson Efiong

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria has good policies on Education and one of such policies is the establishment of Education Resource Centres in every State of the Federation, including the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The need is clearly articulated in the National Policy on Education. Despite the lofty plan, most of the centres are not fulfilling the need for their

  2. Early Childhood Education in Nigeria: A Reality or a Mirage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajayi, Hannah O.

    2008-01-01

    Education is the right of every child and must not be denied it for any reason. This has been the assertion of the World Summit on the state of global children, which has led to the inclusion and expansion of early childhood care and education in the global Education for All programme (EFA). As Nigeria has pledged its commitment to this, with the…

  3. Adolescent Street Boy Urchins and Vocational Training in Northern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usman, Lantana M.

    2009-01-01

    In northern Nigeria, over 80% of the unskilled and uneducated adolescent street boys, or "Almajiris", are from the ethnic Hausa-Fulani tribes. They depend on street begging and menial jobs for daily survival. In dealing with the situation, state vocational centers were established as the Millennium Hope Project (MHP) to provide the boys with

  4. The Future of French in Nigeria's Language Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igboanusi, Herbert; Putz, Martin

    2008-01-01

    In a surprise announcement in December 1996 in a speech at the Nigerian Institute for International Affairs, the late Nigerian Head of State, General Sani Abacha said "Nigeria is resolutely launching a programme of national language training that will in a short order, permit our country to become thoroughly bilingual". General Abacha's

  5. The Future of French in Nigeria's Language Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igboanusi, Herbert; Putz, Martin

    2008-01-01

    In a surprise announcement in December 1996 in a speech at the Nigerian Institute for International Affairs, the late Nigerian Head of State, General Sani Abacha said "Nigeria is resolutely launching a programme of national language training that will in a short order, permit our country to become thoroughly bilingual". General Abacha's…

  6. Adolescent Street Boy Urchins and Vocational Training in Northern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usman, Lantana M.

    2009-01-01

    In northern Nigeria, over 80% of the unskilled and uneducated adolescent street boys, or "Almajiris", are from the ethnic Hausa-Fulani tribes. They depend on street begging and menial jobs for daily survival. In dealing with the situation, state vocational centers were established as the Millennium Hope Project (MHP) to provide the boys with…

  7. Inclusive Early Childhood Education in Nigeria: The Journey so Far

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salami, Ishola Akindele

    2014-01-01

    The education of children with special educational needs in Nigeria is recognized and supported by at least three policy documents. All the three documents state that inclusion or integration should be at the heart of education designed to meet the needs of children with special educational needs. But since 2004, when government started providing

  8. Astronomy and Culture in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urama, J. O.

    Astronomy cannot be said to be entirely new in Nigeria. There are hundreds of cosmogony and ancient astronomical practices in Nigeria, but these need to be studied systematically. Nigerian ethnoastronomy is revealed in the folklore, ancient architecture, religious practices, traditional poetry and art works of the different ethnic groups. Though expressed within a cultural framework, much of Nigerian ethnoastronomy contains scientific principles of astronomy. This paper discusses the need to bridge the gap between ethnoastronomy in Nigeria and modern astronomy by providing scientific interpretation to such cosmogonies and ancient astronomical practices.

  9. Estimating malaria burden in Nigeria: a geostatistical modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Onyiri, Nnadozie

    2015-01-01

    This study has produced a map of malaria prevalence in Nigeria based on available data from the Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa (MARA) database, including all malaria prevalence surveys in Nigeria that could be geolocated, as well as data collected during fieldwork in Nigeria between March and June 2007. Logistic regression was fitted to malaria prevalence to identify significant demographic (age) and environmental covariates in STATA. The following environmental covariates were included in the spatial model: the normalized difference vegetation index, the enhanced vegetation index, the leaf area index, the land surface temperature for day and night, land use/landcover (LULC), distance to water bodies, and rainfall. The spatial model created suggests that the two main environmental covariates correlating with malaria presence were land surface temperature for day and rainfall. It was also found that malaria prevalence increased with distance to water bodies up to 4 km. The malaria risk map estimated from the spatial model shows that malaria prevalence in Nigeria varies from 20% in certain areas to 70% in others. The highest prevalence rates were found in the Niger Delta states of Rivers and Bayelsa, the areas surrounding the confluence of the rivers Niger and Benue, and also isolated parts of the north-eastern and north-western parts of the country. Isolated patches of low malaria prevalence were found to be scattered around the country with northern Nigeria having more such areas than the rest of the country. Nigeria's belt of middle regions generally has malaria prevalence of 40% and above. PMID:26618305

  10. Space Solutions To Sustainable Development In Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinyede, Joseph

    The fact that data from NigeriaSat-1 is timely accessible and entirely owned by Nigeria has stimulated research and development, directed towards socio-economic development activities, by many relevant institutions of government and private sectors in Nigeria. To date, over 1000 requests for images have been granted and a number of research projects have being carried out using images from NigeriaSat-1. These and other related issues are documented in this paper.

  11. Histopathological changes induced in an animal model by potentially pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis strains recovered from ready-to-eat food outlets in Osun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olawale, Adetunji Kola; David, Oluwole Moses; Oluyege, Adekemi Olubukunola; Osuntoyinbo, Richard Temitope; Laleye, Solomon Anjuwon; Famurewa, Oladiran

    2015-01-01

    Enterococci have been implicated as an emerging important cause of several diseases and multiple antibiotic resistance. However, there is little information about the prevalence of pathogenic and/or antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus faecalis in ready-to-eat foods in Nigeria. Here we report the pathogenic potential of three selected antibiotic-resistant E. faecalis strains isolated from food canteens and food outlets with different virulence determinant genes, including EFC 12 (with gel+, esp+, cylA+, and asa1+), EFT 148 (with gel+, ace+, and asa1+), and EFS 18 (with esp+ and cylA+) in an animal model. Enterococcemia, hematological parameters, and histopathological changes in organ tissues were examined in experimental animals. The results showed differences in enterococcemia and hematological parameters between the control group and experimental animal group. Enterococcemia was observed for 7 days, and the animal group infected with EFC 12 showed the highest growth rate, followed by EFT 148, with the lowest growth rate seen in the EFS 18-infected group. White blood cell count, packed cell volume, and platelets were significantly reduced (P<0.05) in the experimental animals compared with the controls. White blood cells decreased drastically during the study period in rats challenged with EFC 12 (from 7,800 to 6,120 per mm3) but levels remained higher in the control group (from 9,228 to 9,306 per mm3). Histopathological changes included areas of pronounced hemorrhage, necrosis, and distortion in liver tissues, which were more marked in rats infected with EFC 12, followed by EFT 148, then EFS 18. The results of this study suggest the presence of potentially pathogenic E. faecalis strains in food canteens and food outlets; hence, there is a need for strict adherence to good hygiene practices in the study area owing to the epidemiological significance of foods. PMID:26170700

  12. Hierarchical analysis of rainfall variability across Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nnaji, Chidozie Charles; Mama, Cordelia Nnennaya; Ukpabi, Okechukwu

    2016-01-01

    Rainfall in Nigeria is subjected to wide variability both in time and space. This variability has assumed a more pronounced dimension as a result of climate change. In this paper, cluster analyses were used to study rainfall variability in Nigeria. Rainfall data in 20 locations spread across the geopolitical and ecological zones of Nigeria were subjected to hierarchical cluster analysis and analysis of time series and coefficient of variation for over periods spanning 30 years. Maps of spatial variations of mean annual rainfall and mean rainfall coefficient of variation were produced using ARCGIS 10.1. Furthermore, a better understanding of temporal variation of rainfall was sought by an investigation into the time series of rainfall coefficients of variation. It was found that the southern parts of the country were given to more severe rainfall variability/fluctuations than the northern parts. The north central parts exhibited more similarity to the southern parts than the other northern locations. The relationship between average annual rainfall and the coefficient of rainfall variation was found to follow a power law with R 2 value approximately 0.7. With respect to variability of annual rainfall, three zones emerged as follows: a linear relationship ( R 2 = 0.90) exists between coefficient of variation and average annual rainfall for the rainforest zone of the southsouth; a power law ( R 2 = 0.86) exists between coefficient of variation and average annual rainfall for all rainforest and derived guinea savannah zones of the southeastern and southwestern states; and a logarithmic relationship ( R 2 = 0.54) exists between coefficient of variation and average annual rainfall for all northern states regardless of ecological zone. Generally, in-year rainfall variability increases from the northwest to the southwest; while between-year (yearly) rainfall variability increases from the north central to the southeast. This study further confirms that rainfall variability over time follows a spatial trend within a certain arbitrary boundary.

  13. Identification and Complete Genome Sequence Analysis of a Genotype XIV Newcastle Disease Virus from Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Shittu, Ismaila; Sharma, Poonam; Volkening, Jeremy D; Solomon, Ponman; Sulaiman, Lanre K; Joannis, Tony M; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Miller, Patti J; Dimitrov, Kiril M; Afonso, Claudio L

    2016-01-01

    The first complete genome sequence of a strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from genotype XIV is reported here. Strain duck/Nigeria/NG-695/KG.LOM.11-16/2009 was isolated from an apparently healthy domestic duck from a live bird market in Kogi State, Nigeria, in 2009. This strain is classified as a member of subgenotype XIVb of class II. PMID:26823576

  14. Identification and Complete Genome Sequence Analysis of a Genotype XIV Newcastle Disease Virus from Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Shittu, Ismaila; Sharma, Poonam; Volkening, Jeremy D.; Solomon, Ponman; Sulaiman, Lanre K.; Joannis, Tony M.; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Miller, Patti J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.

    2016-01-01

    The first complete genome sequence of a strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from genotype XIV is reported here. Strain duck/Nigeria/NG-695/KG.LOM.11-16/2009 was isolated from an apparently healthy domestic duck from a live bird market in Kogi State, Nigeria, in 2009. This strain is classified as a member of subgenotype XIVb of class II. PMID:26823576

  15. Operationalizing universal health coverage in Nigeria through social health insurance.

    PubMed

    Okpani, Arnold Ikedichi; Abimbola, Seye

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria faces challenges that delay progress toward the attainment of the national government's declared goal of universal health coverage (UHC). One such challenge is system-wide inequities resulting from lack of financial protection for the health care needs of the vast majority of Nigerians. Only a small proportion of Nigerians have prepaid health care. In this paper, we draw on existing evidence to suggest steps toward reforming health care financing in Nigeria to achieve UHC through social health insurance. This article sets out to demonstrate that a viable path to UHC through expanding social health insurance exists in Nigeria. We argue that encouraging the states which are semi-autonomous federating units to setup and manage their own insurance schemes presents a unique opportunity for rapidly scaling up prepaid coverage for Nigerians. We show that Nigeria's federal structure which prescribes a sharing of responsibilities for health care among the three tiers of government presents serious challenges for significantly extending social insurance to uncovered groups. We recommend that rather than allowing this governance structure to impair progress toward UHC, it should be leveraged to accelerate the process by supporting the states to establish and manage their own insurance funds while encouraging integration with the National Health Insurance Scheme. PMID:26778879

  16. Operationalizing universal health coverage in Nigeria through social health insurance

    PubMed Central

    Okpani, Arnold Ikedichi; Abimbola, Seye

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria faces challenges that delay progress toward the attainment of the national government's declared goal of universal health coverage (UHC). One such challenge is system-wide inequities resulting from lack of financial protection for the health care needs of the vast majority of Nigerians. Only a small proportion of Nigerians have prepaid health care. In this paper, we draw on existing evidence to suggest steps toward reforming health care financing in Nigeria to achieve UHC through social health insurance. This article sets out to demonstrate that a viable path to UHC through expanding social health insurance exists in Nigeria. We argue that encouraging the states which are semi-autonomous federating units to setup and manage their own insurance schemes presents a unique opportunity for rapidly scaling up prepaid coverage for Nigerians. We show that Nigeria's federal structure which prescribes a sharing of responsibilities for health care among the three tiers of government presents serious challenges for significantly extending social insurance to uncovered groups. We recommend that rather than allowing this governance structure to impair progress toward UHC, it should be leveraged to accelerate the process by supporting the states to establish and manage their own insurance funds while encouraging integration with the National Health Insurance Scheme. PMID:26778879

  17. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Nigeria, January 2012-September 2013.

    PubMed

    2013-12-13

    Transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria, and since 2003, Nigeria has been a reservoir for WPV reintroduction to 25 polio-free countries. In 2012, the Nigerian government activated an emergency operations center and implemented a national emergency action plan to eradicate polio. The 2013 revision of this plan prioritized 1) improving quality of supplemental immunization activities (SIAs), 2) implementing strategies to reach underserved populations, 3) adopting special approaches in security-compromised areas, 4) improving outbreak response, 5) enhancing routine immunization and activities implemented between SIAs, and 6) strengthening surveillance. This report summarizes polio eradication activities in Nigeria during January 2012-September 2013 and updates previous reports. During January-September 2013, 49 polio cases were reported from 26 local government areas (LGAs) in nine states in Nigeria, compared with 101 cases reported from 70 LGAs in 13 states during the same period in 2012. For all of 2012, a total of 122 cases were reported. No WPV type 3 (WPV3) cases have been reported since November 2012. For the first time ever, in 2013, no polio cases of any type have been detected in the northwest of Nigeria; however, transmission continues in Kano and states in the northeast. Despite considerable progress, 24 LGAs in 2012 and seven LGAs in 2013 reported two or more cases; WPV continues to circulate in eight LGAs that had cases in 2012. Efforts to interrupt transmission remain impeded by insecurity, anti-polio-vaccine sentiment, and chronically poor SIA implementation in selected areas. Improvement of SIA quality and effective outbreak response will be needed to interrupt WPV transmission in 2014. PMID:24336134

  18. Profile of metabolic abnormalities seen in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and their first degree relatives with metabolic syndrome seen in Benin City, Edo state Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the profile of metabolic abnormalities in T2DM persons with metabolic syndrome and their non-diabetic first-degree relatives who also had metabolic syndrome in Benin City. Methodology This was a cross sectional case controlled study in which convenience sampling technique was used to recruit 106 persons with T2DM, 96 people who are first degree relatives of type 2 diabetic persons and 96 controls using a interviewer administered questionnaire technique. The following were assessed: anthropometric indices, blood pressure, serum lipid profile, fasting blood sugar, proteinuria, and microalbuminuria. The data obtained were analyzed using the statistical software-Statistical package for social sciences [SPSS] version 16. A p-value of less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results The mean age (SD) of the study groups were: persons living with T2DM: 58.6 ± 11.2 years, control: 57.69 ± 60.8 years and FDR: 57.4 ± 10.6 years. No significant age and sex differences were observed in these groups. There were more females (59.7%) than males (40.3%) with T2DM. The prevalence of MS was 13.5%, 16.7%, and 87.1% in the control, FDR and T2DM patients respectively. For the T2DM group of subjects, impaired fasting glycaemia was the commonest metabolic abnormality followed by microalbuminuria, low HDL cholesterol, high LDL cholesterol, hypercholesterolaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia in decreasing frequency. For the FDR group, low HDL cholesterol was the commonest metabolic abnormality followed by hypertriglyceridaemia, impaired fasting glucose, high LDL cholesterol, hypertriglyceridaemia and microalbuminuria in decreasing frequency. Hypercholesterolemia and low HDL cholesterol were the commonest metabolic abnormalities in the control group. Conclusion The prevalence of the MS in persons with T2DM in Nigeria appears to be high. Secondly, there is a high prevalence of lipid abnormalities in all the study groups. PMID:24932458

  19. Evolutionary Dynamics of Multiple Sublineages of H5N1 Influenza Viruses in Nigeria from 2006 to 2008 ?

    PubMed Central

    Fusaro, Alice; Nelson, Martha I.; Joannis, Tony; Bertolotti, Luigi; Monne, Isabella; Salviato, Annalisa; Olaleye, Olufemi; Shittu, Ismaila; Sulaiman, Lanre; Lombin, Lami H.; Capua, Ilaria; Holmes, Edward C.; Cattoli, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Highly pathogenic A/H5N1 avian influenza (HPAI H5N1) viruses have seriously affected the Nigerian poultry industry since early 2006. Previous studies have identified multiple introductions of the virus into Nigeria and several reassortment events between cocirculating lineages. To determine the spatial, evolutionary, and population dynamics of the multiple H5N1 lineages cocirculating in Nigeria, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequences from 106 HPAI H5N1 viruses isolated between 2006 and 2008 and representing all 25 Nigerian states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) reporting outbreaks. We identified a major new subclade in Nigeria that is phylogenetically distinguishable from all previously identified sublineages, as well as two novel reassortment events. A detailed analysis of viral phylogeography identified two major source populations for the HPAI H5N1 virus in Nigeria, one in a major commercial poultry area (southwest region) and one in northern Nigeria, where contact between wild birds and backyard poultry is frequent. These findings suggested that migratory birds from Eastern Europe or Russia may serve an important role in the introduction of HPAI H5N1 viruses into Nigeria, although virus spread through the movement of poultry and poultry products cannot be excluded. Our study provides new insight into the genesis and evolution of H5N1 influenza viruses in Nigeria and has important implications for targeting surveillance efforts to rapidly identify the spread of the virus into and within Nigeria. PMID:20071565

  20. Forensic Investigation of mass disasters in Nigeria: A review

    PubMed Central

    Obafunwa, John Oladapo; Faduyile, Francis Adedayo; Soyemi, Sunday Sokunle; Eze, Uwom Okereke; Nwana, Edmund J. C.; Odesanmi, William Olufemi

    2015-01-01

    This paper is to establish the present state of things in the country in terms of legal framework and the availability of personnel with a view to presenting an overview of proper mass disaster investigations. This is a retrospective review of mass disasters in Nigeria that occurred within the last 20 years. The study therefore reviews the state of the forensic investigation of the mass disasters as well as the efforts made to identify the victims of the disaster. The process of proper forensic investigation from the stage of evaluation of the scene and recovery process to the final identification of victims are presented to serve as a protocol for the country. The assessment of the present state of preparedness in Nigeria is also examined with a view to improving the practice to international standards. Data were retrieved from official documents from the aviation industry as well as Nigeria news reports. The standard protocols for disaster victim identification were retrieved from the guide released by the INTERPOL. The state of preparedness of the country and recommendations for improvement are presented. The Federal government and the states of the federation should without further delay put in place the process of reviewing the law of Coroner's system and provide the enabling environment for the proper forensic investigation. The training curriculum of the first responders should incorporate mass disaster investigations in order to produce efficient officers and personnel. A functional disaster victim identification (DVI) team is strongly advocated to incorporate different professionals involved in mass disaster management. PMID:25657485

  1. The physiologic climate of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Eludoyin, Oyenike Mary; Adelekan, Ibidun Onikepo

    2013-03-01

    This study describes the spatial and temporal variations in the physiologic climate of Nigeria for 1951-2009 in terms of effective temperature (ET), temperature-humidity index (THI), relative strain index (RSI) and perception of 3,600 sampled populations. The main hypotheses are that (i) the existing vegetation-based ecological region could adequately elucidate the physiologic climate of the country, and (ii) physiologic stress has significantly increased over the years (1951-2009). Trends and changes in the selected indices (ET, THI and RSI) were examined over two time slices: 1951-1980 and 1981-2009. The results show that (1) the montane region was the most comfortable physiologic climate in Nigeria, and the regions around the Rivers Niger and Benue troughs were the most uncomfortable in most parts of the year, (2) physiologic stress in most parts of Nigeria has significantly increased in 1981-2009 over 1951-1980 (p ? 0.05), (3) coping strategies to the uncomfortably hot and cold climate in Nigeria are limited to dressing mode, clothing materials and use of air conditioners or fan, (4) ET, THI and RSI results could be similar, and complementary; but each is with its strengths and weaknesses for annual or seasonal representations, which the others complemented for the interpretation of the physiologic climate of Nigeria. The study concluded that the relationship between the ecological classification of Nigeria and physiologic climate is rather complex, and the former could not elucidate the latter. The study cited inadequate meteorological data, especially on wind chill, and health records as limiting factors of studies on the Nigerian physiologic climates and the effect of extreme thermal conditions on the people. PMID:22610082

  2. The physiologic climate of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eludoyin, Oyenike Mary; Adelekan, Ibidun Onikepo

    2013-03-01

    This study describes the spatial and temporal variations in the physiologic climate of Nigeria for 1951-2009 in terms of effective temperature (ET), temperature-humidity index (THI), relative strain index (RSI) and perception of 3,600 sampled populations. The main hypotheses are that (i) the existing vegetation-based ecological region could adequately elucidate the physiologic climate of the country, and (ii) physiologic stress has significantly increased over the years (1951-2009). Trends and changes in the selected indices (ET, THI and RSI) were examined over two time slices: 1951-1980 and 1981-2009. The results show that (1) the montane region was the most comfortable physiologic climate in Nigeria, and the regions around the Rivers Niger and Benue troughs were the most uncomfortable in most parts of the year, (2) physiologic stress in most parts of Nigeria has significantly increased in 1981-2009 over 1951-1980 ( p ? 0.05), (3) coping strategies to the uncomfortably hot and cold climate in Nigeria are limited to dressing mode, clothing materials and use of air conditioners or fan, (4) ET, THI and RSI results could be similar, and complementary; but each is with its strengths and weaknesses for annual or seasonal representations, which the others complemented for the interpretation of the physiologic climate of Nigeria. The study concluded that the relationship between the ecological classification of Nigeria and physiologic climate is rather complex, and the former could not elucidate the latter. The study cited inadequate meteorological data, especially on wind chill, and health records as limiting factors of studies on the Nigerian physiologic climates and the effect of extreme thermal conditions on the people.

  3. Exploring variations in childhood stunting in Nigeria using league table, control chart and spatial analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Stunting, linear growth retardation is the best measure of child health inequalities as it captures multiple dimensions of childrens health, development and environment where they live. The developmental priorities and socially acceptable health norms and practices in various regions and states within Nigeria remains disaggregated and with this, comes the challenge of being able to ascertain which of the regions and states identifies with either high or low childhood stunting to further investigate the risk factors and make recommendations for action oriented policy decisions. Methods We used data from the birth histories included in the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) to estimate childhood stunting. Stunting was defined as height for age below minus two standard deviations from the median height for age of the standard World Health Organization reference population. We plotted control charts of the proportion of childhood stunting for the 37 states (including federal capital, Abuja) in Nigeria. The Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) were used as a measure of the overall clustering and is assessed by a test of a null hypothesis. Results Childhood stunting is high in Nigeria with an average of about 39%. The percentage of children with stunting ranged from 11.5% in Anambra state to as high as 60% in Kebbi State. Ranking of states with respect to childhood stunting is as follows: Anambra and Lagos states had the least numbers with 11.5% and 16.8% respectively while Yobe, Zamfara, Katsina, Plateau and Kebbi had the highest (with more than 50% of their under-fives having stunted growth). Conclusions Childhood stunting is high in Nigeria and varied significantly across the states. The northern states have a higher proportion than the southern states. There is an urgent need for studies to explore factors that may be responsible for these special cause variations in childhood stunting in Nigeria. PMID:23597167

  4. Human sex ratio at birth in South West Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Azeez, M. A.; Akinboro, A.; Bakare, A. A.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human sex ratio at birth differs from one population to the other. This variation has been attributed to cultural practices, seasonal variation, small-family size policy and sex selective technology. Information on secondary sex ratio in Nigeria is limited. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To analyzed human sex ratio at birth for samples of the Nigerian population in 4 urban settings in Southwest Nigeria, in order to know the trend and to compare the findings with those of previous reports. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected from Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU) teaching hospital at Ile Ife and Wesley Guild hospital at Ilesa, Osun state; General hospital at Ogbomoso, Oyo state and Ekiti state specialist hospital at Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti state. The data consisted of 35 209 live single births recorded between 1995 and 2004. Each set of data was analyzed to determine the sex ratio by year, month and quarterly values. Chi-square analysis was used to determine the deviation of the sex ratios for the years from the average value. RESULTS: The annual average ratios of 104.7:100, 102.8:100, 98.9:100 and 100.8:100 were recorded for OAU teaching hospital, Wesley Guild Hospital, General Hospital and Ekiti State specialist hospital, respectively. When pooled together, the average ratio was 102.7:100. This shows some bias for male births. Data also indicates more male birth in the rainy season, suggesting a seasonal variation of sex ratio. CONCLUSION: These findings are representative of the populations in southwest Nigeria and are comparable to values obtained for other regions in Nigeria and other populations of African origin. PMID:21957347

  5. Exploration gaps exist in Nigeria`s prolific delta

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.

    1995-10-30

    The Niger delta region of the Republic of Nigeria is Africa`s largest oil producing area. It is clear that Nigeria will continue to contribute significantly to world petroleum production well into the 21st century: with increases in recoverable oil reserves in the Niger delta onshore and offshore; the promising potential of the Niger delta deepwater region; and a lesser but not insignificant contribution from the unexplored onshore Benue trough, part of the mid-African rift system, which has already proved to hold substantial oil reserves in the Doba basin of neighboring Chad. This is the first of five parts on Nigeria`s oil and gas potential. The later articles deal with Niger delta oil reserves and production, Niger delta gas reserves, the delta`s deepwater region, and the Benue trough and onshore cretaceous rift basins. This article deals with the geologic setting of the Niger delta-Benue trough region, the synrift deposits, marine sedimentation, margin evolution, geologic strata and reservoirs, reservoir character, structure and traps, hydrocarbon types, geotemperatures, and source rock quality.

  6. Long-Term Impacts of Precolonial Institutions, Geography and Ecological Diversity on Access to Public Infrastructure Services in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archibong, B.

    2014-12-01

    Do precolonial institutions, geography and ecological diversity affect population access to public infrastructure services over a century later? Can local leaders from historically centralized or 'conqueror' groups still influence access to public goods today? Do precolonial states located in ecologically diverse environments have better access to water, power and sanitation resources today? A growing body of literature examining the sources of the current state of African economic development has cited the enduring impacts of precolonial institutions and geography on contemporary African economic development using large sample cross-sectional analysis. In this paper, I focus on within country effects of local ethnic and political state institutions on access to public infrastructure services in present day Nigeria. Specifically, I combine information on the spatial distribution of ethnic states and ecological diversity in Nigeria circa mid 19th century and political states in Nigeria circa 1785 and 1850 with information, from a novel geocoded survey dataset, on access to public infrastructure at the local government level in present day Nigeria to examine the impact of precolonial state centralization on the current unequal access to public infrastructure services in Nigeria, accounting for the effects of ecological diversity and other geographic covariates. Some preliminary results show evidence for the long-term impacts of institutions, geography and ecological diversity on access to public infrastructure in Nigeria.

  7. Developments in Space Research in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oke, O.

    2006-08-01

    Nigeria's desire to venture into space technology was first made known to ECA/ OAU member countries at an inter-governmental meeting in Addis Ababa, 1976. The Nigerian space research is highly rated in Africa in terms of reputation and scientific results. The National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA), Nigeria's space research coordinating body; has taken a more active role to help Nigeria's space research community to succeed internationally. The paper presents recent examples of Nigeria's successes in space and its detailed applications in areas such as remote sensing, meteorology, communication and Information Technology. and many more. It gave an analysis of the statistics of Nigerian born space scientists working in the other space-faring nations. The analysis have been used to develop a model for increasing Nigerian scientist's involvement in the development of space research in Nigeria. It concluded with some thoughts on the current and future of Nigeria's space borne scientific experiments, policies and programs.

  8. An Evaluation of the Implementation of Early Childhood Education Curriculum in Osun State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okewole, Johnson Oludele; Abuovbo, Iluezi-Ogbedu Veronica; Abosede, Osinowo Olufunke

    2015-01-01

    Early Childhood Education as a subject in primary schools in Nigeria was first noticed among the private primary schools in the 80s while the public primary schools did not incorporate it in their curriculum in Nigeria. Of recent, some state governments in Nigeria have just adopted and organized early childhood education unit into their primary

  9. Strategies for Dealing with Low Adoption of Agricultural Innovations: A Case Study of Farmers in Udenu L.G.A. of Enugu State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguru, Chike; Ajayi, S. L.; Ogbu, Oliver C.

    2015-01-01

    A study to access the level of acceptance/adoption of agricultural innovations by farmers in Udenu Local Government Area of Enugu State was carried out. The aim was to find out the reasons behind the low acceptance/adoption of agricultural innovations by farmers in the area and to suggest possible strategies to address this ugly situation; as a…

  10. Analysis of Parents/Teachers Perception of the Use of Corporal Punishment in Primary Schools in Delta and Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbe, Joseph O.

    2015-01-01

    The study was meant to analyze Parents and Teachers perception of the use of corporal punishment in primary schools in Edo/Delta state. The purpose was to find time out parents and teachers opinion on the need for continuity or to discontinue the use of corporal punishment among primary school pupils. The method was a descriptive study with the

  11. Instructional Supervisory Practices and Teachers' Role Effectiveness in Public Secondary Schools in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sule, Mary Anike; Eyiene, Ameh; Egbai, Mercy E.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between instructional supervisory practices and teachers' role effectiveness in public secondary schools in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State. Two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study…

  12. Cognitive Styles Field Dependence/Independence and Scientific Achievement of Male and Female Students of Zamfara State College of Education Maru, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Tukur; Daniel, Esther Gananamalar Sarojini; Abdurauf, Rose Amnah

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association between cognitive styles (Field dependence/Independence) and scientific achievement in Male and Female student of Biology and Integrated science Department of Zamfara State College of Education Maru, the is correlational. A population of 700 students were used, in which 150 were randomly selected

  13. Adulterated kerosene burn disaster: the Nigeria experience.

    PubMed

    Olugbenga, S A

    2005-03-31

    A major kerosene explosion disaster occurred in oil-producing Nigeria in October 2001. One hundred and twenty-five burn patients were treated at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital in a 25-day period of 12/10/01 to 6/11/01. All but two of the patients sustained fire/flame burns resulting from hurricane lantern and cooking stove explosions in home or enclosed environments. In a scene reminiscent of petrol bomb explosions, most burns were extensive, covering the face, chest, and abdomen. Burns were relatively deep because the clothing was usually perfused with the splashed fuel. Severity was greater in females than males, as they were more in contact with lamps and cooking stoves in the household. Almost 50% of the patients required hospitalization upwards of 3 weeks. PMID:21990977

  14. Adulterated Kerosene Burn Disaster: the Nigeria Experience

    PubMed Central

    Olugbenga, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Summary A major kerosene explosion disaster occurred in oil-producing Nigeria in October 2001. One hundred and twenty-five burn patients were treated at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital in a 25-day period of 12/10/01 to 6/11/01. All but two of the patients sustained fire/flame burns resulting from hurricane lantern and cooking stove explosions in home or enclosed environments. In a scene reminiscent of petrol bomb explosions, most burns were extensive, covering the face, chest, and abdomen. Burns were relatively deep because the clothing was usually perfused with the splashed fuel. Severity was greater in females than males, as they were more in contact with lamps and cooking stoves in the household. Almost 50% of the patients required hospitalization upwards of 3 weeks. PMID:21990977

  15. Knowledge and attitude toward smoke-free legislation and second-hand smoking exposure among workers in indoor bars, beer parlors and discotheques in Osun State of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onigbogi, Olanrewaju Olusola; Odukoya, Oluwakemi; Onigbogi, Modupe; Sekoni, Oluwakemi

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the requirements of the Osun State smoke-free legislation is to ensure smoke-free enclosed and partially enclosed workplaces. This survey was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of workers in indoor bars, beer parlors and discotheques to smoke-free legislation in general and the Osun State smoke-free law in particular. Methods: A convenience sampling of 36 hospitality centers was conducted. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to elicit responses about the objectives from non-smoking workers. The questionnaires had sections on knowledge of the Osun State smoke-free law, attitude toward the law and smoke-free legislation in general and exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke by the workers. Questions were also asked about the second-hand tobacco smoking status of these workers. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. Results: We had 154 participants recruited into the study. There were 75 males (48.0%) and 79 females (52.0%). On the overall, respondents had a good knowledge of the effects of second-hand smoke on health (70.2%) with 75.0% of them being aware of the general smoke-free law and 67.3% being aware of the Osun State smoke-free law although none of them had ever seen a copy of the law. A high proportion (60.0%) was in support of the Osun smoke-free law although all of them think that the implementation of the law could reduce patronage and jeopardize their income. Attitude toward second-hand smoking was generally positive with 72.0% of them having no tolerance for second-hand tobacco smoke in their homes. Most participants (95.5%) had been exposed to tobacco smoke in the workplace within the past week. Conclusion: Despite the high level of awareness of the respondents about the dangers of second hand smoke and their positive attitude to smoke-free laws, nearly all were constantly being exposed to second hand smoke at work. This calls for policy level interventions to improve the implementation of the smoke-free law. PMID:25844384

  16. Climate Change Impacts on Crop Production in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mereu, V.; Gallo, A.; Carboni, G.; Spano, D.

    2011-12-01

    The agricultural sector in Nigeria is particularly important for the country's food security, natural resources, and growth agenda. The cultivable areas comprise more than 70% of the total area; however, the cultivated area is about the 35% of the total area. The most important components in the food basket of the nation are cereals and tubers, which include rice, maize, corn, millet, sorghum, yam, and cassava. These crops represent about 80% of the total agricultural product in Nigeria (from NPAFS). The major crops grown in the country can be divided into food crops (produced for consumption) and export products. Despite the importance of the export crops, the primary policy of agriculture is to make Nigeria self-sufficient in its food and fiber requirements. The projected impacts of future climate change on agriculture and water resources are expected to be adverse and extensive in these area. This implies the need for actions and measures to adapt to climate change impacts, and especially as they affect agriculture, the primary sector for Nigerian economy. In the framework of the Project Climate Risk Analysis in Nigeria (founded by World Bank Contract n.7157826), a study was made to assess the potential impact of climate change on the main crops that characterize Nigerian agriculture. The DSSAT-CSM (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer - Cropping System Model) software, version 4.5 was used for the analysis. Crop simulation models included in DSSAT are tools that simulate physiological processes of crop growth, development and production by combining genetic crop characteristics and environmental (soil and weather) conditions. For each selected crop, the models were calibrated to evaluate climate change impacts on crop production. The climate data used for the analysis are derived by the Regional Circulation Model COSMO-CLM, from 1971 to 2065, at 8 km of spatial resolution. The RCM model output was "perturbed" with 10 Global Climate Models to have a wide variety of possible climate projections for the impact analysis. Multiple combinations of soil and climate conditions and crop management and varieties were considered for each Agro-Ecological Zone (AEZ) of Nigeria. A sensitivity analysis was made to evaluate the model response to changes in precipitation and temperature. The climate impact assessment was made by comparing the yield obtained with the climate data for the present period and the yield obtainable under future climate conditions. The results were analyzed at state, AEZ and country levels. The analysis shows a general reduction in crop yields in particular in the dryer regions of northern Nigeria.

  17. Awareness of antimalarial policy and use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for malaria treatment in communities of two selected local government areas of Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeneye, Adeniyi K; Jegede, Ayodele S; Mafe, Margaret A; Nwokocha, Ezebunwa E

    2014-01-01

    With limited data on the awareness of changes in the use of antimalaria drugs and availability and use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in the context of the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) program, we conducted this descriptive cross-sectional study of 262 registered women attending antenatal clinics and 233 mothers of under-five children. We used a questionnaire to assess the awareness, availability and use of ACT in Ijebu North and Yewa North Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Ogun State. Malaria is holo-endemic in these areas, and the RBM program has been implemented for years prior to the 2010 RBM deadline. Data were also collected through focus group discussions, along with secondary data from hospital records. Hospital stock records showed inadequate and inconsistent supplies of ACT drugs in hospitals surveyed. Only 23.0% of respondents knew about ACT drugs. About 48% preferred analgesics over ACT drugs (0.6%) for malaria treatment. Lack of awareness was the major reason for non-use of ACT drugs (86.1%). Communities in Yewa North had more supplies of ACT drugs and knew more about ACT than those in Ijebu North. Adequate information on ACT needs to be made available and accessible under a public-private partnership if 2010 RBM targets (now past) and the 2015 Millennium Development Goal (ongoing) for malaria are to be realized in the study communities and Ogun State in general. PMID:24702765

  18. Youth Reproductive & Sexual Health in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Melodi

    2010-01-01

    Nearly one third of Nigeria's total population of 148.1 million is between the ages of 10 and 24. Nigerian adolescents' sizeable share of the population makes them integral to the country's social, political and economic development. Nigeria's development is compromised by the sexual and reproductive health issues afflicting its youth. Lack of…

  19. Youth Reproductive & Sexual Health in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Melodi

    2010-01-01

    Nearly one third of Nigeria's total population of 148.1 million is between the ages of 10 and 24. Nigerian adolescents' sizeable share of the population makes them integral to the country's social, political and economic development. Nigeria's development is compromised by the sexual and reproductive health issues afflicting its youth. Lack of

  20. Household Structure and Living Conditions in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mberu, Blessing Uchenna

    2007-01-01

    Data on 7,632 households from the 1999 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey are used to examine household structure and living conditions in Nigeria. The study finds significant disadvantage in living conditions of single-adult, female- and single-adult, male-headed households relative to two-parent households. Extended households show no

  1. ICT and Higher Educational System in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idowu, Adeyemi I.; Esere, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the integration of ICT in higher education in Nigeria. The possibilities and reach of information technologies can tear down territorial boundaries and make available equal information and knowledge of different categories as soon as necessary data are fed on the website. Nevertheless, Nigeria as a nation is yet to take full

  2. Rights of the Child in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacroix, Anne Laurence; Shoenberg, Cheryl; Schonveld, Ben

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Federation of Nigeria. The report's introduction asserts that the rule by decree of Nigeria's present military regime has…

  3. ICT and Higher Educational System in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idowu, Adeyemi I.; Esere, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the integration of ICT in higher education in Nigeria. The possibilities and reach of information technologies can tear down territorial boundaries and make available equal information and knowledge of different categories as soon as necessary data are fed on the website. Nevertheless, Nigeria as a nation is yet to take full…

  4. Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

    Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (281C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

  5. Surficial geophysical deduction of the geomaterial and aquifer distributions at Ngor-Okpala local government area of Imo State, South Eastern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victor, Obianwu I.; Innocent, Chimezie C.; Anthony, Akpan E.; Jimmy, George N.

    2011-12-01

    Twenty seven vertical electrical sounding (VES) profiles surrounding four known traverses were obtained in Ngor-Okpala local government area of Imo state to examine the subsurface geomaterials and the associated groundwater potential. The VES data, constrained by borehole data, provided useful information about the subsurface hydrogeologic and lithologic conditions. From the validated interpretation, the area assessed has loamy soil, medium grained sands, well-sorted medium-grained/gravelly sands and river sand as the lithologic succession from top to the bottom of the depth penetrated. The aquifers in the area were found in the medium-grained sands and well-sorted medium-coarse-grained sands. The aquifer depth for all-season groundwater that would be devoid of draw-down can be found at a depth range of 42-50 m. The resistivity maps of selected depths exhibit sharp resistivity changes at depth due mainly to undulating subsurface topography. A map of the distribution of the k ?-values shows that good quality groundwater can be found in most parts of the area.

  6. Surficial geophysical deduction of the geomaterial and aquifer distributions at Ngor-Okpala local government area of Imo State, South Eastern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victor, Obianwu; Innocent, Chimezie; Anthony, Akpan; Jimmy, George

    2011-12-01

    Twenty seven vertical electrical sounding (VES) profiles surrounding four known traverses were obtained in Ngor-Okpala local government area of Imo state to examine the subsurface geomaterials and the associated groundwater potential. The VES data, constrained by borehole data, provided useful information about the subsurface hydrogeologic and lithologic conditions. From the validated interpretation, the area assessed has loamy soil, medium grained sands, well-sorted medium-grained/gravelly sands and river sand as the lithologic succession from top to the bottom of the depth penetrated. The aquifers in the area were found in the medium-grained sands and well-sorted medium-coarse-grained sands. The aquifer depth for all-season groundwater that would be devoid of draw-down can be found at a depth range of 42-50 m. The resistivity maps of selected depths exhibit sharp resistivity changes at depth due mainly to undulating subsurface topography. A map of the distribution of the k?-values shows that good quality groundwater can be found in most parts of the area.

  7. Detection of rabies antigen in the saliva and brains of apparently healthy dogs slaughtered for human consumption and its public health implications in abia state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mshelbwala, P P; Ogunkoya, A B; Maikai, B V

    2013-01-01

    The study was carried out in eight dogs slaughtering outlets within four Local Government Areas of the State for the determination of rabies antigen in the saliva and brain of apparently healthy dogs slaughtered for human consumption. A total of one hundred (100) samples each of saliva and brain were collected before and after slaughter, respectively, between April to June, 2013, in the selected areas. The saliva was subjected to rapid immune-chromatographic test (RICT) while direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT) was carried out on the brain samples. Structured questionnaire was administered to nineteen (19) dog meat processors comprising 18 males and 1 female in the selected areas. Sixty four percent of the samples tested were from female dogs while 36% were from males, 5% tested positive for rabies antigen with the use of both tests; there was no statistical association between sex and rabies status of the dogs sampled (P > 0.05). Butchers bitten during the course of slaughtering were 94.7% out of which 72.8% utilized traditional method of treatment and only 27.8% reported to the hospital for proper medical attention. This study has established the presence of rabies antigen in apparently healthy dogs in the study area. PMID:24416598

  8. Detection of Rabies Antigen in the Saliva and Brains of Apparently Healthy Dogs Slaughtered for Human Consumption and Its Public Health Implications in Abia State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Mshelbwala, P. P.; Ogunkoya, A. B.; Maikai, B. V.

    2013-01-01

    The study was carried out in eight dogs slaughtering outlets within four Local Government Areas of the State for the determination of rabies antigen in the saliva and brain of apparently healthy dogs slaughtered for human consumption. A total of one hundred (100) samples each of saliva and brain were collected before and after slaughter, respectively, between April to June, 2013, in the selected areas. The saliva was subjected to rapid immune-chromatographic test (RICT) while direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT) was carried out on the brain samples. Structured questionnaire was administered to nineteen (19) dog meat processors comprising 18 males and 1 female in the selected areas. Sixty four percent of the samples tested were from female dogs while 36% were from males, 5% tested positive for rabies antigen with the use of both tests; there was no statistical association between sex and rabies status of the dogs sampled (P > 0.05). Butchers bitten during the course of slaughtering were 94.7% out of which 72.8% utilized traditional method of treatment and only 27.8% reported to the hospital for proper medical attention. This study has established the presence of rabies antigen in apparently healthy dogs in the study area. PMID:24416598

  9. Preconception care in South Eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ezegwui, H U; Dim, C; Dim, N; Ikeme, A C

    2008-11-01

    The objective was to determine the awareness and practice of preconception care in a developing country. This is a cross-sectional study of women receiving antenatal care at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital and Enugu state university teaching hospital (ESUT) between October 2005 and March 2006. Sampling was systematic where every consenting second of two pregnant women receiving antenatal care at the hospital was mobilised for the study. Data analysis was by descriptive and inferential statistics using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) software version 11 (SPSS Inc. 2001). A total of 1,500 questionnaires were distributed while 1,331 were completed and returned giving a response rate of 88.7%. The mean age was 30.0 + 5.0 years. Of these, 573 (43.1%) women had heard of preconception care. The respondent's awareness of preconception care and their ability to define the subject correctly increase significantly with their educational status and parity. However, there was a difference between knowledge and behaviour. The practice of preconception care was not affected significantly by the parity of the patients. The majority believed that preconception care might improve the health of mother and child. The practice of preconception care is almost non-existent in developing countries. It is important that all stake holders in maternal and child health be involved in vigorous, targeted and sustained female education to improve knowledge and utilisation of preconception care by women of reproductive age groups in developing countries. Health institutions in these underserved populations should develop, and maintain functional dedicated and multidisciplinary clinics for preconception care to decrease perinatal and maternal mortality. Preconception clinics are more important in developing countries such as Nigeria compared with the western world because they would help correct inadequate education and identify a high level of existing illness relevant to pregnancy - much higher than in the western world. PMID:19085540

  10. Statistics of geophysical activity in Nigeria (1975 1984)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umo, A. J.; Ajakaiye, D. E.

    1993-11-01

    Statistics on geophysical activities in Nigeria for the ten-year period (1975-1984) was compiled mainly from questionnaires distributed to government and private agencies, oil and mining companies, and universities which engage in groundwater, petroleum and mineral exploration, engineering and research work. Similar studies had been done worldwide by Epsey (1975, 1976, 1977) and Whitmire (1978). From the statistics, it was deduced that electrical resistivity, magnetic, seismic, radiometric, gravity, airborne and ground magnetic survey methods are the main geophysical techniques used which resulted in the discovery of some of the natural resources (oil, gas, minerals and groundwater) buried a few kilometers below the Nigerian soil. Airborne and ground magnetic surveys have been carried out by at least two government agencies, namely: the Geological Survey of Nigeria and Nigerian Steel Council. The compilation also reveals that a greater part of geophysical and drilling activities of operating oil companies is currently concentrated in the sedimentary basins, mainly the oil-rich Niger Delta and near offshore areas. From the available statistics, at least three companies, the National Steel Council, the Geological Survey of Nigeria, and Kano State Water Resources Engineering and Construction Agency have employed geophysical methods for engineering.

  11. Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication--Nigeria, January 2014-July 2015.

    PubMed

    Etsano, Andrew; Gunnala, Rajni; Shuaib, Faisal; Damisa, Eunice; Mkanda, Pascal; Ticha, Johnson M; Banda, Richard; Korir, Charles; Chevez, Ana Elena; Enemaku, Ogu; Corkum, Melissa; Davis, Lora B; Nganda, Gatei-Wa; Burns, Cara C; Wassilak, Steven G F; Vertefeuille, John F

    2015-08-21

    Since the 1988 launch of global poliomyelitis eradication efforts, four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions have been certified polio-free. Nigeria is one of only three countries, along with Afghanistan and Pakistan, where transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted. During 2003-2013, northern Nigeria served as a reservoir for WPV reintroduction into 26 previously polio-free countries. In 2012, the Nigerian government launched a national polio eradication emergency plan to intensify efforts to interrupt WPV transmission. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress in Nigeria during January 2014-July 2015 and updates previous reports. No WPV cases have been reported to date in 2015, compared with a total of six cases reported during 2014. Onset of paralysis in the latest reported WPV type 1 (WPV1) case was July 24, 2014. Only one case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) has been reported to date in 2015, compared with 20 cVDPV2 cases during the same period in 2014. Pending final laboratory testing of 218 remaining specimens of 16,617 specimens collected since January 2015, Nigeria could be removed from the WHO list of polio-endemic countries in September 2015. Major remaining challenges to the national polio eradication program include sustaining political support and program funding in the absence of active WPV transmission, maintaining high levels of population immunity in hard-to-reach areas, and accessing children in security-compromised areas of the northeastern states. PMID:26292207

  12. ISOLATION OF Cryptococcus neoformans FROM ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES COLLECTED IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    NWEZE, Emeka I.; KECHIA, Fred A.; DIBUA, Uju E.; EZE, Charles; ONOJA, Uwakwe S.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Cryptococcosis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans is the second most common fungal opportunistic pathogen and a lifethreatening infection with serious clinical manifestations especially in HIV/AIDS and other immunocompromised patients. In Nigeria, HIV/AIDS infection has reached an alarming level. Despite this, information on the presence of this fungus in clinical and environmental samples is very scanty in Nigeria and many other parts of Africa. We set out to evaluate the presence of Cryptococcus neoformans or C. gattii in pigeon droppings obtained from Southeastern Nigeria. One hundred and seventy-seven samples of pigeon droppings from six sample types were collected. The area covered comprised of ten cities and other locations spanning across five States in Nigeria. Using established techniques, Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from 39 of the 177 (22.0%) samples overall. No C. gattiiwas isolated. Most of the isolates (32.4%) were recovered from dovecotes (11 of 34) followed closely by samples taken from markets (31.8%; seven of 22) and least from the church (4.0%; one of 25). The highest isolation rate (38.9%) was found in samples from Enugu-Ezike(seven of 23) while the least came from Afikpoand the other locations each with 9.1% isolation rate. This is the first large-scale screening of Cryptococcus neoformans from pigeon droppings in Nigeria. The ecological and epidemiological significance of these findings are discussed. PMID:26422152

  13. Capitalizing on Nigerias demographic dividend: reaping the benefits and diminishing the burdens

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Holly E.; Mberu, Blessing U.

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the eighth most populous country in the world, yet there is a dearth of published research about its demography. As Nigeria enters a period of potentially rapid economic growth due to the increase in the working-age population, it is critical to understand the demographic trends in the country. This paper examines the age and sex composition of Nigeria as it relates to various population characteristics using the two most recent Demographic and Health Surveys for Nigeria (2003 and 2008), as well as some data from the 2006 Census. It also highlights Nigerias demographic composition and trends using United Nations population projection data, and its implications for the country reaping the demographic dividend. Finally, it draws some conclusions and makes some policy recommendations based on the findings. PMID:25705077

  14. A description of HIV prevalence trends in Nigeria from 2001 to 2010: what is the progress, where is the problem?

    PubMed Central

    Bashorun, Adebobola; Nguku, Patrick; Kawu, Issa; Ngige, Evelyn; Ogundiran, Adeniyi; Sabitu, Kabir; Nasidi, Abdulsalam; Nsubuga, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nigeria's population of 160 million and estimated HIV prevalence of 3.34% (2011) makes Nigeria the second highest HIV burden worldwide, with 3.2 million people living with HIV (PLHIV). In 2010, US government spent about US$456.5 million on the Nigerian epidemic. Antenatal clinic (ANC) HIV sero-prevalence sentinel survey has been conducted biennially in Nigeria since 1991 to track the epidemic. This study looked at the trends of HIV in Nigeria over the last decade to identify progress and needs. Methods We conducted description of HIV sero-prevalence sentinel cross-sectional surveys conducted among pregnant women attending ANC from 2001 to 2010, which uses consecutive sampling and unlinked-anonymous HIV testing (UAT) in160 sentinel facilities. 36,000 blood samples were collected and tested. We used Epi-Info to determine national and state HIV prevalence and trends. The Estimation and Projection Package with Spectrum were used to estimate/project the burden of infection. Results National ANC HIV prevalence rose from 1.8% (1991) to 5.8% (2001) and dropped to 4.1% (2010). Since 2001, states in the center, and south of Nigeria had higher prevalence than the rest, with Benue and Cross Rivers notable. Benue was highest in 2001 (14%), 2005 (10%), and 2010 (12.7%). Overall, eight states (21.6%) showed increased HIV prevalence while six states (16.2%) had an absolute reduction of at least 2% from 2001 to 2010. In 2010, Nigeria was estimated to have 3.19 million PLHIV, with the general population prevalence projected to drop from 3.34% in 2011 to 3.27% in 2012. Conclusion Examining a decade of HIV ANC surveillance in Nigeria revealed important differences in the epidemic in states that need to be examined further to reveal key drivers that can be used to target future interventions. PMID:25328622

  15. Health care financing in Nigeria: Implications for achieving universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Uzochukwu, B S C; Ughasoro, M D; Etiaba, E; Okwuosa, C; Envuladu, E; Onwujekwe, O E

    2015-01-01

    The way a country finances its health care system is a critical determinant for reaching universal health coverage (UHC). This is so because it determines whether the health services that are available are affordable to those that need them. In Nigeria, the health sector is financed through different sources and mechanisms. The difference in the proportionate contribution from these stated sources determine the extent to which such health sector will go in achieving successful health care financing system. Unfortunately, in Nigeria, achieving the correct blend of these sources remains a challenge. This review draws on relevant literature to provide an overview and the state of health care financing in Nigeria, including policies in place to enhance healthcare financing. We searched PubMed, Medline, The Cochrane Library, Popline, Science Direct and WHO Library Database with search terms that included, but were not restricted to health care financing Nigeria, public health financing, financing health and financing policies. Further publications were identified from references cited in relevant articles and reports. We reviewed only papers published in English. No date restrictions were placed on searches. It notes that health care in Nigeria is financed through different sources including but not limited to tax revenue, out-of-pocket payments (OOPs), donor funding, and health insurance (social and community). In the face of achieving UHC, achieving successful health care financing system continues to be a challenge in Nigeria and concludes that to achieve universal coverage using health financing as the strategy, there is a dire need to review the system of financing health and ensure that resources are used more efficiently while at the same time removing financial barriers to access by shifting focus from OOPs to other hidden resources. There is also need to give presidential assent to the national health bill and its prompt implementation when signed into law. PMID:25966712

  16. Rural Youths' Participation in Agriculture: Prospects, Challenges and the Implications for Policy in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auta, Sarah Jehu; Abdullahi, Yusuf M.; Nasiru, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed at assessing rural youth participation in agriculture, their access to production resources and services and the effects of youths' access to inputs and services on farm productivity and youths' welfare. The study was conducted in three states (each randomly selected from the three agro-ecological zones of northern Nigeria). Two…

  17. Rural Youths' Participation in Agriculture: Prospects, Challenges and the Implications for Policy in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auta, Sarah Jehu; Abdullahi, Yusuf M.; Nasiru, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed at assessing rural youth participation in agriculture, their access to production resources and services and the effects of youths' access to inputs and services on farm productivity and youths' welfare. The study was conducted in three states (each randomly selected from the three agro-ecological zones of northern Nigeria). Two

  18. Constraints Affecting ICT Utilization by Agricultural Extension Officers in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpabio, I. A.; Okon, D. P.; Inyang, E. B.

    2007-01-01

    The study focused on constraints affecting the utilization of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for agricultural extension activities by Agricultural Extension Officers in Nigeria's Niger Delta Region. Data were derived from 160 extension officers affiliated to both public and private extension organizations in four states of the

  19. Institutions for Collective Action among Settled Fulani Agro-Pastoralists in Southwest Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabusoro, E.; Sodiya, C. I.

    2011-01-01

    The study identifies institutions for organizing collective action among settled Fulani agro-pastoralists in southwest Nigeria and examines their functions, processes and tools for fostering collective action. Four Fulani communities were selected purposively in Ekiti State; data were collected from 55 settled pastoralists through informal

  20. Demographic Information Sources and Utilization as Determinants of Educational Policy Making in South Western Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gbadamosi, Belau Olatunde

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines demographic information sources and utilization as determinants of educational policy making in South West Nigeria. Using validated and structured questionnaire, the study population of 398 officers in the ministries of education in the affected states were enumerated. The study establishes population census, vital registration,

  1. Evolution of Private Universities in Nigeria: Matters Arising and the Way Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ige, Akindele M.

    2013-01-01

    Many issues such as the increasing cases of unsatisfied demand for admission, moral decadence among students, incessant strikes, student unrest and cultism, among others necessitated the establishment of private alongside the federal and state universities in Nigeria. It is however expected that the advent of private universities will provide

  2. Towards More Effective Vocationalisation of Business Education in Universities in South East of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwazor, Joseph Chukwudi; Nwaukwa, Faith Chukwudi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to ascertain the extent of vocationalization, of business education in universities in South East zone of Nigeria where lecture method dominated lesson delivery. Students had become more passive and engaged in lots of endless hard work. It could hardly be easy to state the differences between business education

  3. Evaluation of the Implementation of Family Life and HIV Education Programme in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Udegbe, Bola I; Fayehun, Funke; Isiugo-Abanihe, Uche C; Nwagwu, Williams; Isiugo-Abanihe, Ifeoma; Nwokocha, Ezebunwa

    2015-06-01

    Family Life and HIV Education (FLHE) programme was introduced nationwide in Nigeria in 2003. Since then little is known about the patterns of its implementation across the states in the six geo-political zones in Nigeria. This study represents an attempt to fill this lacuna in the FLHE literature in Nigeria. Quantitative data was collected from the Federal Ministry of Education and the State Ministries of Education on all salient aspects of FLHE implementation. The findings from data collected in 35 states and the Abuja Federal Capital Territory show large variations in the year of adoption of the programme, level of implementation of the programme, the proportion of implementing schools that are reporting to the coordinating government ministries/agencies, the level to which schools have been supplied with relevant curriculum, and promptness of distribution of materials across the zones. All these indices did not show significant level of interdependence. In general, there were higher levels of FLHE activities in the South than the North. Several problems affect implementation of FLHE in Nigeria, most of which will require increased financial and technical support from government and other organizations. The FLHE programme has had positive effects in the states and among schools where the implementation has been effective, underscoring the need for a more effective implementation of the programmes throughout the country. PMID:26506660

  4. A Pilot Study of the Challenges and Prospects of Continuous Assessment Implementation in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owolabi, Henry O.; Onuka, Adams O. U.

    2010-01-01

    This study obtained basic information from teachers and students on the challenges and prospects of implementing continuous assessment (CA) in the Nigerian school system. Secondary Schools in Ilorin, the capital city of Kwara State, located in the central region of Nigeria were sampled for use in the study. It employed survey research design

  5. Demographic Information Sources and Utilization as Determinants of Educational Policy Making in South Western Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gbadamosi, Belau Olatunde

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines demographic information sources and utilization as determinants of educational policy making in South West Nigeria. Using validated and structured questionnaire, the study population of 398 officers in the ministries of education in the affected states were enumerated. The study establishes population census, vital registration,…

  6. Women Education in Nigeria: Predicaments and Hopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akubuilo, Francis; Omeje, Monica

    2012-10-01

    This paper is focused on women education in Nigeria. It traces the genesis of western education in Nigeria and bias that existed from the traditional Nigerian society against women education. It identified and discussed barriers to women education in Nigeria. Recent trend in enrolment at various levels of education shows improvement in favor of women. In view of this realization, this paper argues that if the current momentum is sustained, women will not only achieve equal status to men in educational attainment but also have the tendency to surpass men within the next ten to fifteen years. The implications could be outreaching as the paper proffers some recommendations.

  7. Astronomy Development in Nigeria: Challenges and Advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okwe Chibueze, James

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria evidently has huge potentials to develop a strong astronomy community. Much of the strength lies in the great number of intelligent students with the potential of becoming good astronomers. Sadly, astronomy development in Nigeria has stagnated in the past decades owing to poor funding and/or indifferent attitude of the funding bodies, research-unfriendly environment, and non-existence of facilities. Currently, efforts toward fuelling advancement in astronomy are focused on building 'critical mass', establishing collaborations with universities/astronomy institutes outside Nigeria, converting out-of-use communication antennas into radio telescopes, and acquiring out-of-use telescopes for educational and low-level research purposes.

  8. Lithostratigraphy of Nigeria An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shitta, K. A.; Odunpade, O. K.; Akindele, O. Q.

    2009-05-01

    Nigeria lies very close to the equator (hot country) West coast Africa between latitude 4 N and 14 N degree and longitude 2 E and 15 E degree. The country is located at the Northern end of Eastern branch of west coast of Africa rift system. Nigeria geological set up comprises broadly sedimentary formation and crystalline basement complex, which occur more or less in equal proportion all over the country. The sediment is mainly Upper Cretaceous to recent in age while the basement complex rocks are thought to be Precambrian. The studied area lies between latitude 12.4" and 11.11"W and longitude 13.81" and 14.13" S. The studied area is underlain by Precambrian basement complex of southern western Nigeria .The major rock in the area is charnokite and granite rock. The granite rock which are member of the older granite suite occupy about 65% of the total area .The principal granite is petrographic variety are recognized .The fine grained biotite-granite medium-coarse, non porphyritic biotite -hornblende granite and coarse-porphyritic biotite -hornblende granite. Also three main textural type of Charnokitic rock are also distinguished are coarse grained, massive fine grained and gneissic fine grained .The mode of occurrence of rock is three (1) core of the granite rock as exemplified by study area and few smaller bodies (2) Margin of the granite bodies as seen in Ijare and Uro edemo-idemo Charnokitic bodies and (3) Discrete bodies of the gneissic fine grained Charnokitic rock within the country gneisses as seen in Ilaro and Iju and Emirin village. All the charnokite in the region are dark-greenish to greenish-gray rocks with bluish quartz and greenish feldspar

  9. Lithostratigraphy of Nigeria An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shitta, K. A.; Odunpade, O. K.

    2009-12-01

    Nigeria lies very close to the equator (hot country) West coast Africa between latitude 4 N and 14 N degree and longitude 2 E and 15 E degree. The country is located at the Northern end of Eastern branch of west coast of Africa rift system. Nigeria geological set up comprises broadly sedimentary formation and crystalline basement complex, which occur more or less in equal proportion all over the country. The sediment is mainly Upper Cretaceous to recent in age while the basement complex rocks are thought to be Precambrian. The studied area lies between latitude 12.4" and 11.11"W and longitude 13.81" and 14.13" S. The studied area is underlain by Precambrian basement complex of southern western Nigeria .The major rock in the area is charnokite and granite rock. The granite rock which are member of the older granite suite occupy about 65% of the total area .The principal granite is petrographic variety are recognized .The fine grained biotite-granite medium-coarse, non porphyritic biotite -hornblende granite and coarse-porphyritic biotite -hornblende granite. Also three main textural type of Charnokitic rock are also distinguished are coarse grained, massive fine grained and gneissic fine grained .The mode of occurrence of rock is three (1) core of the granite rock as exemplified by study area and few smaller bodies (2) Margin of the granite bodies as seen in Ijare and Uro edemo-idemo Charnokitic bodies and (3) Discrete bodies of the gneissic fine grained Charnokitic rock within the country gneisses as seen in Ilaro and Iju and Emirin village. All the charnokite in the region are dark-greenish to greenish-gray rocks with bluish quartz and greenish feldspar

  10. Going national with EPI in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Reid, R S; Smith, E A

    1984-01-01

    The basic purposes set out for the Owo Local Government Area (LGA) Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) model project in Ondo State, Nigeria, were: to demonstrate in 1 LGA that 80% EPI coverage can be achieved within the resources that the government normally provides to EPI; to dispel the unquestioning acquiescence that 10-15% coverage is all that can be done; to demonstrate that the health establishment at large can be convinced of these approaches and processes and can be expected to adopt them for a much wider dissemination; to show that a substantial number of health officers and workers are willing to work toward a higher EPI achievement; and to prove that resources from various origins can be integrated given the proper operational environment and a tight organization. The problems associated with EPI are basically similar in all Nigeria, leading to the decision to undertake a model project in a selected area. The EPI project was designed to break ground in Owo for further elements of primary health care. The project's objective was to capitalize upon the success and experience in EPI to introduce other health-related and self-help activities to communities. The project was organized with an overall project director exercising broad control and supervision over a management group at the project level. The management group is made up of a project manager, an assistant project manager, and heads of functional areas such as field operation, vaccine management system, transport system, mobile operation, health education, and administration and finance. The simple organization was designed to grow gradually to meet heavier volumes of work, altering and modifying approaches as required. The 2 key technical elements in the Owo approach were greatly increased use of cold packs and a decreased reliance on refrigerators; and increased use of simple static centers to reach remote catchment areas, instead of relying heavily on the mobile units. In both elements, the reduction of vulnerability to breakdown was the overriding objective. According to the results of an evaluation conducted in late October 1983, 52% of all children eligible for immunization had been vaccinated in the first 3 months of the project year. The main obstacle was defaults children not brought back for the 2nd and 3rd DPT shots. Another problem was in reaching mothers and children in remote catchment areas. The project is implementing its plan to incorporate weighing services in the clinics, oral rehydration therapy, essential drugs, and health education, using EPI as an entry point. Within Ondo State, LGAs are being opened up for accelerated EPI work following the Owo approach. PMID:12266655

  11. Niger Delta play types, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Akinpelu, A.O.

    1995-08-01

    Exploration databases can be more valuable when sorted by play type. Play specific databases provide a system to organize E & P data used in evaluating the range of values of parameters for reserve estimation and risk assessment. It is important both in focusing the knowledge base and in orienting research effort. A play in this context is any unique combination of trap, reservoir and source properties with the right dynamics of migration and preservation that results in hydrocarbon accumulation. This definitions helps us to discriminate the subtle differences found with these accumulation settings. About 20 play types were identified around the Niger Delta oil province in Nigeria. These are grouped into three parts: (1) The proven plays-constituting the bulk of exploration prospects in Nigeria today. (2) The unproven or semi-proven plays usually with some successes recorded in a few tries but where knowledge is still inadequate. (3) The unproven or analogous play concept. These are untested but geologically sound ideas which may or may not have been tried elsewhere. With classification and sub grouping of these play types into specific databases, intrinsic attributes and uniqueness of each of them with respect to the four major risk elements and the eight parameters for reserve estimation can be better understood.

  12. Marriage and family systems in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Otite, O

    1991-01-01

    "The study focuses on traditional marriage and family patterns in Nigeria and consequences of change for Nigeria. The study identifies directions of change, rate of change, and the causes of change in marriage and the family. An attempt is made to point out that recent changes in the [status] of Nigerian women may recast marriage and the family in new and different molds. It appears the Nigerian family is moving slowly towards the western nuclear family model." PMID:12284456

  13. Appraisal of the energy policy in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Ngoka, N.I.

    1980-12-01

    As a major oil producing and exporting country, Nigeria has acquired huge wealth from this resource. This has given rise to the purchase of energy consuming devices for households use and rapid industrialization. All these demand energy and assist in the improvement of the standard of living of the inhabitants. This paper examines Nigeria's energy problems and the policy which the government has adopted to solve them.

  14. Seasonal variation of surface refractivity over Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayantunji, B. G.; Okeke, P. N.; Urama, J. O.

    2011-12-01

    The seasonal variation of surface refractivity over Nigeria was studied using two years in-situ meteorological data from eight locations over Nigeria. The result shows that the surface refractivity generally has higher value during rainy season than dry season at all location studied. The results also show that the value of surface refractivity increases from arid region in the north to the coastal area in south. The results also show that local meteorology plays a very important role in refractivity variation.

  15. Developments in Space Research in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oke, O.

    Nigeria s desire to venture into space technology was first made known to ECA OAU member countries at an inter-governmental meeting in Addis Ababa 1976 The Nigerian space research is highly rated in Africa in terms of reputation and scientific results The National Space Research and Development Agency NASRDA Nigeria s space research coordinating body has taken a more active role to help Nigeria s space research community to succeed internationally The paper presents recent examples of Nigeria s successes in space and its detailed applications in areas such as remote sensing meteorology communication and Information Technology and many more It gave an analysis of the statistics of Nigerian born space scientists working in the other space-faring nations The analysis have been used to develop a model for increasing Nigerian scientist s involvement in the development of space research in Nigeria It concluded with some thoughts on the current and future of Nigeria s space borne scientific experiments policies and programs

  16. How Nigeria built child survival themes into national television.

    PubMed

    Gleason, G

    1990-01-01

    As part of the Government of Nigeria's goal of providing universal child immunization, a strategy was developed to strengthen the production capacity of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) and to award higher priority to health issues in NTA programming. At the national level, a child survival-oriented training, coordination, and production unit was established to produce "spot messages" on primary health care. In 1985-86, radio and television staff from all Nigerian states attended workshops at which Ministry of Health officials outlined Nigeria's maternal-child health problems and emphasized the potential of the broadcast media in health education. Each station was linked with an officer in the local Ministry of Health to ensure ongoing collaboration on technical problems and health programs in need of promotion. Another set of state-level workshops brought together media producers and radio and television writers to encourage them to integrate primary health care themes into their programs. In addition, a Nigerian nongovernmental organization has organized workshops for electronic media writers and producers aimed at incorporating family planning themes into several popular television programs. In 1986, both NTA and the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria signed agreements further committing their networks to the child survival campaign. The Nigerian experience exemplifies the potential for creating and institutionalizing long-term efforts to use the mass media to bring new information to the general population on health-related issues. Needed at this point is more knowledge about specific communication strategies that are most effective in promoting sustainable behavioral change on the family and community levels in a country with much social and cultural diversity. PMID:12343010

  17. Epidemiological analysis, serological prevalence and genotypic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease in Nigeria 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Ehizibolo, D O; Perez, A M; Carrillo, C; Pauszek, S; AlKhamis, M; Ajogi, I; Umoh, J U; Kazeem, H M; Ehizibolo, P O; Fabian, A; Berninger, M; Moran, K; Rodriguez, L L; Metwally, S A

    2014-12-01

    The epidemiological situation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is uncertain in Nigeria, where the disease is endemic, and the majority of outbreaks are unreported. Control measures for FMD in Nigeria are not being implemented due to the absence of locally produced vaccines and an official ban on vaccine importation. This study summarizes the findings of a 3-year study aimed at quantifying the seroprevalence of FMD, its distribution in susceptible species and the genetic diversity of FMDV isolated from the Plateau State of Nigeria. A 29% FMD prevalence was estimated using 3ABC enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (3ABC ELISA). Farms with suspected FMD nearby, with contact with wildlife, that used drugs or FMD vaccines or with >100 animals, and animals of large ruminant species and in pastures other than nomadic grazing were significantly (P<0.05) associated with FMD. Antibodies against five FMDV serotypes, (A, O, SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3) were detected by the virus neutralization test (VNT) at various titres (<100->800) from all tested sera from most parts of the region. This is probably the first report of the presence of FMDV SAT3 in Nigeria. Further studies to investigate the potential probable presence and prevalence of SAT 3 virus in Nigeria are required. Tissue samples collected from clinical animals were positive for FMDV. Virus isolates were sequenced and confirmed as serotype A. All of the isolates showed marked genetic homogeneity with >99% genetic identity in the VP1 region and were most closely related to a previously described virus collected from Cameroon in 2000. This study provides knowledge on the epidemiological situation of FMD in Plateau State, Nigeria, and will probably help to develop effective control and preventive strategies for the disease in Nigeria and other countries in the West African subregion. PMID:23347819

  18. Trends in Educational Evaluations in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndubueze, M. Okoloeze; Iyoke, J. O.; Okoh, S. C.; Beatrice, N. Akubuilo

    2015-01-01

    The paper highlights the trends in educational evaluations in Nigeria starting from the pre-colonial Nigeria to the contemporary. Nigeria first practiced traditional educational evaluation but the system was criticized for lack of documented data. Then the colonial one-shot end of programme evaluation which was later found to be judgmental, breeds…

  19. E-Learning and Distance Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajadi, Timothy Olugbenga; Salawu, Ibrahim Olatunde; Adeoye, Femi Adetunji

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the relevance of e-learning in the position of distance education in Nigeria. It commences by discussing the meaning of e-learning and distance education. It also discusses the historical background of distance education in Nigeria as well as the operations of National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) as the first federal

  20. The Development of Appropriate Chemical Engineering Education for Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okorafor, O. C.

    1987-01-01

    Differentiates between the cultural environments of graduating engineering students in Nigeria and North America. Describes the existing curriculum of a bachelor of engineering student in Nigeria. Introduces a proposed curriculum for engineering education in Nigeria which would include a fifth year internship program. (TW)

  1. An investigation on using GIS to prospect for renewable energy in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alabi, Omowumi Oluwayemisi

    This study focuses on Nigeria, a region in the tropics bounded between latitude 4N and 14N, and longitude 3E and 14E. The project investigated, in a geographic information system, the spatial and seasonal variation in wind and solar energy over Nigeria, using the surface meteorology and solar energy (SSE version 6) dataset. These data, derived from satellites and models, were recently released by the United States' National Aeronautical Space Agency (NASA). The data used for the study was collected between 1983 and 2005. The results from NASA's SSE dataset were used to evaluate previous work done on renewable energy in Nigeria, using conventional data measured from the ground. This study confirmed some observations, made from conventional data, about the wind and solar energy characteristics of Nigeria. For example, the meridional increase in surface insolation towards the semi-arid northern part of the country; the meridional increase in averaged annual precipitation towards the coastal region of the south; and the phenomenon known as the 'little dry season', characterized by an abnormal decrease in precipitation which occurred during the month of August, within a narrow belt at the coastal region, during the peak of the rainy season. Furthermore, the trend in seasonal variations of surface wind, and the predominant directions of the prevailing winds within the study area were similar. However, this investigation revealed that wind speed in Nigeria increased towards a northeastern direction, as opposed to the northward increase in wind speed recorded with conventional data. Also, the remotely sensed estimates for wind in most of the stations in Nigeria are much less than the ground measured values. According to NASA's SSE data, the range of the wind power density for the country indicated that Nigeria is among those countries that have the lowest wind power density in the world. Comparing measurements at 35 locations within Nigeria, the study concluded that there was a strong correlation between NASA's SSE dataset, and insolation data obtained from measurements on the ground, thus making remote sensing a reliable method for analyzing solar energy for this region.

  2. Access to Routine Immunization: A Comparative Analysis of Supply-Side Disparities between Northern and Southern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Eboreime, Ejemai; Abimbola, Seye; Bozzani, Fiammetta

    2015-01-01

    Background The available data on routine immunization in Nigeria show a disparity in coverage between Northern and Southern Nigeria, with the former performing worse. The effect of socio-cultural differences on health-seeking behaviour has been identified in the literature as the main cause of the disparity. Our study analyses the role of supply-side determinants, particularly access to services, in causing these disparities. Methods Using routine government data, we compared supply-side determinants of access in two Northern states with two Southern states. The states were identified using criteria-based purposive selection such that the comparisons were made between a low-coverage state in the South and a low-coverage state in the North as well as between a high-coverage state in the South and a high-coverage state in the North. Results Human resources and commodities at routine immunization service delivery points were generally insufficient for service delivery in both geographical regions. While disparities were evident between individual states irrespective of regional location, compared to the South, residents in Northern Nigeria were more likely to have vaccination service delivery points located within a 5km radius of their settlements. Conclusion Our findings suggest that regional supply-side disparities are not apparent, reinforcing the earlier reported socio-cultural explanations for disparities in routine immunization service uptake between Northern and Southern Nigeria. Nonetheless, improving routine immunisation coverage services require that there are available human resources and that health facilities are equitably distributed. PMID:26692215

  3. Nigeria's Satellite Programme Development: Prospects and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinyede, Joseph

    Nigeria's desire to maximize the benefits of space technology for its sustainable development, has become a reality with the establishment of the National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA) in May 1999 and the approval of the national Space Policy and Programmes in July 2001. In November, 2000, the Federal Government took a bold step with the signing of an agreement with the Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) of United Kingdom (UK) for the design, construction and launch of a medium resolution micro-satellite - NigeriaSat-1 with a Ground Sampling Distance of thirty-two (32) meters. The agreement also covers the Know-How-Technology-Training (KHTT) to Nigerian Engineers and Scientists for a period of 18th months at SSTL‘s facility in the U.K.. NigeriaSat-1 was successfully launched into Leo Earth Orbit on 27th September, 2003. NigeriaSat- 1 is one of the five (5) satellites belonging to Nigeria, Algeria, Turkey, United Kingdom and China being operated in a Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC). The launch of NigeriaSat-1 has promoted access to information which has become a strategy for mass socio-economic development, as information underscores all developmental effort be it in education, provision of health services, marketing, construction industry, tourism, defense, etc. As a follow-up to the successful launch of NigeriaSat-1, the government of Nigeria started the implementation of a Nigerian communication satellite (NigcomSat-1) to address the problem of communication which is the greatest drawbacks to the socio-economic development of the country, particularly in the areas of rural telephone, tele-education, tele-medicine, egovernment, e-commerce and real-time monitoring services. NigcomSat-1, which carries 40- hybrid transponders in the C, KU, KA and L bands, has a 15 years life span and coverage of the African continent, Middle East and part of Europe was launched in May 2007. To satisfy geospatial data needs in sectors such as survey, housing, defence and security and urban renewal, and large scale mapping community, NASRDA has embarked on the development of a higher resolution satellite NigeriaSat-2 which carries spatial resolution pay loads of 2.5 and 5 meters in panchromatic and multi-spectral bands respectively. In addition, the satellite has been designed to provide stereo-imaging capability. It also carries a 32m resolution payload to ensure the continuity of NigeriaSat-1 data beyond its 2008 lifespan. The launch of NigeriaSat-2 is being planned for 2009. Furthermore, Nigeria's concern over the incessant cloud cover of a large area of its southern part has informed NASRDA's quest to acquire capacity for SAR-based image interpretation and application to socio-economic development. The programme will eventually lead to the acquisition of a SAR-based micro-satellite (NigeriaSat-3) in the near future.

  4. Ethnicity, petroeconomy, and national integration in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Yeri-Obidake, E.Z.

    1985-01-01

    Among several related phenomena, this study presents as its focal points the examination of some of the variables that influence and shape the structure of sociopolitical, cultural and socioeconomic relations in the course of national integration in Nigeria. The exploitation of petroleum resources since 1958 in the Niger Delta has largely influenced the course of the political as well as the socioeconomic development of Nigeria. Due to its rich petroleum resources, the Rivers territory ranked high in the political calculus of both the Federal Government and secessionist Biafra. The central thesis of this study is that oil is the single glue that has held the Federation of Nigeria together in the last two decades, and prevented it from being balkanized. This study attempts to put into perspective the various eruptions and episodes of secessionist tendencies and agitations in Nigeria. The ebb and flow of separatist agitations seem to reflect the changing geoeconomic, socioeconomic, and sociopolitical environment of the country. Should the petroeconomy collapse, and/or oil losses its significance in the international economy, what will happen to Nigeria as a nation. The present study points up the need to develop other sources of economic interdependence via the proper utilization of the enormous oil revenues before it is written off as a lost opportunity.

  5. Public Awareness and Knowledge of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) Control Activities in Abuja, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olamiju, Olatunwa J.; Olamiju, Francisca O.; Adeniran, Adebiyi A.; Mba, Ifeanyi C.; Ukwunna, Chidera C.; Okoronkwo, Chukwu; Ekpo, Uwem F.

    2014-01-01

    The need to engage the public in Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) control activities has become imperative in the context of morbidity reduction through preventive chemotherapy and community participation. Therefore, a survey was conducted among the general public to assess their knowledge and awareness of NTDs control activities in Nigeria. A simple questionnaire was administered to the general public attending a job fair in Abuja, Nigeria. Of the 461 respondents, a significant proportion 337 (73.1%) have heard of NTD before, but only 291 (63.1%) have good knowledge about NTDs. However, among the specific NTDs, only the control of onchocerciasis (50.8%) was of average public awareness in Nigeria, while all the other NTDs control activities were significantly less known to the general public. 397 (87.1%) stated that government support for NTD control activities is poor and were willing to assist to advocate for NTDs control. This survey demonstrates that despite government's numerous activities towards the control of NTDs in Nigeria, there is little sensitization of the general public. There is a need for policy changes that would raise the participation and involvement of the general public in NTDs control activities for sustainability. PMID:25254362

  6. Serological Investigation of Akabane Virus Infection in Cattle and Sheep in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oluwayelu, Daniel Oladimeji; Aiki-Raji, Comfort Oluladun; Umeh, Emmanuel Chibuzor; Mustapha, Samat Odunayo; Adebiyi, Adebowale Idris

    2016-01-01

    Akabane virus (AKAV) is recognized as an important pathogen that causes abortions and congenital malformations in ruminants. However, it has not received adequate attention in Nigeria. Therefore, in investigating this disease, serum samples from 184 (abattoir and farm) head of cattle and 184 intensively reared sheep from two states in southwest Nigeria were screened for antibodies against AKAV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An overall seropositivity of 70.1% (129/184) was obtained with antibodies being detectable in 73.8% of abattoir (trade) cattle and 40.0% in farm cattle, while 4.3% (8/184) seropositivity was observed in sheep. All the age groups of cattle tested had seropositive animals, 0-1 year (1/7, 14.3%), 2-3 years (17/34, 50.0%), 4-5 years (92/121, 76.0%), and >5 years (19/22, 86.4%), while in sheep only the age groups of 2-3 and 4-5 years showed seropositivity of 4.1% (4/97) and 8.2% (4/49), respectively. The detection of antibody-positive animals among unvaccinated cattle and sheep provides evidence of AKAV infection in Nigeria. These findings call for continuous monitoring of the disease among ruminants in order to ascertain the actual burden and increase awareness of the disease. This will facilitate early detection and aid the development of appropriate control measures against the disease in Nigeria. PMID:26925103

  7. Molecular Characterization of the Circulating Strains of Vibrio cholerae during 2010 Cholera Outbreak in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oyedeji, Kolawole S.; Niemogha, Mary-Theresa; Nwaokorie, Francisca O.; Bamidele, Tajudeen A.; Ochoga, Michael; Akinsinde, Kehinde A.; Brai, Bartholomew I.; Oladele, David; Omonigbehin, Emmanuel A.; Bamidele, Moses; Fesobi, Toun W.; Musa, Adesola Z.; Adeneye, Adeniyi K.; Ujah, Innocent A.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at characterizing the phenotypic and toxigenic status of circulating strains of cholera during outbreaks in Nigeria, employing molecular typing techniques. Two hundred and one samples of rectal swabs, stool, vomitus, water (from the well, borehole, sachet, stream, and tap) and disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite) were collected from three states in the country. The samples were inoculated on thiosulphate-citrate bile salt-sucrose (TCBS), Cary-Blair transport medium and smeared on glass slides for direct examination. The Vibrio cholerae isolates were serotyped, biotyped, and characterized using PCR of the cytotoxin gene A (ctxA), wbeO1, and wbfO139 gene primer. Of the 201 samples screened, 96 were positive for V. cholerae O1 (48%), with 69 (72%) positive for ctxA gene. The results from this study showed that the circulating strains of cholera in Nigeria were of Ogawa serotype, also observed in other outbreaks in Nigeria (1991, 1992, and 1996). However, the strains were of the Classical biotype and were mainly (72%) ctxA gene-positive. This current investigation has confirmed the production of cholera toxin by the circulating strains, and this could be harnessed for possible cholera vaccine production in Nigeria. PMID:23930335

  8. Serological Investigation of Akabane Virus Infection in Cattle and Sheep in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oluwayelu, Daniel Oladimeji; Aiki-Raji, Comfort Oluladun; Umeh, Emmanuel Chibuzor; Mustapha, Samat Odunayo; Adebiyi, Adebowale Idris

    2016-01-01

    Akabane virus (AKAV) is recognized as an important pathogen that causes abortions and congenital malformations in ruminants. However, it has not received adequate attention in Nigeria. Therefore, in investigating this disease, serum samples from 184 (abattoir and farm) head of cattle and 184 intensively reared sheep from two states in southwest Nigeria were screened for antibodies against AKAV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An overall seropositivity of 70.1% (129/184) was obtained with antibodies being detectable in 73.8% of abattoir (trade) cattle and 40.0% in farm cattle, while 4.3% (8/184) seropositivity was observed in sheep. All the age groups of cattle tested had seropositive animals, 0-1 year (1/7, 14.3%), 2-3 years (17/34, 50.0%), 4-5 years (92/121, 76.0%), and >5 years (19/22, 86.4%), while in sheep only the age groups of 2-3 and 4-5 years showed seropositivity of 4.1% (4/97) and 8.2% (4/49), respectively. The detection of antibody-positive animals among unvaccinated cattle and sheep provides evidence of AKAV infection in Nigeria. These findings call for continuous monitoring of the disease among ruminants in order to ascertain the actual burden and increase awareness of the disease. This will facilitate early detection and aid the development of appropriate control measures against the disease in Nigeria. PMID:26925103

  9. Implementation of Geographic Information Systems for a Nigerian State: A Case Study of the Catholic Dioceses of Delta State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banye, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    There is an understandable concern among practitioners of education, academic analysts, policy formulators, and curriculum designers that a large number of government officials have both neglected and ignored the salient topic of the changing demographics of Nigeria and of Delta State (NPC, 2007). The economic upturn of Nigeria and in particular…

  10. Implementation of Geographic Information Systems for a Nigerian State: A Case Study of the Catholic Dioceses of Delta State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banye, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    There is an understandable concern among practitioners of education, academic analysts, policy formulators, and curriculum designers that a large number of government officials have both neglected and ignored the salient topic of the changing demographics of Nigeria and of Delta State (NPC, 2007). The economic upturn of Nigeria and in particular

  11. Nigeria`s rich resources for renewable energies

    SciTech Connect

    Ayankoya, J.O.

    1997-12-31

    It has been observed in Nigeria, that there is a correlation between the standard of living as measured by per capita GNP, and per capita energy consumption. As energy use per capita is tied to the importance of population increase it tends to drop during economic slow down. The per capita energy usage is put at 0.2 kw compared to 10 kw for USA and 4 kw for Europe respectively. Furthermore, analysis shows with the increase in population per year and a 2--5% growth in per capita GNP, require an increase of 5--8% in energy supply per year. The Country derives almost all its energy need from fossil fuels (petroleum, gas and coal), hydropower (the only renewable energy used for generating electricity at present) Wood, Animal, Human power and Wind. With the introduction of solar energy, wind energy, micro hydro power, ocean energy, geothermal energy, biomass conversion, and municipal waste energy, the generating of electricity is bound to take a new turn.

  12. Has Wild Poliovirus Been Eliminated from Nigeria?

    PubMed Central

    Famulare, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3) has not been seen anywhere since the last case of WPV3-associated paralysis in Nigeria in November 2012. At the time of writing, the most recent case of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) in Nigeria occurred in July 2014, and WPV1 has not been seen in Africa since a case in Somalia in August 2014. No cases associated with circulating vaccine-derived type 2 poliovirus (cVDPV2) have been detected in Nigeria since November 2014. Has WPV1 been eliminated from Africa? Has WPV3 been eradicated globally? Has Nigeria interrupted cVDPV2 transmission? These questions are difficult because polio surveillance is based on paralysis and paralysis only occurs in a small fraction of infections. This report provides estimates for the probabilities of poliovirus elimination in Nigeria given available data as of March 31, 2015. It is based on a model of disease transmission that is built from historical polio incidence rates and is designed to represent the uncertainties in transmission dynamics and poliovirus detection that are fundamental to interpreting long time periods without cases. The model estimates that, as of March 31, 2015, the probability of WPV1 elimination in Nigeria is 84%, and that if WPV1 has not been eliminated, a new case will be detected with 99% probability by the end of 2015. The probability of WPV3 elimination (and thus global eradication) is > 99%. However, it is unlikely that the ongoing transmission of cVDPV2 has been interrupted; the probability of cVDPV2 elimination rises to 83% if no new cases are detected by April 2016. PMID:26317401

  13. Nigeria

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    ... of aerosol optical depth, which is a measure of atmospheric particle abundance, is shown at center-right. MISR uses the changes in the atmosphere's ability to transmit light and the variation in scene brightness at different view angles to ...

  14. Occurrence and distribution of pepper veinal mottle virus and cucumber mosaic virus in pepper in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Arogundade, Olawale; Balogun, Olusegun Samuel; Kareem, Kehinde Titilope

    2012-01-01

    Viral diseases constitute obstacles to pepper production in the world. In Nigeria, pepper plants are primarily affected by pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Pepper leaf curl Virus (TLCV), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Pepper mottle virus (PMV) and a host of other viruses. The experiment was carried out with a diagnostic survey on the experimental field of the National Horticultural Research Institute, Ibadan, Nigeria and on pepper farms in six local government areas within Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria, forty samples were collected from each of the farms. Diseased samples were obtained from the field and taken to the laboratory for indexing. In ELISA test some of the samples from the pepper farms showed positive reaction to single infection with PVMV (36.79%), CMV (22.14%) while some others showed positive reaction to mixed infection of the two viruses (10%) but some also negative reaction to PVMV and CMV antisera (31.07). PMID:22495040

  15. Tobacco control in Nigeria- policy recommendations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Major strides towards national tobacco control have been made since Nigeria became signatory to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in June 2004. The Nigerian senate passed a bill on March 15, 2011 which is expected to be signed into law shortly, to regulate and control production, manufacture, sale, advertising, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco or tobacco products. This paper highlights how the proposed tobacco control law provides a unique opportunity to domesticate the WHO FCTC, expand on smokeless tobacco regulation and develop a science base to improve tobacco control measures in Nigeria. PMID:22713586

  16. Nigeria's internal petroleum problems: perspectives and choices

    SciTech Connect

    Iwayemi, A.

    1984-10-01

    Oil-producing Nigeria has been hard hit by weakening oil markets, the replacement of the civilian government by a military regime, and sporadic but severe energy supply problems. The latter included shortages of petroleum products and irregular availability of electricity. These conditions will worsen unless Nigeria takes immediate action to introduce demand management, including efficient pricing and other conservation measures, and timely investment to expand domestic energy facilities, change the institutional and policy environment, and assure the availability of imported supplies. It is also important to encourage the development of renewable energy sources. 16 references, 2 tables.

  17. Pulmonary function indices in children with sickle cell anemia in Enugu, south-east Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Achigbu, Kingsley I.; Odetunde, Odutola I.; Chinawa, Josephat M.; Achigbu, Eberechukwu O.; Ikefuna, Anthony N.; Emodi, Ifeoma J.; Ibe, Bede C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the pulmonary function indices of children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) attending the pediatric sickle cell clinic at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, south-east Nigeria and to compare these indices with the results obtained from other regions. Methods: A case control study of lung function in children with SCA aged 6-20 years. The study was carried out in the University of Nigeria/University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu State, Nigeria between October 2014 and January 2015. Measurements of the peak expiratory flow rate, forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were evaluated. Results: A total of 80 subjects were recruited into the study, comprising 40 homozygous HbSS (hemoglobin SS) patients and an equal number of controls. Children with SCA had statistically lower values of FEV1 (1.6±0.52), FVC (1.76±0.95), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) (309.00±82.64) when compared with normal hemoglobin genotype FEV1 (12.01±0.53), FVC (2.12±0.54), and PEFR (364.10±87.85). The mean FVC, FEV1/FVC, and PEFR were also higher in the male control group compared with the HbSS male group, but these differences were not statistically significant. Female controls had significantly larger FEV1, FVC, and PEFR values compared with the HbSS females. Conclusion: The lung function indices were significantly lower in children and adolescents with SCA compared with the matched controls with a hemoglobin genotype AA. PMID:26219442

  18. Gender Difference among Social Studies Teachers' Competences in the Use of the Inquiry Method in South-South Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Ogheneakoke Edore

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed social studies teachers' competences in the use of the inquiry method in secondary schools. The target population for the study consisted of 1,110 social studies teachers from all the public secondary schools in Edo, Delta and Bayelsa states of Nigeria. The sample size was 600 social studies teachers drawn from 300 junior

  19. Language Deficit in English and Lack of Creative Education as Impediments to Nigeria's Breakthrough into the Knowledge Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowarin, Macaulay; Tonukari, Emmanuel Ufuoma

    2010-01-01

    This essay discusses the linguistic and cultural factors that have acted as impediments to Nigeria's breakthrough into the knowledge era. It identifies language deficit in English by most Nigerians, under-developed state of most Nigerian languages, absence of creative education and the presence of certain cultural taboos which stifles the…

  20. Enhancing Literacy Skills of Students with Congenital and Profound Hearing Impairment in Nigeria Using Babudoh's Comprehension Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babudoh, Gladys B.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the effect of a treatment tool called "Babudoh's comprehension therapy" in enhancing the comprehension and writing skills of 10 junior secondary school students with congenital and profound hearing impairment in Plateau State, Nigeria. The study adopted the single group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research…

  1. Comparing Students' Enrolment and Graduate Output in Home Economics with Other Vocational Subjects in Colleges of Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arubayi, D. O.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare students' enrolment and graduate output in Home Economics with other Vocational subjects in the Colleges of Education in Nigeria. The target population included twenty (20) Federal Colleges and twenty-seven (27) State Colleges of Education offering eight Vocational and Technical disciplines during the…

  2. Language Deficit in English and Lack of Creative Education as Impediments to Nigeria's Breakthrough into the Knowledge Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowarin, Macaulay; Tonukari, Emmanuel Ufuoma

    2010-01-01

    This essay discusses the linguistic and cultural factors that have acted as impediments to Nigeria's breakthrough into the knowledge era. It identifies language deficit in English by most Nigerians, under-developed state of most Nigerian languages, absence of creative education and the presence of certain cultural taboos which stifles the

  3. Civic Education as a Collaborative Dimension of Social Studies Education in Attainment of Political Ethics in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dania, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigated Civic Education as a collaborative dimension of Social Studies Education in attainment of political ethics in Nigeria. The study adopted the survey research design. The sample for the study consisted of 580 Social Studies teachers selected from thirty secondary schools in the three senatorial districts of Delta State. The…

  4. A Pilot Study of the Challenges of Infusing Almajiri Educational System into the Universal Basic Educational Programme in Sokoto, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isiaka, Tajudeen Onitada

    2015-01-01

    The Almajiri falls among the category of extremely poor children in Nigeria. These children constitute about seven and half million street-begging, maladjusted, aggressive and out of schools. The menace of the Almajiri has recently attracted the of attention of federal and state Governments which led to the establishment of special schools geared

  5. Methods Used by Pre-Service Nigeria Certificate in Education Teachers in Solving Quantitative Problems in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danjuma, Ibrahim Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports part of the results of research on chemical problem solving behavior of pre-service teachers in Plateau and Northeastern states of Nigeria. Specifically, it examines and describes the methods used by 204 pre-service teachers in solving quantitative problems from four topics in chemistry. Namely, gas laws; electrolysis;…

  6. Methods Used by Pre-Service Nigeria Certificate in Education Teachers in Solving Quantitative Problems in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danjuma, Ibrahim Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports part of the results of research on chemical problem solving behavior of pre-service teachers in Plateau and Northeastern states of Nigeria. Specifically, it examines and describes the methods used by 204 pre-service teachers in solving quantitative problems from four topics in chemistry. Namely, gas laws; electrolysis;

  7. Enhancing Literacy Skills of Students with Congenital and Profound Hearing Impairment in Nigeria Using Babudoh's Comprehension Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babudoh, Gladys B.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the effect of a treatment tool called "Babudoh's comprehension therapy" in enhancing the comprehension and writing skills of 10 junior secondary school students with congenital and profound hearing impairment in Plateau State, Nigeria. The study adopted the single group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research

  8. The Mechanical Behavior of Soils from Ugwueme Landslide, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Igwe, Ogbonnaya

    2010-05-01

    Climate change and global warming effects are getting obvious in Nigeria by increasing floods and landslides. Authors have launched joint research on evaluation of susceptibility change of landslides under extreme rainfall conditions in Nigeria. Igwe sampled soils from sliding surface of the Ugwueme Landslide, induced by torrential rainfall in 2008. In this abstract, engineering properties of soils from the landslide site are presented. The sample was red, sandy tropical soils. The shear behavior and the dominant factors controlling the deformation of the soils were investigated by means of a new ring shear apparatus. This series of tests were purposed to reveal the detailed pore pressure generation under fully saturated condition to simulate the landslide onset behavior under heavy rainfall condition. Undrained and drained tests at different normal stresses were conducted on normally and over-consolidated soils having the same relative density. Following the consolidation of saturated sample, shear stress was applied until the sample reached the steady state after failure and long shear displacement. Test results show that liquefaction is the major mechanism controlling the deformation of the soils and that the higher the normal stress or over-consolidation ratio the greater the brittleness index. Normally and over-consolidated soils all liquefied regardless of normal stress and over-consolidation ratio, with over-consolidated specimens having higher values of brittleness index than normally consolidated ones. This research found that whereas increase in either normal stress or over-consolidation ratio resulted in a corresponding increase in peak strength, the steady state strength of the soils was unaffected. Normally and over-consolidated specimens all reached the same steady state strength indicating that in highly liquefiable soils, changes in normal stress or over-consolidation ratio has little effect on steady state strength, and by implication, on the potential travel distance of a landslide on slopes founded on weak soils.

  9. The Challenges of Astronomy in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urama, J. O.

    Some Universities and Research Centres in Nigeria have, over the years, been extensively involved in both research and education in Astronomy and Space Sciences. However, they appear to be trading in an unwanted commodity as modern astronomy appears to continue to lack any serious public appreciation. This paper examines the challenges and problems confronting the development of Astronomy in the country.

  10. Cholera epidemiology in Nigeria: an overview.

    PubMed

    Adagbada, Ajoke Olutola; Adesida, Solayide Abosede; Nwaokorie, Francisca Obiageri; Niemogha, Mary-Theresa; Coker, Akitoye Olusegun

    2012-01-01

    Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium, Vibrio cholera. Choleragenic V. cholera O1 and O139 are the only causative agents of the disease. The two most distinguishing epidemiologic features of the disease are its tendency to appear in explosive outbreaks and its predisposition to causing pandemics that may progressively affect many countries and spread into continents. Despite efforts to control cholera, the disease continues to occur as a major public health problem in many developing countries. Numerous studies over more than a century have made advances in the understanding of the disease and ways of treating patients, but the mechanism of emergence of new epidemic strains, and the ecosystem supporting regular epidemics, remain challenging to epidemiologists. In Nigeria, since the first appearance of epidemic cholera in 1972, intermittent outbreaks have been occurring. The later part of 2010 was marked with severe outbreak which started from the northern part of Nigeria, spreading to the other parts and involving approximately 3,000 cases and 781 deaths. Sporadic cases have also been reported. Although epidemiologic surveillance constitutes an important component of the public health response, publicly available surveillance data from Nigeria have been relatively limited to date. Based on existing relevant scientific literature on features of cholera, this paper presents a synopsis of cholera epidemiology emphasising the situation in Nigeria. PMID:22937199

  11. Computational Biology and Bioinformatics in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Fatumo, Segun A.; Adoga, Moses P.; Ojo, Opeolu O.; Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga; Adeoye, Tolulope; Ewejobi, Itunuoluwa; Adebiyi, Marion; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; Bewaji, Clement; Nashiru, Oyekanmi

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, major advances in the field of molecular biology, coupled with advances in genomic technologies, have led to an explosive growth in the biological data generated by the scientific community. The critical need to process and analyze such a deluge of data and turn it into useful knowledge has caused bioinformatics to gain prominence and importance. Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary research area that applies techniques, methodologies, and tools in computer and information science to solve biological problems. In Nigeria, bioinformatics has recently played a vital role in the advancement of biological sciences. As a developing country, the importance of bioinformatics is rapidly gaining acceptance, and bioinformatics groups comprised of biologists, computer scientists, and computer engineers are being constituted at Nigerian universities and research institutes. In this article, we present an overview of bioinformatics education and research in Nigeria. We also discuss professional societies and academic and research institutions that play central roles in advancing the discipline in Nigeria. Finally, we propose strategies that can bolster bioinformatics education and support from policy makers in Nigeria, with potential positive implications for other developing countries. PMID:24763310

  12. SUSTAINABLE WATER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM FOR RURAL NIGERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa face the most acute water supply challenges in the world. Nigeria, the most populous African country, has considerable populations without basic access to safe drinking water, with over 50% of the country lacking coverage. The village of Adu A...

  13. Use of satellite precipitation data in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adesi, A. P.; Adelugba, T.; Salami, T.

    2009-04-01

    The use of satellite precipitation data for forecast in Nigeria is greatly advancing, this is due to the availability of satellite imagery and measured real time rainfall data that can be used to validating the estimated amount of rainfall been derived from imagery captured by satellite of an area. Rainfall data from rain gauge measurements have been used to validate the data of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Precipitation Radar (TRMM PR) and the data of two other satellite algorithms namely 3B43 and TMPI for 36 months (Jan1998-Dec2000) at 1.00∘×1.00∘ latitude/longitude grid boxes over Nigeria. Between 1998 and 2000 we studied the interconnection between precipitation imageries captured over Nigeria and the amount of Rainfall measured. We noted that there is critical connection between the Thermodynamic properties over the surface, the estimated amount of rainfall from a particular captured imagery and measured rainfall data. Therefore proper understanding of the satellite precipitation imagery will enable forecasters in Nigeria to forecast the amount of precipitation from a particular type of imagery for flood and disaster monitoring. More practical issues will be presented. Flood disaster related event has claimed million of lives, make thousand homeless and devastated more million arable land in Africa.

  14. Cholera Epidemiology in Nigeria: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Adagbada, Ajoke Olutola; Adesida, Solayide Abosede; Nwaokorie, Francisca Obiageri; Niemogha, Mary-Theresa; Coker, Akitoye Olusegun

    2012-01-01

    Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium, Vibrio cholera. Choleragenic V. cholera O1 and O139 are the only causative agents of the disease. The two most distinguishing epidemiologic features of the disease are its tendency to appear in explosive outbreaks and its predisposition to causing pandemics that may progressively affect many countries and spread into continents. Despite efforts to control cholera, the disease continues to occur as a major public health problem in many developing countries. Numerous studies over more than a century have made advances in the understanding of the disease and ways of treating patients, but the mechanism of emergence of new epidemic strains, and the ecosystem supporting regular epidemics, remain challenging to epidemiologists. In Nigeria, since the first appearance of epidemic cholera in 1972, intermittent outbreaks have been occurring. The later part of 2010 was marked with severe outbreak which started from the northern part of Nigeria, spreading to the other parts and involving approximately 3,000 cases and 781 deaths. Sporadic cases have also been reported. Although epidemiologic surveillance constitutes an important component of the public health response, publicly available surveillance data from Nigeria have been relatively limited to date. Based on existing relevant scientific literature on features of cholera, this paper presents a synopsis of cholera epidemiology emphasising the situation in Nigeria. PMID:22937199

  15. The English Language of the Nigeria Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinwe, Udo Victoria

    2015-01-01

    In the present day Nigeria, the quality of the English language spoken by Nigerians, is perceived to have been deteriorating and needs urgent attention. The proliferation of books and articles in the recent years can be seen as the native outcrop of its received attention and recognition as a matter of discourse. Evidently, every profession,

  16. Women, Education and Work in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anugwom, Edlyne E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the implication of the growing educational opportunities for women in Nigeria. Although bias has existed from the traditional Nigerian society against women, recent events especially in education reveal a conquering of this deep-rooted prejudice. Enrollment figures particularly in the last ten years show a remarkable bridging

  17. Young People's Sexual Risk Behaviors in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulraheem, I. S.; Fawole, O. I.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence and correlates of HIV-related risk behaviors among adolescents and youths in Nigeria are poorly documented. This study aims at determining the prevalence and correlates of HIV-related risk behaviors among adolescents and youths in order to plan appropriate intervention measures. This is a descriptive cross-sectional survey using

  18. Access to Information in Rural Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboyade, B. Olabimpe

    1985-01-01

    This paper focuses on intensified information transfer activities in rural areas of Nigeria: community development work, agricultural extension service, mass media (newspapers, television, radio, problems of communication), and the role of the library (reinforcing messages, repackaging information, acquiring specialized materials, coordinating

  19. Computational biology and bioinformatics in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fatumo, Segun A; Adoga, Moses P; Ojo, Opeolu O; Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga; Adeoye, Tolulope; Ewejobi, Itunuoluwa; Adebiyi, Marion; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; Bewaji, Clement; Nashiru, Oyekanmi

    2014-04-01

    Over the past few decades, major advances in the field of molecular biology, coupled with advances in genomic technologies, have led to an explosive growth in the biological data generated by the scientific community. The critical need to process and analyze such a deluge of data and turn it into useful knowledge has caused bioinformatics to gain prominence and importance. Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary research area that applies techniques, methodologies, and tools in computer and information science to solve biological problems. In Nigeria, bioinformatics has recently played a vital role in the advancement of biological sciences. As a developing country, the importance of bioinformatics is rapidly gaining acceptance, and bioinformatics groups comprised of biologists, computer scientists, and computer engineers are being constituted at Nigerian universities and research institutes. In this article, we present an overview of bioinformatics education and research in Nigeria. We also discuss professional societies and academic and research institutions that play central roles in advancing the discipline in Nigeria. Finally, we propose strategies that can bolster bioinformatics education and support from policy makers in Nigeria, with potential positive implications for other developing countries. PMID:24763310

  20. Education and Political Restructure in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayeni, Matthew Adedeji; Adeleye, Joseph Olusola

    2013-01-01

    To say that education is a potent factor in any political restructuring is an indisputable fact. For a meaningful political development to take place in any nation, especially like Nigeria. The place of education is never in doubt to influence positively those in the position of authority to ascertain what are needed to put in place for effective

  1. Pathogenic variation of Phakopsora pachyrhizi in Nigeria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) is endemic to soybean growing areas in Nigeria. To determine the pathogenic variation, infected leaves were collected from 85 locations in the Derived Savanna, Southern Guinea Savanna, Northern Guinea Savanna and Mid-Altitude agroecological zones. A total of 116 ...

  2. Family Quality of Life in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajuwon, P. M.; Brown, I.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The limited literature that exists about intellectual disabilities (ID) in Nigeria suggests that perceptions of ID may be shaped by social and cultural beliefs, and that socio-economic factors have prevented the development of policy and services. The present study sought to explore these suggestions in more detail by administering the

  3. Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayotamuno, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.…

  4. Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayotamuno, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.

  5. Gender Inequality in Academia: Evidences from Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbogu, Christiana O.

    2011-01-01

    Universities and other institutions of higher education in Nigeria see themselves as liberal and open-minded. They support social movements that encourage principles of democracy and social justice, yet their mode of governance is male dominated and patriarchal. This study, therefore, identified the causes of gender inequality in academia and the

  6. Preparing Teachers for the Contemporary Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoli, Nkechi J.; Ogbondah, Livinus; Ekpefa-Abdullahi, Janet Y.

    2015-01-01

    This paper focused on preparing teachers for the contemporary Nigeria. Teaching is a versatile field that requires at all times the correct identification of indices of developments in the society. This responsibility makes it imperative that teachers be an embodiment of a constant search for updated knowledge in various fields of Endeavour. The…

  7. Development of a Master Health Facility List in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Azeez, Aderemi; Bamidele, Samson; Oyemakinde, Akin; Oyediran, Kolawole Azeez; Adebayo, Wura; Fapohunda, Bolaji; Abioye, Abimbola; Mullen, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Routine Health Information Systems (RHIS) are increasingly transitioning to electronic platforms in several developing countries. Establishment of a Master Facility List (MFL) to standardize the allocation of unique identifiers for health facilities can overcome identification issues and support health facility management. The Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) recently developed a MFL, and we present the process and outcome. Methods The MFL was developed from the ground up, and includes a state code, a local government area (LGA) code, health facility ownership (public or private), the level of care, and an exclusive LGA level health facility serial number, as part of the unique identifier system in Nigeria. To develop the MFL, the LGAs sent the list of all health facilities in their jurisdiction to the state, which in turn collated for all LGAs under them before sending to the FMOH. At the FMOH, a group of RHIS experts verified the list and identifiers for each state. Results The national MFL consists of 34,423 health facilities uniquely identified. The list has been published and is available for worldwide access; it is currently used for planning and management of health services in Nigeria. Discussion Unique identifiers are a basic component of any information system. However, poor planning and execution of implementing this key standard can diminish the success of the RHIS. Conclusion Development and adherence to standards is the hallmark for a national health information infrastructure. Explicit processes and multi-level stakeholder engagement is necessary to ensuring the success of the effort. PMID:25422720

  8. Contraceptive use and distribution of high-risk births in Nigeria: a sub-national analysis

    PubMed Central

    Akinyemi, Akanni; Adedini, Sunday; Hounton, Sennen; Akinlo, Ambrose; Adedeji, Olanike; Adonri, Osarenti; Friedman, Howard; Shiferaw, Solomon; Maïga, Abdoulaye; Amouzou, Agbessi; Barros, Aluisio J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Family planning expansion has been identified as an impetus to harnessing Nigeria's demographic dividend. However, there is a need for data to address pockets of inequality and to better understand cultural and social factors affecting contraceptive use and health benefits. This paper contributes to addressing these needs by providing evidence on the trends and sub-national patterns of modern contraceptive prevalence in Nigeria and the association between contraceptive use and high-risk births in Nigeria. Design The study utilised women's data from the last three Demographic and Health Surveys (2003, 2008, and 2013) in Nigeria. The analysis involved descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses. The multivariate analyses were performed to examine the relationship between high-risk births and contraceptive use. Associations were examined using Poisson regression. Results Findings showed that respondents in avoidable high-risk birth categories were less likely to use contraceptives compared to those at no risk [rate ratio 0.82, confidence interval: 0.76–0.89, p<0.001]. Education and wealth index consistently predicted significant differences in contraceptive use across the models. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that women in the high-risk birth categories were significantly less likely to use a modern method of contraception relative to those categorised as having no risk. However, there are huge sub-national variations at regional and state levels in contraceptive prevalence and subsequent high-risk births. These results further strengthen evidence-based justification for increased investments in family planning programmes at the state and regional levels, particularly regions and states with high unmet needs for family planning. PMID:26562145

  9. The advent and growth of television broadcasting in Nigeria: its political and educational overtones.

    PubMed

    Umeh, C C

    1989-01-01

    In 1959, the regional government of Western Nigeria established the 1st television station in Nigeria and in Africa. Even though it promoted the station as a means to educate the people about development and the world, it initially served as a means for an opposition leader to address the people of Western Nigeria. The regional governments of Eastern and Northern Nigeria and the federal government in Lagos followed and started their own TV stations in the early 1960s. All 4 of these stations basically existed to serve partisan political objectives for the various governments. Any stations established after these 4 continued this same political and regionalistic heritage. In 1973, a new surge of regional consciousness occurred after the now military government allowed the division of the country into 19 states. This change, the concurrent oil boom, and the effectiveness and importance of existing TV broadcasting led to a new surge of state owned TV stations. 3 years later, the military government established the National Television Authority (NTA) to coordinate nationwide coverage. The NTA then acquired existing TV stations. This event slowed the growth of TV broadcasting until 1979 when military government rule ended. The 5 political parties vying for election in the states revoked the NTA charter and a proliferation of TV stations occurred. This also happened because the civilian administration was disorganized. As regionalization played a role in the broadcasting of political propaganda, so did it play a role in educational programming, Despite TV broadcasting's political ties, it has been successful in producing quality educational programs for schools and colleges nationwide via the NTA network with the assistance of UNESCO. PMID:12342789

  10. Contamination of shallow wells in Nigeria from surface contaminant migration

    SciTech Connect

    Ademoroti, C.M.A. )

    1987-01-01

    Contaminated wells, located in six south/western and western states of Nigeria, were sampled and analyzed for pollution characteristics. Results of analysis indicated migration of contaminants into the wells from places where there was a potential source. There was a significant microbiological population in the wells placed near domestic waste sites. Also, there were excessive levels of trace heavy metals in those placed near metal dumping sites. On the other hand, the contaminants were minimal in wells that were not close to polluting sources. The studies revealed that groundwater contamination occurred primarily by dumping of wastes, wrong placement of waste disposal facilities, and improper construction of wells. The groundwater sources (wells, etc.) are used when pipe-borne water facilities are inadequate.

  11. Exploring cigarette use among male migrant workers in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onigbogi, Olanrewaju Olusola; Karatu, David; Sanusi, Sarafa; Pratt, Rebekah; Okuyemi, Kolawole

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is limited knowledge about the use of cigarettes by blacks outside the United States (U.S). Nigeria creates an opportunity to explore smoking behaviours, smoking cessation (nicotine dependence) and use of cigarettes in a country that has a large black population outside the U.S. Methods: We conducted three Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) involving twenty-four male migrant workers who reported that they were current cigarette smokers. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. Results: Four major themes namely: reasons for initiating and continuing to smoke cigarettes, factors affecting brand choice, barriers to quitting, effect of smoking mentholated cigarette brands were identified. Conclusion: This study provides insight into the use of mentholated and non-mentholated cigarettes and suggests the need for further studies to explore smoking behavior among Nigerians. PMID:25844383

  12. Educational decentralization, public spending, and social justice in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geo-Jaja, Macleans A.

    2007-01-01

    This study situates the process of educational decentralization in the narrower context of social justice. Its main object, however, is to analyze the implications of decentralization for strategies of equity and social justice in Nigeria. It starts from the premise that the early optimism that supported decentralization as an efficient and effective educational reform tool has been disappointed. The author maintains that decentralization — on its own — cannot improve education service delivery, the capacities of subordinate governments, or the integration of social policy in broader development goals. If the desired goals are to be met, public spending must be increased, greater tax revenues must be secured, and macro-economic stabilization must be achieved without re-instituting the welfare state.

  13. Labour migration and rural transformation in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onyeonoru, I P

    1994-06-01

    The trends in rural-urban migration in Nigeria responded to changes in political and socioeconomic developments which occurred during the 1980s. Since the 1980s, rural-urban migration trends were rapidly reversed, and migrants returned to rural areas. In 1981, government revenues from oil declined. The oil production and price declines between 1980 and 1986 resulted in a foreign exchange crisis. Import restrictions were imposed, and stabilization measures resulted in scarcities of raw materials and spare parts and declines in industrial capacity. About 50% of import substitution factories went bankrupt. Between 1981 and 1983, about one million workers were estimated to have been laid off, of which 55,000 were federal and state employees. Other estimates indicated one million laid off just in the industrial sector. The government reinforced this urban-rural movement by emphasizing increased food production. In 1992, government wages were increased in order to offset high inflation. In 1986 and 1992, State and Local Government Areas were established as political entities tied to grassroots development; local offices were situated in greater proximity to local populations. In 1986, the objective was to provide infrastructure, promote production, and organize rural areas for development. Several community banks devoted to rural areas were established. Development programs for rural women were initiated. Federal revenue allocations to rural areas increased from 10% to 15%. Inducements were given to attract private formal and informal commerce and industry. The result was less than expected. Obstacles to rural development included the absence of an effective and integrated approach, inadequate funding, and corruption. Provision of good roads and schools did meet objectives and may have induced out-migration. Delays in provision of entitlements exacerbated the ability of return migrants to establish new economic activity. The new political divisions did not conform to demographic or labor market areas. The sudden redistribution of population was difficult for local governments to accommodate. Social adjustment was difficult, and primary education costs were sacrificed at the expense of expanded higher education. PMID:12179891

  14. Indicators for measuring the quality of family planning services in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Askew, I; Mensch, B; Adewuyi, A

    1994-01-01

    This article presents the Situation Analysis approach as a means of collecting data that can be used to assess the quality of care provided by family planning service-delivery points (SDPs), and describes the quality of services offered in Nigeria. Elements of the quality of services provided at 181 clinical service-delivery points in six states of Nigeria are described. The substantive results from the study suggest that although most of the 181 service points sampled are functional, the quality of care being provided could be improved. Illustrative scores for these indicators and elements of the Bruce-Jain framework are given. By comparison with contraceptive prevalence surveys, the Situation Analysis approach is still in its early stages. Some methodological issues are raised here and future directions for strengthening the validity and applicability of the approach are discussed. PMID:7871552

  15. Toxicological assessment of fish (Clarias gariepinus) from bitumen-polluted River Oluwa, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ayandiran, T A; Dahunsi, S O

    2016-02-01

    Toxicological evaluation of Clarias gariepinus from bitumen-polluted River Oluwa, Nigeria, was carried out in furtherance of studies on the environmental impacts of the bitumen exploration in Ondo State, Nigeria. Samples were taken from three different (two polluted and one as control) sites. The effect of changes in monthly seasonal flow rate was assessed for the sites of study. Blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters (BCCPs) and histological changes/lesions in various organs were evaluated as markers of pollution in the fish blood using standard methods. The result of the physicochemical properties of water from the sampling points revealed some of the values conforming to approved standards while others showed deviation. Significant differences were found in the blood and histological endpoints between the control and the polluted sites as well as between the two seasons evaluated across the sites. The public health implications of consuming this fish are fully discussed. PMID:26725477

  16. Seasonal fractional integrated time series models for rainfall data in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaya, Olaoluwa S.; Fashae, Olutoyin A.

    2015-04-01

    Rainfall variability, seasonality and extremity have a lot of consequences in planning and decision making of every sphere of human endeavour especially in Nigeria where majority of agricultural practices and planning is dependent on rainfed agriculture. For this reason, an extensive understanding of rainfall regime is an important prerequisite in such planning. We approach this work using time series approach. Seasonality and possibility of long-term dependence in rainfall data are considered, and these have significant effects in explaining the distribution of rainfall in each state of the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. The estimated seasonal autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average (SARFIMA) model for each of the six rainfall zones was found to perform better in predicting rainfall distribution than the corresponding seasonal autoregressive moving average (SARMA) model in terms of minimum Akaike information criterion (AIC) and other model diagnostic measures.

  17. Child sexual abuse among adolescents in southeast Nigeria: A concealed public health behavioral issue

    PubMed Central

    C, Manyike Pius; M, Chinawa Josephat; Elias, Aniwada; I, Odutola Odetunde; Awoere, Chinawa T.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Child sexual abuse among adolescents is an often overlooked issue in pediatrics, yet it is a major cause of low self esteem and stigmatization in adolescents. The objective of this study was to determine the socioeconomic determinant and pattern of child sexual abuse among adolescent attending secondary schools in South East Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that was carried out among children in three secondary schools in Enugu and Ebonyi states of Nigeria. Five hundred and six adolescents who met inclusion criteria were consecutively recruited into our prospective study between June and October, 2014. Results: One hundred and ninety nine (40 %) of the respondents had been abused and the commonest form of abuse was to look at pornographic pictures, drawings, films, videotapes or magazine 93(18.4%). Fifty eight (11.5%) adolescents stated that they were abused once with age at first exposure being 7-12 years 57 (11.4%). When grouped together, family members and relatives are perpetrators of child sexual abuse. There was significant difference in sex abuse between males and females (p=0.014) while there were no significant difference for age (p=0.157) and social class (p=0.233). Conclusion: Overall prevalence and one time prevalence rates of sexual abuse among adolescents in south east Nigeria was 40% and 11.5% respectively with male perpetrators. There is no link between socioeconomic class, age and child sexual abuse among adolescents. PMID:26430412

  18. High-potential geothermal energy resource areas of Nigeria and their geologic and geophysical assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Babalola, O.O.

    1984-04-01

    The widespread occurrence of geothermal manifestations in Nigeria is significant because the wide applicability and relative ease of exploitation of geothermal energy is of vital importance to an industrializing nation like Nigeria. There are two known geothermal resource areas (KGRAs) in Nigeria: the Ikogosi Warm Springs of Ondo State and the Wikki Warm Springs of Bauchi State. These surficial effusions result from the circulation of water to great depths through faults in the basement complex rocks of the area. Within sedimentary areas, high geothermal gradient trends are identified in the Lagos subbasin, the Okitipupa ridge, the Auchi-Agbede are of the Benin flank/hinge line, and the Abakaliki anticlinorium. The deeper Cretaceous and Tertiary sequences of the Niger delta are geopressured geothermal horizons. In the Benue foldbelt, extending from the Abalaliki anticlinorium to the Keana anticline and the Zambuk ridge, several magmatic intrusions emplaced during the Late Cretaceous line the axis of the Benue trough. Positive Bouguer gravity anomalies also parallel this trough and are interpreted to indicate shallow mantle. Parts of this belt and the Ikom, the Jos plateau, Bauchi plateau, and the Adamawa areas, experienced Cenozoic volcanism and magmatism.

  19. Radiowave propagation measurements in Nigeria (preliminary reports)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falodun, S. E.; Okeke, P. N.

    2013-07-01

    International conferences on frequency coordination have, in recent years, required new information on radiowave propagation in tropical regions and, in particular, on propagation in Africa. The International Telecommunications Union (ITU-R) initiated `radio-wave propagation measurement campaign' in some African countries some years back. However, none of the ITU-initiated experiments were mounted in Nigeria, and hence, there is lack of adequate understanding of the propagation mechanisms associated with this region of the tropics. The Centre for Basic Space Science (CBSS) of NASRDA has therefore embarked on propagation data collection from the different climatic zones of Nigeria (namely Coastal, Guinea Savannah, Midland, and Sahelian) with the aim of making propagation data available to the ITU, for design and prediction purposes in order to ensure a qualitative and effective communication system in Nigeria. This paper focuses on the current status of propagation data from Nigeria (collected by CBSS), identifying other parameters that still need to be obtained. The centre has deployed weather stations to different locations in the country for refractivity measurements in clear atmosphere, at the ground surface and at an altitude of 100 m, being the average height of communication mast in Nigeria. Other equipments deployed are Micro Rain Radar and Nigerian Environmental and Climatic Observing Program equipments. Some of the locations of the measurement stations are Nsukka (7.4 E, 6.9 N), Akure (5.12 E, 7.15 N), Minna (6.5 E, 9.6 N), Sokoto (5.25 E, 13.08 N), Jos (8.9 E, 9.86 N), and Lagos (3.35 E, 6.6 N). The results obtained from the data analysis have shown that the refractivity values vary with climatic zones and seasons of the year. Also, the occurrence probability of abnormal propagation events, such as super refraction, sub-refraction, and ducting, depends on the location as well as the local time. We have also attempted to identify and calculate the most important propagation factors and associated data, such as k factor, that are relevant in considerations of propagation in tropical regions like Nigeria.

  20. Open heart surgery in Nigeria; a work in progress

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been limited success in establishing Open Heart Surgery programmes in Nigeria despite the high prevalence of structural heart disease and the large number of Nigerian patients that travel abroad for Open Heart Surgery. The challenges and constraints to the development of Open Heart Surgery in Nigeria need to be identified and overcome. The aim of this study is to review the experience with Open Heart Surgery at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital and highlight the challenges encountered in developing this programme. Methods This is a retrospective study of patients that underwent Open Heart Surgery in our institution. The source of data was a prospectively maintained database. Extracted data included patient demographics, indication for surgery, euroscore, cardiopulmonary bypass time, cross clamp time, complications and patient outcome. Results 51 Open Heart Surgery procedures were done between August 2004 and December 2011. There were 21 males and 30 females. Mean age was 29 ± 15.6 years. The mean euroscore was 3.8 ± 2.1. The procedures done were Mitral Valve Replacement in 15 patients (29.4%), Atrial Septal Defect Repair in 14 patients (27.5%), Ventricular Septal Defect Repair in 8 patients (15.7%), Aortic Valve Replacement in 5 patients (9.8%), excision of Left Atrial Myxoma in 2 patients (3.9%), Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in 2 patients (3.9%), Bidirectional Glenn Shunts in 2 patients (3.9%), Tetralogy of Fallot repair in 2 patients (3.9%) and Mitral Valve Repair in 1 patient (2%). There were 9 mortalities (17.6%) in this series. Challenges encountered included the low volume of cases done, an unstable working environment, limited number of trained staff, difficulty in obtaining laboratory support, limited financial support and difficulty in moving away from the Cardiac Mission Model. Conclusions The Open Heart Surgery program in our institution is still being developed but the identified challenges need to be overcome if this program is to be sustained. Similar challenges will need to be overcome by other cardiac stakeholders if other OHS programs are to be developed and sustained in Nigeria. PMID:23311435