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1

Peacebuilding Mechanisms in Akwa Ibom State Oil-Bearing Communities in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major multinational oil companies depend largely on oil wells in Akwa Ibom State because of increased oil bunkering, hostage-taking, and incessant militants’ attacks in other parts of the region. The explanation of the state’s peaceful conditions lies in the utilization of the traditional peacebuilding mechanism of the Ayei and Mbiam of the Ibibio people to manage conflicts between the operating

David Udofia

2011-01-01

2

Preventing malaria in pregnancy through community-directed interventions: evidence from Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Despite massive anti-malaria campaigns across the subcontinent, effective access to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) among pregnant women remain low in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa. The slow uptake of malaria prevention products appears to reflect lack of knowledge and resistance to behavioural change, as well as poor access to resources, and limited support of programmes by local communities and authorities. Methods A recent community-based programme in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, is analysed to determine the degree to which community-directed interventions can improve access to malaria prevention in pregnancy. Six local government areas in Southern Nigeria were selected for a malaria in pregnancy prevention intervention. Three of these local government areas were selected for a complementary community-directed intervention (CDI) programme. Under the CDI programme, volunteer community-directed distributors (CDDs) were appointed by each village and kindred in the treatment areas and trained to deliver ITNs and IPTp drugs as well as basic counseling services to pregnant women. Findings Relative to women in the control area, an additional 7.4 percent of women slept under a net during pregnancy in the treatment areas (95% CI [0.035, 0.115], p-value < 0.01), and an additional 8.5 percent of women slept under an ITN after delivery and prior to the interview (95% CI [0.045, 0.122], p-value < 0.001). The effects of the CDI programme were largest for IPTp adherence, increasing the fraction of pregnant women taking at least two SP doses during pregnancy by 35.3 percentage points [95% CI: 0.280, 0.425], p-value < 0.001) relative to the control group. No effects on antenatal care attendance were found. Conclusion The presented results suggest that the inclusion of community-based programmes can substantially increase effective access to malaria prevention, and also increase access to formal health care access in general, and antenatal care attendance in particular in combination with supply side interventions. Given the relatively modest financial commitments they require, community-directed programmes appear to be a cost-effective way to improve malaria prevention; the participatory approach underlying CDI programmes also promises to strengthen ties between the formal health sector and local communities.

2011-01-01

3

Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria 2004-2009  

PubMed Central

Introduction The last case of wild polio virus transmission occurred in Akwa Ibom state in October 2001; however, combination high routine immunization coverage with OPV, high quality AFP surveillance, mass immunization campaign in which two doses of potent oral polio vaccine is administered to eligible children and mop-up campaigns in areas with identified immunization or surveillance gaps has help the state in maintaining a free polio status for over ten years. This study was carried out to describe the characteristics of reported acute flaccid paralysis cases between 2004 and 2009, and to evaluate the performance of the acute flaccid paralysis surveillance system using indicators recommended by the World Health Organization. Methods A retrospective study was conducted among children, 0-15 years, by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Epidemiology unit of State Ministry of Health (SMOH), Uyo. The demographic characteristics and the results of isolation and identification of polio and other enteroviruses in stool samples sent to the WHO Polio Laboratory Ibadan for cases was analyzed. Results A total of 521 cases of AFP (270 males and 251 females) aged 0 month to=15 years were reported by the surveillance system between 2004 and 2009. Those below 5 years of age accounted for 82.5% of cases reported and investigated. Of the 521 cases investigated 512 (98.3%) received at least three doses of oral polio vaccine, while 9(1.7) never received any oral polio vaccine (zero-dose). In all 5.1% of the isolates were Sabin, 7.9% non polio enterovirus (NPEV) and 2.3% were classified by national expert committee as compatible with poliomyelitis. There was consistent and steady increase in three critical indicators; Non polio AFP rate in children <15 years from 4.5 to 6.4 per 100 000 population, proportion of AFP cases with 2 stool specimens collected within 14 days of onset of paralysis from 57% in 2005 to 91% in 2009 and proportion of Local Government Areas (Districts) meeting both core indicators from 23% in 2005 to 87% in 2009. The highest numbers of cases were seen in the months of March, May and September. Conclusion This study showed high levels of surveillance performance with some challenges in reverse the cold chain system, the continuation and sustained AFP case detection, prompt investigation and response, improvement in the reserve cold chain system would achieve optimal standards recommended by WHO and might provide a good model for the eradication of poliomyelitis.

Bassey, Bassey Enya; Gasasira, Alex; Mitula, Pamela; Frankson, Umoh Utobong; Adeniji, Johnson Adekunle

2011-01-01

4

PAH depositional history and sources in recent sediment core from Ukwa Ibom Lake, S. E. Nigeria.  

PubMed

Analyses of recent sediment core from the Ukwa Ibom Lake show evidence of aquatic production, terrigenous, combustion and petroleum inputs. Total organic carbon/total nitrogen values (>10) for the sediments indicate greater wash-in of land-plant organic matter relative to algal production. The characteristic combustion ratios, fluoranthene/fluoranthene+pyrene (>0.50), anthracene/anthracene+phenanthrene (>0.10), benzo(a)anthracene/benzo(a)anthracene+chrysene (>0.35) as well as 1,7/1,7+2,6-dimethylphenanthrene (>0.70) were observed for the top section only. These results coincided with the most recent pave-road extension exercise involving tree logging and burning of bush. The highest total PAH concentration (91.13ng/g dry weight (dw)) observed for the bottom section coincided with the period of inhabitation of the lake catchments (~5 decades ago) when discharge to the Lake water of domestic sewage and mill waste water were prevalent. The regular decline in total PAH concentrations upcore is a reflection of the ban placed on indiscriminate dumping of wastes following relocation of the inhabitants of the catchments. Besides the local depositional history, the irregular decrease in unresolved complex mixture (UCM) profiles suggests regional contaminant influx from the adjacent upper Cross River estuary, especially during intense rainfall event. The non-uniformity in methylphenanthrene indices (MPI-1 and MPI-2) shows evidence of importation and utilization of petroleum products of different thermal maturity histories into the Nigerian economy. PMID:22821212

Oyo-Ita, O E; Oyo-Ita, I O

2013-04-01

5

Understanding Women's Associations in Nigeria: The Case of Oun State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper has analyzed the characteristic features of women's associations and problems inhibiting their effective participation in rural development projects in Osun State, Nigeria. One rural local government area was purposively selected in each of the six administrative zones in Osun State, based on high degrees of ruralness. A list of

Deji, O. F.

2005-01-01

6

Community mobilization for blood donation, Cross River State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary studies: A study of institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria, revealed poor storage facilities and inadequate availability of blood. Focus group discussions highlighted people's fears and misconceptions about blood donations as important factors contributing to the problem. Interventions: Blood facilities were upgraded in the teaching hospital and a secondary institution. Fifteen community mobilization sessions to improve attitudes and stimulate

J. G Ottong; E. E. J Asuquo; N. S Olaniran; F. D Duke; R. P Abia

1997-01-01

7

Impact of AIDS on rural livelihoods in Benue State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the socio-economic impact of AIDS on rural livelihoods in Benue State, Nigeria, where HIV prevalence is 9.3% but the number of AIDS cases is still relatively low. About 6% of the study households had experienced illness and death classified as AIDS, and reported high costs in terms of expenditures and time spent on care, funerals and mourning.

Thea Hilhorst; Marti van Liere; Adiya V Ode; Korrie de Koning

2006-01-01

8

Intestinal Helminthoses in Dogs in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Intestinal helminths in dogs provide a potential source of infection in humans due to the close contact be- tween humans and dogs. Due to the limited information on parasites infecting dogs in Kaduna State, Nigeria, a cross sec- tional study was conducted with the aim of determining the diversity and prevalence of intestinal helminths of dogs in the area.

Umar YA

2009-01-01

9

Adoption of Aquaculture Technology by Fish Farmers in Imo State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper evaluated the level of adoption of aquaculture technology extended to farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. To improve aquaculture practice in Nigeria, a technology package was developed and disseminated to farmers in the state. This package included ten practices that the farmers were supposed to adopt. Eighty-two respondents were randomly

Ike, Nwachukwu; Roseline, Onuegbu

2007-01-01

10

Student anthropometric data and furniture mismatches in selected institutions in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is to determine whether design improvement and further study is required to improve the conditions in Nigeria tertiary institutions. The supplied standard government issued furniture was measured and anthropometrics measurements data were collected from 720 students of three randomly selected tertiary institutions in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria, covering the age group of between 17 and 27 years. The

Adekunle Ibrahim Musa; Salami Olasunkanmi Ismaila

2011-01-01

11

The 1970 yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Benue Plateau State, Nigeria. I. Epidemiological observations.  

PubMed

A focal epidemic of yellow fever occurred in late 1970 in southern Benue Plateau State, Nigeria, 1 year after a much larger outbreak in northern Nigeria. Like its predecessor, the 1970 epidemic was associated with virus transmission by wild-breeding Stegomyia mosquitos. Epidemiological data on the outbreak are reported in this paper. PMID:4545318

Monath, T P; Wilson, D C; Lee, V H; Stroh, G; Kuteyi, K; Smith, E A

1973-01-01

12

The 1970 yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Benue Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

A focal epidemic of yellow fever occurred in late 1970 in southern Benue Plateau State, Nigeria, 1 year after a much larger outbreak in northern Nigeria. Like its predecessor, the 1970 epidemic was associated with virus transmission by wild-breeding Stegomyia mosquitos. Epidemiological data on the outbreak are reported in this paper.

Monath, T. P.; Wilson, D. C.; Lee, V. H.; Stroh, G.; Kuteyi, K.; Smith, E. A.

1973-01-01

13

Health manpower development in Bayelsa State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Health manpower is one of the critical factors in the development of a region. This is because health is an index of development. Bayelsa State has a low level of health manpower. Thus, in this study, we sought to identify factors necessary for effective development of health manpower. Methods: Three methods were used to gather information, ie, face-to-face interviews, postal surveys, and documentary analysis. Critical incidents were identified, and content and thematic analyses were conducted. Results: There is no full complement of a primary health care workforce in any of the health centers in the state. The three health manpower training institutions have the limitations of inadequate health care educators and other manpower training facilities, including lack of a teaching hospital. Conclusion: Accreditation of health manpower training institutions is a major factor for effective development of health manpower. Public officers can contribute to the accreditation process by subsuming their personal interest into the states common interest. Bayelsa is a fast-growing state and needs a critical mass of health care personnel. To develop this workforce requires a conscious effort rich in common interests in the deployment of resources.

McFubara, Kalada G; Edoni, Elizabeth R; Ezonbodor-Akwagbe, Rose E

2012-01-01

14

Serologic Prevalence of Brucellosis in Horse Stables in Two Northern States of Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Despite the endemicity of brucellosis in Nigeria, reports on equine brucellosis are rare. The Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) was used to determine the serologic prevalence of Brucella abortus antibodies amongst 75 horses from three stables in two States of northern Nigeria. The highest prevalence (22.7%) was recorded in stable C located in Plateau State and the lowest (6.7%) was found in stable B in Kaduna State. The overall prevalence determined was 14.7%. There is need for the inclusion of horses in brucellosis surveillance and control strategies in Nigeria to safeguard people at high risk.

EHIZIBOLO, David O.; GUSI, Amahyel M.; EHIZIBOLO, Peter O.; MBUK, Elsie U.; OCHOLI, Reuben A.

2011-01-01

15

Serologic prevalence of brucellosis in horse stables in two northern States of Nigeria.  

PubMed

Despite the endemicity of brucellosis in Nigeria, reports on equine brucellosis are rare. The Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) was used to determine the serologic prevalence of Brucella abortus antibodies amongst 75 horses from three stables in two States of northern Nigeria. The highest prevalence (22.7%) was recorded in stable C located in Plateau State and the lowest (6.7%) was found in stable B in Kaduna State. The overall prevalence determined was 14.7%. There is need for the inclusion of horses in brucellosis surveillance and control strategies in Nigeria to safeguard people at high risk. PMID:24833983

Ehizibolo, David O; Gusi, Amahyel M; Ehizibolo, Peter O; Mbuk, Elsie U; Ocholi, Reuben A

2011-01-01

16

Conservation of indigenous medicinal botanicals in Ekiti State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

The rapid appraisal method was used to identify the botanicals used ethnomedicinally from a total of 300 randomly selected respondents drawn from the existing three geo-political zones of Ekiti State, Nigeria. The results obtained revealed that about 40% of the 71 botanicals identified presently rare. Most of the presently abundant botanicals are species primarily cultivated for other purpose other than medicine. Most of the identified species are valued for their curative effects on malaria and fever, the predominant diseases in the study area. The need for the conservation of the rare species cannot be over emphasised as most rural dwellers in the study area depend mostly on herbs from these species. Strategies towards the attainment of this goal are proposed.

Kayode, Joshua

2006-01-01

17

Pharmacovigilance amongst patent medicine vendors (PMVs) in Ekiti state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

With the current population of Nigeria and the limited number of trained health care providers, PMVs are inevitable and highly needed especially in the rural areas for the supply of drugs in treating minor illnesses. Thus, pharmacovigilance (PVG) activity in Nigeria cannot exclude the roles of PMVs; therefore, this study was aimed to determine the knowledge of PMVs on PVG and adverse drug reaction reporting system. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey of the knowledge of Pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reaction reporting system of 96 PMVs in Ekiti state, Nigeria before the National Pharmacovigilance training in February, 2011 and after the training. The data obtained before the training showed that more than 87% of the respondents had at least secondary level of education. About half of the respondents (58.5%) knew the correct meaning of PVG and 56.6% knew how to report ADRs. But only about one third of them (35.8%) knew where to obtain ADR forms. Very few respondents 3 (5.7%) had received report/complaints of ADR from patients in the last 1 month while just 2 (3.8%) of them reported. The most commonly mentioned factors/reasons for poor reporting of ADRs/compliance with PVG guideline by the respondents were fears of indictment (61.3%), poor public knowledge (88.7%), and poor training on PMVs (92.5%). However, the results after the training showed a statistically significant (p ? 0.005) improvement in the proportion of respondents who were aware of PVG (from 55.8% to 89.1%), those who knew the meaning of PVG (from 49.0% to 61.7%), where to obtain ADR form (28.3% to 92.1%) and those who knew how to report ADRs (44.2% to 88.0%). PMVs are ready to practice PVG if they are properly trained. Training has been revealed to play a significant role in the knowledge of the concept of PVG amongst PMVs. It is therefore recommended that National Pharmacovigilance Centre should continue to organize periodic trainings for PMVs especially those with poor knowledge on PVG. PMID:22751188

Awodele, Olufunsho; Adeniran, Adeyinka; Awodele, Deborah F

2012-01-01

18

Management of immunization solid wastes in Kano State, Nigeria  

SciTech Connect

Inadequate management of waste generated from injection activities can have a negative impact on the community and environment. In this paper, a report on immunization wastes management in Kano State (Nigeria) is presented. Eight local governments were selected randomly and surveyed by the author. Solid wastes generated during the Expanded Programme on Immunization were characterised using two different methods: one by weighing the waste and the other by estimating the volume. Empirical data was obtained on immunization waste generation, segregation, storage, collection, transportation, and disposal; and waste management practices were assessed. The study revealed that immunization offices were accommodated in either in local government buildings, primary health centres or community health care centres. All of the stations demonstrated a high priority for segregation of the infectious wastes. It can be deduced from the data obtained that infectious waste ranged from 67.6% to 76.7% with an average of 70.1% by weight, and 36.0% to 46.1% with an average of 40.1% by volume. Non-infectious waste generated ranged from 23.3% to 32.5% with an average of 29.9% by weight and 53.9% to 64.0% with an average of 59.9% by volume. Out of non-infectious waste (NIFW) and infectious waste (IFW), 66.3% and 62.4% by weight were combustible and 33.7% and 37.6% were non-combustible respectively. An assessment of the treatment revealed that open pit burning and burial and small scale incineration were the common methods of disposal for immunization waste, and some immunization centres employed the services of the state or local government owned solid waste disposal board for final collection and disposal of their immunization waste at government approved sites.

Oke, I.A. [Civil Engineering Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria)], E-mail: okeia@oauife.edu.ng

2008-12-15

19

The Effective Management of Primary Schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria: An Analytical Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the management of education in primary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria. As a correlational research, the study population comprised all the 694 primary schools in the State. Out of this, a sample of 320 schools was selected through the stratified random sampling technique. Two instruments were used to collect data for the

Adeyemi, T. O.

2009-01-01

20

Status of Health Appraisal Services for Primary School Children in Edo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the status of the health appraisal services provided for primary school children in Edo State, Nigeria. Using the cross-sectional survey design a total of 1506 primary school children were selected from across the state as the study participants. The analysis of data collected through a 14-item

Ojugo, Augustine I.

2005-01-01

21

Principals' Management of Conflicts in Public Secondary Schools in Ondo State, Nigeria: A Critical Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examined principals' management of conflicts in public secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. As a descriptive survey, the study population comprised all the 281 public secondary schools in the State. Out of this population, a sample of 80 schools was drawn while 340 respondents (80 principals and 260 teachers) were selected through

Adeyemi, T. O.

2009-01-01

22

Indigenous knowledge system for treatment of trypanosomiasis in Kaduna state of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was carried out in Kaduna State of Nigeria to establish the indigenous knowledge system for treating trypanosomiasis in domestic animals. Questionnaire and interviews were, respectively, administered to, or conducted with about 200 livestock farmers and traders spread around the state. Data obtained revealed the use of several plants either alone or in combination, for the treatment and management

S. E Atawodi; D. A Ameh; S Ibrahim; J. N Andrew; H. C Nzelibe; E. O Onyike; K. M Anigo; E. A Abu; D. B James; G. C Njoku; A. B Sallau

2002-01-01

23

Determinants of Adoption of Improved Fish Production Technologies among Fish Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to isolate the determinants of improved fish production technologies in Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample population of 250 fish farmers from ten randomly selected Local Government Areas of Delta State. The data were elicited from respondents with the use of structured interview schedule while

Ofuoku, A. U.; Olele, N. F.; Emah, G. N.

2008-01-01

24

Teachers' Teaching Experience and Students' Learning Outcomes in Secondary Schools in Ondo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examined teachers' teaching experience and students' learning outcomes in the secondary schools in Ondo State Nigeria. As a correlational survey, the study population comprised all the 257 secondary schools in the State. This population was made up of 147 rural schools and 110 urban schools. It was also made up of 12 single sex

Adeyemi, T. O.

2008-01-01

25

The problem of uveitis in Bendel State of Nigeria: experience in Benin City.  

PubMed Central

A review of 1987 patients with uveitis seen over an 11-year period in Bendel State of Nigeria has been undertaken; 56% of cases had a posterior/mid-peripheral uveitis, 15.1% a panuveitis, 21.5% an anterior uveitis. Acute anterior uveitis with classical symptoms was rarely seen. Its comparative rarity is presumably due to the absence of HL-A27 in Africans and altered immunological states from malaria and parasitic infections. Identified aetiological factors in anterior uveitis were leprosy (1 patient), tuberculosis (1 patient), herpes zoster (16 patients), and onchocerciasis (3 patients). The great majority of cases of posterior uveitis were of presumed toxoplasmic origin. Further studies are needed to demonstrate its mode of transmission in a population in which toxoplasmosis is endemic. Forest onchocerciasis is not a major cause of uveitis in southern Nigeria in the same way as savanna onchocerciasis is in northern Nigeria. Syphilis seems to play no part in the causation of uveitis in southern Nigeria. Better diagnostic facilities are required to determine the role of sarcoidosis and other possible causative factors. Uveitis is a major cause of blindness in Nigeria.

Ayanru, J. O.

1977-01-01

26

Economic burden of glaucoma in Rivers State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Primary open angle glaucoma is reported to blind 150,000 people in the Nigerian population and over 7000 in Rivers State, and requires constant follow-up. Compliance is a challenge, given that most inhabitants live below the poverty line. This study was performed to determine how Nigerian patients are affected economically by the disease. Methods Consecutive adult patients attending the eye clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria, with a diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma and on outpatient antiglaucoma treatment in the first 6 months of 2006, were recruited for the study. The lowest paid government worker was on USD50 (N7500.00) per month and the gross domestic product per capita was USD1150 for the period under review. Results We enrolled 120 consecutive patients of mean age 52.7 10.4 years, with a male to female ratio of 2:3. The most common occupations were in the civil service (n = 56, 46.7%). All participants were on topical antiglaucoma treatment. The average cost of medical antiglaucoma medication was N6000 (USD40) per month. Computed to include indirect costs, including medical laboratory tests, transportation, and care by patient escorts, an average sum of USD105.4 (N15,810) was spent by each patient per month. Most of the patients (73.3%) were responsible for their own treatment costs. No patient accepted the cheaper option of surgery (USD275.4, N41,310). Eighty of the patients (66.7%) visited our eye clinic monthly. Direct and indirect loss to the economy was USD3,064587 per annum from those already blind. This was in addition to the USD 4.1 million being spent yearly on medical treatment by those who were visually impaired by glaucoma. Conclusion Middle-income earners spent over 50% of their monthly income and low-income earners spend all their monthly earnings on treatment for glaucoma. This situation often resulted in noncompliance with treatment and hospital follow-up visits. To reduce the economic burden of glaucoma, trabeculectomy performed by experienced surgeons should be offered as first-line treatment for glaucoma in this country, rather than medical therapy.

Adio, Adedayo O; Onua, Alfred A

2012-01-01

27

Geographical information system and predictive risk maps of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The control of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria remains inert due to lack of reliable data on the geographical distribution of the disease and the population at risk. To help in developing a control programme, delineating areas of risk, geographical information system and remotely sensed environmental images were used to developed predictive risk maps of the probability of

Uwem F Ekpo; Chiedu F Mafiana; Clement O Adeofun; Adewale RT Solarin; Adewumi B Idowu

2008-01-01

28

Sustainability of Farm Credit Delivery by Cooperatives and NGOs in Edo and Delta States, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examined the sustainability rates of co-operatives and NGOs in farm credit delivery in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. The Subsidy Dependence Indices (SDI) and the capital formation rates were determined using both primary and secondary data obtained from 80 and 20 purposively selected cooperatives and NGOs respectively, based on their

Alufohai, G. O.

2006-01-01

29

Parental Involvement as a Correlate of Pupils' Achievement in Mathematics and Science in Ogun State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the achievement of pupils in the public and private primary schools in mathematics and science. The descriptive survey research design was employed to carry out this study. Four hundred and eighty (480) pupils from thirty primary schools in Ogun State, Nigeria were randomly selected for this study. From the results of this

Olatoye, R. Ademola; Agbatogun, A. Olajumoke

2009-01-01

30

Information Methods of Human and Veterinary Medical Scientists (HVMS) in Borno State, Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes results of a survey of human and veterinary medical scientists in Borno State (Nigeria) that was conducted to determine their information-seeking behavior and to examine sources of information used. Problems in information gathering are discussed, including lack of relevant sources, and suggestions for improvements in information

Nweke, Ken M. C.

1995-01-01

31

Adolescent Girls' Need for Love in Two Cultures--Nigeria and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares a junior novel from the United States with one from Nigeria--Bette Greene's "Summer of My German Soldier" with Buchi Emecheta's "The Bride Price." Suggests that their similarity can inspire children from a variety of backgrounds to an awareness and appreciation of different cultures. (MM)

Osa, Osayimwense

1983-01-01

32

Teacher Factors and Perceived Assessment Practices Needs of Social Studies Teachers in Cross River State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated perceived assessment practices needs among social studies teachers in Cross River State, Nigeria, in relation to some teacher factors (attitude towards social studies, sex, teaching experience and educational qualification). Subjects who participated in this study were 297 social studies teachers (144 males and 153 females)

Ekuri, Emmanuel Etta; Egbai, Julius Michael; Ita, Caroline Iserome

2011-01-01

33

Dimensions of Job Stress among Public Secondary School Principals in Oyo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the dimensions of job stress among public secondary school principals in Oyo State, Nigeria. It also determined difference in job stress between demographic characteristics of principals (gender and years of experience) and school variables (type of school and location of the school). Descriptive survey design was adopted. The

Olayiwola, Shina

2008-01-01

34

The distribution of ringworm infections among primary school children in Jos, Plateau State of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was carried out on the distribution of ringworm infections among school children in four primary schools in Jos, Plateau State of Nigeria. Out of a total population of 6 987, 237 (3.4%) were found to be infected by this disease. There was a high incidence of both scalp and foot ringworms among the infected children. Fourteen species of

C. I. C. Ogbonna; R. O. Robinson; J. M. Abubakar

1985-01-01

35

Participation of Elderly Women in Community Welfare Activities in Akinyele Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper assessed the participation of elderly women in community welfare activities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 elderly women from six out of the twelve political wards in the study area. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used to elicit information from the

Odebode, Stella O.

2009-01-01

36

HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOILS FROM AUTOMOBILE WORKSHOPS IN ABRAKA, DELTA STATE, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils samples were collected from selected automobile workshops in Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria, at the depths of 0 - 15cm, 15 - 30cm and 30 - 45cm representing top,- sub- and bottom soils respectively and also from control site and 20m away from the point of impact. The soils were analyzed for their physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal levels. The

Osakwe Stephen Anapuwa

2014-01-01

37

Ethnobotanical survey and preliminary evaluation of medicinal plants with antidiarrhoea properties in Sokoto state, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants use in Sokoto state of Nigeria for the treatment of diarrhoeal disorders was conducted. The plants documented were identified botanically and ranked based on informant frequency of citation. Ten top rank plants were then selected and screened for acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and antidiarrhoea properties. A fixed single dose (3000 mg\\/kg b.wt.) of aqueous extract

E. U. Etuk; M. O. Ugwah; O. P. Ajagbonna; P. A. Onyeyili

38

Emotional Abuse of Secondary School Students by Teachers in Edo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the forms of emotional abuse experienced by students and the percentage of victims that experience the various forms of emotional abuse. The survey design was adopted for this study. A total of 1,559 students drawn from public secondary schools in Edo State, Nigeria, who were randomly selected through the multi-stage

Aluede, Oyaziwo; Ojugo, A. I.; Okoza, Jolly

2012-01-01

39

Teaching Clothing and Textiles: An Appraisal by Students in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research is to find out how students appraise the teaching of Clothing and Textiles in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State, Nigeria. To do this two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to give direction to the study. The target population consisted of 660 Home Economics Students enrolled in Home Economics in

Arubayi, D. O.

2009-01-01

40

Inventory of antidiabetic plants in selected districts of Lagos State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports an ethnobotanical survey by means of semi-structured questionnaire of medicinal plants in five districts of Lagos State of Nigeria reputed for the treatment of diabetes. 100 respondents from the predominantly Yoruba tribe mostly males (76%) were knowledgeable in traditional treatment of diabetes. About half of the respondents with 2030 years experience in treating diabetes used mainly herbs

Adebayo A. Gbolade

2009-01-01

41

Information and Communication Technologies in Enhancing Learning Ability in Secondary Schools in Edo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dismal results of 2011, 2010, 2009, and previous years WAEC and NECO Senior School Certificate Examinations (SSCE) show the pitiable state of education in secondary schools in Nigeria. The youths of today live in a digital age. Web technologies and sites have become an integral part of the youth culture. Today's youths use the web tools to

Osagie, Roseline O.

2012-01-01

42

Nigeria's women look beyond literacy.  

PubMed

Vocational training programs in Nigeria offer hope for providing women with skills to earn income as self-employed workers. The National Open Apprenticeship Scheme provides training for 100,000 boys and girls annually. Women's Vocational Training Centers are being developed in 589 local areas. The Nigerian government and a number of community banks are providing start-up funds for the self-employed. Traditional craft and art forms are being revived in the process. Cooperatives are being established for selling products. Girls find it easy to get married once they are trained. Women are valued for their ability to add to income and in turn are placed in a position to bargain for power in the relationship. It is unknown yet how these schemes will affect fertility. The example is given of Grace Mfon who left a village 500 miles from Lagos in the impoverished, oil-producing state of Akwa Ibom. She is apprenticed with 3 others in a 1-room "Fashion House" to learn tailoring. The 2-year apprenticeship program cost her $38/year, which she saved from her $20/month job. She plans to save for her own shop and get married and have children. She joined the apprenticeship program because of the poor job prospects and the dead end life of farming for her husband. There is both a great need and interest in providing vocational training. The government has been involved in an economic restructuring under the guidance of the International Monetary Fund, and must find work for the hugh number of unemployed workers, many of whom are school dropouts. PMID:12318183

Obadina, E

1993-01-01

43

The 1970 yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Benue Plateau State, Nigeria*  

PubMed Central

Serological surveys undertaken to define the geographic limits of the 1970 rural yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Nigeria, indicated that surrounding areas of Benue Plateau State and East Central State were not involved. However, the surveys uncovered a separate focus of unrecognized, recent epidemic yellow fever in Mbawsi, in southern East Central State. The highest proportions of yellow-fever-immune sera outside the Okwoga and Mbawsi foci were found in zones of Guinea savannah in the Benue River basin.

Monath, T. P.; Wilson, D. C.; Stroh, G.; Lee, V. H.; Smith, E. A.

1973-01-01

44

The development of poultry farms risk assessment tool for avian influenza in Imo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study validated the content of a questionnaire that will be used for risk stratification in poultry farms in Imo State, Nigeria. The questionnaire was developed from avian influenza risk domains peculiar to poultry farms in Nigeria. The questionnaire was verified and modified by a group of five experts with research interest in Nigeria's poultry industry and avian influenza prevention. The questionnaire was distributed to 30 poultry farms selected from Imo State, Nigeria. The same poultry farms were visited one week after they completed the questionnaires for on-site observation. Agreement between survey and observation results was analyzed using the kappa statistic and rated as poor, fair, moderate, substantial, or nearly perfect; internal consistency of the survey was also computed. The mean kappa statistic for agreement between the survey and observations (validation) ranged from 0.06 to 1, poor to nearly perfect agreement. Eight questions showed poor agreement, four had a fair agreement, two items had moderate agreement, nineteen survey questions had substantial agreement and ten questions had nearly perfect agreement. Out of the 43 items in the questionnaire, 32 items were considered validated with coefficient alpha >0.70. PMID:24880626

Obinani, Chidi; Onweagba, Anthony; Lloyd, Linda; Ross, Micheal; Troisi, Cathrine; Ohazurika, Nathaniel; Chukwu, Andrew O

2014-09-01

45

Child sexual abuse in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria: a sociological analysis.  

PubMed

A study is presented of the reported cases of child rape in Benin City, the capital of Edo State in Nigeria. The conditions that make children, particularly females, more vulnerable to sexual abuse are explored. The organization of family life places children in a dependency cycle that makes rape both inevitable and invisible. Change that is responsive to family needs is more likely to have a positive effect in preventing child rape. PMID:7928452

Omorodion, F I

1994-01-01

46

Perception and practice of female genital cutting in a rural community in southern Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to determine the awareness and practice of FGC in a rural community in southern Nigeria. A cross sectional study was carried out among Ayadehe women in Itu, LGA Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria using a semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Information obtained was analysed using SPSS version 17. A total of 218 respondents participated in the study. Majority, 215 (98.6%) were aware of the practice of FGC. Type 2 FGC was the commonest type reported by 71.2% of respondents. Prevalence of FGC was 92.7%. A total of 69.8% were circumcised at 6-12 years. Health complications experienced included excruciating pains, (36.6%), severe bleeding, (15.8%), and painful urination, (26.7%). Up to 53.5% were circumcised by traditional birth attendants. The belief that FGM should be discontinued increased with educational level. The practice of FGC was high in this community. Increased female education, community involvement and legislation are needed to reduce this practice. PMID:23444550

Johnson, Ofonime E; Okon, Rose D

2012-12-01

47

Community-based surveillance of paediatric deaths in Cross River State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A house-to-house survey of paediatric deaths which occurred from January to December 1991 in the village of Nko, Cross River State, Nigeria, was carried out. Among the 471 total deaths recorded, the leading causes were malaria (29%), protein-energy malnutrition, pneumonia and diarrhoeal disease (11% each). Neonatal deaths were largely due to septicaemia, tetanus and birth asphyxia. Poor domestic and human waste disposal, lack of portable water and basic health facilities appear to be the important related factors to child health problems in this community. The provision of public toilets, safe water, primary health care centres and health education can definitely improve the health status of this rural community. Events in other rural communities in Nigeria are most likely to be similar to that in Nko. Such populations need to be identified and their problems urgently addressed. PMID:7855918

Ekanem, E E; Asindi, A A; Okoi, O U

1994-01-01

48

Prevalence and Significance of Parasites of Horses in Some States of Northern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and significance of parasites of horses in northern Nigeria. Blood and faecal samples were randomly collected from 243 horses from different stables in some states of northern Nigeria for laboratory analyses. Fifty-seven horses (23.5%) were found infected with parasites. The hemoparasites detected, 21 (8.6%), include Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma evansi. The endoparasites encountered, 29 (11.9%) were Strongylus spp., Strongyloides spp., Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Paragonimus spp. and Dicrocoelium spp., 3 (1.2%) was Eimeria spp. Four horses (1.6%) had mixed infection of hemo- and endoparasites. This preliminary finding shows that parasitism is a problem in the horse stables examined, and calls for proper stable hygiene, routine tick control and regular deworming programme.

EHIZIBOLO, David O.; KAMANI, Joshua; EHIZIBOLO, Peter O.; EGWU, Kinsley O.; DOGO, Goni I.; SALAMI-SHINABA, Josiah O.

2012-01-01

49

Prevalence and significance of parasites of horses in some States of northern Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and significance of parasites of horses in northern Nigeria. Blood and faecal samples were randomly collected from 243 horses from different stables in some states of northern Nigeria for laboratory analyses. Fifty-seven horses (23.5%) were found infected with parasites. The hemoparasites detected, 21 (8.6%), include Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma evansi. The endoparasites encountered, 29 (11.9%) were Strongylus spp., Strongyloides spp., Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Paragonimus spp. and Dicrocoelium spp., 3 (1.2%) was Eimeria spp. Four horses (1.6%) had mixed infection of hemo- and endoparasites. This preliminary finding shows that parasitism is a problem in the horse stables examined, and calls for proper stable hygiene, routine tick control and regular deworming programme. PMID:24833991

Ehizibolo, David O; Kamani, Joshua; Ehizibolo, Peter O; Egwu, Kinsley O; Dogo, Goni I; Salami-Shinaba, Josiah O

2012-01-01

50

Baseline survey of level of quality control in medical radiology in Cross River State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quality control (QC) in radiology is meant to ensure that accurate diagnoses are obtained with radiation doses kept as low as reasonably achievable. It is also a fundamental requirement by the Regulatory Authorities in issuing operational license to operators of radiology facilities. In Nigeria, QC issues in Radiation Medicine have recently been introduced and are being enforced by the Nigerian Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NNRA). The level of QC practice in the radiology facilities in Cross River State, Nigeria was evaluated to obtain baseline information that could be relied on in the future to determine the level of improvement. It was observed that radiology practitioners appreciate QC and its importance in their practice, the present low level of its implementation notwithstanding.

Inyang, S. O.; Egbe, N. O.; Inyang, I. S.; Oshi, D. O.

2010-01-01

51

Occurrence and distribution of Chrysops species in Akamkpa community of Cross River State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Chrysops species have been recognized for its role as vectors in the transmission of human loiasis in Nigeria. This investigation was aimed at studying the occurrence and distribution of Chrysops species in Akamkpa community, Cross River State. Two fly boys were used as human baits in the collection of adult Chrysops from each of the various villages in Akamkpa community, cross river state, Nigeria. Two species of Chrysops were identified. Chrysops dimidiata recorded significantly higher prevalence of 69.7% than Chrysops silacea 30.3% in all the sampling sites (p<0.05). Out of the 1299 Chrysops species caught in the entire study, the highest prevalence was reported during the late rainy season 916 (70.5%), while the least prevalence of 137 (10.6%) was reported during the late dry season (p<0.05). Two biting peaks 9-10 am and 3-4 pm were identified for Chrysops at all the sampling sites. Fly abundance was found to be higher in the morning hours than in the afternoon. The knowledge of the occurrence and distribution of Chrysops vectors will aid in the ongoing control program for human loiasis in Nigeria and the neighbouring countries where the vectors exist. PMID:24261117

Iboh, C I; Okon, O E; Arong, G A; Asor, J E; Opara, K N

2012-12-01

52

Factors Associated with Psychosocial Services in Ogun State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Belonging to a social network group may influence a person's decisions to engage in desired behavior. Aim: The objective of our study was to determine factors associated with utilization of psychosocial group services among people living with human immunodeficiency virus acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (PLWHAs) in a Teaching Hospital in Sagamu, Southwestern Nigeria. Settings and Design: This was an analytical cross-sectional study. All consenting PLHAs who attended the anti-retroviral clinic (ART) clinic during the study period were recruited into the study. Materials and Methods: A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect relevant information and a total of 205 PLWHAs were interviewed. Statistical Analysis Used: The data analysis focused on univariate frequency table and bivariate cross tabulations that identify important relationships between the variables. Odds ratio (OR) at 95% confidence level (CI) and Chi-squared and t-tests were also computed. Results: The overall point utilization of psychosocial services among the PLWHAs was 23.4%. Utilization of psychosocial services was statistically significantly associated with religion (?2 = 11.74, P = 0.003), disclosure of human immunodeficiency virus status (?2 = 9.18, P = 0.01) and satisfactory self-reported health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) (?2 = 5.67, P = 0.017) while sex (?2 = 0.02, P = 0.96), education (?2 = 4.67, P = 0.32) tribe (?2 = 1.46, P = 0.48) adherence to ART drugs (?2 = 0.44, P = 0.51), mental health status (?2 = 0.64, P = 0.42) and occupation (?2 = 3.61, P = 0.61) were not. The only predictor of utilization of psychosocial group services was religion (OR = 0.44, CI = 0.23-0.84). Conclusion: This study shows the effectiveness of the psychosocial networks group in improving the overall HRQOL of the PLWHAs.

Amoran, Olorunfemi Emmanuel

2013-01-01

53

Prevalence of dermatophytic fungal infections in children: a recent study in Anambra state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

We conducted a recent survey of dermatological fungal infections amongst children in both urban and rural parts of Anambra State in the south-east geographical flank of Nigeria during the period January 2003 to December 2003. Samples were collected from 1624 children with clinically suggestive lesions and also between the ages of 4 and 16. Young children aged 7-11 and 4- 6 years had significantly higher incidences (P < 0.05) than their older colleagues aged 12-16 years among samples proved to be mycologically positive by microscopy, culture or both. There was a significant difference in the incidence of dermatophytoses amongst children in urban and rural areas investigated (P < 0.05). Tinea capitis was the predominant clinical type. Trichophyton tonsurans was the most prevalent etiological agent while Microsporum audouinii was the least in occurrence. We compared our result with a recent study in the northern geographical zone and observed that although incidence of dermatophytoses is higher in northern Nigeria, tinea capitis was the predominant clinical type in both regions. In addition, the etiological agents appear to vary from time to time in their occurrence and the reasons for these observations are discussed. A regular surveillance and assessment of the etiologic agent and its prevalence by medical mycologists is strongly recommended to facilitate monitoring, reduce/prevent transmission and spread of dermatophytes in countries like Nigeria where they constitute a public health problem. PMID:16205973

Nweze, E I; Okafor, J I

2005-10-01

54

The impact of declining vaccination coverage on measles control: a case study of Abia state Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Efforts at immunizing children against measles was intensified in Nigeria with nation-wide measles vaccination campaigns in 2005 - 2006, 2008 and 2011 targeting children between 9 and 59 months. However, there were measles outbreaks in 2010 and 2011in Abia state Nigeria. This study seeks to find out if there is any association between measles immunization coverage and measles outbreak. Methods This is a descriptive analysis of the 2007 to 2011 Abia state measles case-based surveillance data supplied to Abia state World Health Organization office and Abia State Ministry of Health by the disease surveillance and notification officers. Results As the proportion of cases with febrile rash who were immunized decreased from 81% in 2007 to 42% in 2011, the laboratory confirmed cases of measles increased from two in 2007 to 53 in 2011.Of the laboratory confirmed cases of measles, five (7%) occurred in children < 9 months, 48 (64%) occurred in children 9 - 59 months and 22 (29%) occurred in children < 59 months old. Seventy five percent of all laboratory confirmed cases of measles occurred in rural areas. Conclusion Efforts should be made to increase measles immunization in children between 9 and 59 months as most cases of measles occurred in this age group as immunization coverage dropped. In addition, further studies should be carried out to determine the cause of the disproportional incidence of measles in rural areas in Abia state bearing in mind that measles immunization coverage in urban and rural areas was not markedly different

Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Ahaneku, Hycienth Peterson

2013-01-01

55

Non-traumatic Ocular Findings in Industrial Technical Workers in Delta State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To determine the pattern of non-traumatic ocular disorders in industrial technical workers in the Delta state, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study of the pattern of non-traumatic ocular disorders among industrial technical workers in 3 factories in Ughelli North local Government Area of Delta state, Nigeria was conducted between February, 2002 and May, 2002. In addition to the demographic, the workers were studied for the presence of any non-trauma related ocular findings. Visual acuity of these workers was obtained as well as ocular examination was performed by using the Snellen's chart, pen torch, ophthalmoscope, Perkins hand-held tonometer, Ishihara plates. Patients were refracted if their visual acuity was less than normal. Results: Five hundred technical workers were screened that included 200 (40%) from the construction industry, 180 (36%) from the rubber factory and 120(24%) from the oil mill. All the workers studied were males. Ocular disorders were seen in 664 (66.4%) of the eyes. The most common ocular disorders were pingueculum 215 (21.5%), presbyopia 97 (9.7%), refractive error 94 (9.4%), pterygium 86 (8.6%) and chronic conjunctivitis 45 (4.5%). None of the workers was blind from non-traumatic causes. Only 36 (7.2%) workers wore any protective eye devices at work. Conclusion: Non-traumatic ocular disorders are common in the industrialized technical workers in the Delta state of Nigeria. The use of protective eye devices is low in these workers and suggests that measures to implement ocular safety should be undertaken in these industries.

Omoti, A. E.; Edema, O. T.; Akinsola, F. B.; Aigbotsua, P.

2009-01-01

56

The Role of Counselling and Parental Encouragement on Re-Entry of Adolescents into Secondary Schools in Abia State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examined the role of counselling, and parental encouragement on re-entry of adolescents into secondary school in Abia State, Nigeria. A total of 353 adolescents who re-entered school were selected from six secondary schools in the State through a simple random sampling technique. A validated questionnaire was used for data analysis.

Alika, Henrietta Ijeoma; Ohanaka, Blessing Ijeoma

2013-01-01

57

Parental Involvement, Interest in Schooling and Science Achievement of Junior Secondary School Students in Ogun State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relative and combined influences of parental involvement and interest in schooling on science achievement of selected Junior Secondary School students in Ogun State, Nigeria. Twelve secondary schools were selected from the four administrative divisions of the State. A sample of 360 students participated in the study and

Olatoye, R. A.; Ogunkola, B. J.

2008-01-01

58

Aquifer transmissivity and basement structure determination using resistivity sounding at Jos Plateau State Nigeria.  

PubMed

A geoelectric investigation involving twenty-six vertical electrical soundings was carried out at Jos, Plateau State, North Central Nigeria. The survey was aimed at determining the structure of the underlying bedrock, as well as computing the transmissivity for the aquifer in the area. The basement geometrymapproduced from the results of the survey indicates that the bedrock is undulating lying at depths between 30 m to 6.5 m. There is evidence of faulting and fracturing within the area. Computation of aquifer transmissivity values based on the results obtained made it possible to demarcate regions with good ground water potential in the area. PMID:16570227

Akaolisa, Casmir

2006-03-01

59

Nigeria in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the 27th of September, 2003 Nigeria joined Space faring Nations with the launch of its first satellite "NigeriaSat-1" into the Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The Satellite which carries Remote sensing payload and has a Ground Sampling Distance of 32m is a fulfillment of one of Government thrust towards solving socio-economic problems and its realizing sustainable development plans through the applications of space science and technology. NigeriaSat-1 project also included the acquiring of expertise in the area of Satellite Technology as 15 Nigerian Engineers/Scientists under gone an 18 months Know How Technology Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL). The trainee along side their SSTL counterparts designed and built the NigeriaSat-1. The NigeriaSat-1 has been fully commissioned from the Ground Control Station in Nigeria and the spacecraft is in perfect working condition. The spacecraft has been sending down excellent images of the earth. NigeriaSat-1 is being controlled from Nigeria by Nigerian Ground Station Engineers. The NigeriaSat-1 is one of the Spacecrafts in the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) which has the following member states, United Kingdom, Turkey, Algeria, China, Vietnam and Thailand. The DMC is to provide real time data with a global coverage. This paper will focus on the NigeriaSat-1 project, the know-how technology training, the utilization plan of data from the NigeriaSat-1 and the gains from the DMC.

Chizea, F. D.

60

Factors related to induced abortion among young women in Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest death rate from induced abortion in the world, and young women in southern Nigeria are particularly likely to terminate their pregnancies. This study assesses the prevalence of and factors associated with induced abortion among 602 young women aged 15-24 who were surveyed in Edo State, Nigeria, in 2002. We find that 41 percent of all pregnancies reported by the young women surveyed were terminated, and we estimate the age-specific abortion rate for 15-19-year-olds in Edo State at 49 abortions per 1,000 women, which is slightly higher than previous local estimates and nearly double the countrywide estimate for women aged 15-49. We construct explanatory multivariate models to predict the likelihood that a young woman has experienced sexual intercourse, has become pregnant, and has undergone an induced abortion, controlling for important demographic and risk-behavior factors. Young women unmarried at the time of the interview are found to be significantly more likely than married women to have had an abortion. Young women who have experienced transactional or forced sex are also significantly more likely to report ever having had an abortion, as are young women who have experienced more than one pregnancy. We conclude with suggestions for modifying the content and target populations of behavioral change messages and programs in the area. PMID:17209283

Murray, Nancy; Winfrey, William; Chatterji, Minki; Moreland, Scott; Dougherty, Leanne; Okonofua, Friday

2006-12-01

61

Evaluation of the Thermal Conductivity of Soils in Edo State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations were conducted to evaluate the thermal conductivity of soils of Sedimentary rock origin in two locations namely; Obaretin in Ikpoba/Okha and Idumabi-Irrua in Esan Central Local Government Areas respectively in Edo State, Nigeria. The study was aimed at validating the effects of the thermal regimes of these soils and their relation to soil productivity. The investigation showed that soil conductivity is related to temperature factors such as soil resistance and resistivity that controls the processes involved in the production and plant growth. The investigation showed that soil thermal conductivity is related to temperature and solar radiation factors such as soil resistance and resistivity, that control the processes involved in plant growth and productivity with accompanied macro and micro fauna in soils. Functional activities of plant roots such as absorption of water and nutrients are encouraged at low or high soil thermal conductivity levels. In this study, there were significant (p = 0.05) differences in thermal conductivity in the soils of both locations. Similarly soil resistance and resistivity were significantly different (p = 0.05) in the two locations (Obaretin and Idumabi Irrua) in Ikpoba-Okha and Esan Central Local Government Area, Edo State, Nigeria. This study indicates attributes of temperature changes in soil regimes, reflecting the difference in vegetation obtained in the two locations. Therefore soil productivity and plant growth is influenced by soil thermal conductivity and it`s related factors such as soil resistance and resistivity.

Molindo, W. A.; Alile, O. M.

62

Seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in northern Plateau State, North Central Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis among cattle in some local government areas (LGA) of the northern part of Plateau State, Nigeria. Methods Sera obtained from a total of 270 randomly selected cattle from different herds in the four selected LGAs were for Brucella antibodies using the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT). Results An overall brucellosis seroprevalence of 9.6% (26/270) was obtained. The seroprevalence of Brucella antibodies among the cattle across the LGA ranged from 0%-37.3% with Riyom and Bassa LGA having the lowest and highest seroprevalence respectively while Barkin Ladi LGA had no sero-positive cattle. Females had a higher percentage of seropositives compared to males while cattle reared under extensive system of management had a higher (11.6%) percentage of sero-positives compared to cattle kept under the intensive system of management. However, there was no statistically significant (P>0.05) association between serological status and sex or management practice. Conclusions The results of this study indicates that bovine brucellosis is still a problem among the cattle population in Plateau State, Nigeria. And the public and other animals are at risk of exposure to the disease agent in these animals which are still shedding the organism.

Maurice, Nanven Abraham; Wungak, Samuel Yiltawe; Gana, Balami Arhyel; Nanven, Magdalene Baneche; Ngbede, Emmanuel Ochefije; Ibrahim, Amina; Aworh, Mabel Kamweli; Konzing, Leviticus; Hambolu, Sunday Emmanuel; Gugong, Victor Tita

2013-01-01

63

Factors associated with interruption of treatment among Pulmonary Tuberculosis patients in Plateau State, Nigeria. 2011  

PubMed Central

Introduction Nigeria has one of the highest tuberculosis (TB) burdens in the world with estimated incidence of 133 per 100,000 populations. Multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) is an emerging threat of the TB control in Nigeria caused mainly by incomplete treatment. This study explored factors that affect adherence to treatment among patients undergoing direct observation of TB treatment in Plateau state, Nigeria. Methods Between June and July 2011, we reviewed medical records and interviewed randomly selected pulmonary TB patients in their eighth month of treatment. Information on patients? clinical, socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics was collected using checklist and structured questionnaire for knowledge of treatment duration and reasons for interruption of treatment. We conducted focus group discussions with patients about barriers to treatment adherence. Data were analyzed with Epi Info software. Results Of 378 records reviewed, 229 (61%) patients were male; mean age 37.6 13.5 years and 71 (19%) interrupted their treatment. Interruption of treatment was associated with living > 5 km from TB treatment site (AOR: 11.3; CI 95%: 5.7-22.2), lack of knowledge of duration of treatment (AOR: 6.1; CI 95%: 2.8-13.2) and cigarette smoking (AOR: 3.4; CI 95%: 1.5- 8.0). Major reasons for the interruption were lack of transport fare (40%) and feeling well (25%). Focused group discussions revealed unfriendly attitudes of health care workers as barriers to adherence to treatment. Conclusion This study revealed knowledge of the patients on the duration of treatment, distance and health workers attitude as the major determinants of adherent to TB treatment. Training for health care workers on patient education was conducted during routine supportive supervision.

Ibrahim, Luka Mangveep; Hadejia, Idris Suleiman; Nguku, Patrick; Dankoli, Raymond; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Akhimien, Moses Obiemen; Ogiri, Samuel; Oyemakinde, Akin; Dalhatu, Ibrahim; Nwanyanwu, Okey; Nsubuga, Peter

2014-01-01

64

National health insurance scheme: how protected are households in Oyo State, Nigeria from catastrophic health expenditure?  

PubMed

Background: The major objective of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Nigeria is to protect families from the financial hardship of large medical bills. Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE) is rampart in Nigeria despite the take-off of the NHIS. This study aimed to determine if households enrolled in the NHIS were protected from having CHE. Methods: The study took place among 714 households in urban communities of Oyo State. CHE was measured using a threshold of 40% of monthly non-food expenditure. Descriptive statistics were done, Principal Component Analysis was used to divide households into wealth quintiles. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were done. Results: The mean age of household respondent was 33.5 years. The median household income was 43,500 naira (290 US dollars) and the range was 7,000-680,000 naira (46.7-4,533 US dollars) in 2012. The overall median household healthcare cost was 890 naira (5.9 US dollars) and the range was 10-17,700 naira (0.1-118 US dollars) in 2012. In all, 67 (9.4%) households were enrolled in NHIS scheme. Healthcare services was utilized by 637 (82.9%) and CHE occurred in 42 (6.6%) households. CHE occurred in 14 (10.9%) of the households in the lowest quintile compared to 3 (2.5%) in the highest wealth quintile (P= 0.004). The odds of CHE among households in lowest wealth quintile is about 5 times. They had Crude OR (CI): 4.7 (1.3-16.8), P= 0.022. Non enrolled households were two times likely to have CHE, though not significant Conclusion: Households in the lowest wealth quintiles were at higher risk of CHE. Universal coverage of health insurance in Nigeria should be fast-tracked to give the expected financial risk protection and decreased incidence of CHE. PMID:24847483

Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi; Fatiregun, Akinola Ayoola

2014-05-01

65

Screening for Common Occupational Health Diseases Among Long Distance Professional Drivers in Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Long term exposure to hazards at the work place is injurious to health and usually leads to diseased conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the occupational health problems associated with driving among the professional drivers in Sagamu, Ogun state, Nigeria. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study. Total sample of all the consenting professional drivers in the five interstate motor parks, including the cement factory [WAPCO] in the local government area, were recruited into the study. An interviewer administered structured questionnaire was administered by trained health workers and respondents were screen for common occupational health problems. Results: A total of 400 professional drivers were interviewed, all [100%] of them were males with age range from 21 to 59 yrs and nearly half [42%] were non indigenes. Only half, 208 [52%] of them were married with majority, 232 [58.0%] working for about 12 hrs daily and 46% of them had been working for 5 yrs or more. Most, 382 [95.5%] had been educated on HIV/AIDS before and 313 [78.3%] of them had multiple sexual partners. Only 241 [60.3%] used condom at the last sexual act and 55 [13.5%] had ever been tested for HIV/AIDS. Common occupational health diseases were renal tubular acidosis (RTA) 52 [13%] in the last one year and most of them currently have myalgia 352 [88.0%], upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) 20 [5.0%], sexually transmitted diseases (STD) 15 [3.8%], short sightedness 41 [10.3%], and Hypertension 90 [22.5%]. Conclusions: The study shows that common occupational diseases among long distance professional drivers in Western Nigeria were myalgia, upper respiratory tract infection, hypertension, short sightedness, sexually transmitted diseases, and RTA. Prevention and control of these common diseases among the drivers will lead to reduction of road traffic accidents in Western Nigeria and other low income countries.

Amoran, Olorunfemi Emmanuel; Salako, Albert Adekunle; Jeminusi, Olubunmi

2014-01-01

66

National health insurance scheme: how protected are households in Oyo State, Nigeria from catastrophic health expenditure?  

PubMed Central

Background: The major objective of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Nigeria is to protect families from the financial hardship of large medical bills. Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE) is rampart in Nigeria despite the take-off of the NHIS. This study aimed to determine if households enrolled in the NHIS were protected from having CHE. Methods: The study took place among 714 households in urban communities of Oyo State. CHE was measured using a threshold of 40% of monthly non-food expenditure. Descriptive statistics were done, Principal Component Analysis was used to divide households into wealth quintiles. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were done. Results: The mean age of household respondent was 33.5 years. The median household income was 43,500 naira (290 US dollars) and the range was 7,000680,000 naira (46.74,533 US dollars) in 2012. The overall median household healthcare cost was 890 naira (5.9 US dollars) and the range was 10-17,700 naira (0.1118 US dollars) in 2012. In all, 67 (9.4%) households were enrolled in NHIS scheme. Healthcare services was utilized by 637 (82.9%) and CHE occurred in 42 (6.6%) households. CHE occurred in 14 (10.9%) of the households in the lowest quintile compared to 3 (2.5%) in the highest wealth quintile (P= 0.004). The odds of CHE among households in lowest wealth quintile is about 5 times. They had Crude OR (CI): 4.7 (1.316.8), P= 0.022. Non enrolled households were two times likely to have CHE, though not significant Conclusion: Households in the lowest wealth quintiles were at higher risk of CHE. Universal coverage of health insurance in Nigeria should be fast-tracked to give the expected financial risk protection and decreased incidence of CHE.

Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi; Fatiregun, Akinola Ayoola

2014-01-01

67

Prevalence of otomycosis in malnourished children in Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Out of the total number at 200 suspected cases of otomycoses consisting of 40 malnourished and 160 apparently healthy children examined in this study between the months of July and August in Edo State, 64 Cases (32%) were identified to be of fungal aetiology on the basis of positive culture and careful microscopic examination. The state at protein energy malnourishment was deterwined using physicians' comments in their case files. The fungal agents isolated were Aspergillus niger 28 (43.8%); A. fumigatus 4 (25%); Fusarium solari 4 (6.3%); Candida albicans 8 (12.5%); and Hendersonula teruloidea types torn B 5 (6.3%). Of these isolates, A. niger having an solation rate of (43.8%) was found to be the most predominant fungal species associated with otomycosis. PMID:9646512

Enweani, I B; Igumbor, H

68

[Traditional therapy of dracunculiasis in the state of Bauchi - Nigeria].  

PubMed

Traditional medicinal treatments of guinea worm being applied in various parts of Bauchi State were investigated. Extracts of leaves of a number of plants were universally applied topically. Users perceived relief of pain and accelerated expulsion of worms and healing process. In particular, Tamarindus indica, Adansonia digitata, Calotropis procera, Ziziphus jaozeiro and Moringa olifera are known in nature to have relevant medicinal properties especially lessening of inflammation, relief of pain, or promoting healing or reducing secondary bacterial infections. The possibility was expressed that some of the herbs might be exerting useful effects and could be exploited for the effective treatment of guinea worm. PMID:7758381

Fabiyi, J P; Kela, S L; Tal, K M; Istifanus, W A

1993-01-01

69

The nature and quality of pre-service science teacher education and transition to teaching in Lagos State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The poor state of learning in pre-service science teacher education is typical. of the problems in the Nigeria education sector (Afe, 2001; Odubunmi, 2006; Okebukola, 2004). Little research based evidence about Nigerian pre-service science teacher education has been reported in the literature, however, this problem has been documented to be a common phenomenon among other African countries with similar programmes.

Durojaiye S. Braimoh

2008-01-01

70

Qualification and Gender Dimensions in Attitude of Secondary School Social Studies Teachers towards Computer Usage in Kogi State Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined attitude dimensions of secondary school social studies teachers towards computer usage in Kogi State Nigeria. Qualification and Gender influence on their use was examined. Participants were 427 (Male = 224; female = 203) social studies teachers. Sampling was purposive and random. The study adopted the survey design. Data were

Achor, Emmanuel E.; Shaibu, Joshua S.

2013-01-01

71

Effects of Enhanced Laboratory Instructional Technique on Senior Secondary Students' Attitude toward Chemistry in Oyo Township, Oyo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the effect of supplementing laboratory instruction with problem solving strategy and or practical skills teaching on students' attitude toward chemistry. A total of 286 senior secondary class II students (145 males and 141 females) drawn from four local government areas in Oyo township in Oyo state, Nigeria, took part in the

Adesoji, Francis Adewumi; Raimi, Sikiru Morakinyo

2004-01-01

72

Assessment of Salmonella Contamination of Feed Raw Materials and Their Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles in Imo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to detennine the frequency of isolation of salmonella and their microbial resis- tance profiles, across selected feed raw materials sold in lmo State, Nigeria. Three hundred and sixty (360) bulk samples were collected across different feed raw materials which include animal proteins-foreign fish meal (FFM) and local fish meal (LFM), plant proteins-groundnut cake (GNC) and soybean

Ifeanyi Charles Okoli; Ifeoma C. Ekwueagana; Prince Ogbuewu

73

Effects of Training Programme on HIV/AIDS Prevention among Primary Health Care Workers in Oyo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to train primary health care workers to be trainers and implementers of community-based AIDS prevention activities in Oyo State, Nigeria, by describing an evaluation of the project. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 148 primary health care workers recruited from the 33 local government areas (LGA) of the

Ajuwon, Ademola; Funmilayo, Fawole; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Osungbade, Kayode; Asuzu, Michael

2008-01-01

74

Psychosocial Care in Complementary Feeding of Children: A Comparative Study of the Urban and Rural Communities of Osun State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated psychosocial care in complementary feeding of children under two years of age. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Osun State of Nigeria within Sub-Saharan Africa, and 450 mothers were interviewed of which 337 were from the urban and 113 from the rural communities. Results revealed that 37.4% of the respondents

Ogunba, Beatrice Olubukola

2010-01-01

75

Spatial distribution of urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria using geographical information system and school based questionnaire.  

PubMed

Urinary schistosomiasis is a serious disease in Cross River State, Nigeria. Dearth of information on its distribution has hampered the implementation of focused control of the disease. The availability of a rapid method for mapping the disease necessitated this research to provide data for control of Urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria. The study used a rapid validated school-based questionnaire method in mapping schistosomiasis. Geographical information system (GIS) software tools were used to produce a spatial map for prevalence of infection and areas at risk for urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State. Data analysis with SPSS package revealed that 9,993 (10.2%) female and 10,328 (10.0%) male pupils in 218 schools passed blood in urine in one month out of 199,794 pupils interviewed. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence between male and female pupils with infection (p < 0.005). The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis using questionnaire method correlated positively with the filtration method used in determining the egg output (r = 0.71, p < 0.001). Endemic schools were distributed in thirteen Local Government Areas of Cross River State, Nigeria. Yala and Yakurr LGAs had the highest number of schools that reported schistosomiasis with 39 (59%) and 13 (59%), respectively. Odukpani LGA had the lowest prevalence of 1 (0.2%). The overall results showed a mean urinary schistosomiasis prevalence of 10.2% for Cross River State, Nigeria. The findings of this study would guide Government and other relevant agencies in the implementation of control strategies for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria. PMID:24506017

Adie, H A; Okon, O E; Arong, G A; Braide, E I; Ekpo, U F

2013-10-15

76

A techno-economic analysis of aquaculture business in Ogun State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fish supplies 25% of the total protein source in developing countries. A techno-economic analysis was performed for developing a good business proposal for aquaculture loans to enhance aquaculture development in Nigeria. A case study of catfish Clarias gariepinus framing was conducted in Abeokuta North Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The results show that the fixed cost is N18 338 per year, and the variable cost is N459 700 per year, accounting for the largest amount of the total; therefore, a profit of N43 289 per month can be made. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess any risk(s) that associated with unfavorable changes in government policy with particular reference to monetary policy. Positive net present value shows that the investment in fish farm is economically feasible and the net investment ratio is 3.52. Also, the benefit-cost ratio is 2.17. The internal rate of return (IRR) is 21% showing that the enterprise is able to offset the interest being charged on the loan. It is therefore worthwhile to invest into fish farm business in the study area. The study suggests that to better sustain the local aquaculture business, the government should create a good conducive environment to foster development of the fish farming. Government intervention is urgently needed to solve problems such as in traditional land tenure, grant credit facilities and subsidies, to enhance the aquacultural development in the country.

Kareem, R. O.; Williams, S. B.

2009-05-01

77

Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in native breeds of cattle in Kaduna State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Despite numerous molecular epidemiologic studies of cryptosporidiosis in dairy cattle in industrialized countries, there are very few studies on the diversity and public health significance of Cryptosporidium species in native cattle in developing countries. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene was used to detect and identify Cryptosporidium spp. in 194 fecal specimens from 2 to 365 days old calves in 20 White Fulani and Sokoto Gudali herds in Nigeria. Thirty one (16.0%) of the specimens were positive for Cryptosporidium. Restriction digestion of the PCR products showed the presence of Cryptosporidium bovis (7.2%), Cryptosporidium ryanae (4.1%), Cryptosporidium andersoni (2.5%), and concurrent occurrence of C. bovis and C. ryanae (1.5%), and C. bovis and C. andersoni (0.5%). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in Cryptosporidium infection rates by sex, herd location, management system, breed of calves, or fecal consistency. However, calves 180 days or younger had a higher infection rate of Cryptosporidium than older calves (p=0.034). Likewise, younger calves also had higher occurrence of C. bovis and C. ryanae (p=0.022). The absence of zoonotic Cryptosporidium parvum in the calves studied suggests that native breeds of cattle may not be important in the transmission of human cryptosporidiosis in Kaduna State, Nigeria. PMID:21277091

Maikai, Beatty V; Umoh, Jalarth U; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Lawal, Idris A; Maikai, Victor A; Cama, Vitaliano; Xiao, Lihua

2011-06-10

78

Serological evidence of brucellosis in goats in kaduna north senatorial district of kaduna state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the current status of Brucella antibodies in goats in Kaduna North Senatorial District of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 442 serum samples (31 bucks and 411 does) were screened using Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test with ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (SAT-EDTA), and lateral flow assay (LFA). Results. The prevalence of Brucella antibodies was found to be 25.8%, 11.1%, and 2.5% using RBPT, SAT-EDTA, and LFA, respectively. The prevalence in bucks was 32.3%, 3.2%, and 0.0% and 17.5%, 12.4%, and 3.9% in does using RBPT, SAT-EDTA, and LFA, respectively. The prevalence rates for goats less than one year of age using the tests were 1.5%, 0.0%, and 0.0%. While for those within the age bracket of one to three years, the rates were 19.4%, 10.5%, and 3.5%, respectively. The corresponding values for goats above 3 years of age were 34.2%, 15.2%, and 1.8%, respectively. The prevalence of brucellosis in goats in the study area is high which poses a threat to the development of the livestock industry and is of important zoonotic implications in Nigeria. PMID:23762594

Kaltungo, B Y; Saidu, S N A; Sackey, A K B; Kazeem, H M

2013-01-01

79

Comparative Analysis of Pathogenic Organisms in Cockroaches from Different Community Settings in Edo State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents.

Orue, Philip Ogbeide; Iyamu, Mercy Itohan; Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetiyan; Isaac, Osesojie

2014-01-01

80

Serological Evidence of Brucellosis in Goats in Kaduna North Senatorial District of Kaduna State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the current status of Brucella antibodies in goats in Kaduna North Senatorial District of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 442 serum samples (31 bucks and 411 does) were screened using Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test with ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (SAT-EDTA), and lateral flow assay (LFA). Results. The prevalence of Brucella antibodies was found to be 25.8%, 11.1%, and 2.5% using RBPT, SAT-EDTA, and LFA, respectively. The prevalence in bucks was 32.3%, 3.2%, and 0.0% and 17.5%, 12.4%, and 3.9% in does using RBPT, SAT-EDTA, and LFA, respectively. The prevalence rates for goats less than one year of age using the tests were 1.5%, 0.0%, and 0.0%. While for those within the age bracket of one to three years, the rates were 19.4%, 10.5%, and 3.5%, respectively. The corresponding values for goats above 3 years of age were 34.2%, 15.2%, and 1.8%, respectively. The prevalence of brucellosis in goats in the study area is high which poses a threat to the development of the livestock industry and is of important zoonotic implications in Nigeria.

Kaltungo, B. Y.; Saidu, S. N. A.; Sackey, A. K. B.; Kazeem, H. M.

2013-01-01

81

Dog ecology and population studies in Lagos State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Dog population dynamics have a major impact upon the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. As such, understanding domestic dog ecology has been recognized as central to the design of effective rabies control programmes. This study was conducted to determine the dog ecology in Lagos State using compound dog count and street dog count in the three senatorial districts (Lagos West, East and Central) of Lagos State from February, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 546 questionnaires were distributed for the compound dog count and all were completed and returned. Various aspects of dog ecology were determined, including size, sex, breed of the dog population, management of dogs and rabies awareness among the respondents. Out of the 546 compounds surveyed, 518 (94.87%) owned at least one dog. A total of 1,427 dogs were counted from the street counts while a total of 1,447 dogs (2.8 dogs/compound) were counted from the compound count. The dogs comprised of 583 males and 864 females, out of which 64.10% are confined. The dog vaccination coverage in the dog population surveyed was 64.10% and administered majorly (91.30%) by veterinarians. Security (60%) and pets (26%) were the major reasons for keeping dogs. Majority (88.80%) of the respondents were aware of rabies and its mode of transmission, but still believed in the use of concoctions (40.40%), herbs (19.90%) and consumption of the organ of the offending dog (11.50%) for the treatment of rabies. The findings of this study showed a male: female ratio of dog to be 1:1.5 and a dog: human ratio of 1:5.6. There was also a responsible dog ownership as majority of the respondents do confine, vaccinate and provide food for their dogs. Vaccination coverage of the total dog population was however below the 70-80% target recommended by the World Health Organization to achieve herd immunity. PMID:24576383

Hambolu, Sunday Emmanuel; Dzikwi, Asabe A; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Kazeem, Haruna M; Umoh, Jarlath U; Hambolu, Dupe A

2014-03-01

82

Prevalence of bovine campylobacteriosis in indigenous cattle of three states in Nigeria.  

PubMed

A survey of bovine campylobacteriosis in breeding bulls and cows was carried out in the states of Kaduna, Kano and Borno. Six hundred and eighty nine cattle composed of 585 and 104 breeding bulls and cows respectively were sampled. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis was isolated from 12 bulls while Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus was isolated from three of them. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus was isolated from four cows while Campylobacter fetus subsp. veneralis was isolated from one cow. The overall prevalence of campylobacteriosis in the three states was 2.9% (20/689). The result of the study identifies Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis as the agent of enzootic infertility in Nigeria and suggests that it may be a significant problem. PMID:1763437

Bawa, E K; Adekeye, J O; Oyedipe, E O; Omoh, J U

1991-08-01

83

Indigenous knowledge system for treatment of trypanosomiasis in Kaduna state of Nigeria.  

PubMed

A survey was carried out in Kaduna State of Nigeria to establish the indigenous knowledge system for treating trypanosomiasis in domestic animals. Questionnaire and interviews were, respectively, administered to, or conducted with about 200 livestock farmers and traders spread around the state. Data obtained revealed the use of several plants either alone or in combination, for the treatment and management of trypasonomiasis. The most common plants encountered were Adansonia digitata, Terminalia avicennoides, Khaya senegalensis, Cissus populnea, Tamarindus indica, Lawsonia inermis, Boswellia dalzielli, Pseudocedrela kotschi, Syzyium quinensis, Sterculia setigera, Afzelia africana, Prosopis africana, Lancea kerstingii. The method of preparation and mode of administration of some of these plants in the treatment of trypanosomiasis are reviewed and discussed. PMID:11801393

Atawodi, S E; Ameh, D A; Ibrahim, S; Andrew, J N; Nzelibe, H C; Onyike, E O; Anigo, K M; Abu, E A; James, D B; Njoku, G C; Sallau, A B

2002-02-01

84

Determinants of Youths` Participation in Rural Agriculture in Imo State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lack of empirical data on the determinants of youths` participation in rural agriculture necessitated this study that investigated the rate of youths` participation, agricultural activities participated in and the factors that determined their participation in Imo State, Nigeria. Data were generated from 230 youths from the three agricultural zones of the state using questionnaire and interview schedule. These were analyzed with the aid of frequency tables, simple percentage counts and logit regression model at 0.05 level of significance. The results indicated about 84% participation in land clearing, planting, fertilizer application, collection of fodder for livestock etc. The participation was determined by their ages, education, marital status, parents` income, parents` occupation, household size and youths` dependence status. It was recommended that institutional support services for agriculture should be extended to the youths and intervention strategies for youths` agricultural activities should be guided and guarded by their ages, education, marital status, parents` income, parents` occupation, family size and youths` dependence status.

Nnadi, F. N.; Akwiwu, C. D.

85

Anti-malaria prescription in pregnancy among general practitioners in Enugu state, south east Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: The national policy on malaria control recommends use of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (IPT-SP) for chemoprophylaxis against malaria in pregnancy; and use of quinine and arthemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for acute treatment of malaria in the first, and second/third trimesters, respectively. In Nigeria, a large proportion of pregnant women are seen by the general practitioners (GPs). Objective: To determine the pattern of anti-malaria prescription in pregnancy among GPs in Enugu state, and access the level of conformity with the national policy on malaria control. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires were administered to a cross-section of 147 GPs that attended the 2010 Enugu state branch of the Nigeria Medical Association Scientific Conference/Annual General Meeting/Election. Results: The mean age of the GPs was 37 3.6 (range 27-70) years. Quinine was the commonly (45.6% (n = 67)) prescribed anti-malaria drug in the first trimester while in the second/third trimester ACT was commonly (48.3% (n = 71)) prescribed. Seventy-six (51.7%) practitioners prescribed IPT-SP for chemoprophylaxis against malaria while the rest (48.3%) prescribed other drugs. GPs who obtained MBBS qualification less than or equal to 5 years prior to the survey were more likely to comply with the national policy on malaria control in their prescriptions (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The pattern of anti-malaria prescription among GPs in Enugu state is varied, and conformed poorly to the evidence-based national policy on malaria control. There is need for continuing professional development to keep the GPs abreast with current trends in malaria treatment during pregnancy.

Ugwu, Emmanuel Onyebuchi; Iferikigwe, E. S.; Obi, S. N.; Ugwu, A. O.; Agu, P. U.; Okezie, O. A.

2013-01-01

86

Phenotypic and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Ekiti State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction The characteristics and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Staphylococcus aureus differs according to geographical regions and in relation to antibiotic usage. The aim of this study was to determine the biochemical characteristics of the prevalent S. aureus from Ekiti State, Nigeria, and to evaluate three commonly used disk diffusion methods (cefoxitin, oxacillin, and methicillin) for the detection of methicillin resistance in comparison with mecA gene detection by polymerase chain reaction. Materials and methods A total of 208 isolates of S. aureus recovered from clinical specimens were included in this study. Standard microbiological procedures were employed in isolating the strains. Susceptibility of each isolate to methicillin (5 ?g), oxacillin (1 ?g), and cefoxitin (30 ?g) was carried out using the modified KirbyBauer/Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute disk diffusion technique. They were also tested against panels of antibiotics including vancomycin. The conventional polymerase chain reaction method was used to detect the presence of the mecA gene. Results Phenotypic resistance to methicillin, oxacillin, and cefoxitin were 32.7%, 40.3%, and 46.5%, respectively. The mecA gene was detected in 40 isolates, giving a methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) prevalence of 19.2%. The S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin (82.7%) and tetracycline (65.4%), but largely susceptible to erythromycin (78.8% sensitive), pefloxacin (82.7%), and gentamicin (88.5%). When compared to the mecA gene as the gold standard for MRSA detection, methicillin, oxacillin, and cefoxitin gave sensitivity rates of 70%, 80%, and 100%, and specificity rates of 76.2%, 69.1%, and 78.5% respectively. Conclusion When compared with previous studies employing mecA polymerase chain reaction for MRSA detection, the prevalence of 19.2% reported in Ekiti State, Nigeria in this study is an indication of gradual rise in the prevalence of MRSA in Nigeria. A cefoxitin (30 ?g) disk diffusion test is recommended above methicillin and oxacillin for the phenotypic detection of MRSA in clinical laboratories.

Olowe, Olugbenga Adekunle; Kukoyi, Olayinka Oluwatoyin; Taiwo, Samuel Sunday; Ojurongbe, Olusola; Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele; Bolaji, Oloyede Samuel; Adegoke, Abiodun Adebimpe; Makanjuola, Olufunmilola Bamidele; Ogbolu, David Olusoga; Alli, Oyebode Terry

2013-01-01

87

Schistosoma haematobium infections in two rural communities of Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

An epidemiological study of 1,136 inhabitants from two rural communities in Owan East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria was investigated to ascertain the prevalence, intensities and urinary symptoms in Schistosoma haematobium infections. In both communities, 371 (32.6%) of the villagers screened, excreted S. haematobium with a mean of 40.1 ova per 10 ml of their urine. The pattern of infection was highest among the school children, moderate among the farmers and least among the civil servants. The sensitivities of their urinary symptoms associated with this parasitic infection in these communities are 78.7% hematuria, 71.9% proteinuria, 70.4% supra public pain/discomforts and 59.6% dysuria. These foci of infections will broaden the epidemiological picture of urinary schistosomiasis in this part of the globe. PMID:11944719

Nmorsi, O P; Egwunyenga, O A; Okholo, O E

2001-09-01

88

Survey of urinary schistosomiasis and trichomoniasis in a rural community in Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Survey of urinary schistosomiasis and trichomoniasis was conducted among 830 inhabitants of Ikao village, in Owan local government area of Edo State, Nigeria Between October, 1999 and February, 2000. Of these, 178 (21.4%) excreted Schistosoma haematobium ova in their urine. School children were more infected than the farmers and petty traders. Males were more infected than the female counterparts, These differences were statistically significant using Chi-square test analysis (chi 2). Most of the inhabitants had light infections. In all, urinary schistosomiasis and trichomoniasis co-infection occurred in the genito-urinary tract of 14 (6.3%) females inhabitants. The highest Trichomonas vaginalis infection 16 (40.0%) occurred in female subjects within 20-25 years old. PMID:12170944

Nimorsi, O P; Egwunyenga, A O; Bajomo, D O

2001-06-01

89

Prevalence and prevention of malaria in pregnancy in Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The observational/longitudinal study was undertaken in Igueben Local Government Area (LGA), Edo State, Nigeria. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of prevention on the prevalence of malaria during pregnancy. The study population comprised 4 groups viz; Group l, had 100 women protected with Insecticide Treated bed Nets (ITNs); Group 2, another 100 treated with Sulphadoxine - pyrimethamine (SP); Group 3, 100 protected with both ITN and SP, while Group 4, were 100 unprotected others who served as control. Venous blood was collected 7 days to expected date of delivery while placental blood was collected after delivery from the subjects for parasitaemia determination. Findings showed that all protective devices used were effective against malaria. Prevention used against malaria in pregnancy is a sure safe guard against maternal morbidity/mortality and should be encouraged. It is therefore, recommended that pregnant women should be health educated to appreciate the need for malaria prevention. PMID:19435012

Wagbatsoma, V A; Omoike, B I

2008-12-01

90

Economic Effects of Fascioliasis on Animal Traction Technology in Adamawa State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reports the results of a survey conducted in 2001 to investigate the economic effects of Fascioliasis (Liverflukes) on drought animals in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 60 and 74 farmers` owners of 148 non-infested and 204 infested drought animals, respectively, through a cost-route method using structured questionnaires and supplemented with interviews. Analysis using descriptive statistics and animal traction efficiency measure showed that the non-infested drought animals were efficiently utilized than the infested drought animals. It was concluded that the non-infested drought animals were more productive. The study therefore, recommend among others, the regular deworming of drought animals in order to improve their efficiency.

Jaafar-Furo, M. R.; Mshelia, S. I.; Suleiman, A.

91

A survey of intestinal helminths among students of post-primary institution in Adamawa State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminthiasis among students of Government Secondary School Girei, Song Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria, between January and July 1991. Of the 200 students between ages ten to thirty-two years old examined, 86 (43.0%) were infected using the formyl ether concentration method. The most commonly found worm were hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura with mean egg per gram of 4,800; 2,600; and 1,250 respectively. Infection was independent of both sexes, and parental occupations (P > 0.05) but decreased significantly with host age and a progressive increase in body weight (P < 0.05). Suggestions are made for the control of helminth parasites in the area. PMID:8220572

Alo, E B; Anosike, J C; Danburan, J B

1993-09-01

92

Epilepsy prevalence, potential causes and social beliefs in Ebonyi State and Benue State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder in Nigeria. Many individuals are affected in rural areas, although prevalence data is not available. In this study we aimed to establish the prevalence of epilepsy in a rural community in south-east Nigeria, a community suspected for having a high number of people living with epilepsy. We compared this with the prevalence in a nearby semi-urban community in north-central Nigeria. In both communities we identified potential causes of epilepsy and obtained information on the social beliefs regarding epilepsy. We used door-to-door surveys and focus group discussions. The epilepsy prevalence in the rural community was 20.8/1000 [95% confidence interval (CI): 15.7-27.4]. The prevalence in the semi-rural community was lower, namely 4.7/1000 [CI: 3.2-6.9]. The difference in prevalence was highly significant (?(2)-test, p<0.0001). In both communities most people with epilepsy were in the age range of 7-24 years. Causes that might be contributory to the prevalence of epilepsy in both communities included poor obstetric practices, frequent febrile convulsions, head trauma, meningitis and neurocysticercosis. In both communities we found stigma of people with epilepsy. In conclusion, the epilepsy prevalence in the semi-urban community is similar to that in industrialized countries. In contrast, the rural community has a much higher prevalence. This may require the establishment of specific community-based epilepsy control programs. Community interventions should focus on treatment of acute epilepsy and on stigma reduction. PMID:24300028

Osakwe, Chijioke; Otte, Willem M; Alo, Chimhurumnanya

2014-02-01

93

Geographical information system and predictive risk maps of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The control of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria remains inert due to lack of reliable data on the geographical distribution of the disease and the population at risk. To help in developing a control programme, delineating areas of risk, geographical information system and remotely sensed environmental images were used to developed predictive risk maps of the probability of occurrence of the disease and quantify the risk for infection in Ogun State, Nigeria. Methods Infection data used were derived from carefully validated morbidity questionnaires among primary school children in 20012002, in which school children were asked among other questions if they have experienced "blood in urine" or urinary schistosomiasis. The infection data from 1,092 schools together with remotely sensed environmental data such as rainfall, vegetation, temperature, soil-types, altitude and land cover were analysis using binary logistic regression models to identify environmental features that influence the spatial distribution of the disease. The final regression equations were then used in Arc View 3.2a GIS software to generate predictive risk maps of the distribution of the disease and population at risk in the state. Results Logistic regression analysis shows that the only significant environmental variable in predicting the presence and absence of urinary schistosomiasis in any area of the State was Land Surface Temperature (LST) (B = 0.308, p = 0.013). While LST (B = -0.478, p = 0.035), rainfall (B = -0.006, p = 0.0005), ferric luvisols (B = 0.539, p = 0.274), dystric nitosols (B = 0.133, p = 0.769) and pellic vertisols (B = 1.386, p = 0.008) soils types were the final variables in the model for predicting the probability of an area having an infection prevalence equivalent to or more than 50%. The two predictive risk maps suggest that urinary schistosomiasis is widely distributed and occurring in all the Local Government Areas (LGAs) in State. The high-risk areas (? 50% prevalence) however, are confined to scatter foci in the north western part of the State. The model also estimated that 98.99% of schools aged children (514 years) are living in areas suitable for urinary schistosomiasis transmission and are at risk of infection. Conclusion The risk maps developed will hopefully be useful to the state health officials, by providing them with detailed distribution of urinary schistosomiasis, help to delineate areas for intervention, assesses population at risk thereby helping in optimizing scarce resources.

Ekpo, Uwem F; Mafiana, Chiedu F; Adeofun, Clement O; Solarin, Adewale RT; Idowu, Adewumi B

2008-01-01

94

Endemic goitre prevalence in Ifedapo Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

As part of efforts aimed at providing an adequate data base for the control of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) in Nigeria, we undertook an extensive goitre survey of Ifedapo Local Government Area (LGA) of Oyo State, which lies within the goitre-belt of South-western Nigeria. Primary school pupils aged between six and twelve years were the subjects of the survey. From each of ten health districts of the LGA, one primary school was included in the survey. For each school, the entire school population was assessed for goitre by palpation and goitre graded according to WHO/ICCIDD criteria. The survey included 3599 pupils (1889 males and 1710 females). The total goitre rate (TGR) for the LGA was 23.4% while the visible goitre rate (VGR) was 6.4%. The highest goitre rate was recorded in District I (Sango, Saki) TGR = 39.5%; VGR = 17.3%), while the lowest rate was seen in District 4 (Wasengare) TGR = 5.2%; VGR = 0.7%). Females had higher goitre rates than males (TGR: 25.7% vs 21.3%; VGR: 7.5% vs 5.5%). Most of the goitres were Grades IA (36.7%) or IB (35.7%). Goitre grades 2 and 3 accounted for only 27.3% and 0.2%, respectively. These results show that there is a mild to moderate IDD problem in Ifedapo LGA. The implications of this finding, in view of the known deleterious consequences of IDD, are discussed and the need for correction highlighted. PMID:10456136

Ojule, A C; Abbiyesuku, F M; Osotimehin, B O

1998-01-01

95

A 6-year survey of pathological conditions of slaughtered animals at Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 6-year retrospective study (20002005) of animals slaughtered at the Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria was\\u000a carried out to determine disease conditions encountered in slaughtered animals. Records kept at the abattoir were analysed.\\u000a A total of 69,307 cattle, 3,820 goats and 1,763 sheep were slaughtered for the period under study. Of the 69,307 cattle slaughtered\\u000a for the period,

Clement B. I. Alawa; I. Etukudo-Joseph; Judith N. Alawa

2011-01-01

96

Health and environmental impacts of pesticide use practices: a case study of farmers in Ekiti State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commonly used pesticides and handling practices which might expose farmers and their environment to chemical hazards were investigated in the Irepodun\\/Ifelodun local government area of Ekiti State, Nigeria. Direct field observations and answers to a structured questionnaire from a random sample of 150 farming households showed that commonly used pesticides comprised herbicides (48.3 per cent), fungicides (28.2 per cent) and

Oluwafemi Oluwole; Robert A. Cheke

2009-01-01

97

Putting Out the Fire with Gasoline? Violence Control in Fragile States: A Study of Vigilantism in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For many communities in the fragile state order of Nigeria, vigilante groups represent the only pragmatic alternative for\\u000a providing a minimum of protection and order in the face of widespread insecurity. But vigilante groups are often more than\\u000a just controllers of violence and competing operators in security markets. They are also integrated into social networks, representing\\u000a a social response to

Andrea Kirschner

98

Prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria: results of a population-based house-to-house survey  

PubMed Central

Background and objective Abdominal obesity is associated with the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes and hypertension. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Materials and methods We carried out a cross-sectional study aimed at ascertaining the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Participants in the study were recruited from communities in the three senatorial zones in the state. Screening for abdominal obesity was carried out in these subjects using waist circumference (the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel criteria were used). The World Health Organization Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of chronic disease risk factors was used. Body mass index, anthropometric measurements, and other relevant data were also collected. Results Data on waist circumference were obtained from 2,807 subjects. The prevalence of obesity using body mass index in the population was 11.12%. In men and women, it was 7.73%, and 14.37%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in the population was 21.75%. In men and women, it was 3.2% and 39.2%, respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of abdominal obesity is high in Nigeria, and needs to be monitored because it is associated with increased cardiovascular risk.

Ijezie, Innocent Chukwuonye; Chuku, Abali; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

2013-01-01

99

An assessment of essential maternal health services in Kwara State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to evaluate the levels of emergency obstetrics care (EOC) signal functions in health facilities in a developing setting with high maternal morbidity and mortality indices and to determine if there are differences between public and private health facilities in terms of availability of these signal functions. A survey of health facilities was carried out in six of the 16 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Kwara State Nigeria. All health facilities in these LGAs including public and private health facilities offering some services to pregnant women were surveyed using an interviewer- administered, facility-assessment questionnaire adapted from the WHO/UNFPA/UNICEF international guidelines for monitoring the availability and use of obstetric services. Frequency tables, percentages and charts were used for presenting the data. Comparing public and private facilities was done using chi-square tests. A total of 258 health facilities that provide maternal health services were surveyed in this study, out of which 76 (29.5%) were private facilities and 182 (70.5%) were public sector facilities. Most of the UN indicators were not met by the health facilities in Kwara state. The availability of EOC facilities was more among the private sector and this was statistically significant. This study shows that all stakeholders involved in reducing maternal mortality have a big challenge in the areas of availability, inequity in geographical distribution of EOC facilities and poor utilisation of these EOC services by women. PMID:24069733

Saidu, Rakiya; August, Euna M; Alio, Amina P; Salihu, Hamisu M; Saka, Mohammed J; Jimoh, Abdulgafar A G

2013-03-01

100

Contraception among bankers in an urban community in Lagos state, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Contraception means procedures employed to interfere at one stage or the other with the normal sequence of events in the process of reproduction leading to a failure in conception. It means voluntary techniques adopted to achieve birth control. Its use remains sensitive worldwide. Within the same society, contraception varies amongst people of different socio-cultural, educational, religious, or occupational affiliations. It also varies between urban and rural settlements. Some contraceptive techniques also prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The prevalence of STIs also varies with these same factors. There is very limited literature on contraception exclusively amongst bankers. We sought to investigate the level of awareness and practice of contraception amongst bankers in an urban society in Lagos State, Nigeria. Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 200 self-administered structured questionnaires were retrieved from bankers from 5 banks selected by simple random sampling in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Data was subsequently statistically analyzed using SPSS. Results The age range was 21-45 years, mean28.81.4 years, 51.7% were males (72% single, 27% married, 1% separated) and 48.3% were females (52.4% single, 47.6% married). All (100%) respondents were aware of contraception, 93.3% males and 91.7% females were sexually active, 88.9% males and 84.5% females believe contraception is useful. Most (71.4%) respondents practice contraception, males (81%) being more than females (61.1%), p < 0.05. More (71.4%) females and fewer (37.8%) males believe that contraception prevents pregnancy but not STIs, 28.6% of females and 46.6% of males believe it prevents both pregnancy and STIs, whereas 14% of males and no female believe contraception prevents STIs but not pregnancy. Conclusion The awareness of and practice of contraception was very high among the bankers but more male bankers practice contraception whereas more female bankers perceive contraceptives to be for the married only.

Meka, Ijeoma Angela; Okwara, Emmanuel Chidiebere; Meka, Anthony Obiamaka

2013-01-01

101

Cattle cruelty and risks of meat contamination at Akinyele cattle market and slaughter slab in Oyo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Cattle transported to the government-run cattle market and slaughter slab in Akinyele, Oyo State, Nigeria on their final voyage are facing a disturbingly cruel, filthy and unsafe environment that is also raising the risk of contamination of meat sold for human consumption. This report gives a picture of what the cattle have to go through before they are slaughtered. This study also reveals cattle awaiting slaughter in abysmal health conditions, cows pulled with extreme force towards lairage and slaughter slab. Equally disturbing is the filthy situation inside the abattoir where the risk of contamination of meat is significant. Also, poor meat handling, transportation and sales practices subject meat to contamination leading to poor quality and exposure of human consumers to health risk. Development of hygienic slaughter slab operations, improved transportation system for both livestock and meat is therefore recommended; not only for Akinyele, but all abattoirs and slaughter slabs in Nigeria. PMID:19440852

Adeyemo, Olanike K; Adeyemi, Isaac G; Awosanya, Emmanuel J

2009-12-01

102

Molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in the Cross River State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study provides with a first insight on Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex epidemiology and genetic diversity in the Cross River State, Nigeria. Starting with 137 smear positive patients recruited over a period of 12months (June 2008 to May 2009), we obtained 97 pure mycobacterial isolates out of which 81 (83.5%) were identified as M. tuberculosis complex. Genotyping revealed a total of 27 spoligotypes patterns with 10 clusters (n=64% or 79% of clustered isolates, 2-32 isolates/cluster), with patients in the age group range 25-34 years being significantly associated with shared-type pattern SIT61 (p=0.019). Comparison with SITVIT2 database showed that with the exception of a single cluster (SIT727/H1), all other clusters observed were representative of West Africa; the two main lineages involved were LAM10-CAM (n=42/81% or 51.8%) of M. tuberculosis and AFRI_2 sublineage of Mycobacterium africanum (n=27/81% or 33.3%). Subsequent 12-loci MIRU typing resulted in a total of 13 SIT/MIT clusters (n=52 isolates, 2-9 isolates per cluster), with a resulting recent n-1 transmission rate of 48.1%. Available drug-susceptibility testing (DST) results for 58/81 clinical isolates revealed 6/58% or 10.4% cases of multiple drug-resistance (MDR); 5/6 MDR cases were caused by strains belonging to LAM10-CAM lineage (a specific cluster SIT61/MIT266 in 4/6 cases, and an orphan spoligotype pattern in 1/6 case). Additionally, MIT266 was associated with streptomycin resistance (p=0.016). All the six MDRTB isolates were concomitantly resistance to streptomycin and ethambutol; however, 4/6 MDR strains with identical MIRU patterns were characterized by consecutive strain numbers hence the possibility of laboratory cross contamination could not be excluded in 3/4 serial cases. The present preliminary study underlines the usefulness of spoligotyping and 12-loci MIRU-VNTRs to establish a baseline of circulating genotypic lineages of M. tuberculosis complex in Nigeria. PMID:21878397

Thumamo, Benjamin P; Asuquo, Anne E; Abia-Bassey, Lydia N; Lawson, Lovett; Hill, Vronique; Zozio, Thierry; Emenyonu, Nnamdi; Eko, Francis O; Rastogi, Nalin

2012-06-01

103

Occurrence of tick-transmitted pathogens in dogs in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia rossi, transmitted by Haemaphysalis elliptica in South Africa, has also been reported from Nigeria. Although H. leachi (sensu lato) is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, published literature on the occurrence of canine babesiosis is meagre. It has been postulated that the genotype of Babesia rossi Erythrocyte Membrane Antigen 1 (BrEMA1) may be linked to virulence of the specific isolate. The primary objective of this study was to detect and characterise tick-borne pathogens in dogs presented to a veterinary hospital using molecular techniques. In B. rossi-positive specimens, we aimed to determine whether the BrEMA1 gene occurred and to compare genotypes with those found in other isolates. Lastly, we wished to identify the tick species that were recovered from the sampled dogs. Methods Blood specimens (n?=?100) were collected during January to March 2010 from domestic dogs presented at an animal hospital in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. They were screened for the presence of Babesia/Theileria and Ehrlichia/Anaplasma genomic DNA using PCR and Reverse Line Blot (RLB) assays. Positive B. rossi specimens were tested for the presence of the BrEMA1gene using an RT-PCR. In addition, ticks were collected from dogs found to be infested during sampling. Results On RLB, 72 (72%) of the specimens were positive for one or more haemoparasites. Of the positive specimens, 38 (53%) were infected with B. rossi; 9 (13%) with Theileria sp. (sable); 5 (7%) with either Ehrlichia canis or Anaplasma sp. Omatjenne, respectively; 3 (4%) with Theileria equi; and 1 (1%) with B. vogeli and E. ruminantium, respectively. Co-infections were detected in 13 (18%) of the specimens. Results of RT-PCR screening for the BrEMA1 gene were negative. A total of 146 ticks belonging to 8 species were collected and identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus 107 (73%), Haemaphysalis leachi (sensu stricto) 27 (18%), R. turanicus 3 (2%), and Amblyomma variegatum, H. elliptica, R. lunulatus, R. muhsamae and R. senegalensis 1 (1%), respectively. Conclusions Up to 8 tick-borne pathogens possibly occur in the dog population at Jos, with B. rossi being the most prevalent. The absence of the BrEMA1 gene suggests that B. rossi occurring in that area may be less virulent than South African isolates.

2014-01-01

104

Prevalence of hypertension in the rural adult population of Osun State, southwestern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension in two rural communities of Osun State, Nigeria. Methods A consenting adult population of the Alajue and Obokun rural communities in southwestern Nigeria that presented for the screening exercise participated in this community-based cross-sectional descriptive study. Two hundred and fifty-nine respondents aged older than 18 years completed a standardized, pretested, structured questionnaire as part of activities celebrating World Kidney Day and World Glaucoma Day in 2011. Anthropometric data and blood pressure were recorded, and the data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Results The mean age of the respondents was 49.7 1.6 years, 100 (38.6%) were males, 84 (32.4%) were farmers, and 111 (42.9%) were traders. The prevalence of hypertension was 13.16% (present in 34 respondents). Seventeen (6.6%) had isolated systolic hypertension, while 11 (4.2%) had isolated diastolic hypertension. Two hundred and thirty-six (91.1%) undertook daily exercise lasting at least 30 minutes and 48 (18.5%) had ever taken antihypertensive drugs on a regular basis. Four respondents (1.6%) claimed a family history of hypertension. The average body mass index (BMI) among respondents was 23.4 4.9 kg/m2, 51 (19.6%) had a BMI of 25.029.9, and 30 (11.5%) had a BMI ? 30. A significant association existed between age older than 40 years and having hypertension (P < 0.05), while no relationship existed between age and BMI or between gender and hypertension (P > 0.05). Rates of older age and high BMI were significantly higher among hypertensives than among normotensives. Respondents with BMI ? 25 had at least a three times greater likelihood of developing hypertension than those with BMI < 25 (odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 0.0070.056, P = 0.011). Conclusion The prevalence of hypertension is high in this study population and we recommend scaling up primary prevention efforts to reduce this in Nigerian communities.

Asekun-Olarinmoye, EO; Akinwusi, PO; Adebimpe, WO; Isawumi, MA; Hassan, MB; Olowe, OA; Makanjuola, OB; Alebiosu, CO; Adewole, TA

2013-01-01

105

Molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in the Cross River State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

This study provides with a first insight on Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex epidemiology and genetic diversity in the Cross River State, Nigeria. Starting with 137 smear positive patients recruited over a period of 12 months (June 2008 to May 2009), we obtained 97 pure mycobacterial isolates out of which 81 (83.5%) were identified as M. tuberculosis complex. Genotyping revealed a total of 27 spoligotypes patterns with 10 clusters (n = 64% or 79% of clustered isolates, 232 isolates/cluster), with patients in the age group range 2534 years being significantly associated with shared-type pattern SIT61 (p = 0.019). Comparison with SITVIT2 database showed that with the exception of a single cluster (SIT727/H1), all other clusters observed were representative of West Africa; the two main lineages involved were LAM10-CAM (n = 42/81% or 51.8%) of M. tuberculosis and AFRI_2 sublineage of Mycobacterium africanum (n = 27/81% or 33.3%). Subsequent 12-loci MIRU typing resulted in a total of 13 SIT/MIT clusters (n = 52 isolates, 29 isolates per cluster), with a resulting recent n ? 1 transmission rate of 48.1%. Available drug-susceptibility testing (DST) results for 58/81 clinical isolates revealed 6/58% or 10.4% cases of multiple drug-resistance (MDR); 5/6 MDR cases were caused by strains belonging to LAM10-CAM lineage (a specific cluster SIT61/MIT266 in 4/6 cases, and an orphan spoligotype pattern in 1/6 case). Additionally, MIT266 was associated with streptomycin resistance (p = 0.016). All the six MDRTB isolates were concomitantly resistance to streptomycin and ethambutol; however, 4/6 MDR strains with identical MIRU patterns were characterized by consecutive strain numbers hence the possibility of laboratory cross contamination could not be excluded in 3/4 serial cases. The present preliminary study underlines the usefulness of spoligotyping and 12-loci MIRUVNTRs to establish a baseline of circulating genotypic lineages of M. tuberculosis complex in Nigeria.

Thumamo, Benjamin P.; Asuquo, Anne E.; Abia-Bassey, Lydia N.; Lawson, Lovett; Hill, Veronique; Zozio, Thierry; Emenyonu, Nnamdi; Eko, Francis O.; Rastogi, Nalin

2012-01-01

106

Assessing the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in health care delivery in Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to assess the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in modern health care delivery in Edo State, Nigeria. A total of 391 respondents comprising 48 TBAs, 309 childbearing mothers and 34 medical and para-medical professionals constituted the study sample. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions as well as validated questionnaires were the tools used for data collection. The results reveal that respondents believe that TBAs can play meaningful roles in family planning, screening of high-risk pregnant mothers, fertility/infertility treatment and maternal and child care services. Rural dwellers prefer to use the services of TBAs, as compared to their urban counterparts. Reasons for the preference included TBAs, availability, accessibility, cheap services and rural dwellers' faith in the efficacy of their services. There is, therefore, the need to restructure the training of TBAs as well as to fully integrate their services into the Nigerian orthodox healthcare delivery system especially as they affect rural settings. PMID:12476721

Imogie, A O; Agwubike, E O; Aluko, K

2002-08-01

107

Survey of childhood enuresis in the Ehor community, the EDO State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A community survey of enuresis was carried out in November/December 2002 among 300 apparently healthy children aged 5-16 years selected systematically from the Ehor Local Government Area in Edo State, Nigeria. This was done with the aim of ascertaining the true prevalence of the disease and the contributions of some organic causative factors. The overall prevalence of enuresis was 21.3%. Of the 64 children who were enuretic, 58 (91%) had only nocturnal enuresis. No strict daytime enuresis was recorded. Combined daytime and night time enuresis accounted for only six (9.4%) cases. Ninety-four percent of cases of enuresis were primary, while only six were secondary. Prevalence of enuresis declined significantly with increasing age (chi2= 14 .93, df= 3; p = 002). There was a strong association between enuresis and family history of bed wetting (more so with siblings) (chi2 = 45.09, p < 0.000). Though not statistically significant, enuresis was more common in males, in children drawn from families of poor socio-economic status, among first order births, and among those with asymptomatic bacteriuria. Also, there was no significant association between enuresis and hemoglobin genotype. Organic conditions played a minimal role in the etiology of enuresis in the study location, but the morbidity occurred frequently enough to warrant health attention. A community approach is advocated because only an insignificant proportion is seen in orthodox health facilities. PMID:16903624

Iduoriyekemwen, N J; Ibadin, M O; Abiodun, P O

2006-06-01

108

Effect of contraceptives on the prevalence of vaginal colonization with Candida species in Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

High vaginal swabs (HVS) obtained from 500 volunteers in Edo State, Nigeria which comprised 394 contraceptive users and 106 non-contraceptive users were screened for the prevalence of Candida species using standard procedures. Results revealed the isolation of Candida species in 246 of volunteers. These included Candida albicans 174 (38.4%), Candida pseudotropicalis 20 (4%), Candida stellatoidea 15 (3%), Candida krusei nine (1.8%), Candida guilliermondii 12 (2.4%), Candida tropicalis 11 (2.2%) and Candida glabrata five (1%). Of the 394 contraceptive users, 203 (51.5%) had Candida species isolated from them compared to 43 (40.6%) from 106 non-contraceptive users. There was significant relationship (P<0.001) between the type of contraceptive used and the prevalence of vaginal colonization. Age and marital status of the volunteers sampled had significant relationship (P<0.001) with the prevalence of vaginal colonization. Results have revealed an association between use of contraceptive and the prevalence of vaginal colonization in our environment. PMID:15496123

Enweani, I B; Gugnani, H C; Okobia, R; Ojo, S B

2001-12-01

109

Demographic and ecological survey of dog population in aba, abia state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1?:?7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic and 465/747 (62.2%) were males. A total of 319/500 (63.8%) of the households had fences that restrained dog movement and there was no incidence of dog bite in 447/500 (89.4%) of the households surveyed. There were statistical associations between vaccination against antirabies and breeds of dogs (? (2) = 79.8, df = 2, P < 0.005). Exotic breed (adjusted OR = 0.39; CI = 0.23-0.65) and local breed of dogs (adjusted OR = 0.08; CI = 0.04-0.14) had less odds of being vaccinated as compared to crossbreed of dogs. About 126 dogs (2.5 dogs per street) were estimated from street counts survey. The relative high dog to human ratio and low vaccination coverage of owned dogs population pose public health concerns requiring adequate public health education and proper antirabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the study area. PMID:25002978

Otolorin, Gbeminiyi Richard; Umoh, Jarlath U; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu

2014-01-01

110

Children with paralytic poliomyelitis: utilization of physiotherapy services in Zamfara State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Physiotherapy is usually indicated for health promotion and the rehabilitation of individuals with paralytic poliomyelitis. The endemic nature of this condition in children in Zamfara State, Nigeria necessitated investigation into the utilization of physiotherapy services by parents or primary caregivers of children affected with polio in this sub-region. Parents and primary caregivers of children with paralytic poliomyelitis were recruited using a purposive multi-stage sampling procedure in a cross-sectional survey. Factors associated with the utilization of physiotherapy services were assessed based on questions extracted from a 4-part, 52-item structured questionnaire originally designed for a study which investigated knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of parents of children with paralytic poliomyelitis. A total of 217 participants were included in this study. The mean age was 32.29 9.89 years and the mean knowledge of polio score was 62.0 17.3%. The mean age of the children with paralytic poliomyelitis was 6.41 2.50 years. Only 27.2% of the parents or primary caregivers had utilized physiotherapy service for their children at some point. No association existed between utilization of physiotherapy service and 'knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis', 'employment status', and 'family income' of respondents. Explanations for low utilization of physiotherapy services for children with paralytic poliomyelitis by parents or primary caregivers are discussed. PMID:22871225

Ogwumike, Omoyemi O; Kaka, Bashir; Adeniyi, Ade F

2013-02-01

111

Antinutrients Evaluation of Staple Food in Ebonyi State, South-Eastern, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluating the levels of antinutrients in the staple foods is an important aspect of nutritional studies. The levels of these antinutrients were quantitatively estimated in staple foods in a major food producing rural areas of Ebonyi State, South-Eastern Nigeria using spectrophotometric method. Results indicated that phytate was not detected in tubers while legumes recorded the highest mean values of phytate (260.07 mg gG1). The oxalate levels of legumes were significantly high compared to tubers and cereals (p< 0.000). Tubers had the highest mean. Concentration of cyanogenic glycoside 15.20 mg gG1 followed by legumes while cereals were the least correlation analysis shows that the cyanogenic glycoside was negatively related to all other antinutrients except tannin. Also tannin was related to all other antinutrients except cyanogenic glycoside. Interestingly, all other antinutrients were positively related to each other except cyanogenic glycoside and tannins. The consumption of staple foods rich in these antinutrients pose a health risk to livestock and poor communities that reside around the study sites, especially children.

Edeogu, C. O.; Ezeonu, F. C.; Okaka, A. N. C.; Ekuma, C. E.; Eiom, S. O.

112

The bacteriological quality of traditional water sources in north-eastern Imo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed Central

Monthly bacteriological water testing of traditional water sources (ponds, rivers, unprotected springs and traditional wells) used by five villages in northeastern Imo State, Nigeria, was conducted during the period January 1983 to August 1985. The membrane-filtration technique was used to detect faecal coliforms (FC) and faecal streptococci (FS). Evidence of faecal pollution was seen throughout the year for all water sources. During the study period, the monthly geometric mean counts per 100 ml of water (all sources combined) ranged from 760 to 17877 for FC and from 678 to 17394 for FS. The peak period of faecal pollution occurred during the transition between the dry and wet seasons and in the early wet season. During this peak pollution season (February-May), the geometric mean counts were 2.5-7.2 times higher than in the remaining part of the year for all source types except rivers, with ponds being the most heavily polluted. Preliminary findings on the sensitivity and specificity, in this tropical environment, of the standard membrane-filtration technique for enumerating FC are presented. The implications of the findings of this study for the environmental control of waterborne and hygiene-related diseases are discussed.

Blum, D.; Huttly, S. R.; Okoro, J. I.; Akujobi, C.; Kirkwood, B. R.; Feachem, R. G.

1987-01-01

113

Demographic and Ecological Survey of Dog Population in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1?:?7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic and 465/747 (62.2%) were males. A total of 319/500 (63.8%) of the households had fences that restrained dog movement and there was no incidence of dog bite in 447/500 (89.4%) of the households surveyed. There were statistical associations between vaccination against antirabies and breeds of dogs (?2 = 79.8, df = 2, P < 0.005). Exotic breed (adjusted OR = 0.39; CI = 0.230.65) and local breed of dogs (adjusted OR = 0.08; CI = 0.040.14) had less odds of being vaccinated as compared to crossbreed of dogs. About 126 dogs (2.5 dogs per street) were estimated from street counts survey. The relative high dog to human ratio and low vaccination coverage of owned dogs population pose public health concerns requiring adequate public health education and proper antirabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the study area.

Otolorin, Gbeminiyi Richard; Umoh, Jarlath U.; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu

2014-01-01

114

Survey for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza from Poultry in Two Northeastern States, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a major global zoonosis. It has a complex ecological distribution with almost unpredictable epidemiological features thus placing it topmost in the World Organization for Animal Health list A poultry diseases. Structured questionnaire survey of poultry farmer's knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) in two Nigerian states revealed the presence of risk farming practices that may enable avian influenza high chance of introduction/reintroduction. There existed significant statistical association between farmer's educational levels and AI awareness and zoonotic awareness (P < 0.005). Poultry rearing of multiage and species (81%), multiple sources of stock (62%), inadequate dead-bird disposal (71%), and access to live bird markets (LBMs) (62%) constituted major biosecurity threats in these poultry farming communities. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test detected antibodies against H5 avian influenza (AI) in 8 of the 400 sera samples; rapid antigen detection test kit (RADTK) was negative for all the 400 cloaca and trachea swabs. These results and other poultry diseases similar to AI observed in this study could invariably affect avian influenza early detection, reporting, and control. We recommend strong policy initiatives towards poultry farmers' attitudinal change and increasing efforts on awareness of the implications of future HPAI outbreaks in Nigeria.

Musa, Ibrahim Waziri; Abdu, Paul Ayuba; Sackey, Anthony Kojo Bedu; Oladele, Sunday Blessing

2013-01-01

115

Epidemiology of human furuncular myiasis of Cordylobia anthropophaga (Grunberg) in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Two hundred people were randomly selected for myiasis infection in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, except in some states where we did not get the stipulated number (200) to sample. In each of the six states sampled within the Niger Delta in 2009, 88% of 200 patients examined in Rivers State had the Cordylobia infection followed by Cross Rivers State (>86%), Bayelsa (>84%) while Edo, Delta, and Akwa Ibom states showed higher than 82% infection in that order. Our findings showed that women, children, and infants are commonly affected by furuncular myiasis irrespective of skin color, age, blood group, race, sex, genotype, etc. Infection due to C. anthropophaga occurs throughout the year; the rate of infection is higher during the rainy season (when humidity is normally higher) than the dry seasons. Most cases of human myiasis are not reported but treated locally. The Niger Delta populace (especially the areas sampled) consists of people with diverse occupations; some are fishermen, traders, farmers, and refuse disposers. They move from one place to another predisposed to myiasis-causing agents due to the types of work they do. Two major categories of people based on skin color (i.e., white and black skinned) are recognized for this research. People with albinism are also part of the colored African group, however, according to the data, there does not seem to be any difference between them and others. Cordylobia infection is a neglected disease of the Niger Delta region. Therefore, there was the need to know the spread and factors that promote spreading as well as populations of the myiasis-causing agent in the Niger Delta. The data presented here provides good travel information to the Niger Delta region as well as other parts of Nigeria. Human furuncular myiasis affects neonates ranging from 3 to 11 days old, children, and adults in Nigeria. C. anthropophaga maggots penetrate all types of skin; people with albinism, white skin, and black skin. Some of the factors that affect the distribution include unhygienic situations, high humidity, poverty, and use of soiled clothes. Details of our findings are presented. PMID:22861528

Ogbalu, Ogugua K; Achufusi, Ted George Ody; Orlu, Eme E

2013-03-01

116

Spatio-temporal dynamics of African swine fever outbreaks in Nigeria, 2002-2007.  

PubMed

African swine fever (ASF) was first introduced into Nigeria through Lagos state in 1997. The disease rapidly spread to Ogun state in 1998 and extended to the Niger Delta (Delta, Rivers and Akwa Ibom states) in the same year. In 1998, Kaduna, Plateau and Benue states all north of the country experienced ASF for the first time. Poor farm biosecurity, bad abattoir practices and extensive/free range pig farming systems led to extensive spread of the diseases to about 16 Nigerian states excluding the far northwest and north east. A total of 1036 field samples collected over a 6-year period covering 19 Nigerian states were analysed during the period under review; 805 samples were PCR positive and 231 negative. Positive samples were detected in all three surveillance phases and from all agroecological zones across the country. For the first time since its incursion, ASF was identified in some states; Bauchi, Adamawa Taraba and Gombe with chances of control very slim and further spread of the virus northward envisaged. Outbreaks of the disease are now a perennial problem with an increasing disease burden in areas where high numbers of pigs are produced in the country. The National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI), Vom, since 2002 investigated ASF based on tissue submissions and reports made by individuals, private & commercial farms and agricultural bodies. We present an analysis of geographical and temporal distribution of ASF in the country from 2002 to 2007 and a review of historic outbreaks since the first incursion. Risk factors and prospects for control are discussed. PMID:20659268

Owolodun, O A; Yakubu, B; Antiabong, J F; Ogedengbe, M E; Luka, P D; John Audu, B; Ekong, P S; Shamaki, D

2010-10-01

117

A Comparative Analysis of Teacher Supply and Pupils' Enrolment in Public and Private Primary Schools in Kwara and Ekiti States, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated teacher supply and pupils' enrolment in public and private primary schools in Kwara and Ekiti States, Nigeria. The study population comprised all the 811 primary schools in Kwara State and 810 primary schools in Ekiti State. Out of the forty-seven higher institutions that supply teachers to primary schools in the two

Adeyemi, T. O.

2012-01-01

118

Relevance of thermal environment to human health: a case study of Ondo State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interconnection between weather and climate and the performance, well-being, and human health cannot be overemphasized. The relationship between them is of both local and global significance. Information about weather, climate, and thermal environment is very important to human health and medical practitioners. The most crucial environmental information needed by medical practitioners and for maintaining human health, performance, and well-being are thermal conditions. The study used meteorological variables: air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, and RayMan model as an analytical tool to compute physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) in order to assess thermo-physiological thresholds in Ondo State. The study revealed that there are marked spatial and seasonal variations in the environmental thermal conditions in the study area. The results of physiologically equivalent temperature for different grades of thermal sensation and physiological stress on human beings indicate that about 60 % of the total study period (1998-2008) fall under physiological stress level of moderate heat stress (PET 31-36 C). In derived savannah, 32.6 % out of the total study period was under strong heat stress. In view of this, the study concluded that Ondo State may likely be prone to heat-related ailments and that some of the death recorded in the State, in recent times, may be heat-related mortality, but this is difficult to ascertain because there is no postmortem records in Nigeria where it could be confirmed. This type of study is relevant to help government to improve health care interventions and achieve Millennium Development Goals in health sector.

Omonijo, Akinyemi Gabriel; Adeofun, Clement Olabinjo; Oguntoke, Olusegun; Matzarakis, Andreas

2013-07-01

119

Pollution status of swimming pools in south-south zone of south-eastern Nigeria using microbiological and physicochemical indices.  

PubMed

Microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of swimming pools in South Eastern states of Nigeria (Akwa Ibom and Cross River) were investigated. The bacterial isolates included Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. Others were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Staphylococcus epidermidis, while fungal isolates were Penicillium sp, Rhizopus sp, Aspergillus versicolor Fusarium sp, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Mucor sp, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Absidia sp. The total viable count of microorganims in Ibeno (B) and Uyo (E) swimming pools were 6 x 10(6) cfu/ml and for Calabar (H) swimming pool, 3.3 x 10(7) cfu/ml. The total coliform counts were 10(6) cfu/100 ml for Calabar (G) swimming pools and 2 x 10(7) cfu/100 ml for Calabar (H) swimming pools while the fungal count ranged from 5 x 10(6) cfu/ml to 3 x 10(7) cfu/ml. Physical and chemical parameters known to be hazardous to health were also identified. The presence of high levels of coliform and fecal coliform bacteria (E. coli) revelaed that the swimming pools have not met the World Health Organization (WHO) standard for recreational waters. The swimming pools constitute a serious public health hazard. PMID:15691161

Itah, Alfred Young; Ekpombok, Mandu-Uwen M

2004-06-01

120

Distribution of vibrio species in shellfish and water samples collected from the atlantic coastline of south-east Nigeria.  

PubMed

Crayfish, lobster, and sea-water samples collected from five fishing islands on the Atlantic coast-Bight of Biafra (Bonny)-belonging to Ibaka Local Government Area of Akwa-Ibom State of Nigeria were bacteriologically evaluated on thiosulphate citrate bile-salt sucrose (TCBS) agar for Vibrio load and pathotypes. Mean log10 Vibrio counts of 7.64+/-2.78 cfu/g (in crayfish), 5.07+/-3.21 cfu/g (in lobster), and 3.06+/-2.27 cfu/mL (in sea-water) were obtained in rainy season (June-July) while counts in the dry season (November-December) were 6.25+/-1.93 cfu/g, 5.99+/-1.54 cfu/g, and 3.84+/-1.78 cfu/mL respectively. The physicochemical measurements (temperature, pH, and total dissolved solutes) of the sea-water did not vary significantly in the two seasons across all five islands. Vibrio species isolated were Vibrio cholerae (both O1 and non-O1 serotypes), V parahaemolyticus, V vulnificus, V mimicus, and V fluvialis. Both Ogawa and Inaba subtypes of V cholerae O1 serotype were found. In addition, the Hikojima subtype, which had not been previously reported in the region, was isolated in two samples. The results show that these Vibrio species are endemic in the area. PMID:24288944

Eyisi, Onyedikachukwu A L; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Iroegbu, Christian U

2013-09-01

121

Observations of barbers' activities in Oyo State Nigeria: implications for HIV/AIDS transmission.  

PubMed

In Nigeria, most studies concerning HIV/AIDS transmission have looked at the sexual route from both epidemiological and behavioral perspectives. A few have examined the role of blood transfusion and the potential for indigenous surgical practices. None have specifically looked at the transmission of potential barbers. This study distinguished between indigenous barbers who function as surgeons and "modern" barbers who cut hair, and focused on the latter through observations of barbering practices in 77 shops in Igbo-Ora and Apete communities in Oyo State. Igbo-Ora is headquarters of a rural local government, while Apete is a peri-urban community near Ibadan, the state capital. Five barbering sessions were observed in each shop using a checklist during evening hours when shops are busiest. All barbers used clippers to cut hair, either electric or manual. On average, barbers sterilized the clippers in a commercial disinfectant, Jik, or with methylated spirits prior to 4.2 barberings. Sex and age of customer were not associated with wether the clippers were sterilized. Three shop characteristics appeared to influence sterilization behavior. Clippers were more likely to be sterilized if the shop was in Apete, if the shop owner was male, and if the shop had two or more of the following electrical appliances: fan, TV, or radio/cassette layer. There were only two observed cases of the barbers causing a cut, and in both cases the clippers had been sterilized. Overall, 63 (16.3%) of the 385 customers were barbed with non-sterilized clippers. The relatively short time gap between customers implies that the potential for disease transmission exists, though it was not within the scope of this study to study disease transmission itself. In-service training that involves the barbers themselves and addresses both gender and town differences is recommended. PMID:17695087

Salami, Kabiru K; Titiloye, Musibau A; Brieger, William R; Otusanya, Sakiru A

122

Compliance with intermittent presumptive treatment and insecticide treated nets use during pregnancy in enugu state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

To identify key socio-demographic and knowledge factors associated with compliance with recommended use of commodities for preventing malaria in pregnancy (MIP) in Enugu State, Nigeria. Cross-sectional study of 720 women who delivered within 6months preceding the survey in three local government areas in Enugu State was conducted using a structured questionnaire. About half (51.6%) of the women used IPTp1 while 25.9% took IPTp2 as recommended during their most recent pregnancy. Forty-one percent of the women slept under insecticide treat nets (ITN) during the most recent pregnancy but only 15.4% did so as recommended every night. Socio-demographic and knowledge factors associated with compliance were identified. Compliance with intermittent presumptive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) recommendation was more common among those in the rural setting (26.9%) compared to the peri-urban (20.3%) and urban (17.3%) (P=0.032). Those with good knowledge of the causes, effects and prevention of malaria during pregnancy complied more (23.7%) than those with poor knowledge (17.0%) (P=0.020). With respect to sleeping under ITN, more of those with post secondary education, good knowledge of MIP and currently living with a partner used ITN every night during the last pregnancy. Knowledge about the MIP issues and having a partner influence compliance with relevant preventives. Efforts to increase compliance with recommended practices to prevent MIP should focus on providing health education to pregnant women and their partners, who reinforce what the women are told during antenatal care. More qualitative studies need to be conducted on this subject. PMID:24043556

Onyeneho, Nkechi G; Idemili-Aronu, Ngozi; Okoye, Ijeoma; Ugwu, Chidi; Iremeka, Felicia U

2014-07-01

123

Monitoring of mass distribution interventions for trachoma in Plateau State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Mass drug administration (MDA) with antibiotics is a key component of the SAFE strategy for trachoma control. Guidelines recommend that where MDA is warranted the whole population be targeted with 80% considered the minimum acceptable coverage. In other countries, MDA is usually conducted by salaried Ministry of Health personnel (MOH). In Plateau State, Nigeria, the existing network of volunteer Community Directed Distributors (CDD) was used for the first trachoma MDA. We conducted a population-based cluster random survey (CRS) of MDA participation to determine the true coverage and compared this to coverage reported from CDD registers. We surveyed 1,791 people from 352 randomly selected households in 24 clusters in three districts in Plateau State in January 2011, following the implementation of MDA. Households were enumerated and all individuals present were asked about MDA participation. Household heads were questioned about household-level characteristics and predictors of participation. Individual responses were compared with the CDD registers. MDA coverage was estimated as 60.3% (95% CI 47.9-73.8%) by the survey compared with 75.8% from administrative program reports. CDD registration books for comparison with responses were available in 19 of the 24 clusters; there was a match for 658/682 (96%) of verifiable responses. CDD registers did not list 481 (41.3%) of the individuals surveyed. Gender and age were not associated with individual participation. Overall MDA coverage was lower than the minimum 80% target. The observed discrepancy between the administrative coverage estimate from program reports and the CRS was largely due to identification of communities missed by the MDA and not reported in the registers. CRS for evaluation of MDA provides a useful additional monitoring tool to CDD registers. These data support modification of distributor training and MDA delivery to increase coverage in subsequent rounds of MDA. PMID:23326617

Cromwell, Elizabeth A; King, Jonathan D; McPherson, Scott; Jip, Falam N; Patterson, Amy E; Mosher, Aryc W; Evans, Darin S; Emerson, Paul M

2013-01-01

124

Sexual behaviour and inheritance rights among HIV-positive women in Abia State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

In developing countries, culture favours males for economic ventures more than females. There is evidence that allowing HIV positive women inheritance rights will mitigate negative economic consequences of HIV/AIDS and other related risks. This study aimed to examine the extent to which HIV positive women have access to family resources in Abia State, Nigeria. Data collection instruments were questionnaire, focus group discussion and interview guides using 98 HIV positive women in network of people living with HIV/AIDS. Five key informants were also interviewed to authenticate women's responses. Results showed that 85 (86.7%) of the women were denied rights to family resources. Thirty-eight (64.4%) of them had negative relationship with their family members for demanding their husbands' property. Because of limited financial assistance, the women took two types of risks in order to survive in the communities. Twenty-five women (25.5%) earned their livelihood by acting as hired labourers to others in the farm. More that half (55.1%) of the HIV positive women were practicing unprotected sex. Although as high as 79.6% of women were aware of risks of unprotected sex, 54 (55%) of them practised it. The commonest reason for taking the risk was sex partners' dislike for condom use. The high proportion of HIV positive women who were denied access to family resources, could suggest lack of care and support. If this denial continues, Government's efforts to reduce HIV prevalence would yield no significant result. There is therefore need for organized community education programme that emphasizes the benefits of empowering women living positively with HIV/AIDS economically. PMID:18846783

Enwereji, E E

2008-04-01

125

FREQUENCY, URINALYSIS AND SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILE OF PATHOGENS CAUSING URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN ENUGU STATE, SOUTHEAST NIGERIA  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study was designed to determine the frequency and causative agent(s) of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in individuals with symptoms of urinary tract infections in Enugu State of Southeast Nigeria, and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of microbial agents isolated from urine culture. Methods: The study involved 211 individuals (149 females and 62 males) clinically suspected for UTI. Urine samples were collected by the mid-stream clean catch method and tested using standard procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated pathogens was tested using the Kirby-Bauer technique according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: Microscopy of centrifuged urine samples showed 16 patients had pyuria while 54 had pus cells. Calcium oxalate crystals were found in 14 samples. Urinalysis performed with urine samples showed 17 had protein; seven were nitrite positive and three had moderate to high glucose concentration. Fifty-four urine samples (36.2%) from females and 12 (19.4%) from males showed significant growth upon culture. Gram stain and biochemical tests identified nine different organisms with Escherichia coli as the most common isolated species. Forty three randomly selected strains were further tested for their susceptibility against a panel of antibiotics. Thirty isolates (81.08%) were resistant to four or more antibiotics with the highest resistance shown by E. coli (76.67%). All the Gram- negative isolates were resistant to Ampicilox, Cefuroxime and Amoxicillin. Conclusion: Urinary tract infections were found more in females in the area under study. As found in other studies, E. coli was the most predominant isolate, although other organisms seem to be on the increase.

Dibua, Uju M.E.; Onyemerela, Ifeoma S.; Nweze, Emeka I.

2014-01-01

126

Molecular characterizations of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon in humans in Kaduna State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The use of molecular diagnostic tools in epidemiological investigations of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon has provided new insights into their diversity and transmission pathways. In this study, 157 stool specimens from 2-month to 70-year-old patients were collected, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene was used to detect and differentiate Cryptosporidium species, and DNA sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene was used to subtype Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum. Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in the specimens were detected using PCR and sequence analysis of the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS), respectively. C. hominis and C. parvum were found in two (1.3%) and one (0.6%) specimen respectively, comprising of Ia and IIe (with 8 nucleotide substitutions) subtype families. The G. duodenalis A2 subtype was detected in five (3.2%) specimens, while four genotypes of E. bieneusi, namely A, type IV, D and WL7 were found in 10 (6.4%) specimens. Children aged two years or younger had the highest occurrence of Cryptosporidium (4.4%) and Enterocytozoon (13.0%) while children of 6 to 17 years had the highest Giardia infection rate (40.0%). No Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon were detected in patients older than 60 years. Enterocytozoon had high infection rates in both HIV-positive (3.3%) and HIV-negative (8.3%) patients. Results of the study suggest that anthroponotic transmission may be important in the transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis while zoonotic transmissions may also play a role in the transmission of E. bieneusi in humans in Kaduna State, Nigeria. PMID:22664352

Maikai, Beatty V; Umoh, Jarlath U; Lawal, Idris A; Kudi, Ayuba C; Ejembi, Clara L; Xiao, Lihua

2012-08-01

127

Characteristics of snail farming in Edo South Agricultural Zone of Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study was carried out to determine the characteristics of snail farming in Edo South Agricultural Zone of Edo State Nigeria. The interview schedule was used to collect data from 60 snail farmers randomly selected from six cells in the study area. Information on the socioeconomic status of the farmers, production system, management practices and production constraints in the snail farms were elicited. The constraints were determined using a four-point Likert-type scale; a mean score of ? 2.5 was considered as a production constraint. Majority (85.0 %) of the respondents were part-time snail farmers. The major species of snails reared were Achatina achatina and Archachatina marginata, reared by 43.3 and 26.7 % of the farmers, respectively. Semi-intensive system of production was practised by 40.0 % of the farmers. Majority (78.0 %) of the respondents used car tyres to house their snails. About 56 % of the respondents kept their snails for 1-2 years before sale. Up to 51.7 % of the respondents separated their snails into different pens according to their size/age. The most commonly used feeds were vegetables (71.2 %), plant leaves (67.8 %) and kitchen waste (59.3 %). Records of snail production activities were kept by 75.0 % of respondents. The major constraints identified were lack of capital (3.31), inability to get good laying stock (3.00), lack of formulated feed to buy (2.98) and slow growth rate of snails (2.52). The potentials of snail farming in the study area have not been fully exploited as farmers produced at subsistence level. PMID:23011673

Chah, Jane Mbolle; Inegbedion, Grace

2013-02-01

128

Human intestinal parasites in non-biting synanthropic flies in Ogun State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Filth-feeding and breeding, non-biting synanthropic flies have been incriminated in the dissemination of human enteropathogens in the environment. This study determined the species of non-biting synanthropic flies associated with four filthy sites in Ilishan, Ogun State, southwest Nigeria, and assessed their potentials for mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites. 7190 flies identified as Musca domestica (33.94%), Chrysomya megacephala (26.01%), Musca sorbens (23.23%), Lucilia cuprina (8.76%), Calliphora vicina (4.59%), Sarcophaga sp. (2.78%) and Fannia scalaris (0.70%) were examined for human intestinal parasites by the formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Eggs of the following parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides (34.08%), Trichuris trichiura (25.87%), hookworms (20.45%), Taenia sp. (2.36%), Hymenolepis nana (1.11%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.56%), Strongyloides stercoralis (larvae; 3.89%) and cysts of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (27.26%), Entamoeba coli (22.67%), Giardia lamblia (3.34%) and Cryptosporidium sp. (1.81%) were isolated from the body surfaces and or gut contents of 75.24% of 719 pooled fly batches. The helminths A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura and the protozoans, E. histolytica/dispar and E. coli were the dominant parasites detected, both on body surfaces and in the gut contents of flies. C. megacephala was the highest carrier of parasites (diversity and number). More parasites were isolated from the gut than from body surfaces (P<0.05). Flies from soiled ground often carried more parasites than those from abattoir, garbage or open-air market. Synanthropic fly species identified in this study can be of potential epidemiological importance as mechanical transmitters of human intestinal parasites acquired naturally from filth and carried on their body surfaces and or in the gut, because of their vagility and feeding mechanisms. PMID:23290716

Adenusi, Adedotun Adesegun; Adewoga, Thomas O Sunday

2013-01-01

129

Cyanide and Aflatoxin Loads of Processed Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Tubers (Garri) in Njaba, Imo State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The present study sought to investigate the role of palm oil, in conjunction with the duration of fermentation, on cyanide and aflatoxin (AFT) loads of processed cassava tubers (Garri). Materials and Methods: Matured cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tubers were harvested from three different locations (Akunna, Mkporo-Oji and Durungwu) in Njaba Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. The cassava tubers were processed into Garri according to standard schemes with required modifications and measured for cyanide content using titrimetric methods. Samples of Garri for determination of AFT levels were stored for 30 days before the commencement of spectrophotometric analysis. Results: Cyanide content of peeled cassava tubers was within the range of 4.07 0.16-5.20 0.19 mg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) equivalent/100 g wet weight, whereas the various processed cassava tubers was within the range of 1.44 0.34-3.95 0.23 mg HCN equivalents/100 g. For the 48 h fermentation scheme, Garri treated with palm oil exhibited marginal reduction in cyanide contents by 0.96%, 3.52% and 3.69%, whereas 4 h fermentation scheme is in concurrence with palm oil treatment caused 4.42%, 7.47% and 5.15% elimination of cyanide contents compared with corresponding untreated Garri samples (P > 0.05). Levels of AFT of the various Garri samples ranged between 0.26 0.07 and 0.55 0.04 ppb/100 g. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in AFT levels among the various samples in relation to their corresponding sources. Conclusion: The present study showed that the 48 h fermentation scheme for Garri production caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction, but did not obliterate the cyanide content of cassava tubers. Conversely, the 48 h fermentation scheme promoted the elevation of AFT levels, but was relatively reduced in Garri samples treated with palm oil.

Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Ojiako, Okey A.

2013-01-01

130

Ecological and cultural barriers to treatment of childhood diarrhea in riverine areas of Ondo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Nigeria diarrhea still poses the greatest health problem to the survival of the under-fives in spite of the fact that the majority of mothers are reportedly to have been reached by health education on oral rehydration therapy (ORT) regardless of their ecological and socioeconomic situations. This study assesses the effect of different ecological and sociocultural conditions on use of

B. Folasade Iyun; E. Adewale Oke

2000-01-01

131

Impact of Sexual Harassment on Women Undergraduates' Educational Experience in Anambra State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual harassment in educational settings is a common problem globally. While it is well addressed in college and university campuses in most developed countries of the world through specific policies and mechanisms of enforcement, it remains a taboo topic in African colleges and universities particularly in Nigeria. This study investigated the

Okeke, Carina Maris Amaka

2010-01-01

132

Blood Lead, Calcium, and Phosphorus in Women With Preeclampsia in Edo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the effect of blood lead (BPb) and its relationship with calcium and phosphorus in the development of preeclampsia in Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from 59 preclamptics, 150 normal pregnant, and 122 nonpregnant women. Blood lead and serum Ca and P were determined. Blood lead was significantly higher (p < .001), whereas serum Ca and P were

Ikaraoha Chidiebere Ikechukwu; Oforofuo Isreal Agware Ojareva; Anetor John Ibhagbemien; Okogbo Felix Okhoaretor; Okusanya Babasola Oluwatomi; Okogbenin Sylvanus Akhalufo; Alonge Temitope Oluwagbenga; Mbadiwe Nkeiruka Chigaekwu

2012-01-01

133

Determination of Erodibility Indices of Soils in Owerri West Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of soil erosion, especially in the south-eastern part of Nigeria, is enormous. This problem is affecting the development because infrastructures such as houses, roads and many others are being destroyed yearly and this in turn constitutes an environmental menace. To effectively tackle this problem, there is a need to evaluate those factors of soils that affect erosion. In

Peter Aba Idah; H. I. Mustapha; J. J. Musa; J. Dike

134

Prevalence of antimicrobial residues in raw table eggs from farms and retail outlets in Enugu State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The use of antimicrobial agents in poultry production results in their accumulation in the body tissues and products such as milk and egg. The subsequent accumulation of these drugs and their metabolites in body cells is known as drug residue. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial residues in eggs from poultry farms and retail outlets in Enugu State, Nigeria. Eggs from 25 selected commercial farms and ten retail outlets were screened for the prevalence of antimicrobial residue. Also, structured questionnaires were administered to 25 commercial farms in the state to determine the management practices and the most widely used antimicrobial drugs in farms and possible association between the management practices and the occurrence of antimicrobial residues in eggs from these farms. All the 25 farms surveyed use oxytetracycline. Eggs from nine of the surveyed farms tested positive for antimicrobial residue and three of the ten surveyed farms also tested positive for antimicrobial residue. No association was observed (p?0.05; Fisher's exact test) between the occurrence of antibiotic residues in eggs and farm size, feed source and housing systems. This study was able to demonstrate the presence of antimicrobial residues in eggs destined for human consumption. Drugs like nitrofurans which has been banned for use in food animals are still very much in use in Enugu State, Nigeria. Antibiotics given as feed additives may give rise to drug residues in food animals. PMID:21104128

Ezenduka, Ekene V; Oboegbulem, Steve I; Nwanta, John A; Onunkwo, Joseph I

2011-03-01

135

Source to point of use drinking water changes and knowledge, attitude and practices in Katsina State, Northern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many Sub-Saharan countries such as Nigeria, inadequate access to safe drinking water is a serious problem with 37% in the region and 58% of rural Nigeria using unimproved sources. The global challenge to measuring household water quality as a determinant of safety is further compounded in Nigeria by the possibility of deterioration from source to point of use. This

B. Onabolu; O. D. Jimoh; S. B. Igboro; M. K. C. Sridhar; G. Onyilo; A. Gege; R. Ilya

2011-01-01

136

Economic Analysis of Balanced Nutrient Management Technologies for Maize Production in Kaduna State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall goal of Balanced Nutrient Management Systems (BNMS) a collaborative project between International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (K.U. Leuven) is to curb the vicious cycle of plant nutrient depletion in maize-based farming systems in the moist savanna and humid forest zone of West Africa. This is through integrated nutrient management systems geared to land use practices which are economically viable, ecologically sound and socially acceptable. In Kaduna state of Nigeria (Northern Guinea Savannah), three improved maize-based technologies were tested in a series of farmer-managed field trials since 2000. The first technology was a continuous maize treatment characterized by high fertilizer rates (Sasakawa Global 2000 (SG 2000)). In the second technology, half of the fertilizer quantity was replaced with organic manure (BNMS-manure). The third technology was a soybean-maize rotation treatment in which the fertilizer rates to the maize was reduced by a half (BNMS-soybean/maize). The broad objective of the study was to conduct economic analysis of the three introduced BNMS maize-based technologies along with the farmers` own practice of maize production. The specific objectives of the study were to: determine the costs and returns to the BNMS technologies and farmers` practice and to examine the farmers` perception of the BNMS technologies. The tools used for the analysis of the data were: partial budget analysis to determine the costs and returns to the introduced BNMS technologies and farmers` practice and the scoring technique to examine the farmer`s perception of the BNMS technologies. Findings from the partial budget analysis showed that, BNMS-soybean/maize was the best in both the demonstration and adaptation trials by having the highest gross margins of 18,462 and 19,785, respectively, with the inorganic fertilizer cost constituting over 50% of the total production cost. The farmers gave overall best perception to both the BNM-soybean/maize and the BNMS-manure technologies.

Omadachi, Ugbabe O.; Ahmed, Ben; Manyong, V. M.; Olukosi, James O.; Yusuf, Oseni

137

Awareness of and Attitude towards Glaucoma among an Adult Rural Population of Osun State, Southwest Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To obtain baseline data and assess the level of awareness and attitudes towards glaucoma among rural communities of Osun State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a community-based study that involved interviews and descriptive cross-sectional analysis. Serial-recruitment was performed of consenting participants who presented at a community-based screening service in March 2011. Socio-demographic data and information about glaucoma were obtained through face-to-face semi-structured questionnaires. Results: The study population comprised 259 respondents (mean age 49.73 16.6 years; range 18 to 90 years). There were 159 females (61.4%). Skilled workers were the most common 130/259 (50.3%) participants. Only 41 (15.8%; 95% CI: 11.4-20.2) participants had ever heard of glaucoma. Sources of information were from visits to an eye clinic for 21/41 (51.2%; 95% CI: 35.9-66.5) participants and 15/41 (36.6%) participants who know someone with glaucoma. Reponses to the causes of glaucoma included 20/41 (48.8%; 33.5-64.1) participant who said I don't know and 24.4% of participants who responded curse-from-God. Responses to questions on treatment included 20/41 (48.8%) participants who responded I don't know how it can be treated and 10/41 (36.6%) said medically. Thirty 30/41 (73.2%) participants would refuse surgery, half of them because it cannot cure or reverse the disease while (26.7%) would refuse out of fear. Only 8/41 (19.5%; 95% CI: 7.4-31.6) would accept surgery for maintenance. Statistically significant predictors of glaucoma awareness were older participants, males and skilled workers (teachers) (P = 0.028, P = 0.018, P = 0.0001, respectively). Conclusions: The outcomes of study indicate a low level of awareness of glaucoma. Health education at all levels of health and eye care services is required to prevent ocular morbidity and irreversible blindness from glaucoma.

Isawumi, Michaeline A.; Hassan, Mustapha B.; Akinwusi, Patience O.; Adebimpe, Olalekan W.; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther O.; Christopher, Alebiosu C.; Adewole, Taiwo A.

2014-01-01

138

Helminthiasis and Hygiene Conditions of Schools in Ikenne, Ogun State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background A study of the helminth infection status of primary-school children and the hygiene condition of schools in Ikenne Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria was undertaken between November 2004 and February 2005 to help guide the development of a school-based health programme. Methods and Findings Three primary schools were randomly selected: two government-owned schools (one urban and the other rural) and one urban private school. No rural private schools existed to survey. A total of 257 schoolchildren aged 415 y, of whom 146 (56.8%) were boys and 111 (43.2%) were girls, took part in the survey. A child survey form, which included columns for name, age, sex, and class level, was used in concert with examination of stool samples for eggs of intestinal helminths. A school survey form was used to assess the conditions of water supply, condition of latrines, presence of soap for handwashing, and presence of garbage around the school compound. The demographic data showed that the number of schoolchildren gradually decreased as their ages increased in all three schools. The sex ratio was proportional in the urban school until primary level 3, after which the number of female pupils gradually decreased, whereas in the private school, sexes were proportionally distributed even in higher classes. The prevalence of helminth infection was 54.9% of schoolchildren in the urban government school, 63.5% in the rural government school, and 28.4% in the urban private school. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent species, followed by Trichuris trichiura, Taenia species, and hookworm in the three schools. Prevalence of infection in the government-owned schools was significantly higher than in the private school (?2?=?18.85, df?=?2, p<0.0005). A survey of hygiene conditions in the three schools indicated that in the two government schools tapwater was unavailable, sanitation of latrines was poor, handwashing soap was unavailable, and garbage was present around school compounds. In the private school, in contrast, all hygiene indices were satisfactory. Conclusions These results indicate that burden of parasite infections and poor sanitary conditions are of greater public health importance in government-owned schools than in privately owned schools. School health programmes in government-owned schools, including deworming, health education, and improvement of hygiene conditions are recommended.

Ekpo, Uwem Friday; Odoemene, Simon Nnayere; Mafiana, Chiedu Felix; Sam-Wobo, Sammy Olufemi

2008-01-01

139

Cheating Tendency in Examinations among Secondary School Students in Nigeria: A Case Study of Schools in the Odukpani Local Government Area, Cross River State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is designed to examine cheating tendency among secondary school students in Nigeria, with evidence from schools in the Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River State. A total of 331 respondents in Senior Secondary 3 classes were randomly selected from 10 post-primary schools in the area. A survey questionnaire was used to elicit

Bisong, Nonso Ngozika; Akpama, Felicia; Edet, Pauline B.

2009-01-01

140

Relative Contributions of Selected Teachers' Variables and Students' Attitudes toward Academic Achievement in Biology among Senior Secondary School Students in Ondo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relative contributions of selected teachers' variables and students' attitude towards academic achievement in biology among senior secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. It involved descriptive survey research and ex-post facto research designs. The sample, 360 respondents which consists of 180 biology teachers and

Gbore, L. O.; Daramola, C. A.

2013-01-01

141

Mode of Entry as a Predictor of Success in Final Year Bachelor of Education Degree Examinations in Universities in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the mode of entry as a predictor of success in final year bachelor of education degree examinations in universities in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria. As an ex-post facto and correlational research, the study population comprised all the 1810 final year 400 level students in the two universities offering education courses,

Adeyemi, T. O.

2009-01-01

142

Hyperendemic onchocerciasis in the Taraba river valley of Gongola state (Old Adamawa province), Nigeria.  

PubMed

A survey of the prevalence of onchocerciasis was carried out in the Taraba river valley, Nigeria where Simulium damnosum s. l. is known to breed but about which no epidemiological data exists. Skin biopsies taken from 2,876 persons in 14 communities were examined for the microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus. 100% infection rate was recorded in one of the communities, five other communities had prevalence rates between 81.0% and 94.7%. Three communities had infection rates between 44.8% and 69.1%. The mean microfilarial density in all the communities was 64.7 with a range between 3.2 and 167.6. The present findings indicate that the Taraba river valley may be one of the worst onchocerciasis zones in Nigeria. PMID:1883152

Akogun, O B; Onwuliri, C O

1991-01-01

143

The 1970 yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District Benue Plateau State, Nigeria. 2. Immunity survey to determine geographic limits and origins of the epidemic.  

PubMed

Serological surveys undertaken to define the geographic limits of the 1970 rural yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Nigeria, indicated that surrounding areas of Benue Plateau State and East Central State were not involved. However, the surveys uncovered a separate focus of unrecognized, recent epidemic yellow fever in Mbawsi, in southern East Central State. The highest proportions of yellow-fever-immune sera outside the Okwoga and Mbawsi foci were found in zones of Guinea savannah in the Benue River basin. PMID:4545319

Monath, T P; Wilson, D C; Stroh, G; Lee, V H; Smith, E A

1973-01-01

144

A Note on the Spatio Temporal Variations in the Temperature and Relative Humidity over Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was carried out in one of the Administrative State Capitals in the southwestern part of Nigeria. Its aim is to serve as a baseline data for highlighting the effect of spatial distribution of settlements, population, and socioeconomic activities on urban air temperature and relative humidity. The main objective of the study is to assess the impact of urban growth on the microclimate of the administrative city. Temperature and relative humidity data from 1992 to 2001 were obtained from the three existing meteorological stations in Akure, the Administrative Capital of Ondo State, Nigeria, namely the Federal Ministry of Aviation, Akure Airport station (FMA), Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) and the Federal School of Agriculture (SOA). Air temperature and relative humidity measurements along primary roads and in the built lghook=`` up areas were obtained from seventeen stations, using sling psychrometer. The data were subsequently analysed for spatial and temporal variations. The results obtained indicated that while the maximum, average and minimum temperatures showed significant annual variations, the spatial variations among the existing meteorological stations were not significant. The city is characterized by increasing annual mean temperatures whose maximum was significantly higher than that of Ondo town - another important town within the state. The annual mean temperatures ranged between 26.2C and 30.4C. Minimum and maximum temperatures varied from 12.3C to 26C and 22.5C to 39.6C, respectively while the relative humidity ranged between 27.5% and 98.2%. Urban `heat island' intensity was exhibited around central business district of the Oba market.

Eludoyin, A. O.; Akinbode, O. M.; Archibong, E. O.

2007-07-01

145

Empowering teachers to change youth practices: evaluating teacher delivery and responses to the FLHE programme in Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

School-based programming is one of the most common approaches to HIV/AIDS prevention among youth. This paper presents the history and development of the Family Life and HIV Education (FLHE) programme in Edo State, Nigeria and results of evaluation of teacher actions and responses to training in its delivery. Results indicate that teachers benefited from the training, were aware of new and/or existing teaching resources and began to teach about HIV/AIDS. Teachers expressed that the programme facilitated open dialogue about HIV/AIDS. However, given limited human resources, FLHE was viewed as additional work to already overloaded teaching schedules. It is recommended that the Ministry of Education channel resources to enhance teachers' efforts towards combating HIV/AIDS. To facilitate learning about sexual health and family life, it is recommended that FLHE-based training be viewed as the first rather than the only step towards teacher professional development in this area. PMID:22916546

Dlamini, Nombuso; Okoro, Felicia; Ekhosuehi, Uyi Oni; Esiet, Adenike; Lowik, A J; Metcalfe, Karen

2012-06-01

146

Serologic evidence of infection with H5 subtype influenza virus in apparently healthy local chickens in Kaduna State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A serologic survey for antibodies against H5 subtype influenza virus in 605 apparently healthy local chickens using a hemagglutination inhibition test was carried out in 12 local government areas of Kaduna state, Nigeria. An overall prevalence of 18.1% was recorded, with a higher prevalence of 27.3% in six local government areas that have not reported outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus and a lower prevalence of 7.5% in six local government areas that had reported and confirmed outbreaks of HPAI H5N1 virus between 2006 and 2007. There was association between the presence of ducks and detection of H5 antibodies (P = 0.000, odds ratio = 0.22). The implication of this finding is discussed, although a virologic investigation to verify the findings of this study is highly recommended. PMID:20521661

Durosinlorun, A; Umoh, J U; Abdu, P A; Ajogi, I

2010-03-01

147

Evaluation of school- and community-based HIV prevention interventions with junior secondary school students in Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study examined the impact of two interventions delivered in rural communities and schools in Edo State, Nigeria designed to decrease youth vulnerability to HIV infection. The Ministry of Education approved Family Life and HIV Education (FLHE) programme delivered in Junior Secondary Schools and a community-based initiative to raise AIDS Competency of rural communities were evaluated using a clustered randomized control trial and mixed qualitative-quantitative methods. Ten schools were assigned to each of three research arms: FLHE programme only, FLHE and community programme, and control. Results demonstrated positive effects on rejection of myths, attitudes related to abstinence and use of condoms, and sexual activity. Confidence in these results is supported by both levels of statistical significance and consistency in patterns of results across different levels of schooling. Results support expansion of delivery of the FLHE programme and development of community-based initiatives as effective methods of reducing youth vulnerability to HIV infection. PMID:22916547

Arnold, Robert; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Tenkorang, Eric; Holland, Daniel; Gaspard, Adeline; Luginaah, Isaac

2012-06-01

148

Diversity and biovolume of tree species in natural forest ecosystem in the bitumen-producing area of ondo state, Nigeria: a baseline study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree species diversity, biovolume and forest stand structure were investigated in natural forest ecosystem located around\\u000a some selected communities in the bitumen-producing area of Ondo state, Nigeria. Two forest reserves and four free areas distributed\\u000a in 4 Local Government Areas (LGA) of the state were selected for data collection, out of the total 6 LGAs in the bitumen belt\\u000a of

V. A. J. Adekunle; A. O. Olagoke

2008-01-01

149

Unintended pregnancy among unmarried adolescents and young women in Anambra State, south east Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study identified the characteristics and factors influencing unintended pregnancy among unmarried young women in a rural community in south-east Nigeria. One hundred and thirty six unmarried teens with unintended pregnancy attending a Christian hospital in Ozubulu, a rural community in south-east Nigeria, from January 1998 to December 2001 were included in the study. Information was obtained using a semi-structured questionnaire and in-depth interview. Over 75% of the girls had their first sexual intercourse by 19 years, and over 69% had multiple partners. Over 95% had sex for economic reasons and exchanged sex for money or gifts. Only 13.5% ever used condoms. Ninety seven per cent suffered violence such as beating and verbal abuse from family members because of the pregnancy. Most of the adolescents or young women experienced major stressors, most importantly school and job termination, partner's negative attitude, religious sanction, discrimination and stigmatisation as a result of the unintended pregnancy. Unmarried pregnant adolescents or young women have particular health and psychosocial problems. Stakeholders in adolescent health, namely, parents, teachers, religious groups and health care providers, should recognise these problems and advocate for the provision of appropriate care and youth-friendly services to help youths navigate through these problems. PMID:17348328

Ilika, Amobi; Igwegbe, Anthony

2004-12-01

150

Religious Violence in Nigeria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Security was tight in northern Nigeria today, as armed police guarded mosques after days of religious rioting that have left hundreds dead and widespread destruction. While sparked by Christian opposition to the introduction of Sharia, or Muslim law, in the Nigerian state of Kaduna, most observers blame both sides for the rioting. Africa's most populous nation (115 million), Nigeria contains over 200 ethnic groups and is split almost evenly between a Muslim north and Christian south. Ironically, the violence can in part be traced to the return of democracy to Nigeria last year. Under the new and more open government led by President Olusegun Obasanjo, some of the Muslim-dominated states have taken steps to introduce Sharia. While the transition to Sharia passed peacefully in the overwhelmingly Muslim Zamfara state, Kaduna contains a sizable Christian majority who have reacted strongly at the mere prospect of the introduction of Islamic law. Previously circumspect on the issue, Obasanjo recently spoke out against Sharia, expressing doubts over whether it was compatible with the Nigerian constitution. In addition, Nigeria's Human Rights Law Service has also begun court proceedings to try to have Sharia declared unconstitutional in Zamfara. While order is slowly being restored in Kaduna, this issue will certainly remain in the forefront of Nigerian politics, as the governors of two more states have signed bills under which Sharia will come into effect in May, and two other states are actively considering taking similiar steps.

De Nie, Michael W.

151

Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, calcium, iron, manganese and chromium (VI) levels in Nigeria and United States of America cement dust.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at investigating the relative abundance of heavy metals in cement dust from different cement dust factories in order to predict their possible roles in the severity of cement dust toxicity. The concentrations of total mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and chromium (VI) (Cr (VI)) levels in cement dust and clinker samples from Nigeria and cement dust sample from the United States of America (USA) were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption (GFAAS), while Zn and Ca were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS), and Cr (VI) by colorimetric method. Total Cu, Ni and Mn were significantly higher in cement dust sample from USA (p<0.05), also, both total Cr and Cr (VI) were 5.4-26 folds higher in USA cement dust compared with Nigeria cement dust or clinker (p<0.001). Total Cd was higher in both Nigeria cement dust and clinker (p<0.05 and p<0.001), respectively. Mercury was more in both Nigeria cement dust and clinker (p<0.05), while Pb was only significantly higher in clinker from Nigeria (p<0.001). These results show that cement dust contain mixture of metals that are known human carcinogens and also have been implicated in other debilitating health conditions. Additionally, it revealed that metal content concentrations are factory dependent. This study appears to indicate the need for additional human studies relating the toxicity of these metals and their health impacts on cement factory workers. PMID:23261125

Ogunbileje, J O; Sadagoparamanujam, V-M; Anetor, J I; Farombi, E O; Akinosun, O M; Okorodudu, A O

2013-03-01

152

Sexual and health behaviour of commercial sex workers in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

In this paper, examined are the sexual and health behaviours of commercial sex workers in Nigeria, a high-risk group in this era of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. The aim is to provide in-depth knowledge of their sexual networking and the prevalence rate of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). This analysis is intended to highlight their implications in the spread and control of AIDS and HIV infection. The results of the study show the extensive sexual networking of these commercial sex workers, the health implications, and the utilisation of nonorthodox health services in diagnosing STDs. The implications of these results are the likely drain on the limited health resources of the Nigerian government and the harmful effects on the women, fetuses, children, and other sexual partners of clients of these commercial sex workers. PMID:11813779

Asowa-Omorodion, F I

2000-06-01

153

The socio-cultural context of health behaviour among Esan communities, Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This paper reports on health beliefs and their influence on treatment decisions and behaviour among the Esan people of mid-west Nigeria. The sources for the study are my own experience of growing up in Esan society, anthropological field work, and focus groups. The research revealed a transitional society where both traditional and modern medicine are employed and where the choice between them is determined by belief systems which are themselves in the process of change, as well as by distance and costs. The traditional health-belief system was one which placed most responsibility and blame upon women, and a system of social control over the adult female population. Changing health beliefs are less the result of the introduction of a new health philosophy than of the retreat, under the impact of Christianity, of traditional religion which embodied the older health philosophy. PMID:10146569

Omorodion, F I

1993-10-01

154

Sociocultural factors of malnutrition among under-fives in Adamawa state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Sociocultural factors affecting malnutrition in over one thousand under fives living in villages and towns located in northeastern Nigeria were examined. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire and through examination of the children. The study showed that about a third of the children were malnourished. The observed malnutrition was higher among females. The age group most affected was 25-36 months. Poor weaning and food supplementation exerted the strongest influence on the nutritional status of the children whose diet consisted mainly of cereals. It is suggested that local but largely ignored protein sources should be given more attention. Adequate health education to mothers is essential especially in providing information on appropriate nutrition for the child that has just been weaned. PMID:9836205

Madusolumuo, M A; Akogun, O B

1998-01-01

155

Local poultry biosecurity risks to highly pathogenic avian influenza in Kaduna State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study appraised local poultry biosecurity risks to highly pathogenic avian influenza by assessing farmers' knowledge, beliefs and poultry practices using a standard questionnaire. Farmers' knowledge on transmission and prevention was high but low on disease recognition. Radio was ineffective at informing Islamic educated farmers. Extensive knowledge on transmission and protection did not result in behavioural change as farmers engaged in risky practices of selling, eating or medicating infected poultry and not reporting poultry death. Islamic educated farmers do not believe highly pathogenic avian influenza is a serious and preventable disease. Women are more likely to self medicate when experiencing influenza-like illness. Audio-visual aids would improve avian influenza recognition while involvement of community leaders would enhance disease reporting. Outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in local poultry in Nigeria would follow a similar pattern in Southeast Asia if the risk perception among farmers is not urgently articulated. PMID:22869337

Paul, Abdu A; Assam, Assam; Ndang, Tabe-Ntui L

2012-12-01

156

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RADIOFREQUENCIES FIELD LEVELS OF SOME BASE STATIONS IN MAKURDI AND ITS ENVIRONS IN BENUE STATE, NORTH CENTRAL NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of radiofrequencies field levels of some base stations in Makurdi and its environs was carried out in Makurdi, Benue State, North central Nigeria. Electromagnetic field tester (EMF 827 Lutron) was used for measurement at distances ranging from 5.00, 10.00, 15.00 and 20.00 meters away from the base stations at the North, South, West and East directions. Electric

J. T Iortile; L. Alumuku

2014-01-01

157

Identifying barriers and sustainable solution to childhood immunization in Khana local government area of Rivers State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to uncover barriers to childhood immunization in order to make recommendations that will address the problem in Rivers State and Nigeria. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in September 2008, among mothers and caregivers of children aged 0-5 years, to examine the various barriers to childhood immunization in the Khana Local Government Area of the State. Data was analyzed using Epi Info version 6.4d software. A total of 1560 mothers and caregivers were interviewed. Their knowledge about immunization was low. Only 15.2% was able to define immunization and mention six vaccine preventable diseases. Most children (46.8%) did not complete their immunization schedule because of frequent shortage of vaccines in the health facilities. Long-term and advance commitment by the government to vaccine manufacturers to purchase vaccines and engaging communities in dialogue over benefits of immunization is advocated to improve immunization in the State. PMID:23000461

Tobin-West, C I; Alex-Hart, B A

158

Assessment of blood lead levels among children aged ?5 years - zamfara state, Nigeria, june-july 2012.  

PubMed

Since 2010, Nigerian state and federal governments and the international community have been responding to an outbreak of lead poisoning caused by the processing of lead-containing gold ore in Zamfara State, Nigeria, that resulted in the deaths of approximately 400 children aged ?5 years. Widespread education, surveys of high-risk villages, testing of blood lead levels (BLLs), medical treatment, and environmental cleanup all have been implemented. To evaluate the success of these remediation efforts in reducing the prevalence of lead poisoning and dangerous work practices, a population-based assessment of children's BLLs and ore processing techniques was conducted during June-July 2012. The assessment found few children in need of medical treatment, significantly lower BLLs, and substantially less exposure of children to dangerous work practices. Public health strategies designed to identify and treat children with lead poisoning, clean up existing environmental hazards, and prevent children from being exposed to dangerous ore processing techniques can produce a sustained reduction in BLLs. PMID:24739340

Bashir, Muhammed; Umar-Tsafe, Nasir; Getso, Kabiru; Kaita, Ibrahim M; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Nguku, Patrick; Davis, Lora; Brown, Mary Jean

2014-04-18

159

Assessing interventions available to internally displaced persons in Abia state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Internally displaced persons are faced with several problems, such as sexual violence, and deserve appropriate intervention, especially in view of the increasing prevalence of HIV/AIDS and other infections in Nigeria. This study attempts to assess interventions offered by governmental authorities and organizations to internally displaced persons and to identify gaps in services as well as to identify what needs to be strengthened. Method: The author reviewed relevant published and unpublished documents and collected data by interviews with semi-structured questions. Twenty-five organizations and government and police departments and 55 internally displaced persons were interviewed. Results: None of the organizations, including governmental institutions, provided social services or assistance in prevention of HIV/AIDS to internally displaced persons. The main services provided by 17 (68%) organizations to 43 (78.2%) of internally displaced persons were provision of food, clothing and money, but these were provided on an ad hoc basis. Only 3 organizations (12%) included spiritual counseling and resolution of communal conflicts in their services. Conclusion: The fact that most organizations, including the government, do not have services for internally displaced persons indicates lack of support for internally displaced persons. The government should be urged to include these people in most prevention services, including HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. This should help reduce the national prevalence of HIV/AIDS. PMID:21483498

Enwereji, Ee

2009-01-01

160

Assessing interventions available to internally displaced persons in Abia state, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Internally displaced persons are faced with several problems, such as sexual violence, and deserve appropriate intervention, especially in view of the increasing prevalence of HIV/AIDS and other infections in Nigeria. This study attempts to assess interventions offered by governmental authorities and organizations to internally displaced persons and to identify gaps in services as well as to identify what needs to be strengthened. Method: The author reviewed relevant published and unpublished documents and collected data by interviews with semi-structured questions. Twenty-five organizations and government and police departments and 55 internally displaced persons were interviewed. Results: None of the organizations, including governmental institutions, provided social services or assistance in prevention of HIV/AIDS to internally displaced persons. The main services provided by 17 (68%) organizations to 43 (78.2%) of internally displaced persons were provision of food, clothing and money, but these were provided on an ad hoc basis. Only 3 organizations (12%) included spiritual counseling and resolution of communal conflicts in their services. Conclusion: The fact that most organizations, including the government, do not have services for internally displaced persons indicates lack of support for internally displaced persons. The government should be urged to include these people in most prevention services, including HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. This should help reduce the national prevalence of HIV/AIDS

Enwereji, EE

2009-01-01

161

Knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes to female genital mutilation (FGM) in Shao community of Kwara State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

To determine the level of knowledge, belief, and assess the attitude to female genital mutilation (FGM) and its complications in Shao community, Nigeria, a cross-sectional descriptive study with a health education intervention was used. A majority of respondents (99.5%) understood female circumcision to mean cutting off parts of the female genitals. There was a high level of knowledge regarding most of the complications of FGM as more than 50% of respondents knew at least four complications of FGM. Awareness of the global anti-FGM campaign was also high (78.8%). The most common reasons proffered for the practice of FGM were based on tradition or religion. Paternal grandfathers (50.0%) and fathers (21.0%) were cited as decision makers in the family most often responsible for requesting FGM. Post-intervention results showed that there was a statistically significant increase in the proportion of respondents who know more complications of FGM and who have no intention of circumcising future female children. Despite a high level of knowledge regarding the complications of FGM and a high level of awareness of the global campaign against it, there still exists a high prevalence of practice of FGM in this community. FGM remains a pressing human rights and public health issue. It is our recommendation that this health education intervention strategy be replicated nationwide especially using mass media. PMID:18573755

Amusan, O A; Asekun-Olarinmoye, E O

162

Sexual networking of market women in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The manifestation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) all over the world has increased the need for information on the nature and pattern of sexual networking in Africa, where there is a dearth of such information. In the present study, information on the sexual networking of market women in Benin City, Nigeria, was obtained using a questionnaire instrument. The questionnaire covered the sexual, reproductive, and health behaviors of these women. The data revealed that the levels of both premarital and extramarital sexual networking are high. Such a high degree of sexual networking has exposed a number of these women to sexually transmitted diseases. The manifestation of AIDS in this society will be widespread and devastating to the people and the society because these women are in a polygamous relationship in a society that frowns on the use of contraceptives by couples. In addition, controversies surround the correlation between socioeconomic status (SES) and AIDS, geographical areas of prevalence, and the role of prostitutes in the spread of the disease. For example, studies in Africa show that whereas there is no correlation between SES and AIDS in Kinshasa, the attack rate was higher in educated people in Rwanda and Zambia. Moreover, there are predominantly urban outbreaks in other countries, such as Uganda (Piot & Carael, 1988). PMID:8138473

Omorodion, F I

1993-01-01

163

A gravity study of the precambrian rocks in the malumfashi area of Kaduna State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity measurements in the Malumfashi area of Nigeria show large negative Bouguer anomalies ranging from 33 mGal to 65 mGal and free-air anomalies distributed about a mean of +15 mGal. A regional anomaly ranging from about -56 mGal in the southwestern part to about -44 mGal in the northeastern part of the area is tentatively correlated with a gradual thinning of the crust from southwest to northeast. Negative residual anomalies in the area correlate well with granite bodies thus confirming the acidic (low density) nature of the Older Granites. Positive residual anomalies of values up to about +12 mGal are associated with the schist bodies in the area. From two-dimensional modelling using approximate density values, it is estimated that the schists in the area vary in thickness from 4 to 5 km and the granite bodies have thicknesses of the order of 4 km. High-gravity gradients of up to 6 mGal/km at some contact areas between the schists and granitic bodies are attributed to sharp contacts and magmatic sloping is thought to be the most likely mode of emplacement of the granites in the area. The Bouguer anomalies observed over the schists have a maximum of only - 34 mGal. These values are considered too low to allow the existence of more mafic rocks at depth and the schists in the Malumfashi area are therefore believed to have evolved in an ensialic environment.

Gandu, A. H.; Ojo, S. B.; Ajakaiye, D. E.

1986-06-01

164

Assessment of Tannery Industrial Effluents from Kano Metropolis, Kano State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim and objective of the study was to determined pollutant levels in tannery industrial effluent from kano metropolis, Nigeria. Effluents from five tannery industries were characterized and the major sources of industrial pollution determined. Levels of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, Pb and Cr) were determined using Atomic absorption Spectrophotomeric method, while pH, Eh, DO, TDS, Temperature, sulphate, nitrate and phosphate were also determined using standard procedure. The results of the study showed that effluent quality discharged between tanneries differed significantly. Effluent chromium concentrations varied between 1.02`0.13 to 1.56`0.06 mg LG1, which are above WHO and FEPA limit of 1.0 mg LG1. Hafawa Enterprise Tannery, Unique Leather Finishing had significantly high lead concentrations, while Great Northern Tannery could be a potential source of Iron contamination in this area. Mean levels of Zn for Tannorth Tannery Limited were above maximum permissible limits set by FEPA and WHO. Mean levels of sulphate, nitrate and dissolved Oxygen were also above maximum permissible limits for the entire tanneries studied. Mean values of pH total dissolved solid, phosphate, temperature, Cu, Co, Mn and Redox potential generally were below maximum and minimum permissible limits for effluent discharged into rivers. The monthly variations in the entire tannery fell within the range set up by FEPA and WHO for the discharged of tannery effluent into river. The study serves to generate relevant baseline information for Kano industrial estate.

Akan, J. C.; Moses, E. A.; Ogugbuaja, V. O.; Abah, J.

165

Explanatory models and help-seeking behaviour of leprosy patients in Adamawa State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

In northern Nigeria 60 leprosy patients, 49 outpatients and 11 in-patients, were interviewed about their help-seeking behaviour and explanatory models before their first contact with the leprosy services. Most patients showed a delay of more than 1 year. After leprosy was provisionally diagnosed by lay persons, 27% of patients found their way to the leprosy services within 3 months. Chemists (popular sector) and the professional sector frequently missed the diagnosis. If early case finding is to be improved, it is important to involve them in case finding activities and to train them in adequate diagnostic skills. No significant correlations were found between total delay and sex, age, religion or leprosy classification, except with visible deformity at the time of the interview and illiteracy. Consultation of folk healers was the major reason for delay. Most patients consulted folk healers, who, although they claimed to have a positive attitude towards modern medicine in the case of leprosy, never referred patients to the leprosy services. While many patients held a variety of causes responsible for leprosy, most patients explained the disease in traditional terms (58%), while only a minority used modern concepts (20%). This emphasizes the need for continuous attention for health education of diagnosed patients and their families. No significant difference was found between male and female patients concerning their concept of leprosy. Denial of the leprosy diagnosis was rare. PMID:9927811

van de Weg, N; Post, E B; Lucassen, R; De Jong, J T; Van Den Broek, J

1998-12-01

166

Water resources in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the limited data available, the components of the hydrologic cycle of which Nigeria's water resources form a part cannot be adequately quantified. However, some assessment of the water reserves of the surface and underground water sources indicate that there are large supplies that can be developed in Nigeria. The exploitation of Nigeria's water resources is in an early stage. Despite the progress that has been made in water supply development since the first waterworks in Nigeria was commissioned in Lagos in 1915, many Nigerians still have no access to a modern water supply. Water shortages exist periodically in almost every major town and are present in many rural areas of the country much of each year. New water laws are needed, as is the definition of the powers of the different water authorities, viz., the Federal Ministry of Water Resources, the River Basin Authorities, and the States' Water Boards. The goals of the water policy must be to make available enough good quality water for domestic uses and to exploit enough water for the use of rapidly growing industries and the year-round needs of agriculture, thereby lessening the adverse effect of the dry season.

Oteze, G. E.

1981-07-01

167

Water level regulation and control of schistosomiasis transmission: a case study in Oyan Reservoir, Ogun State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The effect of different water discharge patterns from the artificial Oyan Reservoir in Ogun State, Nigeria, on water level fluctuations and on schistosomiasis transmission was investigated between August 1990 and March 1993 to determine the impact of water level regulation on schistosomiasis transmission and control. The results show that transmission was greatly influenced by the pattern of water discharge during the hot dry season (January-April). A high discharge during this period of no rainfall, high temperatures, and intense sunshine stimulated rapid water level fluctuations and lake draw-down, which led to significant reductions in all indices of schistosomiasis transmission, i.e. snail density, snail infection rates, human water contact patterns, and incidence of infection. Although these results support continuous water discharges from the reservoir during the hot dry season, this may run counter to current water management policies. Further investigation is therefore required to harmonize the potential benefits in this type of discharge pattern with the objectives of efficient water management in artificial reservoirs. PMID:9447776

Ofoezie, I E; Asaolu, S O

1997-01-01

168

Water level regulation and control of schistosomiasis transmission: a case study in Oyan Reservoir, Ogun State, Nigeria.  

PubMed Central

The effect of different water discharge patterns from the artificial Oyan Reservoir in Ogun State, Nigeria, on water level fluctuations and on schistosomiasis transmission was investigated between August 1990 and March 1993 to determine the impact of water level regulation on schistosomiasis transmission and control. The results show that transmission was greatly influenced by the pattern of water discharge during the hot dry season (January-April). A high discharge during this period of no rainfall, high temperatures, and intense sunshine stimulated rapid water level fluctuations and lake draw-down, which led to significant reductions in all indices of schistosomiasis transmission, i.e. snail density, snail infection rates, human water contact patterns, and incidence of infection. Although these results support continuous water discharges from the reservoir during the hot dry season, this may run counter to current water management policies. Further investigation is therefore required to harmonize the potential benefits in this type of discharge pattern with the objectives of efficient water management in artificial reservoirs.

Ofoezie, I. E.; Asaolu, S. O.

1997-01-01

169

Knowledge and practice of universal precautions among nurses in central hospital, Benin-City, Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Nurses are faced with professional hazards such as needle pricks and blood-borne infections in their day to day activities in the work place. This study is aimed at finding out the knowledge and practice of universal precautions among nurses at the Central Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty-five (155) nurses participated in the cross-sectional study. The nurses were selected using the stratified random sampling method. The nurses had a poor knowledge about universal precautions as only 34.2% of nurses had heard about universal precautions. There was also a poor observance of universal precautions. Knowledge of measures to be taken after the occurrence of occupational accidents/ injuries was also poor, as only 26(16.8%) nurses would report puncture injuries to the clinic, only 13(8.4%) nurses would screen patients for HIV antibody after consent when they sustain work related accident/injuries. Twelve (7.7%) nurses would screen patient to determine hepatitis B status of patient while only 8(5.2%) nurses would go for medical check-up/immunisation with hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:12717461

Ofili, A N; Asuzu, M C; Okojie, O H

2003-03-01

170

Schistosoma haematobium and urinary tract pathogens co-infections in a rural community of Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A survey of S. haematobium and other urinary tract pathogens co-infection was carried out among 198 volunteers in Ihieve, Ogben, a rural community in Owan East Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. Of these, 118 (59.5%) had S. haematobium ova in their urine samples. Light infection (< or =50 ova/l0 ml) occurred among 49 (24.7%) volunteers and 59 (29.8%) inhabitants had heavy infections (> 50 ova/10 ml). The children 68 (64.2%) were more infected their the adults 50 (54.3%). This difference was statistically significant at (chi2 = 60.37, P < 0.05). The prevalence of S. haematobium among the males 80 (71.4%) was higher than their female counterparts 38 (41.9%) and this difference is statistically significant at (t = 1.28) Bacteriuria and bacterial isolates occurred among 60 (30.3%) with S haematobium infection. Three nitrate reducing bacterial isolates namely; Klebsiella sp and Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and a fungus; Candida albicans were reported in their urine cultures. Multiple infections were observed among 43 S. haematobium infected persons. The antibiogram of the isolates indicated that Nitrofurantoin, Gentamycin and otramax were the most effective drugs for the management of bacterial infections among these volunteers. All the bacterial isolates were resistant to Cloxacillin and Augmentum. The C. albicans were sensitive to Diflucan, Nizoral, Gynotravogen, Gynotrosydovule, Gyno-daktarin and Mycostatin. PMID:18338685

Nmorsi, O P G; Kwandu, U N C D; Ebiaguanye, L M

2007-06-01

171

Condom use among people living with HIV/AIDS attending Abejukolo General Hospital in Kogi State, North Central Nigeria.  

PubMed

Background: Condom programming is an integral component in a range of HIV/AIDS prevention strategies and with repeated sexual contact among HIV-discordant couples, 98-100% of those who used latex condoms correctly and consistently did not become infected. The objective of this study is to determine condom use among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey carried out among 231 PLWHA and receiving care and treatment at General Hospital Abejukolo in Kogi State, Nigeria. The research instrument was interviewer-administered questionnaire. The data obtained were analysed using EPI-INFO version 3.4.1 software and P-value of < 0.05 was significant for the study. Results: About three-quarters (70.6%) of the respondents had ever used condom. Reasons given by respondents who did not use condom were: Desire for children (39.7%), and reduction of sexual pleasure (17.7%) and partner preference. More than half (56.0%) of the respondents with multiple partners did not use condom. About half 119 (51.5%) have used condom in the last sexual encounter. Gender, literacy level and disclosure of HIV status to partners significantly influence condom use during sexual intercourse. Conclusion: The poor uptake of condom among PLWHA underscores the need for government and other stakeholders in the management of HIV/AIDS to provide more enlightenment opportunities to address the gaps in condom use and disclosure of HIV status to partners. PMID:24923368

Salaudeen, Adekunle G; Musa, Omotosho I; Ojotule, Austin; Yusuf, Ayodeji S; Durowade, Kabir A; Omokanye, Lukman O

2014-01-01

172

Epidemiology of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes in the tropical rainforest of Imo State, south-east Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes was carried out in the tropical rainforest of Imo State Nigeria (two rural areas and two forest reserves in some parts of Orlu Senatorial Zone) between May-October 2002. Using standard entomological procedures, two macrohabitats (natural tree-holes and bamboo traps) and two microhabitats (leaf axils of cocoyams/pineapples and leaf axils of plantain/banana) were sampled for various mosquito species. Mosquitoes were recovered from all the various biotypes sampled. Types of mosquitoes species encountered, their relative abundance, as well as genera varied significantly during the study (p<0.05). Four genera of mosquitoes: Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Toxorhynchites were recovered while 16 species of mosquitoes encountered include: Aedes aegypti, Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni, Ae. albopictus, Ae. stokesi, Ae. taylori, Ae. apicoargenteus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. trigripes, Cx. decens, Anopheles gambiae, An. funiestus, An. coustani and Toxorhynchites viridibasis. Most of the mosquitoes showed oviposition preferences for one or more habitats. The presence of Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni and Ae. aegypti indicate that the study areas were at risk of yellow fever epidemic. The presence of Anopheles and Culex species ensured endemicity of malaria and filariasis, while the recovery of Ae. albopictus in this region suggests a possible outbreak of dengue fever in future if not properly controlled. PMID:17655174

Anosike, Jude C; Nwoke, Bertram E B; Okere, Anthony N; Oku, Ene E; Asor, Joe E; Emmy-Egbe, Ifeyinwa O; Adimike, Desmond A

2007-01-01

173

Changes in contraceptive use following integration of family planning into ART Services in Cross River State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

One strategy for meeting the contraceptive needs of HIV-positive women is to integrate family planning into HIV services. In 2008 in Cross River State, Nigeria,family planning was integrated into antiretroviral (ART) services in five local government areas. A basic family planning/HIV integration model was implemented in three of these areas, and an enhanced model in the other two. We conducted baseline interviews in 2008 and follow-up interviews 12-14 months later with 274 female ART clients aged 18-45 in 2009 across the five areas. Unmet need for contraception was high at baseline (28-35 percent). We found that modern contraceptive use rose in the enhanced and basic groups; most of the increase was in consistent condom use. Despite an increase in family planning counseling by ART providers, referrals to family planning services for noncondom methods were low. We conclude by presenting alternative strategies for family planning/HIV integration in settings where large families and low contraceptive use are normative. PMID:22292247

McCarraher, Donna R; Vance, Gwyneth; Gwarzo, Usman; Taylor, Douglas; Chabikuli, Otto Nzapfurundi

2011-12-01

174

Blood lead, calcium, and phosphorus in women with preeclampsia in Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The authors investigated the effect of blood lead (BPb) and its relationship with calcium and phosphorus in the development of preeclampsia in Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from 59 preclamptics, 150 normal pregnant, and 122 nonpregnant women. Blood lead and serum Ca and P were determined. Blood lead was significantly higher (p < .001), whereas serum Ca and P were significantly lower (p < .001) in preclamptics than in normal pregnant women (60.2 12.8 vs 26.3 8.0 ?g/dL for Pb, 1.39 0.33 vs 2.03 0.22 mmol/L for Ca, and 0.76 0.10 vs 0.99 0.13 mmol/L for P, respectively). There was significant increase (p < .05) in BPb and decreases (p < .01) in serum Ca and P in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (35.7 18.0 vs 13.1 6.4 ?g/dL for Pb, 1.85 0.33 vs 2.33 0.20 mmol/L for Ca, and 0.93 0.38 vs 1.24 0.26 mmol/L for P). Also, BPb was negatively correlated with serum Ca and, P, and positively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures in pregnancy (r = -.804 for Ca, r = -.728 for P, r = .908 for SBP, and r = .842 for DBP) and preeclampsia (p < .01). It appears that increase in blood lead, which parallels decreases in serum calcium and phosphorus, may be related to the development and progression of preeclampsia in this environment. PMID:22845729

Ikechukwu, Ikaraoha Chidiebere; Ojareva, Oforofuo Isreal Agware; Ibhagbemien, Anetor John; Okhoaretor, Okogbo Felix; Oluwatomi, Okusanya Babasola; Akhalufo, Okogbenin Sylvanus; Oluwagbenga, Alonge Temitope; Chigaekwu, Mbadiwe Nkeiruka

2012-01-01

175

Studies on dentition and oral disorders of Camels in Maiduguri Abattoir, Borno State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Camelus dromedarius dental disorders were surveyed using abattoir samples from Maiduguri, Nigeria. A total of 313 heads, were randomly examined. The age and sex of the heads were estimated using standard methods and disorders were observed following the split of the oral commissure. Heads with multiple disorders were counted once and of 313 heads, 114 (41.67 %) and 199 (58.33 %) were males and females, respectively. Heads aged <5 years was 18.21 %; 5-10 years, 44.41 %; and >15 years was 37.38 %. Whereas 22.61 % of the total heads had one disorder or another, 7.98 and 14.06 % of the disorders belonged to male and female heads, respectively. The prevalence rate of the disorders observed include dental tartar and calculus (5.42 %), inward rotation of incisors (2.87 %), fractured teeth (7.66 %), maleruption (0.31 %), oligodontia (0.31 %), gingivitis (4.15 %), ulcerated cheek(0.63 %), and presence of foreign body(0.31 %) in the mouth. Prevalence rate of oral-cavity abnormalities in relation to age of the total heads is 5.75, 5.11, and 10.54 % for animals <5, between 5 and 10 years, and 10-15 years, respectively. Furthermore, heads that were affected with various types of disorders are 31.58 % (<5 years of age), 11.51 % (aged 5-10 years), and 28.21 % (>15 years). The study serves as a call for increased oral-cavity health care of camels. PMID:22573007

Eze, Chinedu Athanasius; Adamu, Simon S; Bukar, Mohammed M

2012-12-01

176

Socio-Demographic Determinants of Maternal Health-Care Service Utilization Among Rural Women in Anambra State, South East Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Although, antenatal care (ANC) attendance in sub Saharan Africa is high, however this does not always translate into quality ANC care service utilization. Aim: This study therefore is aimed at exploring pattern of maternal health (MH) services utilization and the socio-demographic factors influencing it in Anambra State, South East Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A total of 310 women of reproductive age with a previous history of gestation attending ANC services between September, 2007 and August, 2008 in selected Primary Health Centers in Anambra State were studied. Responses were elicited from the study participants using a pre-tested, semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 (SPSS Inc, Chicago Illinois, USA). Association between socio-demographic characteristics and pattern of utilization of ANC and delivery services was measured using ?2-test, Regression analysis was done to identify factors associated with utilization of MH services. P < 0.05 was assumed to be significant. Results: Use of health facility was 293 (97.0%) and 277 (92,7%) out 302 women for ANC and delivery services respectively. Most women attended their first ANC consultation during the preceding pregnancy was after the first trimester and about 31% (94/298) of them had <4 ANC visits prior to delivery. Socio-demographic factors were found to be significantly associated with places where MH care services are accessed. Parity was found to be associated with timing of ANC booking and number of ANC attendance (?2 = 9.49, P = 0.05). Odds of utilizing formal health facility for MH services were found to be significantly associated with increasing age (P < 0.01) and educational status of mothers (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The study revealed high maternal service utilization and 10% fetal loss, hence the need to address the gaps of late ANC booking and low ANC visits.

Emelumadu, OF; Ukegbu, AU; Ezeama, NN; Kanu, OO; Ifeadike, CO; Onyeonoro, UU

2014-01-01

177

Assessing exclusive breastfeeding practices, dietary intakes and body mass index (BMI) of nursing mothers in Ekiti State of Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the infants. The benefits of breastfeeding practices to infants and mothers are well documented. However, information on breastfeeding practices and its effect on body mass index (BMI) of mothers are scarce, particularly in Ekiti State of Nigeria. Therefore, the present study is designed to assess breastfeeding practices and its association with BMI of mothers. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted among breastfeeding mothers that attended postnatal clinic of the state specialist hospitals and maternity centers in the study location. The specialist hospital and two-third of the nine maternity centers were purposively selected because of their health facilities and personnel. The mother-child pairs (200 respondents) were randomly selected from the study locations. Information on demographic characteristic, socio-economic parameters, nutritional knowledge of breastfeeding and dietary intakes of mothers were collected using questionnaires. BMI of mothers was determined as described by World Health Organization. Age distribution of mothers was between 25-34 years; and almost half of respondents had good educational background and were engaged in different occupations. The respondent monthly income ranged between = N = 3500 - 26000 ($26.92 - $200); and their dietary intakes varied between starchy and protein-based food. The result also showed that the respondent consumed enough nutrients to meet up the recommended daily allowance for protein, carbohydrate, fat, zinc, magnesium, sodium and phosphorous requirements. The BMI classifications showed that over three-fifth of respondents were normal, while the remaining were underweight (6%) and overweight/obese (26.5%). Also, large proportion of respondents engaged in exclusive breastfeeding and with good knowledge of breastfeeding practices. Statistically, exclusive breastfeeding practices had no correlation between the BMI and frequency of breastfeeding. The study, therefore, concluded that mothers had good knowledge of breastfeeding practice; and that there was no association between breastfeeding practices and BMI.

2010-01-01

178

Pattern of risky sexual behavior and associated factors among undergraduate students of the University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Age at sexual debut had decreased in the developing countries recently. Few documented studies have looked into the pattern of risky sexual behaviour and associated factors among undergraduate students in Rivers state of recent. This study examined the pattern of sexual risky behaviour of undergraduate in University of Port-Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Methods A descriptive cross sectional survey was adopted and three hundred students were purposively recruited. Data were collected by a self administered semi-structured questionnaire and analysed using descriptive and chi-square statistics at 0.05 significant level. Results The mean age of respondents was 21.32.8years; more than half (57.4%) were females. Almost a quarter (24.5%) was each in 200 and 300 level of study respectively and more than a quarter (26.7%) lives alone. Sixty-one percent of the respondents had ever taken alcohol beverage with 36.1% of them were current users. More than half (52.0%) the respondents had either boy/girlfriend and a total of 144 (52.0%) had ever had sexual intercourse; of these 13% reportedly had only one sexual partner in their lifetime; girl/boy friend topped the list of their sexual partner; 48.6% respondents were currently sexually active and 32% used a form of protection during their last sexual activity. The mean age at sexual debut was 17.0 4.5years. Few (13.4%) have had sex in exchange for gifts and 5.1% of these was with a friend. Higher proportions of respondents who reported lifetime use of alcohol were sexually active (p<0.005). Conclusion Respondents exhibits risky sexual behavior as more had sex without any form of protection. Public enlightenment programmes and targeted behavioral change interventions are therefore recommended.

Imaledo, John Abdulrahman; Peter-Kio, Opirite Boma; Asuquo, Eme Olukemi

2012-01-01

179

Assessing exclusive breastfeeding practices, dietary intakes and body mass index (BMI) of nursing mothers in Ekiti State of Nigeria.  

PubMed

Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the infants. The benefits of breastfeeding practices to infants and mothers are well documented. However, information on breastfeeding practices and its effect on body mass index (BMI) of mothers are scarce, particularly in Ekiti State of Nigeria. Therefore, the present study is designed to assess breastfeeding practices and its association with BMI of mothers. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted among breastfeeding mothers that attended postnatal clinic of the state specialist hospitals and maternity centers in the study location. The specialist hospital and two-third of the nine maternity centers were purposively selected because of their health facilities and personnel. The mother-child pairs (200 respondents) were randomly selected from the study locations. Information on demographic characteristic, socio-economic parameters, nutritional knowledge of breastfeeding and dietary intakes of mothers were collected using questionnaires. BMI of mothers was determined as described by World Health Organization. Age distribution of mothers was between 25-34 years; and almost half of respondents had good educational background and were engaged in different occupations. The respondent monthly income ranged between = N = 3500 - 26000 ($26.92 - $200); and their dietary intakes varied between starchy and protein-based food. The result also showed that the respondent consumed enough nutrients to meet up the recommended daily allowance for protein, carbohydrate, fat, zinc, magnesium, sodium and phosphorous requirements. The BMI classifications showed that over three-fifth of respondents were normal, while the remaining were underweight (6%) and overweight/obese (26.5%). Also, large proportion of respondents engaged in exclusive breastfeeding and with good knowledge of breastfeeding practices. Statistically, exclusive breastfeeding practices had no correlation between the BMI and frequency of breastfeeding. The study, therefore, concluded that mothers had good knowledge of breastfeeding practice; and that there was no association between breastfeeding practices and BMI. PMID:20607068

Ijarotimi, Oluwole Steve

2010-06-01

180

Sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion among secondary school students in three states in North Eastern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Interest in the reproductive health of adolescents continues to grow throughout the world. Few studies had explored the reproductive health knowledge, sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion among secondary school students in North Eastern states of Nigeria. The objectives of this descriptive survey were to collect data to plan appropriate interventions that meet the reproductive health knowledge, service and skills needs of students in Bauchi, Borno and Gombe states. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted for 624 consenting students who were randomly selected from eighteen secondary schools using an 83-item structured questionnaire. Data were collected on demographic profile, reproductive health knowledge, sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion. Results The mean age of the respondents was 16.5 years. There were slightly more males (52%) than females (48%). Students' knowledge about reproductive health was generally low even though girls had better knowledge than boys. Thirteen percent of the entire students had had sexual experience; significantly more males (19%) than females (6%) had done so (p < 0.001). Among boys the age at sexual debut ranged from 1026 with a mean of 15.7 and median of 16. By contrast, the age at first sex among girls ranged from 10 to 18 years with a mean and median of 16.1 and 17 years respectively. Only 24% of those who were sexually active used a condom during their last sexual encounter. Overall 11% of the students reported that they had been tricked into having sex, 9% had experienced unwanted touch of breast and backside, and 5% reported rape. Conclusion Students low reproductive health knowledge and involvement in risky sexual activities predispose them to undesirable reproductive health outcomes.

Ajuwon, Ademola J; Olaleye, Adeniyi; Faromoju, Banji; Ladipo, Oladapo

2006-01-01

181

Knowledge and acceptance of sex education at Agbo-Oba, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Data on knowledge about and attitudes toward sex education was collected from 178 females and 224 males, 15 years of age or older, who resided in a random sample of 243 households in Agbo-Oba, an urban center located in the Ilorin area of Kwara, Nigeria. Nigerian youth are rarely exposed to sex education in the schools; yet, they are increasingly exposed to the portrayal of irresponsible sex and pornography in imported films, books, and magazines. The present study assessed the need for sex education in Nigerian society and examined public attitudes toward sex education. Percent distributions were used to analyze the material. 63.4% of the male respondents and 70.2% of the female respondents had some knowledge of sex education. The proportion of those with knowledge of sex education increased with educational level. In all age groups, at least 60% of the respondents knew about sex education. Respondents' sources of sex education included parents (24.6%), friends (36.8%), school teachers (18.4%), books and magazines (64.7%), health personnel (6%), and churches (1.5%). Respondent knowledge of specific components of sex education was limited. For example, only 55.45 recognized contraception as a component of sex education, and only 37.1% considered the dissemination of information on sexually transmitted diseases to be a part of sex education. Only 9.2% of the respondents were satisfied with their current level of sexual knowledge. 95.3% knew about gonorrhea, and 47.8% knew about syphilis, but only 12.2% knew about herpes, and only 7.7% knew about chancroid. 65.1% of the Moslems and 78.4% of the Christian respondents, or 74.1% of all the respondents, agreed that there was a need for sex education in Nigerian society. The proportion who agreed increased with educational level. Among those who were receptive to sex education, 88.3% said it should be taught by health personnel; 59.7%, by parents; 42.3%, by school teachers; 11.4%, by religious institutions; and 9.7%, by peers. 68.7% thought that schools were the most appropriate setting for imparting sex education. 60% of the respondents knew about oral contraceptives and condoms, but only 40% knew about other methods. 67.7% of the respondents were currently practicing contraception. 67.7% of the respondents believed that the recent influx of pornography into the country was corrupting the morals of the young. 56.3% were in favor of a government ban on the importation of these materials. Overall, the findings indicate that there is a need for sex education and that the majority of the respondents are in favor of introducing sex education into Nigerian society. In view of these findings, a national task force should be appointed to develop sex education training programs, to support and coordinate needed research, and to develop educational materials and experimental sex education courses. PMID:4043975

Ebomoyi, E; Elimian, A A

1985-09-01

182

Religious-Based Violence and National Security in Nigeria: Case Studies of Kaduna State and the Taliban Activities in Borno State.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nigeria is a multi-religious and multi-ethnic society with enormous potential for economic, social, and democratic development. However, the intense conflicts and violence that have manifested within it since colonial rule have made development and elude ...

S. Aliyu

2009-01-01

183

A 6-year survey of pathological conditions of slaughtered animals at Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A 6-year retrospective study (2000-2005) of animals slaughtered at the Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria was carried out to determine disease conditions encountered in slaughtered animals. Records kept at the abattoir were analysed. A total of 69,307 cattle, 3,820 goats and 1,763 sheep were slaughtered for the period under study. Of the 69,307 cattle slaughtered for the period, 22,459 (32.41%) were males and 46,848 (67.59%) were females, while 1,763 sheep were slaughtered comprising of 506 (28.70%) males and 1,257 (71.30%) females, and 3,820 goats made up of 1,212 (31.73%) males and 2,608 (68.27%) were females. The major disease and/or pathological conditions were helminthosis (fascioliasis, haemonchosis and paramphistomosis) 16.20%, Streptothricosis 4.15%, Pericarditis 2.20%, liver cirrhosis 2.08%, abscesses 1.04%, pneumonia 0.14%, nephritis 0.05% and Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia, Tuberculosis and Nocardiosis 0.01% each. Out of the 15,075 infected organs, 13,314 (88.38%) were partially salvaged while 1,751 (11.6%) whole organs were condemned. A total of 1,239 pregnant cows, 221 pregnant ewes and 637 pregnant does were slaughtered, representing a foetal wastage of 2.65% for cattle, 17.58% for sheep and 24.43% for goats. The result of this study apart from serving as an indicator of field disease condition also demonstrates cases of serious losses in production due to slaughter of pregnant animals especially for sheep and goats. PMID:20734135

Alawa, Clement B I; Etukudo-Joseph, I; Alawa, Judith N

2011-01-01

184

Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among adults without obvious cardiovascular disease in a rural community in Ekiti State, Southwest Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular disease worldwide is largely driven by modifiable risk factors. This study sought to identify and determine the prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors according to sex in inhabitants of a rural community in a developing country. Methods This cross-sectional study included participants aged ?40years in the rural community of Aaye Ekiti, Ekiti State, Southwest Nigeria. All participants who met the inclusion criteria were drawn from the 161 households in the community. Data on the following were collected: arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidaemia, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and sociodemographic parameters. These were analysed with SPSS version 16.0 software. Results The 104 participants (33 male, 71 female) had a mean age ( standard deviation) of 66.77??12.06years (range, 4088years). The majority of the participants (56.7%) were aged 6079years. Hypertension was present in 66.4%, diabetes mellitus in 4.8%, abdominal obesity in 38.46%, smoking in 2.9%, physical inactivity in 29.8%, and high alcohol consumption in 1%. Dyslipidaemia, as represented by low HDL-C, occurred in 30%. There were borderline high levels of TC in 4.5%, LDL-C in 1.1%, and TG in 12.5%, but no subject had a high level. Abdominal obesity, alcohol consumption and smoking were statistically significantly associated with sex. Conclusion In this study, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, apart from hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity and low HDL-C had a low prevalence in the rural Nigerian community. However, the high prevalence of hypertension in this poor community suggests a high risk of a future cardiovascular event.

2013-01-01

185

Clinical epidemiology of lymphatic filariasis and community practices and perceptions amongst the ado people of benue state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

As part of efforts to initiate lymphatic filariasis elimination activities in Benue State, this study employed the use of lymphatic filariasis-related clinical signs as rapid diagnostic features, immunochromatographic card test (ICT) to detect circulating filarial antigen (CFA) and questionnaire to investigate community perceptions and beliefs. 81 (32.6%) out of the 248 persons were positive for circulating filarial antigen (CFA). Infection rates denoted by CFA ranged from 41 (46.1%) in Uffia to 1(6.6%) in Ijigbam districts. Distribution of community ICT prevalence showed a significant variation (X(2), P < 0.05). The prevalence of clinical signs and/or symptoms in the communities also showed significant variations (X(2), P < 0.05). Community hydrocoele prevalence ranged from 8 (9.0%) in Uffia to 1(6.6%) in Ijigbam. The overall hydrocoele prevalence was 21 (8.5%), while the overall lymphoedema prevalence was 16 (6.4%) and women accounted for 14 (87.5%) of persons with swollen limbs. Only about 14 (15.9%) of unaffected respondents knew that lymphatic filariasis is transmitted through mosquito bites, this differ significantly from affected respondents 10 (66.6%) (X(2), P < 0.05). The communities' capacity to protect themselves is hindered by a lack of understanding of the true cause, symptoms, transmission route and prevention of the disease. Our study demonstrates the need for the development of health education programmes that will enable people to protect themselves against mosquito bites. As Nigeria commence her lymphatic filariasis elimination programmes, there is an urgent need to develop morbidity management activities that will alleviate the burden of patients. PMID:23878707

Omudu, Edward Agbo; Ochoga, Jennifer Ochanya

2011-01-01

186

Nigeria's Triumph: Dracunculiasis Eradicated  

PubMed Central

This report describes how Nigeria, a country that at one time had the highest number of cases of dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) in the world, reduced the number of cases from more than 653,000 in 1988 to zero in 2009, despite numerous challenges. Village-based volunteers formed the foundation of the program, which used health education, cloth filters, vector control, advocacy for safe water, voluntary isolation of patients, and monitored program interventions and cases reported monthly. Other factors in the program's success were strong governmental support, advocacy by a former head of state of Nigeria, technical and financial assistance by The Carter Center, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the United Nations Children's Fund, the World Health Organization, and many other partners and donors. The estimated cost of the Nigerian program during 19882009 is $37.5 million, not including funding for water supply projects or salaries of Nigerian governmental workers.

Miri, Emmanuel S.; Hopkins, Donald R.; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Keana, Adamu S.; Withers, P. Craig; Anagbogu, Ifeoma N.; Sadiq, Lola K.; Kale, Oladele O.; Edungbola, Luke D.; Braide, Eka I.; Ologe, Joshua O.; Ityonzughul, Cephas

2010-01-01

187

Blood Pressure Gradients and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Urban and Rural Populations in Abia State South Eastern Nigeria Using the WHO STEPwise Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) face a double burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and communicable diseases. As high blood pressure (BP) is a common global cardiovascular (CV) disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality, the relationship between gradients of BP and other CV risk factors was assessed in Abia State, Nigeria. Methods Using the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey in Abia state, Nigeria from August 2011 to March 2012. Data collected at various steps included: demographic and behavioral risk factors (Step 1); BP and anthropometric measurements (Step 2), and fasting blood cholesterol and glucose (Step 3). Results Of the 2983 subjects with complete data for analysis, 52.1% were females and 53.2% were rural dwellers. Overall, the distribution of selected CV disease risk factors was diabetes (3.6%), hypertension (31.4%), cigarette smoking (13.3%), use of smokeless tobacco (4.8%), physical inactivity (64.2%) and being overweight or obese (33.7%). Presence of hypertension, excessive intake of alcohol, smoking (cigarette and smokeless tobacco) and physical inactivity occurred more frequently in males than in females (p<0.05); while low income, lack of any formal education and use of smokeless tobacco were seen more frequently in rural dwellers than in those living in urban areas (p<0.05). The frequency of selected CV risk factors increased as BP was graded from optimal, normal to hypertension; and high BP correlated with age, gender, smokeless tobacco, overweight or obesity, annual income and level of education. Conclusion Given the high prevalence of hypertension in this part of Nigeria, there is an urgent need to focus on the reduction of preventable CV risk factors we have observed to be associated with hypertension, in order to effectively reduce the burden of NCDs in Africa.

Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Tiffin, Nicki; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

2013-01-01

188

Sustainable technological policy options for rural water supply management in selected rural areas of Oyo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose After almost 60 years of water supply development in Nigeria, it is unfortunate that as many as 43 per cent of the population still lack access to safe water. The situation is worse in the rural areas. There is, therefore, the need to better understand the constraints and challenges of water supply, especially in the rural areas of

A. S. Gbadegesin; F. B. Olorunfemi

2011-01-01

189

Determination of potential groundwater sites using geological and geophysical techniques in the Cross River State, southeastern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar images, aerial photographs, geoelectrical studies (vertical electrical sounding, VES and horizontal resistivity profiling, HRP), geological logs based on exploratory drilling and the local surfacial geology have been employed for groundwater investigations in the Cross River Sate, southeastern Nigeria.Results from the study show that areas with high lineament frequency and a thick regolith should be targeted for groundwater investigation within

C. S. Okereke; E. O. Esu; A. E. Edet

1998-01-01

190

Prospects of using community directed intervention strategy in delivering health services among Fulani Nomads in Enugu State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The Community Directed Interventions (CDI) strategy has proven effective in increasing access to health services in sedentary populations. It remains to be seen if CDI strategy is feasible among nomads given the dearth of demographic and medical data on the nomads. This study thus characterized the nomadic populations in Enugu State, Nigeria and outlined the potentials of implementing CDI among nomads. Study design and methods This exploratory study adopted qualitative methods. Forty focus group discussions (FGD) were held with members of 10 nomadic camps in 2 LGAs in Enugu State, as well as their host communities. Thirty in-depth interviews (IDIs) were held with leaders of nomadic camps and sedentary populations. Ten IDIs with traditional healers in the nomadic camps and 14 key informant interviews with health workers and programme officers were also conducted. Documents and maps were reviewed to ascertain the grazing routes of the nomads as well as existing health interventions in the area. Results Like sedentary populations, nomads have definable community structures with leaders and followers, which is amenable to implementation of CDI. Nomads move their cattle, in a definite pattern, in search of grass and water. In this movement, the old and vulnerable are left in the camps. The nomads suffer from immunization preventable health problems as their host communities. The priority health problems in relation to CDI include malaria, measles, anemia, and other vaccine preventable infections. However, unlike the sedentary populations, the nomads lack access to health interventions, due to the mutual avoidance between the nomads and the sedentary populations in terms of health services. The later consider the services as mainly theirs. The nomads, however, are desirous of the modern health services and often task themselves to access these modern health services in private for profit health facilities when the need arises. Conclusion Given the definable organizational structure of the nomads in Enugu State and their desire for modern health intervention, it is feasible to test the CDI strategy for equitable healthcare delivery among nomads. They are willing and capable to participate actively in their own health programmes with minimal support from professional health workers.

2013-01-01

191

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection among female prostitutes in Borno State of Nigeria: one year follow-up.  

PubMed

Serological investigations on female prostitutes resident in Borno State in northeastern Nigeria have shown that the seroprevalence of HIV-1 infection has increased 9.81%--fold in one year. The highest sero-prevalence rates were found amongst prostitutes who had not benefited from previous health education campaigns. Prostitution appears to be on the increase in spite of AIDS probably because of the difficulty in finding alternative means of making a living. Attempts to halt the spread of HIV infection are hampered by the fact that most prostitutes are indifferent to the use of condoms and do not appreciate the importance of protecting themselves from the risks of HIV infection. Their frequent mobility also poses a problem as it makes it difficult for them to benefit from health education campaigns. The prevalence of HIV-1 infection among female prostitutes in Borno State (as indeed in other States in Nigeria) is likely to rise sharply in the next few years unless serious efforts are made to intensify health education campaigns targeted at the high risk groups. PMID:2606018

Chikwem, J O; Mohammed, I; Ola, T

1989-11-01

192

Study of electrolyte changes in patients with prolonged labour in ikot ekpene, a rural community in niger delta region of Nigeria.  

PubMed

Background. Prolonged obstructed labour is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality especially in the developing countries of the world, where the incidence is high. These complications are partly attributed to the metabolic and electrolyte derangements that are often associated with this problem. It is, therefore, important to evaluate the metabolic and electrolyte changes of these patients in a rural community in a developing country. Objective. To compare the electrolyte changes, maternal, and perinatal outcomes in patients with prolonged obstructed labour with that of normal labour in General Hospital Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Patients and Methods. This is a prospective cross-sectional case control study conducted in the Labour Ward of the General Hospital Ikot Ekpene to compare the electrolyte levels and perinatal outcome of 95 pregnant women who had prolonged labour with 105 women who had normal labour within the same period. Main Outcome Measures. Electrolyte changes, ketonuria, maternal complications, and perinatal outcome. Results. The majority of women with prolonged labour (91.6%) had major surgical interventions requiring anaesthesia. Perinatal death occurred in 12.6%, and a major life-threatening maternal complications (including two deaths) occurred in 13.7% of those with prolonged labour compared to 2.9% (with no death) in those with normal labour. Significant abnormal electrolyte changes included hyperkalemia, high urea, and creatinine as well as low bicarbonate levels were recorded. Metabolic abnormality was shown by ketonuria in 91.1% of the patients compared to 1.9% in women with normal labour. Conclusion. Women with prolonged labour in Ikot Ekpene have significant electrolyte and metabolic changes which impact adversely on the maternal and perinatal outcomes of the pregnancy. Effort should be made to correct these electrolyte and metabolic abnormalities during resuscitation of the woman in order to reduce the complications associated with such derangements. PMID:23316380

Ekanem, E I; Umoiyoho, A; Inyang-Otu, A

2012-01-01

193

Occupational Aspirations of University Students of Agriculture in Edo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the occupational aspirations of university students of agriculture in Edo State, with particular reference to agriculture-related careers. Factors affecting the university students willingness to pursue an agricultural career were also determined. Data from 247 respondents randomly sampled from three universities were subjected to frequency distribution and logistic regression analysis. Results revealed that 70.9% of the respondents were

M. I. Ilenloh; E. A. Onemolease; A. P. Erie

2012-01-01

194

Assessment of Computer Literacy of Secondary School Teachers in Ekiti State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study assessed computer literacy of secondary school teachers in Ekiti State. Three hundred teachers (Male = 150; Female = 150) selected from 30 public schools in 15 out of 16 local government areas participated. The instrument for collecting data was a 25-item Self-Assessment of Computer Literacy questionnaire and each item was rated on a

Oluwatayo, James Ayodele

2012-01-01

195

Awareness and use of online information resources by medical students at Delta State University in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose This paper aims to present the results of a study which was carried out to find out whether the undergraduate students in the College of Health Sciences in Delta State University are aware of and fully utilize the medical databases and other online information resources within and outside the medical library. Design\\/methodology\\/approach A questionnaire and interview methods

Emmanuel E. Baro; Benake-ebide C. Endouware; Janet O. Ubogu

2011-01-01

196

Incidence of Avian Influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria: The Epidemiology, Economic Losses and the Possible Role of Wild Birds in the Transmission of the Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing the huge economic losses due to diseases in poultry as the second largest industry in Nigeria after oil means improving the protein intake of the majority. Similarly, this will also promotes a steady income for the teeming farmers. This study investigated the incidence of the lethal avian influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria, with particular emphasis on the socio-economic and cultural activities of the poultry farmers, economic losses and the possible role of wild birds in the transmission of the disease. Data were collected from 316 and 458 direct and indirect respondents, respectively, from 6 affected villages and a town in 2 Local Government Areas (LGAs): Girei and Yola-North. Results revealed that a larger (25.71%) proportion of the respondents fell within the age range of 31-40 years, with majority (54.91%) as females. While the bulk (54.65%) of the respondents were illiterates, 95.47% of the direct respondents derived their incomes from crop production, whereas 59.17% of the indirect respondents from livestock rearing. About 26,049 birds worth N13, 454,800.00 was cumulative economic loss incurred by the poultry farmers, whereas that of the government was put at N1, 119,781.10. Of the mortalities experienced in the wildlife before the outbreak of the disease, Bubulcus ibis (64.29) and Tadarida nigeriae (86.36) were the highest. The study recommends a massive rural extension on Poultry Production with absolute biosecurity, involving all stakeholders (Veterinary Surgeons, Animal Scientists/health workers, wildlife specialists, Agricultural Economists, Information Officers etc.) in a collaborative form for high synergistic effects.

Ja`Afar-Furo, M. R.; Balla, H. G.; Tahir, A. S.; Haskainu, C.

197

Benefits of using magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) for eclampsia management and maternal mortality reduction: lessons from Kano State in Northern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Despite clear emphasis through the Millennium Development Goals, the problem of high maternal mortality persists especially within low and middle income countries. Various studies report remarkably high maternal mortality rates in northern Nigeria, where maternal mortality rates exceed 1,000 deaths per 100,000 live births and eclampsia contributes approximately 40% of maternal deaths. Across Nigeria, diazepam is routinely used for the management of eclampsia. Prior to February 2008, diazepam was widely used for the management of eclampsia in Kano State (within northern Nigeria) with case fatality rate being over 20%. While magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) is recognized as the most effective drug for the management of eclampsia; this study aims to compare MgSO4 therapy with diazepam therapy in terms of case fatality rates and costs. Findings This retrospective study, including 1045 patients with eclampsia and pre-eclampsia during the years 2008 and 2009, reports a drop in case fatality rates from 20.9% (95% CI: 18.7, 23.2) to 2.3% (95% CI: 1.4, 3.2) among eclampsia patients following the MgSO4 intervention. The study observed no significant difference in the cost of using MgSO4 therapy compared to diazepam therapy. Conclusions The study found a remarkable reduction in case fatality rate due to eclampsia in those who received MgSO4 therapy with minimal increase in costs when compared to diazepam therapy. Concerted efforts should be focused on properly introducing MgSO4 into emergency obstetric protocols especially within developing countries to reduce maternal mortality and also impact on health system performance.

2012-01-01

198

Awareness and attitude to the law banning smoking in public places in Osun State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objective This study determined the awareness and attitude towards the Osun state prohibition of smoking in public places law. Method Descriptive cross-sectional study design. 520 consenting respondents recruited using a convenience sampling method were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire covering their smoking pattern, awareness and attitude towards the law of prohibition of smoking in public places in Osun State. Data analyzed using descriptive and chi-square statistics. Results Only 38% were aware of the law while none had seen the document. Fifty six percent felt cigarette smoking is a problem that required the law to be implemented, while only 20% agreed that the law will stop tobacco use. The radio (58%), bill boards (45%) and newspapers (44%) were the major sources of awareness of the law. The perception of risk posed to the public and family health by cigarette smoking was poor among the participants. Conclusion There is poor awareness and attitude to the law of prohibition of smoking in public places in Osun State. It is necessary to increase sensitization of the general public and enforcement of the law.

2014-01-01

199

Prevalence and transmission dynamics of Schistosoma haematobium infection in a rural community of southwestern Ebonyi State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A twelve-month epidemio-ecological study on the prevalence, infection intensity, water contact and vector aspects of urinary schistosomiasis was conducted in a rural community of south-west Ebonyi State, Nigeria, using standard procedures, and involving 894 individuals (527, 58.9% males; and 367, 41.1% females). An overall community prevalence (15.3%) was established with more males (20.7%) than females (7.6%) being significantly positive for both micro-and macro-haematuria (? = 0.806; df = 1, p < 0.05). Intensity of infection was generally of the light category (< 100 eggs/10 ml urine) with more infected males (n = 95, 87.2%) than infected females (n = 15, 53.6%). Correlation analysis showed no linear relationship between prevalence and intensity of infection. Individuals aged 16-20 years dominated interschool/intervillage infection profile (range 13.2-50%) while participants in 6-10 years age bracket recorded the lowest infection rates (range 2.8-5.0%). Age-related difference in prevalence was not significant (? = 1.80; df = 2, p > 0.05). A total of 2877 ova of Schistosoma haematobium were recovered providing an overall mean egg burden of 21 7 eggs/10 ml urine per infected person. Age-related infection intensity was similarly of the light category involving 80.3% of infected persons. Bulinus globosus (n = 308) was identified as the vector of the parasite with 20.1% snails found to be shedding cercariae. Monthly and seasonal infection rates in snails were season-dependent and peaking in May (35.5%). Participants aged 13-15 years accounted for 25.1% of total water contacts (n = 9938) whereas individuals aged 6-9 years accounted for only 9.6% contacts. The most performed water contact activity was bathing (33.3%), followed by washing of clothes (25.7%). Correlation analysis indicated that village of residence, age and cumulative water contacts were significant correlates of possible S. haematobium infection. PMID:24862047

Ivoke, N; Ivoke, O N; Nwani, C D; Ekeh, F N; Asogwa, C N; Atama, C I; Eyo, J E

2014-03-01

200

Improving Agricultural Extension Services through University Outreach Initiatives: A Case of Farmers in Model Villages in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

University outreach is an educational and research-based information source enabling farmers to make decisions that improve the quality of their lives. This paper explores how collaborative efforts between the university and farmers have directly impacted in albeit Striga (noxious witch weed) ravaged maize farms in rainforest farming systems in southwest Nigeria. Data were collected using pre-tested instruments from cross-section of

Abayomi Oloruntoba; Dorcas A Adegbite

2006-01-01

201

Sound management of brominated flame retarded (BFR) plastics from electronic wastes: State of the art and options in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of flame retarded plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been posing a major challenge to waste management experts because of the potential environmental contamination issues especially the formation of polybrominated-dioxins and -furans (PBDD\\/F) during processing. In Nigeria, large quantities of electronic waste (e-waste) are currently being manageda significant quantity of which is imported illegally as secondhand

Innocent Chidi Nnorom; Oladele Osibanjo

2008-01-01

202

Urine heme dipsticks are useful in monitoring the impact of Praziquantel treatment on Schistosoma haematobium in sentinel communities of Delta State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Nigeria is highly endemic for infection with Schistosoma haematobium, which most commonly manifests itself with blood in urine. To monitor the impact of annual mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel for S. haematobium in Delta State, Nigeria, cross-sectional hematuria surveys of school children were conducted in 8 sentinel villages (SVs) at baseline (n=240) and after two annual doses (n=402). We assessed the comparability of three assessments of hematuria (childs reported history, nurse visual diagnosis (NVD) and dipstick) to determine the need for mass treatment. Dipstick was considered to be the gold standard. Prior to treatment, history and NVD each identified only the 3 most highly prevalent SVs, and overall this represented just 37.5% of the 8 SVs in need of treatment. Following treatment, after dipstick prevalence decreased by 88.5% (p<0.001), and history and NVD identified only one of two villages still needing treatment. The study suggests that dipsticks should be the recommended method for launching and monitoring mass treatment for S. haematobium.

Emukah, Emmanuel; Gutman, Julie; Eguagie, John; Miri, Emmanuel S; Yinkore, Paul; Okocha, Ndudi; Jibunor, Victoria; Obiageli, Nebe; Ikenna, Nwoye Augustine; Richards, Frank O.

2012-01-01

203

Lessons from the implementation of LLIN distribution campaign in Ilorin Kwara State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Studies implemented to evaluate the success of Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) distribution campaigns are often limited to ownership and utilization rates, neglecting other factors that directly affect the efficacy of the tool in malaria control. This study investigates sleeping habits and net maintenance behaviour in addition to LLIN ownership, utilization and the challenges associated with LLIN use among residents in Ilorin City where the tool has been massively distributed. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted using pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire to obtain information from randomly selected household respondents in Ilorin, the Kwara State Capital. The study was conducted in July 2012, about sixteen months after the March 2011 distribution of LLIN in the locality. The results were analyzed using the EPI INFO 2007 version. Results LLIN ownership (85%) and utilization (37%) rates improved compared to earlier reports, though 29% of net users have noticed holes in the nets even as 26% claimed to have actually experienced mosquito bites under it. Most (92%) of the respondents who slept under LLIN the previous night before the study spent the first five hours of the night (19.00-23.00hr) outdoors while 88% also engage in inappropriate net washing practices. All the LLIN users claimed to have experienced at least one malaria episode while 43% have had two or more episodes within the past twelve months. Conclusion The use of LLIN among the respondents in this study was accompanied by chancy sleeping habits, inappropriate net maintenance practices and repeated experience of mosquito bites under the nets. This shows the need to sustain the will and confidence of LLIN users in this area through frequent monitoring and surveillance visits targeted at enlightening the people on habits that increase malaria exposure risks as well as proper use and maintenance of LLIN for maximum malaria vector control benefits.

2014-01-01

204

Perception of HIV/AIDS among the Igbo of Anambra State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Perception is fundamental in the fight against stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Perception generally influences discriminatory attitudes towards PLHIV which exacerbates their problems and quickens the degeneration of the disease from HIV to AIDS. This study examined the Anambra people's perception and knowledge of HIV/AIDS with the goal of creating knowledge on these issues in order to design effective intervention programmes towards the reduction of social stigmatization associated with the pandemic. The study was carried out in Idemmili North and Oyi local government areas of Anambra State. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used to elicit information from respondents who were adult males and females of 18 years and above. The research instruments were questionnaires and in-depth interview schedule. Questionnaires were administered on 1000 respondents while 13 people were interviewed in-depth. Analysis of quantitative data were conducted by using the Statistical package for Social Sciences. Univariate analysis in the form of frequencies were conducted which generated the distribution of respondents across the research variables. Furthermore, multivariate analysis were conducted to test the hypotheses and sought for relationships among variables. The qualitative data were reported in themes based on the research objectives and were analysed jointly with the quantitative data. The findings were that majority of the respondents viewed HIV/AIDS as a disease that afflict immoral people and as a punishment from God. Only a handful of them saw the disease as a disease that could afflict anybody. Also, many of the respondents said that AIDS is real but showed a low level of knowledge. It was further indicated that there were significant relationships between educational level, sex, occupation, income influence perception and peoples' reactions to HIV positive status of a relative while there were no significant relationships between these variables and knowledge of HIV/AIDS. It was concluded that these negative perceptions were as a result of the people's low level of knowledge and cultural belief systems, which see a strange illness as punishment from God for disobedience. Furthermore, the fact that most of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents had significant relationship with perception and reaction to HIV was an indication that most people in the study area had a uniform perception. It was also an indication that government HIV/AIDS awareness programmes were not effective. It was recommended that strategies for effective HIV educational programme should be sought and carried out in the study area. Effective intervention programme have the power to change behaviours and would likely change the people's negative perception and low level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS, thereby reducing stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:23808412

Muoghalu, Caroline Okumdi; Jegede, Samuel Ayodele

2013-03-01

205

Assessment of the Cotton Industry Using the Global Commodity Chain Analysis Approach in Katsina State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study examines the cotton commodity chain and assessed the share of each actor in the cotton industry and identified the constraints encountered in cotton production, marketing and processing. A sample of thirty cotton producers, 50 traders, 500 agents and 3 ginneries were selected from Funtua Local Government Area of Katsina State using both random and purposive sampling techniques. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the participants using focus group discussion and structured questionnaire during the 2004/2005 cropping season. Analysis of the data was done using descriptive statistics and budgeting technique. The farmersN budget analysis indicated that from an investment cost of N 33,146.00 ha-1, farmers obtained a revenue of N 44,544-00 ha-1, thus making a net income of N 11,398 ha-1, while the agent analysis shows that an agent is paid a commission of N 500.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchase on behalf of the merchant. The analysis of the tradersN budget revealed that from an investment cost of N 36,746.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchased, traders` N 41,700.00 (lint + seed) and a net profit of N 4,954.00 ton h-1 of seed cotton. The analysis of the ginnery budget revealed that from one ton of seed cotton processed, a ginnery is making a net profit of N 2,178.00. These analyses indicated that cotton production, marketing and processing under the current price and cost setting is profitable. In spite of the profitability in cotton business, the following problems were identified: adulteration of seed cotton with foreign materials, heterogeneous seeds resale in the market, inappropriate packaging systems, no good prices for improving the quality and no mechanism for ensuring transparency in the quality (trust between actors). There is the need for intensification and expansion of the cotton sector in terms of provision of high quality inputs, clean seed cotton, introduction of jute bags for packaging, introduction of quality control mechanisms and good prices in order to sustain the industry.

Kudi, T. M.; Akpoko, J. G.; Abdulsalam, Z.

206

Perception of and attitudes toward the Nigerian federal population policy, family planning program and family planning in Kaduna State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the perceptions of the Nigerian population policy, family planning program and family planning using data obtained from a 1995 survey of 600 Atyap women aged 15-49 years, in Nigeria. Additional qualitative data were obtained from married and unmarried women and men, clergymen, government officials, and respected community elders. The predominantly Christian and rural Atyap community generally accepts modern contraception and the need for family size reduction but considers the "four-is-enough" policy to be unacceptable. Religion may be important in determining the success of the federal government to reduce family size to four children by the year 2000. PMID:11000710

Avong, H N

2000-04-01

207

Knowledge of Causes of VVF and Discrimination Suffered by Patients in Ebonyi State, Nigeria: A Qualitative Study.  

PubMed

Vesico-vaginal fistula (VVF) is a major public health issue in Nigeria. This study focused on VVF patients seeking treatment. Hospital records were used to sample 30 respondents. Three focus group discussions were conducted and analyzed in themes. Results reveal that most of the respondents did not know what brought about their condition, whereas some felt it was a curse from the gods. Respondents reported discrimination and stigmatization by relatives. Findings suggest the need to have trained social workers working in all fistula centers in the country. They will help in the counseling, rehabilitation, and reintegration of these women. PMID:25068607

Emma-Echiegu, Nkechi; Okoye, Uzoma O; Odey, Ering S

2014-07-29

208

Congenital malformations of the central nervous system at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos Plateau State of Nigeria.  

PubMed

The pattern of congenital malformation of the central nervous system (CNS) as seen in Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) is slightly different from that seen in Europe, Japan and Southern Nigeria. Not all the various types of CNS malformations reported from these centres have been seen in JUTH. Myelomeningocele was the commonest anomaly of the CNS seen and it accounted for more than 60% of all cases. Bilateral talipes equinovarus deformity was the commonest associated anomaly found. No case of anencephaly was seen in this study. PMID:1637744

Binitie, O P

1992-01-01

209

Anti-Plesiomonas shigelloides agglutinating and complement-fixing antibody titres in normal individuals and diarrhoeal patients in Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

One hundred patients with diarrhoea and 50 asymptomatic individuals attending various hospitals in Edo State, Nigeria, were screened for serum complement-fixing and agglutinating antibodies to Plesiomonas shigelloides using the complement-fixation and agglutination tests. Seventy (70%) of the 100 patients and 20 (40%) of the 50 asymptomatic individuals had detectable complement-fixing antibodies at titres ranging from 1:32 to 1:128 and 1:8 to 1:32 respectively. Results suggest that cases of diarrhoea in this environment may be due to P. shigelloides, but the demonstration of antibodies in asymptomatic individuals show that they also have serum antibodies against P. shigelloides. The exclusive use of antibody responses in the diagnosis of P. shigelloides infections should, therefore, be interpreted with caution. PMID:8708332

Ndip, R N; Obi, C L; Agbonlahor, D E; Igumbor, E O; Ayamba, L M

1996-03-01

210

Unknown risk: co-exposure to lead and other heavy metals among children living in small-scale mining communities in Zamfara State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The lead poisoning crisis in Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria has been called the worst such case in modern history and it presents unique challenges for risk assessment and management of co-exposure to multiple heavy metals. More than 400 children have died in Zamfara as a result of ongoing lead intoxication since early in 2010. A review of the common toxic endpoints of the major heavy metals advances analysis of co-exposures and their common pathologies. Environmental contamination in Bagega village, examined by X-ray fluorescence of soils, includes lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic and manganese. Co-exposure risk is explored by scoring common toxic endpoints and hazard indices to calculate a common pathology hazard risk ranking of Pb?>?As?>?Hg?>?Cd?>?Mn. Zamfara presents an extreme picture of both lead and multiple heavy metal mortality and morbidity, but similar situations have become increasingly prevalent worldwide. PMID:24044870

Bartrem, Casey; Tirima, Simba; von Lindern, Ian; von Braun, Margrit; Worrell, Mary Claire; Mohammad Anka, Shehu; Abdullahi, Aishat; Moller, Gregory

2014-08-01

211

Introduction of an innovation for the reduction of maternal mortality in Kano State, northern Nigeria: a case study of magnesium sulphate.  

PubMed

In this project, sponsored by the McArthur Foundation and the Population Council, magnesium sulphate was introduced in February 2007 to 10 general hospitals in Kano State, northern Nigeria. Changes were monitored via data collected at the hospital. At an initial training of the trainers' workshop, 25 master trainers were trained. They then conducted step down trainings and trained 160 clinical providers. Within 12 months, 1045 patients were treated with magnesium sulphate. The attributable deaths from eclampsia fell by 42.4%. The community became aware of an improved outcome for eclampsia. The providers expressed satisfaction with the outcome of the treated patients. Four of the master trainers trained 30 clinical providers from the other 25 general hospitals. Initiatives for the reduction of maternal mortality should be evidence-based. PMID:21831930

Tukur, J; Ogedengbe, C; Nwanchukwu, E; Araoyinbo, I A; Yakasai, I A; Adaji, S E; Ajala, B

2011-10-01

212

Uranium favourability study in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological considerations indicate that four types of uranium deposits, three from within the crystalline rocks and the fourth from the sedimentary formations, can be explored for in Nigeria. The Precambrian Basement Complex underwent crustal reactivation in Pan-African times (600 150 Ma) during which migmatites and rocks of the Older Granite suite were emplaced. The occurrences of these rocks in northeastern, north-central and central Nigeria are possible hosts for the granitic type of uranium deposit. Vein-type uranium deposits are often localized in areas of the Basement Complex which have undergone intense brittle deformation. The high-level, anorogenic, peralkaline Younger Granites of Nigeria of Carboniferous to Cretaceous age have geochemical characteristics which are similar to those of the host rocks of non-orogenic type uranium deposit in alkali complexes such as the Bokan mountains of Alaska. The sandstone type of uranium deposit may be found in the Cretaceous-Recent continental sandstone formations in the Sokoto, Niger, Chad and Benue Basins of Nigeria and in the sediments overlying the Oban Massif in Cross Rivers State. Geologically similar sandstone occurrences elsewhere in the world (Gabon, Niger and Colorado, U.S.A.) are known to harbour important uranium mineralization.

Oshin, I. O.; Rahaman, M. A.

213

Oral Rehydration Therapy in Nigeria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

AID-assisted efforts by UNICEF/Nigeria and the Government of Nigeria to implement an oral rehydration therapy (ORT) promotion program are briefly reviewed. A scientifically sound ORT methodology applicable throughout Nigeria was developed by UNICEF/N and ...

J. B. Mathison

1986-01-01

214

Instructional Computer Technology: Implications for Gender Achievement in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the instructional computer technology with its implications for gender achievement in Nigeria. The setting was in Graphcom Independent Educational Computer Laboratory, Ilorin in Nigeria. The participants were randomly selected Junior Secondary School (JSS) III students in Ilorin West local government area of Kwara State for a holiday computer technology instruction. A total of 30 students (15 boys

2007-01-01

215

First report of an infectious bursal disease outbreak in a vaccinated chicken flock in Anambra State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Infectious bursal disease was reported in a flock of 7-week old vaccinated chickens. Clinical findings and post-mortem changes were classical as well as the microscopic pathology of the bursa. Bursal homogenates from dead birds were positive for IBD virus antigen in agar gel diffusion test (AGDT). Convalescent sera obtained from birds 14 days following the onset of clinical signs were also positive for IBD virus antibody in AGDT. Seven-week old susceptible birds, each infected i/m with 0.1 ml of a bursal preparation from the outbreak, showed clinical signs of IBD on the 3rd day and were all dead by the 6th day. Their bursae were also positive for IBD virus antigen in AGDT. This is the first recorded outbreak of IBD in Southern Nigeria following inoculation with a locally produced vaccine. PMID:1668870

Onunkwo, O; Okoye, J O

1991-01-01

216

The use of National Youth Service Corp members to build AIDS competent communities in rural Edo State Nigeria.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the community component of a larger action research project on HIV Prevention for Rural Youth (HP4RY), funded by the Global Health Research Initiative (Canada). It began with ethnographic research in 10 communities selected using geographic representative sampling and random assignment to one of three research arms. Using the AIDS Competent Community (ACC) model developed by Catherine Campbell, the ethnographic research identified factors in six domains that contributed to youth vulnerability to HIV infection. This was followed by recruitment, training and deployment of three overlapping cohorts of young adults (n = 40) serving in Nigeria's National Youth Service Corp (NYSC), to mobilize youth and adults in the communities to increase communities' AIDS competence over a nearly 2 year period. Monthly reports of these Corpers, observations of a Field Coordinator, and community feedback supported the conclusion that communities moved towards greater AIDS competence and reduction in youth vulnerability to HIV infection. PMID:22916545

Omorodion, Francisca; Akpede, Ese; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Agbontean-Eghafona, Kokunre; Onokerhoraye, Andrew

2012-06-01

217

Determination of potential groundwater sites using geological and geophysical techniques in the Cross River State, southeastern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radar images, aerial photographs, geoelectrical studies (vertical electrical sounding, VES and horizontal resistivity profiling, HRP), geological logs based on exploratory drilling and the local surfacial geology have been employed for groundwater investigations in the Cross River Sate, southeastern Nigeria. Results from the study show that areas with high lineament frequency and a thick regolith should be targeted for groundwater investigation within the crystalline basement complex terrains, whereas in the sedimentary areas the target areas are determined by the lithology and stratigraphical sequence. Using the results of this study there is an increase in the number of successful boreholes drilled in the area from 35% to 92%. It is also observed that remotely sensed, geoelectric and exploratory drilling data are adequate for delineating the surface and near-subsurface hydrogeology of the area.

Okereke, C. S.; Esu, E. O.; Edet, A. E.

1998-07-01

218

Prevalence of hypertension in three rural communities of Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State, South West Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of hypertension is increasing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, but data are limited on hypertension prevalence. In addition, few population-based studies have been conducted recently in Nigeria on the prevalence and correlates of hypertension in both urban and rural communities. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of hypertension in adults in the three rural communities of Ipetumodu, Edunabon, and Moro, in South West Nigeria. Materials and methods One thousand adults between 15 and 90 years of age were recruited into this cross-sectional study, over a 6-month period, using a multistage proportional stratified random sampling technique. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric variables were obtained, and resting blood pressure (BP) was measured using an electronic sphygmomanometer. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on the JNC VII guidelines, the WHO/ISH 1999 guidelines, and the BP threshold of 160/95 mmHg. Results Four hundred and eighty-six men (48.6%) men and 514 women (51.4%) participated in the study. Their mean age, weight, height, and body mass index were 32.314.7 years, 6213 kg, 1.50.1 m, and 23.02 kg/m2, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 140/90 mmHg definition, was 26.4% (Male: 27.3%; Female: 25.4%). The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 160/95 mmHg definition, was 11.8% (Male: 13.5%; Female: 10.1%). There were significant positive correlations between BP and some anthropometric indicators of obesity. Conclusion The prevalence of hypertension in the three rural communities was 26.4%, indicating a trend towards increasing prevalence of hypertension. There was also a significant positive correlation between anthropometric indicators of obesity and BP in this population.

Adebayo, Rasaaq A; Balogun, Michael O; Adedoyin, Rufus A; Obashoro-John, Oluwayemisi A; Bisiriyu, Luqman A; Abiodun, Olugbenga O

2013-01-01

219

Care related and transit neuronal injuries after cervical spine trauma: state of care and practice in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Suboptimal care during extraction and transfer after spinal trauma predisposes patients to additional spinal cord injury. This study examines the factors that contribute to care related and transit injuries and suggests steps to improve standard of care in spinal trauma patients in Nigeria. It is a questionnaire-based prospective study of patients admitted with cervical cord injury to two neurosurgical centers in Enugu, Nigeria, between March 2008 and October 2010. Demography, mechanism of injury, mode of extraction from the scene and transportation to first visited hospital, precautions taken during transportation, and treatment received before arriving at the neurosurgical unit were analyzed. There were 53 (77.9%) males, the mean age was 33.9 years, and 23.5% had concomitant head injury. Average delay was 3.5 h between trauma and presentation to initial care and 10.4 days before presentation to definitive care. Only 26.5% presented primarily to tertiary centers with trauma services. About 94.1% were extracted by passersby. None of the patients received cervical spine protection either during extrication or in the course of transportation to initial care, and 35.3% were sitting in a motor vehicle or supported on a motorbike during transport. Of the 43 patients transported lying down, 41.9% were in the back seat of a sedan, and only 11.8% were transported in an ambulance. Neurological dysfunction was first noticed after removal from the scene by 41.2% of patients, while 7.4% noticed it on the way to or during initial care. During subsequent transfer to definitive centers, only 36% had cervical support, although 78% were transported in ambulances. Ignorance of pre-hospital management of cervically injured patients exists in the general population and even among medical personnel and results in preventable injuries. There is need for urgent training, provision of paramedical services, and public enlightenment. PMID:23758277

Mezue, Wilfred C; Onyia, Ephraim; Illoabachie, Izuchukwu C; Chikani, Mark C; Ohaegbulam, Samuel C

2013-09-15

220

Barriers to use of modern contraceptives among women in an inner city area of Osogbo metropolis, Osun state, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the knowledge and attitudes on modern contraceptive use of women living in an inner city area of Osogbo. Materials and methods Three hundred and fifty nine women of childbearing age were studied utilizing a community-based, descriptive, cross-sectional study design. A multistage random sampling technique was used in recruiting respondents to the study. A four-part questionnaire was applied dually, by interviewers and by respondents self administration, and the data was analyzed using the SPSS software version 17.0. Results The mean age of respondents was 28.6 6.65 years. The majority (90.3%) of respondents were aware of modern methods of family planning (FP), 76.0% claimed awareness of where to obtain FP services, and 74.9% knew of at least five methods. However, only 30.6% had ever used contraceptives, while only 13.1% were current users. The most frequently used method was the male condom. The commonly perceived barriers accounting for low use of FP methods were fear of perceived side effects (44.0%), ignorance (32.6%), misinformation (25.1%), superstition (22.0%), and culture (20.3%). Some reasons were proffered for respondents nonuse of modern contraception. Predictors of use of modern contraceptives include the awareness of a place of FP service provision, respondents approval of the use of contraceptives, higher education status, and being married. Conclusion Most of the barriers reported appeared preventable and removable and may be responsible for the reported low point prevalence of use of contraceptives. It is recommended that community-based behavioral-change communication programs be instituted, aimed at improving the perceptions of women with respect to bridging knowledge gaps about contraceptive methods and to changing deep-seated negative beliefs related to contraceptive use in Nigeria.

Asekun-Olarinmoye, EO; Adebimpe, WO; Bamidele, JO; Odu, OO; Asekun-Olarinmoye, IO; Ojofeitimi, EO

2013-01-01

221

Childhood Lead Poisoning Associated with Gold Ore Processing: a Village-Level Investigation--Zamfara State, Nigeria, October-November 2010  

PubMed Central

Background: During MayJune 2010, a childhood lead poisoning outbreak related to gold ore processing was confirmed in two villages in Zamfara State, Nigeria. During JuneSeptember of that year, villages with suspected or confirmed childhood lead poisoning continued to be identified in Zamfara State. Objectives: We investigated the extent of childhood lead poisoning [? 1 child with a blood lead level (BLL) ? 10 g/dL] and lead contamination (? 1 soil/dust sample with a lead level > 400 parts per million) among villages in Zamfara State and identified villages that should be prioritized for urgent interventions. Methods: We used chain-referral sampling to identify villages of interest, defined as villages suspected of participation in gold ore processing during the previous 12 months. We interviewed villagers, determined BLLs among children < 5 years of age, and analyzed soil/dust from public areas and homes for lead. Results: We identified 131 villages of interest and visited 74 (56%) villages in three local government areas. Fifty-four (77%) of 70 villages that completed the survey reported gold ore processing. Ore-processing villages were more likely to have ? 1 child < 5 years of age with lead poisoning (68% vs. 50%, p = 0.17) or death following convulsions (74% vs. 44%, p = 0.02). Soil/dust contamination and BLL ? 45 g/dL were identified in ore-processing villages only [50% (p < 0.001) and 15% (p = 0.22), respectively]. The odds of childhood lead poisoning or lead contamination was 3.5 times as high in ore-processing villages than the other villages (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 11.3). Conclusion: Childhood lead poisoning and lead contamination were widespread in surveyed areas, particularly among villages that had processed ore recently. Urgent interventions are required to reduce lead exposure, morbidity, and mortality in affected communities.

Lo, Yi-Chun; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Neri, Antonio; Durant, James; Jefferies, Taran; Medina-Marino, Andrew; de Ravello, Lori; Thoroughman, Douglas; Davis, Lora; Dankoli, Raymond S.; Samson, Matthias Y.; Ibrahim, Luka M.; Okechukwu, Ossai; Umar-Tsafe, Nasir T.; Dama, Alhassan H.

2012-01-01

222

Welcome to Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson plans project provides information and classroom-ready lesson plans about Nigeria. These lesson plans can stand alone or be used in conjunction with one another. They have been correlated to coincide with the standards set forth in Geography for Life. Following background information "Why Study Nigeria?" (A. Shields), lesson plans are

Northern Iowa Univ., Cedar Falls. Geographic Alliance of Iowa.

223

CYBERCRIME IN NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigated cybercrime and examined the relevant laws available to combat this crime in Nigeria. Therefore, we had a critical review of criminal laws in Nigeria and also computer network and internet security. The internet as an instrument to aid crime ranges from business espionage, to banking fraud, obtaining un-authorized and sabotaging data in computer networks of

Okonigene Robert Ehimen; Adekanle Bola

224

Challenging tradition in Nigeria.  

PubMed

In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs. PMID:12284522

Supriya, K E

1991-01-01

225

Perception of quality of maternal healthcare services among women utilising antenatal services in selected primary health facilities in Anambra State, Southeast Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study aimed at assessing antenatal care service attendees perception of quality of maternal healthcare (MHC) services in Anambra State, southeast Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 310 pregnant women utilising antenatal care (ANC) services in three purposively selected primary health centres (PHCs) in rural communities in Anambra State were studied. Reponses were elicited from the participants selected consecutively over a 4-month period, using a pre-tested, semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, utilisation and perception of MHC services. Data collected were analysed using SPSS version 17. Results: Findings showed that utilisation of facility for both antenatal (97.0%; 95% CI, 94.498.4%) and natal services (92.7%; 95% CI 89.295.2%) were quite high. Generally, most of the women were satisfied with MHC services (89.7%). Most of them were satisfied with the staff attitude (85.1%), waiting time (84.1%) and cost of services (79.5%). Being ?30 years (X2 = 4.61, P = 0.032), married (X2 = 9.70, P = 0.008) and multiparous (X2 = 9.14, P = 0.028), as well as utilisation of formal health facility for antenatal (X2 = 26.94, P = 0.000) and natal (X2 = 33.42, P = 0.000) services were associated with satisfaction with maternal health services. Conclusions: The study showed high level of satisfaction with quality of maternal health services among antenatal attendees and highlights the need to strengthen interventions that increase uptake of formal MHC services.

Emelumadu, Obiageli F.; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Ukegbu, Andrew Ugwunna; Ezeama, Nkiru N.; Ifeadike, Chigozie Ozoemena; Okezie, Obasi Kanu

2014-01-01

226

Compilation and adoption of ethno-veterinary medicine, traditional and other management practices by small ruminant farmers in Edo State Nigeria.  

PubMed

An inventory study into the ethno-veterinary medicine and traditional management practices and the extent of their adoption in the management of small ruminants by farmers in Edo State, Nigeria was carried out. Three hundred and fifty (350) small ruminant farmers randomly chosen from the seven (7) randomly selected local government areas in the state were used for the study. Data pertaining to farmers' background information, small ruminant acquisition and rearing as well as the ethno-veterinary medicines (EVMs) adopted were collected through a scheduled interview where structured questionnaires were administered. Data collected were used in the computation of ethno-veterinary medicine use indices (EVMUIs) and were subjected to simple statistical analysis. Results showed that 60.5% of the farmers interviewed were male while 39.4% were females and 56.9% of them were above 40 years old. About 60% of the farmers had between primary and secondary education, while 33.1% have no formal education and about 86% had little or no exposure to mass media. Thirty-seven (37) different EVMs/Traditional practices were identified. Based on their EVMUIs, 11 or 29.73% were highly used, 9 or 24.32% were moderately used while 17 or 45.95% were poorly used by farmers. Materials identified were noted to be locally available and were fully discussed. It is concluded that EVMs practices are actually adapted to the culture and socio-economic realities of resource poor farmers and means of spreading the knowledge among small scale farmers should be encouraged. PMID:19412741

Bamikole, M A; Ikhatua, U J

2009-10-01

227

Awareness and knowledge of disease surveillance and notification by health-care workers and availability of facility records in Anambra state, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Disease surveillance and notification (DSN) is part of the Health Management Information System (HMIS) which comprises databases, personnel, and materials that are organized to collect data which are utilized for informed decision making. The knowledge about DSN is very important for the reporting of notifiable diseases. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the awareness and knowledge of health-care workers about DSN, and availability of facility records in Anambra State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional one in which relevant data were collected from health-care workers selected by a multistage sampling technique. Qualitative information was also elicited by key informant interviews, whereas an observational checklist, preceded by a desk review was used to examine the availability of facility records. Results: Although 89.8% of the health-care workers were aware of the DSN system, only 33.3, 31.1, and 33.7% of them knew the specific uses of forms IDSR 001, IDSR 002, and IDSR 003 (IDSR: Integrated Diseases Surveillance and Response), respectively. Knowledge of use of the various forms at the facility and local government area (LGA) levels were generally low, although the observational checklist revealed that IDSR 001 and IDSR 002 forms were predominantly found in primary health-care facilities. HMIS forms were less likely to be available in secondary health-care facilities (?2=7.67, P=0.005). Conclusions: Regular training and retraining of concerned health-care workers on DSN at the LGA level is recommended. This should run concurrently with adequate and regular provision of IDSR forms, copies of the standard case definitions, and other necessary logistics to the health-care facilities by the local and state governments.

Nnebue, Chinomnso C.; Onwasigwe, Chika N.; Adogu, Prosper O. U; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu U.

2012-01-01

228

Reducing mother-to-child transmission of HIV: findings from an early infant diagnosis program in south-south region of Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Early diagnosis of HIV in infants provides a critical opportunity to strengthen follow-up of HIV-exposed children and assure early access to antiretroviral (ARV) treatment for infected children. This study describes findings from an Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) program and the effectiveness of a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) intervention in six health facilities in Cross-River and Akwa-Ibom states, south-south Nigeria. Methods This was a retrospective study. Records of 702 perinatally exposed babies aged six weeks to 18 months who had a DNA PCR test between November 2007 and July 2009 were reviewed. Details of the ARV regimen received to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), breastfeeding choices, HIV test results, turn around time (TAT) for results and post test ART enrolment status of the babies were analysed. Results Two-thirds of mother-baby pairs received ARVs and 560 (80%) babies had ever been breastfed. Transmission rates for mother-baby pairs who received ARVs for PMTCT was 4.8% (CI 1.3, 8.3) at zero to six weeks of age compared to 19.5% (CI 3.0, 35.5) when neither baby nor mother received an intervention. Regardless of intervention, the transmission rates for babies aged six weeks to six months who had mixed feeding was 25.6% (CI 29.5, 47.1) whereas the transmission rates for those who were exclusively breastfed was 11.8% (CI 5.4, 18.1). Vertical transmission of HIV was eight times (AOR 7.8, CI: 4.52-13.19) more likely in the sub-group of mother-baby pairs who did not receive ARVS compared with mother-baby pairs that did receive ARVs. The median TAT for test results was 47 days (IQR: 35-58). A follow-up of 125 HIV positive babies found that 31 (25%) were enrolled into a paediatric ART program, nine (7%) were known to have died before the return of their DNA PCR results, and 85 (67%) could not be traced and were presumed to be lost-to-follow-up. Conclusion Reduction of MTCT of HIV is possible with effective PMTCT interventions, including improved access to ARVs for PMTCT and appropriate infant feeding practices. Loss to follow up of HIV exposed infants is a challenge and requires strategies to enhance retention.

2012-01-01

229

Dietary intake and health risk assessment of lead and cadmium via consumption of cow meat for an urban population in Enugu State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study assessed the dietary intake of lead and cadmium and health risk from consumption of various parts of cow meat by the urban population of Enugu State, Nigeria. Meat samples (n=150) comprising of muscle, liver, kidney, intestine and tripe were purchased from abattoirs in Nsukka and Enugu. The samples were dried, ground and two gram was digested with 3:2 HNO3:HClO4 v/v. The Cd and Pb concentrations were read with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The dietary intakes were estimated using a one week food frequency questionnaire administered to 755 subjects. The dietary intake of lead (g/kg body weight/week) were in the following ranges; men [0.15 (kidney)-0.55(intestine)], non pregnant/non lactating women [0.16 (kidney)-0.62 (liver)], pregnant/lactating women [0.13 (kidney)-0.53 (intestine)], undergraduate students [0.12 (kidney)-0.62 (intestine)] and school children [0.29 (kidney)-1.16 (liver)]; cadmium: men [0.42 (liver)-1.21 (tripe)], non-pregnant/non-lactating women [0.53 (kidney)-1.20 (tripe)], pregnant/lactating women [0.43 (kidney)-0.90 (intestine)], undergraduate students [0.40 (kidney)-1.18 (tripe)] and school children [0.97 (kidney)-1.93 (tripe)]. The total dietary intakes of lead from the various cow meat parts by the groups were much lower than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) guide line, but for cadmium, the intakes were quite appreciable when compared to the PTWI guideline while the intake for school children was very high, 113% of PTWI for the metal. The target hazard quotients were in the range of 0.05-0.10 for lead and 0.42-0.90 for cadmium. These values are less than one, indicating that the subjects are not exposed to any significant health risk via cow meat consumption. PMID:23664087

Ihedioha, J N; Okoye, C O B

2013-07-01

230

Association of Blood Lead Level with Neurological Features in 972 Children Affected by an Acute Severe Lead Poisoning Outbreak in Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background In 2010, Mdecins Sans Frontires (MSF) investigated reports of high mortality in young children in Zamfara State, Nigeria, leading to confirmation of villages with widespread acute severe lead poisoning. In a retrospective analysis, we aimed to determine venous blood lead level (VBLL) thresholds and risk factors for encephalopathy using MSF programmatic data from the first year of the outbreak response. Methods and Findings We included children aged ?5 years with VBLL ?45 g/dL before any chelation and recorded neurological status. Odds ratios (OR) for neurological features were estimated; the final model was adjusted for age and baseline VBLL, using random effects for village of residence. 972 children met inclusion criteria: 885 (91%) had no neurological features; 34 (4%) had severe features; 47 (5%) had reported recent seizures; and six (1%) had other neurological abnormalities. The geometric mean VBLLs for all groups with neurological features were >100 g/dL vs 65.9 g/dL for those without neurological features. The adjusted OR for neurological features increased with increasing VBLL: from 2.75, 95%CI 1.275.98 (8099.9 g/dL) to 22.95, 95%CI 10.5449.96 (?120 g/dL). Neurological features were associated with younger age (OR 4.77 [95% CI 2.509.11] for 1<2 years and 2.69 [95%CI 1.156.26] for 2<3 years, both vs 35 years). Severe neurological features were seen at VBLL <105 g/dL only in those with malaria. Interpretation Increasing VBLL (from ?80 g/dL) and age 1<3 years were strongly associated with neurological features; in those tested for malaria, a positive test was also strongly associated. These factors will help clinicians managing children with lead poisoning in prioritising therapy and developing chelation protocols.

Greig, Jane; Thurtle, Natalie; Cooney, Lauren; Ariti, Cono; Ahmed, Abdulkadir Ola; Ashagre, Teshome; Ayela, Anthony; Chukwumalu, Kingsley; Criado-Perez, Alison; Gomez-Restrepo, Camilo; Meredith, Caitlin; Neri, Antonio; Stellmach, Darryl; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Shanks, Leslie; Dargan, Paul I.

2014-01-01

231

The levels of inflammatory markers and oxidative stress in individuals occupationally exposed to municipal solid waste in Ogun State, South West Nigeria.  

PubMed

Airway inflammation and related respiratory complaints are common symptoms among waste management workers (WMWs). This study investigated the relationship between exposure to municipal solid waste (MSW) and the levels of inflammatory markers and oxidative stress among WMW of Ogun State, South West Nigeria. A total of 280 subjects consisting of 180 WMW and 100 controls were recruited. Ten millilitres of blood were collected from antecubital vein of the subjects for analysis. Results reveal that exposure to MSW is associated with systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Significant (p<0.001) elevation of ceruloplasmin (Cp) and C-reactive protein was associated with marked decreases in superoxide dismutase (p<0.01), catalase (p<0.001), and glutathione (p<0.05) and significant (p<0.001) increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) and uric acid when compared with control. Haematological disorders include significant (p<0.05) decreases in haemoglobin, packed cell volume, and mean corpuscular volume and significant (p<0.01) increase in total leucocyte count. Apart from decreased albumin (p<0.05) and elevated aspartate aminotransferase (p<0.05) activity observed in WMW, other markers of hepatic (alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol and triglycerides) and renal (urea and creatinine) functions did not change significantly (p>0.05) when compared with the control. A positive correlation between leucocytes (r=0.195, p<0.01), Cp (r=0.210, p<0.01) and job duration and between Cp and MDA (r=0.200, p<0.01) and Cp and leucocytes (r=0.260, p<0.001) were observed in WMW. Overall, exposure to MSW predisposes to systemic inflammation and oxidative stress and Cp may be a useful biomarker for monitoring health status of Nigerian WMWs. PMID:22577128

Odewabi, Adesina O; Ogundahunsi, Omobola A; Ebesunu, Maria O; Ekor, Martins

2013-10-01

232

This article has been retracted and is available online only: Religion, culture and male involvement in the use of family planning: evidence from Enugu and Katsina States of Nigeria.  

PubMed

The following article from the International Nursing Review, 'Religion, culture and male involvement in the use of family planning: evidence from Enugu and Katsina States of Nigeria', by C. Ujuju, J. Anyanti, S.B. Adebayo, F. Muhammad, O. Oluigbo and A. Gofwan, published online on 6 September 2010 on Wiley Online Library (http://wileyonlinelibrary.com) has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Jane J.A. Robinson and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. The retraction has been agreed as not all copyright permissions had been cleared. Jane J.A Robinson Editor International Nursing Review. PMID:21848764

Robinson, Jane J A

2011-09-01

233

USE of seismic refraction method for the determination of the depth of water table at ozalla, owan west l.g.a edo state. Nigeria USE of seismic refraction method for the determination of the depth of water table at ozalla, owan west l.g.a edo state. Nigeria USE of seismic refraction method for the determination of the depth of water table at ozalla, owan west l.g.a edo state. Nigeria USE of seismic refraction method for the determination of the depth of water table at ozalla, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Project research was carried out using seismic refraction method at st Patrick catholic church( site) ozalla owan west l.g.a Edo state. Nigeria A MCSEIS- 160M Seismograph was used as the recording instrument with 12 geophones as wave detectors in series with one another, each of 1.5m Perpendicular to a firing line of of36m long. but the geophones are spread at a predetermined distance. the impact of heavy metal(about 5kg) on a flat metal plate served as the source of artificial wave generation. The wave front method of interpretation was used in interpreting the field results at fine distance . Plot reveals that the subsurface under Investigation is three layers of velocities, 208ms-1 750ms-1 and 1250ms-1 for the first, second and third layers respectively. And the depth of the first and second layer is 12 .7m and 14.0m respectively. This investigation has further revealed that at approximately 27m from the surface a possible aquifer could be encountered, this result agreed with electrical resistivity Studies carried out in the past within the studied area.

Aikpitanyi, C. U.

2012-12-01

234

(Eco) Tourism in the Cross River National Park (Cross River State, Nigeria): Sustainability of National Park through Private Companies involvement and Occupational Diversification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oban Hills are adjacent to the Korup National Park in Cameroon. The Cross River National Park, together with the Oban Hills, forms the focus of the activities of WWF in Nigeria. Currently, the WWF, the Nigerian Conservation Foundation and the Federal Parks Service are carrying out an integrated conservation and development project in the northern part of the park.

Jesse Ojobor H

235

Adult Learners' Demographic Variable as Predictor of Access and Participation in Literacy Programmes in Oyo and Ondo States, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Literacy is an indispensable foundation that enables young people and adults to engage in learning opportunities at all stages of the learning continuum. Literacy is a prerequisite for the development of personal, social, economic and political empowerment. In Nigeria, attempt to increase access to literacy education for the enhancement of

Olojede, Adeshina Abideen; Oladitan, Idowu Oladiran

2013-01-01

236

Nigeria: Current Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nigeria, the most populous nation in Africa with an estimated 132 million people, has faced intermittent political turmoil and economic crisis since gaining independence in October 1960. Nigerian political life has been scarred by conflict along both ethn...

L. Ploch

2007-01-01

237

Ethnobotany of Telfairia occidentalis (cucurbitaceae) among Igbos of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis), an important cucurbitaceous leaf and seed vegetable, is indigenous to the west tropical rainforest area from Bendel to\\u000a Cross Rivers states of Nigeria (c. longitude 78 E and latitude 56 N). Though endemic to southeastern Nigeria, Telfairia\\u000a is of local ethnobotanical importance in the folklore and the dietary and cropping systems of Igbos and their

M. O. Akoroda

1990-01-01

238

Mitigating Radicalism in Northern Nigeria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Northern Nigeria has been the locus of an upsurge in youth radicalization and virulent militant Islamist groups in Nigeria since 2009. Nigeria's ranking on the Global Terrorism Index rose from 16th out of 158 countries in 2008 to 6th (tied with Somalia) b...

M. O. Sodipo

2013-01-01

239

Cultural practices in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Nigeria has a rich cultural heritage. Cultural practices include extended family; adequate care for new mothers for 40 days after delivery; prolonged breastfeeding; and respect for elders. Many negative practices exist, most of them affecting the health of children and women. About 90% of babies are delivered by mostly untrained traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and healers. Child marriage is a common Nigerian practice. This deprives the girl of education and results in teenage pregnancy. Legislation does not seem to be very effective. It is hoped that will education, girls will be allowed to remain in school until the age of 18. Female circumcision and vaginal mutilation and also common in Nigerian culture. TBAs and healers have stated that there is severe bleeding after circumcision, sometimes so severe that it leads to death. Other harmful delivery practices include bathing in boiling water; gishiri cut, a crude local symphysiotomy; and agurya cut--removal of the hymen loop on 7-day-old females. Bathing in boiling water results in many women being burned or disfigured; gishiri cut has resulted in vesicovaginal fistula in many young girls. Other harmful practices are purging of infants to get rid of impurities "they might have swallowed while in the uterus;" uvulectomy in infants, and induction of postpartum hemorrhage to clear the uterus of impure blood. The list goes on and on. Women and children are exposed to many unhealthy practices in the name of tradition or culture. PMID:12157983

Alabi, E M

1990-05-01

240

Home Influences on the Academic Performance of Agricultural Science Students in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to investigate the home influences on the academic performance of agricultural science secondary school students in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State. The instrument used in data collection was a validated questionnaire structured on a two point rating scale. Simple random sampling technique was used to select

Ndirika, Maryann C.; Njoku, U. J.

2012-01-01

241

A Relational Study of Students' Academic Achievement of Television Technology in Technical Colleges in Delta State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between the male and female students' academic achievement in the subject of television in urban and rural technical colleges in Delta State. There are two research questions and one null hypothesis formulated to guide the study. The population for the study consists of 731 students of the six technical

Umunadi, Kennedy E.

2009-01-01

242

Leprosy Elimination: Progress and Challenges in Nigeria; Kaduna State TB and Leprosy Control Programme as a Case Study.  

PubMed

The study aims at describing the achievements and challenges of Leprosy control in Kaduna State using appropriate indicators. The study was a five year (2004-2008) retrospective review of the Leprosy records and annual reports of all the twenty three LGAs in Kaduna State. Various Leprosy indicators were calculated and presented in different graphic presentations. Focus group discussions were organised with the aim of identifying current challenges of Leprosy control in the State. There was a decline in the new Leprosy cases detected annually from 226 cases in 2004 to 140 cases in 2008. The prevalence rate ranged between 0.3-0.4 per 10,000 population within the five year period. The proportion of children among new cases dropped from 12% in 2004 to 5% in 2007 and increased to 9% in 2008. Grade 2 disability among new cases was very high (between 21%-27%) within the same period. Leprosy elimination target has been achieved in Kaduna State, but new cases with high proportion of children and WHO grade 2 disability were still been reported. PMID:23878709

Mustapha, Gidado; Olusegu, Obasanya Joshua; Mustapha, Sani; Clement, Adesigbin; Dahiru, Tahir; Gagere, J; Olusola, Adejumo Adeleji

2012-01-01

243

Pilot survey of oral health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study of adults in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Oral health studies conducted so far in Nigeria have documented prevalence and incidence of dental disease using traditional clinical measures. However none have investigated the use of an oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) instrument to document oral health outcomes. The aims of this study are: to describe how oral health affects and impacts quality of life (QoL) and

Christopher Okunseri; Amit Chattopadhyay; R Ivn Lugo; Colman McGrath

2005-01-01

244

Antibiogram and beta-lactamase production of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from different human clinical specimens in Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The antibiogram and Beta-lactamase of 73 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from 235 different human clinical specimens were determined using standard procedures. These various clinical specimens were got from teaching hospitals and some private hospitals in Edo State. The results of the antibiogram showed 100% susceptibiity to Vancomycin, 78.1% to Gentamicin, 71.3% to Chloramphenicol, 69.8% to Erythromycin and 61.6% to Cloxacillin. The results of the beta-lactamase detection showed that 84.1% of the isolates were penicillinase positive, which probably accounted for the 100% resistance obtained for both Ampicillin and Penicillin. This thus suggests that clinicians should enlighten patients on the consequences of indiscriminate use of Penicillin and other antimicrobial agents. PMID:12403034

Umolu, P I; Okoli, E N; Izomoh, I M

2002-01-01

245

The effects of HIV/AIDS scourge on production and income among rural households in Adamawa State of Nigeria.  

PubMed

The paper investigates the determinants and the impact of HIV/AIDS on households in Adamawa State. 120 respondents affected with HIV/AIDS were selected for interview using simple random sampling techniques. Both primary and secondary data were used in its analysis to determine the impact of the disease on household's income. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive analytical techniques and a logistic regression model was employed to estimate the likelihood that a household witnessed a fall in income as a result of the disease. The paper revealed that HIV/AIDS had an adverse impact on household's productivity, income, saving and capital formation. The paper, therefore recommends an intensive Aids education programme and Government at all level as well as NGO's should endeavor to provide adequate HIV testing kits, medication and free counseling services to enable the households determine their HIV status. PMID:22980122

I B, Iya; S G, Purokayo; Yusuf, Gabdo

2012-01-01

246

Nigeria: too many children?  

PubMed

Nigeria's underdevelopment and economic stagnation has been linked by many to its rapid rate of population growth and high birth rate (6.34 children/family). The World Bank, a leading force in the birth control for development campaign, maintains that rapidly growing populations increase the proportion of dependent and economically inactive people in society, thereby impeding capital accumulation needed for development. However, this approach ignores the inequitable structures for the distribution of wealth in developing countries that depend on poverty for their existence. A more sensible approach to population growth in Nigeria would include increased incomes, free education, improved public health and nutrition programs, and a changed social role for women. In fact, rather than being a barrier to development, Nigeria's growing population offers a rich labor reserve for the development of the country's vast resources. The anti-birth propaganda that has pressured the Nigeria Government to adopt a population policy has served to obscure and conceal the real causes of poverty and underdevelopment--the exploitation of the country by multinational corporations. If the income gap in Nigeria is reduced and the living standards of the majority rise, people will voluntarily lower their fertility without coercive family planning programs. PMID:12281080

Mbachu, D

1987-04-01

247

Computer Attitude, Ownership and Use as Predictors of Computer Literacy of Science Teachers in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of computer attitude, ownership and use on the computer literacy of science teachers in Nigeria. One hundred and twenty (120) science teachers drawn from the four political divisions of Ogun State, Nigeria were used for the study. Two valid and reliable instruments namely Computer Attitude, Ownership and Use

Ogunkola, Babalola J.

2008-01-01

248

Plants used for female reproductive health care in Oredo local government area, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of maternal health in Nigeria is poor and can be attributed to inadequate access to reproduce- tive health services, poverty and in some areas cultural resistance. Consequently, many rural people in Nigeria turn to ethno-medicinal health care systems due to accessibility, affordability, availability and an inherent trust in this method. These systems are threatened by erosion of plant

Folu M. Dania Ogbe; L. Eruogun; Marilyn Uwagboe

2009-01-01

249

Effective planning and management as critical factors in urban water supply and management in Umuahia and Aba, Abia State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plan and policy development usually define the course, goal, execution, success or failure of any public utilities initiative. Urban water supply is not an exception. Planning and management in public water supply systems often determine the quality of service the water supply authorities can render. This paper, therefore, addresses the issue of effective planning and management as critical determinants of urban water supply and management with respect to two Nigerian cities Umuahia and Aba both in Abia State. Appropriate sampling methods systematic sampling and cluster techniques were employed in order to collect data for the study. The collected data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. The findings of the study indicate that planning and management indices such as funding, manpower, water storage tank capacity greatly influence the volume of water supplied in the study areas. Funding was identified as a major determinant of the efficiency of the water supply system. Therefore, the study advocates the need for sector reforms that would usher in private participants in the water sector both for improved funding and enhanced productivity.

Uchegbu, Smart N.

250

Dermatophytoses among school children in Aba, Abia State--Nigeria and some physiological studies on the isolated etiologic agents.  

PubMed

A total of 1,136 school children comprising 433 males and 703 females, within the age groups 4 to 16 years and all resident in Aba municipal town of Abia State were examined for clinical signs of dermatophytoses. Out of this number examined 196 (17.3%), which included 108 males and 88 females, had clinical lesions on various parts of the body including the head, skin, finger nails and toe webs characteristic of dermatophytoses. While the infection occurred highest among children between the ages of 10 and 12 years, male children were significantly more infected than the females (P = 0.05). The most common type of the disease was tinea capitis (10.8%) followed by tinea corporis (5.8%). The dermatophytes identified included Trichophyton mentagrophytes (19.4%). T. tonsurans (12.3%), Microsporum audoninii (7.7%) and M. gypseum (2%). All the isolates grew well at both 25 degrees C and 37 degrees C but none survived at 45 degrees C. On solid media, all, with the exception of M. gypseum produced extracellular lipase enzyme while none produced lecithinase, deoxyribounclease and protease enzymes. Only T. tonsurans and T. mentagrophytes produced urease enzyme. PMID:9842165

Okafor, J I; Agbugbaeruleke, A K

1998-03-01

251

Impact of flooding on the health of coastal fishing folks in Epe Division of Lagos State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

There have been predictions that the impact of global warming would put several inhabitants of coasts at serious risk of flooding. This paper analyzed the impact of flooding on coastal fishing folks in Lagos state. The data were collected with simple random sampling and analyzed with simple descriptive statistics and Probit regression. Results showed that average fishing experience was about 10 years and 14.89 percent had their water contaminated during flooding. Also, 27.66 percent spent more on health during flooding while 27.66 percent, 25.53 percent and 23.40 percent reported that diarrhea, typhoid fever and cholera became more prominent after flooding. Also, 40.43 percent indicated that members between 40<65 years were mostly affected by flooding. The Probit regression results revealed that parameters of water contaminated during flooding, single marital status, number of female, income, fishing experience, cholera incidence and climate change affects 40<65 years most increased likelihoods of spending more on health during flooding, while male household headship, diarrhea incidence and climate change affects 19<40 years most reduced it. It was concluded that intervention preparedness to address water needs of households will help in reducing the health impacts of flooding. PMID:24498679

Oyekale, Abayomi Samuel

2013-11-01

252

Leprosy situation in Nigeria.  

PubMed

With an annual new case detection of 4000 people, a Grade 2 disability rate of 12%, and nearly 10% child ratio among new cases, leprosy remains a disease of public health importance in Nigeria. Faced with the reality of low endemicity; a declining budgetary allocation to leprosy control; and a pervasive loss of expertise; it is necessary for Nigeria to re-organise its leprosy control services to further reduce the burden of the disease and ensure quality care to people affected by leprosy. PMID:24428117

Udo, Sunday; Chukwu, Joseph; Obasanya, Joshua

2013-09-01

253

The effect of health education intervention on the home management of malaria among the caregivers of children aged under 5 years in Ogun State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is currently the most important cause of death and disability in children aged under 5 years in Africa. A health education interventional study of this nature is essential in primary control of an endemic communicable disease such as malaria. This study was therefore designed to determine the effect of health education on the home management of Malaria among the caregivers of children under 5 years old in Ogun State, Nigeria. Methods The study design was a quasi-experimental study carried out in Ijebu North Local Government Area of Ogun State. A multistage random sampling technique was used in choosing the required samples for this study and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information. The intervention consisted of a structured educational program based on a course content adapted from the national malaria control program. A total of 400 respondents were recruited into the study, with 200 each in both the experimental and control groups, and were followed up for a period of 3 months when the knowledge and uptake of insecticide treated net was reassessed. Results There was no statistically significant differences observed between the experimental and control groups in terms of sociodemographic characteristics such as age (P?=?0.99), marital status (P?=?0.48), religion (P?=?0.1), and income (P?=?0.51). The majority in both the experimental (75.0%) and control (71.5%) groups use arthemisinin-based combination therapy as first line home treatment drugs pre intervention. Post health education intervention, the degree of change in the knowledge of referral signs and symptoms in the experimental group was 52.8% (P?

2012-01-01

254

Infant feeding in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study by questionnaire of 1,845 urban and 349 rural mothers in all regions of Nigeria is reported. Ninety?nine percent of all mothers commenced breast feeding their infants. In urban areas most continued for at least six months and in rural areas for at least 12 months. In urban areas, 77 % of the infants were given infant formula by

S. Orwell; D. Clayton; A. E. Dugdale

1984-01-01

255

Perception and utilization of traditional birth attendants by pregnant women attending primary health care clinics in a rural Local Government Area in Ogun State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background In developing countries, most childbirth occurs at home and is not assisted by skilled attendants. This situation increases the risk of death for both mother and child and has severe maternal and neonatal health complications. The purpose of this study was to explore pregnant womens perceptions and utilization of traditional birth attendant (TBA) services in a rural Local Government Area (LGA) in Ogun State, southwest Nigeria. Methods A quantitative design was used to obtain information using a structured questionnaire from 250 pregnant women attending four randomly selected primary health care clinics in the LGA. Data were analyzed using Epi Info (v 3.5.1) statistical software. Results Almost half (48.8%) of the respondents were in the age group 2635 years, with a mean age of 29.4 7.33 years. About two-thirds (65.6%) of the respondents had been pregnant 24 times before. TBA functions, as identified by respondents, were: taking normal delivery (56.7%), providing antenatal services (16.5%), performing caesarean section (13.0%), providing family planning services (8.2%), and performing gynaecological surgeries (5.6%). About 6/10 (61.0%) respondents believed that TBAs have adequate knowledge and skills to care for them, however, approximately 7/10 (69.7%) respondents acknowledged that complications could arise from TBA care. Services obtained from TBAs were: routine antenatal care (81.1%), normal delivery (36.1%), special maternal bath to ward off evil spirits (1.9%), concoctions for mothers to drink to make baby strong (15.1%), and family planning services (1.9%). Reasons for using TBA services were: TBA services are cheaper (50.9%), TBA services are more culturally acceptable in my environment (34.0%), TBA services are closer to my house than hospital services (13.2%), TBAs provide more compassionate care than orthodox health workers (43.4%), and TBA service is the only maternity service that I know (1.9%). Approximately 8/10 (79.2%) of the users (past or current) opined that TBA services are effective but could be improved with some form of training (78.3%). More than three-quarters (77.1%) opposed the banning of TBA services. Almost 7/10 (74.8%) users were satisfied with TBA services. Conclusion Study findings revealed a positive perception and use of TBA services by the respondents. This underlines the necessity for TBAs knowledge and skills to be improved within permissible standards through sustained partnership between TBAs and health systems. It is hoped that such partnership will foster a healthy collaboration between providers of orthodox and traditional maternity services that will translate into improved maternal and neonatal health outcomes in relevant settings.

Ebuehi, Olufunke M; Akintujoye, IA

2012-01-01

256

Exploration gaps exist in Nigeria`s prolific delta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Niger delta region of the Republic of Nigeria is Africa`s largest oil producing area. It is clear that Nigeria will continue to contribute significantly to world petroleum production well into the 21st century: with increases in recoverable oil reserves in the Niger delta onshore and offshore; the promising potential of the Niger delta deepwater region; and a lesser but

Thomas

1995-01-01

257

Impact of long-term treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in Kaduna State, Nigeria: first evidence of the potential for elimination in the operational area of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control  

PubMed Central

Background Onchocerciasis can be effectively controlled as a public health problem by annual mass drug administration of ivermectin, but it was not known if ivermectin treatment in the long term would be able to achieve elimination of onchocerciasis infection and interruption of transmission in endemic areas in Africa. A recent study in Mali and Senegal has provided the first evidence of elimination after 15-17 years of treatment. Following this finding, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has started a systematic evaluation of the long-term impact of ivermectin treatment projects and the feasibility of elimination in APOC supported countries. This paper reports the first results for two onchocerciasis foci in Kaduna, Nigeria. Methods In 2008, an epidemiological evaluation using skin snip parasitological diagnostic method was carried out in two onchocerciasis foci, in Birnin Gwari Local Government Area (LGA), and in the Kauru and Lere LGAs of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The survey was undertaken in 26 villages and examined 3,703 people above the age of one year. The result was compared with the baseline survey undertaken in 1987. Results The communities had received 15 to 17 years of ivermectin treatment with more than 75% reported coverage. For each surveyed community, comparable baseline data were available. Before treatment, the community prevalence of O. volvulus microfilaria in the skin ranged from 23.1% to 84.9%, with a median prevalence of 52.0%. After 15 to 17 years of treatment, the prevalence had fallen to 0% in all communities and all 3,703 examined individuals were skin snip negative. Conclusions The results of the surveys confirm the finding in Senegal and Mali that ivermectin treatment alone can eliminate onchocerciasis infection and probably disease transmission in endemic foci in Africa. It is the first of such evidence for the APOC operational area.

2012-01-01

258

The Future of French in Nigeria's Language Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a surprise announcement in December 1996 in a speech at the Nigerian Institute for International Affairs, the late Nigerian Head of State, General Sani Abacha said "Nigeria is resolutely launching a programme of national language training that will in a short order, permit our country to become thoroughly bilingual". General Abacha's

Igboanusi, Herbert; Putz, Martin

2008-01-01

259

COMPARISON OF FLOOD PREDICTION MODELS FOR RIVER LOKOJA, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood estimation is one of the major aspects of hydrologic design and is the first in planning for flood regulation and protection measures. This research work was aimed at comparing prediction models for forecasting flood occurrences in River Lokoja, located in Kogi State of Nigeria. Relevant climatic data such as rainfalls, flood discharges, river stages of 24 years duration (1980

260

Clinical biopsychosocial practice and primary health care in Eastern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

An account with case reports of the organization of medical education in the direction of a synthesis between divergent biological paradigms within sociological parameters (the biopsychosocial way), towards problem solving and solution finding in rural health in Cross River State, in the Rain Forest Belt of Tropical West Africa (Nigeria) is described. The objective of the biopsychosocial programme is to

Stacey B. Day

1985-01-01

261

Enhancing off-season yam production in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yam cultivation in dry season was tested in the farmer's field at inland valley in Niger state, Nigeria. Water yam (Dioscorea alata) variety TDa 95\\/00328 had the greater response to the gibberellin inhibitor prohexadione-calcium (PC). The sprouting period of PC treated tuber was 21 - 27 days at December. After tuber sprouting, the plants grew in the field during January

H. Shiwachi; H. Kikuno; R. Fashola; R. Asiedu

262

The Anglophone Cameroon-Nigeria boundary: opportunities and conflicts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies of African boundaries have tended to focus either on the growing number of border disputes between states or on frontier regions that are said to offer local inhabitants a wide range of economic opportunities. This article attempts to combine both approaches and to demonstrate the ambiguous nature of the Anglophone Cameroon-Nigeria border. On the one hand, the border

P. J. J. Konings

2005-01-01

263

A decision support tool for basin irrigation in northern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inadequate rainfall, water resources scarcity and attendant food security-related problems have made irrigation technology a necessity. This work presents the development of a decision support system for solving surface irrigation design problems in northern Nigeria. The arid northern states affected by desert encroachment constitute a good candidate and their climatological data was obtained from the Nigerian Metrological Agency. The interactive

Olumuyiwa S. Asaolu; John Ogbemhe

264

Assessment of risk of possible exposure to rabies among processors and consumers of dog meat in Zaria and Kafanchan, Kaduna state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Canine rabies is endemic in Nigeria. Some of the dogs slaughtered for human consumption may be infected with rabies virus, thus exposing handlers of raw dog meat to the disease since the virus may be present in the nerves in the meat. A cross-sectional study was designed and a structured questionnaire was designed and administered to a convenience sample of 160 processors and consumers (100 from Zaria and 60 from Kafanchan), by face to face interview at the slaughter sites or dog meat sale points. The questionnaire sought information on demographic characteristics of the respondents, rabies knowledge, attitude and actions the respondents would take if exposure occurs. Associations between demographic variables and categorized knowledge, attitude or practice scores were assessed using x2 analysis. The relationship between non-categorized scores was assessed using multiple regression analysis. Also, 154 brain samples from slaughtered dogs (74 from Zaria and 80 from Kafanchan) were checked for rabies antigen using direct fluorescent antibody test. Of the 160 respondents, 49 (30.6%) were involved in the slaughtering and sale of dog meat while 111(69.4%) were involved in handling and consumption of processed dog meat. Only 123(76.9%) knew that dogs are common source of rabies in Nigeria and 105(65.6%) knew that rabies affect humans. Also 110(68.8%) did not have adequate knowledge of the clinical signs of rabies. The level of knowledge, having positive attitudes and knowing acceptable practices were directly proportional to the level of education. Respondents from Kafanchan had higher level of knowledge and more positive attitudes towards rabies than those from Zaria. There were significant correlations between knowledge and attitude scores (r=0.49) and between knowledge and practice scores (r=0.43) at p<0.001. Rabies antigen was detected in the brain of 6 (3.9%) of the slaughtered dogs. The findings indicate that processors and consumers of dog meat are deficient in the knowledge of rabies. There is therefore a need for educational programmes targeted at this high risk group to increase their level of knowledge and reduce the risk of exposure. PMID:24373274

Odeh, Leslie E; Umoh, Jarlath U; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu

2014-01-01

265

Eliminating gender-based violence: learning from the widowhood practices elimination initiative of a women organisation in Ozubulu, Anambra State of Nigeria.  

PubMed

Gender-based violence has received increased international focus since after the International Conference on Population and Devlopment in Cairo 1994 and the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing in 1995. This paper reports the activities and outcome of a Christian women group initiative to eliminate dehumanising widowhood practices, a prevalent type of gender-based violence among the Igbos in Eastern Nigeria. Through in-depth interviews, group discussions, participant observations and membership records, information was elicited on the processes and outcome of the women group initiative. Evaluation was done using the community action cycle framework model for community mobilisation. The women group was able to identify and eliminate major dehumanising widowhood practices. Though women were the victims of violence, they were surprisingly also the perpetrators and astute enforcers of the practice, as well as those who vehemently opposed any form of change. Superstitious beliefs and associated fears were major reasons for opposition to change. Women can play key and effective roles in eliminating gender-based violence and in initiating and implementing programmes that guarantee their reproductive and human rights. They should, therefore, be strengthened and encouraged to champion issues that affect their well-being. PMID:16485587

Ilika, Amobi Linus; Ilika, Ucha Rose

2005-08-01

266

Impact Assessment of University-Based Rural Youths Agricultural Extension Out-Reach Program in Selected Villages of Kaduna-State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concern about youths development borders on the believe that they constitute an important labour force which can easily become leaders in employing and innovating modern techniques of agricultural production. The National Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services (NAERLS) of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria in recognition of these potentials has established a rural youths extension out-reach Program to encourage the youths to adopt modern techniques of agricultural production. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of this program on agricultural production. This study was carried out during the 2005/2006 cropping season by comparing the performance of the program participants with non-participants. The results revealed that the participants had an adoption level of improved practices higher than the non-participants. This was further confirmed by the significant relationship found between respondents access to extension services and level of adoption (R = 0.46, p = 0.01). Yield of major crops and income of farmers were slightly higher among the participants than the non-participants. The results of the study have helped to identify for the benefit of policy makers, the type of extension approaches required to encourage rural youths to adopt modern farming techniques.

Gambo Akpoko, Joseph; Kudi, Thomas M.

267

Prevalence and Clinical and Immunoviralogical Profile of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Hepatitis B Coinfection among Children in an Antiretroviral Therapy Programme in Benue State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background. Nigeria has the world largest burden of paediatric HIV and is also highly endemic for Hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, relatively little is known regarding the prevalence of HBV-HIV coinfections among Nigerian children. Methods. A retrospective study among treatment naive HIV-infected children attending the pediatric clinic of the APIN Plus/Harvard PEPFAR program of the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, between June 2008 and June 2012. Results. The mean age of the 395 subjects studied was 7.53 4.23 years. Thirty-one subjects (7.8%) were positive for HBV. No subject was HIV-HBV-HCV triply infected. Significantly higher HIV-HBC coinfections were found, in older subjects (1115 years), subjects that did not receive nor complete Hepatitis B vaccinations, and subjects that had a severe immunosuppression of < 15% with respective P values of 0.00, 0.01, and 0.00. HIV-HBV co-infection did not significantly impact on other baseline characteristics including, gender, WHO clinical stage, median absolute CD4 count, mean viral load, median ALT, and hepatotoxicity. Conclusion. A high seroprevalence of HBV among this cohort of HIV-infected children contributes to the calls for pre-ART screening for HBV and the necessary paradigm shift in the ART nucleoside backbone to include agent(s) more dually effective against HIV and HBV.

Anigilaje, Emmanuel Ademola; Olutola, Ayodotun

2013-01-01

268

Geophysical Investigation For Groundwater Using Electrical Resistivity Method - A Case Study Of Annunciation Grammar School, Ikere Lga, Ekiti State, South-Western Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical survey involving electrical resistivity methods has been carried out at Annunciation grammar school, Ikere- Ekiti, southwestern Nigeria with the view to delineate the geo-electric characteristics of the basement complex and evaluate its groundwater potential in the area. A total of 5 vertical electrical sounding stations were established within the site along 5 traverses. The schlumberger configuration was used for the data acquisition. The half ??currents electrode (? 2) used range from 1 to 100m. The quantitative interpretation of the VES curves involved the use of partial curve matching and the 1-D computer iteration technique. The depth sounding interpretation results were used to generate geo-electric sections from which the aquifer was delineated. The geo-electric section drawn from the results of the interpretation reveal five subsurface layer which comprises of the topsoil, lateritic sand, partially weathered, weathered and fractured basement. The weathered and fractured layers constituted the aquiferous zone in all the stations. Hence, from this project work it is recommended that boreholes can be sited in high conductivity zones in VES 1,2,3 and 4 as they contain probable aquifers. The depth of any borehole should be located between 15m and 30m to take advantage of the basement fractures

Lateef, T. A.

2012-06-01

269

Re-inventing local government capacity in Nigeria: The e-governance imperative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significantly, e-governance has advanced from global to in-country, national, state, and local levels of government. Despite its importance, little evidence exists in Africa nay Nigeria, on the effect on local government manifest capacity. The paper provides a framework for understanding the role of e-governance in enhancing local government capacity in Nigeria, its many challenges and opportunities. The paper reviews various

M. O. Adeyeye; O. A. T. Aladesanmi

2011-01-01

270

Talking past each other: Towards HIV\\/AIDS prevention in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the relationship between HIV\\/AIDS prevention programmes and the lived realities of people most at risk in the poor community of Ajegunle in Nigerias Lagos State. While providers, international NGOs and their client NGOs, emphasize Western medical models for HIV\\/ AIDS intervention and prevention, at-risk groups expressed strong feelings of powerlessness over socio-cultural and political conditions affecting them.

Christian Iyiani; Tony Binns; Pat Shannon

2011-01-01

271

Growth pattern of exclusively breast-fed infants during the first six months of life in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Several studies to determine the growth pattern of exclusively breast fed infants have provided varying conclusions as to the sufficiency of breast milk alone to support adequate growth for the first six months of life. Disagreement exists concerning the optimal timing of introduction of complementary foods to exclusively breast fed infants. This prospective study thus examined the adequacy of breast milk alone to support normal growth during the first six months of life in our environment. The overall objective was to propose a scientifically sound national recommendation on the appropriate timing for the introduction of complementary feeding in Nigeria. Three hundred and fifty-two mother/infant pairs were serially recruited into the study; all babies were aged 14 days or less and weighed 2.5 kg and above. Three hundred and forty-five (98%) were successfully followed up till the infants were six months old. By six months, 264 (76.5%) were exclusively breast-fed, while 81 (23.5%) had commenced complementary feeding. Growth curves of exclusively breast-fed infants showed increasing weight from birth to six months. Although the 50th percentile birth weight for both boys and girls were the same (3.2 kg), boys gained weight faster than the girls from the age of one month to six months and were heavier at six months. Additionally, the 50th percentile curves of these infants (both genders) for the first six months were above the 50th percentile curve of the World Health Organisation and National Centre for Health Statistics (WHO/NCHS) reference currently used on our national "road to health" (growth monitoring) cards. It was concluded that exclusive breast-feeding supported adequate growth during the first six months of life for most of the children studied and that our national recommendation that infants be introduced to complementary feeding at six months is appropriate. PMID:12617281

Abiona, T C; Onayade, A A; Ijadunola, K T; Abayomi, I O; Makanjuola, R O A

2002-01-01

272

Profile of metabolic abnormalities seen in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and their first degree relatives with metabolic syndrome seen in Benin City, Edo state Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background To determine the profile of metabolic abnormalities in T2DM persons with metabolic syndrome and their non-diabetic first-degree relatives who also had metabolic syndrome in Benin City. Methodology This was a cross sectional case controlled study in which convenience sampling technique was used to recruit 106 persons with T2DM, 96 people who are first degree relatives of type 2 diabetic persons and 96 controls using a interviewer administered questionnaire technique. The following were assessed: anthropometric indices, blood pressure, serum lipid profile, fasting blood sugar, proteinuria, and microalbuminuria. The data obtained were analyzed using the statistical software-Statistical package for social sciences [SPSS] version 16. A p-value of less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results The mean age (SD) of the study groups were: persons living with T2DM: 58.6??11.2years, control: 57.69??60.8years and FDR: 57.4??10.6years. No significant age and sex differences were observed in these groups. There were more females (59.7%) than males (40.3%) with T2DM. The prevalence of MS was 13.5%, 16.7%, and 87.1% in the control, FDR and T2DM patients respectively. For the T2DM group of subjects, impaired fasting glycaemia was the commonest metabolic abnormality followed by microalbuminuria, low HDL cholesterol, high LDL cholesterol, hypercholesterolaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia in decreasing frequency. For the FDR group, low HDL cholesterol was the commonest metabolic abnormality followed by hypertriglyceridaemia, impaired fasting glucose, high LDL cholesterol, hypertriglyceridaemia and microalbuminuria in decreasing frequency. Hypercholesterolemia and low HDL cholesterol were the commonest metabolic abnormalities in the control group. Conclusion The prevalence of the MS in persons with T2DM in Nigeria appears to be high. Secondly, there is a high prevalence of lipid abnormalities in all the study groups.

2014-01-01

273

Prevalence of intestinal parasites in relation to CD4 counts and anaemia among HIV-infected patients in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Parasitic infections continue to take their toll on HIV positive patients by influencing the blood qualitatively and quantitatively. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in relation to anaemia and CD4 counts among HIV-infected patients in Benin City, Nigeria. Using a serial sampling method, a total of 2000 HIV-infected patients were recruited on their first visit prior to highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital from August 2007 to August 2009. Stool and blood samples were collected from each patient. The stool samples were processed using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique to microscopically identify the oocysts of Cryptosporidium species, Isospora belli, Cyclospora species and spores of Microsporidium species while saline and iodine preparations were used for identifying the ova, cysts and parasites of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Taenia spp and other parasites. The blood specimens were equally analyzed using the flow cytometry for CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and autoanalyzer - sysmex kx - 21 for haemoglobin concentration. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 93.3% while 18% had parasitic infections. There was a significant relationship between CD4 count <200cells/microL and anaemia (P<0.0001). Cryptosporidium species (P= 0.005), A. lumbricoides (P=0.035), hookworm and Taenia species (P=0.014) were associated with anaemia. Anaemia was associated with CD4 count while Cryptosporidium species, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Taenia species were the intestinal parasitic agents associated with anaemia. In conclusion the prevalence of anaemia in HIV-infected patients is high low CD4 count is a significant risk factor of acquiring anaemia. Except for isosporiasis, cryptosporidiosis, A. lumbricoides, hookworm and Taenia species in HIV infected individuals are parasitic agents associated with anaemia. Routine screening for intestinal parasites and holistic management of anaemia is advocated. PMID:24409641

Akinbo, Frederick O; Okaka, Christopher E; Omoregie, Richard

2011-01-01

274

Evolutionary dynamics of multiple sublineages of H5N1 influenza viruses in Nigeria from 2006 to 2008.  

PubMed

Highly pathogenic A/H5N1 avian influenza (HPAI H5N1) viruses have seriously affected the Nigerian poultry industry since early 2006. Previous studies have identified multiple introductions of the virus into Nigeria and several reassortment events between cocirculating lineages. To determine the spatial, evolutionary, and population dynamics of the multiple H5N1 lineages cocirculating in Nigeria, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequences from 106 HPAI H5N1 viruses isolated between 2006 and 2008 and representing all 25 Nigerian states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) reporting outbreaks. We identified a major new subclade in Nigeria that is phylogenetically distinguishable from all previously identified sublineages, as well as two novel reassortment events. A detailed analysis of viral phylogeography identified two major source populations for the HPAI H5N1 virus in Nigeria, one in a major commercial poultry area (southwest region) and one in northern Nigeria, where contact between wild birds and backyard poultry is frequent. These findings suggested that migratory birds from Eastern Europe or Russia may serve an important role in the introduction of HPAI H5N1 viruses into Nigeria, although virus spread through the movement of poultry and poultry products cannot be excluded. Our study provides new insight into the genesis and evolution of H5N1 influenza viruses in Nigeria and has important implications for targeting surveillance efforts to rapidly identify the spread of the virus into and within Nigeria. PMID:20071565

Fusaro, Alice; Nelson, Martha I; Joannis, Tony; Bertolotti, Luigi; Monne, Isabella; Salviato, Annalisa; Olaleye, Olufemi; Shittu, Ismaila; Sulaiman, Lanre; Lombin, Lami H; Capua, Ilaria; Holmes, Edward C; Cattoli, Giovanni

2010-04-01

275

Evolutionary Dynamics of Multiple Sublineages of H5N1 Influenza Viruses in Nigeria from 2006 to 2008 ?  

PubMed Central

Highly pathogenic A/H5N1 avian influenza (HPAI H5N1) viruses have seriously affected the Nigerian poultry industry since early 2006. Previous studies have identified multiple introductions of the virus into Nigeria and several reassortment events between cocirculating lineages. To determine the spatial, evolutionary, and population dynamics of the multiple H5N1 lineages cocirculating in Nigeria, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequences from 106 HPAI H5N1 viruses isolated between 2006 and 2008 and representing all 25 Nigerian states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) reporting outbreaks. We identified a major new subclade in Nigeria that is phylogenetically distinguishable from all previously identified sublineages, as well as two novel reassortment events. A detailed analysis of viral phylogeography identified two major source populations for the HPAI H5N1 virus in Nigeria, one in a major commercial poultry area (southwest region) and one in northern Nigeria, where contact between wild birds and backyard poultry is frequent. These findings suggested that migratory birds from Eastern Europe or Russia may serve an important role in the introduction of HPAI H5N1 viruses into Nigeria, although virus spread through the movement of poultry and poultry products cannot be excluded. Our study provides new insight into the genesis and evolution of H5N1 influenza viruses in Nigeria and has important implications for targeting surveillance efforts to rapidly identify the spread of the virus into and within Nigeria.

Fusaro, Alice; Nelson, Martha I.; Joannis, Tony; Bertolotti, Luigi; Monne, Isabella; Salviato, Annalisa; Olaleye, Olufemi; Shittu, Ismaila; Sulaiman, Lanre; Lombin, Lami H.; Capua, Ilaria; Holmes, Edward C.; Cattoli, Giovanni

2010-01-01

276

Blood pressure patterns in relation to geographic area of residence: a cross-sectional study of adolescents in Kogi state, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of hypertension, an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), is increasing in the developing countries and this may be connected with the economic transition in those countries. Adult hypertension is thought to be related to childhood and adolescent increases in blood pressure, and hence the need to monitor patterns in early life. This study investigates the BP patterns, and their correlates, of adolescents from different geographic areas of residence in Nigeria. Methods A total of 1,088 Nigerian adolescents from different geographic areas of residence were recruited for the study. Their blood pressures and anthropometric indices were measured using standard procedures. The association of blood pressure with height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and geographic area of residence was assessed. Results Male and female urban-dwelling adolescents had significantly (p < 0.05) higher systolic blood pressure (117.45 21.53 mmHg and 114.82 17.95 mmHg respectively) compared to their counterparts living in the non-urban areas (108.20 12.12 mmHg and 106.03 13.06 mmHg respectively), even after adjusting for age and height. Conversely, non-urban boys (but not the girls) had significantly (p < 0.05) higher diastolic blood pressure compared to their urban counterparts. Adolescents in the urban areas had higher BMI (20.74 3.27 kg/m2 for males and 21.35 3.37 kg/m2 for females) than those in the non-urban areas (20.33 3.11 kg/m2 for males and 21.35 3.37 kg/m2 for females) though the difference was significant (p < 0.05) only in the females. Blood pressures were found to increase with age, and to be associated with BMI. Conclusion These findings underscore the need for efforts to be made towards addressing adolescent blood pressure elevation (in both urban and non-urban areas) as they are a reflection of adult morbidity and mortality from hypertension and the associated disorders.

Ejike, Chukwunonso ECC; Ugwu, Chidi E; Ezeanyika, Lawrence US; Olayemi, Ayo T

2008-01-01

277

Determination of amino Acid content and protein quality of complementary food produced from locally available food materials in ondo state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Protein-energy malnutrition is increasing among children in developing countries due to low nutrient density of traditional complementary diets. Therefore, this study aimed at determining the protein quality of a complementary food produced from cooking banana fruits and bambara groundnut seeds. The cooking banana and bambara groundnut seeds are locally available in both urban and villages markets in Nigeria. The cooking bananas (CB) and bambara groundnut (BG) seeds were processed into flours using standard procedure. The flours were mixed in a ratio of 70:30 (CBR1) and 60:40 (CBR2) of CB and BG respectively. A commercial weaning food (Nutrend) and traditional weaning food, ogi(corn gruel), were used as control food samples. The amino acid content and protein quality of the food samples were determined using standard procedures. Glutamic acid (CBR1 = 4.353 g/100g, CBR2 = 5.804 g/100g) was the highest while cysteine (CBR1= 0.252 g/100g; CBR2 = 0.336 g/100g) was the lowest of the amino acids in the food samples. The amino acids composition increased as the percentage supplementation of bambara ground nut increased in the mixtures. The formulated food sample showed that CBR1 and CBR2 met 31.8% and 42.4% respectively of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) fulfilment of essential amino acids. The biological value (BV) of CBR2 (90.5%) was significantly high when compared with CBR1 (75.9%) and ogi (52.4%). There was no significant difference between the BV of CBR2with the BV of Nutrend (93.8%). Also, the net protein utilisation (NPU), total digestibility (TD), protein efficiency ratio (PER), feed efficiency ratio (FER) and nitrogen retention (NR) of CBR2 were within a similar range as those for Nutrend. As for the haematological variables, there were no significant differences between those fed the formulated diets and the control samples. The rate of weight gain for the animals fed with CBR2 food sample was higher than those fed with CBR1 and ogi but were lower than those for animals fed with Nutrend and casein. The study established that the CBR2 samples contained. PMID:22691808

Ijarotimi, O S; Olopade, A J

2009-03-01

278

Infant feeding in Nigeria.  

PubMed

A study by questionnaire of 1845 urban and 349 rural mothers in all regions of Nigeria is reported. 99% of all mothers commenced breastfeeding their infants. In urban areas most continued for at least 6 months and in rural areas for at least 12 months. In urban areas, 77% of the infants were given infant formula by the age of 3 months; in rural areas 40% were given infant formula. Cereals were also introduced early to many children. The reasons for and the effects of this pattern of infant feeding are not clear, but it presumably meets the overall needs of the population. Further investigation is needed before attempts are made to enforce change. PMID:12313442

Orwell, S; Clayton, D; Dugdale, A E

1984-01-01

279

Liberalization of abortion and reduction of abortion related morbidity and mortality in Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study aimed at determining the knowledge and perception of physicians in Nigeria on abortion related deaths, and also to find out if they will support the liberalization of abortion as a means of reducing deaths from unsafe abortion. Physicians' willingness to offer abortion services was also explored. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of physicians in Delta state of Nigeria. Physicians were equally divided on whether legal liberalization of abortion would significantly reduce maternal mortality in Nigeria. Only 13.4% of the doctors were willing to offer abortion services if legally liberalized. The majority of the doctors considered promoting abstinence from pre-marital sex and contraceptive use as best effective strategies for reducing abortion-related deaths. However, liberalization of abortion law in Nigeria was not considered a very effective strategy. PMID:20636247

Okonta, Patrick I; Ebeigbe, Peter N; Sunday-Adeoye, Ileogben

2010-08-01

280

Exploring variations in childhood stunting in Nigeria using league table, control chart and spatial analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Stunting, linear growth retardation is the best measure of child health inequalities as it captures multiple dimensions of childrens health, development and environment where they live. The developmental priorities and socially acceptable health norms and practices in various regions and states within Nigeria remains disaggregated and with this, comes the challenge of being able to ascertain which of the regions and states identifies with either high or low childhood stunting to further investigate the risk factors and make recommendations for action oriented policy decisions. Methods We used data from the birth histories included in the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) to estimate childhood stunting. Stunting was defined as height for age below minus two standard deviations from the median height for age of the standard World Health Organization reference population. We plotted control charts of the proportion of childhood stunting for the 37 states (including federal capital, Abuja) in Nigeria. The Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) were used as a measure of the overall clustering and is assessed by a test of a null hypothesis. Results Childhood stunting is high in Nigeria with an average of about 39%. The percentage of children with stunting ranged from 11.5% in Anambra state to as high as 60% in Kebbi State. Ranking of states with respect to childhood stunting is as follows: Anambra and Lagos states had the least numbers with 11.5% and 16.8% respectively while Yobe, Zamfara, Katsina, Plateau and Kebbi had the highest (with more than 50% of their under-fives having stunted growth). Conclusions Childhood stunting is high in Nigeria and varied significantly across the states. The northern states have a higher proportion than the southern states. There is an urgent need for studies to explore factors that may be responsible for these special cause variations in childhood stunting in Nigeria.

2013-01-01

281

Exploration gaps exist in Nigeria`s prolific delta  

SciTech Connect

The Niger delta region of the Republic of Nigeria is Africa`s largest oil producing area. It is clear that Nigeria will continue to contribute significantly to world petroleum production well into the 21st century: with increases in recoverable oil reserves in the Niger delta onshore and offshore; the promising potential of the Niger delta deepwater region; and a lesser but not insignificant contribution from the unexplored onshore Benue trough, part of the mid-African rift system, which has already proved to hold substantial oil reserves in the Doba basin of neighboring Chad. This is the first of five parts on Nigeria`s oil and gas potential. The later articles deal with Niger delta oil reserves and production, Niger delta gas reserves, the delta`s deepwater region, and the Benue trough and onshore cretaceous rift basins. This article deals with the geologic setting of the Niger delta-Benue trough region, the synrift deposits, marine sedimentation, margin evolution, geologic strata and reservoirs, reservoir character, structure and traps, hydrocarbon types, geotemperatures, and source rock quality.

Thomas, D. [Thomas and Associates, Hastings (United Kingdom)

1995-10-30

282

Diplomacy and the polio immunization boycott in Northern Nigeria.  

PubMed

The boycott of polio vaccination in three Northern Nigerian states in 2003 created a global health crisis that was political in origin. This paper traces the diplomatic actions that were taken by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, the United Nations, and the U.S. government, to restart polio vaccination and resolve the crisis. The polio vaccination boycott in Northern Nigeria provides a useful case study of the practice of global health diplomacy. PMID:19597208

Kaufmann, Judith R; Feldbaum, Harley

2009-01-01

283

Developments in Space Research in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nigeria's desire to venture into space technology was first made known to ECA/ OAU member countries at an inter-governmental meeting in Addis Ababa, 1976. The Nigerian space research is highly rated in Africa in terms of reputation and scientific results. The National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA), Nigeria's space research coordinating body; has taken a more active role to help Nigeria's space research community to succeed internationally. The paper presents recent examples of Nigeria's successes in space and its detailed applications in areas such as remote sensing, meteorology, communication and Information Technology. and many more. It gave an analysis of the statistics of Nigerian born space scientists working in the other space-faring nations. The analysis have been used to develop a model for increasing Nigerian scientist's involvement in the development of space research in Nigeria. It concluded with some thoughts on the current and future of Nigeria's space borne scientific experiments, policies and programs.

Oke, O.

2006-08-01

284

Land Reform - Experience from Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In Africa, land tenure system has generally been broadly described as rigid, creating obstacles in the way of development. Solutions to the land tenure system have involved the adoptions of some institutional changes such as the promulgation of legislation or the adoption of some revolutionary principles. In Nigeria, the intervention into the land problem involves the promulgation of the

Lasun Mykail; Olufemi ADELEYE

285

The Role of Information Technology in Local Government Administration in Delta State Nigeria: A Case Study of Aniocha North and Aniocha South Local Government Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The study aims to examine the role of information technology in Local Government Administration in Delta State, using Aniocha North and Aniocha South Local Government Areas as the case study. Design\\/methodology\\/approach A survey approach was used to learn what was actually happening in local government practices. Findings IT contributes enormous value to the workings and operations

Stephen Osahon Uwaifo; Anthonia Chukwudumebi Kabadi

2006-01-01

286

An Analysis of Progress Made by Public Libraries as Social Institutions in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Review of state of public library practice in Nigeria from historical times to present highlights social impact; profile of public and state libraries; resources available; effects of library legislation; problems (high illiteracy rate, lack of adequate funding, personnel, inadequate educational planning, communication); and prospects for future.

Adimorah, E. N. O.

1983-01-01

287

Climate Change Impacts on Crop Production in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The agricultural sector in Nigeria is particularly important for the country's food security, natural resources, and growth agenda. The cultivable areas comprise more than 70% of the total area; however, the cultivated area is about the 35% of the total area. The most important components in the food basket of the nation are cereals and tubers, which include rice, maize, corn, millet, sorghum, yam, and cassava. These crops represent about 80% of the total agricultural product in Nigeria (from NPAFS). The major crops grown in the country can be divided into food crops (produced for consumption) and export products. Despite the importance of the export crops, the primary policy of agriculture is to make Nigeria self-sufficient in its food and fiber requirements. The projected impacts of future climate change on agriculture and water resources are expected to be adverse and extensive in these area. This implies the need for actions and measures to adapt to climate change impacts, and especially as they affect agriculture, the primary sector for Nigerian economy. In the framework of the Project Climate Risk Analysis in Nigeria (founded by World Bank Contract n.7157826), a study was made to assess the potential impact of climate change on the main crops that characterize Nigerian agriculture. The DSSAT-CSM (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer - Cropping System Model) software, version 4.5 was used for the analysis. Crop simulation models included in DSSAT are tools that simulate physiological processes of crop growth, development and production by combining genetic crop characteristics and environmental (soil and weather) conditions. For each selected crop, the models were calibrated to evaluate climate change impacts on crop production. The climate data used for the analysis are derived by the Regional Circulation Model COSMO-CLM, from 1971 to 2065, at 8 km of spatial resolution. The RCM model output was "perturbed" with 10 Global Climate Models to have a wide variety of possible climate projections for the impact analysis. Multiple combinations of soil and climate conditions and crop management and varieties were considered for each Agro-Ecological Zone (AEZ) of Nigeria. A sensitivity analysis was made to evaluate the model response to changes in precipitation and temperature. The climate impact assessment was made by comparing the yield obtained with the climate data for the present period and the yield obtainable under future climate conditions. The results were analyzed at state, AEZ and country levels. The analysis shows a general reduction in crop yields in particular in the dryer regions of northern Nigeria.

Mereu, V.; Gallo, A.; Carboni, G.; Spano, D.

2011-12-01

288

Awareness of antimalarial policy and use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for malaria treatment in communities of two selected local government areas of ogun state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

With limited data on the awareness of changes in the use of antimalaria drugs and availability and use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in the context of the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) program, we conducted this descriptive cross-sectional study of 262 registered women attending antenatal clinics and 233 mothers of under-five children. We used a questionnaire to assess the awareness, availability and use of ACT in Ijebu North and Yewa North Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Ogun State. Malaria is holo-endemic in these areas, and the RBM program has been implemented for years prior to the 2010 RBM deadline. Data were also collected through focus group discussions, along with secondary data from hospital records. Hospital stock records showed inadequate and inconsistent supplies of ACT drugs in hospitals surveyed. Only 23.0% of respondents knew about ACT drugs. About 48% preferred analgesics over ACT drugs (0.6%) for malaria treatment. Lack of awareness was the major reason for non-use of ACT drugs (86.1%). Communities in Yewa North had more supplies of ACT drugs and knew more about ACT than those in Ijebu North. Adequate information on ACT needs to be made available and accessible under a public-private partnership if 2010 RBM targets (now past) and the 2015 Millennium Development Goal (ongoing) for malaria are to be realized in the study communities and Ogun State in general. PMID:24702765

Adeneye, Adeniyi K; Jegede, Ayodele S; Mafe, Margaret A; Nwokocha, Ezebunwa E

2014-01-01

289

ICT and Higher Educational System in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the integration of ICT in higher education in Nigeria. The possibilities and reach of information technologies can tear down territorial boundaries and make available equal information and knowledge of different categories as soon as necessary data are fed on the website. Nevertheless, Nigeria as a nation is yet to take full

Idowu, Adeyemi I.; Esere, Mary

2013-01-01

290

Rights of the Child in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Federation of Nigeria. The report's introduction asserts that the rule by decree of Nigeria's present military regime has

Lacroix, Anne Laurence; Shoenberg, Cheryl; Schonveld, Ben

291

Food Security and Nutition trend in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nigeria has a chequered history of food production, sustainability and food security. This paper discusses the food and nutrition situation of Nigeria, it highlights some of the socio-economic factors- price, income, employment, demography (population density) that has influenced the food consumption system (supply, distribution, consumption) and addresses some of the major issues that would arise therein. It was observed that

Douglason G. Omotor

2009-01-01

292

Detection of Rabies Antigen in the Saliva and Brains of Apparently Healthy Dogs Slaughtered for Human Consumption and Its Public Health Implications in Abia State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

The study was carried out in eight dogs slaughtering outlets within four Local Government Areas of the State for the determination of rabies antigen in the saliva and brain of apparently healthy dogs slaughtered for human consumption. A total of one hundred (100) samples each of saliva and brain were collected before and after slaughter, respectively, between April to June, 2013, in the selected areas. The saliva was subjected to rapid immune-chromatographic test (RICT) while direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT) was carried out on the brain samples. Structured questionnaire was administered to nineteen (19) dog meat processors comprising 18 males and 1 female in the selected areas. Sixty four percent of the samples tested were from female dogs while 36% were from males, 5% tested positive for rabies antigen with the use of both tests; there was no statistical association between sex and rabies status of the dogs sampled (P > 0.05). Butchers bitten during the course of slaughtering were 94.7% out of which 72.8% utilized traditional method of treatment and only 27.8% reported to the hospital for proper medical attention. This study has established the presence of rabies antigen in apparently healthy dogs in the study area.

Mshelbwala, P. P.; Ogunkoya, A. B.; Maikai, B. V.

2013-01-01

293

Detection of rabies antigen in the saliva and brains of apparently healthy dogs slaughtered for human consumption and its public health implications in abia state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study was carried out in eight dogs slaughtering outlets within four Local Government Areas of the State for the determination of rabies antigen in the saliva and brain of apparently healthy dogs slaughtered for human consumption. A total of one hundred (100) samples each of saliva and brain were collected before and after slaughter, respectively, between April to June, 2013, in the selected areas. The saliva was subjected to rapid immune-chromatographic test (RICT) while direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT) was carried out on the brain samples. Structured questionnaire was administered to nineteen (19) dog meat processors comprising 18 males and 1 female in the selected areas. Sixty four percent of the samples tested were from female dogs while 36% were from males, 5% tested positive for rabies antigen with the use of both tests; there was no statistical association between sex and rabies status of the dogs sampled (P > 0.05). Butchers bitten during the course of slaughtering were 94.7% out of which 72.8% utilized traditional method of treatment and only 27.8% reported to the hospital for proper medical attention. This study has established the presence of rabies antigen in apparently healthy dogs in the study area. PMID:24416598

Mshelbwala, P P; Ogunkoya, A B; Maikai, B V

2013-01-01

294

Application of Resistivity Sounding In Groundwater Investigation: A Case Study of Rimin Gado and Tofa Local Government Areas of Kano State, Nigeria.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over thirty Vertical Electrical Sounding survey were carried out in Tofa and Rimin Gado local government areas of Kano state. Dynamic water level from open wells was also collected and was used as a guide for the selection of the electrode spread. The schlumberger array with a maximum electrode spread of 100 m was employed in all the points. Results from the sounding data indicates that the area is generally underlain by five geoelectric or geologic section which include Lateritic top soil or Lateritic sand, Silty sand or Sandy clay, Weathered basement or Clayey sand, Fractured basement and Fresh basement. Based on the result obtained the weathered as well as the fractured basements forms the aquiferous zone within the study area, with the weathered being more promising. The resistivity of these zones varies from 9 to 1640 ?m with an average value 255 ?m, while the thickness varies from a value of 1.66 to 28 m with an average value of 10.67 m. Depth to this zone varies from 5 to 31 m with an average value of 8.1 m. The study also shows that the Rimin Gado area appears to have more potential for groundwater development as compared with the Tofa area.

Yola, Auwalu Lawan

2012-06-01

295

Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (281C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

296

Proximate Composition and Functional Properties of Mushroom Flours from Ganoderma spp., Omphalotus olearius (DC.) Sing. and Hebeloma mesophaeum (Pers.) Qul. Used in Nasarawa State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The proximate composition and functional properties of three edible mushroom (Ganoderma spp., Omphalotus olearius (DC.) Sing. and Hebeloma mesophaeum (Pers.) Qul.) flours used in Nasarawa state, Nigaria were investigated using standard analytical techniques. The samples contained crude protein in the range of 18.5% in Omphalotus olearius to 21.5% in Ganoderma spp. Crude fat varied with values ranging from 6.9% in Ganoderma spp. to 8.7% in Omphalotus olearius. Other proximate composition values were in the following ranges: moisture content 10.0 - 11.1%, ash 7.3 - 8.3%, crude fibre 2.8 - 3.5% and carbohydrate (by difference) 50.3 - 50.9%. The range values of functional properties were: foaming capacity 101.8 - 131.5%, foaming stability 51.0 - 54.0%, water absorption capacity 260.0 - 390.0%, oil absorption capacity 450 - 480%, oil emulsion capacity 57.3 - 61.0mLg- 1, least gelation concentration 12.0 - 14.0% and bulk density 230.0 - 410.0gmL-1. The results showed that these nutrient rich mushroom flours under investigation may prove useful in the formulation of different food products where foaming, emulsification, retention of flavour and palatability as well as gel formation are required. PMID:22691821

Aremu, M O; Basu, S K; Gyar, S D; Goyal, A; Bhowmik, P K; Datta Banik, S

2009-09-01

297

Surficial geophysical deduction of the geomaterial and aquifer distributions at Ngor-Okpala local government area of Imo State, South Eastern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twenty seven vertical electrical sounding (VES) profiles surrounding four known traverses were obtained in Ngor-Okpala local government area of Imo state to examine the subsurface geomaterials and the associated groundwater potential. The VES data, constrained by borehole data, provided useful information about the subsurface hydrogeologic and lithologic conditions. From the validated interpretation, the area assessed has loamy soil, medium grained sands, well-sorted medium-grained/gravelly sands and river sand as the lithologic succession from top to the bottom of the depth penetrated. The aquifers in the area were found in the medium-grained sands and well-sorted medium-coarse-grained sands. The aquifer depth for all-season groundwater that would be devoid of draw-down can be found at a depth range of 42-50 m. The resistivity maps of selected depths exhibit sharp resistivity changes at depth due mainly to undulating subsurface topography. A map of the distribution of the k ?-values shows that good quality groundwater can be found in most parts of the area.

Victor, Obianwu I.; Innocent, Chimezie C.; Anthony, Akpan E.; Jimmy, George N.

2011-12-01

298

Acid-fast bacilli other than mycobacteria in tuberculosis patients receiving directly observed therapy short course in cross river state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The information on the contribution of non tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) to mycobacterial infections in Africa is scarce due to limited laboratory culture for its isolation and identification. One hundred and thirty-seven sputum smear positive patients were recruited into a study on the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Cross River State. Following sputum culture, 97 pure isolates were obtained and identified using Capilia TB-Neo and further confirmed by the GenoType Mycobacterium CM kit. Of the 97 isolates, 81 (83.5%) isolates were Capilia TB-Neo positive while 16 (16.5%) were Capilia TB-Neo negative. Further confirmation with the GenoType Mycobacterium CM kit revealed that 4 (25%) of the 16 isolates belonged to NTM and included M. fortuitum I, M. fortuitum II/M magaritense, M. abscessus, and M. avium ssp. The remaining 12 (75%) Capilia TB-Neo negative isolates were not members of the genus Mycobacterium despite their AFB appearance. Six (33.3%) of the Capilia TB-Neo negative were from HIV positive tuberculosis patients. All subjects in this study were placed on DOTS shortly after the AFB results were obtained. The implication of isolation of 16.5% nontuberculous isolates further emphasizes the need for culture of sputum specimen especially in HIV positive patients prior to administration of antituberculosis therapy. PMID:22919477

Pokam, Benjamin Thumamo; Asuquo, Anne E

2012-01-01

299

Statistics of geophysical activity in Nigeria (1975 1984)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistics on geophysical activities in Nigeria for the ten-year period (1975-1984) was compiled mainly from questionnaires distributed to government and private agencies, oil and mining companies, and universities which engage in groundwater, petroleum and mineral exploration, engineering and research work. Similar studies had been done worldwide by Epsey (1975, 1976, 1977) and Whitmire (1978). From the statistics, it was deduced that electrical resistivity, magnetic, seismic, radiometric, gravity, airborne and ground magnetic survey methods are the main geophysical techniques used which resulted in the discovery of some of the natural resources (oil, gas, minerals and groundwater) buried a few kilometers below the Nigerian soil. Airborne and ground magnetic surveys have been carried out by at least two government agencies, namely: the Geological Survey of Nigeria and Nigerian Steel Council. The compilation also reveals that a greater part of geophysical and drilling activities of operating oil companies is currently concentrated in the sedimentary basins, mainly the oil-rich Niger Delta and near offshore areas. From the available statistics, at least three companies, the National Steel Council, the Geological Survey of Nigeria, and Kano State Water Resources Engineering and Construction Agency have employed geophysical methods for engineering.

Umo, A. J.; Ajakaiye, D. E.

1993-11-01

300

Correlation between dipstick urinalysis and urine sediment microscopy in detecting haematuria among children with sickle cell anaemia in steady state in Ilorin, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Haematuria is one of the clinical manifestations of sickle cell nephropathy. Although dipstick urinalysis detects haemoglobin and by extension haematuria; it does not confirm haematuria. Urine sediment microscopy confirms haematuria and constitutes a non-invasive renal biopsy. The need to correlate dipstick urinalysis and urine sediment microscopy findings becomes important because of the cheapness, quickness and simplicity of the former procedure. Methods Dipstick urinalysis and urine sediment microscopy were carried (both on first contact and a month after) among consecutive steady state sickle cell anaemia children attending sickle cell clinic at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital between October 2004 and July 2005. Results A total of 75 sickle cell anemia children aged between 1-17 years met the inclusion criteria. Haematuria was found in 12 children (16.0%) and persistent haematuria in 10 children 13.3%. Age and gender did not have significant relationship with haematuria both at first contact (p values 0.087 and 0.654 respectively) and at follow-up (p values 0.075 and 0.630 respectively). Eumorphic haematuria was confirmed in all the children with persistent haematuria with Pearson correlation +0.623 and significant p value of 0.000. Conclusion The study has revealed a direct significant correlation for haematuria detected on dipstick urinalysis and at urine sediment microscopy. It may therefore be inferred that dipstick urinalysis is an easy and readily available tool for the screening of haematuria among children with sickle cell anaemia and should therefore be done routinely at the sickle cell clinics.

Anigilaje, Emmanuel Ademola; Adedoyin, Olanrewaju Timothy

2013-01-01

301

Prevalence of obesity among adolescents in Ile-Ife, Osun state, Nigeria using body mass index and waist hip ratio: A comparative study  

PubMed Central

Background: Obesity is a global epidemic not just among adults but also among children and adolescents. This study described the prevalence and pattern of obesity among in-school adolescents in Ile-Ife, Osun State using two standard methods, Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) with a view of comparing the two methods as well as identifying any correlation between the two methods. Materials and Methods: Five hundred male and female respondents, aged 10-19 years, were randomly selected through a multistage sampling technique from private and public schools in Ife Central Local Government Area. Quantitative data were collected with the aid of a pre-tested, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements of respondents, BMI and WHR, were recorded. Chi square and linear regression analyses were used. Statistical significance was tested at the 5% level. Results: The prevalence of obesity was 4.2% using BMI of which 12 (57.1%) were females and nine (42.9%) were males. There was significant association between sex and BMI, ?2 = 9.490 (P = 0.020). Using WHR, the prevalence was 37.2% of which 180 (96.8%) were females and six (3.2%) were males. There was also significant association between sex and WHR (P < 0.001). Weak correlation (r = 0.02) was found between BMI and WHR among the females, P = 0.043. Conclusion: There was a difference in the prevalence of obesity using the two methods. Although, the correlation between the two methods was weak among females, WHR yielded a higher prevalence for obesity with remarkable difference especially among the females. Prevention of adolescent obesity should be encouraged especially among females.

Sabageh, Adedayo O.; Ojofeitimi, Ebenezer O.

2013-01-01

302

Evaluation of Fertilizer Value of Organic Waste Materials in South Western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one organic waste materials were collected from different locations in five states located in south western Nigeria. The organic wastes were evaluated for their fertilizer value.The chemical analysis of the organic waste materials showed that the nutrient contents of the waste materials varied greatly with source. No organic waste material consistently had high values of all macro and micro elements

E. O. Titiloye; E. O. Lucas; A. A. Agboola

1985-01-01

303

Prevalence of antibodies to infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in chickens in southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 672 sera from apparently healthy commercial and indigenous chickens of different ages were screened for antibodies to infectious bronchitis (IB) virus using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples obtained from breeder, layer, grower and indigenous chicken flocks in Oyo, Ogun, Ondo and Lagos states of southwestern Nigeria were screened. The total seroprevalence was 82.7% with ELISA units

B. O. Emikpe; O. G. Ohore; S. O. Akpavie

304

Institutions for Collective Action among Settled Fulani Agro-Pastoralists in Southwest Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study identifies institutions for organizing collective action among settled Fulani agro-pastoralists in southwest Nigeria and examines their functions, processes and tools for fostering collective action. Four Fulani communities were selected purposively in Ekiti State; data were collected from 55 settled pastoralists through informal

Fabusoro, E.; Sodiya, C. I.

2011-01-01

305

Personal, Situational and SocioCultural Factors as Correlates of Intimates Partner Abuse in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationships among personal, situational, and socio-cultural factors and intimate partner abuse among couples. A multiple regression statistical procedure was employed in analyzing the data collected from 200 participants randomly selected from five ministries in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Results obtained indicated that the three variables when combined effectively predicted intimate partner abuse. Taken separately, situational and

David Oladeji; T. G. Adegoke

2008-01-01

306

Farmers capability and institutional incapacity in reclaiming disturbed land on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The approaches adopted by local farmers and official agencies to the question of reclamation of areas damaged by tin mining on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria are compared. Local farmers have been informally using disturbed land for much of this century. The formal (State) sector has only been operational since 1948, when regulations requiring mining companies to reinstate mined lands were

M. J Alexander; A. D Kidd

2000-01-01

307

Risk and Insurance in a Rural Credit Market: An Empirical Investigation in Northern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Credit contracts play a direct role in pooling risk between households in northern Nigeria. Repayments owed by borrowers depend on realizations of random shocks by both borrowers and lenders. The paper develops two models of state-contingent loans. The first is a competitive equilibrium in perfectly enforceable contracts. The second permits imperfect information and equilibrium default. Estimates of both models indicate

Christopher Udry

1994-01-01

308

Demographic Information Sources and Utilization as Determinants of Educational Policy Making in South Western Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines demographic information sources and utilization as determinants of educational policy making in South West Nigeria. Using validated and structured questionnaire, the study population of 398 officers in the ministries of education in the affected states were enumerated. The study establishes population census, vital registration,

Gbadamosi, Belau Olatunde

2013-01-01

309

Women Education in Nigeria: Predicaments and Hopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is focused on women education in Nigeria. It traces the genesis of western education in Nigeria and bias that existed from the traditional Nigerian society against women education. It identified and discussed barriers to women education in Nigeria. Recent trend in enrolment at various levels of education shows improvement in favor of women. In view of this realization, this paper argues that if the current momentum is sustained, women will not only achieve equal status to men in educational attainment but also have the tendency to surpass men within the next ten to fifteen years. The implications could be outreaching as the paper proffers some recommendations.

Akubuilo, Francis; Omeje, Monica

2012-10-01

310

The Economics of Cowpea Marketing in Nigeria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The traditional system of marketing cowpeas, one of Nigeria's most popular legumes, is typical of West African marketing procedures. In light of the accepted view that the Nigerian cowpea market is inefficient in distributing goods to consumers and inputs...

K. L. Robinson N. O. O. Ejiga

1981-01-01

311

Koranic education and militant Islam in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article the author outlines and discusses the influence of Koranic schools, and their students ( almagiri) on the rise of fundamentalism and the spreading of militant Islam in Northern Nigeria. The author contends that while Islamic fundamentalism is the banner of both the Western-oriented Muslims and traditional Nigerian Muslims, it differs in expression in Northern Nigeria. The article shows that these differences result from the influence of the Koranic schools on the traditional teachers ( ulama) and their students on the one hand, and Western universities, Wahhabi Arabs, and Western-oriented teachers and their students on the other. The origins of the Koranic school curriculum in Nigeria, the training of traditional Muslim teachers, and the lifestyle of the students are discussed. The author shows how certain socialization patterns found in the Koranic schools and `almagiri' system seem congruent with the political attitudes and values stressed by spokesmen of militant Islamic sects in Northern Nigeria.

Winters, Clyde Ahmad

1987-06-01

312

Vast gas program looms in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

By Jan. 1, 1984, Nigeria's oil-field operators will stop flaring associated gas (now burned at the rate of 1.9 billion CF\\/day) and begin diverting the gas to an LNG plant to be built at the mouth of the Bonny River in the Niger delta. Nigeria's proved gas reserves are very conservatively estimated at 41 trillion CF (80-85% nonassociated); however, the

Vielvoye

1981-01-01

313

Seasonal variation of surface refractivity over Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonal variation of surface refractivity over Nigeria was studied using two years in-situ meteorological data from eight locations over Nigeria. The result shows that the surface refractivity generally has higher value during rainy season than dry season at all location studied. The results also show that the value of surface refractivity increases from arid region in the north to the coastal area in south. The results also show that local meteorology plays a very important role in refractivity variation.

Ayantunji, B. G.; Okeke, P. N.; Urama, J. O.

2011-12-01

314

Profile of spinal injuries in Lagos, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Retrospective study.Objective:To describe the pattern and outcome of spinal cord injuries in Lagos, Nigeria.Setting:Nigeria, Lagos.Methods:This retrospective review of cases was conducted at Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos, between January 1992 and December 2006.Results:A total of 468 cases of spinal cord injury over the 15-year period were studied. Three hundred and twelve of them (66.2%) were aged 40 years

D C Obalum; S O Giwa; T O Adekoya-Cole; G O Enweluzo

2009-01-01

315

Gangs in Nigeria: an updated examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes gangs in Nigeria, providing an updated examination of their current strategies and activities. The premise\\u000a of this analysis partly draws on Social Identity Theory, with respect to gang affiliation. Particularly explored are (1) gang\\u000a cultism as a common phenomenon on college campuses in Nigeria (through their malicious, secret, fraternity-like activities)\\u000a and (2) the role of Islam in

Jonathan Matusitz; Michael Repass

2009-01-01

316

Preventing unsafe abortion in Nigeria.  

PubMed

This paper reviews pertinent literature and identifies research needs relating to unsafe abortion in Nigeria. The paper is organised into three sections. In the first part of the article, a conceptual framework for developing a research agenda to prevent unsafe abortion among Nigerian women is articulated. This section argues for a systematic research agenda that would allow a fuller understanding of the determinants of all segments of the induced abortion cycle. In the second section of the article, we offer a detailed description of the available research data as well as gaps in knowledge on unsafe abortion in Nigeria. In the final part of the paper, recommendations are made on priority areas of research that are capable of stemming the high rate of morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion among Nigerian women. In particular, the paper recommends high quality, multidisciplinary formative and intervention research to foster an understanding of the determinants of abortion among Nigerian women. Such research should be geared toward providing accurate information to policy makers in a logical manner so as to enable them to generate appropriate policies for preventing unsafe abortion. PMID:10214400

Okonofua, F

1997-03-01

317

Niger Delta play types, Nigeria  

SciTech Connect

Exploration databases can be more valuable when sorted by play type. Play specific databases provide a system to organize E & P data used in evaluating the range of values of parameters for reserve estimation and risk assessment. It is important both in focusing the knowledge base and in orienting research effort. A play in this context is any unique combination of trap, reservoir and source properties with the right dynamics of migration and preservation that results in hydrocarbon accumulation. This definitions helps us to discriminate the subtle differences found with these accumulation settings. About 20 play types were identified around the Niger Delta oil province in Nigeria. These are grouped into three parts: (1) The proven plays-constituting the bulk of exploration prospects in Nigeria today. (2) The unproven or semi-proven plays usually with some successes recorded in a few tries but where knowledge is still inadequate. (3) The unproven or analogous play concept. These are untested but geologically sound ideas which may or may not have been tried elsewhere. With classification and sub grouping of these play types into specific databases, intrinsic attributes and uniqueness of each of them with respect to the four major risk elements and the eight parameters for reserve estimation can be better understood.

Akinpelu, A.O. [Chevron Nigeria Limited, Lagos (Nigeria)

1995-08-01

318

Developments in Space Research in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nigeria s desire to venture into space technology was first made known to ECA OAU member countries at an inter-governmental meeting in Addis Ababa 1976 The Nigerian space research is highly rated in Africa in terms of reputation and scientific results The National Space Research and Development Agency NASRDA Nigeria s space research coordinating body has taken a more active role to help Nigeria s space research community to succeed internationally The paper presents recent examples of Nigeria s successes in space and its detailed applications in areas such as remote sensing meteorology communication and Information Technology and many more It gave an analysis of the statistics of Nigerian born space scientists working in the other space-faring nations The analysis have been used to develop a model for increasing Nigerian scientist s involvement in the development of space research in Nigeria It concluded with some thoughts on the current and future of Nigeria s space borne scientific experiments policies and programs

Oke, O.

319

A Single-Center 7-Year Experience with End-Stage Renal Disease Care in Nigeria--A Surrogate for the Poor State of ESRD Care in Nigeria and Other Sub-Saharan African Countries: Advocacy for a Global Fund for ESRD Care Program in Sub-Saharan African Countries  

PubMed Central

Background. A single-center ESRD care experience in a Nigerian teaching hospital is presented as a surrogate case to demonstrate the prevailing ESRD care situation in Nigeria and most SSA countries. Methods. The data of 320 consecutive ESRD patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis treatment during a seven-year period were retrospectively analyzed. Results. Over 80% of the subjects funded dialysis treatments from direct out of pocket payment. The mean duration on dialysis before dropout was 5.2 7.6 weeks, with majority 314 (98.1%) of the patients unable to sustain dialysis above 12 weeks. Total dialysis sessions during the 7-year period was 1476 giving an average weekly dialysis session of 0.013 (0.05 hour/week) per patient per week. One hundred and twenty-eight (40%) patients died within 90 days of entry into dialysis care. Conclusions. ESRD care in this single centre was characterized by gross dialysis inadequacy and case fatality due to the inability to access and afford care. The opportunities for kidney transplantation are also very low. Poverty and the absence of government support for ESRD care are responsible for the poor outcomes. A global focus on ESRD care in SSA countries has thus become imperative.

Alasia, Datonye Dennis; Emem-Chioma, Pedro; Wokoma, Friday Samuel

2012-01-01

320

Knowledge of HIV/AIDS among nurses in southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to find out how much this group of nurses from south-western Nigeria knew about the HIV/AIDS phenomenon. A survey questionnaire was distributed to two population convenient samples of nurses; one group at a university teaching hospital, and the other at a post-basic institution of higher learning. The respondents stated that many of them knew quite a bit about HIV/AIDS, but only a few affirmed that they were taught informal classroom setting. Many of the nurses were able to identify the HIV as the culprit in causing the infection that leads to AIDS. The sources of information about HIV/AIDS vary. The nurses attributed the spread of HIV/AIDS to promiscuous teenage girls predominantly, as well as older men due to infidelity. Many of the nurses stated that sex education should be given to children as young as five years old, and as old as over sixteen years of age. It is recommended that curricular infusion should be done to incorporate HIV/AIDS education in the nursing schools in south-western Nigeria. PMID:17252879

Adepoju, Joseph A

2006-01-01

321

Hydatidiform mole in Jos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Hydatidiform mole is a relatively common gynecological problem which could present like spontaneous abortion, one of the commonest gynecological emergencies. It has the propensity to become malignant but can easily be identified and treated. The aim of this study was to determine the demographics, clinical features, treatment options and outcome of patients with hydatidiform mole in our environment. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective review of all the cases of hydatidiform mole seen at the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Jos, Nigeria over a 5-year period. Results: There were 34 cases of hydatidiform mole giving an incidence of 1 in 357 deliveries. However only 25 case notes were available for analysis and the mean age of patients was 283 years. Vaginal bleeding (92%), honeycomb appearance on ultrasound scan (84%), and passage of vesicles (60%) were the most common clinical findings while suction curettage was the mode of treatment for all the patients in this study. Twenty-eight percent of cases were confirmed by histology. No patient came for follow-up after the third month of diagnosis. Twenty percent of the patients booked for antenatal care within 9 months of diagnosis while 12% of patients presented as gynecological emergencies with features of malignant disease within six months of diagnosis. Conclusion: Hydatidiform mole is common in Jos, North Central Nigeria, and presents most commonly with vaginal bleeding with over 10% becoming malignant. Hence all patients who present with vaginal bleeding should be screened for HM. None of the patients completed the recommended duration of follow-up and only about had histology reports. Concerted efforts need to be made to address the challenges of patients adhering to recommended follow-up protocols and having to pay first before investigations are done.

Ocheke, Amaka N.; Musa, Jonah; Uamai, Alexander O.

2011-01-01

322

Molecular characterization of the circulating strains of Vibrio cholerae during 2010 cholera outbreak in Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study aimed at characterizing the phenotypic and toxigenic status of circulating strains of cholera during outbreaks in Nigeria, employing molecular typing techniques. Two hundred and one samples of rectal swabs, stool, vomitus, water (from the well, borehole, sachet, stream, and tap) and disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite) were collected from three states in the country. The samples were inoculated on thiosulphate-citrate bile salt-sucrose (TCBS), Cary-Blair transport medium and smeared on glass slides for direct examination. The Vibrio cholerae isolates were serotyped, biotyped, and characterized using PCR of the cytotoxin gene A (ctxA), wbeO1, and wbfO139 gene primer. Of the 201 samples screened, 96 were positive for V cholerae O1 (48%), with 69 (72%) positive for ctxA gene. The results from this study showed that the circulating strains of cholera in Nigeria were of Ogawa serotype, also observed in other outbreaks in Nigeria (1991, 1992, and 1996). However, the strains were of the Classical biotype and were mainly (72%) ctxA gene-positive. This current investigation has confirmed the production of cholera toxin by the circulating strains, and this could be harnessed for possible cholera vaccine production in Nigeria. PMID:23930335

Oyedeji, Kolawole S; Niemogha, Mary-Theresa; Nwaokorie, Francisca O; Bamidele, Tajudeen A; Ochoga, Michael; Akinsinde, Kehinde A; Brai, Bartholomew I; Oladele, David; Omonigbehin, Emmanuel A; Bamidele, Moses; Fesobi, Toun W; Musa, Adesola Z; Adeneye, Adeniyi K; Smith, Stella I; Ujah, Innocent A

2013-06-01

323

Sabin and wild polioviruses from apparently healthy primary school children in northeastern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Despite significant success of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in Nigeria, Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, wild poliovirus still occurs due to persistently high proportions of under and unimmunized children. The study aimed at determining the type of poliovirus often excreted into the environment. Four hundred nine fecal samples collected from apparently healthy school children aged 5-16 years in Borno and Adamawa States, northeastern Nigeria, were tested for poliovirus by tissue culture technique. The isolates were characterized further by intratypic differentiation testing and genetic sequencing. Three wild poliovirus type, 11 Sabin type, combination of Sabin-types 1?+?2 and 2?+?3 poliovirus, and 22 non-polio enteroviruses were obtained. The continued excretion of wild-type poliovirus among children above 5 years old vaccinated with oral polio vaccine contributes to the persistent circulation of these viruses in the environment and may limit the population immunity. However, the excreted Sabin poliovirus is capable of immunizing the unvaccinated children and promotes herd immunity. Similarly, the excretion of combination of two polio serotypes indicates the child susceptibility to the missing serotype (s) and therefore indicates an immunity gap. The common unhygienic practices in the environment could aid the spread of these viruses through oral-fecal route. Asymptomatic transmission of wild poliovirus among older oral polio vaccine-vaccinated children poses a serious threat to polio eradication program in Nigeria and therefore, environmental and serological surveillance with larger sample size are important for monitoring poliovirus circulation in Nigeria. PMID:22170559

Baba, M M; Oderinde, B S; Patrick, P Z; Jarmai, M M

2012-02-01

324

Molecular Characterization of the Circulating Strains of Vibrio cholerae during 2010 Cholera Outbreak in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

This study aimed at characterizing the phenotypic and toxigenic status of circulating strains of cholera during outbreaks in Nigeria, employing molecular typing techniques. Two hundred and one samples of rectal swabs, stool, vomitus, water (from the well, borehole, sachet, stream, and tap) and disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite) were collected from three states in the country. The samples were inoculated on thiosulphate-citrate bile salt-sucrose (TCBS), Cary-Blair transport medium and smeared on glass slides for direct examination. The Vibrio cholerae isolates were serotyped, biotyped, and characterized using PCR of the cytotoxin gene A (ctxA), wbeO1, and wbfO139 gene primer. Of the 201 samples screened, 96 were positive for V. cholerae O1 (48%), with 69 (72%) positive for ctxA gene. The results from this study showed that the circulating strains of cholera in Nigeria were of Ogawa serotype, also observed in other outbreaks in Nigeria (1991, 1992, and 1996). However, the strains were of the Classical biotype and were mainly (72%) ctxA gene-positive. This current investigation has confirmed the production of cholera toxin by the circulating strains, and this could be harnessed for possible cholera vaccine production in Nigeria.

Oyedeji, Kolawole S.; Niemogha, Mary-Theresa; Nwaokorie, Francisca O.; Bamidele, Tajudeen A.; Ochoga, Michael; Akinsinde, Kehinde A.; Brai, Bartholomew I.; Oladele, David; Omonigbehin, Emmanuel A.; Bamidele, Moses; Fesobi, Toun W.; Musa, Adesola Z.; Adeneye, Adeniyi K.; Ujah, Innocent A.

2013-01-01

325

Pregnancy termination and the law in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Abortion in Nigeria is illegal and carries a heavy jail sentence--up to 14 years imprisonment--unless it is performed to save the life of the pregnant woman. Nevertheless, a large number of clandestine abortions continue to be carried out regularly, often with dire consequences for the lives and health of the women involved. This article reviews abortion legislation in Nigeria, examines court decisions on the subject, and presents the results of a survey conducted on the incidence of abortion in the country. A case is made for revising existing abortion laws. A brief look is taken at the various indications for abortion that might be adopted and a proposal is made for a new abortion policy in Nigeria in the light of the country's recently adopted population policy. PMID:2219225

Okagbue, I

1990-01-01

326

Occurrence and distribution of pepper veinal mottle virus and cucumber mosaic virus in pepper in Ibadan, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Viral diseases constitute obstacles to pepper production in the world. In Nigeria, pepper plants are primarily affected by pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Pepper leaf curl Virus (TLCV), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Pepper mottle virus (PMV) and a host of other viruses. The experiment was carried out with a diagnostic survey on the experimental field of the National Horticultural Research Institute, Ibadan, Nigeria and on pepper farms in six local government areas within Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria, forty samples were collected from each of the farms. Diseased samples were obtained from the field and taken to the laboratory for indexing. In ELISA test some of the samples from the pepper farms showed positive reaction to single infection with PVMV (36.79%), CMV (22.14%) while some others showed positive reaction to mixed infection of the two viruses (10%) but some also negative reaction to PVMV and CMV antisera (31.07).

2012-01-01

327

Perspectives on polio and immunization in Northern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Through the efforts of the global campaign to eradicate poliomyelitis, polio cases have declined worldwide, from 35,251 cases in 1988, to 1449 cases as of 28 October 2005. However, confirmed cases of wild polio virus continue to be reported from Northern Nigeria. This paper examines the reasons for the difficulties in eradicating polio in Northern Nigeria from the perspective of residents of one town, Zaria, in northern Kaduna State. Research methods included participant observation, open-ended interviews and the collection of polio-related documents. While some people believed that the vaccine was contaminated by anti-fertility substances, others questioned the focus on polio when measles and malaria were considered more harmful. Some also distrusted claims about the safety of Western biomedicine. These concerns relate to questions about the appropriateness of vertical health interventions, where levels of routine immunization are low. While the Polio Eradication Initiative was considered to be cost-effective by Western donors, from the perspective of some people in Zaria it was seen as undermining primary health care, suggesting that a collaborative, community-based framework for primary health care, which includes routine immunization, would be a more acceptable approach. PMID:16765498

Renne, Elisha

2006-10-01

328

Clinical biopsychosocial practice and primary health care in Eastern Nigeria.  

PubMed

An account with case reports of the organization of medical education in the direction of a synthesis between divergent biological paradigms within sociological parameters (the biopsychosocial way), towards problem solving and solution finding in rural health in Cross River State, in the Rain Forest Belt of Tropical West Africa (Nigeria) is described. The objective of the biopsychosocial programme is to strengthen rural health through primary health care based on health education and health communications transfer strategies, implemented by medical students absolving their Community Health Clinical Clerkship. Informational messages and health education is transmitted in such a way as to be accepted by village communities, and to lead to community action within their own resources (Self-Health and Self-Help). Individual and Community Health is integrated with general practice medicine in the clinical biopsychosocial approach, which fulfils the WHO position of health as physical (BIO), mental (PSYCHO) and SOCIAL well being. Rural support activities are a part of biosocial development. It is believed that the biopsychosocial way has contributed to health improvement in this part of Nigeria. PMID:4095596

Day, S B

1985-01-01

329

Emotional reactions of relatives to schizophrenic patients in Lagos, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Unlike what obtains in the developed countries, not much is known about the expressed emotions (EE) of the family to mental illness in developing nations, including Nigeria. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the EE among family members to schizophrenics in Lagos, Nigeria. The Camberwell Family Interview was conducted with Nigerian family members of 19 schizophrenics whose symptoms were further ascertained using the Present State Examination. Sixty-three percent of the family sample showed high expressed emotions (HEE). The proportion of HEE families increased progressively with the number of previous hospitalization (r = 1, p = 0.000). The mean ratings of Critical Comment, Warmth and Positive Remarks were, respectively, 6.1 (+/- 3.8), 2.6 (+/- 0.9) and 2.2 (+/- 0.9) and 2.2 (+/- 1.3). The proportions of relatives showing Emotional Over-Involvement and Hostility were, respectively, 26.3% and 31.6%. The correlation between Warmth and Critical Comment was -0.39. The findings were compared with those of a key cross-cultural study of EE and the implications highlighted. PMID:15030058

Reicher, B; Adeyemi, J D; Lawal, R A; Famuyiwa, O O; Haruna, A Y; Jibodu, M O

2003-03-01

330

Prevalence of hypertension among urban slum dwellers in Lagos, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Urban slum dwellers are not only prone to develop communicable diseases but also to non-communicable disease (NCDs). The extent and magnitude of NCDs among slum dwellers is largely unknown in Nigeria. A total of 964 adults aged 20-81years (male 330 and female 634) residing in the urban slum of Ajegunle in Lagos State, Nigeria were studied to determine the prevalence of hypertension and associated factors. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 38.2%. Of the 368 respondents identified as having hypertension, only 50 (5.2%) respondents were previously aware of their diagnosis. Of the 50 known hypertensive patients, 48(96%) had poor control of their high blood pressure. The socio-demographic factors significantly associated with hypertension status were age, sex, education, religion, BMI, and marital status. The study concludes a high prevalence of hypertension among urban slums dwellers in Lagos. The need for government to develop policies for the control of hypertension, improve access to early diagnosis and provide an enabling socioeconomic environment while promoting healthy living. PMID:23440487

Daniel, Olusoji James; Adejumo, Olusola Adedeji; Adejumo, Esther Ngozi; Owolabi, Rotimi Samuel; Braimoh, Rotimi Williams

2013-12-01

331

Fungal and bacterial metabolites in commercial poultry feed from Nigeria.  

PubMed

Metabolites of toxigenic fungi and bacteria occur as natural contaminants (e.g. mycotoxins) in feedstuffs making them unsafe to animals. The multi-toxin profiles in 58 commercial poultry feed samples collected from 19 districts in 17 states of Nigeria were determined by LC/ESI-MS/MS with a single extraction step and no clean-up. Sixty-three (56 fungal and seven bacterial) metabolites were detected with concentrations ranging up to 10,200?g?kg? in the case of aurofusarin. Fusarium toxins were the most prevalent group of fungal metabolites, whereas valinomycin occurred in more than 50% of the samples. Twelve non-regulatory fungal and seven bacterial metabolites detected and quantified in this study have never been reported previously in naturally contaminated stored grains or finished feed. Among the regulatory toxins in poultry feed, aflatoxin concentrations in 62% of samples were above 20?g?kg?, demonstrating high prevalence of unsafe levels of aflatoxins in Nigeria. Deoxynivalenol concentrations exceeded 1000?g?kg? in 10.3% of samples. Actions are required to reduce the consequences from regulatory mycotoxins and understand the risks of the single or co-occurrence of non-regulatory metabolites for the benefit of the poultry industry. PMID:22725671

Ezekiel, C N; Bandyopadhyay, R; Sulyok, M; Warth, B; Krska, R

2012-08-01

332

Knowledge, attitudes and experiences of sex trafficking by young women in Benin City, South-South Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benin City, the headquarters of Edo State, is known to have one of the highest rates of international sex trafficking of young women in Nigeria. This study was designed to determine the knowledge, attitudes and experiences of young women in Benin City, towards international sex trafficking. A random household sample of 1456 women aged 1525 years was interviewed with a

F. E. Okonofua; S. M. Ogbomwan; A. N. Alutu; Okop Kufre; Aghahowa Eghosa

2004-01-01

333

Community-Based Vocational Rehabilitation (CBVR) for People with Disabilities: Experiences from a Pilot Project in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the community-based vocational rehabilitation (CBVR) of persons with disabilities. In 1991, a pilot project was instituted by the International Labour Organisation and the United Nations Development Programme in conjunction with Oyo State Government in Nigeria. The aim was to facilitate the reintegration of persons with

Alade, Eunice B.

2004-01-01

334

Science Education in Nigeria: An Examination of People's Perceptions about Female Participation in Science, Mathematics and Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper brings to focus people's perception about female involvement in science, mathematics and technology (SMT). Data for the study were obtained from a survey conducted in March, 2005 in two Local Government Areas of Osun state, Southwest Nigeria. The paper reveals that: (i) about 57% of household heads, 45.6% of mothers and 57.6% of the

Ogunjuyigbe, Peter O.; Ojofeitimi, Ebenezer O.; Akinlo, Ambrose

2006-01-01

335

Urban lymphatic filariasis in central Nigeria.  

PubMed

Wuchereria bancrofti and the other mosquito-borne parasites that cause human lymphatic filariasis (LF) infect over 120 million people world-wide. Global efforts are underway to stop transmission of the parasites, using annual, single-dose mass drug administrations (MDA) to all at-risk populations. Although most MDA to date have been in rural settings, they are also recommended in urban areas of transmission. It remains unclear whether there is significant urban transmission in West Africa, however, and the need for urban MDA in this region therefore remains a matter of debate.Clinic-based surveillance, for the clinical manifestations of LF, has now been used to identify areas of urban transmission of W. bancrofti in Jos, the major urban population centre of Plateau state, Nigeria. The eight clinics investigated were all located in slum areas, close to vector breeding sites, and were therefore considered to serve at-risk populations. Over a 1-month period, selected providers in these clinics sought hydrocele, lymphoedema, elephantiasis, or acute adenolymphangitis among the patients seeking treatment. The consenting patients who were suspected clinical cases of LF, and a cohort of patients suspected to be cases of onchocerciasis, were tested for W. bancrofti antigenaemia. All the patients were asked a series of questions in an attempt to determine if those found antigenaemic could only have been infected in an urban area. During the study, 30 suspected clinical cases of LF were detected and 18 of these (including two patients who were found to be antigenaemic) lived in urban areas. Of the 98 patients with exclusively urban exposure who were tested for filarial antigenaemia, six (6.1%) were found antigenaemic. Clinic-based surveillance appears to be a useful tool for determining if there is W. bancrofti transmission in an urban setting. PMID:16492364

Terranella, A; Eigiege, A; Gontor, I; Dagwa, P; Damishi, S; Miri, E; Blackburn, B; McFarland, D; Zingeser, J; Jinadu, M Y; Richards, F O

2006-03-01

336

Prevalence and economic implications of calf foetal wastage in an abattoir in Northcentral Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted to evaluate the volume of pregnant cows slaughtered at Minna abattoir, Niger State, Nigeria between\\u000a 2001 and 2009 based on abattoir meat inspection records. Of the 98,407 cows slaughtered, 4,368 were pregnant, translating\\u000a to a ratio of one calf foetal wastage in every 23 cows slaughtered. The wastage was significantly (P?

Nma Bida Alhaji

2011-01-01

337

Prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment among school children in south-western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and identify the causes of blindness and visual impairment in school children\\u000a of Ilesa-East Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria. A total of 1144 school children in primary and secondary schools\\u000a were selected using a 2-stage random sampling method and examined to determine the prevalence and causes of blindness

A. I. Ajaiyeoba; M. A. Isawumi; A. O. Adeoye; T. S. Oluleye

2005-01-01

338

Young People's Sexual Risk Behaviors in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence and correlates of HIV-related risk behaviors among adolescents and youths in Nigeria are poorly documented. This study aims at determining the prevalence and correlates of HIV-related risk behaviors among adolescents and youths in order to plan appropriate intervention measures. This is a descriptive cross-sectional survey using

Abdulraheem, I. S.; Fawole, O. I.

2009-01-01

339

Use of satellite precipitation data in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of satellite precipitation data for forecast in Nigeria is greatly advancing, this is due to the availability of satellite imagery and measured real time rainfall data that can be used to validating the estimated amount of rainfall been derived from imagery captured by satellite of an area. Rainfall data from rain gauge measurements have been used to validate the data of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Precipitation Radar (TRMM PR) and the data of two other satellite algorithms namely 3B43 and TMPI for 36 months (Jan1998-Dec2000) at 1.00?1.00? latitude/longitude grid boxes over Nigeria. Between 1998 and 2000 we studied the interconnection between precipitation imageries captured over Nigeria and the amount of Rainfall measured. We noted that there is critical connection between the Thermodynamic properties over the surface, the estimated amount of rainfall from a particular captured imagery and measured rainfall data. Therefore proper understanding of the satellite precipitation imagery will enable forecasters in Nigeria to forecast the amount of precipitation from a particular type of imagery for flood and disaster monitoring. More practical issues will be presented. Flood disaster related event has claimed million of lives, make thousand homeless and devastated more million arable land in Africa.

Adesi, A. P.; Adelugba, T.; Salami, T.

2009-04-01

340

Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.

Ayotamuno, M. J.

1993-01-01

341

Computational Biology and Bioinformatics in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Over the past few decades, major advances in the field of molecular biology, coupled with advances in genomic technologies, have led to an explosive growth in the biological data generated by the scientific community. The critical need to process and analyze such a deluge of data and turn it into useful knowledge has caused bioinformatics to gain prominence and importance. Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary research area that applies techniques, methodologies, and tools in computer and information science to solve biological problems. In Nigeria, bioinformatics has recently played a vital role in the advancement of biological sciences. As a developing country, the importance of bioinformatics is rapidly gaining acceptance, and bioinformatics groups comprised of biologists, computer scientists, and computer engineers are being constituted at Nigerian universities and research institutes. In this article, we present an overview of bioinformatics education and research in Nigeria. We also discuss professional societies and academic and research institutions that play central roles in advancing the discipline in Nigeria. Finally, we propose strategies that can bolster bioinformatics education and support from policy makers in Nigeria, with potential positive implications for other developing countries.

Fatumo, Segun A.; Adoga, Moses P.; Ojo, Opeolu O.; Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga; Adeoye, Tolulope; Ewejobi, Itunuoluwa; Adebiyi, Marion; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; Bewaji, Clement; Nashiru, Oyekanmi

2014-01-01

342

Cladocera of coastal rivers of western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies indicate that there are at least 100 species of Cladocera in the families Bosminidae, Chydoridae, Daphnidae, Macrothricidae, Moinidae and Sididae in the inland waters of Nigeria. Over 50% of these have been found in net plankton samples from the coastal rivers in addition to Evadne tergestina Claus (Family: Podonidae), and Daphnia barbata Weltner, hitherto unreported in the equatorial

Austin B. M. Egborge; Egborge Onwudinjo; P. C. Chigbu

1994-01-01

343

Computational biology and bioinformatics in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Over the past few decades, major advances in the field of molecular biology, coupled with advances in genomic technologies, have led to an explosive growth in the biological data generated by the scientific community. The critical need to process and analyze such a deluge of data and turn it into useful knowledge has caused bioinformatics to gain prominence and importance. Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary research area that applies techniques, methodologies, and tools in computer and information science to solve biological problems. In Nigeria, bioinformatics has recently played a vital role in the advancement of biological sciences. As a developing country, the importance of bioinformatics is rapidly gaining acceptance, and bioinformatics groups comprised of biologists, computer scientists, and computer engineers are being constituted at Nigerian universities and research institutes. In this article, we present an overview of bioinformatics education and research in Nigeria. We also discuss professional societies and academic and research institutions that play central roles in advancing the discipline in Nigeria. Finally, we propose strategies that can bolster bioinformatics education and support from policy makers in Nigeria, with potential positive implications for other developing countries. PMID:24763310

Fatumo, Segun A; Adoga, Moses P; Ojo, Opeolu O; Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga; Adeoye, Tolulope; Ewejobi, Itunuoluwa; Adebiyi, Marion; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; Bewaji, Clement; Nashiru, Oyekanmi

2014-04-01

344

SUSTAINABLE WATER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM FOR RURAL NIGERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa face the most acute water supply challenges in the world. Nigeria, the most populous African country, has considerable populations without basic access to safe drinking water, with over 50% of the country lacking coverage. The village of Adu A...

345

Petroleum prospects of Southern Nigeria's Anambra Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surrounded by the Benue trough, the Middle Niger River depression, the Niger River delta, and the Abakaliki anticlinorium, Nigeria's Anambra basin probably holds a thick, unexplored sequence with significant hydrocarbon potential. The basin's sediment could be 16,000 ft thick; a Bouguer gravity survey indicates two parallel northeast-southwest trending gravity lows (the Anambra low and the Awka depression) separated by the

A. A. Avbovbo; O. Ayoola

1981-01-01

346

Family Quality of Life in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The limited literature that exists about intellectual disabilities (ID) in Nigeria suggests that perceptions of ID may be shaped by social and cultural beliefs, and that socio-economic factors have prevented the development of policy and services. The present study sought to explore these suggestions in more detail by administering the

Ajuwon, P. M.; Brown, I.

2012-01-01

347

Law and University Administration in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the legal issues and problems surrounding the administration of higher education in Nigeria. It focuses on the need for each university to have a legal unit to handle the legal problems of staff, students, and those in the neighboring community. Further, it addresses the problems currently found within the academic community

Ojo, J. D.

348

Childlessness in Nigeria: perceptions and acceptability.  

PubMed

Childlessness has major psychological and social implications for affected persons, especially in settings where fertility is highly valued. While a number of studies have documented how childlessness is perceived in these societies and the multitude of adverse consequences suffered by affected individuals, studies have not made a clear distinction between voluntary and involuntary childlessness in these settings. Using focus-group discussions from three Nigerian communities, this study explores societal perception and acceptance of childlessness in Nigeria, focusing on both voluntary and involuntary childlessness. Findings show that not having children, whether voluntarily or not, contributes to a kind of invisibility and poverty in Nigeria. Regardless of the reason, voluntary childlessness evoked strong negative feelings among discussants. The study also shows the broad definition given to voluntary childlessness in Nigeria as including individuals that are childless because they chose to stay with an infertile partner and also those who could not have biological children and chose not to adopt. Childlessness is not yet embraced in Nigeria, where pronatalist culture is still very strong. However, the study noted a more tolerant attitude to involuntary childlessness, suggesting possible changes in perceptions of the condition. Policy and programme implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:24236953

Ibisomi, Latifat; Mudege, Netsayi Noris

2014-01-01

349

Surgery for chronic pancreatitis in Zaria, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen children and 23 adults with complications of chronic pancreatitis were managed in Zaria, Nigeria from 1971 to 1987. They comprised 26 patients with chronic pseudocysts, 9 with chronic abdominal pain, and 3 with obstructive jaundice. Internal drainage was performed for 22 (85%) of the pseudocysts, with resection and external drainage, respectively, in 2 each. A longitudinal pancreaticojejunostomy was performed

Oluatope A. Mabogunje; James H. Lawrie

1990-01-01

350

Gravity meter calibration ranges in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Series of precise gravity measurements were made with three La Coste and Romberg model G gravity meters throughout Nigeria during the establishment of a reference gravity network for the country. The processed data led to the establishemnt of a standard gravimeter calibration line in Nigeria. The line designated as the Central Calibration Line (CCL) and situated in the northern part of Nigeria, covers the longest gravity range observed in the country. Its extreme absolute gravity values are 977844.608 mGal at Jos and 978221.324 mGal at Illela which yield a maximum interval gravity value of 376.716 mGal. The absolute gravity values along the calibration line are referred to the IGSN 71 datum. Comparing the absolute gravity values for the IGSN 71 sites situated in the West African sub-region with those obtained in this study, it is obvious that the gravity values within most West African countries lie within the reange of the calibration line The accuracy of the interval gravity values within the calibration line is, on the average, 15 ?Gal with maximum and minimum values of 18 ?Gal and 9 ?Gal respectively. Thus the calibration line should meet the calibration requirements of precision gravimetric studies in Nigeria and in other neighbouring countries in West Africa.

Osazuwa, I. B.; Ajakaiye, D. E.

1992-05-01

351

The advent and growth of television broadcasting in Nigeria: its political and educational overtones.  

PubMed

In 1959, the regional government of Western Nigeria established the 1st television station in Nigeria and in Africa. Even though it promoted the station as a means to educate the people about development and the world, it initially served as a means for an opposition leader to address the people of Western Nigeria. The regional governments of Eastern and Northern Nigeria and the federal government in Lagos followed and started their own TV stations in the early 1960s. All 4 of these stations basically existed to serve partisan political objectives for the various governments. Any stations established after these 4 continued this same political and regionalistic heritage. In 1973, a new surge of regional consciousness occurred after the now military government allowed the division of the country into 19 states. This change, the concurrent oil boom, and the effectiveness and importance of existing TV broadcasting led to a new surge of state owned TV stations. 3 years later, the military government established the National Television Authority (NTA) to coordinate nationwide coverage. The NTA then acquired existing TV stations. This event slowed the growth of TV broadcasting until 1979 when military government rule ended. The 5 political parties vying for election in the states revoked the NTA charter and a proliferation of TV stations occurred. This also happened because the civilian administration was disorganized. As regionalization played a role in the broadcasting of political propaganda, so did it play a role in educational programming, Despite TV broadcasting's political ties, it has been successful in producing quality educational programs for schools and colleges nationwide via the NTA network with the assistance of UNESCO. PMID:12342789

Umeh, C C

1989-01-01

352

Labour migration and rural transformation in Nigeria.  

PubMed

The trends in rural-urban migration in Nigeria responded to changes in political and socioeconomic developments which occurred during the 1980s. Since the 1980s, rural-urban migration trends were rapidly reversed, and migrants returned to rural areas. In 1981, government revenues from oil declined. The oil production and price declines between 1980 and 1986 resulted in a foreign exchange crisis. Import restrictions were imposed, and stabilization measures resulted in scarcities of raw materials and spare parts and declines in industrial capacity. About 50% of import substitution factories went bankrupt. Between 1981 and 1983, about one million workers were estimated to have been laid off, of which 55,000 were federal and state employees. Other estimates indicated one million laid off just in the industrial sector. The government reinforced this urban-rural movement by emphasizing increased food production. In 1992, government wages were increased in order to offset high inflation. In 1986 and 1992, State and Local Government Areas were established as political entities tied to grassroots development; local offices were situated in greater proximity to local populations. In 1986, the objective was to provide infrastructure, promote production, and organize rural areas for development. Several community banks devoted to rural areas were established. Development programs for rural women were initiated. Federal revenue allocations to rural areas increased from 10% to 15%. Inducements were given to attract private formal and informal commerce and industry. The result was less than expected. Obstacles to rural development included the absence of an effective and integrated approach, inadequate funding, and corruption. Provision of good roads and schools did meet objectives and may have induced out-migration. Delays in provision of entitlements exacerbated the ability of return migrants to establish new economic activity. The new political divisions did not conform to demographic or labor market areas. The sudden redistribution of population was difficult for local governments to accommodate. Social adjustment was difficult, and primary education costs were sacrificed at the expense of expanded higher education. PMID:12179891

Onyeonoru, I P

1994-06-01

353

Seasonal fractional integrated time series models for rainfall data in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainfall variability, seasonality and extremity have a lot of consequences in planning and decision making of every sphere of human endeavour especially in Nigeria where majority of agricultural practices and planning is dependent on rainfed agriculture. For this reason, an extensive understanding of rainfall regime is an important prerequisite in such planning. We approach this work using time series approach. Seasonality and possibility of long-term dependence in rainfall data are considered, and these have significant effects in explaining the distribution of rainfall in each state of the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. The estimated seasonal autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average (SARFIMA) model for each of the six rainfall zones was found to perform better in predicting rainfall distribution than the corresponding seasonal autoregressive moving average (SARMA) model in terms of minimum Akaike information criterion (AIC) and other model diagnostic measures.

Yaya, Olaoluwa S.; Fashae, Olutoyin A.

2014-04-01

354

The post-harvest fruit rots of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) in Nigeria.  

PubMed

A survey of the post-harvest fruit rot diseases of tomato was conducted in five states of Nigeria. During severe infections, the diseases could cause 25% loss at harvest and 34% loss of the remaining product in transit, storage and market stalls; thus giving an overall loss of about 50% of the product. Two types of rots, soft and dry were recognised. The soft rot was found to account for about 85% and the dry rot about 15% of the overall loss. Erwinia carotovora, Rhizopus oryzae, R. stolonifer, Fusarium equiseti, F. nivale and F. oxysporum were established as the soft rot pathogens; while Aspergillus aculeatus, A. flavus, Cladosporium tenuissimum, Corynespora cassiicola, Curvularia lunata, Penicillium expansum P. multicolor and Rhizoctonia solani were established as the dry rot pathogens of tomato fruits in Nigeria. PMID:471028

Fajola, A O

1979-01-01

355

Trend in case detection rate for all tuberculosis cases notified in Ebonyi, Southeastern Nigeria during 1999-2009  

PubMed Central

Unlike previous annual WHO tuberculosis reports that reported case detection rate for only smear-positive tuberculosis cases, the 2010 report presented case detection rate for all tuberculosis cases notified in line with the current Stop TB strategy. To help us understand how tuberculosis control programmes performed in terms of detecting tuberculosis, there is need to document the trend in case detection rate for all tuberculosis cases notified in high burden countries. This evidence is currently lacking from Nigeria. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the trend in case detection rate for all tuberculosis cases notified from Ebonyi state compared to Nigeria national figures. Reports of tuberculosis cases notified between 1999 and 2009 were reviewed from the Ebonyi State Ministry of Health tuberculosis quarterly reports. Tuberculosis case detection rates were computed according to WHO guidelines. 22, 508 patients with all forms of tuberculosis were notified during the study. Case detection rate for all tuberculosis rose from 27% in 1999 to gradually reach a peak of 40% during 2007 to 2008 before a slight decline in 2009 to 38%. However, the national case detection rate for all tuberculosis cases in Nigeria rose from 7% in 1999 and progressively increased to reach a peak of 19% during 2008 and 2009. Since the introduction of DOTS in Ebonyi, the programme has achieved 40% case detection rate for all tuberculosis cases - about 20% better than national figures. However, with the current low case detection rates, alternative mechanisms are needed to achieve the current global stop- TB targets in Nigeria.

Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna; Alobu, Isaac; Ifebunandu, Ngozi Appolonia; Osakwe, Chijioke; Igwenyi, Chika

2013-01-01

356

A case study of Ore women victims of Biafra war in Nigeria between 1966 to 1970.  

PubMed

Between 1966 and 1970, Nigeria went through a civil war during which the Eastern State of Biafra tried unsuccessfully to secede from the rest of Nigeria. Ore, a town in Ondo State, was affected during this war. The violations that were committed during the war included massacres, beatings, lootings, torture, and abductions. This article presents a case study of Ore women victims of Biafra war in Nigeria, utilizing documented experiences of such women. Included in this report is a summary of the testimony of Mrs. E, one of the many women victims who suffered atrocities during the war. Overall, the report blames the Nigerian government for doing little or nothing after the war to help the people of Ore in rebuilding and rehabilitating the victims lives, as well as the community. In addition, the victims have never been assisted by nongovernmental organizations since the war ceased; and no research on the women's experiences was carried out before this report. In view of this, a strategy for redress, in which the survivors have suggested various remedies, is recommended. PMID:12179108

1999-01-01

357

Isolation of dermatophytes and non-dermatophytic fungi from soil in Nigeria.  

PubMed

A total of 60 soil samples were collected from Ifite Awka, Nnamdi Azikiwe University and Amawbia, all located in Awka Urban, Anambra State, Nigeria. An additional sample was collected from a household rug-carpet vacuum cleaner from a house located in Enugu city, Enugu State (a neighbouring state). The 61 samples were investigated for the occurrence of dermatophytic and non-dermatophytic fungi, using the hair-bait technique and agar dilution procedure. The medical importance of the isolates in the samples is discussed. PMID:12950905

Oyeka, C A; Okoli, I

2003-09-01

358

Open heart surgery in Nigeria; a work in progress  

PubMed Central

Background There has been limited success in establishing Open Heart Surgery programmes in Nigeria despite the high prevalence of structural heart disease and the large number of Nigerian patients that travel abroad for Open Heart Surgery. The challenges and constraints to the development of Open Heart Surgery in Nigeria need to be identified and overcome. The aim of this study is to review the experience with Open Heart Surgery at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital and highlight the challenges encountered in developing this programme. Methods This is a retrospective study of patients that underwent Open Heart Surgery in our institution. The source of data was a prospectively maintained database. Extracted data included patient demographics, indication for surgery, euroscore, cardiopulmonary bypass time, cross clamp time, complications and patient outcome. Results 51 Open Heart Surgery procedures were done between August 2004 and December 2011. There were 21 males and 30 females. Mean age was 29 15.6 years. The mean euroscore was 3.8 2.1. The procedures done were Mitral Valve Replacement in 15 patients (29.4%), Atrial Septal Defect Repair in 14 patients (27.5%), Ventricular Septal Defect Repair in 8 patients (15.7%), Aortic Valve Replacement in 5 patients (9.8%), excision of Left Atrial Myxoma in 2 patients (3.9%), Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in 2 patients (3.9%), Bidirectional Glenn Shunts in 2 patients (3.9%), Tetralogy of Fallot repair in 2 patients (3.9%) and Mitral Valve Repair in 1 patient (2%). There were 9 mortalities (17.6%) in this series. Challenges encountered included the low volume of cases done, an unstable working environment, limited number of trained staff, difficulty in obtaining laboratory support, limited financial support and difficulty in moving away from the Cardiac Mission Model. Conclusions The Open Heart Surgery program in our institution is still being developed but the identified challenges need to be overcome if this program is to be sustained. Similar challenges will need to be overcome by other cardiac stakeholders if other OHS programs are to be developed and sustained in Nigeria.

2013-01-01

359

Allergic conjunctivitis in Jos-Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) may follow seasonal or perennial pattern. There are climatic and racial risk factors involved in some types of AC. It is more prevalent in warm climatic conditions and among Afro-Caribbeans, Arabs and Asians and less among the White populations. Clinical presentations also seem to follow climatic and genetic predisposition. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of AC and its clinical presentations in a hospital setting in this region in people of all ages. Materials and Methods: This is a hospital-based retrospective study of new patients seen at Adoose Specialist Hospital, Jos the capital city of Plateau State in North Central Nigeria with clinical diagnosis of AC from 2000 to 2009. Results: There were 972 subjects, 474 (48.8%) males and 498 (51.2%) females with M:F ratio of 1:1.05. The most common symptom was itching followed by redness, pains, watery/mucoid discharge, sticky eyes, puffy eyes and photophobia. The presence of papillae in the upper tarsal or lower conjunctiva, a discrete or confluent gelatinous hypertrophy of the limbal conjunctiva (Trantas dots), hyperpigmentation, hyperemia/chemosis of the conjunctiva were the common signs. AC was more prevalent in those aged 1?16 years 38.4% decreasing to 4.9% in the age group above 50 years. The presentation followed perennial pattern, with a peak around July. The most prevalent ocular comorbid condition was refractive error (distant RE and presbyopia) in 15.4%, followed by pterygium/pinguecula 3.6%, bacterial conjunctivitis in 2.2%, glaucoma 2.1% and eyelid disorders 1.7%. Cataract was present in 1.3%, and keratopathy 1.1%. Other conditions such as episcleritis, dry eye, vitamin A deficiency and posterior segment disease were also present in decreasing order. Systemic association were few with generalised body atopy in 0.3%. Conclusion: The prevalence of AC was 32% and is similar to what pertains in some of the African hospital studies, but differs in presentation from the Caucasians.

Malu, Keziah N.

2014-01-01

360

Perspectives on the battered child syndrome in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The battered child syndrome remains an understudied phenomenon in Nigeria. This is partly due to the romanticized and the noble savage image which holds that child abuse cannot occur in Africa. Even when it is occasionally discovered, it tends to be blamed on urbanization. Evidence now shows that some cultural practices in Nigeria could be defined as child battering. Many

Adewale Rotimi

1988-01-01

361

Oil and Security in Nigeria: The Niger Delta Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines oil and security in Nigeria, with special reference to the crisis-ravaged Niger Delta. Its focus on the Niger Delta and its festering crisis stems from that region's critical importance to Nigeria. As the nation's treasure base, the Niger Delta provides over 80 percent of government revenues, 95 percent of export receipts, and 90 percent of foreign exchange

Olayiwola Owolabi; Iwebunor Okwechime

2007-01-01

362

A Brief Account of School Inspection in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the policies and practices of school inspection in Nigeria. The first section discusses the school inspection system from 1954 to 1967. In 1954, Nigeria was given a new constitution which divided the country into regions, each of which was responsible for education in its own area. School inspection was managed on a regional

Palmer, William P.

363

Basement geology in the sedimentary basins of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Nigeria, the dominant type of basement rock intersected by wells drilled for hydrocarbons, limestone, or water is granite. The three sedimentary basins in Nigeria are underlain by continental crust except in the Niger delta, where the basement rock is interpreted to be oceanic crust. Most of the wells that penetrated the basement are in the Eastern Dahomey embayment of

Akpo A. Avbovbo

1980-01-01

364

Assessment of Water Quality along River Asa, Ilorin, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

River Asa, an important tributary to the Niger River, the main stream of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the longest river that flows across Ilorin City in western Nigeria, was chosen as a case study in order to investigate the variations in the quality of its water at different locations. This was necessitated by the peoples' consideration of water

L. T. Ajibade

2004-01-01

365

Spinal cord injuries in Enugu, NigeriaPreventable accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a review of 72 patients who were treated for Spinal Cord Injuries in the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria, during the period January 1980 to January 1985. There were 20 patients who had tetraplegia as a result of their injuries and 52 with paraplegia. All the patients were treated conservatively.The catchment area of the hospital is

C A Okonkwo

1988-01-01

366

DEMAND FOR REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH, POVERTY AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic growth rate in Nigeria has improved in recent years; however the Human Development Index (HDI) rating for Nigeria is still low. This suggests that the growth is yet to be pro-poor. The child mortality is still relatively high in international comparison and the Government has put in place programmes to improve on this. The study attempts to provide insight

A. I Adeoti; O. A Oni; S. K Alonge; O. O Akintunde

367

Ethics of clinical trials in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

The conduct of clinical trials for the development and licensing of drugs is a very important aspect of healthcare. Drug research, development and promotion have grown to a multi-billion dollar global business. Like all areas of human endeavour involving generation and control of huge financial resources, it could be subject to deviant behaviour, sharp business practices and unethical practices. The main objective of this review is to highlight potential ethical challenges in the conduct of clinical trials in Nigeria and outline ways in which these can be avoided. Current international and national regulatory and ethical guidelines are reviewed to illustrate the requirements for ethical conduct of clinical trials. Past experiences of unethical conduct of clinical trials especially in developing countries along with the increasing globalisation of research makes it imperative that all players should be aware of the ethical challenges in clinical trials and the benchmarks for ethical conduct of clinical research in Nigeria.

Okonta, Patrick I.

2014-01-01

368

Ethics of clinical trials in Nigeria.  

PubMed

The conduct of clinical trials for the development and licensing of drugs is a very important aspect of healthcare. Drug research, development and promotion have grown to a multi-billion dollar global business. Like all areas of human endeavour involving generation and control of huge financial resources, it could be subject to deviant behaviour, sharp business practices and unethical practices. The main objective of this review is to highlight potential ethical challenges in the conduct of clinical trials in Nigeria and outline ways in which these can be avoided. Current international and national regulatory and ethical guidelines are reviewed to illustrate the requirements for ethical conduct of clinical trials. Past experiences of unethical conduct of clinical trials especially in developing countries along with the increasing globalisation of research makes it imperative that all players should be aware of the ethical challenges in clinical trials and the benchmarks for ethical conduct of clinical research in Nigeria. PMID:25013247

Okonta, Patrick I

2014-05-01

369

Lead levels in the milk of Fulani women in Nigeria.  

PubMed Central

Levels of lead were determined in the milk of 34 Fulani women in Plateau State in northern Nigeria. The Fulani are nomadic, semi-pastoralists who inhabit the western Sahel, including the countries of Mali, Burkino Faso, the Republic of Niger, Nigeria and Chad. The mean age of the women in this study was 26.0 +/- 7.5 years and their mean body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was 19.4 (range, 14.5-24.0). Their average parity was 4 (range, 1-10). Milk was collected 2-24 weeks postgestation (mean, 11 weeks). Fifteen of the 34 milk specimens contained measurable lead (limit of detection, 4.6 microg/dL); the milk of the other 19 women (56%) did not contain a detectable level of lead. The data were not normally distributed. The median lead concentration of all 34 milk specimens, determined by end on plasma-axial view spectrometry, was 6.7 microg/dL (range, < 4.6-130 microg/dL). Given the mean weight of the 34 infants in the study (4.6 kg) and assuming that each infant consumed 0.7 L/day of milk, the average lead intake of these exclusively breastfed infants was 9.9 microg/kg/day, a value which is twice the daily permissible intake (DPI) of 5.0 microg/g/day set by the World Health Organization in 1972. These data indicate that some exclusively breastfed Fulani infants in the Jos Plateau are at risk of injury from lead derived from their mothers' milk, and raise questions about the actual blood levels in these nursing infants and the source(s) of the maternal lead.

VanderJagt, D. J.; Okolo, S. N.; Romero, L.; Millson, M.; Glew, R. H.

2001-01-01

370

Child Abuse in Africa: Nigeria as focus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ebigbo through the example of Nigeria illustrates the sheer magnitude of the problem of child abuse and neglect in Africa.\\u000a The traditional farming and trading Nigerian society, impacted by economic and political misery, cultural conflict, unemployment,\\u000a illiteracy, and urban drift, is leading to exploited, uneducated, abused, malnourished children. Economic misery hits the\\u000a children and women the hardest, producing broken marriages

P. O. Ebigbo

2003-01-01

371

The convergence of American and Nigerian religious conservatism in a biopolitical shaping of Nigeria's HIV/AIDS prevention programmes  

PubMed Central

Nigeria has the largest number of HIV/AIDS cases in West Africa, with 3.3 million people estimated to be living with the disease. The country remains a fragile democratic state and has allocated insufficient resources to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS among its citizens. The preponderance of President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) dollars, expert knowledge, conservative ideology and activities has shaped the direction of HIV/AIDS sexual-transmission prevention programmes in Nigeria. PEPFAR channels significant resources through Nigerian faith-based organisations (FBOs), and considers these organisations integral for HIV prevention strategies. In many instances, HIV/AIDS prevention programmes managed by FBOs reflect their ideologies of morality and sexuality. There is a convergence of religious ideology concerning morality and HIV infectivity between American and Nigerian conservatives; this produces a fertile ground for the influence and expansion of the conservative activities of PEPFAR in Nigeria. The paper highlights this nexus and draws attention to the biopolitical underpinning of PEPFAR in shaping Nigeria's HIV prevention programmes. The paper further notes both positive and negative effects of PEPFAR activities and attempts by the Obama administration to redirect PEPFAR to a more holistic approach in order to optimise outcomes.

Jappah, Jlateh V.

2013-01-01

372

The 'beyond parental control' label in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Recent reports in Nigeria indicate a geometric rise in incarcerated adolescents, with an overwhelming majority of this increase being attributed to adolescents being declared 'beyond parental control'. There is a nagging suspicion that the Nigerian juvenile justice system has over criminalised adolescents by declaring them 'beyond control' when behavioural problems have actually resulted from child abuse/neglect and family disruption. A study was undertaken in a juvenile justice institution in Nigeria to assess the adequacy of pre-incarceration parental care among adolescents that had been declared as 'beyond parental control'. The study included 75 adolescent boys that had been declared as 'beyond parental control' and a comparison group of 144 matched school going boys. It examined self-reports received from the adolescent boys regarding their pre-incarceration family life and social circumstances, as well as the behavioural problems they had experienced. The findings indicate that adolescent boys who were declared as 'beyond parental control' had a significantly higher lifetime history of behavioural problems than the comparison group, and they also had significantly higher indicators of pre-incarceration child abuse/neglect and problems with stability and consistency of primary support. These findings pose questions regarding the presumption of adequate parental care prior to the declaration of 'beyond parental control'. It also raises questions about child rights protection and juvenile justice reform in Nigeria. PMID:24284377

Atilola, Olayinka; Omigbodun, Olayinka; Bella-Awusah, Tolulope

2014-01-01

373

Factors which predict violence victimization in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Violence is a major public health issue, globally as well as in the African continent. This paper looks at Nigeria and begins the process of identifying the factors that predict interpersonal violence in that country. The purpose is to interpret the implications of the results presented here for violence prevention programmes in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study is based on the responses of 2324 Nigerians included in Round Four of the Afrobarometer surveys. The study concentrates on 579 respondents who reported either they or someone else in their family had been the victim of violence, defined as being physically attacked, in the past year. Results: A logistical regression analysis revealed five significant factors that predicted interpersonal violence: being the victim of a property crime, the fear of crime, the respondents faith, whethera police station was in the local area and poverty. The findings revealed that 43.7% of the sample had been victimised within the past year and 18.8% had been the victim of both violent and property crimes. One surprising findingwas the number of respondents who were re-victimised; 75% of violence victims also had been property crime victims. Conclusions: These findings suggest that target hardening should be the basis to plan, implement and evaluate violence prevention programmes in Nigeria. Prevention personnel and/or law enforcement need to respond to reported incidents of property and/or violence victimisation and attempt to prepare victims to protect both their premises and their persons in the future.

Fry, Lincoln J.

2014-01-01

374

Synopsis of congenital cardiac disease among children attending University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Ituku Ozalla, Enugu  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of congenital cardiac disease among children attending UNTH, Enugu, Nigeria. The nature of these abnormalities and the outcome were also considered. The exact etiology is unknown but genetic and environmental factors tend to be implicated. The difference in the pattern obtained worldwide and few studies in Nigeria could be due to genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, or ethnic origin. Methods A retrospective analysis of discharged cases in which a review of the cases of all children attending children outpatient clinics including cardiology clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu over a five year period (January 2007-June 2012) was undertaken. All the children presenting with cardiac anomalies were included in the study and the cases were investigated using ECG, X-ray and echocardiography studies. Results A total of 31,795 children attended the children outpatient clinics of the hospital over the study period. Of these, seventy one (71) had cardiac diseases. The overall prevalence of cardiac disease is 0.22%. The commonest symptoms were breathlessness, failure to thrive and cyanosis. Almost all types of congenital detects were represented, the commonest being isolated ventricular septal detect (VSD), followed by tetralogy of Fallot. One of these cardiac anomalies presented with Downss syndrome and another with VACTERAL association. Conclusions The results of this study show that 0.22% per cent of children who attended UNTH in Enugu State had congenital cardiac abnormalities and the commonest forms seen were those with VSD.

2013-01-01

375

Combating HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Nigeria: Responses from National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Universities have come under serious attack because of their lackluster response to HIV/AIDS. This article examines the response of National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) and its strategic responses in combating HIV/AIDS epidemic. This is achieved by examining NOUN's basic structures that position the University to respond to the epidemic; and

Ambe-Uva, Terhemba Nom

2007-01-01

376

The childless elderly in Tiriki, Kenya, and Irigwe, Nigeria: A comparative analysis of the relationship between beliefs about childlessness and the social status of the childless elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in Tiriki, Western province, Kenya, in 195456, 1961, and 1982, and Irigwe, Plateau State, Nigeria, in 19635 and 1980, reveals that these two geographically and culturally disparate tribal groups both prescribe parenthood as a precondition for attainment of full adult status and thus as a prerequisite for true elderhood. In Irigwe anyone of sound mind can achieve parenthood and

Walter H. Sangree

1987-01-01

377

A Survey of Information Sources Used by Secondary School Students in Ife Central and Ife East Local Government Areas of Osun State, Nigeria for Knowledge and Attitudes Towards HIV\\/AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the findings of an investigation into adolescents' sexual behavior and action taken to avoid infection among secondary school students in Ife Central and Ife East Local Government Areas of Osun State. Provision of accurate information has and will continue to be at the forefront of efforts to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, particularly human immunodeficiency

Chinwe M. T. Nwezeh

2008-01-01

378

Systems-Based Aspects in the Training of IMG or Previously Trained Residents: Comparison of Psychiatry Residency Training in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, India, and Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: International medical graduates (IMGs) account for a significant proportion of residents in psychiatric training in the United States. Many IMGs may have previously completed psychiatry residency training in other countries. Their experiences may improve our system. Authors compared and contrasted psychiatry residency training in the

Jain, Gaurav; Mazhar, Mir Nadeem; Uga, Aghaegbulam; Punwani, Manisha; Broquet, Karen E.

2012-01-01

379

AIDS NGOS and corruption in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Using two ethnographic case studies, the intersecting dynamics of inequality, morality, and corruption are examined as they play out in Nigerian AIDS NGOs. To the Nigerian public, local AIDS organizations are widely seen as conduits for corruption. But local opinions of particular NGOs and their leaders turn less on whether donor resources were misused and more on the ways that people who accumulate the benefits of corruption use them socially. Nevertheless, discontent swirls about corruption in general, a fact that suggests a gradual change in people's understandings of the processes that produce inequality in Nigeria.

Smith, Daniel Jordan

2011-01-01

380

Pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment among students in southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and causes of eye diseases and visual impairment in students in the Ilesa\\u000a East local government area of Osun state, Nigeria.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MethodsA cross-sectional survey that utilised a multistage random sampling method to select 1,144 primary and secondary school students.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a ResultsA total of 1,144 students (504 males and 640 females) were

Ayotunde I. Ajaiyeoba; Michaeline A. Isawumi; Adenike O. Adeoye; Tunji S. Oluleye

2007-01-01

381

Hydrogeology and aquifer simulation of the basement rocks of the Kaduna-Zaria area, northern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study area is situated in the central northern part of Nigeria, which experiences a typical semiarid climate. The aquifer consists of weathered and fractured basement rocks, mainly covered by lateritic soil. For rural water supply purposes, more than 40 wells were drilled in an area of about 2500 km 2. Field checked interpretation of pumping tests, geophysical data and soil investigations lead to a fairly precise description of the hydrogeologic situation in the study area. By application of a simplified steady-state groundwater flow model conducted on microcomputer-based systems, recharge conditions were simulated.

Adanu, E. A.; Schneider, M.

382

Tuberculin screening of some selected Fulani lactating cows in North-Central Nigeria.  

PubMed

The prevalence of mycobacterial infection among lactating Fulani cows was investigated in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja and Kaduna State of Nigeria. Tuberculin testing using single comparative intradermal tuberculin test showed a 14.6 % positive, 4 % doubtful, and 81.4 % negative reactors. Mycobacterial infection was found to be present in the nomadic (constantly moving) and seminomadic (limited movement) management systems studied but management showed no significant effect on the prevalence of the disease. However, the prevalence was significantly higher in older age groups than the younger ones (P < 0.05). PMID:23475733

Abubakar, Aishatu; Allam, Lushaikyaa; Okaiyeto, Solomon O; Kudi, Ayuba Caleb; Abdullahi, Shehu U; Brooks, Peter H; Goyal, Madhu

2013-10-01

383

Geo-historical Trajectories of Democratic Transition: The Case of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a long-term, halting diffusion of the liberal democratic state. The literature on democratization, however,\\u000a tends to underplay issues of geo-historical context. This paper addresses the relationship between geo-historical context\\u000a and democratization through a case study of Nigeria. Key contextual factors of transition discussed include: international\\u000a pressure for democratization, geo-political dynamics of pro-democracy coalitions, and local and trans-local

Brennan Kraxberger

2004-01-01

384

Facilitating Organisational Commitment to Evaluation: Implications from Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research conducted among trainers in Nigeria explores key issues inhibiting organizational commitment to training evaluation. Inferences are drawn to arrive at strategies for facilitating organizational commitment. Implications for trainer role and effectiveness are given. (JOW)

Akin-Ogundeji, Oladele

1988-01-01

385

A Book Development Project in Nigeria 1964-1968.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the educational system within which books are used in Nigeria. Preparing manuscripts and developing curricula are discussed as related problems. Informal writers groups and educational writers workshops were among the methods used in ...

1968-01-01

386

[In Nigeria: sexual permissiveness and sex education].  

PubMed

Considering the population explosion in Nigeria which is due both to medical advances and traditional beliefs in large families as well as the recent trend of sexual permissiveness which involves the teenagers population, the author of the article considers that sex education is imperative in Nigeria. However, he sees many obstacles standing in the way of general acceptance of sex education. The husband-wife relationship does not encourage free communication on the subject and colonization has removed the traditional forms of sex education through initiation rites and pre-marital counseling by the elders so that young people nowadays rely mostly on peer information or erotic movies and publications. It seems to the author that the only avenue left open is to teach sex education through the school systems. A systematic review of the provisions for sex education in primary and secondary schools as well as teacher's training colleges bring the author to the conclusion that although the sex education curriculum seems comprehensive on paper, they are mere copies of similar American or Canadian programmes with very little attempt at indigenizing them. Furthermore, the syllabus seem to be concentrated on one year instead of being spread out over the school career. The author expresses his conviction that the topic could easily be made acceptable with the right approach and he advocates grounding sex education teaching in the traditional roots of the students. PMID:6618499

Demehin, A O

1983-07-01

387

Helping women traders. Organizing for change: Nigeria.  

PubMed

In Nigeria, the World Bank developed a pilot project, the Women's Management Training Outreach Programme (WMTOP), to improve the managerial skills of illiterate and semiliterate rural business women and farmers. In 1993, WMTOP chose the Country Women's Association of Nigeria (COWAN) for training. The result for a local group of cooperative kola nut traders was improved time management techniques, a more profitable division of labor, and the ability to keep better written financial records. WMTOP has taught women from 58 local groups (reaching 2600 women) the principles of human resource management, finance and credit, microproject management, and marketing. Although participants praise the project, a lack of money for business expansion continues to hold the women back from real success. Funding for WMTOP comes from the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank, which exists primarily to train government functionaries. This extension to include nongovernmental organizations in the training program is a result of the World Bank's effort to promote self-sufficiency. WMTOP attempts to take the program directly to the women, and the trainers live with the trainees in their home villages during the follow-up sessions. All of the WMTOP materials have been translated into Yoruba to eliminate misunderstandings. WMTOP seed money will end in 1996, but there is hope that this positive program will interest donors. PMID:12290003

Obadina, E

1995-01-01

388

Petroleum prospects of Southern Nigeria's Anambra Basin  

SciTech Connect

Surrounded by the Benue trough, the Middle Niger River depression, the Niger River delta, and the Abakaliki anticlinorium, Nigeria's Anambra basin probably holds a thick, unexplored sequence with significant hydrocarbon potential. The basin's sediment could be 16,000 ft thick; a Bouguer gravity survey indicates two parallel northeast-southwest trending gravity lows (the Anambra low and the Awka depression) separated by the Onitsha high. Although geologists interpret the basin as Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary, its southern portion is down-warped and overlapped by the delta's thick Tertiary deposits, lowering the Cretaceous to prohibitive depths in the overlap areas; wells drilled to 16,000 ft at the delta's apex thus have not encountered the Cretaceous sediments. An evaluation of the basin's pre-Santonian hydrocarbon prospects will require a deep exploratory drilling program. As Nigeria shifts its production emphasis from oil to gas and firms up plans for an LNG plant in the Niger delta, exploration in the gas-prone Anambra basin will probably surge.

Avbovbo, A.A.; Ayoola, O.

1981-05-04

389

Dermatologic conditions in teenage adolescents in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Skin disorders are common in adolescents, and the impact on quality of life can be enormous, particularly when viewed against the backdrop of the visibility of skin diseases and the psychologically vulnerable period of adolescence. However, few studies have documented the magnitude of skin disorders in this subset of individuals. We therefore estimated the point prevalence and pattern of dermatologic conditions in adolescents attending various secondary schools in Calabar, Southern Nigeria. Methods Using a structured questionnaire, relevant sociodemographic information was obtained from 1,447 teenage adolescents from eight secondary schools. Thereafter, a whole body examination was conducted to determine the presence and types of skin disorders seen. Results Skin diseases were seen in 929 students. The point prevalence was higher in males (72.1%) than in females (58.3%). Private schools had a higher prevalence than public schools. The six most common dermatoses were acne vulgaris, pityriasis versicolor, nevi, tinea, miliaria, and keloid/hypertrophic scars, and accounted for over 80% of the dermatoses seen. Conclusion The point prevalence of dermatoses in senior secondary school adolescents was 64.2%. Although a large number of skin disorders were observed, only a handful accounted for a significant proportion of the diseases seen. This increases the ease of training community health workers in the recognition and treatment of common skin diseases. Age, race, and climatic factors are important determinants of skin diseases in adolescents in Nigeria.

Henshaw, Eshan B; Olasode, Olayinka A; Ogedegbe, Evelyn E; Etuk, Imaobong

2014-01-01

390

Risk factors for dementia in central Nigeria.  

PubMed

Little is known about the prevalence of dementia and its associated risk factors in developing countries. Some studies suggest that the prevalence of dementia is lower in developing countries than it is in high-income nations. We sought to determine risk factors for dementia in elderly persons in central Nigeria. Using the standardized Community Screening Instrument for Dementia, we screened a stratified, random community sample of 280 persons aged 65 years and older for dementia. We examined the independent association of known risk factors with dementia using logistic regression. The overall prevalence of dementia was 6.4% (95% CI 3.8-9.9%). Independent risk factors for dementia included female sex (OR 8.4; 95% CI 1.9-39), body mass index of 18.5 kg/m2 or less (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.2-9.9), and age (OR 1.05 per year; 95% CI 1.00-1.11). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use was associated with a reduced risk of dementia (OR 0.20; 95% CI 0.04-0.93). Education, blood pressure, history of stroke, family history of dementia, and rural residence were not significantly associated with dementia in the multivariate model. The prevalence of dementia in central Nigeria may be greater than that found in other developing countries. Female sex, low body mass index, lack of NSAID use, and advancing age were the major risk factors in this population. PMID:17050090

Ochayi, B; Thacher, T D

2006-11-01

391

Management of liver disease in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa but, despite extensive oil deposits, little of the country's recently found wealth has filtered through into the healthcare sector. Nigerian hospitals are poorly equipped and infrastructure for interventional procedures is mostly lacking. Liver disease is common, owing to the high prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C, which often coexist with HIV infection. Antiviral treatments are expensive and drugs are commonly unavailable, even if they can be afforded. Therapy for end-stage liver disease is difficult, since endoscopic services are not widespread. A new training programme for oesophageal variceal band ligation at Jos University Teaching Hospital, Central Nigeria, aided by educational bursaries from the Royal College of Physicians, however, provides some promise in improving healthcare standards. The work of agencies, such as the Tropical Health and Educational Trust has fostered direct one-to-one links between UK hospitals and healthcare workers in a variety of African countries and offers a model for future development, albeit on a local, rather than a national or international, basis. PMID:17990704

Ladep, Nimzing G; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

2007-10-01

392

Living well with HIV in Nigeria? Stigma and survival challenges preventing optimum benefit from an ART clinic.  

PubMed

Thirty years into the HIV pandemic, the interactions of stigma, social and economic survival, and clinical interventions continue to be key to understanding and managing HIV at both personal and societal levels. With antiretroviral therapy, HIV is increasingly a chronic condition requiring lifelong treatment, near-perfect adherence, and support from both social networks and formal services. This study asked: is stigma still a significant problem for people living with HIV (PLHIV) who have secured access to antiretrovirals (ARVs)? How do PLHIV accessing ARVs in Nigeria experience the social, economic and health service supports intended to address their needs? What are the concerns and challenges of PLHIV and health workers regarding these supports? What are the implications for approaches to stigma and discrimination? This qualitative study at the Antiretroviral (ART) Clinic of the Osogbo State Hospital, Osun State, Nigeria involved in-depth interviews with 15 PLHIV who have been attending the clinic for at least one year, and three health workers. The results reveal both the diversity among even a small number of patients, and persistent cross-cutting themes of stigma, discrimination, poverty, and the psychological impacts of insecure livelihoods and well-intentioned but ultimately stigmatizing supports such as selective food parcels. Both population-based interventions against stigma and poverty, as well as micro-level, contextualized attention to patients', families' and health workers' fear of social exclusion and infection at a clinic and community level are needed if patients - and society - are to live well with HIV in Nigeria. PMID:24569837

Aransiola, Joshua; Imoyera, Winifred; Olowookere, Samuel; Zarowsky, Christina

2014-03-01

393

Modeling optimal cervical cancer prevention strategies in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to assess the most efficient combinations of vaccination and screening coverage for the prevention of cervical cancer (CC) at different levels of expenditure in Nigeria. Methods An optimization procedure, using a linear programming approach and requiring the use of two models (an evaluation and an optimization model), was developed. The evaluation model, a Markov model, estimated the annual number of CC cases at steady state in a population of 100,000 women for four alternative strategies: screening only; vaccination only; screening and vaccination; and no prevention. The results of the Markov model for each scenario were used as inputs to the optimization model determining the optimal proportion of the population to receive screening and/or vaccination under different scenarios. The scenarios varied by available budget, maximum screening and vaccination coverage, and overall reachable population. Results In the base-case optimization model analyses, with a coverage constraint of 20% for one lifetime screening, 95% for vaccination and a budget constraint of $1 per woman per year to minimize CC incidence, the optimal mix of prevention strategies would result in a reduction of CC incidence of 31% (3-dose vaccination available) or 46% (2-dose vaccination available) compared with CC incidence pre-vaccination. With a 3-dose vaccination schedule, the optimal combination of the different strategies across the population would be 20% screening alone, 39% vaccination alone and 41% with no prevention, while with a 2-dose vaccination schedule the optimal combination would be 71% vaccination alone, and 29% with no prevention. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the results are sensitive to the constraints included in the optimization model as well as the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and CC treatment cost. Conclusions The results of the optimization model indicate that, in Nigeria, the most efficient allocation of a limited budget would be to invest in both vaccination and screening with a 3-dose vaccination schedule, and in vaccination alone before implementing a screening program with a 2-dose vaccination schedule.

2014-01-01

394

Factors Contributing to Maternal Mortality in North-Central Nigeria: A Seventeen-year Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal mortality ratio in Nigeria is one of the highest in the world. This paper reports a facility based study in north-central Nigeria to determine the magnitude, trends, causes and characteristics of maternal deaths before and after the launch of the Safe Motherhood Initiative in Nigeria, with a view to suggesting strategic interventions to reduce these deaths. The records of

IAO Ujah; OA Aisien; JT Mutihir; DJ Vanderjagt; RH Glew; VE Uguru

395

Government Regulations and Legislations Will Ensure Sustainable Waste Management in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the result of an independent investigation of Nigeria solid waste management systems. The report is anticipated to serve as stimulus to stakeholders in Nigeria and also to create awareness of the deplorable solid waste problems. It will also serve as information to prospective investors in solid waste management services in Nigeria. Towards the end of last century,

Simeon Afun

396

Energy assessment of Ivory Coast, Morocco, Nigeria, and Senegal  

SciTech Connect

This report is an overview of the energy market in four West African countries: The Ivory Coast, Morocco, Nigeria, and Senegal. We feel these countries are representative of the West African region. Together they account for 75% of the total energy use in West Africa, 78% of GDP, and 76% of population. The purpose of the study is to analyze the evolution of energy demand in the context of the general socio-economic background of the region. The study also examines energy supply and trade related to the energy sector. The analysis focuses on the study of commercial fuels. Although we have reviewed studies of wood, solar, wind, and agricultural residues, we leave out detailed discussions of these non-commercial energy forms. The first part of the report is an assessment of the trends in energy demand in the four study countries. We discuss the main factors driving energy demand sector by sector. This is followed by a review of the primary energy resources of the countries, and of the capacity for production of secondary fuels. The last section looks at energy trade, with particular emphasis on the role of the United States.

Ghirardi, A.; Sathaye, J.; Goering, P.

1986-11-01

397

State  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The notion of state is fundamental to the design and analysis of virtually all computational systems. The Myhill-Nerode Theorem\\u000a of Finite Automata theoryand the concepts underlying the Theoremis a source of sophisticated fundamental insights about\\u000a a large class of state-based systems, both finite-state and infinite-state systems. The Theorems elegant algebraic characterization\\u000a of the notion of state often allows one to

Arnold L. Rosenberg

2006-01-01

398

Family planning in traditional markets in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Operations research on the Ibadan Market-Based Distribution Project in Nigeria investigated the feasibility of a contraceptive distribution system using traders in the traditional markets to sell pills, condoms, and foaming tablets. Two hundred and thirty-five female and male traders were trained and supplied with contraceptives, malaria treatments, and oral rehydration salts to sell at low prices in 39 markets. This article presents findings from qualitative and quantitative research conducted in 1985-89 to determine if the sale of contraceptives in the marketplace is acceptable to participating traders and shoppers and to identify trader and market characteristics associated with sales volume. Sales of contraceptives totaled 18,286 pill cycles, 11,818 packages of four condoms, and 4,429 packages of four foaming tablets. The average monthly sale for each participating trader was 5.3 units. Adaptations of this model are being tested in other Nigerian cities and in Accra, Ghana. PMID:2075621

Ladipo, O A; McNamara, R; Delano, G E; Weiss, E; Otolorin, E O

1990-01-01

399

Meren field water injection project offshore Nigeria  

SciTech Connect

The Meren Water Injection Project, which is one of the largest in West Africa in terms of injection volume, secondary reserves to be recovered and cost, is located in the Meren field offshore Nigeria. This study presents an updated comprehensive plan to deplete 7 reservoir units in sands that have been producing under solution gas drive and gravity segregation with minimal water influx. The reservoir units contain ca 80% of the original oil-in-place in Meren field. Detailed studies have been undertaken to evaluate the performances of the 7 reservoirs with a view to developing a secondary recovery plan which has been brought into reality. Injection was to start in mid-1982 but was delayed until mid-1983. The effect of the delay and the changing of injector locations on recovery and cost is discussed.

Adetoba, L.A.

1984-04-01

400

First detection and molecular characterization of Ehrlichia canis from dogs in Nigeria.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to detect the presence of Ehrlichia canis in naturally infected dogs in Nigeria, using a combination of PCR and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and two genes encoding the tandem repeat-containing proteins (TRPs), TRP19 and TRP36. Out of a total of 100 blood samples collected from domestic dogs presented to veterinary hospitals in Jos, the capital city of Plateau State of Nigeria, 11 were positive in nested PCR for E. canis. Sequencing results for these amplicons showed that all of the 16S rDNA sequences (1623 bp) or the TRP19 coding sequences (414 bp) were identical to each other and had very high similarities (99.3-100%) with those from other E. canis strains accessible in GenBank. The TRP36 gene sequences derived from the 11 Nigerian isolates were identical to each other except for the number of the 27-bp repeat unit in a tandem repeat region, which was found to be 8, 12 or 18. Without considering the number of tandem repeats, these sequences had 100% identity to that of the reported Cameroon 71 isolate, but distinctly differed from those obtained from other geographically distant E. canis strains previously published. A phylogenetic tree of E. canis based on the TRP36 amino acid sequences showed that the Nigerian isolates and the Cameroon 71 isolate fell into a separate clade, indicating that they may share a common ancestor. Overall, this study not only provides the first molecular evidence of E. canis infections in dogs from Nigeria but also highlights the value of the TRP36 gene as a tool to classify E. canis isolates and to elucidate their phylogeographic relationships. PMID:22925936

Kamani, Joshua; Lee, Chung-Chan; Haruna, Ayuba M; Chung, Ping-Jun; Weka, Paul R; Chung, Yang-Tsung

2013-02-01

401

Legal and regulatory aspects of prescribing and marketing emergency contraception in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Emergency contraception remains so little used or understood and the lack of its awareness can be traced to a myriad of factors including legal and regulatory obstacles. The aim of this study was to determine the legal and regulatory aspects of dispensing or marketing a contraceptive method for reasons (especially emergency purposes) other than stated by the manufacturers. The existing drugs' and devices' regulatory systems in Nigeria, especially those governing family planning methods, were reviewed. A questionnaire was administered to 363 health workers, comprising of physicians, pharmacists, nurses and midwives, to determine the implications of dispensing some currently available oral contraceptives (OCs) for emergency purposes despite the fact that there is no explicit description of emergency use in the labelling of such drugs. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with regulatory bodies. It was observed that, with the exception of Postinor, the drug manufacturers' leaflets did not indicate that they could be used for emergency contraceptive purposes. Although 64.5% of the healthcare providers were aware that OCs and intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs) can be used for emergency purposes, 42.1% actually prescribed or recommended them. Many health workers (62.3%) were unaware of any legal implication with regards to prescribing unregistered drugs in Nigeria. The existing guidelines stipulate that a manufacturer or marketer should 're-register' a product if a new indication or use not contained in the initial application was found later. To satisfy legal requirements, it does appear that the currently available OCs and IUCDs in Nigeria must be labelled and registered for emergency contraceptive purposes. PMID:14510172

Adekunle, A O; Babarinsa, I A; Akinyemi, Z; Okediran, A Y

2001-01-01

402

Objective screening for cervical cancer in developing nations: lessons from Nigeria.  

PubMed

In developed countries, cervical cancer screening programs have been highly successful. In the United States a 70% decrease in the mortality of cervical cancer has occurred since the 1960's largely due to the Papanicolaou test. However, it is not clear how best to translate these advances to developing countries, where cervical cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death for woman. Cytology-based screening, followed by colposcopic detection is expensive and requires extensive laboratory infrastructure and trained personnel, which are often unavailable in low resource settings. Techniques such as visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and visual inspection with Lugol's Iodine (VILI) are less expensive and require minimal supplies and infrastructure; however there are concerns that these approaches do not have adequate specificity without extensive provider training and experience. Objective cervical cancer screening techniques which are easy to interpret, provide rapid results, and have both high sensitivity and specificity would be highly beneficial in developing countries. We have developed a multispectral digital colposcope (MDC) which is designed to rapidly image the cervix and is used with automated image analysis algorithms that provide objective delineation of neoplastic areas. In this paper we describe an effort to implement this device in Ibadan, Nigeria, to determine the feasibility of conducting clinical trials using the MDC as an experimental screening device. Our aim was to test the device in a location where it might be most beneficial and to collect data useful for developing new, low-cost, low-maintenance devices. Multiple obstacles limited the success of imaging using the MDC in Nigeria including an unstable supply of electricity and a lack of available spare parts and tools. We conclude that these obstacles must be overcome by robust and simple device designs in order to successfully test an imaging-based screening device in Nigeria or other developing countries. PMID:17825396

Roblyer, Darren; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Park, Sun-Young; Adewole, Isaac; Follen, Michele

2007-10-01

403

Epidemiology of intestinal helminth parasites in stray dogs from markets in south-eastern Nigeria.  

PubMed

A survey of gastrointestinal helminth parasites of stray dogs (Canis familiaris) was conducted at Obollo-Afor and Ekwulobia markets, in Enugu and Anambra States, south-eastern Nigeria, respectively, to determine the patterns of infection among dogs in different parts of south-eastern Nigeria. Faecal samples collected, using long forceps, from every dog encountered in the markets between June 2007 and December 2008 were analysed by the Kato-Katz technique. Out of 413 dogs examined in both markets, 217 (52.6%) were infected with at least one of five parasites (Toxocara spp., Dipylidium caninum, Ancylostoma caninum, Taenia spp. and Trichuris vulpis). Overall faecal egg intensity of infection was 49.958.7 eggs/g (epg). The prevalence of infection was comparable between the markets and between the male and female dogs, but varied significantly (P<0.05) by age, decreasing from 78.9% in pups to 36.0% in adult dogs. The mean intensity pattern was similar to that of prevalence, decreasing from 86.763.0 epg in pups to 22.134.4 in adults. The most important individual parasite infection was Ancylostoma spp. (39.2%; 30.041.2 epg) while T. vulpis was the least important (1.9%; 0.75.4 epg). Generally, prevalence and intensity patterns of each parasite were also comparable between the markets and between sexes, but significantly (P<0.05) age-dependent. The implications of these findings to public health in Nigeria and other endemic countries are discussed in relation to options for cost-effective control design and implementation. PMID:21144127

Okoye, I C; Obiezue, N R; Okorie, C E; Ofoezie, I E

2011-12-01

404

Mapping and prediction of schistosomiasis in Nigeria using compiled survey data and Bayesian geospatial modelling.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis prevalence data for Nigeria were extracted from peer-reviewed journals and reports, geo-referenced and collated in a nationwide geographical information system database for the generation of point prevalence maps. This exercise revealed that the disease is endemic in 35 of the country's 36 states, including the federal capital territory of Abuja, and found in 462 unique locations out of 833 different survey locations. Schistosoma haematobium, the predominant species in Nigeria, was found in 368 locations (79.8%) covering 31 states, S. mansoni in 78 (16.7%) locations in 22 states and S. intercalatum in 17 (3.7%) locations in two states. S. haematobium and S. mansoni were found to be co-endemic in 22 states, while co-occurrence of all three species was only seen in one state (Rivers). The average prevalence for each species at each survey location varied between 0.5% and 100% for S. haematobium, 0.2% to 87% for S. mansoni and 1% to 10% for S. intercalatum. The estimated prevalence of S. haematobium, based on Bayesian geospatial predictive modelling with a set of bioclimatic variables, ranged from 0.2% to 75% with a mean prevalence of 23% for the country as a whole (95% confidence interval (CI): 22.8-23.1%). The model suggests that the mean temperature, annual precipitation and soil acidity significantly influence the spatial distribution. Prevalence estimates, adjusted for school-aged children in 2010, showed that the prevalence is <10% in most states with a few reaching as high as 50%. It was estimated that 11.3 million children require praziquantel annually (95% CI: 10.3-12.2 million). PMID:23733296

Ekpo, Uwem F; Hrlimann, Eveline; Schur, Nadine; Oluwole, Akinola S; Abe, Eniola M; Mafe, Margaret A; Nebe, Obiageli J; Isiyaku, Sunday; Olamiju, Francisca; Kadiri, Mukaila; Poopola, Temitope O S; Braide, Eka I; Saka, Yisa; Mafiana, Chiedu F; Kristensen, Thomas K; Utzinger, Jrg; Vounatsou, Penelope

2013-05-01

405

Prevalence of orofacial clefts in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Orofacial clefts are the most common malformations of the head and neck. In Africa, orofacial clefts are underascertained, with little or no surveillance system in most parts for clefts and other birth defects. A Nigerian craniofacial anomalies study, NigeriaCRAN, was established in 2006 to support cleft research specifically for epidemiological studies, treatment outcomes, and studies into etiology and prevention. We pooled data from seven of the largest Smile Train treatment centers in the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria. Data from September 2006 to June 2011 were analyzed and clefts compared between sides and genders using the Fisher exact test. A total of 2197 cases were identified during the study period, with an estimated prevalence rate of 0.5 per 1000. Of the total number of orofacial clefts, 54.4% occur in males and 45.6% in females. There was a significant difference (P = .0001) between unilateral left clefts and unilateral right clefts, and there was a significant difference (P = .0001) between bilateral clefts and clefts on either the left or right side. A significant gender difference (P = .03) was also observed for cleft palate, with more females than males. A total of 103 (4.7%) associated anomalies were identified. There were nine syndromic cleft cases, and 10.4% of the total number of individuals with clefts have an affected relative. The significant difference between unilateral clefts and the gender differences in the proportion of cleft palate only are consistent with the literature. The present study emphasizes the need for birth defects registries in developing countries in order to estimate the exact prevalence of birth defects including orofacial clefts. PMID:23557093

Butali, A; Adeyemo, W L; Mossey, P A; Olasoji, H O; Onah, I I; Adebola, A; Efunkoya; Akintububo, A; James, O; Adeosun, O O; Ogunlewe, M O; Ladeinde, A L; Mofikoya, B O; Adeyemi, M O; Ekhaguere, O A; Emeka, C; Awoyale, T A; The Nigeriacran Collaboration

2014-05-01

406

Prevalence of Orofacial Clefts in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Orofacial clefts (OFC) are the most common malformations of the head and neck. In Africa, OFC is under-ascertained with little or no surveillance system in most parts for clefts and other birth defects. A Nigerian craniofacial anomalies study NigeriaCRAN was established in 2006 to support cleft research specifically for epidemiological studies, treatment outcomes and; studies into etiology and prevention. We pooled data from seven of the largest Smile Train treatment centers in the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria. Data from September 2006 to June 2011 were analyzed and clefts compared between sides and gender using the Fishers exact test. A total of 2197 cases were identified during the study period with an estimated prevalence rate of 0.5/1000. Of the total number of OFC, 53.3% are males and 47%.7 are females. There was a significant difference (p=0.0001) between unilateral left clefts and unilateral right clefts and; significant difference (p=0.0001) between bilateral clefts and either clefts on the left or right side. A significant gender difference (p=0.03) with more females than males was also observed for CP. A total of 103 (4.7 %) associated anomalies were identified, nine syndromic cleft cases and 10.4 % of the total number of clefts individuals have an affected relative. The significant difference between unilateral clefts and gender differences in the proportion of cleft palate only are consistent with the literature. The present study emphasizes the need for birth defects registries in developing countries in order to estimate the exact prevalence of birth defects including OFC.

Butali, A; Adeyemo, W.L; Mossey, P.A; Olasoji, H.O; Onah, I.I; Adebola, A; Efunkoya; Akintububo, A; James, O; Adeosun, O.O; Ogunlewe, M.O; Ladeinde, A.L; Mofikoya, B.O; Adeyemi, M.O; Ekhaguere, O.A; Emeka, C; A MBChB, Awoyale T.

2013-01-01

407

Geographic Variation of Overweight and Obesity among Women in Nigeria: A Case for Nutritional Transition in Sub-Saharan Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Nutritional research in sub-Saharan Africa has primarily focused on under-nutrition. However, there is evidence of an ongoing nutritional transition in these settings. This study aimed to examine the geographic variation of overweight and obesity prevalence at the state-level among women in Nigeria, while accounting for individual-level risk factors. Methods The analysis was based on the 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS), including 27,967 women aged 1549 years. Individual data were collected on socio-demographics, but were aggregated to the country's states. We used a Bayesian geo-additive mixed model to map the geographic distribution of overweight and obesity at the state-level, accounting for individual-level risk factors. Results The overall prevalence of combined overweight and obesity (body mass index ?25) was 20.9%. In multivariate Bayesian geo-additive models, higher education [odds ratio (OR) & 95% Credible Region (CR): 1.68 (1.38, 2.00)], higher wealth index [3.45 (2.98, 4.05)], living in urban settings [1.24 (1.14, 1.36)] and increasing age were all significantly associated with a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity. There was also a striking variation in overweight/obesity prevalence across ethnic groups and state of residence, the highest being in Cross River State, in south-eastern Nigeria [2.32 (1.62, 3.40)], the lowest in Osun State in south-western Nigeria [0.48 (0.36, 0.61)]. Conclusions This study suggests distinct geographic patterns in the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity among Nigerian women, as well as the role of demographic, socio-economic and environmental factors in the ongoing nutritional transition in these settings.

Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Stranges, Saverio

2014-01-01

408

The Effect of Mass Media Campaign on the Use of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets among Pregnant Women in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Background. Malaria during pregnancy is a major public health problem in Nigeria especially in malaria-endemic areas. It increases the risk of low birth weight and child/maternal morbidity/mortality. This paper addresses the impact of radio campaigns on the use of insecticide-treated bed nets among pregnant women in Nigeria. Methods. A total of 2,348 pregnant women were interviewed during the survey across 21 of Nigeria's 36 states. Respondents were selected through a multistage sampling technique. Analysis was based on multivariate logistic regression. Results. Respondents who knew that sleeping under ITN prevents malaria were 3.2 times more likely to sleep under net (OR: 3.15; 95% CI: 2.28 to 4.33; P < 0.0001). Those who listened to radio are also about 1.6 times more likely to use ITN (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.28; P = 0.020), while respondents who had heard of a specific sponsored radio campaign on ITN are 1.53 times m