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1

Preventing malaria in pregnancy through community-directed interventions: evidence from Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Despite massive anti-malaria campaigns across the subcontinent, effective access to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) among pregnant women remain low in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa. The slow uptake of malaria prevention products appears to reflect lack of knowledge and resistance to behavioural change, as well as poor access to resources, and limited support of programmes by local communities and authorities. Methods A recent community-based programme in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, is analysed to determine the degree to which community-directed interventions can improve access to malaria prevention in pregnancy. Six local government areas in Southern Nigeria were selected for a malaria in pregnancy prevention intervention. Three of these local government areas were selected for a complementary community-directed intervention (CDI) programme. Under the CDI programme, volunteer community-directed distributors (CDDs) were appointed by each village and kindred in the treatment areas and trained to deliver ITNs and IPTp drugs as well as basic counseling services to pregnant women. Findings Relative to women in the control area, an additional 7.4 percent of women slept under a net during pregnancy in the treatment areas (95% CI [0.035, 0.115], p-value < 0.01), and an additional 8.5 percent of women slept under an ITN after delivery and prior to the interview (95% CI [0.045, 0.122], p-value < 0.001). The effects of the CDI programme were largest for IPTp adherence, increasing the fraction of pregnant women taking at least two SP doses during pregnancy by 35.3 percentage points [95% CI: 0.280, 0.425], p-value < 0.001) relative to the control group. No effects on antenatal care attendance were found. Conclusion The presented results suggest that the inclusion of community-based programmes can substantially increase effective access to malaria prevention, and also increase access to formal health care access in general, and antenatal care attendance in particular in combination with supply side interventions. Given the relatively modest financial commitments they require, community-directed programmes appear to be a cost-effective way to improve malaria prevention; the participatory approach underlying CDI programmes also promises to strengthen ties between the formal health sector and local communities. PMID:21819579

2011-01-01

2

A survey of the repository of groundwater potential and distribution using geoelectrical resistivity method in Itu Local Government Area (L.G.A), Akwa Ibom State, southern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical electrical sounding (VES), employing a Schlumberger electrode configuration, was used to investigate the sediments and aquifer repositories in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom state, southern Nigeria. This was done in sixteen (16) locations/communities with the maximum current electrode spread ranging between 800-1000m. The field data were interpreted using forward and iterative least square inversion modeling, which gives a resolution with 3-5 geoelectric layers. The observed frequencies in curve types include 31.25% of AKH, 18.8% of AAK and HK and 6.25% of K, QHK, AKH, KA and KHQ, respectively. These sets of curves show a wide range of variabilities in resistivities between and within the layers penetrated by current. The presence of K and H curve types in the study area indicates the alteration of the geomaterials with limited hydrologic significance to the prolific groundwater repository. A correlation of the constrained nearby borehole lithology logs with the VES results shows that the layers were all sandy formations (fine and well sorted sands to gravelly sands or medium to coarse-grained sands as described by nearby lithology logs) with some wide ranges of electrical resistivity values and thicknesses caused by electrostratigraphic inhomogeneity. The geologic topsoil (motley topsoil) is generally porous and permeable and as such the longitudinal conductance (S) values for the covering/protective layer is generally less than unity of Siemens (S < 1?-1), the value considered for efficient protection of the underlying aquifers by the topmost and overlying layer. The spatial orientations and the leveling patterns of the most economically viable potential groundwater repository within the maximum current electrode separations has been delineated in 2-D and 3-D contoured maps. The estimated depth range for the desired groundwater repository is 32.6-113.1m and its average depth value is 74.30m. The thickness of this layer ranges from 27.9-103m while its average depth has been evaluated to be 63.02m. Also, its resistivity range and average value have been estimated to be 507-5612m and 3365.125?m

Ibuot, J.; Akpabio, G.; George, N.

2013-12-01

3

Women NGOs and rural women empowerment activities in the Niger Delta, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study attempted to document beneficiaries’ perceptions on the contributions of Women NGOs (WNGOs) to the socio-economic\\u000a empowerment of rural women in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study included: an assessment of WNGOs\\u000a contributions to improvements’ in beneficiaries’ socio-economic activities and constraints affecting beneficiaries’ participation\\u000a in WNGOs activities. An attempt was also made to determine the

Iniobong Aniefiok Akpabio

2009-01-01

4

Colonialism, state and policing in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Police forces in Nigeria have been variously described as corrupt, oppressive and subservient to the whims and caprices of the government of the day. This paper analyses the development of police forces in Nigeria since the era of British colonial domination in the country. Police corruption and repression in Nigeria is analyzed in the context of the wider political and

Etannibi E. O. Alemika

1993-01-01

5

Nigeria  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... smoke from fires burning throughout Nigeria and north central Africa on January 31, 2003. At left are natural-color views acquired by ... - Smoke from fires burning throughout Nigeria and north central Africa. project:  MISR category:  ...

2013-04-15

6

Determinants of Internet use in Imo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research was designed to determine the use of internet in Imo state, Nigeria with a view to enlighten societal stakeholders on their implications to development. Self designed questionnaire was distributed to users from five internet centers in the three local government areas of Imo State. 219 (73%) of the 300 distributed questionnaires were…

Anunobi, C. V.; Mbagwu, F. C.

2009-01-01

7

Understanding Women's Associations in Nigeria: The Case of Oun State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper has analyzed the characteristic features of women's associations and problems inhibiting their effective participation in rural development projects in Osun State, Nigeria. One rural local government area was purposively selected in each of the six administrative zones in Osun State, based on high degrees of ruralness. A list of…

Deji, O. F.

2005-01-01

8

Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nigeria is Africa's most populous nation, and one of its richest. During the 1970s, oil prices fueled rapid development. With world-wide crude oil prices now fluctuating, the future of this diverse, turbulent country is uncertain. The unit contains three sections: the Text, Suggestions for the Teacher, and the Slide-Tape Script. An overview of the…

Semaan, Leslie; Hillian, John

9

Approaches to reduce vitamin A deficiency in Lagos State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A study conducted among 496 ophthalmologic patients in Nigeria's Lagos State revealed a 10.1% prevalence of vitamin A deficiency, defined on the basis of the clinical presence of keratomalacia and night blindness. Since patients with mild or subclinical deficiency were not counted, this rate underestimates the true occurrence of vitamin A deficiency. In response to these findings, Optonet International, Nigeria produced a leaflet: "Save a life from vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia--Give vitamin A." Also prepared was a poster emphasizing that vitamin A prevents death and blindness in children. The educational materials emphasize the importance of breast feeding in the first 6 months and a diet containing green leafy vegetables and fruits, yellow vegetables and fruits, liver, whole milk, eggs, and red palm oil. PMID:12293180

1997-12-01

10

Socioeconomic status and obesity in Abia State, South East Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in developed and emerging economies. There is a paucity of data from Nigeria on the association between socioeconomic status and obesity. The aim of this study is to highlight that association in Abia State, South East Nigeria. Material and methods This was a cross-sectional survey in South East Nigeria. Participating subjects were recruited from the three senatorial zones of Abia state. A total of 2,487 adults took part in the study. The subjects were classified based on their monthly income and level of educational attainment (determinants of obesity). Monthly income was classified into three groups: low, middle, and upper income, while educational level was classified into four groups: no formal education, primary, secondary, and tertiary education. Body mass index of subjects was determined and used for defining obesity. Data on blood pressure and other anthropometric measurements were also collected using a questionnaire, modified from the World Health Organization STEPwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance. Results Overall, the prevalence of obesity in low, middle, and upper income groups was 12.2%, 16%, and 20%, respectively. The overall prevalence of obesity in individuals with no formal education, primary, secondary, and tertiary education was 6.3%, 14.9%, 10.5%, and 17.7%, respectively. Educational status was found to be significantly associated with obesity in women, but not in men, or in the combined group. However, level of income was observed to be significantly associated with obesity in men, women, and in the combined group. Conclusion Sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors are important determinants of obesity in our study population, and therefore may be indirectly linked to the prevalence and the outcomes of cardiovascular disease in Nigeria. PMID:24204167

Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Chuku, Abali; Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Okafor, Godwin Oguejiofor Chukwuebuka; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

2013-01-01

11

Adoption of Aquaculture Technology by Fish Farmers in Imo State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper evaluated the level of adoption of aquaculture technology extended to farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. To improve aquaculture practice in Nigeria, a technology package was developed and disseminated to farmers in the state. This package included ten practices that the farmers were supposed to adopt. Eighty-two respondents were randomly…

Ike, Nwachukwu; Roseline, Onuegbu

2007-01-01

12

Current trends of immunization in Nigeria: prospect and challenges.  

PubMed

Immunization is aimed at the prevention of infectious diseases. In Nigeria, the National Programme on Immunization (NPI) suffers recurrent setbacks due to many factors including ethnicity and religious beliefs. Nigeria is made up of 36 states with its federal capital in Abuja. The country is divided into six geo-political zones; north central, north west, north east, south east, south west and south south. The population is unevenly distributed across the country. The average population density in 2006 was estimated at 150 people per square kilometres with Lagos, Anambra, Imo, Abia, and Akwa Ibom being the most densely populated states. Most of the densely populated states are found in the south east. Kano with an average density of 442 persons per square kilometre, is the most densely populated state in the northern part of the country. This study presents a review on the current immunization programme and the many challenges affecting its success in the eradication of childhood diseases in Nigeria. PMID:25237283

Ophori, Endurance A; Tula, Musa Y; Azih, Azuka V; Okojie, Rachel; Ikpo, Precious E

2014-06-01

13

Current Trends of Immunization in Nigeria: Prospect and Challenges  

PubMed Central

Immunization is aimed at the prevention of infectious diseases. In Nigeria, the National Programme on Immunization (NPI) suffers recurrent setbacks due to many factors including ethnicity and religious beliefs. Nigeria is made up of 36 states with its federal capital in Abuja. The country is divided into six geo-political zones; north central, north west, north east, south east, south west and south south. The population is unevenly distributed across the country. The average population density in 2006 was estimated at 150 people per square kilometres with Lagos, Anambra, Imo, Abia, and Akwa Ibom being the most densely populated states. Most of the densely populated states are found in the south east. Kano with an average density of 442 persons per square kilometre, is the most densely populated state in the northern part of the country. This study presents a review on the current immunization programme and the many challenges affecting its success in the eradication of childhood diseases in Nigeria. PMID:25237283

Ophori, Endurance A.; Tula, Musa Y.; Azih, Azuka V.; Okojie, Rachel; Ikpo, Precious E.

2014-01-01

14

The Status of Broadcasting Libraries in Nigeria (A Study of Bauchi and Plateau States)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of broadcasting libraries in Nigeria was carried out using the social survey method. Questionnaire, observation, and interview techniques were used to generate data from a representative sample of the nation's broadcast media stations (radio and television) located in the Bauchi and Plateau States of Nigeria. A general underdevelopment of the libraries was revealed. Staffing is inadequate in number

STEPHEN A. AKINTUNDE

1995-01-01

15

HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, and Opinions among Adolescents in the River States of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sub-Saharan Africa remains the epicenter of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic (Taylor et al., 2003; UNAIDS/UNICEF/WHO, 2000; Eaton, Flishera and Arob, 2002; Prat, et al., 2000). Nigeria is one of the most afflicted sub-Saharan nations (UNAIDS, 2002). Rivers State, a major industrial area of Nigeria and the nerve center of the oil industry, represents a…

Wodi, Ben E.

2005-01-01

16

Contemporary Analysis of Variability in Road Traffic Accidents in Lagos State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine the spatial and temporal pattern of road traffic accidents in Lagos State, Nigeria, and to suggest preventive and corrective safety measures for reducing road traffic accidents in the study area. Road traffic accidents exert a huge burden on Nigeria's economy and health care services and current accident prevention interventions are sporadic, uncoordinated

Augustus O. Atubi; Patience C. Onokala

2009-01-01

17

Serologic prevalence of brucellosis in horse stables in two northern States of Nigeria.  

PubMed

Despite the endemicity of brucellosis in Nigeria, reports on equine brucellosis are rare. The Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) was used to determine the serologic prevalence of Brucella abortus antibodies amongst 75 horses from three stables in two States of northern Nigeria. The highest prevalence (22.7%) was recorded in stable C located in Plateau State and the lowest (6.7%) was found in stable B in Kaduna State. The overall prevalence determined was 14.7%. There is need for the inclusion of horses in brucellosis surveillance and control strategies in Nigeria to safeguard people at high risk. PMID:24833983

Ehizibolo, David O; Gusi, Amahyel M; Ehizibolo, Peter O; Mbuk, Elsie U; Ocholi, Reuben A

2011-01-01

18

Conceptualizations of Scientific Concepts, Laws, and Theories Held by Kwara State, Nigeria Secondary School Science Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported is a study designed to determine conceptualizations of scientific concepts, laws and theories (linguistic structure of science) held by 80 Kwara State, Nigeria, secondary school science teachers relative to conceptualizations identified with seven philosophers of science. (Author/DS)

Ogunniyi, Meschach B.; Pella, Milton O.

1980-01-01

19

Conservation of indigenous medicinal botanicals in Ekiti State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

The rapid appraisal method was used to identify the botanicals used ethnomedicinally from a total of 300 randomly selected respondents drawn from the existing three geo-political zones of Ekiti State, Nigeria. The results obtained revealed that about 40% of the 71 botanicals identified presently rare. Most of the presently abundant botanicals are species primarily cultivated for other purpose other than medicine. Most of the identified species are valued for their curative effects on malaria and fever, the predominant diseases in the study area. The need for the conservation of the rare species cannot be over emphasised as most rural dwellers in the study area depend mostly on herbs from these species. Strategies towards the attainment of this goal are proposed. PMID:16909472

Kayode, Joshua

2006-01-01

20

Technical Efficiency and Productivity of Yam in Kogi State Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study examined the technical efficiency and productivity of yam in Kogi States of Nigeria. Specifically the study examined the socioeconomic characteristics of yam producers in Kogi State, determined the technical efficiency and productivity of yam farmers in the study areas and made recommendations on ways of improving the efficiency of yam production in Kogi State. Primary data were collected using a set of structured questionnaire from 200 selected Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) contact yam farmers from the State. A multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting the farmers. The first stage was a purposive sampling of 5 Local Government Areas (LGAs) each from Kogi States. The LGAs selected were Omala, Ofu, Ankpa, Dekina and Ida. This was based on the high concentration of the population of yam producers and the availability of market for yam products. The second stage involved a simple random sampling of 5 villages from each LGA and 8 yam farmers from each village. In all 200 yam farmers were interviewed by trained enumerators. Out of the 200 only 144 copies of the questionnaires were found adequate and used in the analysis for the study. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation, as well as the stochastic frontier production function. Results from the study showed that on the average more males (98.6%) were involved in yam production as compared to 1.4% in the case of female. The mean age of farmers was 53 years. The average years of schooling by farmers was about 4 years suggesting that the farmers were not well educated. The average farming years was 25 years. In terms of cropping pattern all the farmers practiced sole yam cropping. Their average farm sizes were 0.97 ha. The technical efficiency of the farmers in the State varied. The technical efficiency of farmers varied from 0.05 to 0.95 with a mean of 0.62, while only about 23% of the farmers had technical efficiencies exceeding 0.80. The results also showed that yam production was profitable in State with net profit of N 108,299.67 ha-1.

Ekunwe, Peter A.; Orewa, Sylvester I.

21

Management of immunization solid wastes in Kano State, Nigeria  

SciTech Connect

Inadequate management of waste generated from injection activities can have a negative impact on the community and environment. In this paper, a report on immunization wastes management in Kano State (Nigeria) is presented. Eight local governments were selected randomly and surveyed by the author. Solid wastes generated during the Expanded Programme on Immunization were characterised using two different methods: one by weighing the waste and the other by estimating the volume. Empirical data was obtained on immunization waste generation, segregation, storage, collection, transportation, and disposal; and waste management practices were assessed. The study revealed that immunization offices were accommodated in either in local government buildings, primary health centres or community health care centres. All of the stations demonstrated a high priority for segregation of the infectious wastes. It can be deduced from the data obtained that infectious waste ranged from 67.6% to 76.7% with an average of 70.1% by weight, and 36.0% to 46.1% with an average of 40.1% by volume. Non-infectious waste generated ranged from 23.3% to 32.5% with an average of 29.9% by weight and 53.9% to 64.0% with an average of 59.9% by volume. Out of non-infectious waste (NIFW) and infectious waste (IFW), 66.3% and 62.4% by weight were combustible and 33.7% and 37.6% were non-combustible respectively. An assessment of the treatment revealed that open pit burning and burial and small scale incineration were the common methods of disposal for immunization waste, and some immunization centres employed the services of the state or local government owned solid waste disposal board for final collection and disposal of their immunization waste at government approved sites.

Oke, I.A. [Civil Engineering Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria)], E-mail: okeia@oauife.edu.ng

2008-12-15

22

Indigenous knowledge system for treatment of trypanosomiasis in Kaduna state of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was carried out in Kaduna State of Nigeria to establish the indigenous knowledge system for treating trypanosomiasis in domestic animals. Questionnaire and interviews were, respectively, administered to, or conducted with about 200 livestock farmers and traders spread around the state. Data obtained revealed the use of several plants either alone or in combination, for the treatment and management

S. E Atawodi; D. A Ameh; S Ibrahim; J. N Andrew; H. C Nzelibe; E. O Onyike; K. M Anigo; E. A Abu; D. B James; G. C Njoku; A. B Sallau

2002-01-01

23

Ethnobotanical Potentials of Common Herbs in Nigeria: A Case Study of Enugu State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research was carried out on the ethnobotanical potentials of common herbs in Nigeria using Enugu State as a case study. A total of 200 questionnaires were administered on herb sellers in major herb markets in the state. In all, 96 different plant species were encountered in the markets. Attempts were made to write the names of the species both in…

Aiyeloja, A. A.; Bello, O. A.

2006-01-01

24

Teachers' Teaching Experience and Students' Learning Outcomes in Secondary Schools in Ondo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examined teachers' teaching experience and students' learning outcomes in the secondary schools in Ondo State Nigeria. As a correlational survey, the study population comprised all the 257 secondary schools in the State. This population was made up of 147 rural schools and 110 urban schools. It was also made up of 12 single sex…

Adeyemi, T. O.

2008-01-01

25

Gender, Geographic Locations, Achievement Goals and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students from Borno State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examined gender, geography location, achievement goals and academic performance of senior secondary school students in Borno State, Nigeria. The sample consists of 827 students from 18 public boarding secondary schools across South and North of Borno State: 414 (50.1 per cent) males and 413 (49.9 per cent) are females; 414 (50.1 per…

Musa, Alice K.J.

2013-01-01

26

Principals' Management of Conflicts in Public Secondary Schools in Ondo State, Nigeria: A Critical Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examined principals' management of conflicts in public secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. As a descriptive survey, the study population comprised all the 281 public secondary schools in the State. Out of this population, a sample of 80 schools was drawn while 340 respondents (80 principals and 260 teachers) were selected through…

Adeyemi, T. O.

2009-01-01

27

Determinants of Adoption of Improved Fish Production Technologies among Fish Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to isolate the determinants of improved fish production technologies in Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample population of 250 fish farmers from ten randomly selected Local Government Areas of Delta State. The data were elicited from respondents with the use of structured interview schedule while…

Ofuoku, A. U.; Olele, N. F.; Emah, G. N.

2008-01-01

28

In-School Adolescents and Career Choice: The Case of Ekiti State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines in-school adolescents and career choices in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The sample consists of two hundred randomly selected parents and in-school adolescents from four local government areas in Ekiti State. Two hypotheses were generated and tested at 0.05 level of significance using t-test statistical analysis. The results showed…

Osakinle, E. O.

2010-01-01

29

Case based rubella surveillance in Abia State, South East Nigeria, 2007–2011  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Rubella infection has the potential of causing severe fetal birth defects collectively called congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) if the mother is infected early in pregnancy. However, little is known about rubella and CRS epidemiology in Nigeria and rubella vaccines are still not part of routine childhood immunization in Nigeria. Methods. Analysis of confirmed cases of rubella in Abia State, Nigeria from 2007 to 2011 detected through Abia State Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response system. Results. Of the 757 febrile rash cases, 81(10.7%) tested positive for rubella immunoglobulin M (IgM). New rubella infection decreased from 6.81/1,000,000 population in 2007 to 2.28/1,000,000 in 2009 and increased to 6.34/1,000,000 in 2011. The relative risk of rubella was 1.5 (CI [0.98–2.28]) times as high in females compared to males and 1.6 times (CI [0.90–2.91]) as high in rural areas compared to urban areas. Eighty six percent of rubella infections occurred in children less than 15 years with a high proportion of cases occurring between 5 and 14 years. Conclusion. Rubella infection in Abia State, Nigeria is predominantly in those who are younger than 15 years old. It is also more prevalent in females and in those living in rural areas of the state. Unfortunately, there is no surveillance of CRS in Nigeria and so the public health impact of rubella infection in the state is not known. Efforts should be made to expand the rubella surveillance in Nigeria to incorporate surveillance for CRS. PMID:25289179

Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony

2014-01-01

30

Case based rubella surveillance in Abia State, South East Nigeria, 2007-2011.  

PubMed

Introduction. Rubella infection has the potential of causing severe fetal birth defects collectively called congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) if the mother is infected early in pregnancy. However, little is known about rubella and CRS epidemiology in Nigeria and rubella vaccines are still not part of routine childhood immunization in Nigeria. Methods. Analysis of confirmed cases of rubella in Abia State, Nigeria from 2007 to 2011 detected through Abia State Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response system. Results. Of the 757 febrile rash cases, 81(10.7%) tested positive for rubella immunoglobulin M (IgM). New rubella infection decreased from 6.81/1,000,000 population in 2007 to 2.28/1,000,000 in 2009 and increased to 6.34/1,000,000 in 2011. The relative risk of rubella was 1.5 (CI [0.98-2.28]) times as high in females compared to males and 1.6 times (CI [0.90-2.91]) as high in rural areas compared to urban areas. Eighty six percent of rubella infections occurred in children less than 15 years with a high proportion of cases occurring between 5 and 14 years. Conclusion. Rubella infection in Abia State, Nigeria is predominantly in those who are younger than 15 years old. It is also more prevalent in females and in those living in rural areas of the state. Unfortunately, there is no surveillance of CRS in Nigeria and so the public health impact of rubella infection in the state is not known. Efforts should be made to expand the rubella surveillance in Nigeria to incorporate surveillance for CRS. PMID:25289179

Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Onyi, Stella Chioma

2014-01-01

31

The problem of uveitis in Bendel State of Nigeria: experience in Benin City.  

PubMed Central

A review of 1987 patients with uveitis seen over an 11-year period in Bendel State of Nigeria has been undertaken; 56% of cases had a posterior/mid-peripheral uveitis, 15.1% a panuveitis, 21.5% an anterior uveitis. Acute anterior uveitis with classical symptoms was rarely seen. Its comparative rarity is presumably due to the absence of HL-A27 in Africans and altered immunological states from malaria and parasitic infections. Identified aetiological factors in anterior uveitis were leprosy (1 patient), tuberculosis (1 patient), herpes zoster (16 patients), and onchocerciasis (3 patients). The great majority of cases of posterior uveitis were of presumed toxoplasmic origin. Further studies are needed to demonstrate its mode of transmission in a population in which toxoplasmosis is endemic. Forest onchocerciasis is not a major cause of uveitis in southern Nigeria in the same way as savanna onchocerciasis is in northern Nigeria. Syphilis seems to play no part in the causation of uveitis in southern Nigeria. Better diagnostic facilities are required to determine the role of sarcoidosis and other possible causative factors. Uveitis is a major cause of blindness in Nigeria. PMID:563237

Ayanru, J. O.

1977-01-01

32

Tested, Trusted, Yet Frustrating: An Investigation into the Effectiveness of Environmental Radio Jingles in Oyo State Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Radio stations have used jingles for environmental education and communication in Nigeria for decades though not much has been done to study the impact of such use--which is the purpose of this article. Through 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) in six local government areas of Oyo state, Nigeria, interviews with the program directors of two radio…

Ojebode, Ayo

2005-01-01

33

Economic burden of glaucoma in Rivers State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Primary open angle glaucoma is reported to blind 150,000 people in the Nigerian population and over 7000 in Rivers State, and requires constant follow-up. Compliance is a challenge, given that most inhabitants live below the poverty line. This study was performed to determine how Nigerian patients are affected economically by the disease. Methods Consecutive adult patients attending the eye clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria, with a diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma and on outpatient antiglaucoma treatment in the first 6 months of 2006, were recruited for the study. The lowest paid government worker was on USD50 (N7500.00) per month and the gross domestic product per capita was USD1150 for the period under review. Results We enrolled 120 consecutive patients of mean age 52.7 ± 10.4 years, with a male to female ratio of 2:3. The most common occupations were in the civil service (n = 56, 46.7%). All participants were on topical antiglaucoma treatment. The average cost of medical antiglaucoma medication was N6000 (USD40) per month. Computed to include indirect costs, including medical laboratory tests, transportation, and care by patient escorts, an average sum of USD105.4 (N15,810) was spent by each patient per month. Most of the patients (73.3%) were responsible for their own treatment costs. No patient accepted the cheaper option of surgery (USD275.4, N41,310). Eighty of the patients (66.7%) visited our eye clinic monthly. Direct and indirect loss to the economy was USD3,064587 per annum from those already blind. This was in addition to the USD 4.1 million being spent yearly on medical treatment by those who were visually impaired by glaucoma. Conclusion Middle-income earners spent over 50% of their monthly income and low-income earners spend all their monthly earnings on treatment for glaucoma. This situation often resulted in noncompliance with treatment and hospital follow-up visits. To reduce the economic burden of glaucoma, trabeculectomy performed by experienced surgeons should be offered as first-line treatment for glaucoma in this country, rather than medical therapy. PMID:23271881

Adio, Adedayo O; Onua, Alfred A

2012-01-01

34

Sustainability of Farm Credit Delivery by Cooperatives and NGOs in Edo and Delta States, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examined the sustainability rates of co-operatives and NGOs in farm credit delivery in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. The Subsidy Dependence Indices (SDI) and the capital formation rates were determined using both primary and secondary data obtained from 80 and 20 purposively selected cooperatives and NGOs respectively, based on their…

Alufohai, G. O.

2006-01-01

35

Gender Differences and Mathematics Achievement of Rural Senior Secondary Students in Cross River State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

To contribute to the realization of the Millennium Develop- ment Goal (MDG) by the United Nations on the promotion of gender equity, the researchers sought to empirically verify the existence or otherwise of gender inequality in the math- ematics achievement of rural male and female students in Cross River State, Nigeria; and whether parental socio-eco- nomic status and school proprietorship,

Sam William Bassey; M. T. Joshua; Alice E. Asim

36

Antinutrients Evaluation of Staple Food in Ebonyi State, South-Eastern, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluating the levels of antinutrients in the staple foods is an important aspect of nutritional studies. The levels of these antinutrients were quantitatively estimated in staple foods in a major food producing rural areas of Ebonyi State, South-Eastern Nigeria using spectrophotometric method. Results indicated that phytate was not detected in tubers while legumes recorded the highest mean values of phytate

C. O. Edeogu; F. C. Ezeonu; A. N. C. Okaka; C. E. Ekuma; S. O. Eiom

2007-01-01

37

Farmers' Adoption of Soil Conservation Technologies: A Case Study from Osun State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of this study was to determine the attitude of farmers towards erosion and the adoption of appropriate soil conservation technologies (SCTs). For the survey, farmers were selected from the communities Esa Oke, Elwure and Owode-Ede and Akoda in Osun State in Nigeria. In the first three communities farmers did receive training on…

Junge, B.; Deji, O.; Abaidoo, R.; Chikoye, D.; Stahr, K.

2009-01-01

38

Information and Communication Technologies in Enhancing Learning Ability in Secondary Schools in Edo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dismal results of 2011, 2010, 2009, and previous years WAEC and NECO Senior School Certificate Examinations (SSCE) show the pitiable state of education in secondary schools in Nigeria. The youths of today live in a digital age. Web technologies and sites have become an integral part of the youth culture. Today's youths use the web tools to…

Osagie, Roseline O.

2012-01-01

39

Teaching Clothing and Textiles: An Appraisal by Students in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research is to find out how students appraise the teaching of Clothing and Textiles in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State, Nigeria. To do this two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to give direction to the study. The target population consisted of 660 Home Economics Students enrolled in Home Economics in…

Arubayi, D. O.

2009-01-01

40

Adolescent Girls' Need for Love in Two Cultures--Nigeria and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares a junior novel from the United States with one from Nigeria--Bette Greene's "Summer of My German Soldier" with Buchi Emecheta's "The Bride Price." Suggests that their similarity can inspire children from a variety of backgrounds to an awareness and appreciation of different cultures. (MM)

Osa, Osayimwense

1983-01-01

41

Technological assessment of palm oil production in Osun and Ondo states of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential economic returns from the oil palm are high if processed with efficient technologies. This study was undertaken to evaluate the technologies in use for the production of palm oil from a gender perspective. A survey was conducted in Osun and Ondo States of Nigeria using a structured questionnaire and the participatory learning approach. A total of 28 palm

K. A Taiwo; O. K Owolarafe; L. A Sanni; J. O Jeje; K Adeloye; O. O Ajibola

2000-01-01

42

Proximate analysis of some dry season vegetables in Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable is a vital component of human diet that should be eaten all year round, but they are scarce during dry season in Anyigba community in Kogi State, Nigeria. Available dry season vegetables such as the leaves of Manihot esculentum (Cassava), Piper guineese (Oziza), Chromolena odorata (Akintola), Solanum melanogaster (Garden egg) and Voandzeia subteranea (Babara-nut), are either not accepted as

A. Taiga; M. N. Suleiman; D. O. Aina; W. F. Sule; G. O. Alege

43

The politics of religion in Nigeria: the parameters of the 1987 crisis in Kaduna State  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the immediate and long term causes of the outbreak of religious violence between Muslims and Christians in Kaduna State, Nigeria, in 1987. The author argues that the crisis arose from the politicisation of religion in the regional contest for power. On the one hand is the issue of the rise of fundamentalist Christianity and Islam. On the

Jibrin Ibrahim

1989-01-01

44

Personality Variables as Correlates of Marital Adjustment among Married Persons in Delta State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the extent to which emotional expression, communication flow, financial management and work involvement predict marital adjustment among married persons in Delta State, Nigeria. One question was raised and one hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. 2561 married persons were selected through the use of purposive sampling…

Ebenuwa-Okoh, E. E.

2008-01-01

45

Conservation of Botanicals Used for Dental and Oral Healthcare in Ekiti State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of social surveys and direct field observations was used to identify and determine the abundance status of chewing stick botanicals in the tree zones of Ekiti State, Nigeria. Voucher specimens of the botanicals identified by the respondents were collected, identified and relevant information on them were documented. The relative abundance of the identified species was determined based on

Joshua Kayode; Michael Ayorinde Omotoyinbo

2008-01-01

46

Analysis of Classroom Management Problems in Primary Schools in Delta State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article identifies classroom management problems, their causes, and possible ways to reduce these problems in primary schools located in Delta State, Nigeria. A total of 600 teachers selected from twelve local government areas participated in this study. Data were collected in a checklist containing 27 items and a two section questionnaire…

Oghuvbu, Enamiroro Patrick; Atakpo, Theresa Edirin

2008-01-01

47

Nigeria's women look beyond literacy.  

PubMed

Vocational training programs in Nigeria offer hope for providing women with skills to earn income as self-employed workers. The National Open Apprenticeship Scheme provides training for 100,000 boys and girls annually. Women's Vocational Training Centers are being developed in 589 local areas. The Nigerian government and a number of community banks are providing start-up funds for the self-employed. Traditional craft and art forms are being revived in the process. Cooperatives are being established for selling products. Girls find it easy to get married once they are trained. Women are valued for their ability to add to income and in turn are placed in a position to bargain for power in the relationship. It is unknown yet how these schemes will affect fertility. The example is given of Grace Mfon who left a village 500 miles from Lagos in the impoverished, oil-producing state of Akwa Ibom. She is apprenticed with 3 others in a 1-room "Fashion House" to learn tailoring. The 2-year apprenticeship program cost her $38/year, which she saved from her $20/month job. She plans to save for her own shop and get married and have children. She joined the apprenticeship program because of the poor job prospects and the dead end life of farming for her husband. There is both a great need and interest in providing vocational training. The government has been involved in an economic restructuring under the guidance of the International Monetary Fund, and must find work for the hugh number of unemployed workers, many of whom are school dropouts. PMID:12318183

Obadina, E

1993-01-01

48

ALLEVIATING RURAL POVERTY: WHAT ROLE FOR SMALLHOLDER LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to examine the role of small-holder livestock production in reducing rural poverty among small-scale farmers in Delta State, Nigeria, structured questionnai res were administered randomly to 264 small-scale farmers in 24 comm un ities in 6 local government areas of the State, using multistage sampling technique. Data collected include socio-economic characteristics of households, flock size, livestock income, annual

49

Alleviating Rural Poverty: What Role for SmallHolder Livestock Production in Delta State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In order to examine the role of small-holder livestock production in reducing rural poverty among small-scale farmers in Delta State, Nigeria, structured questionnaire were administered randomly to 264 small-scale farmers in 24 communities in six local government areas of the State, using multistage sampling technique. Data collected include socio-economic characteristics of households, fl ock size, livestock income, annual income

Odjuvwuederhie E. INONI; Christopher O. CHUKWUJI; D. OGISI; William J. OYAIDE

50

Technical Education in Nigeria: The Way Forward. Summary of Proceedings of the Workshop on Technical Education: A Foundation for a Healthy Economy (Ota, Ogun State of Nigeria, March 1-2, 1994).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This summary of proceedings includes papers from and about a workshop on technical education in Nigeria and the lessons Nigeria may gain by examining the vocational and technical education systems of Germany, the United States, Great Britain, and Japan. The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Iyorchia Ayu); "Introduction: A Time for Action…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

51

Human filariasis in Dass local government area of Bauchi state, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Dass area of Bauchi state Northern Nigeria we studied the infection rates, intensity and clinical manifestations of human filarial infections. After an initial census, 1,638 persons who presented themselves were physically examined from a total population of 53.213. Two hundred and fifteen (20.3%) of 1059 males and 99 (19.1%) of 569 females examined had fi- larial infections. Overall, 314

J. C. ANOSIKE; C. O. E. ONWULIRI; V. A. ONWULIRI

52

Effect of highways and local activities on the quality of underground water in Ogun State, Nigeria: a case study of three districts in Ogun State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The effect of highways and local activities on the quality of groundwater in Ogun State, Nigeria was investigated. This was done by collecting groundwater samples from three different districts in the state, located in Southwestern Nigeria. The water samples collected at 5 m from the highway and control samples collected at 3 km from the highway were analyzed for the following physicochemical parameters: pH, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, alkalinity, total hardness, total solid, suspended solid, dissolved solid, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, phenol, and the metals-lead, zinc, iron, aluminum, sodium, and potassium. The levels of chromium, copper, and cadmium in the samples were below the detectable limit. The levels of the parameters show that there are significant differences between those in the samples and the controls (F test) except for phosphate and phenol. Also, anthropogenic sources (local activities) elevate the levels of different specific parameters, which are related to these activities. Good correlation was observed between traffic density and lead levels as well as between conductivity and dissolved solids. Comparisons with the World Health Organization guidelines indicate that most of the water samples are not suitable for human consumption. PMID:19626447

Odukoya, Olusegun O; Onianwa, Percy C; Sanusi, Olanrewaju I

2010-09-01

53

Placental malaria in Owerri, Imo State, south-eastern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Malaria in pregnancy jeopardizes the outcome of pregnancy, affecting both the mother and the foetus. The prevalence of placental malaria in women, who routinely attended ante-natal clinics in Owerri, south-eastern Nigeria, was assessed using three hospitals between March 2004 and August 2005. Placental blood was collected in EDTA bottles from incisions made on cleaned basal plate of the placenta, within an hour of delivery. Blood collected was used to assess ABO blood group, haemoglobin level as well as malaria parasitaemia. Malaria parasitaemia was determined from thick and thin smears stained with Giemsa, while the haemoglobin level was measured using the cyanomethaemoglobin method. A total of 586 pregnant women were involved in this study with written consents. Malaria parasites were observed in 175 (29.9%) of the women on delivery. Of these women, 64 (36.6%) were anaemic. A significant relationship at P<0.05 variation, was observed between the prevalence of malaria parasites in the placenta and gravidity, age and blood group. The rate of occurrence of malaria parasitaemia, in the placenta of women who were on a weekly prophylaxis against malaria is alarming and calls for more serious efforts in the prevention of malaria especially in this vulnerable group. PMID:18087896

Ukaga, C N; Nwoke, B E B; Udujih, O S; Udujih, O G; Ohaeri, A A; Anosike, J C; Udujih, B U; Nwachukwu, M I

2007-09-01

54

The impact of declining vaccination coverage on measles control: a case study of Abia state Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Efforts at immunizing children against measles was intensified in Nigeria with nation-wide measles vaccination campaigns in 2005 - 2006, 2008 and 2011 targeting children between 9 and 59 months. However, there were measles outbreaks in 2010 and 2011in Abia state Nigeria. This study seeks to find out if there is any association between measles immunization coverage and measles outbreak. Methods This is a descriptive analysis of the 2007 to 2011 Abia state measles case-based surveillance data supplied to Abia state World Health Organization office and Abia State Ministry of Health by the disease surveillance and notification officers. Results As the proportion of cases with febrile rash who were immunized decreased from 81% in 2007 to 42% in 2011, the laboratory confirmed cases of measles increased from two in 2007 to 53 in 2011.Of the laboratory confirmed cases of measles, five (7%) occurred in children < 9 months, 48 (64%) occurred in children 9 - 59 months and 22 (29%) occurred in children < 59 months old. Seventy five percent of all laboratory confirmed cases of measles occurred in rural areas. Conclusion Efforts should be made to increase measles immunization in children between 9 and 59 months as most cases of measles occurred in this age group as immunization coverage dropped. In addition, further studies should be carried out to determine the cause of the disproportional incidence of measles in rural areas in Abia state bearing in mind that measles immunization coverage in urban and rural areas was not markedly different PMID:24244791

Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Ahaneku, Hycienth Peterson

2013-01-01

55

The Private Cost of National Certificate in Education (NCE) through National Teachers Institute Distance Learning Programme in Ekiti State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study set out to examine the private cost of a National Certificate in Education, through the distance learning mode as organized by the National Teachers Institute (NTI) Ekiti State branch in Nigeria. This was to open the eyes of the prospective students to know what on the average he has to spend, and also to provide data for the state

Borode, Matthew

2010-01-01

56

Nitrate contents of well, raw, treated and pipe borne water in Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria  

SciTech Connect

Nitrate content of water available to man and animals in a rural community in Plateau State, Nigeria was determined. Water samples were obtained from artesian wells, raw untreated surface water, treated raw water, and pipe borne water. The examination of the samples was over a period of 3 mo at weekly intervals. Sixty percent of the artesian wells sampled had nitrate concentration above 5-50 ppm in June and August, while samples from other sources had less than 1 ppm. The proximity of pit latrines to some of the wells may have been responsible for high nitrate content of the well water.

Gbodi, T.A.; Atawodi, S.E.

1987-04-01

57

Incidence of Avian Influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria: The Epidemiology, Economic Losses and the Possible Role of Wild Birds in the Transmission of the Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing the huge economic losses due to diseases in poultry as the second largest industry in Nigeria after oil means improving the protein intake of the majority. Similarly, this will also promotes a steady income for the teeming farmers. This study investigated the incidence of the lethal avian influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria, with particular emphasis on the socio-economic and

H. G. Balla; A. S. Tahir; C. Haskainu

2008-01-01

58

Screening for Common Occupational Health Diseases Among Long Distance Professional Drivers in Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Long term exposure to hazards at the work place is injurious to health and usually leads to diseased conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the occupational health problems associated with driving among the professional drivers in Sagamu, Ogun state, Nigeria. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study. Total sample of all the consenting professional drivers in the five interstate motor parks, including the cement factory [WAPCO] in the local government area, were recruited into the study. An interviewer administered structured questionnaire was administered by trained health workers and respondents were screen for common occupational health problems. Results: A total of 400 professional drivers were interviewed, all [100%] of them were males with age range from 21 to 59 yrs and nearly half [42%] were non indigenes. Only half, 208 [52%] of them were married with majority, 232 [58.0%] working for about 12 hrs daily and 46% of them had been working for 5 yrs or more. Most, 382 [95.5%] had been educated on HIV/AIDS before and 313 [78.3%] of them had multiple sexual partners. Only 241 [60.3%] used condom at the last sexual act and 55 [13.5%] had ever been tested for HIV/AIDS. Common occupational health diseases were renal tubular acidosis (RTA) 52 [13%] in the last one year and most of them currently have myalgia 352 [88.0%], upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) 20 [5.0%], sexually transmitted diseases (STD) 15 [3.8%], short sightedness 41 [10.3%], and Hypertension 90 [22.5%]. Conclusions: The study shows that common occupational diseases among long distance professional drivers in Western Nigeria were myalgia, upper respiratory tract infection, hypertension, short sightedness, sexually transmitted diseases, and RTA. Prevention and control of these common diseases among the drivers will lead to reduction of road traffic accidents in Western Nigeria and other low income countries. PMID:24829742

Amoran, Olorunfemi Emmanuel; Salako, Albert Adekunle; Jeminusi, Olubunmi

2014-01-01

59

National health insurance scheme: how protected are households in Oyo State, Nigeria from catastrophic health expenditure?  

PubMed Central

Background: The major objective of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Nigeria is to protect families from the financial hardship of large medical bills. Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE) is rampart in Nigeria despite the take-off of the NHIS. This study aimed to determine if households enrolled in the NHIS were protected from having CHE. Methods: The study took place among 714 households in urban communities of Oyo State. CHE was measured using a threshold of 40% of monthly non-food expenditure. Descriptive statistics were done, Principal Component Analysis was used to divide households into wealth quintiles. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were done. Results: The mean age of household respondent was 33.5 years. The median household income was 43,500 naira (290 US dollars) and the range was 7,000–680,000 naira (46.7–4,533 US dollars) in 2012. The overall median household healthcare cost was 890 naira (5.9 US dollars) and the range was 10-17,700 naira (0.1–118 US dollars) in 2012. In all, 67 (9.4%) households were enrolled in NHIS scheme. Healthcare services was utilized by 637 (82.9%) and CHE occurred in 42 (6.6%) households. CHE occurred in 14 (10.9%) of the households in the lowest quintile compared to 3 (2.5%) in the highest wealth quintile (P= 0.004). The odds of CHE among households in lowest wealth quintile is about 5 times. They had Crude OR (CI): 4.7 (1.3–16.8), P= 0.022. Non enrolled households were two times likely to have CHE, though not significant Conclusion: Households in the lowest wealth quintiles were at higher risk of CHE. Universal coverage of health insurance in Nigeria should be fast-tracked to give the expected financial risk protection and decreased incidence of CHE. PMID:24847483

Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi; Fatiregun, Akinola Ayoola

2014-01-01

60

Seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in northern Plateau State, North Central Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis among cattle in some local government areas (LGA) of the northern part of Plateau State, Nigeria. Methods Sera obtained from a total of 270 randomly selected cattle from different herds in the four selected LGAs were for Brucella antibodies using the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT). Results An overall brucellosis seroprevalence of 9.6% (26/270) was obtained. The seroprevalence of Brucella antibodies among the cattle across the LGA ranged from 0%-37.3% with Riyom and Bassa LGA having the lowest and highest seroprevalence respectively while Barkin Ladi LGA had no sero-positive cattle. Females had a higher percentage of seropositives compared to males while cattle reared under extensive system of management had a higher (11.6%) percentage of sero-positives compared to cattle kept under the intensive system of management. However, there was no statistically significant (P>0.05) association between serological status and sex or management practice. Conclusions The results of this study indicates that bovine brucellosis is still a problem among the cattle population in Plateau State, Nigeria. And the public and other animals are at risk of exposure to the disease agent in these animals which are still shedding the organism.

Maurice, Nanven Abraham; Wungak, Samuel Yiltawe; Gana, Balami Arhyel; Nanven, Magdalene Baneche; Ngbede, Emmanuel Ochefije; Ibrahim, Amina; Aworh, Mabel Kamweli; Konzing, Leviticus; Hambolu, Sunday Emmanuel; Gugong, Victor Tita

2013-01-01

61

Lymphatic filariasis among the Yakurr people of Cross River State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background In order to initiate a disease elimination programme for lymphatic filariasis based on mass drug administration, a proper understanding of the geographical distribution and degree of risk is essential. Methods An investigation of lymphatic filariasis due to Wuchereria bancrofti was carried out among 785 people in four communities of Yakurr Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria between March and August, 2009. Finger prick blood smear samples collected from the subjects were examined for W. bancrofti using standard parasitological protocol. The subjects were also screened for clinical manifestations of lymphatic filariasis. Results Of the 785 persons examined, 48 (6.1%) were positive for microfilariae in their thick blood smear. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis among the various age groups (P??0.05). The overall mean microfilarial density of the infected individuals was 5.6mf/50 ?l. There was a significant variation (P?State, Nigeria. PMID:22992226

2012-01-01

62

Qualification and Gender Dimensions in Attitude of Secondary School Social Studies Teachers towards Computer Usage in Kogi State Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined attitude dimensions of secondary school social studies teachers towards computer usage in Kogi State Nigeria. Qualification and Gender influence on their use was examined. Participants were 427 (Male = 224; female = 203) social studies teachers. Sampling was purposive and random. The study adopted the survey design. Data were…

Achor, Emmanuel E.; Shaibu, Joshua S.

2013-01-01

63

Predictive Factors in Undergraduates' Involvement in Campus Secret Cults in Public Universities in Edo State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the predictive factors in undergraduates' involvement in campus secret cults in public universities in Edo State of Nigeria. The study employed the descriptive method, specifically the survey format. A random sample of three hundred and eighty (380) undergraduates was drawn from the two public universities. Data were elicited…

Azetta Arhedo, Philip; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Adomeh, Ilu O. C.

2011-01-01

64

Intersection between Alcohol Abuse and Intimate Partner's Violence in a Rural Ijaw Community in Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey, the south-south zone of Nigeria had the highest prevalence of domestic violence. This study is to find out if this is related to the widespread consumption of alcohol in the region. The study was carried out in Okoloba, a rural Ijaw community in Bayelsa State, where alcohol is produced…

Brisibe, Seiyefa; Ordinioha, Best; Dienye, Paul O.

2012-01-01

65

Survey of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with yams in Edo, Ekiti and Oyo states of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was conducted to determine the types, frequency and population of plant parasitic nematodes associated with the soils and roots of Yam (Dioscorea spp.) in all Local Government Areas of Edo, Ekiti and Oyo States of Nigeria using random sampling for soil and root and using pie pan modification of Baerman funnel for plant parasitic nematode extraction. Twelve, eleven

A. A. Adegbite; J. O. Saka; G. O. Agbaje; O. F. Owolade; G. O. Olaifa; A. Lawal

66

Psychosocial Care in Complementary Feeding of Children: A Comparative Study of the Urban and Rural Communities of Osun State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated psychosocial care in complementary feeding of children under two years of age. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Osun State of Nigeria within Sub-Saharan Africa, and 450 mothers were interviewed of which 337 were from the urban and 113 from the rural communities. Results revealed that 37.4% of the respondents…

Ogunba, Beatrice Olubukola

2010-01-01

67

Knowledge of diabetes management and control by diabetic patients at Federal Medical Center Umuahia Abia State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This survey was undertaken to assess knowledge of diabetes management and control techniques on diabetic patients attending Federal Medical Center, Umuahia and Abia States, Nigeria. A descriptive research design was used for the study and a sample of 96 patients was used. The instrument used for data collection was the questionnaire. The data were analyzed using percentages. The major findings

V. Uchenna; O. Ijeoma; N. Peace; Kalu-Igwe I. Ngozi

68

EXTENT OF AVAILABILITY OF SAFETY INSTRUMENTS\\/ EQUIPMENT IN SCIENCE LABORATORIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EBONYI STATE OF NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined the extent of availability of safety instruments in science laboratories in secondary schools in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. The researcher used 45 secondary schools and 180 science teachers and laboratory attendants for the study. Descriptive survey design was adopted. 11-item four-point scale structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The data collected were analysed using mean and

Celestine N. Nwele

2013-01-01

69

Effects of Training Programme on HIV/AIDS Prevention among Primary Health Care Workers in Oyo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to train primary health care workers to be trainers and implementers of community-based AIDS prevention activities in Oyo State, Nigeria, by describing an evaluation of the project. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 148 primary health care workers recruited from the 33 local government areas (LGA) of the…

Ajuwon, Ademola; Funmilayo, Fawole; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Osungbade, Kayode; Asuzu, Michael

2008-01-01

70

Effects of Enhanced Laboratory Instructional Technique on Senior Secondary Students' Attitude toward Chemistry in Oyo Township, Oyo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the effect of supplementing laboratory instruction with problem solving strategy and or practical skills teaching on students' attitude toward chemistry. A total of 286 senior secondary class II students (145 males and 141 females) drawn from four local government areas in Oyo township in Oyo state, Nigeria, took part in the…

Adesoji, Francis Adewumi; Raimi, Sikiru Morakinyo

2004-01-01

71

[Traditional therapy of dracunculiasis in the state of Bauchi - Nigeria].  

PubMed

Traditional medicinal treatments of guinea worm being applied in various parts of Bauchi State were investigated. Extracts of leaves of a number of plants were universally applied topically. Users perceived relief of pain and accelerated expulsion of worms and healing process. In particular, Tamarindus indica, Adansonia digitata, Calotropis procera, Ziziphus jaozeiro and Moringa olifera are known in nature to have relevant medicinal properties especially lessening of inflammation, relief of pain, or promoting healing or reducing secondary bacterial infections. The possibility was expressed that some of the herbs might be exerting useful effects and could be exploited for the effective treatment of guinea worm. PMID:7758381

Fabiyi, J P; Kela, S L; Tal, K M; Istifanus, W A

1993-01-01

72

Comparative analysis of pathogenic organisms in cockroaches from different community settings in Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents. PMID:24850961

Isaac, Clement; Orue, Philip Ogbeide; Iyamu, Mercy Itohan; Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetiyan; Isaac, Osesojie

2014-04-01

73

Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in native breeds of cattle in Kaduna State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Despite numerous molecular epidemiologic studies of cryptosporidiosis in dairy cattle in industrialized countries, there are very few studies on the diversity and public health significance of Cryptosporidium species in native cattle in developing countries. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene was used to detect and identify Cryptosporidium spp. in 194 fecal specimens from 2 to 365 days old calves in 20 White Fulani and Sokoto Gudali herds in Nigeria. Thirty one (16.0%) of the specimens were positive for Cryptosporidium. Restriction digestion of the PCR products showed the presence of Cryptosporidium bovis (7.2%), Cryptosporidium ryanae (4.1%), Cryptosporidium andersoni (2.5%), and concurrent occurrence of C. bovis and C. ryanae (1.5%), and C. bovis and C. andersoni (0.5%). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in Cryptosporidium infection rates by sex, herd location, management system, breed of calves, or fecal consistency. However, calves 180 days or younger had a higher infection rate of Cryptosporidium than older calves (p=0.034). Likewise, younger calves also had higher occurrence of C. bovis and C. ryanae (p=0.022). The absence of zoonotic Cryptosporidium parvum in the calves studied suggests that native breeds of cattle may not be important in the transmission of human cryptosporidiosis in Kaduna State, Nigeria. PMID:21277091

Maikai, Beatty V; Umoh, Jalarth U; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Lawal, Idris A; Maikai, Victor A; Cama, Vitaliano; Xiao, Lihua

2011-06-10

74

Serological evidence of brucellosis in goats in kaduna north senatorial district of kaduna state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the current status of Brucella antibodies in goats in Kaduna North Senatorial District of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 442 serum samples (31 bucks and 411 does) were screened using Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test with ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (SAT-EDTA), and lateral flow assay (LFA). Results. The prevalence of Brucella antibodies was found to be 25.8%, 11.1%, and 2.5% using RBPT, SAT-EDTA, and LFA, respectively. The prevalence in bucks was 32.3%, 3.2%, and 0.0% and 17.5%, 12.4%, and 3.9% in does using RBPT, SAT-EDTA, and LFA, respectively. The prevalence rates for goats less than one year of age using the tests were 1.5%, 0.0%, and 0.0%. While for those within the age bracket of one to three years, the rates were 19.4%, 10.5%, and 3.5%, respectively. The corresponding values for goats above 3 years of age were 34.2%, 15.2%, and 1.8%, respectively. The prevalence of brucellosis in goats in the study area is high which poses a threat to the development of the livestock industry and is of important zoonotic implications in Nigeria. PMID:23762594

Kaltungo, B Y; Saidu, S N A; Sackey, A K B; Kazeem, H M

2013-01-01

75

Improving maternal and child healthcare programme using community-participatory interventions in Ebonyi State Nigeria.  

PubMed

In Nigeria, the government is implementing the Free Maternal and Child Health Care Programme (FMCHCP). The policy is premised on the notion that financial barriers are one of the most important constraints to equitable access and use of skilled maternal and child healthcare. In Ebonyi State, Southeastern Nigeria the FMCHCP is experiencing implementation challenges including: inadequate human resource for health, inadequate funding, out of stock syndrome, inadequate infrastructure, and poor staff remuneration. Furthermore, there is less emphasis on community involvement in the programme implementation. In this policy brief, we recommend policy options that emphasize the implementation of community-based participatory interventions to strengthen the government's FMCHCP as follows: Option 1: Training community women on prenatal care, life-saving skills in case of emergency, reproductive health, care of the newborn and family planning. Option 2: Sensitizing the community women towards behavioural change, to understand what quality services that respond to their needs are but also to seek and demand for such. Option 3: Implementation packages that provide technical skills to women of childbearing age as well as mothers' groups, and traditional birth attendants for better home-based maternal and child healthcare. The effectiveness of this approach has been demonstrated in a number of community-based participatory interventions, building on the idea that if community members take part in decision-making and bring local knowledge, experiences and problems to the fore, they are more likely to own and sustain solutions to improve their communities' health. PMID:25337602

Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ndukwe, Chinwendu Daniel; Ezeoha, Abel Abeh; Urochukwu, Henry Chukwuemeka; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla

2014-10-01

76

A techno-economic analysis of aquaculture business in Ogun State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fish supplies 25% of the total protein source in developing countries. A techno-economic analysis was performed for developing a good business proposal for aquaculture loans to enhance aquaculture development in Nigeria. A case study of catfish Clarias gariepinus framing was conducted in Abeokuta North Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The results show that the fixed cost is N18 338 per year, and the variable cost is N459 700 per year, accounting for the largest amount of the total; therefore, a profit of N43 289 per month can be made. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess any risk(s) that associated with unfavorable changes in government policy with particular reference to monetary policy. Positive net present value shows that the investment in fish farm is economically feasible and the net investment ratio is 3.52. Also, the benefit-cost ratio is 2.17. The internal rate of return (IRR) is 21% showing that the enterprise is able to offset the interest being charged on the loan. It is therefore worthwhile to invest into fish farm business in the study area. The study suggests that to better sustain the local aquaculture business, the government should create a good conducive environment to foster development of the fish farming. Government intervention is urgently needed to solve problems such as in traditional land tenure, grant credit facilities and subsidies, to enhance the aquacultural development in the country.

Kareem, R. O.; Williams, S. B.

2009-05-01

77

Indigenous knowledge system for treatment of trypanosomiasis in Kaduna state of Nigeria.  

PubMed

A survey was carried out in Kaduna State of Nigeria to establish the indigenous knowledge system for treating trypanosomiasis in domestic animals. Questionnaire and interviews were, respectively, administered to, or conducted with about 200 livestock farmers and traders spread around the state. Data obtained revealed the use of several plants either alone or in combination, for the treatment and management of trypasonomiasis. The most common plants encountered were Adansonia digitata, Terminalia avicennoides, Khaya senegalensis, Cissus populnea, Tamarindus indica, Lawsonia inermis, Boswellia dalzielli, Pseudocedrela kotschi, Syzyium quinensis, Sterculia setigera, Afzelia africana, Prosopis africana, Lancea kerstingii. The method of preparation and mode of administration of some of these plants in the treatment of trypanosomiasis are reviewed and discussed. PMID:11801393

Atawodi, S E; Ameh, D A; Ibrahim, S; Andrew, J N; Nzelibe, H C; Onyike, E O; Anigo, K M; Abu, E A; James, D B; Njoku, G C; Sallau, A B

2002-02-01

78

Bridewealth, marriage and fertility in the east-central states of Nigeria.  

PubMed

"The paper examines the determinants of high bridewealth in the east-central states of Nigeria, inhabited by the Igbo, and relates high bridewealth to rising age at marriage among both men and women. High and rising bridewealth in Igboland is associated with the prevailing economic situation, socio-economic status of bride's parents, raising incidence of self-selection of marital partners in place of arranged marriages, and particularly increasing female education.... Rising age at marriage in Igboland cannot be understood only on the basis of increasing urbanization, female education and employment opportunities, but also on the basis of rising bridewealth which reduces the tempo of marriage....The study ends with an investigation of the determinants of marital fertility through the use of a causal model that includes bridewealth, age at marriage and other socio-economic variables." (SUMMARY IN ITA AND FRE) PMID:12347234

Isiugo-abanihe, U C

1995-01-01

79

The use of herbs in malaria treatment in parts of Imo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Persistence of malaria symptoms after treatment with over the counter available antimalarial drugs has resulted in a gradual loss of faith in orthodox drugs. There is thus an increased tendency towards the use of herbs in the treatment of malaria in Imo State, Nigeria. In this study we report activities of two herbalists in the treatment of malaria as well as the effectiveness of the herbal treatment. The study covered two areas namely, Umuneke Ugiri in Isiala Mbano Local Government Area (LGA) and Odummara Obi-Orodo in Mbaitoli LGA of Imo State, Nigeria. A participant-observation technique was used. Finger prick blood samples were collected from patients who visited the herbalists complaining of malaria, and blood smears were stained with Field's B stain. Blood smears were taken again one-week post-treatment. A total of 75 patients from Umuneke Ugiri and 265 patients from Odumara Obi-Orodo were involved in the study. All the 75 patients (100%) from Umuneke Ugiri and 163 (61.51%) patients from Odummara Obi-Orodo were positive for malaria parasites. Only 13 (17.3%) patients from Umuneke Ugiri and 149 (56.23%) from Odummara Obi-Orodo returned for the post-treatment blood parasite analysis. From Umuneke Ugiri 4 (31%) were still positive for malaria parasite while 9 (69%) were negative. All 149 patients from Odummara Obi-Orodo were negative. This indicates that the herbal treatment was effective. However, there is need for further studies into the efficacy of herbal concoctions, their effective life span, as well as possible toxic effects. PMID:18254512

Ukaga, C N; Nwoke, B E B; Onyeka, P I K; Anosike, J C; Udujih, O S; Udujih, O G; Obilor, R C; Nwachukwu, M I

2006-09-01

80

Geographical information system and predictive risk maps of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The control of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria remains inert due to lack of reliable data on the geographical distribution of the disease and the population at risk. To help in developing a control programme, delineating areas of risk, geographical information system and remotely sensed environmental images were used to developed predictive risk maps of the probability of occurrence of the disease and quantify the risk for infection in Ogun State, Nigeria. Methods Infection data used were derived from carefully validated morbidity questionnaires among primary school children in 2001–2002, in which school children were asked among other questions if they have experienced "blood in urine" or urinary schistosomiasis. The infection data from 1,092 schools together with remotely sensed environmental data such as rainfall, vegetation, temperature, soil-types, altitude and land cover were analysis using binary logistic regression models to identify environmental features that influence the spatial distribution of the disease. The final regression equations were then used in Arc View 3.2a GIS software to generate predictive risk maps of the distribution of the disease and population at risk in the state. Results Logistic regression analysis shows that the only significant environmental variable in predicting the presence and absence of urinary schistosomiasis in any area of the State was Land Surface Temperature (LST) (B = 0.308, p = 0.013). While LST (B = -0.478, p = 0.035), rainfall (B = -0.006, p = 0.0005), ferric luvisols (B = 0.539, p = 0.274), dystric nitosols (B = 0.133, p = 0.769) and pellic vertisols (B = 1.386, p = 0.008) soils types were the final variables in the model for predicting the probability of an area having an infection prevalence equivalent to or more than 50%. The two predictive risk maps suggest that urinary schistosomiasis is widely distributed and occurring in all the Local Government Areas (LGAs) in State. The high-risk areas (? 50% prevalence) however, are confined to scatter foci in the north western part of the State. The model also estimated that 98.99% of schools aged children (5–14 years) are living in areas suitable for urinary schistosomiasis transmission and are at risk of infection. Conclusion The risk maps developed will hopefully be useful to the state health officials, by providing them with detailed distribution of urinary schistosomiasis, help to delineate areas for intervention, assesses population at risk thereby helping in optimizing scarce resources. PMID:18513442

Ekpo, Uwem F; Mafiana, Chiedu F; Adeofun, Clement O; Solarin, Adewale RT; Idowu, Adewumi B

2008-01-01

81

Putting Out the Fire with Gasoline? Violence Control in “Fragile” States: A Study of Vigilantism in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For many communities in the “fragile” state order of Nigeria, vigilante groups represent the only pragmatic alternative for\\u000a providing a minimum of protection and order in the face of widespread insecurity. But vigilante groups are often more than\\u000a just controllers of violence and competing operators in security markets. They are also integrated into social networks, representing\\u000a a social response to

Andrea Kirschner

82

Prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria: results of a population-based house-to-house survey  

PubMed Central

Background and objective Abdominal obesity is associated with the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes and hypertension. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Materials and methods We carried out a cross-sectional study aimed at ascertaining the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Participants in the study were recruited from communities in the three senatorial zones in the state. Screening for abdominal obesity was carried out in these subjects using waist circumference (the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel criteria were used). The World Health Organization Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of chronic disease risk factors was used. Body mass index, anthropometric measurements, and other relevant data were also collected. Results Data on waist circumference were obtained from 2,807 subjects. The prevalence of obesity using body mass index in the population was 11.12%. In men and women, it was 7.73%, and 14.37%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in the population was 21.75%. In men and women, it was 3.2% and 39.2%, respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of abdominal obesity is high in Nigeria, and needs to be monitored because it is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:23946664

Ijezie, Innocent Chukwuonye; Chuku, Abali; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

2013-01-01

83

Emergency Contraception: Awareness, Perception and Practice among Female Undergraduates in Imo State University, Southeastern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Limited knowledge and practice of contraception is a global public health problem. Unintended pregnancies are the primary cause of induced abortion. When safe abortions are not available, as in Nigeria with restricted abortion laws, abortion can contribute significantly to maternal mortality and morbidity. Adequate information on the awareness and the use of emergency contraception is necessary for planning interventions in groups vulnerable to unwanted pregnancy. Aim: The aim of the following study is to access the awareness, perception and practice of emergency contraception among female undergraduates in Imo State University, South Eastern Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A questionnaire based cross-sectional survey using female undergraduates selected randomly from Imo State University, Owerri. Results: A total of 700 students participated in the study. Awareness of emergency contraception was very high (85.1%) (596/700). The awareness was significantly higher amongst students in health related faculties than in the non-health related faculties (P = 0.01). The main sources of information were through friends (43.1%) (317/700) and lectures (22.1%) (192/700). High dose progestogen (postinor-2) was the most commonly known type of emergency contraception (70.8%) (422/596). Only 58.1% (346/596) of those who were aware of emergency contraception approved of their use. The major reasons given by the 41.9% (250/596) who disapproved of their use were religious reasons (50.4%) (126/250) and that they were harmful to health (49.2%) (123/250). Two-third (67%) (46 9/700) of the students were sexually active and only 39.9% (187/469) of them used emergency contraception. High dose progestogen (postinor-2) was again the most commonly used method (70.8%) (422/596). The most common situation in which emergency contraception was used was following unprotected sexual intercourse (45.5%) (85/144). Only 34.6% (206/596) of those who were aware of emergency contraception identified correctly the appropriate time interval for its effectiveness. Conclusion: Although the awareness of emergency contraception was high amongst female undergraduates, the attitude and practice are still poor. The inclusion of reproductive health education as part of the undergraduate school curriculum might help to change students’ attitude toward emergency contraceptives. PMID:25506484

Ojiyi, EC; Anolue, FC; Ejekunle, SD; Nzewuihe, AC; Okeudo, C; Dike, EI; Ejikem, CE

2014-01-01

84

Contraception among bankers in an urban community in Lagos state, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Contraception means procedures employed to interfere at one stage or the other with the normal sequence of events in the process of reproduction leading to a failure in conception. It means voluntary techniques adopted to achieve birth control. Its use remains sensitive worldwide. Within the same society, contraception varies amongst people of different socio-cultural, educational, religious, or occupational affiliations. It also varies between urban and rural settlements. Some contraceptive techniques also prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The prevalence of STIs also varies with these same factors. There is very limited literature on contraception exclusively amongst bankers. We sought to investigate the level of awareness and practice of contraception amongst bankers in an urban society in Lagos State, Nigeria. Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 200 self-administered structured questionnaires were retrieved from bankers from 5 banks selected by simple random sampling in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Data was subsequently statistically analyzed using SPSS. Results The age range was 21-45 years, mean28.8±1.4 years, 51.7% were males (72% single, 27% married, 1% separated) and 48.3% were females (52.4% single, 47.6% married). All (100%) respondents were aware of contraception, 93.3% males and 91.7% females were sexually active, 88.9% males and 84.5% females believe contraception is useful. Most (71.4%) respondents practice contraception, males (81%) being more than females (61.1%), p < 0.05. More (71.4%) females and fewer (37.8%) males believe that contraception prevents pregnancy but not STIs, 28.6% of females and 46.6% of males believe it prevents both pregnancy and STIs, whereas 14% of males and no female believe contraception prevents STIs but not pregnancy. Conclusion The awareness of and practice of contraception was very high among the bankers but more male bankers practice contraception whereas more female bankers perceive contraceptives to be for the married only. PMID:23646216

Meka, Ijeoma Angela; Okwara, Emmanuel Chidiebere; Meka, Anthony Obiamaka

2013-01-01

85

Molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in the Cross River State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

This study provides with a first insight on Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex epidemiology and genetic diversity in the Cross River State, Nigeria. Starting with 137 smear positive patients recruited over a period of 12 months (June 2008 to May 2009), we obtained 97 pure mycobacterial isolates out of which 81 (83.5%) were identified as M. tuberculosis complex. Genotyping revealed a total of 27 spoligotypes patterns with 10 clusters (n = 64% or 79% of clustered isolates, 2–32 isolates/cluster), with patients in the age group range 25–34 years being significantly associated with shared-type pattern SIT61 (p = 0.019). Comparison with SITVIT2 database showed that with the exception of a single cluster (SIT727/H1), all other clusters observed were representative of West Africa; the two main lineages involved were LAM10-CAM (n = 42/81% or 51.8%) of M. tuberculosis and AFRI_2 sublineage of Mycobacterium africanum (n = 27/81% or 33.3%). Subsequent 12-loci MIRU typing resulted in a total of 13 SIT/MIT clusters (n = 52 isolates, 2–9 isolates per cluster), with a resulting recent n ? 1 transmission rate of 48.1%. Available drug-susceptibility testing (DST) results for 58/81 clinical isolates revealed 6/58% or 10.4% cases of multiple drug-resistance (MDR); 5/6 MDR cases were caused by strains belonging to LAM10-CAM lineage (a specific cluster SIT61/MIT266 in 4/6 cases, and an orphan spoligotype pattern in 1/6 case). Additionally, MIT266 was associated with streptomycin resistance (p = 0.016). All the six MDRTB isolates were concomitantly resistance to streptomycin and ethambutol; however, 4/6 MDR strains with identical MIRU patterns were characterized by consecutive strain numbers hence the possibility of laboratory cross contamination could not be excluded in 3/4 serial cases. The present preliminary study underlines the usefulness of spoligotyping and 12-loci MIRU–VNTRs to establish a baseline of circulating genotypic lineages of M. tuberculosis complex in Nigeria. PMID:21878397

Thumamo, Benjamin P.; Asuquo, Anne E.; Abia-Bassey, Lydia N.; Lawson, Lovett; Hill, Véronique; Zozio, Thierry; Emenyonu, Nnamdi; Eko, Francis O.; Rastogi, Nalin

2012-01-01

86

Occurrence of tick-transmitted pathogens in dogs in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia rossi, transmitted by Haemaphysalis elliptica in South Africa, has also been reported from Nigeria. Although H. leachi (sensu lato) is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, published literature on the occurrence of canine babesiosis is meagre. It has been postulated that the genotype of Babesia rossi Erythrocyte Membrane Antigen 1 (BrEMA1) may be linked to virulence of the specific isolate. The primary objective of this study was to detect and characterise tick-borne pathogens in dogs presented to a veterinary hospital using molecular techniques. In B. rossi-positive specimens, we aimed to determine whether the BrEMA1 gene occurred and to compare genotypes with those found in other isolates. Lastly, we wished to identify the tick species that were recovered from the sampled dogs. Methods Blood specimens (n?=?100) were collected during January to March 2010 from domestic dogs presented at an animal hospital in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. They were screened for the presence of Babesia/Theileria and Ehrlichia/Anaplasma genomic DNA using PCR and Reverse Line Blot (RLB) assays. Positive B. rossi specimens were tested for the presence of the BrEMA1gene using an RT-PCR. In addition, ticks were collected from dogs found to be infested during sampling. Results On RLB, 72 (72%) of the specimens were positive for one or more haemoparasites. Of the positive specimens, 38 (53%) were infected with B. rossi; 9 (13%) with Theileria sp. (sable); 5 (7%) with either Ehrlichia canis or Anaplasma sp. Omatjenne, respectively; 3 (4%) with Theileria equi; and 1 (1%) with B. vogeli and E. ruminantium, respectively. Co-infections were detected in 13 (18%) of the specimens. Results of RT-PCR screening for the BrEMA1 gene were negative. A total of 146 ticks belonging to 8 species were collected and identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus 107 (73%), Haemaphysalis leachi (sensu stricto) 27 (18%), R. turanicus 3 (2%), and Amblyomma variegatum, H. elliptica, R. lunulatus, R. muhsamae and R. senegalensis 1 (1%), respectively. Conclusions Up to 8 tick-borne pathogens possibly occur in the dog population at Jos, with B. rossi being the most prevalent. The absence of the BrEMA1 gene suggests that B. rossi occurring in that area may be less virulent than South African isolates. PMID:24661795

2014-01-01

87

Antinutrients Evaluation of Staple Food in Ebonyi State, South-Eastern, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluating the levels of antinutrients in the staple foods is an important aspect of nutritional studies. The levels of these antinutrients were quantitatively estimated in staple foods in a major food producing rural areas of Ebonyi State, South-Eastern Nigeria using spectrophotometric method. Results indicated that phytate was not detected in tubers while legumes recorded the highest mean values of phytate (260.07 mg gG1). The oxalate levels of legumes were significantly high compared to tubers and cereals (p< 0.000). Tubers had the highest mean. Concentration of cyanogenic glycoside 15.20 mg gG1 followed by legumes while cereals were the least correlation analysis shows that the cyanogenic glycoside was negatively related to all other antinutrients except tannin. Also tannin was related to all other antinutrients except cyanogenic glycoside. Interestingly, all other antinutrients were positively related to each other except cyanogenic glycoside and tannins. The consumption of staple foods rich in these antinutrients pose a health risk to livestock and poor communities that reside around the study sites, especially children.

Edeogu, C. O.; Ezeonu, F. C.; Okaka, A. N. C.; Ekuma, C. E.; Eiom, S. O.

88

Demographic and ecological survey of dog population in aba, abia state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1?:?7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic and 465/747 (62.2%) were males. A total of 319/500 (63.8%) of the households had fences that restrained dog movement and there was no incidence of dog bite in 447/500 (89.4%) of the households surveyed. There were statistical associations between vaccination against antirabies and breeds of dogs (? (2) = 79.8, df = 2, P < 0.005). Exotic breed (adjusted OR = 0.39; CI = 0.23-0.65) and local breed of dogs (adjusted OR = 0.08; CI = 0.04-0.14) had less odds of being vaccinated as compared to crossbreed of dogs. About 126 dogs (2.5 dogs per street) were estimated from street counts survey. The relative high dog to human ratio and low vaccination coverage of owned dogs population pose public health concerns requiring adequate public health education and proper antirabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the study area. PMID:25002978

Otolorin, Gbeminiyi Richard; Umoh, Jarlath U; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu

2014-01-01

89

Demographic and Ecological Survey of Dog Population in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1?:?7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic and 465/747 (62.2%) were males. A total of 319/500 (63.8%) of the households had fences that restrained dog movement and there was no incidence of dog bite in 447/500 (89.4%) of the households surveyed. There were statistical associations between vaccination against antirabies and breeds of dogs (?2 = 79.8, df = 2, P < 0.005). Exotic breed (adjusted OR = 0.39; CI = 0.23–0.65) and local breed of dogs (adjusted OR = 0.08; CI = 0.04–0.14) had less odds of being vaccinated as compared to crossbreed of dogs. About 126 dogs (2.5 dogs per street) were estimated from street counts survey. The relative high dog to human ratio and low vaccination coverage of owned dogs population pose public health concerns requiring adequate public health education and proper antirabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the study area. PMID:25002978

Otolorin, Gbeminiyi Richard; Umoh, Jarlath U.; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu

2014-01-01

90

Use of modern birth control methods among rural communities in Imo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This paper studied the extent of utilization of Modern Birth Control Methods (MBCM) among rural dwellers in Imo State Nigeria. Three hundred and sixty households were randomly selected and data were obtained from them with the use of questionnaires and Focus Group Discussion. The results showed that only 30% of the respondents used MBCM while 57% of them used the traditional birth control methods. The most popular modern method was the condom (24.2%). This was followed by the IUD, used by only 2.5% of the respondents. Some of the identified factors that hindered the use of MBCM included perceived negative health reaction, fear of the unknown effects, cost, spouse's disapproval, religious belief and inadequate information. For a better understanding and utilization of MBCM, it is recommended that adequate educational campaign should be mounted in the rural areas on the advantages of MBCM. This campaign should target the men the more because they make the major decisions on MBCM use. PMID:20695162

Nwachukwu, Ike; Obasi, O O

2008-04-01

91

Ethnobotanical study of plants used in treating hypertension in Edo State of Nigeria.  

PubMed

A study was undertaken in 12 local government areas (LGAs) of Edo State located in central southern Nigeria, representing 66.6% coverage, in order to obtain an inventory of the major medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension. One hundred and eighty nine respondents who were mainly traditional medical practitioners and were knowledgeable in the medicinal plants for treating hypertension were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers. The inventory of medicinal plants is summarized in a synoptic table, which contains the scientific, vernacular and common names of the plants/frequency of citation, the part of the plant and method of preparation of recipes. The study indicated 70 plants belonging to 67 genera in 43 families are commonly prescribed. Of these plants, 39 species are cultivated, 29 species grow in the wild, while only 2 both grow wild and also cultivated. Ninety three herbal antihypertensive recipes are recognized and are mainly prepared as decoctions, infusions, powders and juice. The leaf (43%) represented the dominant morphological part often included in recipes. Plants frequently included in antihypertensive recipes were Allium species, Persea americana, Acalypha godseffiana, Zingiber officinale, Sida acuta, Hunteria umbellata, Rauwolfia vomitoria, Viscum album and Aframomum melegueta. PMID:22975417

Gbolade, Adebayo

2012-10-31

92

Spatio-temporal dynamics of African swine fever outbreaks in Nigeria, 2002-2007.  

PubMed

African swine fever (ASF) was first introduced into Nigeria through Lagos state in 1997. The disease rapidly spread to Ogun state in 1998 and extended to the Niger Delta (Delta, Rivers and Akwa Ibom states) in the same year. In 1998, Kaduna, Plateau and Benue states all north of the country experienced ASF for the first time. Poor farm biosecurity, bad abattoir practices and extensive/free range pig farming systems led to extensive spread of the diseases to about 16 Nigerian states excluding the far northwest and north east. A total of 1036 field samples collected over a 6-year period covering 19 Nigerian states were analysed during the period under review; 805 samples were PCR positive and 231 negative. Positive samples were detected in all three surveillance phases and from all agroecological zones across the country. For the first time since its incursion, ASF was identified in some states; Bauchi, Adamawa Taraba and Gombe with chances of control very slim and further spread of the virus northward envisaged. Outbreaks of the disease are now a perennial problem with an increasing disease burden in areas where high numbers of pigs are produced in the country. The National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI), Vom, since 2002 investigated ASF based on tissue submissions and reports made by individuals, private & commercial farms and agricultural bodies. We present an analysis of geographical and temporal distribution of ASF in the country from 2002 to 2007 and a review of historic outbreaks since the first incursion. Risk factors and prospects for control are discussed. PMID:20659268

Owolodun, O A; Yakubu, B; Antiabong, J F; Ogedengbe, M E; Luka, P D; John Audu, B; Ekong, P S; Shamaki, D

2010-10-01

93

An Evaluation of the Relationship between Road Transport Owners' Leadership Style and Employees' Effectiveness in Ogbomoso Area of Oyo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aimed at investigating the relationship between transport owners' leadership style and transport employees' effectiveness in Ogbomoso area of Oyo State, Nigeria. The study was carried out in twenty (20) randomly selected motor parks in Ogbomoso area of Oyo State. Using simple random sampling technique, fifteen (15) motor parks were selected out of twenty in the study area. A

Akintunde Jonathan; Jonathan Oyerinde

2009-01-01

94

Cyanide and Aflatoxin Loads of Processed Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Tubers (Garri) in Njaba, Imo State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The present study sought to investigate the role of palm oil, in conjunction with the duration of fermentation, on cyanide and aflatoxin (AFT) loads of processed cassava tubers (Garri). Materials and Methods: Matured cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tubers were harvested from three different locations (Akunna, Mkporo-Oji and Durungwu) in Njaba Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. The cassava tubers were processed into Garri according to standard schemes with required modifications and measured for cyanide content using titrimetric methods. Samples of Garri for determination of AFT levels were stored for 30 days before the commencement of spectrophotometric analysis. Results: Cyanide content of peeled cassava tubers was within the range of 4.07 ± 0.16-5.20 ± 0.19 mg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) equivalent/100 g wet weight, whereas the various processed cassava tubers was within the range of 1.44 ± 0.34-3.95 ± 0.23 mg HCN equivalents/100 g. For the 48 h fermentation scheme, Garri treated with palm oil exhibited marginal reduction in cyanide contents by 0.96%, 3.52% and 3.69%, whereas 4 h fermentation scheme is in concurrence with palm oil treatment caused 4.42%, 7.47% and 5.15% elimination of cyanide contents compared with corresponding untreated Garri samples (P > 0.05). Levels of AFT of the various Garri samples ranged between 0.26 ± 0.07 and 0.55 ± 0.04 ppb/100 g. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in AFT levels among the various samples in relation to their corresponding sources. Conclusion: The present study showed that the 48 h fermentation scheme for Garri production caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction, but did not obliterate the cyanide content of cassava tubers. Conversely, the 48 h fermentation scheme promoted the elevation of AFT levels, but was relatively reduced in Garri samples treated with palm oil. PMID:24403736

Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Ojiako, Okey A.

2013-01-01

95

Molecular characterizations of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon in humans in Kaduna State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The use of molecular diagnostic tools in epidemiological investigations of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon has provided new insights into their diversity and transmission pathways. In this study, 157 stool specimens from 2-month to 70-year-old patients were collected, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene was used to detect and differentiate Cryptosporidium species, and DNA sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene was used to subtype Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum. Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in the specimens were detected using PCR and sequence analysis of the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS), respectively. C. hominis and C. parvum were found in two (1.3%) and one (0.6%) specimen respectively, comprising of Ia and IIe (with 8 nucleotide substitutions) subtype families. The G. duodenalis A2 subtype was detected in five (3.2%) specimens, while four genotypes of E. bieneusi, namely A, type IV, D and WL7 were found in 10 (6.4%) specimens. Children aged two years or younger had the highest occurrence of Cryptosporidium (4.4%) and Enterocytozoon (13.0%) while children of 6 to 17 years had the highest Giardia infection rate (40.0%). No Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon were detected in patients older than 60 years. Enterocytozoon had high infection rates in both HIV-positive (3.3%) and HIV-negative (8.3%) patients. Results of the study suggest that anthroponotic transmission may be important in the transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis while zoonotic transmissions may also play a role in the transmission of E. bieneusi in humans in Kaduna State, Nigeria. PMID:22664352

Maikai, Beatty V; Umoh, Jarlath U; Lawal, Idris A; Kudi, Ayuba C; Ejembi, Clara L; Xiao, Lihua

2012-08-01

96

Determinants of routine immunization coverage in Bungudu, Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria, May 2010  

PubMed Central

Introduction Immunization is a cost-effective public health intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases. The Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey of 2008 indicated that only 5.4% of children aged 12-23 months in Bungudu, Zamfara State were fully immunized. We conducted this study to identify the determinants of routine immunization coverage in this community. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study. We sampled 450 children aged 12-23 months. We interviewed mothers of these children using structured questionnaire to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge on immunization, vaccination status of children and reasons for non-vaccination. We defined a fully immunized child as a child who had received one dose of BCG, three doses of oral polio vaccine, three doses of Diptheria-Pertusis-Tetanus vaccine and one dose of measles vaccine by 12 months of age. We performed bivariate analysis and logistic regression using Epi-info software. Results The mean age of mothers and children were 27 years (standard error (SE): 0.27 year) and 17 months (SE: 0.8 month) respectively. Seventy nine percent of mothers had no formal education while 84% did not possess satisfactory knowledge on immunization. Only 7.6% of children were fully immunized. Logistic regression showed that possessing satisfactory knowledge (Adjusted OR=18.4, 95% CI=3.6-94.7) and at least secondary education (Adjusted OR=3.6, 95% CI=1.2-10.6) were significantly correlated with full immunization. Conclusion The major determinants of immunization coverage were maternal knowledge and educational status. Raising the level of maternal knowledge and increasing maternal literacy level are essential to improve immunization coverage in this community. PMID:25328628

Gidado, Saheed; Nguku, Patrick; Biya, Oladayo; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Nsubuga, Peter; Akpan, Henry; Oyemakinde, Akin; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Suleman, Idris; Abanida, Emmanuel; Musa, Yusuf; Sabitu, Kabir

2014-01-01

97

Measles in a Tertiary Institution in Bida, Niger State, Nigeria: Prevalence, Immunization Status and Mortality Pattern  

PubMed Central

Objectives Measles is a highly infectious immunizable disease with potential for eradication but is still responsible for high mortality among children, particularly in developing nations like Nigeria. This study aims to determine the hospital based prevalence of measles, describe the vaccination status of children managed for measles at the Federal Medical Centre, Bida, Niger state and to identify the parental disposition to measles vaccination. Methods This is a cross-sectional study carried out over a period of 18 months beginning from July 2007. All children with a diagnosis of measles made clinically and reinforced with serological test in the WHO Measles, Rubella and Yellow Fever laboratory in Maitama District Hospital, Abuja were recruited. Informed consent was obtained from the parents/care givers. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain information and data analysis was by SPSS version 15. Results One hundred and nine children were managed for measles, constituting 8% of total admission over the study period. The male to female ratio was 1.2:1. Of the 109 children with measles, 90 (82%) did not receive measles vaccination. Eighty-eight (80%) of the parents or guardian felt vaccination was bad for various reasons. Of the 23 (21.1%) children whose parents or guardians were positively disposed to vaccination, one death was recorded while the remaining seven deaths were recorded among children whose parents were negatively disposed to vaccination. All the deaths were in the non-vaccinated group below 2 years of age. Conclusion Measles is still a major health burden in our community. The majority of affected children were not vaccinated due to negative parental disposition. Continuous health education is required for change the disposition of the parents/guardian and improve vaccination coverage to minimize measles associated morbidity and mortality. PMID:22043396

Adeboye, Muhammed; Adesiyun, Omotayo; Adegboye, Abdulrasheed; Eze, Edith; Abubakar, Usman; Ahmed, Grace; Usman, Abdullahi; Amos, Solomon; Rotimi, BF

2011-01-01

98

Human intestinal parasites in non-biting synanthropic flies in Ogun State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Filth-feeding and breeding, non-biting synanthropic flies have been incriminated in the dissemination of human enteropathogens in the environment. This study determined the species of non-biting synanthropic flies associated with four filthy sites in Ilishan, Ogun State, southwest Nigeria, and assessed their potentials for mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites. 7190 flies identified as Musca domestica (33.94%), Chrysomya megacephala (26.01%), Musca sorbens (23.23%), Lucilia cuprina (8.76%), Calliphora vicina (4.59%), Sarcophaga sp. (2.78%) and Fannia scalaris (0.70%) were examined for human intestinal parasites by the formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Eggs of the following parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides (34.08%), Trichuris trichiura (25.87%), hookworms (20.45%), Taenia sp. (2.36%), Hymenolepis nana (1.11%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.56%), Strongyloides stercoralis (larvae; 3.89%) and cysts of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (27.26%), Entamoeba coli (22.67%), Giardia lamblia (3.34%) and Cryptosporidium sp. (1.81%) were isolated from the body surfaces and or gut contents of 75.24% of 719 pooled fly batches. The helminths A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura and the protozoans, E. histolytica/dispar and E. coli were the dominant parasites detected, both on body surfaces and in the gut contents of flies. C. megacephala was the highest carrier of parasites (diversity and number). More parasites were isolated from the gut than from body surfaces (P < 0.05). Flies from soiled ground often carried more parasites than those from abattoir, garbage or open-air market. Synanthropic fly species identified in this study can be of potential epidemiological importance as mechanical transmitters of human intestinal parasites acquired naturally from filth and carried on their body surfaces and or in the gut, because of their vagility and feeding mechanisms. PMID:23290716

Adenusi, Adedotun Adesegun; Adewoga, Thomas O Sunday

2013-01-01

99

Prevalence of antimicrobial residues in raw table eggs from farms and retail outlets in Enugu State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The use of antimicrobial agents in poultry production results in their accumulation in the body tissues and products such as milk and egg. The subsequent accumulation of these drugs and their metabolites in body cells is known as drug residue. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial residues in eggs from poultry farms and retail outlets in Enugu State, Nigeria. Eggs from 25 selected commercial farms and ten retail outlets were screened for the prevalence of antimicrobial residue. Also, structured questionnaires were administered to 25 commercial farms in the state to determine the management practices and the most widely used antimicrobial drugs in farms and possible association between the management practices and the occurrence of antimicrobial residues in eggs from these farms. All the 25 farms surveyed use oxytetracycline. Eggs from nine of the surveyed farms tested positive for antimicrobial residue and three of the ten surveyed farms also tested positive for antimicrobial residue. No association was observed (p?0.05; Fisher's exact test) between the occurrence of antibiotic residues in eggs and farm size, feed source and housing systems. This study was able to demonstrate the presence of antimicrobial residues in eggs destined for human consumption. Drugs like nitrofurans which has been banned for use in food animals are still very much in use in Enugu State, Nigeria. Antibiotics given as feed additives may give rise to drug residues in food animals. PMID:21104128

Ezenduka, Ekene V; Oboegbulem, Steve I; Nwanta, John A; Onunkwo, Joseph I

2011-03-01

100

Groundwater occurrence and flow pattern in the Eaugu coal-mine area, Anambra State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of major geological units, static water level data, water chemistry data, and observations of surface features influenced by groundwater seepage were used to ascertain the nature of groundwater occurrence and flow pattern in the Enugu coal field, Nigeria. Considerations of the geological units, the static groundwater levels and groundwater seepages in the mines indicate that the coal sequence

G. LNWANKWOR

101

Impact of Sexual Harassment on Women Undergraduates' Educational Experience in Anambra State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual harassment in educational settings is a common problem globally. While it is well addressed in college and university campuses in most developed countries of the world through specific policies and mechanisms of enforcement, it remains a taboo topic in African colleges and universities particularly in Nigeria. This study investigated the…

Okeke, Carina Maris Amaka

2010-01-01

102

Source to point of use drinking water changes and knowledge, attitude and practices in Katsina State, Northern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many Sub-Saharan countries such as Nigeria, inadequate access to safe drinking water is a serious problem with 37% in the region and 58% of rural Nigeria using unimproved sources. The global challenge to measuring household water quality as a determinant of safety is further compounded in Nigeria by the possibility of deterioration from source to point of use. This

B. Onabolu; O. D. Jimoh; S. B. Igboro; M. K. C. Sridhar; G. Onyilo; A. Gege; R. Ilya

2011-01-01

103

Diet Diversity in Complementary Feeding and Nutritional Status of Children Aged 0 to 24 Months in Osun State, NigeriaA Comparison of the Urban and Rural Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diversification in complementary feeding of children is important in meeting the need for essential nutrients. This study investigated diet diversification in complementary feeding of children between the ages of 0 and 24 months. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Osun State of Nigeria and 450 mothers were interviewed. Results revealed that diet was based on cereals, roots, and tubers

Beatrice Olubukola Ogunba

2010-01-01

104

Relative Contributions of Selected Teachers' Variables and Students' Attitudes toward Academic Achievement in Biology among Senior Secondary School Students in Ondo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relative contributions of selected teachers' variables and students' attitude towards academic achievement in biology among senior secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. It involved descriptive survey research and ex-post facto research designs. The sample, 360 respondents which consists of 180 biology teachers and…

Gbore, L. O.; Daramola, C. A.

2013-01-01

105

Cheating Tendency in Examinations among Secondary School Students in Nigeria: A Case Study of Schools in the Odukpani Local Government Area, Cross River State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is designed to examine cheating tendency among secondary school students in Nigeria, with evidence from schools in the Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River State. A total of 331 respondents in Senior Secondary 3 classes were randomly selected from 10 post-primary schools in the area. A survey questionnaire was used to elicit…

Bisong, Nonso Ngozika; Akpama, Felicia; Edet, Pauline B.

2009-01-01

106

Economic Analysis of Balanced Nutrient Management Technologies for Maize Production in Kaduna State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall goal of Balanced Nutrient Management Systems (BNMS) a collaborative project between International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (K.U. Leuven) is to curb the vicious cycle of plant nutrient depletion in maize-based farming systems in the moist savanna and humid forest zone of West Africa. This is through integrated nutrient management systems geared to land use practices which are economically viable, ecologically sound and socially acceptable. In Kaduna state of Nigeria (Northern Guinea Savannah), three improved maize-based technologies were tested in a series of farmer-managed field trials since 2000. The first technology was a continuous maize treatment characterized by high fertilizer rates (Sasakawa Global 2000 (SG 2000)). In the second technology, half of the fertilizer quantity was replaced with organic manure (BNMS-manure). The third technology was a soybean-maize rotation treatment in which the fertilizer rates to the maize was reduced by a half (BNMS-soybean/maize). The broad objective of the study was to conduct economic analysis of the three introduced BNMS maize-based technologies along with the farmers` own practice of maize production. The specific objectives of the study were to: determine the costs and returns to the BNMS technologies and farmers` practice and to examine the farmers` perception of the BNMS technologies. The tools used for the analysis of the data were: partial budget analysis to determine the costs and returns to the introduced BNMS technologies and farmers` practice and the scoring technique to examine the farmer`s perception of the BNMS technologies. Findings from the partial budget analysis showed that, BNMS-soybean/maize was the best in both the demonstration and adaptation trials by having the highest gross margins of 18,462 and 19,785, respectively, with the inorganic fertilizer cost constituting over 50% of the total production cost. The farmers gave overall best perception to both the BNM-soybean/maize and the BNMS-manure technologies.

Omadachi, Ugbabe O.; Ahmed, Ben; Manyong, V. M.; Olukosi, James O.; Yusuf, Oseni

107

Religious Violence in Nigeria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Security was tight in northern Nigeria today, as armed police guarded mosques after days of religious rioting that have left hundreds dead and widespread destruction. While sparked by Christian opposition to the introduction of Sharia, or Muslim law, in the Nigerian state of Kaduna, most observers blame both sides for the rioting. Africa's most populous nation (115 million), Nigeria contains over 200 ethnic groups and is split almost evenly between a Muslim north and Christian south. Ironically, the violence can in part be traced to the return of democracy to Nigeria last year. Under the new and more open government led by President Olusegun Obasanjo, some of the Muslim-dominated states have taken steps to introduce Sharia. While the transition to Sharia passed peacefully in the overwhelmingly Muslim Zamfara state, Kaduna contains a sizable Christian majority who have reacted strongly at the mere prospect of the introduction of Islamic law. Previously circumspect on the issue, Obasanjo recently spoke out against Sharia, expressing doubts over whether it was compatible with the Nigerian constitution. In addition, Nigeria's Human Rights Law Service has also begun court proceedings to try to have Sharia declared unconstitutional in Zamfara. While order is slowly being restored in Kaduna, this issue will certainly remain in the forefront of Nigerian politics, as the governors of two more states have signed bills under which Sharia will come into effect in May, and two other states are actively considering taking similiar steps.

De Nie, Michael W.

108

Using community volunteers to promote exclusive breastfeeding in Sokoto State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Exclusive Breastfeeding (EBF) refers to the practice of feeding breast milk only, (including expressed breast milk) to infants; and excluding water, other liquids, breast milk substitutes, and solid foods. Inadequately breastfed infants are likely to be undernourished and have childhood infections. EBF knowledge and infant feeding practices have not been studied sufficiently in Sokoto State, Nigeria. We describe the results of a randomized community trial to promote Exclusive Breastfeeding (EBF) in two local government areas Kware and Bodinga selected as intervention and control groups respectively. Methods During advocacy meetings with community leaders, a Committee was formed. Members of the Committee were consulted for informed consent and selection of ten female volunteers who would educate mothers about breastfeeding during home visits. Participants comprised mothers of infants who were breastfeeding at the time of the study. A total of 179 mothers were recruited through systematic random sampling from each community. Volunteers conducted in-person interviews using a structured questionnaire and counseled mothers in the intervention group only. Results At baseline, intervention and control groups differed significantly regarding maternal occupation (P=0.07), and age of the index child (P=0.07). 42% of infants in the intervention group were up to 6 months old and about 30% of them were exclusively breastfed. Intention to EBF was significantly associated with maternal age (P=0.01), education (P=0.00) and women who were exclusively breastfeeding (P=0.00). After counseling, all infants up to 6 months of age were exclusively breastfed. The proportion of mothers with intention to EBF increased significantly with maternal age (P=0.00), occupation (P=0.00) and women who were exclusively breastfeeding (P=0.01). Post-intervention surveys showed that source of information and late initiation of breastfeeding was not significantly associated with intention to EBF. Mothers who reported practicing EBF for 6 months, were older (P=0.00) multi-parous (P=0.05) and more educated (P=0.00) compared to those who did not practice EBF. Among them, significantly increased proportion of women agreed that EBF should be continued during the night (P=0.03), infant should be fed on demand (P=0.05), sick child could be given medication (P=0.02), EBF offered protection against childhood diarrhea (P=0.01), and helped mothers with birth spacing (P=0.00). Conclusion This study shows that there is a need for reaching women with reliable information about infant nutrition in Sokoto State. The results show decreased EBF practice among working mothers, young women, mothers with poor education and fewer than five children. Counseling is a useful strategy for promoting the duration of EBF for six months and for developing support systems for nursing mothers. Working mothers may need additional resources in this setting to enable them to practice EBF. PMID:22187590

Qureshi, Asma Misbah; Oche, Oche Mansur; Sadiq, Umar Abubakar; Kabiru, Sabitu

2011-01-01

109

Serologic evidence of infection with H5 subtype influenza virus in apparently healthy local chickens in Kaduna State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A serologic survey for antibodies against H5 subtype influenza virus in 605 apparently healthy local chickens using a hemagglutination inhibition test was carried out in 12 local government areas of Kaduna state, Nigeria. An overall prevalence of 18.1% was recorded, with a higher prevalence of 27.3% in six local government areas that have not reported outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus and a lower prevalence of 7.5% in six local government areas that had reported and confirmed outbreaks of HPAI H5N1 virus between 2006 and 2007. There was association between the presence of ducks and detection of H5 antibodies (P = 0.000, odds ratio = 0.22). The implication of this finding is discussed, although a virologic investigation to verify the findings of this study is highly recommended. PMID:20521661

Durosinlorun, A; Umoh, J U; Abdu, P A; Ajogi, I

2010-03-01

110

Unintended pregnancy among unmarried adolescents and young women in Anambra State, south east Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study identified the characteristics and factors influencing unintended pregnancy among unmarried young women in a rural community in south-east Nigeria. One hundred and thirty six unmarried teens with unintended pregnancy attending a Christian hospital in Ozubulu, a rural community in south-east Nigeria, from January 1998 to December 2001 were included in the study. Information was obtained using a semi-structured questionnaire and in-depth interview. Over 75% of the girls had their first sexual intercourse by 19 years, and over 69% had multiple partners. Over 95% had sex for economic reasons and exchanged sex for money or gifts. Only 13.5% ever used condoms. Ninety seven per cent suffered violence such as beating and verbal abuse from family members because of the pregnancy. Most of the adolescents or young women experienced major stressors, most importantly school and job termination, partner's negative attitude, religious sanction, discrimination and stigmatisation as a result of the unintended pregnancy. Unmarried pregnant adolescents or young women have particular health and psychosocial problems. Stakeholders in adolescent health, namely, parents, teachers, religious groups and health care providers, should recognise these problems and advocate for the provision of appropriate care and youth-friendly services to help youths navigate through these problems. PMID:17348328

Ilika, Amobi; Igwegbe, Anthony

2004-12-01

111

Growth status and menarcheal age among adolescent school girls in Wannune, Benue State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Menarcheal age is a sensitive indicator of environmental conditions during childhood. The aim of study is to determine the age at menarche and growth status in adolescents in a rural area of Tarka, Wannune, Nigeria. Methods Data on 722 female students (aged 12-18 years) were collected in February 2009. Height and weight were measured. Body mass index (BMI; kg m-2) was used as an index of relative weight. Results Mean and median menarcheal age calculated by probit analysis were 13.02 (SD 3.0) (95% CI: 13.02-13.07), and age 13.00 (SD 2.8) (95% CI: 12.98-13.04), respectively. Girls who reach menarche are significantly heavier and taller with higher BMIs than those of their pre-menarcheal peers. Conclusion The age of menarche is probably still declining in Nigeria. Although BMI is an important factor in the onset of menstruation, some other unmeasured environmental variables may be implicated in this population. PMID:20723237

2010-01-01

112

Prevalence and risk factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection in slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir, Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is widespread yet poorly controlled in Nigeria hence posing a public health threat. This study determined the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and factors associated with MTC among slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir in Plateau State, Nigeria. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in which we collected 168 lung samples systematically from 485 slaughtered cattle from May-June, 2012, and tested for acid fact bacilli (AFB) using Ziehl-Neelsen test and a duplex polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) for MTC detection. Data on cattle socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors for zoonotic BTB infection was obtained and analyzed using Epi info version 3.5.3 to determine frequency, proportions, and prevalence odds ratios. Multiple logistic regression was done at 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Results The mean age of the cattle was 5.6 ± 1.3 years and (108) 64.3% were females. Majority were indigenous White Fulani breed of cattle (58.5%) and about half (54.8%) were slightly emaciated. Prevalence of MTB complex was 21.4% by AFB test and 16.7% by duplex PCR. Of 33 (19.6%) lungs with lesions, 27 (81.8%) were positive for AFB; while of 135 (80.4%) lungs without lesions, 9 (6.7%) were positive for AFB. Lungs with lesions were 52 times more likely to test positive to AFB test compared to tissues without lesions (AOR=52.3; 95% CI: 16.4-191.8) Conclusion The presence of MTC in cattle signifies its potential risk to public health. Presence of lesions on lungs is a reliable indicator of MTC infection that meat inspectors should look out for. PMID:25328626

Okeke, Lilian Akudo; Cadmus, Simeon; Okeke, Ikenna Osemeka; Muhammad, Maryam; Awoloh, Oluchi; Dairo, David; Waziri, Endie Ndadilnasiya; Olayinka, Adebola; Nguku, Patrick Mboyo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo

2014-01-01

113

Local poultry biosecurity risks to highly pathogenic avian influenza in Kaduna State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study appraised local poultry biosecurity risks to highly pathogenic avian influenza by assessing farmers' knowledge, beliefs and poultry practices using a standard questionnaire. Farmers' knowledge on transmission and prevention was high but low on disease recognition. Radio was ineffective at informing Islamic educated farmers. Extensive knowledge on transmission and protection did not result in behavioural change as farmers engaged in risky practices of selling, eating or medicating infected poultry and not reporting poultry death. Islamic educated farmers do not believe highly pathogenic avian influenza is a serious and preventable disease. Women are more likely to self medicate when experiencing influenza-like illness. Audio-visual aids would improve avian influenza recognition while involvement of community leaders would enhance disease reporting. Outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in local poultry in Nigeria would follow a similar pattern in Southeast Asia if the risk perception among farmers is not urgently articulated. PMID:22869337

Paul, Abdu A; Assam, Assam; Ndang, Tabe-Ntui L

2012-12-01

114

Health and environmental implications of rural female entrepreneurship practices in osun state Nigeria.  

PubMed

In rural Nigeria, food processing is mostly engaged in by women and children. Most of these processes are done using outdated technologies that make use of traditional woodstoves. This article presents the health and environmental implications of the rural female entrepreneurs involved in food processing and proffer means of bettering the lot of these women to handle these hazards. A partially structured questionnaire and focus group discussion was used to capture data from respondents. The study revealed that about 73 % of women involved in direct production of garri and palm oil processing could be at risk of early death or disability-adjusted life years from the mentioned diseases. The article concludes that the rural female entrepreneur needs to be better positioned to handle these hazards, for her health, that of her children, as well as for the environment. PMID:23341202

Akinbami, Catherine A O; Momodu, Abiodun S

2013-09-01

115

Malaria prevalence, anemia and baseline intervention coverage prior to mass net distributions in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Nigeria suffers the world’s largest malaria burden, with approximately 51 million cases and 207,000 deaths annually. As part of the country’s aim to reduce by 50% malaria-related morbidity and mortality by 2013, it embarked on mass distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Methods Prior to net distribution campaigns in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria, a modified malaria indicator survey was conducted in September 2010 to determine baseline state-level estimates of Plasmodium prevalence, childhood anemia, indoor residual spraying (IRS) coverage and bednet ownership and utilization. Results Overall age-adjusted prevalence of Plasmodium infection by microscopy was similar between Abia (36.1%, 95% CI: 32.3%–40.1%; n?=?2,936) and Plateau (36.6%, 95% CI: 31.3%–42.3%; n?=?4,209), with prevalence highest among children 5-9 years. P. malariae accounted for 32.0% of infections in Abia, but only 1.4% of infections in Plateau. More than half of children ?10 years were anemic, with anemia significantly higher in Abia (76.9%, 95% CI: 72.1%–81.0%) versus Plateau (57.1%, 95% CI: 50.6%–63.4%). Less than 1% of households in Abia (n?=?1,305) or Plateau (n?=?1,335) received IRS in the 12 months prior to survey. Household ownership of at least one bednet of any type was 10.1% (95% CI: 7.5%–13.4%) in Abia and 35.1% (95% CI: 29.2%-41.5%) in Plateau. Ownership of two or more bednets was 2.1% (95% CI: 1.2%–3.7%) in Abia and 14.5% (95% CI: 10.2%–20.3%) in Plateau. Overall reported net use the night before the survey among all individuals, children <5 years, and pregnant women was 3.4%, 6.0% and 5.7%, respectively in Abia and 14.7%, 19.1% and 21.0%, respectively in Plateau. Among households owning nets, 34.4% of children <5 years and 31.6% of pregnant women in Abia used a net, compared to 52.6% of children and 62.7% of pregnant women in Plateau. Conclusions These results reveal high Plasmodium prevalence and childhood anemia in both states, low baseline coverage of IRS and LLINs, and sub-optimal net use—especially among age groups with highest observed malaria burden. PMID:24669881

2014-01-01

116

Utilisation of Pangolin (Manis sps) in traditional Yorubic medicine in Ijebu province, Ogun State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Concern about the use of endangered and threatened species in traditional medicine escalated as populations of many species plummeted because of poaching for the medicinal trade. Nigeria is known for a long and valued tradition of using wild animals and plants for medicinal purposes. Despite this, studies on medicinal animals are still scarce when compared to those focusing on medicinal plants. Utilisation of wild animals in traditional Yorubic medical practices was indiscriminate as it involved threatened species. By touting the medicinal properties of these species, traditional medicine fuel continuing demand, thereby subjecting such species to further threats. This paper examined the use and commercialisation of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes amongst the Ijebus, South-western Nigeria, and the implications of this utilisation for the conservation of this species. Methods Traditional Yorubic medical practitioners (tymps) (16) and dealers in traditional medicinal ingredients (56) in public markets in Ijebu province, Nigeria, were interviewed using open-ended questionnaires. The dynamic stock movement of pangolins in the stalls of dealers was also monitored to determine quantity of pangolins sold into the traditional Yorubic medicinal practices. Specific conditions treated and the parts required were also documented. Results A total of 178 whole pangolin carcasses were sold into traditional medical practices. Above 55% of respondents had just primary education, over 90% of respondents were not aware of either the conservation status of this species or the existence of any legal machinery regulating its trade and utilisation, while 14% admitted to giving contracts to hunters for deliberate search for this animal when needed. More than 98% of respondents have no other means of livelihood. The trade was female dominated while the healing practice had more males. Pangolins were used in various preparations to treat a total of 42 conditions. These include infertility, gastro-intestinal disorders, safe parturition, stomach ulcers, rheumatism and fibroid. Traditional Yorubic medicine also accommodated some situations that are out of the range of conventional medicine like boosting sales, conferring invisibility, removing bad luck, appeasing/wading off witches cum evil forces and money rituals. Some of these situations specifically require juvenile, or even pregnant female animals. Conclusion Traditional Yorubic medical practices eats deep into the reproductive base of the species, presently listed in Appendix II of CITES and Schedule I of the Nigerian Decree 11 (1985), both of which recommended strict control in sales and utilisation of this species. Its numerous medicinal values, folk culture and financial benefits of these activities are the main factors promoting the commercialisation and use of this species. Pharmacological studies on the various preparations are required to identify the bioactive compounds in them. There is a need for improved and urgent measures to conserve populations of this species in-situ. Massive education and enlightenment is urgently needed for the populace to have the necessary awareness and orientation about the conservation of this species. PMID:19961597

2009-01-01

117

Relative Technical Efficiency of Cassava Farmers in the Three Agro-Ecological Zones of Edo State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study employed the use of the Stochastic Frontier Production Function in the comparative economic analysis of the relative technical efficiency of cassava farmers in the three agro-ecological zones of Edo State. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 156 cassava farmers from the three agro-ecological zones of the State and the differences in the results obtained were discussed. The empirical estimates showed individual technical efficiency values that ranged from 23 to 95%, 43 to 97% and 52 to 98% with a mean of 72, 83 and 91%, for Edo South, Edo North and Edo Central agro-ecological zones, respectively. This shows that systemic differences in relative technical efficiency levels exist between the three zones and these differences were shown to be related to particular farmer`s characteristics. Non-physical factors that served as determinants of technical inefficiency in the three zones were, farmers level of education, age, farming experience and variety of planting materials used. Gender and family size were however, not found to be significant determinants of the technical inefficiency of cassava farmers in the State. Apart from this estimates serving as a guide to potential investors in the cassava industry in the State, the relative variations in technical efficiency is also an indication of the gaps that exist in the current production technologies employed by cassava farmers in the three agro-ecological zones of the State. The gaps should serve as intervention points for government and non-governmental agencies as well as other stakeholders in the emerging cassava industry in Nigeria.

Erhabor, P. O.; Emokaro, C. O.

118

A gravity study of the precambrian rocks in the malumfashi area of Kaduna State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity measurements in the Malumfashi area of Nigeria show large negative Bouguer anomalies ranging from — 33 mGal to — 65 mGal and free-air anomalies distributed about a mean of +15 mGal. A regional anomaly ranging from about -56 mGal in the southwestern part to about -44 mGal in the northeastern part of the area is tentatively correlated with a gradual thinning of the crust from southwest to northeast. Negative residual anomalies in the area correlate well with granite bodies thus confirming the acidic (low density) nature of the Older Granites. Positive residual anomalies of values up to about +12 mGal are associated with the schist bodies in the area. From two-dimensional modelling using approximate density values, it is estimated that the schists in the area vary in thickness from 4 to 5 km and the granite bodies have thicknesses of the order of 4 km. High-gravity gradients of up to 6 mGal/km at some contact areas between the schists and granitic bodies are attributed to sharp contacts and magmatic sloping is thought to be the most likely mode of emplacement of the granites in the area. The Bouguer anomalies observed over the schists have a maximum of only - 34 mGal. These values are considered too low to allow the existence of more mafic rocks at depth and the schists in the Malumfashi area are therefore believed to have evolved in an ensialic environment.

Gandu, A. H.; Ojo, S. B.; Ajakaiye, D. E.

1986-06-01

119

Explanatory models and help-seeking behaviour of leprosy patients in Adamawa State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

In northern Nigeria 60 leprosy patients, 49 outpatients and 11 in-patients, were interviewed about their help-seeking behaviour and explanatory models before their first contact with the leprosy services. Most patients showed a delay of more than 1 year. After leprosy was provisionally diagnosed by lay persons, 27% of patients found their way to the leprosy services within 3 months. Chemists (popular sector) and the professional sector frequently missed the diagnosis. If early case finding is to be improved, it is important to involve them in case finding activities and to train them in adequate diagnostic skills. No significant correlations were found between total delay and sex, age, religion or leprosy classification, except with visible deformity at the time of the interview and illiteracy. Consultation of folk healers was the major reason for delay. Most patients consulted folk healers, who, although they claimed to have a positive attitude towards modern medicine in the case of leprosy, never referred patients to the leprosy services. While many patients held a variety of causes responsible for leprosy, most patients explained the disease in traditional terms (58%), while only a minority used modern concepts (20%). This emphasizes the need for continuous attention for health education of diagnosed patients and their families. No significant difference was found between male and female patients concerning their concept of leprosy. Denial of the leprosy diagnosis was rare. PMID:9927811

van de Weg, N; Post, E B; Lucassen, R; De Jong, J T; Van Den Broek, J

1998-12-01

120

Assessment of Tannery Industrial Effluents from Kano Metropolis, Kano State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim and objective of the study was to determined pollutant levels in tannery industrial effluent from kano metropolis, Nigeria. Effluents from five tannery industries were characterized and the major sources of industrial pollution determined. Levels of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, Pb and Cr) were determined using Atomic absorption Spectrophotomeric method, while pH, Eh, DO, TDS, Temperature, sulphate, nitrate and phosphate were also determined using standard procedure. The results of the study showed that effluent quality discharged between tanneries differed significantly. Effluent chromium concentrations varied between 1.02`0.13 to 1.56`0.06 mg LG1, which are above WHO and FEPA limit of 1.0 mg LG1. Hafawa Enterprise Tannery, Unique Leather Finishing had significantly high lead concentrations, while Great Northern Tannery could be a potential source of Iron contamination in this area. Mean levels of Zn for Tannorth Tannery Limited were above maximum permissible limits set by FEPA and WHO. Mean levels of sulphate, nitrate and dissolved Oxygen were also above maximum permissible limits for the entire tanneries studied. Mean values of pH total dissolved solid, phosphate, temperature, Cu, Co, Mn and Redox potential generally were below maximum and minimum permissible limits for effluent discharged into rivers. The monthly variations in the entire tannery fell within the range set up by FEPA and WHO for the discharged of tannery effluent into river. The study serves to generate relevant baseline information for Kano industrial estate.

Akan, J. C.; Moses, E. A.; Ogugbuaja, V. O.; Abah, J.

121

International Note: Awareness and context of cyber-harassment among secondary school students in Oyo state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

We determined the awareness and context of cyber-harassment among secondary school students (653 survey respondents and 18 in-depth interviewees) in Oyo state, Nigeria. Respondents' mean age was 14.2 ± 2.2 years and 53.9% were aware of cyber-harassment occurring in their school or among their friends. Cyber-harassment was often perpetrated via phone calls (62.5%), text messaging (36.9%), chat rooms (28.7%), through pictures or video clips sent via mobile phones (11.9%), emails (6.8%) or websites (5.9%). Cyber-harassment behaviours mentioned were the use of abusive words (25.4%), saying mean things or making fun of the victim (13.9%), solicitations for relationships (7.9%) or sex (6.8%) and spreading rumours about the victim (6.8%). In-depth interviewees recounted experiences of cyber-harassment suffered by their friends. Many were relationship-related, sexual solicitations and threats and corroborated quantitative findings. Respondents are aware of cyber-harassment occurring among students in the study area. Comprehensive interventions to address the problem need to be instituted. PMID:25544425

Olumide, Adesola O; Adams, Patricia; Amodu, Olukemi K

2015-02-01

122

Mycoflora and occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in dried yam chips from markets in Ogun and Oyo States, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Seventy-six samples of dried yam chips locally called elubo isu were purchased in 2000 from markets in Ogun and Oyo States of southwestern Nigeria. The samples were assessed for pH, moisture content, associated fungi and aflatoxin B1 contamination. The pH of samples ranged from 5.6 to 6.1,while the moisture contents varied from 6.8 to 14.5% in Ogun samples, and 7.1 to 13.6% in samples from Oyo. Aspergillus and Penicillium were the two prevalent genera of fungi, and the number of colony forming units per gram of these two genera in the yam chips studied exceeded the tolerance limit in foodstuffs. The other fungal genera isolated included Botryodiplodia, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aureobasidium and Paecilomyces. The two most frequent fungal species were A. niger and A. flavus. Thin layer chromatographic analysis showed that 17 samples or 22% contained aflatoxin B1 beyond the detection limit (5 ppb), but only three samples or 4% had toxin level above 30 ppb, the tolerance level in food for human consumption. The mean concentration of aflatoxin B1 in positive samples was 27.1 ppb. PMID:15008353

Bankole, S A; Mabekoje, O O

2004-01-01

123

Studies into the prevalence of Mycoplasma species in small ruminants in Benue State, North-central Nigeria.  

PubMed

The indicative prevalence of respiratory Mycoplasma species in small ruminants (SR) was determined in North-central Nigeria. Nasal swabs from 172 sheep and 336 goats from the Northeast, Northwest and South Senatorial Districts of Benue State were examined. Initial Mycoplasma isolation used Mycoplasma culture techniques followed by digitonin sensitivity testing. Species identification was done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Overall, Mycoplasma organisms were isolated from 131 (25.8 %) of the 508 SR examined. Prevalence rates of 18.1 and 29.8 % were recorded for sheep and goats, respectively. A total of 135 isolates of Mycoplasma belonging to three different species were identified: Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (127), Mycoplasma arginini (7) and Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri (1). More than one Mycoplasma species were detected in four (3.1 %) of the 131 confirmed Mycoplasma positive cultures. Mycoplasma was isolated from 16.2 and 29.1 % of animals with and without respiratory signs, respectively. The high isolation rate of mycoplasmas in apparently healthy and clinically sick sheep and goats in this study indicates a carrier status in these SR which may constitute a serious problem in disease control. PMID:24828562

Akwuobu, Chinedu A; Ayling, Roger D; Chah, Kennedy Foinkfu; Oboegbulem, Stephen I

2014-08-01

124

Schistosoma haematobium and urinary tract pathogens co-infections in a rural community of Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A survey of S. haematobium and other urinary tract pathogens co-infection was carried out among 198 volunteers in Ihieve, Ogben, a rural community in Owan East Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. Of these, 118 (59.5%) had S. haematobium ova in their urine samples. Light infection (< or =50 ova/l0 ml) occurred among 49 (24.7%) volunteers and 59 (29.8%) inhabitants had heavy infections (> 50 ova/10 ml). The children 68 (64.2%) were more infected their the adults 50 (54.3%). This difference was statistically significant at (chi2 = 60.37, P < 0.05). The prevalence of S. haematobium among the males 80 (71.4%) was higher than their female counterparts 38 (41.9%) and this difference is statistically significant at (t = 1.28) Bacteriuria and bacterial isolates occurred among 60 (30.3%) with S haematobium infection. Three nitrate reducing bacterial isolates namely; Klebsiella sp and Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and a fungus; Candida albicans were reported in their urine cultures. Multiple infections were observed among 43 S. haematobium infected persons. The antibiogram of the isolates indicated that Nitrofurantoin, Gentamycin and otramax were the most effective drugs for the management of bacterial infections among these volunteers. All the bacterial isolates were resistant to Cloxacillin and Augmentum. The C. albicans were sensitive to Diflucan, Nizoral, Gynotravogen, Gynotrosydovule, Gyno-daktarin and Mycostatin. PMID:18338685

Nmorsi, O P G; Kwandu, U N C D; Ebiaguanye, L M

2007-06-01

125

Epidemiology of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes in the tropical rainforest of Imo State, south-east Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes was carried out in the tropical rainforest of Imo State Nigeria (two rural areas and two forest reserves in some parts of Orlu Senatorial Zone) between May-October 2002. Using standard entomological procedures, two macrohabitats (natural tree-holes and bamboo traps) and two microhabitats (leaf axils of cocoyams/pineapples and leaf axils of plantain/banana) were sampled for various mosquito species. Mosquitoes were recovered from all the various biotypes sampled. Types of mosquitoes species encountered, their relative abundance, as well as genera varied significantly during the study (p<0.05). Four genera of mosquitoes: Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Toxorhynchites were recovered while 16 species of mosquitoes encountered include: Aedes aegypti, Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni, Ae. albopictus, Ae. stokesi, Ae. taylori, Ae. apicoargenteus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. trigripes, Cx. decens, Anopheles gambiae, An. funiestus, An. coustani and Toxorhynchites viridibasis. Most of the mosquitoes showed oviposition preferences for one or more habitats. The presence of Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni and Ae. aegypti indicate that the study areas were at risk of yellow fever epidemic. The presence of Anopheles and Culex species ensured endemicity of malaria and filariasis, while the recovery of Ae. albopictus in this region suggests a possible outbreak of dengue fever in future if not properly controlled. PMID:17655174

Anosike, Jude C; Nwoke, Bertram E B; Okere, Anthony N; Oku, Ene E; Asor, Joe E; Emmy-Egbe, Ifeyinwa O; Adimike, Desmond A

2007-01-01

126

Effect of thermal environment on the temporal, spatial and seasonal occurrence of measles in Ondo state, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the temporal and spatial dynamics, as well as the seasonal occurrence of measles in Ondo state, Nigeria, to better understand the role of the thermal environment in the occurrence of the childhood killer disease measles, which ranks among the top ten leading causes of child deaths worldwide. The linkages between measles and atmospheric environmental factors were examined by correlating human-biometeorological parameters in the study area with reported clinical cases of measles for the period 1998-2008. We also applied stepwise regression analysis in order to determine the human-biometeorological parameters that lead to statistical changes in reported clinical cases of measles. We found that high reported cases of measles are associated with the least populated areas, where rearing and cohabitation of livestock/domestic animals within human communities are common. There was a significant correlation ( P < 0.01) between monthly cases of measles and human-biometeorological parameters except wind speed and vapour pressure. High transmission of measles occurred in the months of January to May during the dry season when human thermal comfort indices are very high. This highlights the importance of the thermal environment in disease demographics since it accounted for more than 40% variation in measles transmission within the study period.

Omonijo, Akinyemi Gabriel; Matzarakis, Andreas; Oguntoke, Olusegun; Adeofun, Clement Olabinjo

2012-09-01

127

?-Caprolactam Utilization by Proteus sp. and Bordetella sp. Isolated From Solid Waste Dumpsites in Lagos State, Nigeria, First Report.  

PubMed

The ?-caprolactam is the monomer of the synthetic non-degradable nylon-6 and often found as nonreactive component of nylon-6 manufacturing waste effluent. Environmental consequences of its toxicity to natural habitats and humans pose a global public concern. Soil samples were collected from three designated solid waste dumpsites, namely, Abule-Egba, Olusosun and Isheri-Igando in Lagos State, Nigeria. Sixteen bacteria isolated from these samples were found to utilize the ?-caprolactam as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen at concentration of ?20 g l(-1). The isolates were characterized using their 16S rRNA gene sequence and showed similarity with Pseudomonas sp., Proteus sp., Providencia sp., Corynebacterium sp., Lysinibacillus sp., Leucobacter sp., Alcaligenes sp. and Bordetella sp. Their optimal growth conditions were found to be at temperature range of 30 to 35 °C and pH range of 7.0-7.5. High Performance liquid chromatography analysis of the ?-caprolactam from supernatant of growth medium revealed that these isolates have potential to remove 31.6-95.7 % of ?-caprolactam. To the best of our knowledge, this study is first to report the ability of Proteus sp. and Bordetella sp. for ?-caprolactam utilization. PMID:24426112

Sanuth, Hassan Adeyemi; Yadav, Amit; Fagade, Obasola Ezekiel; Shouche, Yogesh

2013-06-01

128

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in milk and milk products in Ogun State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 is a major cause of food-borne illnesses in humans. This study investigated the presence of STEC O157 in milk and milk products in Ogun State, Nigeria. Of a total of 202 samples 10 (5%) were positive for STEC O157 including 1 (2%) of 50 raw milk samples, 3 (6%) of 50 samples of fresh local cheese, 1 (2%) of 50 samples of fried local cheese and 5 (9.6%) of 52 fermented milk samples. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the prevalence of STEC O157 among the sample types. Of 10 isolates, shiga toxin 1 gene (stx1) was detected only in 2 samples (20%), shiga toxin 2 (stx2) was extracted only in 6 samples (60%), stx1 /stx2 in 2 samples (20.0%), intimin gene (eaeA) in 5 samples (50%), and enterohaemolysin (E-hlyA) gene was isolated in 7 (70%) samples. Rates of resistance of the STEC O157 isolates were: amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 100%, ampicillin 100%, chloramphenicol 60%, nalidixic acid 20%, norfloxacin 10%, streptomycin 30%, sulphamethoxazole/trimethprim 20%, and tetracycline 90%. The isolates were all susceptible to ciprofloxacin and neomycin. The presence of virulent multidrug resistant E. coli O157 strains in milk and milk products as revealed by this study unveils a risk of human exposure to these potentially fatal pathogens following consumption of contaminated products. PMID:25273960

Ivbade, Akhigbe; Ojo, Olufemi Ernest; Dipeolu, Morenike Atinuke

2014-01-01

129

Water level regulation and control of schistosomiasis transmission: a case study in Oyan Reservoir, Ogun State, Nigeria.  

PubMed Central

The effect of different water discharge patterns from the artificial Oyan Reservoir in Ogun State, Nigeria, on water level fluctuations and on schistosomiasis transmission was investigated between August 1990 and March 1993 to determine the impact of water level regulation on schistosomiasis transmission and control. The results show that transmission was greatly influenced by the pattern of water discharge during the hot dry season (January-April). A high discharge during this period of no rainfall, high temperatures, and intense sunshine stimulated rapid water level fluctuations and lake draw-down, which led to significant reductions in all indices of schistosomiasis transmission, i.e. snail density, snail infection rates, human water contact patterns, and incidence of infection. Although these results support continuous water discharges from the reservoir during the hot dry season, this may run counter to current water management policies. Further investigation is therefore required to harmonize the potential benefits in this type of discharge pattern with the objectives of efficient water management in artificial reservoirs. PMID:9447776

Ofoezie, I. E.; Asaolu, S. O.

1997-01-01

130

Examining equity in access to long-lasting insecticide nets and artemisinin-based combination therapy in Anambra state, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background In order to achieve universal health coverage, the government of Anambra State, southeast Nigeria has distributed free Long-lasting Insecticide treated Nets (LLINs) to the general population and delivered free Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) to pregnant women and children less than 5 years. However, the levels of coverage with LLINS and ACTs is not clear, especially coverage of different socio-economic status (SES) population groups. This study was carried out to determine the level of coverage and access to LLINs and ACTs amongst different SES groups. Methods A questionnaire was used to collect data from randomly selected households in 19 local government areas of the State. Selected households had a pregnant woman and/or a child less than 5 years. The lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) methodology was used in sampling. The questionnaire explored the availability and utilization of LLINs and ACTs from 2394 households. An asset-based SES index was used to examine the level of access of LLINS and ACTs to different SES quintiles. Results It was found that 80.5 % of the households had an LLIN and 64.4 % of the households stated that they actually used the nets the previous night. The findings showed that 42.3 % of pregnant women who had fever within the past month received ACTs, while 37.5 % of children ?5 years old who had malaria in the past month had received ACTs. There was equity in ownership of nets for the range 1–5 nets per household. No significant SES difference was found in use of ACTs for treatment of malaria in children under five years old and in pregnant women. Conclusions The free distribution of LLINs and ACTs increased household coverage of both malaria control interventions and bridged the equity gap in access to them among the most vulnerable groups. PMID:22545723

2012-01-01

131

Nigeria's Triumph: Dracunculiasis Eradicated  

PubMed Central

This report describes how Nigeria, a country that at one time had the highest number of cases of dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) in the world, reduced the number of cases from more than 653,000 in 1988 to zero in 2009, despite numerous challenges. Village-based volunteers formed the foundation of the program, which used health education, cloth filters, vector control, advocacy for safe water, voluntary isolation of patients, and monitored program interventions and cases reported monthly. Other factors in the program's success were strong governmental support, advocacy by a former head of state of Nigeria, technical and financial assistance by The Carter Center, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the United Nations Children's Fund, the World Health Organization, and many other partners and donors. The estimated cost of the Nigerian program during 1988–2009 is $37.5 million, not including funding for water supply projects or salaries of Nigerian governmental workers. PMID:20682859

Miri, Emmanuel S.; Hopkins, Donald R.; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Keana, Adamu S.; Withers, P. Craig; Anagbogu, Ifeoma N.; Sadiq, Lola K.; Kale, Oladele O.; Edungbola, Luke D.; Braide, Eka I.; Ologe, Joshua O.; Ityonzughul, Cephas

2010-01-01

132

Epidemiology and Associated Risk Factors of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

A cross-sectional study in Nigeria was undertaken to determine the epidemiology, seroprevalence, and associated risk factors, of hepatitis E virus (HEV). A total of 462 subjects were used for the study, categorized into four groups: apparently healthy persons, pregnant women, HIV positive subjects, and animal handlers. Information was obtained from subjects using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for HEV antibodies (IgG and IgM) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Results obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 statistical software. The overall seroprevalence of IgG and IgM was 42.7 and 0.9%, respectively. Animal handlers had the highest seroprevalence (66.7%). The associated risk factors for IgM seroprevalence were rural dwelling (P = 0.039, odds ratio (OR) 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7–15.4), blood transfusion (P < 0.001, OR 9.6, 95% CI 2.6–35.6), attending to animals (P = 0.032, OR 4.9, 95% CI 0.9–26.6), and waste disposal (P < 0.001). Factors associated with IgG were age (P = 0.044), location (P < 0.001), marital status (P < 0.001), formal education (P < 0.001), farming as occupation (P < 0.001), rural dwelling (P = 0.001), waste disposal (P < 0.001), alcohol consumption (P = 0.001, OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.4–4.0), open defecation (P < 0.001, OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4–5.7), attending to animals (P < 0.001, OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6–3.4), consuming unwashed fruits/vegetables (P < 0.001, OR 4.2, 95% CI 0.3–54.1), and stream/river as a source of drinking water (P < 0.001, OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.6–7.8). Preventive public health measures should be reinforced among all communities, particularly domestic animal handlers and pregnant women. Potable water should be provided for all communities. Data suggest that HEV remains an under-recognized and significant public health problem, warranting further attention and research. PMID:25512696

Junaid, Surajudeen A; Agina, Samuel E; Abubakar, Khadijah A

2014-01-01

133

Socio-Demographic Determinants of Maternal Health-Care Service Utilization Among Rural Women in Anambra State, South East Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Although, antenatal care (ANC) attendance in sub Saharan Africa is high, however this does not always translate into quality ANC care service utilization. Aim: This study therefore is aimed at exploring pattern of maternal health (MH) services utilization and the socio-demographic factors influencing it in Anambra State, South East Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A total of 310 women of reproductive age with a previous history of gestation attending ANC services between September, 2007 and August, 2008 in selected Primary Health Centers in Anambra State were studied. Responses were elicited from the study participants using a pre-tested, semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 (SPSS Inc, Chicago Illinois, USA). Association between socio-demographic characteristics and pattern of utilization of ANC and delivery services was measured using ?2-test, Regression analysis was done to identify factors associated with utilization of MH services. P < 0.05 was assumed to be significant. Results: Use of health facility was 293 (97.0%) and 277 (92,7%) out 302 women for ANC and delivery services respectively. Most women attended their first ANC consultation during the preceding pregnancy was after the first trimester and about 31% (94/298) of them had <4 ANC visits prior to delivery. Socio-demographic factors were found to be significantly associated with places where MH care services are accessed. Parity was found to be associated with timing of ANC booking and number of ANC attendance (?2 = 9.49, P = 0.05). Odds of utilizing formal health facility for MH services were found to be significantly associated with increasing age (P < 0.01) and educational status of mothers (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The study revealed high maternal service utilization and 10% fetal loss, hence the need to address the gaps of late ANC booking and low ANC visits. PMID:24971212

Emelumadu, OF; Ukegbu, AU; Ezeama, NN; Kanu, OO; Ifeadike, CO; Onyeonoro, UU

2014-01-01

134

Intersection between alcohol abuse and intimate partner's violence in a rural Ijaw community in Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria.  

PubMed

According to the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey, the south-south zone of Nigeria had the highest prevalence of domestic violence. This study is to find out if this is related to the widespread consumption of alcohol in the region. The study was carried out in Okoloba, a rural Ijaw community in Bayelsa State, where alcohol is produced and consumed in large quantities; using a cross-sectional study design. The data was collected from married or cohabitating adults aged between 16 and 65 years, with a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 346 subjects, comprising 187 males, and 159 females were studied. They had an average age of 41.4 ± 2.5 years, were mostly Christians (91.9%), farmers/fisher folk (52.3%), and had at most primary school education (64.2%). More than 90% of the subjects took alcohol in the preceding year, while 36% can be classified as alcohol abusers according to their AUDIT score. More than half (55.8%) were perpetrators of intimate partner violence during the preceding 12 months, with a male-to-female prevalence of 83.4%, and female-to-male prevalence of 23.3%. Out of these, 77.2% were under the influence of alcohol during the act. The violence was more likely to be perpetrated by male alcohol abusers (p-value < 0.001), but there were no significant differences in the educational levels and religion of the perpetrators (p-value > 0.05). The study therefore concludes that there is a link between intimate partner abuse and alcohol abuse in the study community. PMID:21987506

Brisibe, Seiyefa; Ordinioha, Best; Dienye, Paul O

2012-02-01

135

A 6-year survey of pathological conditions of slaughtered animals at Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A 6-year retrospective study (2000-2005) of animals slaughtered at the Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria was carried out to determine disease conditions encountered in slaughtered animals. Records kept at the abattoir were analysed. A total of 69,307 cattle, 3,820 goats and 1,763 sheep were slaughtered for the period under study. Of the 69,307 cattle slaughtered for the period, 22,459 (32.41%) were males and 46,848 (67.59%) were females, while 1,763 sheep were slaughtered comprising of 506 (28.70%) males and 1,257 (71.30%) females, and 3,820 goats made up of 1,212 (31.73%) males and 2,608 (68.27%) were females. The major disease and/or pathological conditions were helminthosis (fascioliasis, haemonchosis and paramphistomosis) 16.20%, Streptothricosis 4.15%, Pericarditis 2.20%, liver cirrhosis 2.08%, abscesses 1.04%, pneumonia 0.14%, nephritis 0.05% and Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia, Tuberculosis and Nocardiosis 0.01% each. Out of the 15,075 infected organs, 13,314 (88.38%) were partially salvaged while 1,751 (11.6%) whole organs were condemned. A total of 1,239 pregnant cows, 221 pregnant ewes and 637 pregnant does were slaughtered, representing a foetal wastage of 2.65% for cattle, 17.58% for sheep and 24.43% for goats. The result of this study apart from serving as an indicator of field disease condition also demonstrates cases of serious losses in production due to slaughter of pregnant animals especially for sheep and goats. PMID:20734135

Alawa, Clement B I; Etukudo-Joseph, I; Alawa, Judith N

2011-01-01

136

Health care workers’ knowledge and attitude towards TB patients under Direct Observation of Treatment in Plateau state Nigeria, 2011  

PubMed Central

Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a public health problem in Nigeria. Adherence to the total duration of treatment is critical to cure the patients. We explored the knowledge of the health care workers on management of TB patients including their perceived reasons for patient non adherence to treatment to develop strategies to improve the quality of the TB control service in the state. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study. We used self administered questionnaire to extract information from the health workers on their trainings for TB control, knowledge of the control services, patients’ education including prevention of defaulting from treatment. We conducted focus group discussion with the health care workers. We performed descriptive analysis using epiInfo software. Results Of the 76 respondents 41 (53.9%) were female, 39.9% were community health extension workers, 26.3% were nurses/midwifes 30.3% lacked training on management of TB patient. Only 43.4% knew when to take action on patients who miss their drugs in the intensive phase, 30.3% and 35.5% knew defaults among category 1 and category 2 in the continuation phases of treatment respectively. They identified side effects of drugs (80%), daily clinic attendance (76.3%), health workers attitude (73.4%) and lack of knowledge on duration of treatment (71.1%) including their unfriendly attitudes towards the patients as the major barriers to patients’ adherence to treatment. Conclusion Lack of knowledge of the health care workers on management of TB patients and poor interpersonal relation and communication with patients have negative effect on patients’ adherence to the long duration of TB treatment. PMID:25328627

Ibrahim, Luka Mangveep; Hadjia, Idris Suleiman; Nguku, Patrick; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Akhimien, Moses Obiemen; Patrobas, Phillip; Nsubuga, Peter

2014-01-01

137

Blood Pressure Gradients and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Urban and Rural Populations in Abia State South Eastern Nigeria Using the WHO STEPwise Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) face a double burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and communicable diseases. As high blood pressure (BP) is a common global cardiovascular (CV) disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality, the relationship between gradients of BP and other CV risk factors was assessed in Abia State, Nigeria. Methods Using the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey in Abia state, Nigeria from August 2011 to March 2012. Data collected at various steps included: demographic and behavioral risk factors (Step 1); BP and anthropometric measurements (Step 2), and fasting blood cholesterol and glucose (Step 3). Results Of the 2983 subjects with complete data for analysis, 52.1% were females and 53.2% were rural dwellers. Overall, the distribution of selected CV disease risk factors was diabetes (3.6%), hypertension (31.4%), cigarette smoking (13.3%), use of smokeless tobacco (4.8%), physical inactivity (64.2%) and being overweight or obese (33.7%). Presence of hypertension, excessive intake of alcohol, smoking (cigarette and smokeless tobacco) and physical inactivity occurred more frequently in males than in females (p<0.05); while low income, lack of any formal education and use of smokeless tobacco were seen more frequently in rural dwellers than in those living in urban areas (p<0.05). The frequency of selected CV risk factors increased as BP was graded from optimal, normal to hypertension; and high BP correlated with age, gender, smokeless tobacco, overweight or obesity, annual income and level of education. Conclusion Given the high prevalence of hypertension in this part of Nigeria, there is an urgent need to focus on the reduction of preventable CV risk factors we have observed to be associated with hypertension, in order to effectively reduce the burden of NCDs in Africa. PMID:24039932

Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Tiffin, Nicki; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

2013-01-01

138

Genetic Variability among Maize Cultivars Grown in Ekiti-State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

An appreciable level of variation within crop varieties is essential to initiate and sustain crop improvement using plant breeding methods. A field experiment was conducted with the aim of estimatin g variation among maize cultivars grown in Ekiti State. Twenty maize cultivars obtained from various locations within the state was evaluated between April to August 2005 at the Teaching and

A. E. Salami; S. A. O. Adegoke; O. A. Adegbite

139

Prospects of using community directed intervention strategy in delivering health services among Fulani Nomads in Enugu State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The Community Directed Interventions (CDI) strategy has proven effective in increasing access to health services in sedentary populations. It remains to be seen if CDI strategy is feasible among nomads given the dearth of demographic and medical data on the nomads. This study thus characterized the nomadic populations in Enugu State, Nigeria and outlined the potentials of implementing CDI among nomads. Study design and methods This exploratory study adopted qualitative methods. Forty focus group discussions (FGD) were held with members of 10 nomadic camps in 2 LGAs in Enugu State, as well as their host communities. Thirty in-depth interviews (IDIs) were held with leaders of nomadic camps and sedentary populations. Ten IDIs with traditional healers in the nomadic camps and 14 key informant interviews with health workers and programme officers were also conducted. Documents and maps were reviewed to ascertain the grazing routes of the nomads as well as existing health interventions in the area. Results Like sedentary populations, nomads have definable community structures with leaders and followers, which is amenable to implementation of CDI. Nomads move their cattle, in a definite pattern, in search of grass and water. In this movement, the old and vulnerable are left in the camps. The nomads suffer from immunization preventable health problems as their host communities. The priority health problems in relation to CDI include malaria, measles, anemia, and other vaccine preventable infections. However, unlike the sedentary populations, the nomads lack access to health interventions, due to the mutual avoidance between the nomads and the sedentary populations in terms of health services. The later consider the services as mainly theirs. The nomads, however, are desirous of the modern health services and often task themselves to access these modern health services in private for profit health facilities when the need arises. Conclusion Given the definable organizational structure of the nomads in Enugu State and their desire for modern health intervention, it is feasible to test the CDI strategy for equitable healthcare delivery among nomads. They are willing and capable to participate actively in their own health programmes with minimal support from professional health workers. PMID:23566078

2013-01-01

140

Incidence of Avian Influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria: The Epidemiology, Economic Losses and the Possible Role of Wild Birds in the Transmission of the Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing the huge economic losses due to diseases in poultry as the second largest industry in Nigeria after oil means improving the protein intake of the majority. Similarly, this will also promotes a steady income for the teeming farmers. This study investigated the incidence of the lethal avian influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria, with particular emphasis on the socio-economic and cultural activities of the poultry farmers, economic losses and the possible role of wild birds in the transmission of the disease. Data were collected from 316 and 458 direct and indirect respondents, respectively, from 6 affected villages and a town in 2 Local Government Areas (LGAs): Girei and Yola-North. Results revealed that a larger (25.71%) proportion of the respondents fell within the age range of 31-40 years, with majority (54.91%) as females. While the bulk (54.65%) of the respondents were illiterates, 95.47% of the direct respondents derived their incomes from crop production, whereas 59.17% of the indirect respondents from livestock rearing. About 26,049 birds worth N13, 454,800.00 was cumulative economic loss incurred by the poultry farmers, whereas that of the government was put at N1, 119,781.10. Of the mortalities experienced in the wildlife before the outbreak of the disease, Bubulcus ibis (64.29) and Tadarida nigeriae (86.36) were the highest. The study recommends a massive rural extension on Poultry Production with absolute biosecurity, involving all stakeholders (Veterinary Surgeons, Animal Scientists/health workers, wildlife specialists, Agricultural Economists, Information Officers etc.) in a collaborative form for high synergistic effects.

Ja`Afar-Furo, M. R.; Balla, H. G.; Tahir, A. S.; Haskainu, C.

141

Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica 2/O:9 and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis 1/O:1 strains isolated from human and non-human sources in the Plateau State of Nigeria.  

PubMed

Foodborne yersiniosis, caused by enteropathogenic Yersinia, especially Yersinia enterocolitica, is an important cause of diarrhea in developed countries, especially in temperate zones. Since studies concerning the presence of enteropathogenic Yersinia in humans and foods are rare in developing countries and tropical areas, human and non-human samples were studied in Plateau state of Nigeria to obtain information on the epidemiology of Y. enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Surprisingly, ail-positive Y. enterocolitica and inv-positive Y. pseudotuberculosis were isolated in Plateau state of Nigeria from several samples of human and non-human origin. Bioserotype 1/O:1 was the only Y. pseudotuberculosis type found. Y. enterocolitica belonging to bioserotype 2/O:9 was the dominating type found in most samples. Bioserotype 4/O:3 was isolated only from one pig and one sheep. Using PFGE, 5 genotypes were obtained among 45 Y. enterocolitica 2/O:9 strains with NotI, ApaI and XhoI enzymes and 3 among 20 Y. pseudotuberculosis 1/O:1 strains with NotI and SpeI enzymes. All human Y. pseudotuberculosis 1/O:1 strains were indistinguishable from pig, sheep or food strains. The dominating genotype of Y. enterocolitica 2/O:9 strains among humans was also found among strains isolated from pig, fermented cow milk and traditional intestine pepper soap samples. PMID:19835774

Okwori, Ameh E J; Martínez, Pilar Ortiz; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Agina, Samuel E; Korkeala, Hannu

2009-12-01

142

Perceived Sources of Occupational Stress among Primary School Teachers in Delta State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the most prevalent sources of occupational stress and also the demographic variables of gender, age and length of service among primary school teachers in Delta State. Two research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The study used a descriptive survey design. The population was the primary school teachers in…

Akpochafo, G. O.

2012-01-01

143

Assessment on the Level of Recycling and Waste Management in Delta State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal of waste materials produced by human activity, and is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics. This work is aimed at assessing the level of recycling and waste management practices carried out in the State, proffer possible solutions for effective take off and running of

Nkonyeasua Kingsley Egun

144

Non-Timber Forest Products' Marketing in Nigeria. A Case Study of Osun State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on markets and marketing of some non-timber forest products (NTFPs) was carried out in selected locations of Osun State. The NTFPs considered are chewing sticks such as "Massularia acuminata" and bush meat like "Thryonomys swinderianus", representing both the flora and fauna aspects of NTFPs, respectively. Five Local Government Areas were…

Aiyeloja, Adedapo Ayo; Ajewole, Opeyemi Isaac

2006-01-01

145

Assessment of Computer Literacy of Secondary School Teachers in Ekiti State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study assessed computer literacy of secondary school teachers in Ekiti State. Three hundred teachers (Male = 150; Female = 150) selected from 30 public schools in 15 out of 16 local government areas participated. The instrument for collecting data was a 25-item Self-Assessment of Computer Literacy questionnaire and each item was rated on a…

Oluwatayo, James Ayodele

2012-01-01

146

Seeking evidence to support efforts to increase use of antenatal care: a cross-sectional study in two states of Nigeria.  

PubMed

BackgroundAntenatal care (ANC) attendance is a strong predictor of maternal outcomes. In Nigeria, government health planners at state level and below have limited access to population-based estimates of ANC coverage and factors associated with its use. A mixed methods study examined factors associated with the use of government ANC services in two states of Nigeria, and shared the findings with stakeholders.MethodsA quantitative household survey in Bauchi and Cross River states of Nigeria collected data from women aged 15¿49 years on ANC use during their last completed pregnancy and potentially associated factors including socio-economic conditions, exposure to domestic violence and local availability of services. Bivariate and multivariate analysis examined associations with having at least four government ANC visits. We collected qualitative data from 180 focus groups of women who discussed the survey findings and recommended solutions. We shared the findings with state, Local Government Authority, and community stakeholders to support evidence-based planning.Results40% of 7870 women in Bauchi and 46% of 7759 in Cross River had at least four government ANC visits. Women's education, urban residence, information from heath workers, help from family members, and household owning motorized transport were associated with ANC use in both states. Additional factors for women in Cross River included age above 18 years, being married or cohabiting, being less poor (having enough food during the last week), not experiencing intimate partner violence during the last year, and education of the household head. Factors for women in Bauchi were presence of government ANC services within their community and more than two previous pregnancies. Focus groups cited costly, poor quality, and inaccessible government services, and uncooperative partners as reasons for not attending ANC. Government and other stakeholders planned evidence-based interventions to increase ANC uptake.ConclusionUse of ANC services remains low in both states. The factors related to use of ANC services are consistent with those reported previously. Efforts to increase uptake of ANC should focus particularly on poor and uneducated women. Local solutions generated by discussion of the evidence with stakeholders could be more effective and sustainable than externally driven interventions. PMID:25410003

Omer, Khalid; Afi, Nshadi; Baba, Moh D; Adamu, Maijiddah; Malami, Sani; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil

2014-11-20

147

Prevalence of Peer Victimisation among Secondary School Students in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated the prevalence of peer victimisation among secondary school students in a state in South Western Nigeria. Participants consisted of 385 secondary school students selected from ten secondary schools across 10 local government areas in Osun State, Nigeria. The participants, aged between 10 and 19 years, were stratified into…

Popoola, Bayode Isaiah

2005-01-01

148

Improving Agricultural Extension Services through University Outreach Initiatives: A Case of Farmers in Model Villages in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

University outreach is an educational and research-based information source enabling farmers to make decisions that improve the quality of their lives. This paper explores how collaborative efforts between the university and farmers have directly impacted in albeit Striga (‘noxious witch weed’) ravaged maize farms in rainforest farming systems in southwest Nigeria. Data were collected using pre-tested instruments from cross-section of

Abayomi Oloruntoba; Dorcas A Adegbite

2006-01-01

149

Polio virus neutralizing antibody dynamics among children in a north-central and South-Western Nigeria state.  

PubMed

Northern Nigeria accounts for the highest number of confirmed wild polio viruses globally. Transmission to neighboring countries is worrisome after the country failed to meet several deadlines for polio eradication. Most studies on neutralizing antibody have focused on the Northeastern and Northwestern regions. This study measured polio virus neutralizing antibody levels among children in North-central and South-western Nigeria. Children between the ages of 10 months and 13 yr were randomly selected from Abanishe-lolu Hospital Ilorin (North-central) and Oni Memorial and Adeoyo Hospitals in Ibadan (South-west) Nigeria. The alpha neutralization method was employed. Herd immunity was 1.4% in Ilorin, 36.6% in Oni Memorial Hospital, and 49.5% in Adeoyo Hospital. Out of 299 children studied, 49 (16.4%) children had no protection against all poliovirus serotypes while 100 (33.4%) were fully protected against all three serotypes. Five (7.9%) children in Ilorin and 5 (3.4%) children in Oni Memorial Hospital Ibadan had no detectable neutralizing antibody. A significant difference was observed (p=0.000) when the GMT against poliovirus 1, 2, and 3 was compared. A significant proportion of children were not fully protected. Sero-surveillance is recommended for effective monitoring of vaccination efforts to guide health policy formulators. PMID:24568629

Adeniji, Adekunle Johnson; Onoja, Anyebe Bernard; Adewumi, Moses Olubusuyi

2015-01-01

150

Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has generated renewed interest in recent times, as herbal preparations are increasingly being used in both human and animal healthcare systems. Diarrhoea is one of the common clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders caused by both infectious and non-infectious agents and an important livestock debilitating condition. Plateau State is rich in savannah and forest vegetations and home to a vast collection of plants upheld in folklore as having useful medicinal applications. There is however scarcity of documented information on the medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in the state, thus the need for this survey. Ten (10) out of 17 Local Government Areas (LGAs), spread across the three senatorial zones were selected. Farmers were interviewed using well structured, open-ended questionnaire and guided dialogue techniques between October and December 2010. Medicinal plants reported to be effective in diarrhoea management were collected using the guided field-walk method for identification and authentication. Results A total of 248 questionnaires were completed, out of which 207 respondents (83.47%) acknowledged the use of herbs in diarrhoea management, while 41 (16.53%) do not use herbs or apply other traditional methods in the treatment of diarrhoea in their animals. Medicinal plants cited as beneficial in the treatment of animal diarrhoea numbered 132, from which 57(43.18%) were scientifically identified and classified into 25 plant families with the families Fabaceae (21%) and Combretaceae (14.04%) having the highest occurrence. The plant parts mostly used in antidiarrhoeal herbal preparations are the leaves (43.86%) followed by the stem bark (29.82%). The herbal preparations are usually administered orally. Conclusion Rural communities in Plateau State are a rich source of information on medicinal plants as revealed in this survey. There is need to scientifically ascertain the authenticity of the claimed antidiarrhoeal properties of these plants and perhaps develop more readily available alternatives in the treatment of diarrhoea. PMID:21745405

2011-01-01

151

Bacteriuria and urinary schistosomiasis in primary school children in rural communities in Enugu State, Nigeria, 2012  

PubMed Central

Introduction According to a study conducted in1989, Enugu State has an estimated urinary schistosomiasis prevalence of 79%. Recently, studies have implicated bacteriuria co-infection in bladder cancer. These bacteria accelerate the multi-stage process of bladder carcinogenesis. Knowledge about the prevalence of this co-infection is not available in Enugu and the information provided by the 1989 study is too old to be used for current decision making. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional survey of primary school children aged5-15years, who were randomly selected through a multi stage sampling method using guidelines recommended by WHO for schistosomiasis surveys. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data on demography, socioeconomic variables and clinical presentations. Urine samples were collected between 10.00am and 2.00pm. Each sample was divided into two: (A) for prevalence and intensity using syringe filtration technique and (B) for culture. Intensity was categorized as heavy (>50ova/10mls urine) and light (<50ova/10mls urine). Significant bacteriuria was bacteria count ? 105 colony forming units/ml of urine. Results Of the 842 pupils, 50.6% were females. The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis was 34.1%. Infection rate was higher(52.8%) among 13-15 years(Prevalence Ratio = 2.45, 95% Confidence Interval 1.63-3.69). Heavy infections wad 62.7% and egg count/10mls urine ranged from 21-1138. Significant bacteriuria among pupils with urinary schistosomiasis was 53.7% compared to 3.6% in the uninfected(PR = 30.8,95% CI 18.91- 52.09). The commonest implicated organism was Escherchia coli. Conclusion We found high prevalence of bacteriuria co-infection among children with urinary schistosomiasis in Enugu State. This underscores the need for concurrent antibiotics administration and follow-up to avert later complications. PMID:25328634

Ossai, Okechukwu Paulinus; Dankoli, Raymond; Nwodo, Chimezie; Tukur, Dahiru; Nsubuga, Peter; Ogbuabor, Daniel; Ekwueme, Osaeloka; Abonyi, Godwin; Ezeanolue, Echezona; Nguku, Patrick; Nwagbo, Douglas; Idris, Suleiman; Eze, George

2014-01-01

152

Malaria knowledge and agricultural practices that promote mosquito breeding in two rural farming communities in Oyo State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Agricultural practices such as the use of irrigation during rice cultivation, the use of ponds for fish farming and the storage of water in tanks for livestock provide suitable breeding grounds for anthropophylic mosquitoes. The most common anthropophylic mosquito in Nigeria which causes much of the morbidity and mortality associated with malaria is the anopheles mosquito. Farmers are therefore at high risk of malaria - a disease which seriously impacts on agricultural productivity. Unfortunately information relating to agricultural practices and farmers' behavioural antecedent factors that could assist malaria programmers plan and implement interventions to reduce risk of infections among farmers is scanty. Farmers' knowledge about malaria and agricultural practices which favour the breeding of mosquitoes in Fashola and Soku, two rural farming communities in Oyo State were therefore assessed in two rural farming communities in Oyo State. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study involved the collection of data through the use of eight Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and the interview of 403 randomly selected farmers using semi-structured questionnaires. These sets of information were supplemented with observations of agricultural practices made in 40 randomly selected farms. The FGD data were recorded on audio-tapes, transcribed and subjected to content analysis while the quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results Most respondents in the two communities had low level of knowledge of malaria causation as only 12.4% stated that mosquito bite could transmit the disease. Less than half (46.7%) correctly mentioned the signs and symptoms of malaria as high body temperature, body pains, headache, body weakness and cold/fever. The reported main methods for preventing mosquito bites in the farming communities included removal of heaps of cassava tuber peelings (62.3%), bush burning/clearing (54.6%) and clearing of ditches (33.7%). The dumping of cassava tuber peelings which allows the collection of pools of water in the farms storage of peeled cassava tubers soaked in water in uncovered plastic containers, digging of trenches, irrigation of farms and the presence of fish ponds were the observed major agricultural practices that favoured mosquito breeding on the farms. A significant association was observed between respondents' knowledge about malaria and agricultural practices which promote mosquito breeding. Respondents' wealth quintile level was also seen to be associated with respondents' knowledge about malaria and agricultural practices which promote mosquito breeding. Conclusion Farmers' knowledge of malaria causation and signs and symptoms was low, while agricultural practices which favour mosquito breeding in the farming communities were common. There is an urgent need to engage farmers in meaningful dialogue on malaria reduction initiatives including the modification of agricultural practices which favour mosquito breeding. Multiple intervention strategies are needed to tackle the factors related to malaria prevalence and mosquito abundance in the communities. PMID:20380703

2010-01-01

153

Gender inequities in sexually transmitted infections: implications for HIV infection and control in Lagos State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Beyond the statistics of sex-based differences in infection rates, there are profound differences in the underlying causes and consequences of HIV infections in male and female which need to be examined. The study therefore examines; the gender differences in the STI knowledge and gender-related potential risks of HIV heterosexual transmission. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected. A multistage random sampling procedure was employed in administration of 1358 questionnaires. For qualitative data, four focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted to collect information from stakeholders within the study population, while In-depth interview was employed to collect information from 188 people living with HIV/AIDS through support groups in the State. The data collected were subjected to basic demographic analytical techniques. Combination of univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis were employed. Information from focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were transcribed and organized under broad headings that depict different aspects of the discussions. Majority of the respondents interviewed did not inform their partners about their infection in the study area. It was also discovered that stigmatization did not allow some women to disclose their status to their sexual partners. Some of the HIV-positive patients interviewed agreed that they did not attend the health facilities to treat the STI’s before they were finally confirmed positive. The study hypothesis revealed that communication between partners about STI’s was associated with an increase in risk reduction behaviour. The paper concluded that there is need for more information and education on communication about STI’s between the sexual partners; to reduce the spread of sexually transmitted diseases within the nation. PMID:24470905

Adeyemi, Ezekiel Oluwagbemiga

2011-01-01

154

Lessons from the implementation of LLIN distribution campaign in Ilorin Kwara State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Studies implemented to evaluate the success of Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) distribution campaigns are often limited to ownership and utilization rates, neglecting other factors that directly affect the efficacy of the tool in malaria control. This study investigates sleeping habits and net maintenance behaviour in addition to LLIN ownership, utilization and the challenges associated with LLIN use among residents in Ilorin City where the tool has been massively distributed. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted using pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire to obtain information from randomly selected household respondents in Ilorin, the Kwara State Capital. The study was conducted in July 2012, about sixteen months after the March 2011 distribution of LLIN in the locality. The results were analyzed using the EPI INFO 2007 version. Results LLIN ownership (85%) and utilization (37%) rates improved compared to earlier reports, though 29% of net users have noticed holes in the nets even as 26% claimed to have actually experienced mosquito bites under it. Most (92%) of the respondents who slept under LLIN the previous night before the study spent the first five hours of the night (19.00-23.00 hr) outdoors while 88% also engage in inappropriate net washing practices. All the LLIN users claimed to have experienced at least one malaria episode while 43% have had two or more episodes within the past twelve months. Conclusion The use of LLIN among the respondents in this study was accompanied by chancy sleeping habits, inappropriate net maintenance practices and repeated experience of mosquito bites under the nets. This shows the need to sustain the will and confidence of LLIN users in this area through frequent monitoring and surveillance visits targeted at enlightening the people on habits that increase malaria exposure risks as well as proper use and maintenance of LLIN for maximum malaria vector control benefits. PMID:24885737

2014-01-01

155

Perception of HIV/AIDS among the Igbo of Anambra State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Perception is fundamental in the fight against stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Perception generally influences discriminatory attitudes towards PLHIV which exacerbates their problems and quickens the degeneration of the disease from HIV to AIDS. This study examined the Anambra people's perception and knowledge of HIV/AIDS with the goal of creating knowledge on these issues in order to design effective intervention programmes towards the reduction of social stigmatization associated with the pandemic. The study was carried out in Idemmili North and Oyi local government areas of Anambra State. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used to elicit information from respondents who were adult males and females of 18 years and above. The research instruments were questionnaires and in-depth interview schedule. Questionnaires were administered on 1000 respondents while 13 people were interviewed in-depth. Analysis of quantitative data were conducted by using the Statistical package for Social Sciences. Univariate analysis in the form of frequencies were conducted which generated the distribution of respondents across the research variables. Furthermore, multivariate analysis were conducted to test the hypotheses and sought for relationships among variables. The qualitative data were reported in themes based on the research objectives and were analysed jointly with the quantitative data. The findings were that majority of the respondents viewed HIV/AIDS as a disease that afflict immoral people and as a punishment from God. Only a handful of them saw the disease as a disease that could afflict anybody. Also, many of the respondents said that AIDS is real but showed a low level of knowledge. It was further indicated that there were significant relationships between educational level, sex, occupation, income influence perception and peoples' reactions to HIV positive status of a relative while there were no significant relationships between these variables and knowledge of HIV/AIDS. It was concluded that these negative perceptions were as a result of the people's low level of knowledge and cultural belief systems, which see a strange illness as punishment from God for disobedience. Furthermore, the fact that most of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents had significant relationship with perception and reaction to HIV was an indication that most people in the study area had a uniform perception. It was also an indication that government HIV/AIDS awareness programmes were not effective. It was recommended that strategies for effective HIV educational programme should be sought and carried out in the study area. Effective intervention programme have the power to change behaviours and would likely change the people's negative perception and low level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS, thereby reducing stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:23808412

Muoghalu, Caroline Okumdi; Jegede, Samuel Ayodele

2013-01-01

156

Application of remote-sensing data to groundwater exploration: A case study of the Cross River State, southeastern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cross River State, Nigeria, is underlain by the Precambrian-age crystalline basement complex and by rocks of Cretaceous to Tertiary age. The exploration for groundwater in this area requires a systematic technique in order to obtain optimum results, but the non-availability of funds and facilities has made it extremely difficult to carry out site investigations prior to the drilling of water wells. Therefore, the failure rate is as high as 80%. In order to delineate areas that are expected to be suitable for future groundwater development, black and white radar imagery and aerial photographs were used to define some hydrological and hydrogeological features in parts of the study area. Lineament and drainage patterns were analysed using length density and frequency. Lineament-length density ranges from 0.04-1.52 lineament frequency is 0.11-5.09 drainage-length density is 0.17-0.94, and the drainage frequency is 0.16-1.53. These range of values reflect the differences in the probability of groundwater potentials. Results were then used to delineate areas of high, medium, and low groundwater potential. Study results also indicate that correlations exist between lineament and drainage patterns, lithology, water temperature, water conductivity, well yield, transmissivity, longitudinal conductance, and the occurrence of groundwater. Résumé La géologie de l'Etat de Cross River (Nigéria) est constituée d'un socle cristallin d'âge précambrien et de roches datées du Crétacé au Tertiaire. Dans cette région, l'exploration des eaux souterraines nécessite une analyse systématique pour obtenir les meilleurs résultats ; cependant le manque de moyens a rendu particulièrement difficile les recherches de sites de forage destinés au captage de l'eau. C'est pourquoi le taux d'échec a atteint 80%. Afin de délimiter les zones susceptibles de permettre la future mise en valeur des eaux souterraines, des images radar et des photos aériennes en noir et blanc ont été utilisées pour mettre en évidence certains phénomènes hydrologiques et hydrogéologiques en certains points de la région étudiée. L'analyse des réseaux de linéaments et de drainage a porté sur la densité de leurs longueurs et sur leur fréquence. La densité de longueur des linéaments s'étend de 0,04 à 1,52 et la fréquence des linéaments de 0,11 à 5,09 ; la densité des longueurs de drainage est comprise entre 0,17 et 0,94, et la fréquence du drainage entre 0,16 et 1,53. Ces gammes de valeurs rendent compte des différences dans la probabilité des potentiels en eau souterraine. Ces résultats ont ensuite été utilisés pour délimiter les zones à potentiel en eau souterraine fort, moyen et faible. Les résultats de l'étude indiquent aussi qu'il existe des corrélations entre les réseau de linéaments et de drainage, la lithologie, la température de l'eau, la conductivité de l'eau, le rendement des puits, la transmissivité, la conductance longitudinale et la présence d'eau souterraine. Resumen Bajo el Estado de Cross River, Nigeria, subyace un complejo basal cristalino del Precámbrico, así como rocas de edad entre Cretácica y Terciaria. La exploración hidrogeológica en esta área requiere una técnica sistemàtica para poder alcanzar resultados óptimos, pero la falta de medios y de infraestructura ha hecho extremadamente difícil el poder realizar investigaciones previas a la perforación de los pozos, de manera que el porcentaje de fallos se eleva al 80%. Para poder delinear las áreas adecuadas para el posterior desarrollo hidrogeológico, se han usado imágenes de radar en blanco y negro y fotografías aéreas, con el objetivo de definir algunos rasgos hidrológicos e hidrogeológicos en partes del área de estudio. Se analizaron los esquemas de lineamiento y drenaje usando densidad y frecuencia de longitudes. La densidad de longitudes de lineamiento oscila entre 0.04-1.52 y la frecuencia entre 0.11-5.09. La densidad de longitud de drenaje oscila entre 0.17-0.94 y su frecuencia entre 0.16-1.53. Estos rangos de valores refleja

Edet, A. E.; Okereke, C. S.; Teme, S. C.; Esu, E. O.

157

INFORMATION NOTE United Nations/Nigeria Workshop on Space Law  

E-print Network

1 INFORMATION NOTE United Nations/Nigeria Workshop on Space Law "Meeting international, Nigeria Background Given the growing number of benefits derived from the use of space applications, the conduct of space activities by States, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations as well

Glass, Ian S.

158

Nursery School Education in Nigeria: Impact on Families and Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview of preschool education in Lagos State, Nigeria, is particularized with findings from a survey of 156 teachers in 25 Nigerian nursery schools. In Nigeria, urbanization has been accompanied by rapid growth in the number of pre-primary institutions. The educational aims of such institutions include both cognitive and social-emotional…

Akinsanya, Sherrie K.

159

Care related and transit neuronal injuries after cervical spine trauma: state of care and practice in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Suboptimal care during extraction and transfer after spinal trauma predisposes patients to additional spinal cord injury. This study examines the factors that contribute to care related and transit injuries and suggests steps to improve standard of care in spinal trauma patients in Nigeria. It is a questionnaire-based prospective study of patients admitted with cervical cord injury to two neurosurgical centers in Enugu, Nigeria, between March 2008 and October 2010. Demography, mechanism of injury, mode of extraction from the scene and transportation to first visited hospital, precautions taken during transportation, and treatment received before arriving at the neurosurgical unit were analyzed. There were 53 (77.9%) males, the mean age was 33.9 years, and 23.5% had concomitant head injury. Average delay was 3.5 h between trauma and presentation to initial care and 10.4 days before presentation to definitive care. Only 26.5% presented primarily to tertiary centers with trauma services. About 94.1% were extracted by passersby. None of the patients received cervical spine protection either during extrication or in the course of transportation to initial care, and 35.3% were sitting in a motor vehicle or supported on a motorbike during transport. Of the 43 patients transported lying down, 41.9% were in the back seat of a sedan, and only 11.8% were transported in an ambulance. Neurological dysfunction was first noticed after removal from the scene by 41.2% of patients, while 7.4% noticed it on the way to or during initial care. During subsequent transfer to definitive centers, only 36% had cervical support, although 78% were transported in ambulances. Ignorance of pre-hospital management of cervically injured patients exists in the general population and even among medical personnel and results in preventable injuries. There is need for urgent training, provision of paramedical services, and public enlightenment. PMID:23758277

Mezue, Wilfred C; Onyia, Ephraim; Illoabachie, Izuchukwu C; Chikani, Mark C; Ohaegbulam, Samuel C

2013-09-15

160

Prevalence of hypertension in three rural communities of Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State, South West Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of hypertension is increasing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, but data are limited on hypertension prevalence. In addition, few population-based studies have been conducted recently in Nigeria on the prevalence and correlates of hypertension in both urban and rural communities. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of hypertension in adults in the three rural communities of Ipetumodu, Edunabon, and Moro, in South West Nigeria. Materials and methods One thousand adults between 15 and 90 years of age were recruited into this cross-sectional study, over a 6-month period, using a multistage proportional stratified random sampling technique. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric variables were obtained, and resting blood pressure (BP) was measured using an electronic sphygmomanometer. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on the JNC VII guidelines, the WHO/ISH 1999 guidelines, and the BP threshold of 160/95 mmHg. Results Four hundred and eighty-six men (48.6%) men and 514 women (51.4%) participated in the study. Their mean age, weight, height, and body mass index were 32.3±14.7 years, 62±13 kg, 1.5±0.1 m, and 23.02 kg/m2, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 140/90 mmHg definition, was 26.4% (Male: 27.3%; Female: 25.4%). The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 160/95 mmHg definition, was 11.8% (Male: 13.5%; Female: 10.1%). There were significant positive correlations between BP and some anthropometric indicators of obesity. Conclusion The prevalence of hypertension in the three rural communities was 26.4%, indicating a trend towards increasing prevalence of hypertension. There was also a significant positive correlation between anthropometric indicators of obesity and BP in this population. PMID:24348064

Adebayo, Rasaaq A; Balogun, Michael O; Adedoyin, Rufus A; Obashoro-John, Oluwayemisi A; Bisiriyu, Luqman A; Abiodun, Olugbenga O

2013-01-01

161

Measles vaccine potency and sero-conversion rates among infants receiving measles immunization in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study was designed to assess the seroconversion rate of measles vaccine among infants receiving measles immunization in Ilorin, Nigeria. The pre- and post-measles vaccination sera of the children were tested using the Haemagglutination Inhibition test. The measles vaccines administered at the immunization centre were also tested for their potency using in-vitro titration method. Only 286 (71.5%) of the vacinees returned to give post-vaccination samples. All the infants screened had low pre-vaccination measles antibody titers. Thirty one (8.0%) of the infants had measles prior to vaccination. The seroconversion pattern showed that 196 (68.6%) of the infants developed protective antibody titers. Low seroconversion rate reported in this study was due to low vaccine potency. The titers of vaccines with low potency ranged between log10(-1.0)-log10(-2.25) TCID/per dose. This was beside other non specific antiviral substances exhibited virus neutralizing activity. Only 3 (50%) of the 6 vaccine vials tested had virus titers of log10(-3.25) to log10(-3.5), which fell above the cut-off point recommended by the World Health Organization for measles vaccines. The sero-conversion rate of 68.6% observed among vaccinees is far lower than the immunity level of 95% required stopping measles transmission in an endemic community. Failure of 31.4% of these infants to sero-convert post vaccination can be attributed partly to administration of sub-potent vaccines. There is need for improvement and maintenance of effective vaccine cold chain system in Nigeria. There is need also for periodic monitoring of post-vaccination antibody titers as well as vaccine potency status in order to ensure development of protective seroconversion rates. PMID:24825255

Fowotade, A; Okonko, I O; Nwabuisi, C; Bakare, R A; Fadeyi, A; Adu, F D

2015-01-01

162

CYBERCRIME IN NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigated cybercrime and examined the relevant laws available to combat this crime in Nigeria. Therefore, we had a critical review of criminal laws in Nigeria and also computer network and internet security. The internet as an instrument to aid crime ranges from business espionage, to banking fraud, obtaining un-authorized and sabotaging data in computer networks of

Okonigene Robert Ehimen; Adekanle Bola

163

The WWW in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Before Nigeria can connect to the World Wide Web, it must have a national computer network and a series of organization-based intranets. This letter assesses Nigeria's communications infrastructure; discusses what is being done to improve it; and credits its shortcomings to low university funding, rising computers costs, currency exchange rates,…

Olorunsola, R.; Adeoti-Adekeye, A.

1997-01-01

164

School Discipline in the East-Central State of Nigeria After the Civil War (Being a Comparative Study of the Incidence and Intensity of Major School Offence).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A questionnaire survey of secondary schools in Nigeria is reported that examined the following offenses: stealing, dishonesty, sex offenses, disobedience, truancy, assault and insult, drug offenses, "wickedness" (oppression of juniors and destruction of property), and strikes and mass demonstrations. (LBH)

Nwana, O. C.

1975-01-01

165

Ocular Morbidity and Health Seeking Behaviour in Kwara State, Nigeria: Implications for Delivery of Eye Care Services  

PubMed Central

Background There is currently limited information as to which conditions are most prevalent in communities in developing countries. This makes effective planning of eye services difficult. Methods 3,899 eligible individuals were recruited and examined in a cross-sectional survey in Asa Local Government Area, Nigeria. Those who self-reported an ocular morbidity were also asked about their health-seeking behaviour. Health records of local facilities were reviewed to collect information on those presenting with ocular morbidities. Results 25.2% (95% CI: 22.0–28.6) had an ocular morbidity in at least one eye. Leading causes were presbyopia and conditions affecting the lens and conjunctiva. The odds of having an ocular morbidity increased with age and lower educational attainment. 10.1% (7.7–13.0) self-reported ocular morbidity; 48.6% (40.4–56.8) of them reported seeking treatment. At the facility level, 344 patients presented with an ocular morbidity over one month, the most common conditions were red (26.3%) or itchy (20.8%) eyes. Conclusion Ocular morbidities, including many non vision impairing conditions, were prevalent with a quarter of the population affected. The delivery of eye care services needs to be tailored in order to address this need and ensure delivery in a cost-effective and sustainable manner. PMID:25165984

Senyonjo, Laura; Lindfield, Robert; Mahmoud, Abdulraheem; Kimani, Kahaki; Sanda, Safiya; Schmidt, Elena

2014-01-01

166

Pollution indexing and health risk assessments of trace elements in indoor dusts from classrooms, living rooms and offices in Ogun State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metals are known to have a negative impact on human health especially children through oral ingestion. Total metal concentrations were determined in indoor dust from 19 locations consisting of classrooms, living rooms and offices in Ogun State, Nigeria. Digestion and instrumentation reproducibility were validated using certified reference materials (BCR 723 (Road Dust), NIST 2711a (Montana Soil) and NIST SRM 1640e (Trace element in water)). The measured and certified values showed good agreement. Potential threat levels using geo-accumulation (Igeo) and human health risk for both children and adult were assessed. The mean Igeo levels for the classified and probable carcinogens is in the order Cd (4.84) > Cr (3.28) > Pb (2.61) > Ni (2.48) > As (1.64) while other elements are in the order Zn (5.41) > Ba (4.86) > Sr (4.38) > Zn (4.27) > V (3.24) > Cu (3.14) > Hg (2.61) ? TI (2.61). For human health risk, ingestion was the main route of exposure followed by dermal uptake and inhalation. Hazard index values for all studied metals were lower than the safe level of 1 while Hg vapor exhibited the highest risk value (0.13) in the case of children. The carcinogenic risk for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb were all within the acceptable level (10-4-10-6), but there was potential carcinogenic risk posed by Cr for both adults and children.

Olujimi, Olanrewaju; Steiner, Oliver; Goessler, Walter

2015-01-01

167

Childhood Lead Poisoning Associated with Gold Ore Processing: a Village-Level Investigation—Zamfara State, Nigeria, October–November 2010  

PubMed Central

Background: During May–June 2010, a childhood lead poisoning outbreak related to gold ore processing was confirmed in two villages in Zamfara State, Nigeria. During June–September of that year, villages with suspected or confirmed childhood lead poisoning continued to be identified in Zamfara State. Objectives: We investigated the extent of childhood lead poisoning [? 1 child with a blood lead level (BLL) ? 10 µg/dL] and lead contamination (? 1 soil/dust sample with a lead level > 400 parts per million) among villages in Zamfara State and identified villages that should be prioritized for urgent interventions. Methods: We used chain-referral sampling to identify villages of interest, defined as villages suspected of participation in gold ore processing during the previous 12 months. We interviewed villagers, determined BLLs among children < 5 years of age, and analyzed soil/dust from public areas and homes for lead. Results: We identified 131 villages of interest and visited 74 (56%) villages in three local government areas. Fifty-four (77%) of 70 villages that completed the survey reported gold ore processing. Ore-processing villages were more likely to have ? 1 child < 5 years of age with lead poisoning (68% vs. 50%, p = 0.17) or death following convulsions (74% vs. 44%, p = 0.02). Soil/dust contamination and BLL ? 45 µg/dL were identified in ore-processing villages only [50% (p < 0.001) and 15% (p = 0.22), respectively]. The odds of childhood lead poisoning or lead contamination was 3.5 times as high in ore-processing villages than the other villages (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 11.3). Conclusion: Childhood lead poisoning and lead contamination were widespread in surveyed areas, particularly among villages that had processed ore recently. Urgent interventions are required to reduce lead exposure, morbidity, and mortality in affected communities. PMID:22766030

Lo, Yi-Chun; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Neri, Antonio; Durant, James; Jefferies, Taran; Medina-Marino, Andrew; de Ravello, Lori; Thoroughman, Douglas; Davis, Lora; Dankoli, Raymond S.; Samson, Matthias Y.; Ibrahim, Luka M.; Okechukwu, Ossai; Umar-Tsafe, Nasir T.; Dama, Alhassan H.

2012-01-01

168

The High Cost of Free Tuberculosis Services: Patient and Household Costs Associated with Tuberculosis Care in Ebonyi State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objective Poverty is both a cause and consequence of tuberculosis. The objective of this study is to quantify patient/household costs for an episode of tuberculosis (TB), its relationships with household impoverishment, and the strategies used to cope with the costs by TB patients in a resource-limited high TB/HIV setting. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in three rural hospitals in southeast Nigeria. Consecutive adults with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB were interviewed to determine the costs each incurred in their care-seeking pathway using a standardised questionnaire. We defined direct costs as out-of-pocket payments, and indirect costs as lost income. Results Of 452 patients enrolled, majority were male 55% (249), and rural residents 79% (356), with a mean age of 34 (±11.6) years. Median direct pre-diagnosis/diagnosis cost was $49 per patient. Median direct treatment cost was $36 per patient. Indirect pre-diagnostic and treatment costs were $416, or 79% of total patient costs, $528. The median total cost of TB care per household was $592; corresponding to 37% of median annual household income pre-TB. Most patients reported having to borrow money 212(47%), sell assets 42(9%), or both 144(32%) to cope with the cost of care. Following an episode of TB, household income reduced increasing the proportion of households classified as poor from 54% to 79%. Before TB illness, independent predictors of household poverty were; rural residence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.8), HIV-positive status (aOR 4.8), and care-seeking at a private facility (aOR 5.1). After TB care, independent determinants of household poverty were; younger age (?35 years; aOR 2.4), male gender (aOR 2.1), and HIV-positive status (aOR 2.5). Conclusion Patient and household costs for TB care are potentially catastrophic even where services are provided free-of-charge. There is an urgent need to implement strategies for TB care that are affordable for the poor. PMID:24015293

Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Alobu, Isaac; lgwenyi, Chika; Hopewell, Philip C.

2013-01-01

169

Perception of quality of maternal healthcare services among women utilising antenatal services in selected primary health facilities in Anambra State, Southeast Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study aimed at assessing antenatal care service attendees’ perception of quality of maternal healthcare (MHC) services in Anambra State, southeast Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 310 pregnant women utilising antenatal care (ANC) services in three purposively selected primary health centres (PHCs) in rural communities in Anambra State were studied. Reponses were elicited from the participants selected consecutively over a 4-month period, using a pre-tested, semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, utilisation and perception of MHC services. Data collected were analysed using SPSS version 17. Results: Findings showed that utilisation of facility for both antenatal (97.0%; 95% CI, 94.4–98.4%) and natal services (92.7%; 95% CI 89.2–95.2%) were quite high. Generally, most of the women were satisfied with MHC services (89.7%). Most of them were satisfied with the staff attitude (85.1%), waiting time (84.1%) and cost of services (79.5%). Being ?30 years (X2 = 4.61, P = 0.032), married (X2 = 9.70, P = 0.008) and multiparous (X2 = 9.14, P = 0.028), as well as utilisation of formal health facility for antenatal (X2 = 26.94, P = 0.000) and natal (X2 = 33.42, P = 0.000) services were associated with satisfaction with maternal health services. Conclusions: The study showed high level of satisfaction with quality of maternal health services among antenatal attendees and highlights the need to strengthen interventions that increase uptake of formal MHC services. PMID:24791050

Emelumadu, Obiageli F.; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Ukegbu, Andrew Ugwunna; Ezeama, Nkiru N.; Ifeadike, Chigozie Ozoemena; Okezie, Obasi Kanu

2014-01-01

170

Use of Web-based training for quality improvement between a field immunohistochemistry laboratory in Nigeria and its United States-based partner institution.  

PubMed

The importance of hormone receptor status in assigning treatment and the potential use of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapy have made it beneficial for laboratories to improve detection techniques. Because interlaboratory variability in immunohistochemistry (IHC) tests may also affect studies of breast cancer subtypes in different countries, we undertook a Web-based quality improvement training and a comparative study of accuracy of immunohistochemical tests of breast cancer biomarkers between a well-established laboratory in the United States (University of Chicago) and a field laboratory in Ibadan, Nigeria. Two hundred and thirty-two breast tumor blocks were evaluated for estrogen receptors (ERs), progesterone receptors (PRs), and HER2 status at both laboratories using tissue microarray technique. Initially, concordance analysis revealed ? scores of 0.42 (moderate agreement) for ER, 0.41 (moderate agreement) for PR, and 0.39 (fair agreement) for HER2 between the 2 laboratories. Antigen retrieval techniques and scoring methods were identified as important reasons for discrepancy. Web-based conferences using Web conferencing tools such as Skype and WebEx were then held periodically to discuss IHC staining protocols and standard scoring systems and to resolve discrepant cases. After quality assurance and training, the agreement improved to 0.64 (substantial agreement) for ER, 0.60 (moderate agreement) for PR, and 0.75 (substantial agreement) for HER2. We found Web-based conferences and digital microscopy useful and cost-effective tools for quality assurance of IHC, consultation, and collaboration between distant laboratories. Quality improvement exercises in testing of tumor biomarkers will reduce misclassification in epidemiologic studies of breast cancer subtypes and provide much needed capacity building in resource-poor countries. PMID:24095629

Oluwasola, Abideen O; Malaka, David; Khramtsov, Andrey Ilyich; Ikpatt, Offiong Francis; Odetunde, Abayomi; Adeyanju, Oyinlolu Olorunsogo; Sveen, Walmy Elisabeth; Falusi, Adeyinka Gloria; Huo, Dezheng; Olopade, Olufunmilayo Ibironke

2013-12-01

171

The levels of inflammatory markers and oxidative stress in individuals occupationally exposed to municipal solid waste in Ogun State, South West Nigeria.  

PubMed

Airway inflammation and related respiratory complaints are common symptoms among waste management workers (WMWs). This study investigated the relationship between exposure to municipal solid waste (MSW) and the levels of inflammatory markers and oxidative stress among WMW of Ogun State, South West Nigeria. A total of 280 subjects consisting of 180 WMW and 100 controls were recruited. Ten millilitres of blood were collected from antecubital vein of the subjects for analysis. Results reveal that exposure to MSW is associated with systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Significant (p < 0.001) elevation of ceruloplasmin (Cp) and C-reactive protein was associated with marked decreases in superoxide dismutase (p < 0.01), catalase (p < 0.001), and glutathione (p < 0.05) and significant (p < 0.001) increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) and uric acid when compared with control. Haematological disorders include significant (p < 0.05) decreases in haemoglobin, packed cell volume, and mean corpuscular volume and significant (p < 0.01) increase in total leucocyte count. Apart from decreased albumin (p < 0.05) and elevated aspartate aminotransferase (p < 0.05) activity observed in WMW, other markers of hepatic (alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol and triglycerides) and renal (urea and creatinine) functions did not change significantly (p > 0.05) when compared with the control. A positive correlation between leucocytes (r = 0.195, p < 0.01), Cp (r = 0.210, p < 0.01) and job duration and between Cp and MDA (r = 0.200, p < 0.01) and Cp and leucocytes (r = 0.260, p < 0.001) were observed in WMW. Overall, exposure to MSW predisposes to systemic inflammation and oxidative stress and Cp may be a useful biomarker for monitoring health status of Nigerian WMWs. PMID:22577128

Odewabi, Adesina O; Ogundahunsi, Omobola A; Ebesunu, Maria O; Ekor, Martins

2013-10-01

172

The frequency of ABO blood group maternal–fetal incompatibility, maternal iso-agglutinins, and immune agglutinins quantitation in Osogbo, Osun State, South-West of Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: ABO incompatibility in maternal–fetal relationship has been shown to cause hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDNB); a survey which is not yet done in this locality. Aim: Frequency of ABO blood group maternal-fetal incompatibility, maternal iso-agglutinins, and immune agglutinins quantitation was carried out in Osogbo, Osun State, South-West of Nigeria. Settings and Designs: A total of 260 subjects comprising 130 postpartum mothers within the age range of 22-35 years having good obstetrics history and normal delivery, with their 130 neonate babies were used for the study. Materials and Methods: ABO cell and serum groupings were carried out on the subjects using standard antisera and cells with appropriate controls. Direct Coomb’s Test was carried out on neonate red cells. Antibody quantitation by double dilution on the maternal serum using red cells containing corresponding antigen to the antibody was determined. A titer, which is the reciprocal of the highest dilution showing agglutination by Indirect Coombs Test, was determined. Another batch of sera was pretreated with 2-mecarptoethanol before determining the titer. Statistical Analysis: The distribution study results obtained were compared in percentages, whereas the antibodies quantitation was expressed as titers using the mode of the titers for compariso-agglutininsn. Results and Conclusions: Thirty-eight percent (50) mothers were ABO incompatible with their babies, whereas 62% (80) mothers were compatible. The distribution of blood groups in the compatible population showed blood group O (45%); A (30%); B (20%); and AB (5%). Mothers O, A, and B carrying incompatible babies had a frequency of 24% each, whereas mothers AB had 28%. Serologist differences occur in maternal ABO antibodies of corresponding incompatible baby ABO antigens. A high incidence of ABO maternal-fetal incompatibility observed without detection of immune agglutinins is indicative of a rare incidence of HDNB due to ABO incompatibility in the population studied. PMID:21572716

Oseni, Bashiru S.; Akomolafe, Oluseun F.

2011-01-01

173

Perceptions of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) and barriers to adherence in Nasarawa and Cross River States in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria during pregnancy is dangerous to both mother and foetus. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) is a strategy where pregnant women in malaria-endemic countries receive full doses of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), whether or not they have malaria. The Nigerian government adopted IPTp as a national strategy in 2005; however, major gaps affecting perception, uptake, adherence, and scale-up remain. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in peri-urban and rural communities in Nasarawa and Cross River States in Nigeria. Study instruments were based on the socio-ecological model and its multiple levels of influences, taking into account individual, community, societal, and environmental contexts of behaviour and social change. Women of reproductive age, their front-line care providers, and (in Nasarawa only) their spouses participated in focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews. Facility sampling was purposive to include tertiary, secondary and primary health facilities. Results The study found that systems-based challenges (stockouts; lack of provider knowledge of IPTp protocols) coupled with individual women’s beliefs and lack of understanding of IPT contribute to low uptake and adherence. Many pregnant women are reluctant to seek care for an illness they do not have. Those with malaria often prefer to self-medicate through drug shops or herbs, though those who seek clinic-based treatment trust their providers and willingly accept medicine prescribed. Conclusions Failing to deliver complete IPTp to women attending antenatal care is a missed opportunity. While many obstacles are structural, programmes can target women, their communities and the health environment with specific interventions to increase IPTp uptake and adherence. PMID:24059757

2013-01-01

174

Bacteriological quality of foods and water sold by vendors and in restaurants in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria: a comparative study of three microbiological methods.  

PubMed

Bacterial count in prepared food or water is a key factor in assessing the quality and safety of food. It also reveals the level of hygiene adopted by food handlers in the course of preparation of such foods. This comparative study evaluated the bacteriological quality of food and water consumed in Nsukka, Enugu state, Nigeria, using three bacteria enumeration methods. Data obtained are assumed to reflect the level of personal and environmental hygiene in the study population. Ten types of foods--beans, yam, abacha, okpa, moimoi, pear, cassava foofoo, rice, agidi, and garri--and 10 water samples were evaluated for bacteriological quality, precisely determining the level of coliform contamination, using the most probable number (MPN), lactose fermentation count (LFC), and Escherichia coli count (ECC) methods. Bacterial counts differed significantly (p < 0.05) among the various food samples. However, this did not differ significantly in the three methods used for the enumeration of coliforms, suggesting that any of the three methods could be validly used for such studies with confidence. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the two major coliforms identified among 98 coliform isolates obtained from the various food samples, of which 78 (79.6%) were assumed to be of human origin on account of their ability to grow at 44 degrees C. The level of coliform contamination in the food samples from vendors and restaurants (geometric mean count 7.64-9.21; MPN > or = 50) were above the accepted 10(4) colony-forming unit/g or MPN < or = 10 limits. The results of the study, therefore, call for stringent supervision and implementation of food-safety practices and regular education on food and personal hygiene among food vendors. PMID:22283029

Nkere, Chukwuemeka K; Ibe, Nnenne I; Iroegbu, Christian U

2011-12-01

175

A Six-Year Study of the Clinical Presentation of Cervical Cancer and the Management Challenges Encountered at a State Teaching Hospital in Southeast Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer is still a major contributor to cancer-related mortality amongst women living in poor, rural communities of developing countries. The objective of this study is to establish the clinical presentation of cervical cancer and the management challenges encountered in Abakaliki, southeast Nigeria, with a view to finding intervention strategies. This study is a retrospective descriptive assessment of cases of clinically diagnosed cervical cancer managed at a state teaching hospital over six years. Of 76 cases managed, 61 (80.3%) cases notes were available for study. The mean age and parity of patients were 53.8 years and 6.8 years, respectively. The majority (75.4%) were illiterate. All had been married, but 42.6% were widowed. The main occupations were farming or petty trading. One patient (1.6%) had had a single Pap smear in her life. The major presenting complaints were abnormal vaginal bleeding (86.9%), offensive vaginal discharge (41.0%), and weight loss. Twenty patients (32.8%) were lost to follow-up prior to staging. Of the remaining 41 patients, 16 (39.0%) had stage III disease and 17.1% stage IV. Fifteen patients (24.6%) with late stage disease accepted referral, and were referred for radiotherapy. Those who declined were discharged home on request, though 4 (9.8%) died in the hospital. There was no feedback from referred patients confirming that they went and benefitted from the referral. The presentation followed known trends. Illiteracy, poverty, early marriages, high parity, widowhood, non-use of screening methods, late presentation, non-acceptance of referral, and lack of communication after referral were some of the major challenges encountered. These underscore the needs for health education and awareness creation, women educational and economic empowerment, legislation against early marriages and in protection of widows, and creation of a well-staffed and well-equipped dedicated gynecologic oncology unit to forestall further referral. PMID:23843724

Eze, Justus N.; Emeka-Irem, Esther N.; Edegbe, Felix O.

2013-01-01

176

Association of Blood Lead Level with Neurological Features in 972 Children Affected by an Acute Severe Lead Poisoning Outbreak in Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) investigated reports of high mortality in young children in Zamfara State, Nigeria, leading to confirmation of villages with widespread acute severe lead poisoning. In a retrospective analysis, we aimed to determine venous blood lead level (VBLL) thresholds and risk factors for encephalopathy using MSF programmatic data from the first year of the outbreak response. Methods and Findings We included children aged ?5 years with VBLL ?45 µg/dL before any chelation and recorded neurological status. Odds ratios (OR) for neurological features were estimated; the final model was adjusted for age and baseline VBLL, using random effects for village of residence. 972 children met inclusion criteria: 885 (91%) had no neurological features; 34 (4%) had severe features; 47 (5%) had reported recent seizures; and six (1%) had other neurological abnormalities. The geometric mean VBLLs for all groups with neurological features were >100 µg/dL vs 65.9 µg/dL for those without neurological features. The adjusted OR for neurological features increased with increasing VBLL: from 2.75, 95%CI 1.27–5.98 (80–99.9 µg/dL) to 22.95, 95%CI 10.54–49.96 (?120 µg/dL). Neurological features were associated with younger age (OR 4.77 [95% CI 2.50–9.11] for 1–<2 years and 2.69 [95%CI 1.15–6.26] for 2–<3 years, both vs 3–5 years). Severe neurological features were seen at VBLL <105 µg/dL only in those with malaria. Interpretation Increasing VBLL (from ?80 µg/dL) and age 1–<3 years were strongly associated with neurological features; in those tested for malaria, a positive test was also strongly associated. These factors will help clinicians managing children with lead poisoning in prioritising therapy and developing chelation protocols. PMID:24740291

Greig, Jane; Thurtle, Natalie; Cooney, Lauren; Ariti, Cono; Ahmed, Abdulkadir Ola; Ashagre, Teshome; Ayela, Anthony; Chukwumalu, Kingsley; Criado-Perez, Alison; Gómez-Restrepo, Camilo; Meredith, Caitlin; Neri, Antonio; Stellmach, Darryl; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Shanks, Leslie; Dargan, Paul I.

2014-01-01

177

Bacteriological Quality of Foods and Water Sold by Vendors and in Restaurants in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria: A Comparative Study of Three Microbiological Methods  

PubMed Central

Bacterial count in prepared food or water is a key factor in assessing the quality and safety of food. It also reveals the level of hygiene adopted by food handlers in the course of preparation of such foods. This comparative study evaluated the bacteriological quality of food and water consumed in Nsukka, Enugu state, Nigeria, using three bacteria enumeration methods. Data obtained are assumed to reflect the level of personal and environmental hygiene in the study population. Ten types of foods—beans, yam, abacha, okpa, moimoi, pear, cassava foofoo, rice, agidi, and garri—and 10 water samples were evaluated for bacteriological quality, precisely determining the level of coliform contamination, using the most probable number (MPN), lactose fermentation count (LFC), and Escherichia coli count (ECC) methods. Bacterial counts differed significantly (p<0.05) among the various food samples. However, this did not differ significantly in the three methods used for the enumeration of coliforms, suggesting that any of the three methods could be validly used for such studies with confidence. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the two major coliforms identified among 98 coliform isolates obtained from the various food samples, of which 78 (79.6%) were assumed to be of human origin on account of their ability to grow at 44 °C. The level of coliform contamination in the food samples from vendors and restaurants (geometric mean count 7.64-9.21; MPN ?50) were above the accepted 104 colony-forming unit/g or MPN ?10 limits. The results of the study, therefore, call for stringent supervision and implementation of food-safety practices and regular education on food and personal hygiene among food vendors. PMID:22283029

Ibe, Nnenne I.; Iroegbu, Christian U.

2011-01-01

178

Adult Learners' Demographic Variable as Predictor of Access and Participation in Literacy Programmes in Oyo and Ondo States, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Literacy is an indispensable foundation that enables young people and adults to engage in learning opportunities at all stages of the learning continuum. Literacy is a prerequisite for the development of personal, social, economic and political empowerment. In Nigeria, attempt to increase access to literacy education for the enhancement of…

Olojede, Adeshina Abideen; Oladitan, Idowu Oladiran

2013-01-01

179

The Role of Sandwich In-Service Program in Developing Agricultural Science Teachers in Delta State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the role of the sandwich in-service educational program of Delta State University, Abraka in developing agricultural science teachers in the state. Data were collected from 895 agricultural science teachers who completed the program between 1989-2004. However, response to the questionnaire was by 391 in-service agricultural…

Ikeoji, Canice N.; Agwubike, Christian C.; Ideh, Victor

2007-01-01

180

Pattern and management of sports injuries presented by Lagos state athletes at the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA games 2009) in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background There is a dearth of information on the epidemiology of sports injuries in Nigeria. The study was aimed at documenting sports injuries sustained by Lagos state athletes during the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA Games 2009). It was also aimed at providing information on treatments offered to injured athletes. Methods The study was carried out at Amadu Bello Stadium Complex, sporting arena of the Murtala Square and the team Lagos mini clinic. Participants were accredited Lagos state athletes who at one point in time during the games required treatment from any of the members of the medical team. Demographic data of athletes, type of injuries, body parts injured and treatment modalities used were documented and analysed using descriptive statistics. Results Within the period of the games, a total of 140 sports injuries were documented from 132 athletes with an approximate male to female ratio of 2:1 and age ranging from 15-38 years. Most of the injuries reported by the athletes were "minor" injuries. Muscle strain was the most common type of injury (31.4%) followed by ligament sprains (22.9%). The lower extremities were the most injured body region accounting for 50% of all injuries. Over 60% of injuries presented by the athletes were from basketball, cricket, hockey, rugby and baseball. Cryotherapy was the most frequently used treatment modality, followed by bandaging and massage with anti-inflammatory gels. Conclusion Establishing injury prevention programmes directed at the lower extremities may help reduce the risk of injuries to the lower extremities. Since cryotherapy was the most used treatment modality, it is suggested that it should be made abundantly available to the medical team preferably in forms of portable cold sprays for easy transportation and application during the games. It is also important that physiotherapists form the core of the medical team since they are trained to apply most of these treatment modalities and they also play a major role in establishing injury prevention routines. This data provides information that will be useful to both state and federal medical teams in preparing for future games. PMID:20205785

2010-01-01

181

Nigeria: too many children?  

PubMed

Nigeria's underdevelopment and economic stagnation has been linked by many to its rapid rate of population growth and high birth rate (6.34 children/family). The World Bank, a leading force in the birth control for development campaign, maintains that rapidly growing populations increase the proportion of dependent and economically inactive people in society, thereby impeding capital accumulation needed for development. However, this approach ignores the inequitable structures for the distribution of wealth in developing countries that depend on poverty for their existence. A more sensible approach to population growth in Nigeria would include increased incomes, free education, improved public health and nutrition programs, and a changed social role for women. In fact, rather than being a barrier to development, Nigeria's growing population offers a rich labor reserve for the development of the country's vast resources. The anti-birth propaganda that has pressured the Nigeria Government to adopt a population policy has served to obscure and conceal the real causes of poverty and underdevelopment--the exploitation of the country by multinational corporations. If the income gap in Nigeria is reduced and the living standards of the majority rise, people will voluntarily lower their fertility without coercive family planning programs. PMID:12281080

Mbachu, D

1987-04-01

182

Exfoliation Syndrome in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and its association with ocular disease in patients attending the eye clinic of the University College Hospital (UCH) in Ibadan, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 448 consecutive new patients, aged 30-90 years who presented to the eye clinic of UCH between December 2009 and November 2010 were evaluated. Each patient had a complete ophthalmic examination. Patients with exfoliative material on the anterior lens surface and/or pupillary margin in either or both eyes were considered to have XFS. Means, standard deviation, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results: All the patients examined were from the southern part of Nigeria. Majority (94.2%) were of the Yoruba tribe from southwestern Nigeria, while 5.8% were from southeastern Nigeria. The mean age of the study cohort was 58.5 ± 13.8, 54.8% were males, 12 (2.7%) had XFS. All patients with XFS were of the Yoruba tribe, with a mean age 65.6 ± 5.6 years. There was a male predilection (66.7%). All eyes with XFS had lenticular opacities. XFS was bilateral in eight patients (66.7%) of whom seven patients (87.5%) had glaucoma and lenticular opacities bilaterally. Conclusion: This is the first report of the existence of XFS in Nigeria. Larger studies are necessary in this population to further investigate the disease. PMID:23248543

Olawoye, Olusola O.; Ashaye, Adeyinka O.; Teng, Christopher C; Liebmann, Jeffrey M.; Ritch, Robert; Ajayi, Benedict G.

2012-01-01

183

Cultural, Socio-Economic and Political Influences on Special Education in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper describes the present state of education in Nigeria with emphasis on the cultural, socio-economic, and political influences affecting special education. After a brief summary of education in Nigeria since independence (1960), the paper looks at problems identified in special education and at Section 8, that portion of the National Policy…

Obiakor, Festus E.

184

Roles of Counsellors in Promoting Sexuality Education for In-School Adolescents in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research was embarked upon to investigate the role of counselors in promoting sexuality education for in-school adolescents in Nigeria. The respondents were made up of 120 practicing guidance counselors in Enugu State situated in South-East geopolitical zone of Nigeria. They were drawn from both professional and teacher counselors practicing in…

Omeje, Joachim C.; Michael, Eskay; Obiageli, Modebelu Josephine

2012-01-01

185

Health Promotion Intervention for Hygienic Disposal of Children's Faeces in a Rural Area of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Community-based health promotion intervention for improving unhygienic disposal of children's faeces was conducted in a rural area of Nigeria. Setting: The study was conducted in Ife South Local Government area of Osun State, Nigeria. Design: The study was conducted in 10 randomly selected rural villages: five control and five active.…

Jinadu, M. K.; Adegbenro, C. A.; Esmai, A. O.; Ojo, A. A.; Oyeleye, B. A.

2007-01-01

186

Determinants of Farmers' Information Seeking and Utilization on Seeds and Planting Materials in Lagos and Ogun States, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined farmers' information seeking and utilization pattern on seeds and planting materials in Lagos and Ogun States. A total of 220 farmers were selected through a multistage random sampling method and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Farmers were exposed to many sources of information on seeds and planting materials, but their use in decreasing order of preference was

O. I. Oladele

2010-01-01

187

Leprosy Elimination: Progress and Challenges in Nigeria; Kaduna State TB and Leprosy Control Programme as a Case Study.  

PubMed

The study aims at describing the achievements and challenges of Leprosy control in Kaduna State using appropriate indicators. The study was a five year (2004-2008) retrospective review of the Leprosy records and annual reports of all the twenty three LGAs in Kaduna State. Various Leprosy indicators were calculated and presented in different graphic presentations. Focus group discussions were organised with the aim of identifying current challenges of Leprosy control in the State. There was a decline in the new Leprosy cases detected annually from 226 cases in 2004 to 140 cases in 2008. The prevalence rate ranged between 0.3-0.4 per 10,000 population within the five year period. The proportion of children among new cases dropped from 12% in 2004 to 5% in 2007 and increased to 9% in 2008. Grade 2 disability among new cases was very high (between 21%-27%) within the same period. Leprosy elimination target has been achieved in Kaduna State, but new cases with high proportion of children and WHO grade 2 disability were still been reported. PMID:23878709

Mustapha, Gidado; Olusegu, Obasanya Joshua; Mustapha, Sani; Clement, Adesigbin; Dahiru, Tahir; Gagere, J; Olusola, Adejumo Adeleji

2012-01-01

188

Self Efficacy and Some Demographic Variables as Predictors of Occupational Stress among Primary School Teachers in Delta State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated self efficacy and some demographic variables as predictors of occupational stress among primary school teachers in Delta State. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey design that utilized an expost-facto research type. A sample of one hundred and twenty primary school…

Akpochafo, G. O.

2014-01-01

189

Contributions of ICTs towards Agricultural Development Among Agricultural Researchers in Ibadan North West Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines the contributions of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) towards Agricultural Development among Agricultural Researchers in Ibadan North West Local Government Area of Oyo State. Random sampling technique was used in the selection of 50 respondents that constitute the sample size for the study. Primary data were collected through the use of a well-structured questionnaire from the Agricultural

Oyetoro John Oyewole; Adetunbi Saheed Ige; Oladipo Solomon Oyetunde

2013-01-01

190

Home Influences on the Academic Performance of Agricultural Science Students in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to investigate the home influences on the academic performance of agricultural science secondary school students in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State. The instrument used in data collection was a validated questionnaire structured on a two point rating scale. Simple random sampling technique was used to select…

Ndirika, Maryann C.; Njoku, U. J.

2012-01-01

191

Outbreaks of rinderpest in wild and domestic animals in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Rinderpest, although eradicated from Nigeria in 1974 after the JP15 campaign, was reintroduced into Sokoto state in 1980 and again into Borno state in 1983. The latter outbreak spread rapidly throughout Nigeria and severely reduced the cattle population. An estimated one million cattle were lost. An outbreak occurred at the Maiduguri zoo, in Borno state, in January 1983 and killed 15 elands and six sitatungas. In March 1983, rinderpest appeared in Yankari game reserve in adjoining Bauchi state and caused mortality in several species of wildlife. A total of 207 buffalo, 20 warthog, eight waterbuck and two bushbuck carcases were recovered. Rinderpest did not occur in wildlife in Nigeria after it was eradicated from cattle. In the Nigerian situation, the rinderpest appears to have been transmitted from cattle to wildlife. Vaccination of zoo animals and valuable animals in game reserves, preferably with a killed vaccine, and ring vaccination of livestock around game reserves can help to protect wildlife from rinderpest. PMID:2343518

Shanthikumar, S R; Atilola, M A

1990-03-31

192

Seroprevalence of infectious bursal disease virus in local chickens in Udu Local Government Area of Delta State, South East Nigeria.  

PubMed

Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) poses a great global threat to the poultry industry. Knowledge of the occurrence of the disease is important in the design and implementation of a control program, therefore this study determines the seroprevalence of IBDV in local chickens in Udu Local Government Area of Delta State. 250 chickens were bled by exsanguination and sera obtained were screened using Agar Gel Immunodiffusion (AGID) test. The seropositivity was 51.6%, which is indicates endemicity of the disease. Biosecurity and good sanitary measures are recommended. Molecular characterization of the strains should be carried out for inclusion in generic vaccines. PMID:25331185

Abraham-Oyiguh, J; Adewumi, M O; Onoja, A B; Suleiman, I; Sulaiman, L K; Ahmed, S J; Jagboro, S T

2015-01-01

193

Transactional sex, condom and lubricant use among men who have sex with men in Lagos State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Men who have unprotected sex with men may also have unprotected sex with women and thus serve as an epidemiological bridge for HIV to the general population. This cross sectional descriptive study assessed condom and lubricant use and practice of transactional sex among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Lagos state. Simple random sampling was used to select three community centres and snowball sampling technique was used to recruit 321 respondents. Almost half (50.9%) had received payment for sex while 45.4% had paid for sex in the past. Consistent condom use was practiced by 40.5% of respondents during the last 10 sexual encounters, 85.6% used lubricants mostly with condom, products used were KY jelly, body cream, saliva and Vaseline. There is need for behavioural change to reduce risky practices which predisposes this group of MSM to HIV and sexually transmitted infections. PMID:24689320

Ayoola, Oluyemisi O; Sekoni, Adekemi O; Odeyemi, Kofoworola A

2013-12-01

194

Haematological values in homozygous sickle cell disease in steady state and haemoglobin phenotypes AA controls in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Sickle cell disease is a genetic abnormality involving the haemoglobin. Although, it is primarily a red cell disorders, the white blood cells and platelets are also affected by the mutation. The consequent haemoglobin S causes polymerization of haemoglobin resulting in haemolysis and anaemia. This study aims to provide baseline haematological values in sickle cell disease patients in steady state and compare the deviation from haemoglobin phenotype AA control values. Methods A case–control study was conducted amongst homozygous sickle cell patients attending the sickle cell clinics of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital Ikeja and haemoglobin phenotype AA controls. About 4.5mls of blood sample was collected from each participant for full blood count analysis. All blood samples were screened for HIV and haemoglobin phenotypes confirmed using cellulose acetate haemoglobin electrophoresis at pH 8.6. Results A total of 103 cases and 98 controls were enrolled. The overall mean haemoglobin concentration for cases was 7.93?±?1.47?g/dl, packed cell volume 24.44?±?4.68%, mean cell volume 81.52?±?7.89?fl, and mean cell haemoglobin 26.50?±?3.20?pg. While for controls, mean haemoglobin concentration was 13.83?±?1.32?g/dl, packed cell volume 43.07?±?3.95%, mean cell volume 86.90?±?4.69?fl, and mean cell haemoglobin 28.50?±?1.34?pg. The overall mean white blood cell counts for the cases was 10.27?±?3.94 *103/?l and platelet counts of 412.71?±?145.09*103/?l. While white blood cell count for the controls was 5.67?±?1.59*103/?l and platelet counts of 222.82?±?57.62*103/?l. Conclusion Homozygous sickle cell disease patients have lower values of red cell parameters, but higher values of white cell and platelets counts compared to haemoglobin phenotype AA controls. PMID:22849350

2012-01-01

195

Effective planning and management as critical factors in urban water supply and management in Umuahia and Aba, Abia State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plan and policy development usually define the course, goal, execution, success or failure of any public utilities initiative. Urban water supply is not an exception. Planning and management in public water supply systems often determine the quality of service the water supply authorities can render. This paper, therefore, addresses the issue of effective planning and management as critical determinants of urban water supply and management with respect to two Nigerian cities Umuahia and Aba both in Abia State. Appropriate sampling methods systematic sampling and cluster techniques were employed in order to collect data for the study. The collected data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. The findings of the study indicate that planning and management indices such as funding, manpower, water storage tank capacity greatly influence the volume of water supplied in the study areas. Funding was identified as a major determinant of the efficiency of the water supply system. Therefore, the study advocates the need for sector reforms that would usher in private participants in the water sector both for improved funding and enhanced productivity.

Uchegbu, Smart N.

196

The effect of health education intervention on the home management of malaria among the caregivers of children aged under 5 years in Ogun State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is currently the most important cause of death and disability in children aged under 5 years in Africa. A health education interventional study of this nature is essential in primary control of an endemic communicable disease such as malaria. This study was therefore designed to determine the effect of health education on the home management of Malaria among the caregivers of children under 5 years old in Ogun State, Nigeria. Methods The study design was a quasi-experimental study carried out in Ijebu North Local Government Area of Ogun State. A multistage random sampling technique was used in choosing the required samples for this study and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information. The intervention consisted of a structured educational program based on a course content adapted from the national malaria control program. A total of 400 respondents were recruited into the study, with 200 each in both the experimental and control groups, and were followed up for a period of 3 months when the knowledge and uptake of insecticide treated net was reassessed. Results There was no statistically significant differences observed between the experimental and control groups in terms of sociodemographic characteristics such as age (P?=?0.99), marital status (P?=?0.48), religion (P?=?0.1), and income (P?=?0.51). The majority in both the experimental (75.0%) and control (71.5%) groups use arthemisinin-based combination therapy as first line home treatment drugs pre intervention. Post health education intervention, the degree of change in the knowledge of referral signs and symptoms in the experimental group was 52.8% (P?

2012-01-01

197

A Multilevel Analysis of Late Entry in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores how factors operating at the state and community levels are associated with the prevalence of late school enrolment in Nigeria. We investigate the following three research themes. First, whether late entry varies across states and across communities and how much of this variation can be explained by the composition of…

Delprato, Marcos; Sabates, Ricardo

2015-01-01

198

The use of the partograph in labor monitoring: a cross-sectional study among obstetric caregivers in General Hospital, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Prolonged and obstructed labor is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in Nigeria, one of the six countries contributing significantly to the global maternal mortality crisis. The use of the partograph would engender a remarkable reduction in the number of these deaths since abnormal markers in the progress of labor would be identified early on. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the non-physician obstetric caregivers’ (OCGs) knowledge of partograph use, assess the extent of its use, determine the factors that impede its usage, and unravel the relationship between years of experience and partograph use among the respondents (OCGs) in General Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. Methodology Using a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 130 purposely selected and consenting OCGs working in the General Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. Results The majority of the respondents (70.8%) had good general knowledge of the partograph but lacked detailed and in-depth knowledge of the component parts of the partograph. Knowledge of partograph (?2=12.05, P=0.0001) and partograph availability (?2=56.5, P=0.0001) had a significant relationship with its utilization. Previous training (?2=9.43, P=0.002) was significantly related to knowledge of partograph. Factors affecting utilization were: little or no knowledge of the partograph (85.4%), nonavailability (70%), shortage of staff (61.5%), and the fact that it is time-consuming to use (30%). Conclusion Lack of detailed knowledge of the partograph, nonavailability of the partograph, poor staff numbers, and inadequate training are factors that work against the effective utilization of the partograph in the study facility. Usage of this tool for labor monitoring can be enhanced by periodic training, making partographs available in labor wards, provision of reasonable staff numbers, and mandatory institutional policy. PMID:25342920

Asibong, Udeme; Okokon, Ita B; Agan, Thomas U; Oku, Affiong; Opiah, Margaret; Essien, E James; Monjok, Emmanuel

2014-01-01

199

Nigeria's new population policy.  

PubMed

Nigeria has launched its 1st population policy, reflecting new approval on the part of policymakers of national efforts to curb population growth. Specifically, the policy seeks to reduce fertility from the present level of 6 children/family to an average of 4 children/family, suggests an optimum marriage age of 18 years for women and 24 years for men, and advocates that pregnancies be restricted to the 18-35-year range and at intervals of 2 years. US$100 million has been allocated for a national family planning program, $67 million of which is being provided by the US Agency for International Development (AID). The Nigeria program is AID's largest population program in Africa. Most of the funds will be used to bring family planning services to government-sponsored maternal-child health programs and for public education through the mass media, particularly radio. Without such an effort, Nigeria's population could be expected to double to 160 million by the year 2000. PMID:12179884

Mazzocco, K

1988-03-01

200

Provision and Use of Legal Information among Civil Rights Groups in the Oil Producing Communities of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigates the provision and use of legal information among civil rights groups in oil producing communities of Nigeria. The survey research design was employed for this study. Data was gathered by questionnaire from 127 active civil rights group members spread across ten oil producing communities in three major oil producing states of Nigeria – Bayelsa, Delta and Rivers.

Margeret U Ugboma

2010-01-01

201

Antimalarial drug prescribing practice in private and public health facilities in South-east Nigeria: a descriptive study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Nigeria's national standard has recently moved to artemisinin combination treatments for malaria. As clinicians in the private sector are responsible for attending a large proportion of the population ill with malaria, this study compared prescribing in the private and public sector in one State in Nigeria prior to promoting ACTs. OBJECTIVE: To assess prescribing for uncomplicated malaria in government

Martin Meremikwu; Uduak Okomo; Chukwuemeka Nwachukwu; Angela Oyo-Ita; John Eke-Njoku; Joseph Okebe; Esu Oyo-Ita; Paul Garner

2007-01-01

202

Police and the institution of corruption in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the nexus between the police and corruption in Nigeria. Based on an empirical study of the role of the police utilising Lagos State as a case study, it was observed that corrupt practices in the police force are not a one-off event, rather they constitute a web of structural and accentuating factors, which are analysed within the

Oluwatoyin O. Oluwaniyi

2011-01-01

203

Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis among trade cattle in Southern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The local incidence of bovine tuberculosis has been reported in some southern areas of Nigeria (Ayanwale, 1984). However, information is lacking on the cattle population in Rivers State which derives mainly from trade cattle from the northern parts of the country. In a five-year investigation based on both field observations and laboratory diagnosis 5,407 cattle from the University slaughterhouse and

S. N. WEra-m; N. A. Berepubo

1989-01-01

204

Popular Perceptions of Shari‘a Law in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

After years of brutal authoritarian rule, a window of opportunity opened and Nigeria successfully held democratic elections in 1999. The election forced leaders of the Hausa ethnic group to relinquish power after nearly twenty years at the helm. In an attempt to demonstrate their political power and influence, some states in the northern part of the country implemented Shari'a in

Matthew Kirwin

2009-01-01

205

Adolescent Street Boy Urchins and Vocational Training in Northern Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In northern Nigeria, over 80% of the unskilled and uneducated adolescent street boys, or "Almajiris", are from the ethnic Hausa-Fulani tribes. They depend on street begging and menial jobs for daily survival. In dealing with the situation, state vocational centers were established as the Millennium Hope Project (MHP) to provide the boys with…

Usman, Lantana M.

2009-01-01

206

Early Childhood Education in Nigeria: A Reality or a Mirage?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education is the right of every child and must not be denied it for any reason. This has been the assertion of the World Summit on the state of global children, which has led to the inclusion and expansion of early childhood care and education in the global Education for All programme (EFA). As Nigeria has pledged its commitment to this, with the…

Ajayi, Hannah O.

2008-01-01

207

Women, Economic Development And The Environment: Empirical Evidences From Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural women's participation in income generating activities and their interaction with the environment in the Sudan\\/Sahel regions of Nigeria was examined. Participatory Learning Model (PALM) Framework was used to collect information from a random sample of 330 females selected from the 11 States in the area. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics, per-caput energy model, total investment and cost

Nabinta R. T; S. Kuashwaha; R. M. Sani

208

COMPARISON OF FLOOD PREDICTION MODELS FOR RIVER LOKOJA, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood estimation is one of the major aspects of hydrologic design and is the first in planning for flood regulation and protection measures. This research work was aimed at comparing prediction models for forecasting flood occurrences in River Lokoja, located in Kogi State of Nigeria. Relevant climatic data such as rainfalls, flood discharges, river stages of 24 years duration (1980

209

Nigeria using more condoms.  

PubMed

Marie Stopes International says a project it supports in Nigeria is making good progress in its efforts to promote the use of condoms to protect against STDs and for contraception. The program, which uses social marketing methods, is headed by Stewart Parkinson from the UK. His previous experience has been in the private sector; he has worked in sales, marketing, and advertising for companies like Coca Cola, Budweiser, Securicor, and Mates. "Social marketing," he says, "is simply getting people to buy a product". He sees no clash with more conventional health education practitioners, believing that the two approaches can complement each other. "Much of the work simply involves pointing out the benefits of condoms," says Parkinson. "You can convert large numbers of people to the idea in a short space of time if you get the message right]" Nevertheless, as he points out, the conversion rate usually drops after that. "At first the take-up is from middle-income people, who already have a latent demand for condoms. The poor are harder to reach." He says Nigeria is a very suitable country for a private sector approach to condom promotion, as there is no functioning public sector. He recently paid a visit to Zimbabwe, where the public sector is strong, and agrees that different approaches may be suitable there. The scheme provided 85% of the 65 million condoms used in Nigeria last year. Stewart Parkinson says, "It's working out at only US$5 to provide protection for one couple per year--a very cheap intervention]" PMID:12321241

1997-09-01

210

Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Nigeria, January 2013-September 2014.  

PubMed

In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to interrupt wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission worldwide. By 2013, only three countries remained that had never interrupted WPV transmission: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. Since 2003, northern Nigeria has been a reservoir for WPV reintroduction into 26 previously polio-free countries. In May 2014, the World Health Organization declared the international spread of polio a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Nigeria's main strategic goal is to interrupt WPV type 1 (WPV1) transmission by the end of 2014, which is also a main objective of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative's Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan for 2013-2018. This report updates previous reports (4-6) and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Nigeria during January 2013-September 30, 2014. Only six WPV cases had been reported in 2014 through September 30 compared with 49 reported cases during the same period in 2013. The quality of supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) improved during this period; the proportion of local government areas (LGAs) within 11 high-risk states with estimated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) campaign coverage at or above the 90% threshold increased from 36% to 67%. However, the number of reported circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases increased from four in 2013 to 21 to date in 2014, and surveillance gaps are suggested by genomic sequence analysis and continued detection of WPV1 by environmental surveillance. Interrupting all poliovirus circulation in Nigeria is achievable with continued attention to stopping cVDPV2 transmission, improving the quality of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance, increasing vaccination coverage by strengthened routine immunization services, continuing support from all levels of government, and undertaking special initiatives to provide vaccination to children in conflict-affected areas in northeastern Nigeria. PMID:25412063

Etsano, Andrew; Gunnala, Rajni; Shuaib, Faisal; Damisa, Eunice; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Korir, Charles; Enemaku, Ogu; Corkum, Melissa; Usman, Samuel; Davis, Lora B; Nganda, Gatei wa; Burns, Cara C; Mahoney, Frank; Vertefeuille, John F

2014-11-21

211

Burns in Nigeria: a Review  

PubMed Central

Summary Burn injuries continue to be a major source of mortality and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries of the world, of which Nigeria is a part. Overview data on burn care in Nigeria are sparse but the available literature on burns and burn care in Nigeria was retrieved through Internet-based search engines, collated, and reviewed. Peculiarities of epidemiology, types of burn, pattern of injuries, complications, and outcome of burn care were reviewed. There were no broad-based overview statistical data on burns in Nigeria in all the articles reviewed. There was no documentation on the regionalization of care and there were no national databases. All reports on epidemiology were hospital-based. Flame is emerging as the predominant cause of burns, and burn injury is occurring increasingly away from the domestic setting. The severity of the injuries is also increasing. Deliberate burn injury remains a practice and a wide range of complications occur as burns sequelae in Nigeria. Several challenges militate against optimal care for burn victims. Burn injuries continue to contribute significantly to the burden of disease in Nigeria. There is a need for broad-based data collection systems. Avoidable complications are common and mortality remains high. Pooling of resources by regionalization of care could increase focus on burn prevention and improve the care of burn victims. Nongovernmental and governmental support to reduce the burden of burns is advocated. PMID:21991210

Oladele, A.O.; Olabanji, J.K.

2010-01-01

212

Assessment of risk of possible exposure to rabies among processors and consumers of dog meat in Zaria and Kafanchan, Kaduna state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Canine rabies is endemic in Nigeria. Some of the dogs slaughtered for human consumption may be infected with rabies virus, thus exposing handlers of raw dog meat to the disease since the virus may be present in the nerves in the meat. A cross-sectional study was designed and a structured questionnaire was designed and administered to a convenience sample of 160 processors and consumers (100 from Zaria and 60 from Kafanchan), by face to face interview at the slaughter sites or dog meat sale points. The questionnaire sought information on demographic characteristics of the respondents, rabies knowledge, attitude and actions the respondents would take if exposure occurs. Associations between demographic variables and categorized knowledge, attitude or practice scores were assessed using x2 analysis. The relationship between non-categorized scores was assessed using multiple regression analysis. Also, 154 brain samples from slaughtered dogs (74 from Zaria and 80 from Kafanchan) were checked for rabies antigen using direct fluorescent antibody test. Of the 160 respondents, 49 (30.6%) were involved in the slaughtering and sale of dog meat while 111(69.4%) were involved in handling and consumption of processed dog meat. Only 123(76.9%) knew that dogs are common source of rabies in Nigeria and 105(65.6%) knew that rabies affect humans. Also 110(68.8%) did not have adequate knowledge of the clinical signs of rabies. The level of knowledge, having positive attitudes and knowing acceptable practices were directly proportional to the level of education. Respondents from Kafanchan had higher level of knowledge and more positive attitudes towards rabies than those from Zaria. There were significant correlations between knowledge and attitude scores (r=0.49) and between knowledge and practice scores (r=0.43) at p<0.001. Rabies antigen was detected in the brain of 6 (3.9%) of the slaughtered dogs. The findings indicate that processors and consumers of dog meat are deficient in the knowledge of rabies. There is therefore a need for educational programmes targeted at this high risk group to increase their level of knowledge and reduce the risk of exposure. PMID:24373274

Odeh, Leslie E; Umoh, Jarlath U; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu

2014-01-01

213

Evidence for Islam in Southeast Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an aspect of a wider research project on the introduction of Islam into Southeast Nigeria, the only region in Nigeria that was not touched by the nineteenth century Islamic jihad and subsequent efforts to extend the borders of Islam in the country. The reputation of Southeast Nigeria as a purely Christian region survives to the present (Ottenberg,

Egodi Uchendu

2010-01-01

214

Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Nigeria, January 2012-September 2013.  

PubMed

Transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria, and since 2003, Nigeria has been a reservoir for WPV reintroduction to 25 polio-free countries. In 2012, the Nigerian government activated an emergency operations center and implemented a national emergency action plan to eradicate polio. The 2013 revision of this plan prioritized 1) improving quality of supplemental immunization activities (SIAs), 2) implementing strategies to reach underserved populations, 3) adopting special approaches in security-compromised areas, 4) improving outbreak response, 5) enhancing routine immunization and activities implemented between SIAs, and 6) strengthening surveillance. This report summarizes polio eradication activities in Nigeria during January 2012-September 2013 and updates previous reports. During January-September 2013, 49 polio cases were reported from 26 local government areas (LGAs) in nine states in Nigeria, compared with 101 cases reported from 70 LGAs in 13 states during the same period in 2012. For all of 2012, a total of 122 cases were reported. No WPV type 3 (WPV3) cases have been reported since November 2012. For the first time ever, in 2013, no polio cases of any type have been detected in the northwest of Nigeria; however, transmission continues in Kano and states in the northeast. Despite considerable progress, 24 LGAs in 2012 and seven LGAs in 2013 reported two or more cases; WPV continues to circulate in eight LGAs that had cases in 2012. Efforts to interrupt transmission remain impeded by insecurity, anti-polio-vaccine sentiment, and chronically poor SIA implementation in selected areas. Improvement of SIA quality and effective outbreak response will be needed to interrupt WPV transmission in 2014. PMID:24336134

2013-12-13

215

Evolutionary Dynamics of Multiple Sublineages of H5N1 Influenza Viruses in Nigeria from 2006 to 2008 ? †  

PubMed Central

Highly pathogenic A/H5N1 avian influenza (HPAI H5N1) viruses have seriously affected the Nigerian poultry industry since early 2006. Previous studies have identified multiple introductions of the virus into Nigeria and several reassortment events between cocirculating lineages. To determine the spatial, evolutionary, and population dynamics of the multiple H5N1 lineages cocirculating in Nigeria, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequences from 106 HPAI H5N1 viruses isolated between 2006 and 2008 and representing all 25 Nigerian states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) reporting outbreaks. We identified a major new subclade in Nigeria that is phylogenetically distinguishable from all previously identified sublineages, as well as two novel reassortment events. A detailed analysis of viral phylogeography identified two major source populations for the HPAI H5N1 virus in Nigeria, one in a major commercial poultry area (southwest region) and one in northern Nigeria, where contact between wild birds and backyard poultry is frequent. These findings suggested that migratory birds from Eastern Europe or Russia may serve an important role in the introduction of HPAI H5N1 viruses into Nigeria, although virus spread through the movement of poultry and poultry products cannot be excluded. Our study provides new insight into the genesis and evolution of H5N1 influenza viruses in Nigeria and has important implications for targeting surveillance efforts to rapidly identify the spread of the virus into and within Nigeria. PMID:20071565

Fusaro, Alice; Nelson, Martha I.; Joannis, Tony; Bertolotti, Luigi; Monne, Isabella; Salviato, Annalisa; Olaleye, Olufemi; Shittu, Ismaila; Sulaiman, Lanre; Lombin, Lami H.; Capua, Ilaria; Holmes, Edward C.; Cattoli, Giovanni

2010-01-01

216

Chemical injuries of the oesophagus: aetiopathological issues in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Chemical injuries of the oesophagus occur worldwide. There is paucity of information on aetiopathological profile of chemical injuries of the oesophagus in Nigeria. Aim The aim of the study was to determine the aetiopathological pattern of chemical injuries of the oesophagus in Nigeria. Materials and methods This is a multi-centre hospital based study in Lagos metropolis spanning a period of 10 years. The patients' bio data, substances ingested, sources of corrosives, reasons for ingesting corrosives and patients' mental state were recorded. Results In all, there were 78 patients (61 Males, 17 Females). The offending agents were acids in 55.1% of cases and it was accidental ingestion in 62 patients. The highest incidence of 57.6% was found in the middle 1/3 of the oesophagus. Conclusion Accidental ingestion of acids is the commonest cause of oesophageal injuries in Nigeria. The incidence of severe strictures necessitating oesophageal substitution could be reduced if early management of corrosive oesophagitis improves in Nigeria. PMID:19835579

Thomas, Martins O; Ogunleye, Ezekiel O; Somefun, Oladapo

2009-01-01

217

Forensic Investigation of mass disasters in Nigeria: A review  

PubMed Central

This paper is to establish the present state of things in the country in terms of legal framework and the availability of personnel with a view to presenting an overview of proper mass disaster investigations. This is a retrospective review of mass disasters in Nigeria that occurred within the last 20 years. The study therefore reviews the state of the forensic investigation of the mass disasters as well as the efforts made to identify the victims of the disaster. The process of proper forensic investigation from the stage of evaluation of the scene and recovery process to the final identification of victims are presented to serve as a protocol for the country. The assessment of the present state of preparedness in Nigeria is also examined with a view to improving the practice to international standards. Data were retrieved from official documents from the aviation industry as well as Nigeria news reports. The standard protocols for disaster victim identification were retrieved from the guide released by the INTERPOL. The state of preparedness of the country and recommendations for improvement are presented. The Federal government and the states of the federation should without further delay put in place the process of reviewing the law of Coroner's system and provide the enabling environment for the proper forensic investigation. The training curriculum of the first responders should incorporate mass disaster investigations in order to produce efficient officers and personnel. A functional disaster victim identification (DVI) team is strongly advocated to incorporate different professionals involved in mass disaster management.

Obafunwa, John Oladapo; Faduyile, Francis Adedayo; Soyemi, Sunday Sokunle; Eze, Uwom Okereke; Nwana, Edmund J. C.; Odesanmi, William Olufemi

2015-01-01

218

The physiologic climate of Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study describes the spatial and temporal variations in the physiologic climate of Nigeria for 1951-2009 in terms of effective temperature (ET), temperature-humidity index (THI), relative strain index (RSI) and perception of 3,600 sampled populations. The main hypotheses are that (i) the existing vegetation-based ecological region could adequately elucidate the physiologic climate of the country, and (ii) physiologic stress has significantly increased over the years (1951-2009). Trends and changes in the selected indices (ET, THI and RSI) were examined over two time slices: 1951-1980 and 1981-2009. The results show that (1) the montane region was the most comfortable physiologic climate in Nigeria, and the regions around the Rivers Niger and Benue troughs were the most uncomfortable in most parts of the year, (2) physiologic stress in most parts of Nigeria has significantly increased in 1981-2009 over 1951-1980 (p ? 0.05), (3) coping strategies to the uncomfortably hot and cold climate in Nigeria are limited to dressing mode, clothing materials and use of air conditioners or fan, (4) ET, THI and RSI results could be similar, and complementary; but each is with its strengths and weaknesses for annual or seasonal representations, which the others complemented for the interpretation of the physiologic climate of Nigeria. The study concluded that the relationship between the ecological classification of Nigeria and physiologic climate is rather complex, and the former could not elucidate the latter. The study cited inadequate meteorological data, especially on wind chill, and health records as limiting factors of studies on the Nigerian physiologic climates and the effect of extreme thermal conditions on the people. PMID:22610082

Eludoyin, Oyenike Mary; Adelekan, Ibidun Onikepo

2013-03-01

219

Exploring variations in childhood stunting in Nigeria using league table, control chart and spatial analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Stunting, linear growth retardation is the best measure of child health inequalities as it captures multiple dimensions of children’s health, development and environment where they live. The developmental priorities and socially acceptable health norms and practices in various regions and states within Nigeria remains disaggregated and with this, comes the challenge of being able to ascertain which of the regions and states identifies with either high or low childhood stunting to further investigate the risk factors and make recommendations for action oriented policy decisions. Methods We used data from the birth histories included in the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) to estimate childhood stunting. Stunting was defined as height for age below minus two standard deviations from the median height for age of the standard World Health Organization reference population. We plotted control charts of the proportion of childhood stunting for the 37 states (including federal capital, Abuja) in Nigeria. The Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) were used as a measure of the overall clustering and is assessed by a test of a null hypothesis. Results Childhood stunting is high in Nigeria with an average of about 39%. The percentage of children with stunting ranged from 11.5% in Anambra state to as high as 60% in Kebbi State. Ranking of states with respect to childhood stunting is as follows: Anambra and Lagos states had the least numbers with 11.5% and 16.8% respectively while Yobe, Zamfara, Katsina, Plateau and Kebbi had the highest (with more than 50% of their under-fives having stunted growth). Conclusions Childhood stunting is high in Nigeria and varied significantly across the states. The northern states have a higher proportion than the southern states. There is an urgent need for studies to explore factors that may be responsible for these special cause variations in childhood stunting in Nigeria. PMID:23597167

2013-01-01

220

Blood pressure patterns in relation to geographic area of residence: a cross-sectional study of adolescents in Kogi state, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of hypertension, an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), is increasing in the developing countries and this may be connected with the economic transition in those countries. Adult hypertension is thought to be related to childhood and adolescent increases in blood pressure, and hence the need to monitor patterns in early life. This study investigates the BP patterns, and their correlates, of adolescents from different geographic areas of residence in Nigeria. Methods A total of 1,088 Nigerian adolescents from different geographic areas of residence were recruited for the study. Their blood pressures and anthropometric indices were measured using standard procedures. The association of blood pressure with height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and geographic area of residence was assessed. Results Male and female urban-dwelling adolescents had significantly (p < 0.05) higher systolic blood pressure (117.45 ± 21.53 mmHg and 114.82 ± 17.95 mmHg respectively) compared to their counterparts living in the non-urban areas (108.20 ± 12.12 mmHg and 106.03 ± 13.06 mmHg respectively), even after adjusting for age and height. Conversely, non-urban boys (but not the girls) had significantly (p < 0.05) higher diastolic blood pressure compared to their urban counterparts. Adolescents in the urban areas had higher BMI (20.74 ± 3.27 kg/m2 for males and 21.35 ± 3.37 kg/m2 for females) than those in the non-urban areas (20.33 ± 3.11 kg/m2 for males and 21.35 ± 3.37 kg/m2 for females) though the difference was significant (p < 0.05) only in the females. Blood pressures were found to increase with age, and to be associated with BMI. Conclusion These findings underscore the need for efforts to be made towards addressing adolescent blood pressure elevation (in both urban and non-urban areas) as they are a reflection of adult morbidity and mortality from hypertension and the associated disorders. PMID:19087334

Ejike, Chukwunonso ECC; Ugwu, Chidi E; Ezeanyika, Lawrence US; Olayemi, Ayo T

2008-01-01

221

Exploration gaps exist in Nigeria`s prolific delta  

SciTech Connect

The Niger delta region of the Republic of Nigeria is Africa`s largest oil producing area. It is clear that Nigeria will continue to contribute significantly to world petroleum production well into the 21st century: with increases in recoverable oil reserves in the Niger delta onshore and offshore; the promising potential of the Niger delta deepwater region; and a lesser but not insignificant contribution from the unexplored onshore Benue trough, part of the mid-African rift system, which has already proved to hold substantial oil reserves in the Doba basin of neighboring Chad. This is the first of five parts on Nigeria`s oil and gas potential. The later articles deal with Niger delta oil reserves and production, Niger delta gas reserves, the delta`s deepwater region, and the Benue trough and onshore cretaceous rift basins. This article deals with the geologic setting of the Niger delta-Benue trough region, the synrift deposits, marine sedimentation, margin evolution, geologic strata and reservoirs, reservoir character, structure and traps, hydrocarbon types, geotemperatures, and source rock quality.

Thomas, D. [Thomas and Associates, Hastings (United Kingdom)

1995-10-30

222

Multilinguisme et education au Nigeria (Multilingualism and Education in Nigeria).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The linguistic situation in Nigeria might be represented as a pyramid with a base composed of 400-500 native languages of which about 100 have been alphabetized. Of these, 51 with more than 100,000 speakers each, are considered regional languages; ten, with more than 1 million speakers each, are considered inter-regional languages; and three…

Brann, Conrad Max Benedict

223

Ebola virus disease outbreak - Nigeria, July-September 2014.  

PubMed

On July 20, 2014, an acutely ill traveler from Liberia arrived at the international airport in Lagos, Nigeria, and was confirmed to have Ebola virus disease (Ebola) after being admitted to a private hospital. This index patient potentially exposed 72 persons at the airport and the hospital. The Federal Ministry of Health, with guidance from the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), declared an Ebola emergency. Lagos, (pop. 21 million) is a regional hub for economic, industrial, and travel activities and a setting where communicable diseases can be easily spread and transmission sustained. Therefore, implementing a rapid response using all available public health assets was the highest priority. On July 23, the Federal Ministry of Health, with the Lagos State government and international partners, activated an Ebola Incident Management Center as a precursor to the current Emergency Operations Center (EOC) to rapidly respond to this outbreak. The index patient died on July 25; as of September 24, there were 19 laboratory-confirmed Ebola cases and one probable case in two states, with 894 contacts identified and followed during the response. Eleven patients with laboratory-confirmed Ebola had been discharged, an additional patient was diagnosed at convalescent stage, and eight patients had died (seven with confirmed Ebola; one probable). The isolation wards were empty, and 891 (all but three) contacts had exited follow-up, with the remainder due to exit on October 2. No new cases had occurred since August 31, suggesting that the Ebola outbreak in Nigeria might be contained. The EOC, established quickly and using an Incident Management System (IMS) to coordinate the response and consolidate decision making, is largely credited with helping contain the Nigeria outbreak early. National public health emergency preparedness agencies in the region, including those involved in Ebola responses, should consider including the development of an EOC to improve the ability to rapidly respond to urgent public health threats. PMID:25275332

Shuaib, Faisal; Gunnala, Rajni; Musa, Emmanuel O; Mahoney, Frank J; Oguntimehin, Olukayode; Nguku, Patrick M; Nyanti, Sara Beysolow; Knight, Nancy; Gwarzo, Nasir Sani; Idigbe, Oni; Nasidi, Abdulsalam; Vertefeuille, John F

2014-10-01

224

Climate Change Impacts on Crop Production in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The agricultural sector in Nigeria is particularly important for the country's food security, natural resources, and growth agenda. The cultivable areas comprise more than 70% of the total area; however, the cultivated area is about the 35% of the total area. The most important components in the food basket of the nation are cereals and tubers, which include rice, maize, corn, millet, sorghum, yam, and cassava. These crops represent about 80% of the total agricultural product in Nigeria (from NPAFS). The major crops grown in the country can be divided into food crops (produced for consumption) and export products. Despite the importance of the export crops, the primary policy of agriculture is to make Nigeria self-sufficient in its food and fiber requirements. The projected impacts of future climate change on agriculture and water resources are expected to be adverse and extensive in these area. This implies the need for actions and measures to adapt to climate change impacts, and especially as they affect agriculture, the primary sector for Nigerian economy. In the framework of the Project Climate Risk Analysis in Nigeria (founded by World Bank Contract n.7157826), a study was made to assess the potential impact of climate change on the main crops that characterize Nigerian agriculture. The DSSAT-CSM (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer - Cropping System Model) software, version 4.5 was used for the analysis. Crop simulation models included in DSSAT are tools that simulate physiological processes of crop growth, development and production by combining genetic crop characteristics and environmental (soil and weather) conditions. For each selected crop, the models were calibrated to evaluate climate change impacts on crop production. The climate data used for the analysis are derived by the Regional Circulation Model COSMO-CLM, from 1971 to 2065, at 8 km of spatial resolution. The RCM model output was "perturbed" with 10 Global Climate Models to have a wide variety of possible climate projections for the impact analysis. Multiple combinations of soil and climate conditions and crop management and varieties were considered for each Agro-Ecological Zone (AEZ) of Nigeria. A sensitivity analysis was made to evaluate the model response to changes in precipitation and temperature. The climate impact assessment was made by comparing the yield obtained with the climate data for the present period and the yield obtainable under future climate conditions. The results were analyzed at state, AEZ and country levels. The analysis shows a general reduction in crop yields in particular in the dryer regions of northern Nigeria.

Mereu, V.; Gallo, A.; Carboni, G.; Spano, D.

2011-12-01

225

Rights of the Child in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Federation of Nigeria. The report's introduction asserts that the rule by decree of Nigeria's present military regime has…

Lacroix, Anne Laurence; Shoenberg, Cheryl; Schonveld, Ben

226

Challenges facing women entrepreneurs in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study seeks to examine the business and social profiles of 67 women entrepreneurs in three regions of Nigeria in order to identify patterns of entrepreneurship and social and economic challenges facing women business owners in Nigeria. The study aims to support and encourage sustainable small-scale economic development activities by Nigerian women and determine ways to integrate these

Daphne Halkias; Chinedum Nwajiuba; Nicholas Harkiolakis; Sylva M. Caracatsanis

2011-01-01

227

The schistosomiasis problem in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis is endemic in Nigeria as revealed by several prevalence studies but the degree of endemicity is low. The proliferation of several irrigation projects all over the country has stabilized the infection in Northern Nigeria while in the West rapid urbanisation, supply of portable water and mass chemotherapy have combined to reduce the prevalence rates. Human infection is measured by the determination of incidence, prevalence and intensity of infection. Heavy infections can rapidly be detected by use of urinalysis reagent strips to measure haematuria and protein levels in urine. The prevalence of severe pathological forms of the disease is very low and schistosomiasis is not associated with bacteriuria or hypertension in Nigeria, although isolated cases of ectopic lesions of the genitalis and uterus have been reported. Nodular filling defects occur early during infection, while bladder calcification comes at a later stage. The severity of the disease is related to the intensity of infection. Clinical trials with metrifonate and niridazole among other drugs have been carried out, with varying results. A new drug, praziquantel has been assessed and found suitable for mass use. Three methods of control include adequate provision of safe water, selective or targeted mass chemotherapy and use of molluscicides to kill the snails. Each method has its advantages and drawbacks, but the therapeutic approach is cheap, effects quicker result and treats the infected patients. PMID:2504814

Ejezie, G C; Gemade, E I; Utsalo, S J

1989-01-01

228

Use of Electronic Resources by Postgraduate Students of the Department of Library and Information Science of Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population for the study was 78 postgraduate Masters and PhD students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka. Due to the small population the entire population was used as the sample. The analysis of the data collected revealed that there is a low level of skill in the use of ICT among the selected

Obuh Alex Ozoemelem

2009-01-01

229

Nigeria in the Spotlight : This African country is faced with multiple challenges to delivering quality care. Health advisor Femi Olugbile offers his perspective on the current situation.  

PubMed

As immediate past permanent secretary of the Lagos State Ministry of Health in Nigeria and former chief medical director of one of the country?s top medical centers, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH), Femi Olugbile has had a close view of his country?s health care progress over the years. Despite decades of economic booms and busts and sociopolitical turmoil, Nigeria?s health systems have grown, Olugbile says?but not enough. The average life expectancy is around 52 years. Ongoing problems with extremist groups like Boko Haram have hamstrung vaccination programs, and this year, the country experienced the first Ebola threat in its history. PMID:25415881

Fischer, Shannon

2014-01-01

230

Age at Diagnosis of Sickle Cell Anaemia in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Sickle cell anaemia is the most common genetic disorder worldwide as well as in Nigeria. Delay in the diagnosis of the condition constitutes an important cause of concern for caretakers of affected children. Objective To determine the age at diagnosis in a population of children with sickle cell anaemia in Lagos, Nigeria. Methodology The study was conducted between October and December 2009 at the sickle cell clinic of the Department of Paediatrics of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos in South west Nigeria. By convenience sampling, a total of 192 children with sickle cell anaemia aged six months to 15 years were interviewed with the aid of a structured questionnaire. Results Overall, the mean age at confirmation of haemoglobin genotype was 27.33 months (± 26. 36 months). The mean age at diagnosis was significantly lower among males than females (25.59 ± 27.74 Vs. 29.14 ± 24.85, p = 0.04). A quarter of the children were diagnosed before infancy and three-quarters before three years of age. Upper social stratum and small family size were significantly associated with earlier diagnosis of sickle cell anaemia. Conclusion Too few subjects are diagnosed in infancy. Routine screening should ideally be done at birth and neonatal period or at the latest, between six and nine months. PMID:23350014

Akodu, SO; Diaku-Akinwumi, IN; Njokanma, OF

2013-01-01

231

Statistics of geophysical activity in Nigeria (1975 1984)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistics on geophysical activities in Nigeria for the ten-year period (1975-1984) was compiled mainly from questionnaires distributed to government and private agencies, oil and mining companies, and universities which engage in groundwater, petroleum and mineral exploration, engineering and research work. Similar studies had been done worldwide by Epsey (1975, 1976, 1977) and Whitmire (1978). From the statistics, it was deduced that electrical resistivity, magnetic, seismic, radiometric, gravity, airborne and ground magnetic survey methods are the main geophysical techniques used which resulted in the discovery of some of the natural resources (oil, gas, minerals and groundwater) buried a few kilometers below the Nigerian soil. Airborne and ground magnetic surveys have been carried out by at least two government agencies, namely: the Geological Survey of Nigeria and Nigerian Steel Council. The compilation also reveals that a greater part of geophysical and drilling activities of operating oil companies is currently concentrated in the sedimentary basins, mainly the oil-rich Niger Delta and near offshore areas. From the available statistics, at least three companies, the National Steel Council, the Geological Survey of Nigeria, and Kano State Water Resources Engineering and Construction Agency have employed geophysical methods for engineering.

Umo, A. J.; Ajakaiye, D. E.

1993-11-01

232

A description of HIV prevalence trends in Nigeria from 2001 to 2010: what is the progress, where is the problem?  

PubMed Central

Introduction Nigeria's population of 160 million and estimated HIV prevalence of 3.34% (2011) makes Nigeria the second highest HIV burden worldwide, with 3.2 million people living with HIV (PLHIV). In 2010, US government spent about US$456.5 million on the Nigerian epidemic. Antenatal clinic (ANC) HIV sero-prevalence sentinel survey has been conducted biennially in Nigeria since 1991 to track the epidemic. This study looked at the trends of HIV in Nigeria over the last decade to identify progress and needs. Methods We conducted description of HIV sero-prevalence sentinel cross-sectional surveys conducted among pregnant women attending ANC from 2001 to 2010, which uses consecutive sampling and unlinked-anonymous HIV testing (UAT) in160 sentinel facilities. 36,000 blood samples were collected and tested. We used Epi-Info to determine national and state HIV prevalence and trends. The Estimation and Projection Package with Spectrum were used to estimate/project the burden of infection. Results National ANC HIV prevalence rose from 1.8% (1991) to 5.8% (2001) and dropped to 4.1% (2010). Since 2001, states in the center, and south of Nigeria had higher prevalence than the rest, with Benue and Cross Rivers notable. Benue was highest in 2001 (14%), 2005 (10%), and 2010 (12.7%). Overall, eight states (21.6%) showed increased HIV prevalence while six states (16.2%) had an absolute reduction of at least 2% from 2001 to 2010. In 2010, Nigeria was estimated to have 3.19 million PLHIV, with the general population prevalence projected to drop from 3.34% in 2011 to 3.27% in 2012. Conclusion Examining a decade of HIV ANC surveillance in Nigeria revealed important differences in the epidemic in states that need to be examined further to reveal key drivers that can be used to target future interventions. PMID:25328622

Bashorun, Adebobola; Nguku, Patrick; Kawu, Issa; Ngige, Evelyn; Ogundiran, Adeniyi; Sabitu, Kabir; Nasidi, Abdulsalam; Nsubuga, Peter

2014-01-01

233

Evolution of Private Universities in Nigeria: Matters Arising and the Way Forward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many issues such as the increasing cases of unsatisfied demand for admission, moral decadence among students, incessant strikes, student unrest and cultism, among others necessitated the establishment of private alongside the federal and state universities in Nigeria. It is however expected that the advent of private universities will provide…

Ige, Akindele M.

2013-01-01

234

A clinical note on Haemophilus aegyptius infection in sheep in Nigeria.  

PubMed

An outbreak of Haemophilus aegyptius infection in a livestock farm located in Maya, Oyo State, Nigeria is reported. Diagnosis was based on clinical signs of central nervous system disturbance, histopathological findings of meningoencephalomyelitis, acute multifocal necrotising purulent hepatitis and the isolation of Haemophilus aegyptius from the spinal cord. Other diseases that can cause nervous disturbance are discussed. PMID:7863066

Akpavie, S O; Ajuwape, A T; Ikheloa, J O

1994-01-01

235

Psychosocial factors as predictors of mentoring among nurses in southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the psychosocial factors that predict mentoring among nurses. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study adopted a survey research design. Questionnaires were used to collect data on self-esteem, locus of control, emotional intelligence and demographic factors from 480 nurses (males 230; females =250) from five states in southwestern Nigeria. Data analysis included regressing

Samuel O. Salami

2008-01-01

236

Risk and Insurance in a Rural Credit Market: An Empirical Investigation in Northern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Credit contracts play a direct role in pooling risk between households in northern Nigeria. Repayments owed by borrowers depend on realizations of random shocks by both borrowers and lenders. The paper develops two models of state-contingent loans. The first is a competitive equilibrium in perfectly enforceable contracts. The second permits imperfect information and equilibrium default. Estimates of both models indicate

Christopher Udry

1994-01-01

237

Rural Youths' Participation in Agriculture: Prospects, Challenges and the Implications for Policy in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study aimed at assessing rural youth participation in agriculture, their access to production resources and services and the effects of youths' access to inputs and services on farm productivity and youths' welfare. The study was conducted in three states (each randomly selected from the three agro-ecological zones of northern Nigeria). Two…

Auta, Sarah Jehu; Abdullahi, Yusuf M.; Nasiru, Mohammed

2010-01-01

238

Institutions for Collective Action among Settled Fulani Agro-Pastoralists in Southwest Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study identifies institutions for organizing collective action among settled Fulani agro-pastoralists in southwest Nigeria and examines their functions, processes and tools for fostering collective action. Four Fulani communities were selected purposively in Ekiti State; data were collected from 55 settled pastoralists through informal…

Fabusoro, E.; Sodiya, C. I.

2011-01-01

239

Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (28±1°C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

240

Detection of rabies antigen in the saliva and brains of apparently healthy dogs slaughtered for human consumption and its public health implications in abia state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study was carried out in eight dogs slaughtering outlets within four Local Government Areas of the State for the determination of rabies antigen in the saliva and brain of apparently healthy dogs slaughtered for human consumption. A total of one hundred (100) samples each of saliva and brain were collected before and after slaughter, respectively, between April to June, 2013, in the selected areas. The saliva was subjected to rapid immune-chromatographic test (RICT) while direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT) was carried out on the brain samples. Structured questionnaire was administered to nineteen (19) dog meat processors comprising 18 males and 1 female in the selected areas. Sixty four percent of the samples tested were from female dogs while 36% were from males, 5% tested positive for rabies antigen with the use of both tests; there was no statistical association between sex and rabies status of the dogs sampled (P > 0.05). Butchers bitten during the course of slaughtering were 94.7% out of which 72.8% utilized traditional method of treatment and only 27.8% reported to the hospital for proper medical attention. This study has established the presence of rabies antigen in apparently healthy dogs in the study area. PMID:24416598

Mshelbwala, P P; Ogunkoya, A B; Maikai, B V

2013-01-01

241

Detection of Rabies Antigen in the Saliva and Brains of Apparently Healthy Dogs Slaughtered for Human Consumption and Its Public Health Implications in Abia State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

The study was carried out in eight dogs slaughtering outlets within four Local Government Areas of the State for the determination of rabies antigen in the saliva and brain of apparently healthy dogs slaughtered for human consumption. A total of one hundred (100) samples each of saliva and brain were collected before and after slaughter, respectively, between April to June, 2013, in the selected areas. The saliva was subjected to rapid immune-chromatographic test (RICT) while direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT) was carried out on the brain samples. Structured questionnaire was administered to nineteen (19) dog meat processors comprising 18 males and 1 female in the selected areas. Sixty four percent of the samples tested were from female dogs while 36% were from males, 5% tested positive for rabies antigen with the use of both tests; there was no statistical association between sex and rabies status of the dogs sampled (P > 0.05). Butchers bitten during the course of slaughtering were 94.7% out of which 72.8% utilized traditional method of treatment and only 27.8% reported to the hospital for proper medical attention. This study has established the presence of rabies antigen in apparently healthy dogs in the study area. PMID:24416598

Mshelbwala, P. P.; Ogunkoya, A. B.; Maikai, B. V.

2013-01-01

242

Astronomy Development in Nigeria: Challenges and Advances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nigeria evidently has huge potentials to develop a strong astronomy community. Much of the strength lies in the great number of intelligent students with the potential of becoming good astronomers. Sadly, astronomy development in Nigeria has stagnated in the past decades owing to poor funding and/or indifferent attitude of the funding bodies, research-unfriendly environment, and non-existence of facilities. Currently, efforts toward fuelling advancement in astronomy are focused on building ‘critical mass’, establishing collaborations with universities/astronomy institutes outside Nigeria, converting out-of-use communication antennas into radio telescopes, and acquiring out-of-use telescopes for educational and low-level research purposes.

Okwe Chibueze, James

2015-01-01

243

Women Education in Nigeria: Predicaments and Hopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is focused on women education in Nigeria. It traces the genesis of western education in Nigeria and bias that existed from the traditional Nigerian society against women education. It identified and discussed barriers to women education in Nigeria. Recent trend in enrolment at various levels of education shows improvement in favor of women. In view of this realization, this paper argues that if the current momentum is sustained, women will not only achieve equal status to men in educational attainment but also have the tendency to surpass men within the next ten to fifteen years. The implications could be outreaching as the paper proffers some recommendations.

Akubuilo, Francis; Omeje, Monica

2012-10-01

244

Niger Delta play types, Nigeria  

SciTech Connect

Exploration databases can be more valuable when sorted by play type. Play specific databases provide a system to organize E & P data used in evaluating the range of values of parameters for reserve estimation and risk assessment. It is important both in focusing the knowledge base and in orienting research effort. A play in this context is any unique combination of trap, reservoir and source properties with the right dynamics of migration and preservation that results in hydrocarbon accumulation. This definitions helps us to discriminate the subtle differences found with these accumulation settings. About 20 play types were identified around the Niger Delta oil province in Nigeria. These are grouped into three parts: (1) The proven plays-constituting the bulk of exploration prospects in Nigeria today. (2) The unproven or semi-proven plays usually with some successes recorded in a few tries but where knowledge is still inadequate. (3) The unproven or analogous play concept. These are untested but geologically sound ideas which may or may not have been tried elsewhere. With classification and sub grouping of these play types into specific databases, intrinsic attributes and uniqueness of each of them with respect to the four major risk elements and the eight parameters for reserve estimation can be better understood.

Akinpelu, A.O. [Chevron Nigeria Limited, Lagos (Nigeria)

1995-08-01

245

Empirical Assessment of Nigeria’s Agricultural Export and Economic Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assessed empirically Nigeria’s agricultural export and economic welfare. Data used for the study were obtained from secondary sources, bulk of which was collected from institutional and national databases over 1990-2005 and were analyzed using multiple regression and growth rate analysis. The results showed that agricultural output, inflation, subsidy, exchange rate, food import and export were statistically significant at

Ifeanyi Nwachukwu; Felix Ehumadu; Remy Mejeha; Jude Nwaru; Nnanna Agwu; Joe Onwumere

2008-01-01

246

Epidemiological analysis, serological prevalence and genotypic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease in Nigeria 2008-2009.  

PubMed

The epidemiological situation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is uncertain in Nigeria, where the disease is endemic, and the majority of outbreaks are unreported. Control measures for FMD in Nigeria are not being implemented due to the absence of locally produced vaccines and an official ban on vaccine importation. This study summarizes the findings of a 3-year study aimed at quantifying the seroprevalence of FMD, its distribution in susceptible species and the genetic diversity of FMDV isolated from the Plateau State of Nigeria. A 29% FMD prevalence was estimated using 3ABC enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (3ABC ELISA). Farms with suspected FMD nearby, with contact with wildlife, that used drugs or FMD vaccines or with >100 animals, and animals of large ruminant species and in pastures other than nomadic grazing were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with FMD. Antibodies against five FMDV serotypes, (A, O, SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3) were detected by the virus neutralization test (VNT) at various titres (<100->800) from all tested sera from most parts of the region. This is probably the first report of the presence of FMDV SAT3 in Nigeria. Further studies to investigate the potential probable presence and prevalence of SAT 3 virus in Nigeria are required. Tissue samples collected from clinical animals were positive for FMDV. Virus isolates were sequenced and confirmed as serotype A. All of the isolates showed marked genetic homogeneity with >99% genetic identity in the VP1 region and were most closely related to a previously described virus collected from Cameroon in 2000. This study provides knowledge on the epidemiological situation of FMD in Plateau State, Nigeria, and will probably help to develop effective control and preventive strategies for the disease in Nigeria and other countries in the West African subregion. PMID:23347819

Ehizibolo, D O; Perez, A M; Carrillo, C; Pauszek, S; AlKhamis, M; Ajogi, I; Umoh, J U; Kazeem, H M; Ehizibolo, P O; Fabian, A; Berninger, M; Moran, K; Rodriguez, L L; Metwally, S A

2014-12-01

247

Knowledge of HIV/AIDS among nurses in southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to find out how much this group of nurses from south-western Nigeria knew about the HIV/AIDS phenomenon. A survey questionnaire was distributed to two population convenient samples of nurses; one group at a university teaching hospital, and the other at a post-basic institution of higher learning. The respondents stated that many of them knew quite a bit about HIV/AIDS, but only a few affirmed that they were taught informal classroom setting. Many of the nurses were able to identify the HIV as the culprit in causing the infection that leads to AIDS. The sources of information about HIV/AIDS vary. The nurses attributed the spread of HIV/AIDS to promiscuous teenage girls predominantly, as well as older men due to infidelity. Many of the nurses stated that sex education should be given to children as young as five years old, and as old as over sixteen years of age. It is recommended that curricular infusion should be done to incorporate HIV/AIDS education in the nursing schools in south-western Nigeria. PMID:17252879

Adepoju, Joseph A

2006-01-01

248

Recovering of micro credit in Nigeria : Implications for enterprise development and poverty alleviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to examine the factors that are responsible for the poor credit recovery among micro-finance institutions (MFIs) that disbursed a United Nations Development Programme's micro credit in Anambra State, Nigeria. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 97 MFIs were surveyed out of a total of 129 MFIs in Anambra State in 2007. A ten-item researcher developed questionnaire

Anayo D. Nkamnebe; Ellis I. Idemobi

2011-01-01

249

Health & demographic surveillance system profile: the Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Northern Nigeria (Nahuche HDSS).  

PubMed

The Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) study site, established in 2009 with 137?823 individuals is located in Zamfara State, north western Nigeria. North-West Nigeria is a region with one of the worst maternal and child health indicators in Nigeria. For example, the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey estimated an under-five mortality rate of 185 deaths per 1000 live births for the north-west geo-political zone compared with a national average of 128 deaths per 1000 live births. The site comprises over 100 villages under the leadership of six district heads. Virtually all the residents of the catchment population are Hausa by ethnicity. After a baseline census in 2010, regular update rounds of data collection are conducted every 6 months. Data collection on births, deaths, migration events, pregnancies, marriages and marriage termination events are routinely conducted. Verbal autopsy (VA) data are collected on all deaths reported during routine data collection. Annual update data on antenatal care and household characteristics are also collected. Opportunities for collaborations are available at Nahuche HDSS. The Director of Nahuche HDSS, M.O. Oche at [ochedr@hotmail.com] is the contact person for all forms of collaboration. PMID:25399021

Alabi, Olatunji; Doctor, Henry V; Jumare, Abdulazeez; Sahabi, Nasiru; Abdulwahab, Ahmad; Findley, Sally E; Abubakar, Sani D

2014-12-01

250

Public Awareness and Knowledge of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) Control Activities in Abuja, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

The need to engage the public in Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) control activities has become imperative in the context of morbidity reduction through preventive chemotherapy and community participation. Therefore, a survey was conducted among the general public to assess their knowledge and awareness of NTDs control activities in Nigeria. A simple questionnaire was administered to the general public attending a job fair in Abuja, Nigeria. Of the 461 respondents, a significant proportion 337 (73.1%) have heard of NTD before, but only 291 (63.1%) have good knowledge about NTDs. However, among the specific NTDs, only the control of onchocerciasis (50.8%) was of average public awareness in Nigeria, while all the other NTDs control activities were significantly less known to the general public. 397 (87.1%) stated that government support for NTD control activities is poor and were willing to assist to advocate for NTDs control. This survey demonstrates that despite government's numerous activities towards the control of NTDs in Nigeria, there is little sensitization of the general public. There is a need for policy changes that would raise the participation and involvement of the general public in NTDs control activities for sustainability. PMID:25254362

Olamiju, Olatunwa J.; Olamiju, Francisca O.; Adeniran, Adebiyi A.; Mba, Ifeanyi C.; Ukwunna, Chidera C.; Okoronkwo, Chukwu; Ekpo, Uwem F.

2014-01-01

251

Understanding Subgroup Fertility Differentials in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

As Nigeria enters a period of potentially rapid economic growth due to the increase in the working age population, it is critical to understand why fertility remains so high there. Nigeria’s current total fertility rate (TFR) of 5.5 (0.2 fewer children per woman than the TFR of 5.7 reported in both the 2003 and 2008 NDHS surveys) is projected to continue to decline, but questions remain about whether this decline is inevitable and whether it will continue apace. Regardless, Nigeria’s population growth will continue through at least 2050 due to simple population momentum. Other challenges are the persistent and vast fertility differentials; many groups remain above replacement fertility across various social and geographical sub-units of the country. Using data primarily from the 2013 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), as well as from 2003 and 2008 surveys, we document that many population subgroups and zones of the country are finally beginning to show signs of fertility convergence and decline. Nevertheless, some population subgroups still have higher fertility, especially: Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri women, women who live in the North West geopolitical zone, Muslim and traditionalist women, women who live in poor households, women who have lower levels of education, women who are opposed to family planning, women who marry early, and women who give birth early. In order for the projected decline in the TFR to continue, these subgroups must be highlighted, understood, and targeted with fertility- and poverty-reducing interventions.

Mberu, Blessing U.; Reed, Holly E.

2015-01-01

252

Belief about HIV/AIDS: An Obstacle to Change in Attitude to Sex among Undergraduate Youths in South West Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated beliefs about HIV/AIDS to find out whether this variable could constitute an obstacle to change in attitudes to sex among undergraduate youths in South West Nigeria. A descriptive research design was adopted. A total of 1,420 undergraduate students in four different universities from four states were sampled. A…

Odu, Bimbola Kemi; Akanle, Florence Foluso

2008-01-01

253

Methods Used by Pre-Service Nigeria Certificate in Education Teachers in Solving Quantitative Problems in Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports part of the results of research on chemical problem solving behavior of pre-service teachers in Plateau and Northeastern states of Nigeria. Specifically, it examines and describes the methods used by 204 pre-service teachers in solving quantitative problems from four topics in chemistry. Namely, gas laws; electrolysis;…

Danjuma, Ibrahim Mohammed

2011-01-01

254

Community-Based Vocational Rehabilitation (CBVR) for People with Disabilities: Experiences from a Pilot Project in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the community-based vocational rehabilitation (CBVR) of persons with disabilities. In 1991, a pilot project was instituted by the International Labour Organisation and the United Nations Development Programme in conjunction with Oyo State Government in Nigeria. The aim was to facilitate the reintegration of persons with…

Alade, Eunice B.

2004-01-01

255

Science Education in Nigeria: An Examination of People's Perceptions about Female Participation in Science, Mathematics and Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper brings to focus people's perception about female involvement in science, mathematics and technology (SMT). Data for the study were obtained from a survey conducted in March, 2005 in two Local Government Areas of Osun state, Southwest Nigeria. The paper reveals that: (i) about 57% of household heads, 45.6% of mothers and 57.6% of the…

Ogunjuyigbe, Peter O.; Ojofeitimi, Ebenezer O.; Akinlo, Ambrose

2006-01-01

256

Avian Flu: Multiple introductions of H5N1 in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the avian influenza virus H5N1 swept from Asia across Russia to Europe, Nigeria was the first country in Africa to report the emergence of this highly pathogenic virus. Here we analyse H5N1 sequences in poultry from two different farms in Lagos state and find that three H5N1 lineages were independently introduced through routes that coincide with the flight paths

M. F. Ducatez; C. M. Olinger; A. A. Owoade; S. de Landtsheer; W. Ammerlaan; A. D. M. E. Osterhaus; R. A. M. Fouchier; C. P. Muller

2006-01-01

257

Epidemiology of dermatophytoses in a rural community in Eastern Nigeria and review of literature from Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 4,287 primary school children, comprising 1,740 males and 2,547 females in Arochukwu local government area of Abia\\u000a state Nigeria were examined for clinical signs of dermatophytoses. About 873 (20.4%), consisting of 505 males and 368 females\\u000a had lesions consistent with dermatophytoses. The disease was more prevalent in males (29%) than females (14.4%) in a ratio\\u000a of approximately

Ada C. Ngwogu; Tosanwumi Vincent Otokunefor

2007-01-01

258

Elemental analysis of limestone samples from Ewekoro limestone deposit in southwest Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limestone samples of different colours from Ewekoro limestone deposit in Ogun State, Nigeria were subjected to elemental analysis by proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGME) techniques. The irradiation was by 2.5 MeV proton beams from the ion beam analysis (IBA) facility of the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation

E. I. Obiajunwa; J. I. Nwachukwu

2000-01-01

259

DOES NIGERIA NEED AN INDEPENDENT CENTRAL BANK?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that legislating central banking independence in Nigeria, should not be seen an important step towards achilving the monetary policy objective of price stability. Rather, what is more important is the enshrinement of policies that will encourage the development of a robust financial system with institutions powerful (at least jointly) and independent enough to lobby for the enforcement

Chibuike Ugochukwu Uche

1997-01-01

260

Cholera Epidemiology in Nigeria: an overview  

PubMed Central

Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium, Vibrio cholera. Choleragenic V. cholera O1 and O139 are the only causative agents of the disease. The two most distinguishing epidemiologic features of the disease are its tendency to appear in explosive outbreaks and its predisposition to causing pandemics that may progressively affect many countries and spread into continents. Despite efforts to control cholera, the disease continues to occur as a major public health problem in many developing countries. Numerous studies over more than a century have made advances in the understanding of the disease and ways of treating patients, but the mechanism of emergence of new epidemic strains, and the ecosystem supporting regular epidemics, remain challenging to epidemiologists. In Nigeria, since the first appearance of epidemic cholera in 1972, intermittent outbreaks have been occurring. The later part of 2010 was marked with severe outbreak which started from the northern part of Nigeria, spreading to the other parts and involving approximately 3,000 cases and 781 deaths. Sporadic cases have also been reported. Although epidemiologic surveillance constitutes an important component of the public health response, publicly available surveillance data from Nigeria have been relatively limited to date. Based on existing relevant scientific literature on features of cholera, this paper presents a synopsis of cholera epidemiology emphasising the situation in Nigeria. PMID:22937199

Adagbada, Ajoke Olutola; Adesida, Solayide Abosede; Nwaokorie, Francisca Obiageri; Niemogha, Mary-Theresa; Coker, Akitoye Olusegun

2012-01-01

261

Traditional fermented protein condiments in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional fermented condiments (dawadawa, iru, ogiri) based on vegetable proteins, and consumed by different ethnic groups in Nigeria have been the pride of culinary traditions for centuries. It is evident that these products have played a major role in the food habits of communities in the rural regions serving not only as a nutritious non-meat proteins substitute but also as

O. K. Achi

262

Family Quality of Life in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The limited literature that exists about intellectual disabilities (ID) in Nigeria suggests that perceptions of ID may be shaped by social and cultural beliefs, and that socio-economic factors have prevented the development of policy and services. The present study sought to explore these suggestions in more detail by administering the…

Ajuwon, P. M.; Brown, I.

2012-01-01

263

Neonatal intestinal obstruction in Benin, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Intestinal obstruction is a life threatening condition in the newborn, with attendant high mortality rate especially in underserved subregion. This study reports the aetiology, presentation, and outcome of intestinal obstruction management in neonates. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of neonatal intestinal obstruction at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin, Nigeria, between January 2006-June 2008. Data were collated

OsarumwenseDavid Osifo; JonathanChukwunalu Okolo

2009-01-01

264

Young People's Sexual Risk Behaviors in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence and correlates of HIV-related risk behaviors among adolescents and youths in Nigeria are poorly documented. This study aims at determining the prevalence and correlates of HIV-related risk behaviors among adolescents and youths in order to plan appropriate intervention measures. This is a descriptive cross-sectional survey using…

Abdulraheem, I. S.; Fawole, O. I.

2009-01-01

265

Women, Education and Work in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the implication of the growing educational opportunities for women in Nigeria. Although bias has existed from the traditional Nigerian society against women, recent events especially in education reveal a conquering of this deep-rooted prejudice. Enrollment figures particularly in the last ten years show a remarkable bridging…

Anugwom, Edlyne E.

2009-01-01

266

Fuel subsidy in Nigeria: Fact or fallacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinions have differed sharply in Nigeria on the continued existence of fuel subsidy. The opponents of Government-planned removal of fuel subsidy argue that the existence of fuel subsidy is a fallacy. On the other hand, the proponents opine that the existence of fuel subsidy is a fact. The objective of this study is to empirically examine these claims and counter-claims.

Maxwell Umunna Nwachukwu; Harold Chike

2011-01-01

267

Petroleum prospects of Southern Nigeria's Anambra Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surrounded by the Benue trough, the Middle Niger River depression, the Niger River delta, and the Abakaliki anticlinorium, Nigeria's Anambra basin probably holds a thick, unexplored sequence with significant hydrocarbon potential. The basin's sediment could be 16,000 ft thick; a Bouguer gravity survey indicates two parallel northeast-southwest trending gravity lows (the Anambra low and the Awka depression) separated by the

A. A. Avbovbo; O. Ayoola

1981-01-01

268

The advent and growth of television broadcasting in Nigeria: its political and educational overtones.  

PubMed

In 1959, the regional government of Western Nigeria established the 1st television station in Nigeria and in Africa. Even though it promoted the station as a means to educate the people about development and the world, it initially served as a means for an opposition leader to address the people of Western Nigeria. The regional governments of Eastern and Northern Nigeria and the federal government in Lagos followed and started their own TV stations in the early 1960s. All 4 of these stations basically existed to serve partisan political objectives for the various governments. Any stations established after these 4 continued this same political and regionalistic heritage. In 1973, a new surge of regional consciousness occurred after the now military government allowed the division of the country into 19 states. This change, the concurrent oil boom, and the effectiveness and importance of existing TV broadcasting led to a new surge of state owned TV stations. 3 years later, the military government established the National Television Authority (NTA) to coordinate nationwide coverage. The NTA then acquired existing TV stations. This event slowed the growth of TV broadcasting until 1979 when military government rule ended. The 5 political parties vying for election in the states revoked the NTA charter and a proliferation of TV stations occurred. This also happened because the civilian administration was disorganized. As regionalization played a role in the broadcasting of political propaganda, so did it play a role in educational programming, Despite TV broadcasting's political ties, it has been successful in producing quality educational programs for schools and colleges nationwide via the NTA network with the assistance of UNESCO. PMID:12342789

Umeh, C C

1989-01-01

269

Labour migration and rural transformation in Nigeria.  

PubMed

The trends in rural-urban migration in Nigeria responded to changes in political and socioeconomic developments which occurred during the 1980s. Since the 1980s, rural-urban migration trends were rapidly reversed, and migrants returned to rural areas. In 1981, government revenues from oil declined. The oil production and price declines between 1980 and 1986 resulted in a foreign exchange crisis. Import restrictions were imposed, and stabilization measures resulted in scarcities of raw materials and spare parts and declines in industrial capacity. About 50% of import substitution factories went bankrupt. Between 1981 and 1983, about one million workers were estimated to have been laid off, of which 55,000 were federal and state employees. Other estimates indicated one million laid off just in the industrial sector. The government reinforced this urban-rural movement by emphasizing increased food production. In 1992, government wages were increased in order to offset high inflation. In 1986 and 1992, State and Local Government Areas were established as political entities tied to grassroots development; local offices were situated in greater proximity to local populations. In 1986, the objective was to provide infrastructure, promote production, and organize rural areas for development. Several community banks devoted to rural areas were established. Development programs for rural women were initiated. Federal revenue allocations to rural areas increased from 10% to 15%. Inducements were given to attract private formal and informal commerce and industry. The result was less than expected. Obstacles to rural development included the absence of an effective and integrated approach, inadequate funding, and corruption. Provision of good roads and schools did meet objectives and may have induced out-migration. Delays in provision of entitlements exacerbated the ability of return migrants to establish new economic activity. The new political divisions did not conform to demographic or labor market areas. The sudden redistribution of population was difficult for local governments to accommodate. Social adjustment was difficult, and primary education costs were sacrificed at the expense of expanded higher education. PMID:12179891

Onyeonoru, I P

1994-06-01

270

The post-harvest fruit rots of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) in Nigeria.  

PubMed

A survey of the post-harvest fruit rot diseases of tomato was conducted in five states of Nigeria. During severe infections, the diseases could cause 25% loss at harvest and 34% loss of the remaining product in transit, storage and market stalls; thus giving an overall loss of about 50% of the product. Two types of rots, soft and dry were recognised. The soft rot was found to account for about 85% and the dry rot about 15% of the overall loss. Erwinia carotovora, Rhizopus oryzae, R. stolonifer, Fusarium equiseti, F. nivale and F. oxysporum were established as the soft rot pathogens; while Aspergillus aculeatus, A. flavus, Cladosporium tenuissimum, Corynespora cassiicola, Curvularia lunata, Penicillium expansum P. multicolor and Rhizoctonia solani were established as the dry rot pathogens of tomato fruits in Nigeria. PMID:471028

Fajola, A O

1979-01-01

271

Open heart surgery in Nigeria; a work in progress  

PubMed Central

Background There has been limited success in establishing Open Heart Surgery programmes in Nigeria despite the high prevalence of structural heart disease and the large number of Nigerian patients that travel abroad for Open Heart Surgery. The challenges and constraints to the development of Open Heart Surgery in Nigeria need to be identified and overcome. The aim of this study is to review the experience with Open Heart Surgery at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital and highlight the challenges encountered in developing this programme. Methods This is a retrospective study of patients that underwent Open Heart Surgery in our institution. The source of data was a prospectively maintained database. Extracted data included patient demographics, indication for surgery, euroscore, cardiopulmonary bypass time, cross clamp time, complications and patient outcome. Results 51 Open Heart Surgery procedures were done between August 2004 and December 2011. There were 21 males and 30 females. Mean age was 29 ± 15.6 years. The mean euroscore was 3.8 ± 2.1. The procedures done were Mitral Valve Replacement in 15 patients (29.4%), Atrial Septal Defect Repair in 14 patients (27.5%), Ventricular Septal Defect Repair in 8 patients (15.7%), Aortic Valve Replacement in 5 patients (9.8%), excision of Left Atrial Myxoma in 2 patients (3.9%), Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in 2 patients (3.9%), Bidirectional Glenn Shunts in 2 patients (3.9%), Tetralogy of Fallot repair in 2 patients (3.9%) and Mitral Valve Repair in 1 patient (2%). There were 9 mortalities (17.6%) in this series. Challenges encountered included the low volume of cases done, an unstable working environment, limited number of trained staff, difficulty in obtaining laboratory support, limited financial support and difficulty in moving away from the Cardiac Mission Model. Conclusions The Open Heart Surgery program in our institution is still being developed but the identified challenges need to be overcome if this program is to be sustained. Similar challenges will need to be overcome by other cardiac stakeholders if other OHS programs are to be developed and sustained in Nigeria. PMID:23311435

2013-01-01

272

Ethics of clinical trials in Nigeria.  

PubMed

The conduct of clinical trials for the development and licensing of drugs is a very important aspect of healthcare. Drug research, development and promotion have grown to a multi-billion dollar global business. Like all areas of human endeavour involving generation and control of huge financial resources, it could be subject to deviant behaviour, sharp business practices and unethical practices. The main objective of this review is to highlight potential ethical challenges in the conduct of clinical trials in Nigeria and outline ways in which these can be avoided. Current international and national regulatory and ethical guidelines are reviewed to illustrate the requirements for ethical conduct of clinical trials. Past experiences of unethical conduct of clinical trials especially in developing countries along with the increasing globalisation of research makes it imperative that all players should be aware of the ethical challenges in clinical trials and the benchmarks for ethical conduct of clinical research in Nigeria. PMID:25013247

Okonta, Patrick I

2014-05-01

273

Ethics of clinical trials in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

The conduct of clinical trials for the development and licensing of drugs is a very important aspect of healthcare. Drug research, development and promotion have grown to a multi-billion dollar global business. Like all areas of human endeavour involving generation and control of huge financial resources, it could be subject to deviant behaviour, sharp business practices and unethical practices. The main objective of this review is to highlight potential ethical challenges in the conduct of clinical trials in Nigeria and outline ways in which these can be avoided. Current international and national regulatory and ethical guidelines are reviewed to illustrate the requirements for ethical conduct of clinical trials. Past experiences of unethical conduct of clinical trials especially in developing countries along with the increasing globalisation of research makes it imperative that all players should be aware of the ethical challenges in clinical trials and the benchmarks for ethical conduct of clinical research in Nigeria. PMID:25013247

Okonta, Patrick I.

2014-01-01

274

Sustainable Energy Development: The Key to a Stable Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes the use of sustainable energy systems based on solar and biomass technologies to provide solutions to utility challenges in Nigeria and acute water shortage both in rural and urban areas of that country. The paper highlights the paradoxes of oil-rich Nigeria and the stark reality of social infrastructure deprivations in that country. Perennial power outages over many

Kalu Uduma; Tomasz Arciszewski

2010-01-01

275

Deregulation of University Education in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the deregulation of university education in Nigeria, its problems and prospects. The paper commences with the recognition given to education all over the world, especially higher education. Nigeria as a country gives much credence to higher education as the means for social and economic mobility, social transformation, and as…

Adeogun, A. A.; Subair, S. T.; Osifila, G. I.

2009-01-01

276

Assessment of Water Quality along River Asa, Ilorin, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

River Asa, an important tributary to the Niger River, the main stream of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the longest river that flows across Ilorin City in western Nigeria, was chosen as a case study in order to investigate the variations in the quality of its water at different locations. This was necessitated by the peoples' consideration of water

L. T. Ajibade

2004-01-01

277

NELA: A Community Response to HIV/AIDS in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The greatest current threat to humanity, most especially in the developing countries of the world, is HIV/AIDS. The first case of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria was in 1986 in Lagos. Due to inaction and denial by the people, there was a rapid but subtle transmission of the virus within Nigeria's various populations and communities. Presently, the disease has…

Soyinka, Femi; Ogundare, Dipo; Olowookere, Kemi; Akinsola, Yemisi; Alade, Adeyemi; Moronkola, O. A.

2004-01-01

278

The Politics of Shareholder Activism in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shareholder activism has become a force for good in the extant corporate governance literature. In this article, we present\\u000a a case study of Nigeria to show how shareholder activism, as a corporate governance mechanism, can constitute a space for\\u000a unhealthy politics and turbulent politicking, which is a reflection of the country’s brand of politics. As a result, we point\\u000a out

Emmanuel AdegbiteKenneth Amaeshi; Kenneth Amaeshi; Olufemi Amao

2012-01-01

279

Factors which predict violence victimization in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Violence is a major public health issue, globally as well as in the African continent. This paper looks at Nigeria and begins the process of identifying the factors that predict interpersonal violence in that country. The purpose is to interpret the implications of the results presented here for violence prevention programmes in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study is based on the responses of 2324 Nigerians included in Round Four of the Afrobarometer surveys. The study concentrates on 579 respondents who reported either they or someone else in their family had been the victim of violence, defined as being physically attacked, in the past year. Results: A logistical regression analysis revealed five significant factors that predicted interpersonal violence: being the victim of a property crime, the fear of crime, the respondents faith, whethera police station was in the local area and poverty. The findings revealed that 43.7% of the sample had been victimised within the past year and 18.8% had been the victim of both violent and property crimes. One surprising findingwas the number of respondents who were re-victimised; 75% of violence victims also had been property crime victims. Conclusions: These findings suggest that target hardening should be the basis to plan, implement and evaluate violence prevention programmes in Nigeria. Prevention personnel and/or law enforcement need to respond to reported incidents of property and/or violence victimisation and attempt to prepare victims to protect both their premises and their persons in the future. PMID:24970968

Fry, Lincoln J.

2014-01-01

280

The 'beyond parental control' label in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Recent reports in Nigeria indicate a geometric rise in incarcerated adolescents, with an overwhelming majority of this increase being attributed to adolescents being declared 'beyond parental control'. There is a nagging suspicion that the Nigerian juvenile justice system has over criminalised adolescents by declaring them 'beyond control' when behavioural problems have actually resulted from child abuse/neglect and family disruption. A study was undertaken in a juvenile justice institution in Nigeria to assess the adequacy of pre-incarceration parental care among adolescents that had been declared as 'beyond parental control'. The study included 75 adolescent boys that had been declared as 'beyond parental control' and a comparison group of 144 matched school going boys. It examined self-reports received from the adolescent boys regarding their pre-incarceration family life and social circumstances, as well as the behavioural problems they had experienced. The findings indicate that adolescent boys who were declared as 'beyond parental control' had a significantly higher lifetime history of behavioural problems than the comparison group, and they also had significantly higher indicators of pre-incarceration child abuse/neglect and problems with stability and consistency of primary support. These findings pose questions regarding the presumption of adequate parental care prior to the declaration of 'beyond parental control'. It also raises questions about child rights protection and juvenile justice reform in Nigeria. PMID:24284377

Atilola, Olayinka; Omigbodun, Olayinka; Bella-Awusah, Tolulope

2014-01-01

281

The convergence of American and Nigerian religious conservatism in a biopolitical shaping of Nigeria's HIV/AIDS prevention programmes  

PubMed Central

Nigeria has the largest number of HIV/AIDS cases in West Africa, with 3.3 million people estimated to be living with the disease. The country remains a fragile democratic state and has allocated insufficient resources to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS among its citizens. The preponderance of President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) dollars, expert knowledge, conservative ideology and activities has shaped the direction of HIV/AIDS sexual-transmission prevention programmes in Nigeria. PEPFAR channels significant resources through Nigerian faith-based organisations (FBOs), and considers these organisations integral for HIV prevention strategies. In many instances, HIV/AIDS prevention programmes managed by FBOs reflect their ideologies of morality and sexuality. There is a convergence of religious ideology concerning morality and HIV infectivity between American and Nigerian conservatives; this produces a fertile ground for the influence and expansion of the conservative activities of PEPFAR in Nigeria. The paper highlights this nexus and draws attention to the biopolitical underpinning of PEPFAR in shaping Nigeria's HIV prevention programmes. The paper further notes both positive and negative effects of PEPFAR activities and attempts by the Obama administration to redirect PEPFAR to a more holistic approach in order to optimise outcomes. PMID:23391163

Jappah, Jlateh V.

2013-01-01

282

Management of Sickle Cell Disease: A Review for Physician Education in Nigeria (Sub-Saharan Africa)  

PubMed Central

Sickle cell disease (SCD) predominates in sub-Saharan Africa, East Mediterranean areas, Middle East, and India. Nigeria, being the most populous black nation in the world, bears its greatest burden in sub-Saharan Africa. The last few decades have witnessed remarkable scientific progress in the understanding of the complex pathophysiology of the disease. Improved clinical insights have heralded development and establishment of disease modifying interventions such as chronic blood transfusions, hydroxyurea therapy, and haemopoietic stem cell transplantation. Coupled with parallel improvements in general supportive, symptomatic, and preventive measures, current evidence reveals remarkable appreciation in quality of life among affected individuals in developed nations. Currently, in Nigeria and other West African states, treatment and control of SCD are largely suboptimal. Improved knowledge regarding SCD phenotypes and its comprehensive care among Nigerian physicians will enhance quality of care for affected persons. This paper therefore provides a review on the aetiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and management of SCD in Nigeria, with a focus on its local patterns and peculiarities. Established treatment guidelines as appropriate in the Nigerian setting are proffered, as well as recommendations for improving care of affected persons.

Adewoyin, Ademola Samson

2015-01-01

283

Piloting Laboratory Quality System Management in Six Health Facilities in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Achieving accreditation in laboratories is a challenge in Nigeria like in most African countries. Nigeria adopted the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa Stepwise Laboratory (Quality) Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (WHO/AFRO– SLIPTA) in 2010. We report on FHI360 effort and progress in piloting WHO-AFRO recognition and accreditation preparedness in six health facility laboratories in five different states of Nigeria. Method Laboratory assessments were conducted at baseline, follow up and exit using the WHO/AFRO– SLIPTA checklist. From the total percentage score obtained, the quality status of laboratories were classified using a zero to five star rating, based on the WHO/AFRO quality improvement stepwise approach. Major interventions include advocacy, capacity building, mentorship and quality improvement projects. Results At baseline audit, two of the laboratories attained 1- star while the remaining four were at 0- star. At follow up audit one lab was at 1- star, two at 3-star and three at 4-star. At exit audit, four labs were at 4- star, one at 3-star and one at 2-star rating. One laboratory dropped a ‘star’ at exit audit, while others consistently improved. The two weakest elements at baseline; internal audit (4%) and occurrence/incidence management (15%) improved significantly, with an exit score of 76% and 81% respectively. The elements facility and safety was the major strength across board throughout the audit exercise. Conclusion This effort resulted in measurable and positive impact on the laboratories. We recommend further improvement towards a formal international accreditation status and scale up of WHO/AFRO– SLIPTA implementation in Nigeria. PMID:25542022

Mbah, Henry; Ojo, Emmanuel; Ameh, James; Musuluma, Humphrey; Negedu-Momoh, Olubunmi Ruth; Jegede, Feyisayo; Ojo, Olufunmilayo; Uwakwe, Nkem; Ochei, Kingsley; Dada, Michael; Udah, Donald; Chiegil, Robert; Torpey, Kwasi

2014-01-01

284

Combating HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Nigeria: Responses from National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Universities have come under serious attack because of their lackluster response to HIV/AIDS. This article examines the response of National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) and its strategic responses in combating HIV/AIDS epidemic. This is achieved by examining NOUN's basic structures that position the University to respond to the epidemic; and…

Ambe-Uva, Terhemba Nom

2007-01-01

285

An Appraisal of Female Sex Work in Nigeria - Implications for Designing and Scaling Up HIV Prevention Programmes  

PubMed Central

Background The HIV epidemic in Nigeria is complex with diverse factors driving the epidemic. Accordingly, Nigeria's National Agency for the Control of AIDS is coordinating a large-scale initiative to conduct HIV epidemic appraisals across all states. These appraisals will help to better characterize the drivers of the epidemic and ensure that the HIV prevention programmes match the local epidemic context, with resources allocated to interventions that have the greatest impact locally. Currently, the mapping and size estimation of Female Sex Workers (FSWs) - a major component of the appraisal has been completed in seven states. These states are using the data generated to plan, prioritize and scale-up sub-national HIV prevention programmes. Methodology It involved a two-level process of identifying and validating locations where FSWs solicit and/or meet clients (“hotspots”). In the first level, secondary key informants were interviewed to collect information about the geographic location and description of the hotspots. For the second level, FSWs were interviewed at each hotspot and information on population size estimates, typologies and operational dynamics of the FSWs were collected. Results Across the seven states, a total of 17,266 secondary key informants and 5,732 FSWs were interviewed. 10,233 hotspots were identified with an estimated 126,489 FSWs ranging from 5,920 in Anambra to 46,691 in Lagos. The most common hotspots were bars/nightclubs (30%), hotels/lodges (29.6%), streets (16.6%), and brothels (14.6%). Furthermore, the population density of FSWs (per thousand adult men) across the states ranged from 2 in Anambra to 17 in the Federal Capital Territory. Conclusion FSW populations in Nigeria are large and diverse, with substantial differences between and within states. Improved understanding of the location, population size, density, organizational typologies and clients of sex work has informed and is central to Nigeria's planning process for scaling up focused HIV prevention programmes. PMID:25118691

Ikpeazu, Akudo; Momah-Haruna, Amaka; Madu Mari, Baba; Thompson, Laura H.; Ogungbemi, Kayode; Daniel, Uduak; Aboki, Hafsatu; Isac, Shajy; Gorgens, Marelize; Mziray, Elizabeth; Njie, Ndella; Akala, Francisca Ayodeji; Emmanuel, Faran; Odek, Willis Omondi; Blanchard, James F.

2014-01-01

286

First report of hepatitis E virus circulation in domestic pigs in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important cause of acute hepatitis in humans. Zoonotic transmission between pigs and humans has been confirmed. Human HEV infection is common in Nigeria; however, characterization of HEV infection in other species was lacking. The objective of this study was to investigate HEV infection in Nigerian pigs. A total of 286 serum samples from six states in Nigeria were tested for presence of anti-HEV IgG. Ninety fecal samples from one of these states (Plateau State) were tested for presence of HEV RNA. The overall prevalence of anti-HEV IgG-positive or suspect-positive pigs was 55.6% (159 of 286) with regional prevalence rates ranging from 36% (9 of 25; Delta State) to 88% (22 of 25; Taraba State). The overall HEV RNA prevalence rate was 76.7% (69 of 90). All polymerase chain reaction-positive samples belonged to HEV genotype 3 based on sequencing. The results indicate that HEV genotype 3 infection is widespread in Nigerian pigs. PMID:25002299

Owolodun, Olajide A; Gerber, Priscilla F; Giménez-Lirola, Luis G; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Opriessnig, Tanja

2014-10-01

287

AIDS NGOS and corruption in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Using two ethnographic case studies, the intersecting dynamics of inequality, morality, and corruption are examined as they play out in Nigerian AIDS NGOs. To the Nigerian public, local AIDS organizations are widely seen as conduits for corruption. But local opinions of particular NGOs and their leaders turn less on whether donor resources were misused and more on the ways that people who accumulate the benefits of corruption use them socially. Nevertheless, discontent swirls about corruption in general, a fact that suggests a gradual change in people's understandings of the processes that produce inequality in Nigeria. PMID:22469532

Smith, Daniel Jordan

2011-01-01

288

Seroprevalence of egg drop syndrome - 76 virus as cause of poor egg productivity of poultry in Nsukka, South East Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if egg drop syndrome 76 virus infection is among the causes of lowered egg productivity in commercial poultry\\u000a farms in South Eastern Part of Nigeria and to know the prevalence of the infection, ten farms with history of lowered egg\\u000a production in Nsukka local government area of Enugu State were randomly selected. Sera from ten hens in each

M. C. O Ezeibe; O. N. Okoroafor; J. I. Eze; I. C. Eze

2008-01-01

289

Negotiating culture: Christianity and the Ogo society in Amasiri, Nigeria   

E-print Network

There have been two key difficulties concerning the study of indigenous rituals, religious conversion and change among the Igbo of South-eastern Nigeria, both before and after the missionary upsurge of the mid-nineteenth ...

Obinna, Elijah Oko

2011-07-01

290

Tuberculin screening of some selected Fulani lactating cows in North-Central Nigeria.  

PubMed

The prevalence of mycobacterial infection among lactating Fulani cows was investigated in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja and Kaduna State of Nigeria. Tuberculin testing using single comparative intradermal tuberculin test showed a 14.6 % positive, 4 % doubtful, and 81.4 % negative reactors. Mycobacterial infection was found to be present in the nomadic (constantly moving) and seminomadic (limited movement) management systems studied but management showed no significant effect on the prevalence of the disease. However, the prevalence was significantly higher in older age groups than the younger ones (P < 0.05). PMID:23475733

Abubakar, Aishatu; Allam, Lushaikyaa; Okaiyeto, Solomon O; Kudi, Ayuba Caleb; Abdullahi, Shehu U; Brooks, Peter H; Goyal, Madhu

2013-10-01

291

Hydrogeology and aquifer simulation of the basement rocks of the Kaduna-Zaria area, northern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study area is situated in the central northern part of Nigeria, which experiences a typical semiarid climate. The aquifer consists of weathered and fractured basement rocks, mainly covered by lateritic soil. For rural water supply purposes, more than 40 wells were drilled in an area of about 2500 km 2. Field checked interpretation of pumping tests, geophysical data and soil investigations lead to a fairly precise description of the hydrogeologic situation in the study area. By application of a simplified steady-state groundwater flow model conducted on microcomputer-based systems, recharge conditions were simulated.

Adanu, E. A.; Schneider, M.

292

Cysticercosis of slaughter cattle in southeastern Nigeria.  

PubMed

The incidence of cysticercosis due to Taenia saginata in both local and exotic breeds of cattle slaughtered for meat in southeastern Nigeria between November 1999 and April 2002 is reported. The examination of various organs of 25,800 cattle in 10 major abattoirs of this region showed that 6750 (26.2%) were infected with Cysticercus (C.) bovis. The prevalence rates varied from one abattoir to another while the rates of cysticercosis in local and exotic breeds varied significantly (P > 0.05). Sixty percent of all the infected animals had cysts. The tongue, cardiac, and masseter muscles were the main predilection sites of the cysts. Out of 11,720 male cattle, examined, 3215 (27.4%) had cysts of C. bovis while 160 (13.6%) of the 1180 female animals investigated were infected. There was an inverse relationship between the ages of the animals and prevalence of infection with C. bovis (r = -0.8743, P < 0.05). Monthly occurrence of the cysts in the animals revealed an upsurge of infected animals during the dry season. The epidemiology and epizootiology of Taenia saginata and C. bovis in relation to the veterinary service agencies and public health planners in southeastern Nigeria are highlighted. PMID:17135536

Opara, Maxwell N; Ukpong, Ukeme Michael; Okoli, Ifeanyi Charles; Anosike, Jude Chuks

2006-10-01

293

Dermatologic conditions in teenage adolescents in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Skin disorders are common in adolescents, and the impact on quality of life can be enormous, particularly when viewed against the backdrop of the visibility of skin diseases and the psychologically vulnerable period of adolescence. However, few studies have documented the magnitude of skin disorders in this subset of individuals. We therefore estimated the point prevalence and pattern of dermatologic conditions in adolescents attending various secondary schools in Calabar, Southern Nigeria. Methods Using a structured questionnaire, relevant sociodemographic information was obtained from 1,447 teenage adolescents from eight secondary schools. Thereafter, a whole body examination was conducted to determine the presence and types of skin disorders seen. Results Skin diseases were seen in 929 students. The point prevalence was higher in males (72.1%) than in females (58.3%). Private schools had a higher prevalence than public schools. The six most common dermatoses were acne vulgaris, pityriasis versicolor, nevi, tinea, miliaria, and keloid/hypertrophic scars, and accounted for over 80% of the dermatoses seen. Conclusion The point prevalence of dermatoses in senior secondary school adolescents was 64.2%. Although a large number of skin disorders were observed, only a handful accounted for a significant proportion of the diseases seen. This increases the ease of training community health workers in the recognition and treatment of common skin diseases. Age, race, and climatic factors are important determinants of skin diseases in adolescents in Nigeria. PMID:24966708

Henshaw, Eshan B; Olasode, Olayinka A; Ogedegbe, Evelyn E; Etuk, Imaobong

2014-01-01

294

The cost-effectiveness in the use of HIV counselling and testing-mobile outreaches in reaching men who have sex with men (MSM) in northern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk of HIV and other STI infections in Nigeria. This is because MSM are afraid to seek medical help because the healthcare workers in various facilities are afraid of the consequences if they provide services for MSM citing the law as a reason not to intervene. MSM in northern states of Nigeria are facing double-jeopardy because the few international partners working in MSM in Nigeria are pulling out of these volatile areas because of the fear of attacks by the Boko Haram and the Nigerian law enforcement agencies. Objectives The intervention was conducted to promote affordable and sustainable HIV care and treatment for MSM in Nigeria. Methods This intervention was conducted in the Boko Haram ravaged cities of Kano and Maiduguri (North-East Nigeria). Twenty MSM-key influencers from the two cities were identified and trained on HIV counselling and testing, caregivers, case managers and on initiation process for ARV treatment for new HIV+MSM as well as ethical considerations. Results The mean age of the key influencers was 24 years +/?SD. Each of the trained 20 key influencers reached 20 MSM-peer with condom promotion, HCT, referral to identified MSM-community health centers and follow-up/caregiving within the space of one month. The project was able to reach 400 MSM in the two cities. 89% of the peers consented to HCT. HIV prevalence among the participants was at 18%. The project recorded ARV-successful referral to healthcare facilities for the respondents that tested positive. The key influencers have been following up for ARV-adherence. Conclusions Use of community members should be promoted for sustainability and ownership. It also helps in eradicating socio-cultural barrier to HIV intervention for MSM. Moreover, this proves to be one of the safest and affordable methods of reaching MSM in Nigeria in this ugly time of legalization of homophobia in the country's constitution. PMID:25394114

Ifekandu, Chiedu; Suleiman, Aliyu; Aniekwe, Ogechukwu

2014-01-01

295

An overview of female genital mutilation in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Nigeria, due to its large population, has the highest absolute number of female genital mutilation (FGM) worldwide, accounting for about one-quarter of the estimated 115-130 million circumcised women in the world. The objective of this review is to ascertain the current status of FGM in Nigeria. Pertinent literature on FGM retrieved from internet services [Google search on FGM in Nigeria, www.online Nigeria, PubMed of the national library of medicine www.medconsumer. Info/tropics/fgm.htm, Biomedcentral and African Journal Online (AJOL) (FGM)] and textbooks, journals, and selected references for proper understanding of the topic was included in this review. The national prevalence rate of FGM is 41% among adult women. Evidence abound that the prevalence of FGM is declining. The ongoing drive to eradicate FGM is tackled by World Health Organization, United Nations International Children Emergency Fund, Federation of International Obstetrics and Gynecology (FIGO), African Union, The economic commission for Africa, and many women organizations. However, there is no federal law banning FGM in Nigeria. There is need to eradicate FGM in Nigeria. Education of the general public at all levels with emphasis on the dangers and undesirability of FGM is paramount. PMID:23209995

Okeke, Tc; Anyaehie, Usb; Ezenyeaku, Cck

2012-01-01

296

An Overview of Female Genital Mutilation in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Nigeria, due to its large population, has the highest absolute number of female genital mutilation (FGM) worldwide, accounting for about one-quarter of the estimated 115–130 million circumcised women in the world. The objective of this review is to ascertain the current status of FGM in Nigeria. Pertinent literature on FGM retrieved from internet services [Google search on FGM in Nigeria, www.online Nigeria, PubMed of the national library of medicine www.medconsumer. Info/tropics/fgm.htm, Biomedcentral and African Journal Online (AJOL) (FGM)] and textbooks, journals, and selected references for proper understanding of the topic was included in this review. The national prevalence rate of FGM is 41% among adult women. Evidence abound that the prevalence of FGM is declining. The ongoing drive to eradicate FGM is tackled by World Health Organization, United Nations International Children Emergency Fund, Federation of International Obstetrics and Gynecology (FIGO), African Union, The economic commission for Africa, and many women organizations. However, there is no federal law banning FGM in Nigeria. There is need to eradicate FGM in Nigeria. Education of the general public at all levels with emphasis on the dangers and undesirability of FGM is paramount. PMID:23209995

Okeke, TC; Anyaehie, USB; Ezenyeaku, CCK

2012-01-01

297

Environmental legal implications of oil and gas exploration in the Niger Delta of Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nigeria is an African country endowed with a wealth of oil and gas resources, and they are mainly found in the core Niger Delta (home to the Ijaw and Ogoni indigenous, ethnic minorities). Since Great Britain granted Nigeria political independence on October 1, 1960, successive Nigerian governments (military and civilian) have been dominated by the majority ethnic groups (Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, and Ibo). Significantly, the government adopted a socialist-based model of absolute state ownership over oil and gas resources. The socialist model formed the basis of Nigeria's business collaboration with multinational oil and gas corporations from Europe and the United States (notably Shell, Chevron Texaco, Agip, Exxon Mobil, Total, and Elf). This model is fraught with contradictions and has led to unacceptable consequences, including policies that allow exploitation of natural resources without reference to environmental sustainability. When oil was first struck in 1956 at Oloibori (Ijaw area), people thought it would bring prosperity and an improved quality of life. Sadly, the opposite has occurred. Forty-nine years of hardship, agonizing pain, debilitating anger, extreme poverty, poisoned rivers, destroyed occupations, devastated environment, and stunted growth of the youth are the negative impacts of oil and gas exploitation in the Niger Delta. In other words, oil and gas exploration and production have visited a full range of evils---socio-political, economic, and cultural---upon the indigenous Niger Delta people. Furthermore, the wealth extracted from the area is used by the state and multinational corporations to enhance their own wealth and quality of life. Revenue has been conspicuously looted and misappropriated by political leaders at the expense of the Niger Delta environment and its people. This confluence of exploitation and injury has led to social upheavals and armed rebellions, all capable of precipitating the disintegration of the country. In this dissertation, research materials have been used to identify fundamental problems inherent in the current approach to oil and gas exploration and development. Primary research findings were used to develop the recommended shift in environmental paradigm that is critical to achieving sustainable development in Nigeria. Central to the recommendations in this dissertation is a rigorous, participatory Environmental Impact Assessment ("EIA") process.

Orubebe, Bibobra Bello

298

Outcome of an intervention to improve the quality of private sector provision of postabortion care in northern Nigeria.  

PubMed

The outcomes of an intervention aimed at improving the quality of postabortion care provided by private medical practitioners in 8 states in northern Nigeria are reported. A total of 458 private medical doctors and 839 nurses and midwives were trained to offer high-quality postabortion care, postabortion family planning, and integrated sexually transmitted infection/HIV care. Results showed that among the 17009 women treated over 10 years, there was not a single case of maternal death. In a detailed analysis of 2559 women treated during a 15-month period after the intervention was established, only 33 women experienced mild complications, while none suffered major complications of abortion care. At the same time, there was a reduction in treatment cost and a doubling of the contraceptive uptake by the women. Building the capacity of private medical providers can reduce maternal morbidity and mortality associated with induced abortion in northern Nigeria. PMID:22920615

Ogu, Rosemary; Okonofua, Friday; Hammed, Afolabi; Okpokunu, Edoja; Mairiga, Abdulkarim; Bako, Abubakar; Abass, Tajudeen; Garba, Danjuma; Alani, Akinyade; Agholor, Kingsley

2012-09-01

299

The Nature of Adult and Continuing Education in Nigeria with Special Reference to Sokoto.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are three major kinds of adult education in Nigeria today--traditional adult education, formal adult education, and Islamic adult education. Because it is the form of adult education most promoted by the government, formal adult education is the most dominant approach found in Nigeria. A look at Nigeria's national policy on education…

Mattimore-Knudson, Russell S.

300

Buruli Ulcer in South Western Nigeria: A Retrospective Cohort Study of Patients Treated in Benin  

PubMed Central

Nigeria is known to be endemic to Buruli ulcer, but epidemiological data are remarkably rare. Here, we present a large cohort of 127 PCR-confirmed M. ulcerans infection patients coming from Nigeria and treated in a neighbouring country, Benin. Severe lesions and delay of consultation are factors that should encourage establishment of a treatment centre in South Western Nigeria. PMID:25569775

Marion, Estelle; Carolan, Kevin; Adeye, Ambroise; Kempf, Marie; Chauty, Annick; Marsollier, Laurent

2015-01-01

301

An Assessment of the Level of Influence of Family Life and HIV/AIDS Education on Knowledge, Attitude and Decision Making among Adolescents with Hearing Impairment in Some States in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated knowledge, attitude and decision making on HIV/AIDS among adolescents with hearing impairment in Oyo, Lagos and Kwara States. Seventy-six respondents participated in the study with age range between 16 and 20. The research adopted a descriptive survey research design. Seventy-six students with hearing impairment…

Adeniyi, S. O.; Oyewumi, A. M.; Fakolade, O. A.

2011-01-01

302

Polio eradication in Nigeria and the role of the National Stop Transmission of Polio program, 2012-2013.  

PubMed

To strengthen the Nigeria polio eradication program at the operational level, the National Stop Transmission of Polio (N-STOP) program was established in July 2012 as a collaborative effort of the National Primary Health Care Development Agency, the Nigerian Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Since its inception, N-STOP has recruited and trained 125 full-time staff, 50 residents in training, and 50 ad hoc officers. N-STOP officers, working at national, state, and district levels, have conducted enumeration outreaches in 46,437 nomadic and hard-to-reach settlements in 253 districts of 19 states, supported supplementary immunization activities in 236 districts, and strengthened routine immunization in 100 districts. Officers have also conducted surveillance assessments, outbreak response, and applied research as needs evolved. The N-STOP program has successfully enhanced Global Polio Eradication Initiative partnerships and outreach in Nigeria, providing an accessible, flexible, and culturally competent technical workforce at the front lines of public health. N-STOP will continue to respond to polio eradication program needs and remain a model for other healthcare initiatives in Nigeria and elsewhere. PMID:25316824

Waziri, Ndadilnasiya E; Ohuabunwo, Chima J; Nguku, Patrick M; Ogbuanu, Ikechukwu U; Gidado, Saheed; Biya, Oladayo; Wiesen, Eric S; Vertefeuille, John; Townes, Debra; Oyemakinde, Akin; Nwanyanwu, Okey; Gassasira, Alex; Mkanda, Pascal; Muhammad, Ado J G; Elmousaad, Hashim A; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Mahoney, Frank J

2014-11-01

303

Biodiversity prospecting in Nigeria: seeking equity and reciprocity in intellectual property rights through partnership arrangements and capacity building.  

PubMed

The regulation of genetic materials in Nigeria for the isolation of biologically active compounds and/or their exportation from the country fall under the purview of several government departments and parastatals. In principle, biological resources are considered similar to any other natural resource with different levels of stake holders. Specific restrictions, however, apply to the export of food crops. Nigeria is a traditional society where most of biodiversity belongs to what could be appropriately classified as public domain. It has therefore not been easy to carve out property rights from what is generally regarded as communal resources. Private access and occupancy of land and tenure are derived mainly from rights of membership of kindred groups or as custodian of "family' inheritance. The multi-state federal structure allows for negotiations to be conducted mainly at the level of the various State Government Departments responsible for forest resources, and the Federal Government providing the necessary policy guidelines and regulations. The Bioresources Development and Conservation Programme (BDCP), an international NGO based in Nigeria, has adopted an innovative model for biological prospecting based on establishing strategic partnerships and capacity building. PMID:9213619

Iwu, M M

1996-04-01

304

Living well with HIV in Nigeria? Stigma and survival challenges preventing optimum benefit from an ART clinic.  

PubMed

Thirty years into the HIV pandemic, the interactions of stigma, social and economic survival, and clinical interventions continue to be key to understanding and managing HIV at both personal and societal levels. With antiretroviral therapy, HIV is increasingly a chronic condition requiring lifelong treatment, near-perfect adherence, and support from both social networks and formal services. This study asked: is stigma still a significant problem for people living with HIV (PLHIV) who have secured access to antiretrovirals (ARVs)? How do PLHIV accessing ARVs in Nigeria experience the social, economic and health service supports intended to address their needs? What are the concerns and challenges of PLHIV and health workers regarding these supports? What are the implications for approaches to stigma and discrimination? This qualitative study at the Antiretroviral (ART) Clinic of the Osogbo State Hospital, Osun State, Nigeria involved in-depth interviews with 15 PLHIV who have been attending the clinic for at least one year, and three health workers. The results reveal both the diversity among even a small number of patients, and persistent cross-cutting themes of stigma, discrimination, poverty, and the psychological impacts of insecure livelihoods and well-intentioned but ultimately stigmatizing supports such as selective food parcels. Both population-based interventions against stigma and poverty, as well as micro-level, contextualized attention to patients', families' and health workers' fear of social exclusion and infection at a clinic and community level are needed if patients - and society - are to live well with HIV in Nigeria. PMID:24569837

Aransiola, Joshua; Imoyera, Winifred; Olowookere, Samuel; Zarowsky, Christina

2014-03-01

305

Energy assessment of Ivory Coast, Morocco, Nigeria, and Senegal  

SciTech Connect

This report is an overview of the energy market in four West African countries: The Ivory Coast, Morocco, Nigeria, and Senegal. We feel these countries are representative of the West African region. Together they account for 75% of the total energy use in West Africa, 78% of GDP, and 76% of population. The purpose of the study is to analyze the evolution of energy demand in the context of the general socio-economic background of the region. The study also examines energy supply and trade related to the energy sector. The analysis focuses on the study of commercial fuels. Although we have reviewed studies of wood, solar, wind, and agricultural residues, we leave out detailed discussions of these non-commercial energy forms. The first part of the report is an assessment of the trends in energy demand in the four study countries. We discuss the main factors driving energy demand sector by sector. This is followed by a review of the primary energy resources of the countries, and of the capacity for production of secondary fuels. The last section looks at energy trade, with particular emphasis on the role of the United States.

Ghirardi, A.; Sathaye, J.; Goering, P.

1986-11-01

306

Promoting cancer control training in resource limited environments: Lagos, Nigeria.  

PubMed

In resource limited nations, cancer control is often a lower priority issue creating challenges for the prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. Training and education are vital components of efforts to tackle this problem. A 3-day cancer control workshop was conducted at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH), Nigeria, in 2013. The curriculum included didactic lectures, panel discussions, and interactive sessions on local cancer statistics, preventive strategies, cancer registries, screening and diagnostic options, and treatment approaches with limited resources (chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery, and palliative care) and several site-specific (breast, lung, cervical, prostate, and colon) topics. Pre-workshop and post-workshop questionnaires were completed by participants. Eighty-six percent of the 50 workshop participants completed at least one questionnaire. Participants were mainly nurses and physicians (89% of responders), and 40% reported >25 years of practice experience. The more common local needs identified were professional education (65%) and increasing public cancer awareness (63%). The greatest interest for future programs was on research collaborations (70%). An immediate impact of the workshop was the commencement of monthly tumor board conferences and a review of the current cancer registry data. Capacity building is critical for the execution of effective cancer control strategies. Conducting collaborative workshops represents a cost-effective means of launching programs and energizing the medical community to pursue ongoing education and research addressing the anticipated cancer epidemic on the African continent. PMID:24243400

Nwogu, C; Mahoney, M; George, S; Dy, G; Hartman, H; Animashaun, M; Popoola, A; Michalek, A

2014-03-01

307

Childhood Mortality in Federal Medical Centre Umuahia, South Eastern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the mortality pattern in children seen at Federal Medical Centre Umuahia (FMCU) Abia state, South Eastern Nigeria. Methods A retrospective cross sectional descriptive study over a 5-year period from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2008 using data retrieved from the hospital’s medical records department. Results A total of 3,814 children were admitted in the hospital and 434 of them died giving a mortality rate of 11%. The mean age was 1.7 (Std D of 3.19). Two hundred and thirty eight of them were males while 196 of them were females giving a sex ratio of 1.2:1. Majority of the mortality (49%) occurred within 24 hours of admission. The major causes of death during neonatal period were birth asphyxia (34%), prematurity (24%) and neonatal sepsis (24%). Malaria was the leading cause of death beyond the neonatal period accounting for 42% of cases. Other common mortality causes were pneumonia, septicaemia, diarrhea, HIV AIDS and meningitis each accounting for 10%, 10%, 7%, 7% and 5% respectively. The months of July, May and March accounted for most deaths (12%, 12% and 11% respectively). Conclusion Birth asphyxia and malaria associated deaths were responsible for most deaths during neonatal and beyond neonatal periods respectively. Presence of trained personal at all deliveries will help to reduce neonatal asphyxia. Efforts should be made to reinforce the existing effective malaria control tools. PMID:25337306

Charles, Nwafor Chukwuemeka; Chuku, Abali; Anazodo, Nnoli Martin

2014-01-01

308

Benign hydatidiform mole in Ibadan, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to analyze 61 patients with benign hydatidiform mole (HM) who were admitted to the University College Hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria, during a 5-year period. The hospital incidence of HM was 1:205 pregnancies, and the condition was seen most commonly in young women, probably because early marriage is customary in our culture. Management of the condition generally was conservative because of the patients' youth. There was no correlation between HM and parity. Vaginal secondaries due to an embolic phenomenon were detected in 5% of the patients. Subsequent pregnancies followed within 6 months of treatment because the majority of the patients failed to heed medical advice to delay pregnancy for 2 years. No diagnostic problems were encountered in the patients who became pregnant during the follow-up period. PMID:28968

Ogunbode, O

1978-01-01

309

Jaundice during pregnancy in Ibadan, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The clinical features of hepatitis during pregnancy and the effect of this complication on the mother and the fetus were evaluated in 45 patients with jaundice who were treated at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, from July 1976 to January 1978. Viral hepatitis was the cause of jaundice in 23 of the 45 patients in this prospective study. Three of these patients had the fulminant type of jaundice which resulted in maternal deaths. The peak incidence of the disease occurred in the last trimester. Hepatitis had a deleterious effect on the outcome of pregnancy; the effect was directly related to the severity of the disease, especially when associated with pyrexia. It is postulated that, by lowering resistance to infection, malnutrition may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of hepatitis during pregnancy. PMID:35389

Ogunbode, O

310

First detection and molecular characterization of Ehrlichia canis from dogs in Nigeria.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to detect the presence of Ehrlichia canis in naturally infected dogs in Nigeria, using a combination of PCR and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and two genes encoding the tandem repeat-containing proteins (TRPs), TRP19 and TRP36. Out of a total of 100 blood samples collected from domestic dogs presented to veterinary hospitals in Jos, the capital city of Plateau State of Nigeria, 11 were positive in nested PCR for E. canis. Sequencing results for these amplicons showed that all of the 16S rDNA sequences (1623 bp) or the TRP19 coding sequences (414 bp) were identical to each other and had very high similarities (99.3-100%) with those from other E. canis strains accessible in GenBank. The TRP36 gene sequences derived from the 11 Nigerian isolates were identical to each other except for the number of the 27-bp repeat unit in a tandem repeat region, which was found to be 8, 12 or 18. Without considering the number of tandem repeats, these sequences had 100% identity to that of the reported Cameroon 71 isolate, but distinctly differed from those obtained from other geographically distant E. canis strains previously published. A phylogenetic tree of E. canis based on the TRP36 amino acid sequences showed that the Nigerian isolates and the Cameroon 71 isolate fell into a separate clade, indicating that they may share a common ancestor. Overall, this study not only provides the first molecular evidence of E. canis infections in dogs from Nigeria but also highlights the value of the TRP36 gene as a tool to classify E. canis isolates and to elucidate their phylogeographic relationships. PMID:22925936

Kamani, Joshua; Lee, Chung-Chan; Haruna, Ayuba M; Chung, Ping-Jun; Weka, Paul R; Chung, Yang-Tsung

2013-02-01

311

Synopsis of congenital cardiac disease among children attending University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Ituku Ozalla, Enugu  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of congenital cardiac disease among children attending UNTH, Enugu, Nigeria. The nature of these abnormalities and the outcome were also considered. The exact etiology is unknown but genetic and environmental factors tend to be implicated. The difference in the pattern obtained worldwide and few studies in Nigeria could be due to genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, or ethnic origin. Methods A retrospective analysis of discharged cases in which a review of the cases of all children attending children outpatient clinics including cardiology clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu over a five year period (January 2007-June 2012) was undertaken. All the children presenting with cardiac anomalies were included in the study and the cases were investigated using ECG, X-ray and echocardiography studies. Results A total of 31,795 children attended the children outpatient clinics of the hospital over the study period. Of these, seventy one (71) had cardiac diseases. The overall prevalence of cardiac disease is 0.22%. The commonest symptoms were breathlessness, failure to thrive and cyanosis. Almost all types of congenital detects were represented, the commonest being isolated ventricular septal detect (VSD), followed by tetralogy of Fallot. One of these cardiac anomalies presented with Downs’s syndrome and another with VACTERAL association. Conclusions The results of this study show that 0.22% per cent of children who attended UNTH in Enugu State had congenital cardiac abnormalities and the commonest forms seen were those with VSD. PMID:24252233

2013-01-01

312

Mothers’ human papilloma virus knowledge and willingness to vaccinate their adolescent daughters in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in sexually active adolescents and young women and has been implicated as a cause of the majority of cases of cervical cancer, which is the second most common cancer in women in Nigeria. HPV is preventable with the use of HPV vaccines. Objectives The objective of this study was to assess mothers’ HPV knowledge and their willingness to vaccinate their adolescent daughters in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and methods This study was a community-based, descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in July, 2012 in Shomolu Local Government Area (LGA) of Lagos State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling method was employed to select the 290 respondents who participated in the study. Structured, pretested, interviewer-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Data was analyzed with Epi Info™ version 7. Results The study revealed low awareness of HPV (27.9%) and HPV vaccines (19.7%) among the mothers that participated. There was a high awareness for cervical cancer but little knowledge of its link to HPV. Awareness and utilization of HPV vaccines increased with increasing educational level (P < 0.05). There was a high willingness and intention among the mothers to vaccinate their girls (88.9%) and to recommend the vaccine to others (91.0%). Accessibility and affordability of the HPV vaccines were found to be possible barriers to future utilization of the vaccines. Conclusion Despite low knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccines, mothers were willing to vaccinate their daughters. We recommend improving mothers’ knowledge by education and the possible inclusion of the vaccine in the national immunization schedule to eliminate the financial barrier. PMID:23874123

Ezenwa, Beatrice N; Balogun, Mobolanle R; Okafor, Ifeoma P

2013-01-01

313

Recovery and recycling practices in municipal solid waste management in Lagos, Nigeria  

SciTech Connect

The population of Lagos, the largest city in Nigeria, increased seven times from 1950 to 1980 with a current population of over 10 million inhabitants. The majority of the city's residents are poor. The residents make a heavy demand on resources and, at the same time, generate large quantities of solid waste. Approximately 4 million tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) is generated annually in the city, including approximately 0.5 million of untreated industrial waste. This is approximately 1.1 kg/cap/day. Efforts by the various waste management agencies set up by the state government to keep its streets and neighborhoods clean have achieved only minimal success. This is because more than half of these wastes are left uncollected from the streets and the various locations due to the inadequacy and inefficiency of the waste management system. Whilst the benefits of proper solid waste management (SWM), such as increased revenues for municipal bodies, higher productivity rate, improved sanitation standards and better health conditions, cannot be overemphasized, it is important that there is a reduction in the quantity of recoverable materials in residential and commercial waste streams to minimize the problem of MSW disposal. This paper examines the status of recovery and recycling in current waste management practice in Lagos, Nigeria. Existing recovery and recycling patterns, recovery and recycling technologies, approaches to materials recycling, and the types of materials recovered from MSW are reviewed. Based on these, strategies for improving recovery and recycling practices in the management of MSW in Lagos, Nigeria are suggested.

Kofoworola, O.F. [Environment Division, Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi, 91 Prachauthit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)], E-mail: sholafemi28@yahoo.com

2007-07-01

314

Twin-singleton differences in cognitive abilities in a sample of Africans in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Recent studies comparing cognitive abilities between contemporary twins and singletons in developed countries have suggested that twin deficits in cognitive abilities no longer exist. We examined cognitive abilities in a sample of twins and singletons born recently in Nigeria to determine whether recent findings can be replicated in developing countries. Our sample consisted of 413 pairs of twins and 280 singletons collected from over 45 public schools in Abuja and its neighboring states in Nigeria. The ages of twins and singletons ranged from 9 to 20 years with a mean (SD) of 14.6 years (2.2 years) for twins and 16.1 years (1.8 years) for singletons. Zygosity of the same-sex twins was determined by analysis of 16 deoxyribonucleic acid markers. We asked participants to complete a questionnaire booklet that included Standard Progressive Matrices-Plus Version (SPM+), Mill-Hill Vocabulary Scale (MHV), Family Assets Questionnaire, and demographic questions. The data were corrected for sex and age and then analyzed using maximum likelihood model-fitting analysis. Although twins and singletons were comparable in family social class indicators, singletons did better than twins across all the tests (d = 0.10 to 0.35). The average of d for SPM+ total [0.32; equivalent to 4.8 Intelligence Quotient (IQ) points] and d for MHV (0.24; equivalent to 3.6 IQ points) was 0.28 (equivalent to 4.2 IQ points), similar to the twin-singleton gap found in old cohorts in developed countries. We speculate that malnutrition, poor health, and educational systems in Nigeria may explain the persistence of twin deficits in cognitive abilities found in our sample. PMID:23835288

Hur, Yoon-Mi; Lynn, Richard

2013-08-01

315

Treatment of uncomplicated malaria at public health facilities and medicine retailers in south-eastern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background At primary care facilities in Nigeria, national treatment guidelines state that malaria should be symptomatically diagnosed and treated with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Evidence from households and health care providers indicates that many patients do not receive the recommended treatment. This study sought to determine the extent of the problem by collecting data as patients and caregivers leave health facilities, and determine what influences the treatment received. Methods A cross-sectional cluster survey of 2,039 respondents exiting public health centres, pharmacies and patent medicine dealers was undertaken in urban and rural settings in Enugu State, south-eastern Nigeria. Results Although 79% of febrile patients received an anti-malarial, only 23% received an ACT. Many patients (38%) received sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). A further 13% of patients received an artemisinin-derivative as a monotherapy. An estimated 66% of ACT dispensed was in the correct dose. The odds of a patient receiving an ACT was highly associated with consumer demand (OR: 55.5, p < 0.001). Conclusion Few febrile patients attending public health facilities, pharmacies and patent medicine dealers received an ACT, and the use of artemisinin-monotherapy and less effective anti-malarials is concerning. The results emphasize the importance of addressing both demand and supply-side influences on malaria treatment and the need for interventions that target consumer preferences as well as seek to improve health service provision. PMID:21651787

2011-01-01

316

Sequential Outbreaks Due to a New Strain of Neisseria Meningitidis Serogroup C in Northern Nigeria, 2013-14  

PubMed Central

Background Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (NmC) outbreaks occur infrequently in the African meningitis belt; the most recent report of an outbreak of this serogroup was in Burkina Faso, 1979. Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) has been responding to outbreaks of meningitis in northwest Nigeria since 2007 with no reported cases of serogroup C from 2007-2012. MenAfrivac®, a serogroup A conjugate vaccine, was first used for mass vaccination in northwest Nigeria in late 2012. Reactive vaccination using polysaccharide ACYW135 vaccine was done by MSF in parts of the region in 2008 and 2009; no other vaccination campaigns are known to have occurred in the area during this period. We describe the general characteristics of an outbreak due to a novel strain of NmC in Sokoto State, Nigeria, in 2013, and a smaller outbreak in 2014 in the adjacent state, Kebbi. Methods Information on cases and deaths was collected using a standard line-list during each week of each meningitis outbreak in 2013 and 2014 in northwest Nigeria. Initial serogroup confirmation was by rapid Pastorex agglutination tests. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from suspected meningitis patients were sent to the WHO Reference Laboratory in Oslo, where bacterial isolates, serogrouping, antimicrobial sensitivity testing, genotype characterisation and real-time PCR analysis were performed. Results In the most highly affected outbreak areas, all of the 856 and 333 clinically suspected meningitis cases were treated in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Overall attack (AR) and case fatality (CFR) rates were 673/100,000 population and 6.8% in 2013, and 165/100,000 and 10.5% in 2014. Both outbreaks affected small geographical areas of less than 150km2 and populations of less than 210,000, and occurred in neighbouring regions in two adjacent states in the successive years. Initial rapid testing identified NmC as the causative agent. Of the 21 and 17 CSF samples analysed in Oslo, NmC alone was confirmed in 11 and 10 samples in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Samples confirmed as NmC through bacterial culture had sequence type (ST)-10217. Conclusions These are the first recorded outbreaks of NmC in the region since 1979, and the sequence (ST)-10217 has not been identified anywhere else in the world. The outbreaks had similar characteristics to previously recorded NmC outbreaks. Outbreaks of NmC in 2 consecutive years in northern Nigeria indicate a possible emergence of this serogroup. Increased surveillance for multiple serogroups in the region is needed, along with consideration of vaccination with conjugate vaccines rather than for NmA alone.

Funk, Anna; Uadiale, Kennedy; Kamau, Charity; Caugant, Dominique A.; Ango, Umar; Greig, Jane

2014-01-01

317

Unmet need for contraception among clients of FP/HIV integrated services in Nigeria: the role of partner opposition.  

PubMed

While women are aware of family planning (FP) methods in Nigeria, the unmet need for modern contraception remains high. We assessed the association between male partner opposition to FP and unmet need for modern contraception among women seeking anti-retroviral therapy (ART), HIV counseling and testing (HCT) and prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services in Cross-River State, Nigeria. This secondary analysis used data from a facility-based FP/HIV integration study. Logistic regression was used to model the association of interest. Unmet need for modern contraception was high among all clients--ART (49%), HCT (75%), and PMTCT (32%). Perceived partner opposition to FP was widespread (> or = 70%); however, multivariate analysis showed no significant association with unmet need for modern contraception. Significant covariates were woman's age, marital status, parity, and previous use of modern contraception. Efforts to improve modern contraceptive use among women at risk of HIV infection in Nigeria should contemplate involving their male partners. PMID:25022150

Okigbo, Chinelo C; McCarraher, Donna R; Gwarzo, Usman; Vance, Gwyneth; Chabikuli, Otto

2014-06-01

318

Geographic Variation of Overweight and Obesity among Women in Nigeria: A Case for Nutritional Transition in Sub-Saharan Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Nutritional research in sub-Saharan Africa has primarily focused on under-nutrition. However, there is evidence of an ongoing nutritional transition in these settings. This study aimed to examine the geographic variation of overweight and obesity prevalence at the state-level among women in Nigeria, while accounting for individual-level risk factors. Methods The analysis was based on the 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS), including 27,967 women aged 15–49 years. Individual data were collected on socio-demographics, but were aggregated to the country's states. We used a Bayesian geo-additive mixed model to map the geographic distribution of overweight and obesity at the state-level, accounting for individual-level risk factors. Results The overall prevalence of combined overweight and obesity (body mass index ?25) was 20.9%. In multivariate Bayesian geo-additive models, higher education [odds ratio (OR) & 95% Credible Region (CR): 1.68 (1.38, 2.00)], higher wealth index [3.45 (2.98, 4.05)], living in urban settings [1.24 (1.14, 1.36)] and increasing age were all significantly associated with a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity. There was also a striking variation in overweight/obesity prevalence across ethnic groups and state of residence, the highest being in Cross River State, in south-eastern Nigeria [2.32 (1.62, 3.40)], the lowest in Osun State in south-western Nigeria [0.48 (0.36, 0.61)]. Conclusions This study suggests distinct geographic patterns in the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity among Nigerian women, as well as the role of demographic, socio-economic and environmental factors in the ongoing nutritional transition in these settings. PMID:24979753

Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Stranges, Saverio

2014-01-01

319

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Three Leprosy Case Detection Methods in Northern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Despite several leprosy control measures in Nigeria, child proportion and disability grade 2 cases remain high while new cases have not significantly reduced, suggesting continuous spread of the disease. Hence, there is the need to review detection methods to enhance identification of early cases for effective control and prevention of permanent disability. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of three leprosy case detection methods in Northern Nigeria to identify the most cost-effective approach for detection of leprosy. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the additional benefits of using several case detection methods in addition to routine practice in two north-eastern states of Nigeria. Primary and secondary data were collected from routine practice records and the Nigerian Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Programme of 2009. The methods evaluated were Rapid Village Survey (RVS), Household Contact Examination (HCE) and Traditional Healers incentive method (TH). Effectiveness was measured as number of new leprosy cases detected and cost-effectiveness was expressed as cost per case detected. Costs were measured from both providers' and patients' perspectives. Additional costs and effects of each method were estimated by comparing each method against routine practise and expressed as incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). All costs were converted to the U.S. dollar at the 2010 exchange rate. Univariate sensitivity analysis was used to evaluate uncertainties around the ICER. Results The ICER for HCE was $142 per additional case detected at all contact levels and it was the most cost-effective method. At ICER of $194 per additional case detected, THs method detected more cases at a lower cost than the RVS, which was not cost-effective at $313 per additional case detected. Sensitivity analysis showed that varying the proportion of shared costs and subsistent wage for valuing unpaid time did not significantly change the results. Conclusion Complementing routine practice with household contact examination is the most cost-effective approach to identify new leprosy cases and we recommend that, depending on acceptability and feasibility, this intervention is introduced for improved case detection in Northern Nigeria. PMID:23029580

Ezenduka, Charles; Post, Erik; John, Steven; Suraj, Abdulkarim; Namadi, Abdulahi; Onwujekwe, Obinna

2012-01-01

320

Knowledge of safe motherhood among women in rural communities in northern Nigeria: implications for maternal mortality reduction  

PubMed Central

Background Most developed countries have made considerable progress in addressing maternal mortality, but it appears that countries with high maternal mortality burdens like Nigeria have made little progress in improving maternal health outcomes despite emphasis by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Knowledge about safe motherhood practices could help reduce pregnancy related health risks. This study examines knowledge of safe motherhood among women in selected rural communities in northern Nigeria. Methods This was a cross-sectional study carried out in two states (Kaduna and Kano States) within northern Nigeria. Pretested, interviewer-administered questionnaires were applied by female data collectors to 540 randomly selected women who had recently delivered within the study site. Chi-square tests were used to determine possible association between variables during bivariate analysis. Variables significant in the bivariate analysis were subsequently entered into a multivariate logistic regression analysis. The degree of association was estimated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) between knowledge of maternal danger signs and independent socio-demographic as well as obstetric history variables which indicated significance at p< 0.05. Results Over 90% of respondents in both states showed poor knowledge of the benefits of health facility delivery by a skilled birth attendant. More than 80% of respondents in both states displayed poor knowledge of the benefits of ANC visits. More than half of the respondents across both states had poor knowledge of maternal danger signs. According to multivariate regression analysis, ever attending school by a respondent increased the likelihood of knowing maternal danger signs by threefold (OR 2.63, 95% CI: 1.2-5.8) among respondents in Kaduna State. While attendance at ANC visits during most recent pregnancy increased the likelihood of knowing maternal danger signs by twofold among respondents in Kano State (OR 2.05, 95% CI: 1.1-3.9) and threefold among respondents in Kaduna State (OR 3.33, 95% CI: 1.6-7.2). Conclusion This study found generally poor knowledge about safe motherhood practices among female respondents within selected rural communities in northern Nigeria. Knowledge of safe pregnancy practices among some women in rural communities is strongly associated with attendance at ANC visits, being employed or acquiring some level of education. Increasing knowledge about safe motherhood practices should translate into safer pregnancy outcomes and subsequently lead to lower maternal mortality across the developing world. PMID:24160692

2013-01-01

321

Cancrum oris: its incidence and treatment in Enugu, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Three Nigerian African patients (two boys aged 5 and 14 and one woman aged 28) with cancrum oris (noma) were seen over a period of 10 years at the maxillofacial unit of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. All three were from lower socioeconomic groups, and were treated with penicillin and metronidazole. The few patients that we saw (three in 10 years) contrasts with the much larger number of patients seen at the maxillofacial unit of the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Kaduna, Northern Nigeria (140 in 4 years) and University College Hospital, Ibadan, Western Nigeria (250 in 3 years). Nutritional cultures differ in these areas, and I suggest that the more balanced diet of the Eastern Nigerians may be one of the reasons for this difference. Poverty is the single most important risk factor, and preventive measures are necessary. PMID:12379187

Oji, Chima

2002-10-01

322

Genotyping by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA of bacteriocin producing Lactobacillus acidophilus strains from Nigeria.  

PubMed

Yogurt and starter culture producers are still searching strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus to produce healthier yogurt with a longer shelf life and better texture, taste, and quality. This study determined the genotyping of bacteriocin producing Lactobacillus acidophilus strains recovered from Nigerian yogurts. Yogurt samples were collected from four different states of South West regions of Nigeria. Isolates were obtained from MRS Medium and biochemically characterized. This was further confirmed by API50CH. The bacteriocin positivity and activity was determined. Genomic characterization of our Lactobacillus acidophilus strains was done with randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR. All yogurt samples containing Lactobacillus acidophilus strains meet the probiotic requirement of ?10(6) cfu/mL. The gel picture revealed 6 RAPD clonal types of Lactobacillus acidophilus strains with RAPD type C observed to be more common. Significant differences existed in the mean growth inhibition zone (t = -7.32, P < 0.05 for E. coli ATCC; t = -6.19, P < 0.05 for E. coli clinical isolates; t = -6.16, P < 0.05 for Enterobacter sp; t = -11.92, P < 0.05 for Salmonella typhi, t = -1.10, P > 0.05 Staphylococcus aureus). No correlation between the bacteriocin production, activity, and their RAPD clonal division (X(2) = 7.49, P = 0.1610, df = 5). In conclusion, L. acidophilus isolated in Nigeria samples met the probiotic requirements of ?10(6) cfu/mL and produce bacteriocins with good spectrum of activity. PMID:25153762

Alli, John Adeolu; Iwalokun, Bamidele A; Oluwadun, Afolabi; Okonko, Iheanyi Omezuruike

2015-01-01

323

Community-level distribution of misoprostol to prevent postpartum hemorrhage at home births in northern Nigeria.  

PubMed

In Nigeria, most deaths due to postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) occur in the absence of skilled birth attendants. A study using community mobilization and the training of community drug keepers to increase access to misoprostol for PPH prevention was conducted in five communities around Zaria in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Community-oriented resource persons (CORPs) and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) recruited and counseled pregnant women on bleeding after delivery, the importance of delivery at a health facility, and the role of misoprostol. Drug keepers stored and dispensed misoprostol during a woman's third trimester of pregnancy. TBAs and CORPs enrolled 1,875 women from January through December 2009. These results are based on 1,577 completed postpartum interviews. Almost all women delivered at home (95%) and skilled attendance at delivery was low (7%). The availability of misoprostol protected 83% of women who delivered at home against PPH who otherwise would not have been protected. Policymakers working in similar contexts should consider utilizing commuity-level distribution models to reach women with this life-saving intervention. PMID:25022154

Ejembi, Clara; Shittu, Oladapo; Moran, Molly; Adiri, Faraouk; Oguntunde, Olugbenga; Saadatu, Babalafia; Aku-Akai, Larai; Abdul, Mohammed A; Ajayi, Victor; Williams, Natalie; Prata, Ndola

2014-06-01

324

Private medical providers' knowledge and practices concerning medical abortion in Nigeria.  

PubMed

To investigate the knowledge and practices regarding medical abortion and postabortion care in northern Nigeria among private physicians--the principal providers of such services in the area--122 doctors operating separate clinics in five states--Bauchi, Borno, Kaduna, Niger, and Taraba--were interviewed by means of a structured questionnaire. The results showed that 22 percent of the doctors reported that they terminate unwanted pregnancies, whereas nearly all reported that they manage complications of unsafe abortion. Manual vacuum aspiration and dilatation and curettage performed singly or in combination were the most common methods of abortion and postabortion care reported by the doctors. Only one doctor reported exclusive use of medical abortion in the first trimester, and three reported its exclusive use in the second trimester. Only 35 percent of the doctors listed misoprostol as a drug that they knew could be used for abortion and postabortion care, and only 12 percent listed mifepristone. By contrast, 49 percent listed inappropriate or dangerous drugs for use in abortion provision in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. We conclude that private practitioners in northern Nigeria have limited knowledge of medical abortion and postabortion care, and that a capacity-building program on the subject should be instituted for them. PMID:21500700

Okonofua, Friday E; Hammed, Afolabi; Abass, Tajudeen; Mairiga, Abdulkarim Garba; Mohammed, Abubakar Bako; Adewale, Adeniyi; Garba, Danjuma

2011-03-01

325

Problems of obstetric care in Nigeria.  

PubMed

The problems of obstetric care in Nigeria are multifactorial, enormous but represent inevitable evolutionary stages through which every community in the world must pass. In a population of around 90 million, there is one doctor for every 11,000 people and only 35% of the population is at present covered by any form of modern health care services. There are fewer than 500 doctors with specialist obstetric qualifications and many of them are concentrated in the large cities. A disquietingly small number (17%) of our women are delivered by personnel with modern obstetric knowledge; 83% are delivered by traditional birth attendants. The maternal mortality rate is around 8/1000, and the perinatal mortality is about 60/1000. Currently less than 20% of the population is educated. Only 3% of the national budget is devoted to health. A proper communication system so vital to the establishment of liaison between doctors and the community of patients is virtually non-existent. These problems are compounded by hostile environmental factors. A mixture of tribal, superstitious and religious practices permit marriages as early as 10 years of age and prevent women in labor from seeking medical attention in a timely fashion. Fortunately programmes for improved obstetric care are being expanded. Thus the present difficulty of working in an unfavorable and challenging situation may well be worthwhile. PMID:6152235

Ogunbode, O

1984-12-01

326

The Impact of Wireless Phone Technology on Users in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies have shown that with the increasing diffusion of cell phones in Nigeria have come with problems such as network congestion, service inefficiencies, rising costs, and increased taxes. The purpose of this study was to examine and explore which, if any, sociopersonal variables (theft of handsets, educational levels, security risk) and…

Ezenezi, Robins E.

2010-01-01

327

Computer Usage as Instructional Resources for Vocational Training in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of computers has become the driving force in the delivery of instruction of today's vocational education and training (VET) in Nigeria. Though computers have become an increasingly accessible resource for educators to use in their teaching activities, most teachers are still unable to integrate it in their teaching and learning processes.…

Oguzor, Nkasiobi Silas

2011-01-01

328

The History of the Soil Science Society of Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Soil Science Society of Nigeria (SSSN) founded in 1968, is a registered member of the African Soil Science Association, International Union of Soil Science and the Global Soil Partnership. The Society aims at promoting and fostering better understanding of basic and applied Soil Science in Nigeria. The society also strives to enhance the dissemination of knowledge in all aspects of Soil science and shares ideas with National and International Societies through conferences, symposium, lectures, seminars and journal publications. The numerical strength of the society is 600 members (student, ordinary ,life and corporate). The soil science society of Nigeria has provided invaluable services in the formulation of agricultural land and fertilizer use strategies and policies of the country. The existing reconnaissance soil map of Nigeria typifies one of the major professional services rendered to the country by the society and its members. Despite the numerous contributions the society has made to the advancement of soil science in the country, the larger society is not aware of the its existence. This is largely because of our limited soil extension activities to land users due to lack of funds. If the society can attract donor funds, this will go a long way in enhancing the capacity and capability of the society.

Okechukwu Chude, Victor

2013-04-01

329

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Ethnoreligious Conflict in Jos, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In September 2001, ethnoreligious rioting occurred in Jos, Nigeria. Using a multistage cluster sampling technique, 290 respondents were recruited in Jos 7 to 9 months after the riots. Data were collected regarding demographics, exposure to traumatic events, and psychological symptoms. Resting pulse and blood pressure were recorded. A total of 145…

Obilom, Rose E.; Thacher, Tom D.

2008-01-01

330

Estimation of Air Traffic Accident Cost in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project proposes an accident cost estimation model in the aviation industry in Nigeria. The model takes into consideration the probability of accidents and the cost of the potential consequences. Potential consequences of accidents are classified as human severity, property damage, and economic implications. The three classes of accidents identified in this study were fatal, serious, and minor. The cost

K. A. Adebiyi

331

Behavioural Constraints on Practices of Auditing in Nigeria (BCPAN)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research was conducted to determine the behavioural constraints on practices of auditing (BCPAN) in Nigeria and to proffer strategies for making incidence of auditing (internal and external auditors) more effective. Thirty-seven administrators drawn from some public limited liability companies, private companies and tertiary institutions were…

Akpomi, Margaret E.; Amesi, Joy

2009-01-01

332

Awareness and Practice of Professional Ethics amongst Librarians in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is focused on the awareness and practicability of Librarianship ethics amongst librarians. Survey questionnaire was designed to identify the degree of awareness of librarianship ethics amongst librarians in Nigeria, whether the ethics are feasible and being utilized by librarians in their day to day library management, and to find out…

Igbeka, J. U.; Okoroma, F. N.

2013-01-01

333

Social Work Practice with Childbirth-Injured Women in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviewed social workers in Nigeria and 127 patients suffering from childbirth injuries of vesicovaginal fistula (VVF), debilitating and chronic condition whereby woman leaks urine uncontrollably and experiences grave social consequences. Crisis intervention, social rehabilitation, fighting stigma, and discharge planning similar to American…

Ojanuga, Durrenda

1994-01-01

334

Chlamydial genital infection in Ibadan, Nigeria. A seroepidemiological survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sera from patients attending a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic, a family planning clinic, and an antenatal clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria, as well as from male blood donors from the same area were tested for the presence of type specific antichlamydial antibodies using a modified micro-immunofluorescence test. Among men and women attending the STD clinic the exposure rates to Chlamydia

S Darougar; T Forsey; A O Osoba; R J Dines; B Adelusi; G O Coker

1982-01-01

335

LANGUAGE, ETHNIC IDENTITY AND SOCIAL CHANGE IN SOUTHERN NIGERIA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE INHABITANTS OF THE OIL RIVERS OR RIVERS SECTION OF SOUTHERN NIGERIA ARE DIVIDED BY HISTORY, GEOGRAPHY, AND LANGUAGE INTO TWO GROUPS--THE COASTAL PEOPLES AND THE HINTERLAND PEOPLES. COASTAL DIALECTS BELONG TO THE IJO GROUP OF LANGUAGES WHILE THE HINTERLAND DIALECTS ARE OF ANOTHER LANGUAGE FAMILY. DURING THE 19TH CENTURY THE HINTERLAND PEOPLES…

WOLFF, HANS

336

Motivations for Gang Membership in Lagos, Nigeria: Challenge and Resilience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study explores the major challenges (in the form of risk factors) that may influence unemployed youths' involvement in gang and criminal activity in Lagos, Nigeria. A combination of techniques (e.g., oral, in-depth interviews, and questionnaires) were used for the data collection. The computed outcomes establish some of the major…

Salaam, Abeeb Olufemi

2011-01-01

337

Survey of the Reasons for Dental Extraction in Eastern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Extraction of teeth is the commonest surgical procedure carried out in the dental surgery setting. Aim: The purpose of this survey was to identify the causes of teeth extraction in Eastern Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Record forms for entering data and a self-addressed return envelope were distributed to 100 dental surgeons in Eastern Nigeria using a simple random selection. Results: Seventy-one (71; 71/100) dentists responded to the request and the total extractions carried out were 3998. There were 1508 (37.7%) extractions in males and 2490 (62.3%) in females with male-to-female extraction ratio of 1:1.7. In both male and female gender, there were more teeth extractions between the ages of 11 and 30 years. Extractions were recorded more in the lower social class (47.6%; 1903/3998). There were more extractions in the permanent (85.0%; 3398/3998) than deciduous (15.0%; 600/3998). The commonest reasons for teeth extraction were caries (55.2%; 2208/3998). Conclusion: The result of this study shows that dental caries is the commonest reason for tooth extraction in Eastern Nigeria. It is hoped that the study will facilitate the development of treatment and preventive procedures relevant to the problems observed in this part of Nigeria, thus minimizing the loss of teeth and its expected adverse consequences. PMID:23440287

Anyanechi, C; Chukwuneke, F

2012-01-01

338

Skills Mismatch among University Graduates in the Nigeria Labor Market  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University graduates in Nigeria have been reported to be poorly prepared for work in recent years. This has implications on the relevance of university education, the employability and productivity of university graduates. One of the reasons suggested for this condition by previous studies was skill mismatch--a situation where there is a disparity…

Pitan, Oluyomi S.; Adedeji, S. O.

2012-01-01

339

Household Cooking Fuel Use among Residents of a Sub-Urban Community in Nigeria: Implications for Indoor Air Pollution  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the types of household cooking fuel used by residents of Isiohor community in Edo State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 133 household heads or their representatives in Isiohor Community in Edo State, Nigeria. Data collection was by means of a structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Results: Half (50.3%) of the households studied were made up of 4-6 persons living in them. Sixty-two (46.6%) respondents had tertiary level of education and a third 44 (33.1%) earned between 21,000 and 30,000 naira (150-200 dollars) monthly. Forty six (34.6%) and 27 (20.3%) respondents live in passage houses and flats respectively. Two thirds (68.4%) of the respondents cook their food indoors. The predominant household cooking fuels used by the respondents were cooking gas (51.1%), Kerosene (45.9%), vegetables (25.6%) and firewood (14.3%). Majority 106 (79.7%) had poor knowledge of the health effects of prolonged exposure to smoke arising from indoor cooking. There was a statistically significant association between the occupation of the respondents and the type of household cooking fuel used (p=0.002). Conclusion: The use of unclean indoor cooking fuel was high among the residents of Isiohor community in Edo State, Nigeria. Also, there was poor knowledge of the health effects of prolonged exposure to smoke from unclean cooking fuel among the respondents and this has serious implications for indoor air pollution. There is an urgent need for health/hygiene education on the health effects of use of unclean indoor cooking fuel among these residents. There is also need for use of clean/green cooking stoves and construction of exhaust ventilation pipes in these households. PMID:25610326

Isara, Alphonsus Rukevwe; Aigbokhaode, Adesuwa Queen

2014-01-01

340

Evaluation of the neighborhood environment walkability scale in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The development of reliable and culturally sensitive measures of attributes of the built and social environment is necessary for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in low-income countries, that can inform international evidence-based policies and interventions in the worldwide prevention of physical inactivity epidemics. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for Nigeria and evaluated aspects of reliability and validity of the adapted version among Nigerian adults. Methods The adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by African and international experts, and final items were selected for NEWS-Nigeria after a cross-validation of the confirmatory factor analysis structure of the original NEWS. Participants (N?=?386; female?=?47.2%) from two cities in Nigeria completed the adapted NEWS surveys regarding perceived residential density, land use mix – diversity, land use mix – access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. Self-reported activity for leisure, walking for different purposes, and overall physical activity were assessed with the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long version). Results The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.59 –0.91). Construct validity was good, with residents of high-walkable neighborhoods reporting significantly higher residential density, more land use mix diversity, higher street connectivity, more traffic safety and more safety from crime, but lower infrastructure and safety for walking/cycling and aesthetics than residents of low-walkable neighborhoods. Concurrent validity correlations were low to moderate (r?=?0.10 –0.31) with residential density, land use mix diversity, and traffic safety significantly associated with most physical activity outcomes. Conclusions The NEWS-Nigeria demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Nigerian adults and may be useful for evaluation of the built environment in Nigeria. Further adaptation and evaluation in other African countries is needed to create a version that could be used throughout the African region. PMID:23514561

2013-01-01

341

Use of complementary and alternative medicine by cancer patients at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) by cancer patients is very common and varies between populations. The referenced English literature has no local study from Africa on this subject. This study was conducted to define the prevalence, pattern of use, and factors influencing the use of CAM by cancer patients at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital

Emmanuel R Ezeome; Agnes N Anarado

2007-01-01

342

Sexual assault in Ile-Ife, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Sexual assault (SA) is a shattering malevolence against women. This study determined the burden, periodicity, presentation and management of SA in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of the hospital records of 76 SA survivors managed over a 5-year period (2007-2011) in Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals complex (OAUTHC), Ile-Ife. Results: Sexual assault accounted for 0.69% of all female and 5.2% of all gynaecological emergencies in OAUTHC, Ile-Ife. The survivors’ ages ranged from 4 to 50 years (mean = 17.7 ± 8.8years) and adolescents made up for 48%. The peak prevalence of SA was in February and December and among adults and under-16-year-old survivors, respectively. Daytime and weekday SA were significantly more common among the under-16-year-old survivors (P = 0.008). Majority of the survivors (62%) knew their assailant(s). Neighbours were the commonest perpetrators identified (28.2%) and the assailants’ house was the commonest location (39.4%). Weapons were involved in 29.6% of cases and various injuries were identified in 28.2% of the survivors. Hospital presentation was within 24 hours in majority (76.1%) of the survivors, but rape kit examinations were not performed as the kits were not available. Although appropriate medical management was routinely commenced, only 12.7% of survivors returned for follow-up. Conclusions: Seasonal and diurnal patterns exist in the prevalence of SA in Ile-Ife and most survivors that reported in the hospital presented early. Rape kit examinations were, however, not executed, due to non-availability. Personnel training, protocol development, provision of rape kits and free treatment of SA survivors are, therefore, recommended. Public enlightenment on preventive strategies based on the observed periodicity and age patterns is also suggested. PMID:25013260

Badejoko, Olusegun Olalekan; Anyabolu, Henry Chineme; Badejoko, Bolaji Olusola; Ijarotimi, Adebimpe Omotade; Kuti, Oluwafemi; Adejuyigbe, Ebunoluwa Aderonke

2014-01-01

343

Serotyping of Salmonella strains in south-west Nigeria: epidemiological aspects.  

PubMed

In June 1986, 216 stool samples from Abeokuta (Ogun State, Nigeria) were examined for Salmonella. The samples were taken from people of all age groups: 162 samples were diarrheal. Salmonella could be isolated in nine samples (4.16%). The high prevalence of Salmonella among children under the age of 5 was striking; seven out of 79 samples (8.86%) were positive. The following serotypes were identified: S.mbandaka, S.gold coast, S.durham, S.antsalova, S.wippra, S.agama and S.isangi. S.agama and S.durham were also identified from household wall lizards which are an important reservoir for Salmonella in West Africa. PMID:3262554

Mascher, F; Reinthaler, F F; Sixl, W

1988-01-01

344

Radon measurements by nuclear track detectors in secondary schools in Oke-Ogun region, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Radon measurements were performed in secondary schools in the Oke-Ogun area, South-west, Nigeria, by solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). About seventy CR-39 detectors were distributed in 35 high schools of the Oke-Ogun area. The CR-39 detectors were exposed in the schools for 3 months and then etched in NaOH 6 N solution at 90 °C for 3 h. The tracks were counted manually at the microscope and the radon concentration was determined at the Radioactivity Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy. The overall average radon concentration in the surveyed area was 45 ± 27 Bq m(-3). The results indicate no radiological health hazard. The research also focused on parameters affecting radon concentrations such as the age of the building in relation to building materials and floor number of the classrooms. The results show that radon concentrations in ground floors are higher than in upper floors. PMID:21782296

Obed, R I; Ademola, A K; Vascotto, M; Giannini, G

2011-11-01

345

Agro-ecological features of the introduction and spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in northern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Nigeria was the first African country to report highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus outbreaks in February 2006 and has since been the most severely hit country in sub-Saharan Africa. A retrospective survey carried out towards the end of 2007, coupled with follow-up spatial analysis, support the notion that the H5N1 virus may have spread from rural areas of northern Nigeria near wetlands frequented by palaearctic migratory birds. Possibly, this could have happened already during November to December 2005, one or two months prior to the first officially reported outbreak in a commercial poultry farm (Kaduna state). It is plausible that backyard poultry played a more important role in the H5N1 propagation than thought previously. Farming landscapes with significant numbers of domestic ducks may have helped to bridge the geographical and ecological gap between the waterfowl in the wetlands and the densely populated poultry rich states in north-central Nigeria, where the virus had more sizeable, visible impact. PMID:19021104

Cecchi, Giuliano; Ilemobade, Albert; Le Brun, Yvon; Hogerwerf, Lenny; Slingenbergh, Jan

2008-11-01

346

Retinopathy of prematurity in port harcourt, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Purpose. With many preterm babies now surviving as a result of improvement in neonatal care in Nigeria, the incidence of visual impairment/blindness as a result of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) may rise. We describe our findings after screening starts for the first time in a 15-year-old special care baby unit so as to establish the incidence and risk factors for developing ROP. Methods. A prospective study carried out at the Special Care Baby Unit (SCBU) and Pediatric Outpatient Clinics of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital between January 1 and October 31, 2012. Fifty-three preterm babies (of 550 neonates admitted within the study period) delivered before 32 completed weeks and weighing less than 1500?g were included in the study following informed consent and the main outcome measure was the development of any stage of ROP. Results. Mean gestational age at birth was 28.98 ± 1.38 weeks. Mean birth weight was 1411 ± 128?g. Out of 550 babies admitted at SCBU, 87 of 100 preterms survived with 53 included in study. Twenty-five (47.2%) had different degrees of ROP with prevalence found to be 47.2%. Prevalence was higher (75%) in babies weighing <1300?g and those delivered before 30-week gestation (58%). Twenty-one (84%) had stage 1 no plus disease and 3 (12%) had stage 2 no plus disease. Only 1 (4%) had threshold disease in Zone 1. None had disease at stage 4 or 5 or AP-ROP. Receiving supplemental oxygen (? (2) = 6.17; P = 0.01), presence of sepsis (? (2) = 7.47; P = 0.006), multiple blood transfusions (? (2) = 5.11; P = 0.02), and delivery by caesarian section (? (2) = 4.22; P = 0.04) were significantly associated with development of ROP. There were no significant differences with gender, apneic spells, jaundice, or phototherapy. Conclusions and Relevance. All live infants with ROP were noted to regress spontaneously in this study. Though it may not be cost effective to acquire treatment facilities at the moment (the only child with treatable disease died), facilities for screening preterm infants displaying high risk features may be essential as smaller babies are saved. PMID:24649375

Adio, Adedayo O; Ugwu, Rosemary O; Nwokocha, Chidi G; Eneh, Augusta U

2014-01-01

347

Retinopathy of Prematurity in Port Harcourt, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Purpose. With many preterm babies now surviving as a result of improvement in neonatal care in Nigeria, the incidence of visual impairment/blindness as a result of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) may rise. We describe our findings after screening starts for the first time in a 15-year-old special care baby unit so as to establish the incidence and risk factors for developing ROP. Methods. A prospective study carried out at the Special Care Baby Unit (SCBU) and Pediatric Outpatient Clinics of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital between January 1 and October 31, 2012. Fifty-three preterm babies (of 550 neonates admitted within the study period) delivered before 32 completed weeks and weighing less than 1500?g were included in the study following informed consent and the main outcome measure was the development of any stage of ROP. Results. Mean gestational age at birth was 28.98 ± 1.38 weeks. Mean birth weight was 1411 ± 128?g. Out of 550 babies admitted at SCBU, 87 of 100 preterms survived with 53 included in study. Twenty-five (47.2%) had different degrees of ROP with prevalence found to be 47.2%. Prevalence was higher (75%) in babies weighing <1300?g and those delivered before 30-week gestation (58%). Twenty-one (84%) had stage 1 no plus disease and 3 (12%) had stage 2 no plus disease. Only 1 (4%) had threshold disease in Zone 1. None had disease at stage 4 or 5 or AP-ROP. Receiving supplemental oxygen (?2 = 6.17; P = 0.01), presence of sepsis (?2 = 7.47; P = 0.006), multiple blood transfusions (?2 = 5.11; P = 0.02), and delivery by caesarian section (?2 = 4.22; P = 0.04) were significantly associated with development of ROP. There were no significant differences with gender, apneic spells, jaundice, or phototherapy. Conclusions and Relevance. All live infants with ROP were noted to regress spontaneously in this study. Though it may not be cost effective to acquire treatment facilities at the moment (the only child with treatable disease died), facilities for screening preterm infants displaying high risk features may be essential as smaller babies are saved. PMID:24649375

Adio, Adedayo O.; Ugwu, Rosemary O.; Nwokocha, Chidi G.; Eneh, Augusta U.

2014-01-01

348

HELLP syndrome: the experience at Ile-Ife, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Between 1 January and 31 December, 2006, 34 consecutive cases of severe pre-eclampsia (12), imminent eclampsia (10) and eclampsia (12) who were admitted at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife in the south-western part of Nigeria, were investigated for the development of HELLP (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count) syndrome in a prospective study. The ages of the women ranged from 18 to 38 years, parity 0-5 and the estimated gestational age from 18-41 weeks at presentation. A total of 26 (76.5%) of the patients were unbooked, six (17.6%) of the 34 cases developed HELLP syndrome. Four (33%) of the 12 eclamptics developed HELLP syndrome, while only one (10%) of the cases of imminent eclampsia and 1 (8.3%) of severe pre-eclamptic cases developed the syndrome. Using the Mississippi Triple class system, none of the HELLP syndrome cases belonged to Class I; 4 were categorised in Class II while 2 were in Class III. All of the four eclamptic cases with HELLP syndrome died giving a 100% fatality rate while none of the imminent eclamptic and severe pre-eclamptic patients with the syndrome died. Furthermore, there were six (15.8%) perinatal deaths among the 38 infants delivered by the 34 mothers with severe pre-eclampsia/eclampsia. Our data suggest that the development of HELLP syndrome is more likely in eclamptic patients and when it occurs in them, it is highly fatal. Most of the cases in this study were unbooked. Substandard care may have contributed to the progression of the disease state and consequently, to maternal mortality. It is imperative to draw up an action plan for the identification of the risk factors for the development of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia at peripheral hospitals and maternity centres and for prompt referral of such cases afterwards. Efforts should also be geared towards the minimising of treatment delay in all phases, so as to minimise both perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:19358023

Makinde, O N; Adegoke, O A; Adediran, I A; Ndububa, D A; Adeyemi, A B; Owolabi, A T; Kuti, O; Orji, E O; Salawu, L

2009-04-01

349

Production and chemical evaluation of some food condiments of Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study was aimed at investigating the nutrient and tannin composition of fermented legume seeds (oil bean, castor oil bean and African locust bean) used as food condiments in Nigeria. The legume seeds were purchased from local retailers, cleaned and subjected to varied fermentation periods. Standard assay techniques were adopted to analyze the parameters selected for use. The 4-day fermentation period caused the highest increases in protein and tannin and decreases in ash, lipids and non-protein nitrogen (NPN). The pulp of African locust bean had more protein an ash and the oil bean seeds less lipids and NPN. Fermentation times had varied effects on mineral levels. Fermentation for 4 d increased zinc, sodium and phosphorus except sodium for the African locust bean. The pulp had lower Zn and phosphorus than the seed. Fermentation for 4 d offers a greater advantage over other periods for production of nutritious and cheap food condiments in Nigeria. PMID:8295864

Obizoba, I C; Atu, L N

1993-11-01

350

Yaws and syphilis in the Garkida area of Nigeria.  

PubMed

Sixty-four (4.2%) cases of yaws and forty-one (2.7%) cases of syphilis were encountered during an epidemiological survey for filariasis in the mid-Hawal river valley. This finding is despite the official position that yaws has been eradicated in Nigeria. The focus of the disease was localised in four of the six villages that were surveyed in the Garkida area of the valley. The disease was more common among farmers than among occupational groups. Aspart from yaws, syphilis (2.7%) which is another treponematoid infection was also encountered during the filariasis survey. The present findings imply that there still exists a benign transmission of the disease in the area and unless an immediate and effective control programme is initiated, yaws may still become a very important disease in Nigeria. The epidemiological aspects and public health implication of treponematosis especially of yaws, in this area are discussed. PMID:10096171

Akogun, O B

1999-02-01

351

Retained placenta: a cause of reproductive morbidity in Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study analysed the reproductive morbidity associated with 91 cases of retained placenta at the Obafemi Awolowo University Hospital in Nigeria. The incidence of retained placenta in the hospital was 1.4% of all deliveries. Over 42% of the patients were admitted in haemorrhagic shock; 56.5% were anaemic, 10.6% severely; 17% had puerperal sepsis while 67% of the women received blood transfusions. There was one maternal death (1%). Unbooked patients (74%) constituted the largest proportion of cases while inappropriate management of the third stage of labour featured in many of the patients. Retained placenta was treated with manual removal in 90% of cases. Properly supervised delivery is an important component in efforts to reduce the incidence of morbidity associated with retained placenta in Nigeria. PMID:15512329

Onwudiegwu, U; Makinde, O N

1999-07-01

352

Indoor radon survey in a university campus of Nigeria  

PubMed Central

CR-39 tracketch detectors were used for the measurement of 222Rn concentration in 24 offices in Nigeria’s oldest university campus in order to estimate the effective dose to the occupants from 222Rn and its progeny. The dosimetric measurements were made over a period of 3 months. Questionnaires were distributed and analyzed. The radon concentration ranged from 157 to 495 Bq/m3, with an arithmetic mean and standard deviation of 293.3 and 79.6 Bq/ m3, respectively. The effective dose to the workers was estimated and this varied from 0.99 to 3.12 mSv/ y, with a mean of 1.85 mSv/y. The radon concentrations were found to be within the reference levels of ICRP. PMID:21170190

Obed, R. I.; Lateef, H. T.; Ademola, A. K.

2010-01-01

353

Information literacy programmes in Nigeria: a survey of 36 university libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of the paper is to examine the various information literacy (IL) practices in university libraries in Nigeria, to identify the likely barriers facing information literacy programmes in Nigeria, and to provide suggestions on how best to improve the IL practices. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Librarians from 36 university libraries participated in the survey which adopted an online method.

Emmanuel E. Baro; Timi Zuokemefa

2011-01-01

354

Oil in the economic development of Nigeria (optimum utilization of oil revenues in economic growth)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nigeria's economy experienced stunted growth in 1973-84 period in spite of the huge inflow of oil revenues. This dissertation addresses the issue of optimal utilization of oil revenues to promote Nigeria's economic growth. The study begins by reviewing the behavior of the oil market and the experiences of some industrialized oil-exporting countries (Netherlands, Britain and Norway), focusing on the general

Nnaji

1987-01-01

355

The Rise of Islamism in Nigeria: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of Religious Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the unique religious landscape that Nigeria offers. The northern half of Nigeria is largely Muslim and identifies ethnically as Hausa or Fulani, whereas the south is predominantly Christian and identi- fies as Yoruba and Igbo. Poverty levels are concentrated slightly more than two times higher in the north than in the south, and recent political corruption

Tseleq Yusef

356

Attitude and use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria has not been widely studied. METHODS: Opinion of 595 pregnant women in three geopolitical zones in Nigeria on the use of herbal medicines, safety on usage, knowledge of potential effects of herbal remedies on the fetus and potential benefits or harms that may be derived from combining herbal remedies

Titilayo O Fakeye; Rasaq Adisa; Ismail E Musa

2009-01-01

357

Patients’ satisfaction with emergency care and priorities for change in a university teaching hospital in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little work has been done on patients’ satisfaction with hospital care in Nigeria. This prospective study was done to identify factors affecting patients’ satisfaction with emergency care in a teaching hospital in Nigeria. This study was carried out among adult patients who had received care at the Accident and Emergency unit of the hospital. We used the priority index (calculated

Kehinde Oluwadiya; Samuel A. Olatoke; Adekunle J. Ariba; Omotola A. Omotosho; Olakunle A. Olakulehin

2010-01-01

358

Utilization-Based Analysis of Health Staffing Needs at the Primary Heath Care Level in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Nigeria has inadequate human resource for health (HRH) information necessary for planning and management. HRH requirements of Nigeria are established using population based estimations which are better suited for long term planning. The dynamic short and medium term management of human resources needs to take service utilization into account. As part of its systems strengthening effort, Family Health International

Nkata Chuku; Ogo Chukwujekwu; Ekechi Okereke; Jerome Mafeni; Otto Chabikuli; Christoph Hamelmann

2010-01-01

359

Current evidence on the burden of head and neck cancers in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Head and neck cancers (HNC) constitute 5–8% of total body cancers in Europe and America. It is difficult to appreciate the problem of cancers in Nigeria because most studies available are hospital-based studies. The aim of this study is to highlight current evidence on the burden of head and neck cancers in Nigeria based on literature review and to

Opubo B da Lilly-Tariah; Abayomi O Somefun; Wasiu L Adeyemo

2009-01-01

360

Socioeconomic Situations of the Elderly within the Context of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is still unknown how the MDGs have impacted the socioeconomic situations of the elderly in Nigeria. This has become essential to appraise the attainability of the MDGs in Nigeria. Quantitative data were collected through an individual-based questionnaire. Multistage sampling was employed to select local government areas, enumeration areas, and…

Wahab, Elias Olukorede

2011-01-01

361

Antimalarial drug prescribing practice in private and public health facilities in South-east Nigeria: a descriptive study  

PubMed Central

Background Nigeria's national standard has recently moved to artemisinin combination treatments for malaria. As clinicians in the private sector are responsible for attending a large proportion of the population ill with malaria, this study compared prescribing in the private and public sector in one State in Nigeria prior to promoting ACTs. Objective To assess prescribing for uncomplicated malaria in government and private health facilities in Cross River State. Method Audit of 665 patient records at six private and seven government health facilities in 2003. Results Clinicians in the private sector were less likely to record history or physical examination than those in public facilities, but otherwise practice and prescribing were similar. Overall, 45% of patients had a diagnostic blood slides; 77% were prescribed monotherapy, either chloroquine (30.2%), sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (22.7%) or artemisinin derivatives alone (15.8%). Some 20.8% were prescribed combination therapy; the commonest was chloroquine with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. A few patients (3.5%) were prescribed sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine-mefloquine in the private sector, and only 3.0% patients were prescribed artemisinin combination treatments. Conclusion Malaria treatments were varied, but there were not large differences between the public and private sector. Very few are following current WHO guidelines. Monotherapy with artemisinin derivatives is relatively common. PMID:17480216

Meremikwu, Martin; Okomo, Uduak; Nwachukwu, Chukwuemeka; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Eke-Njoku, John; Okebe, Joseph; Oyo-Ita, Esu; Garner, Paul

2007-01-01

362

Factors influencing the selection of delivery with no one present in Northern Nigeria: implications for policy and programs  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the effects of demographic, socioeconomic, and women’s autonomy factors on the utilization of delivery assistance in Sokoto State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from the Nigeria 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). Bivariate analysis and logistic regression procedures were conducted. The study revealed that delivery with no one present and with unskilled attendance accounted for roughly 95% of all births in Sokoto State. Mothers with existing high risk factors, including higher parity, were more likely to select unsafe/unskilled delivery practices than younger, lower-parity mothers. Evidenced by the high prevalence of delivery with traditional birth attendants, this study demonstrates that expectant mothers are willing to obtain care from a provider, and their odds of using accessible, affordable, skilled delivery is high, should such an option be presented. This conclusion is supported by the high correlation between a mother’s socioeconomic status and the likelihood of using skilled attendance. To improve the access to, and increase the affordability of, skilled health attendants, we recommended two solutions: 1) the use of cash subsidies to augment women’s incomes in order to reduce finance-related barriers in the use of formal health services, thus increasing demand; and 2) a structural improvement that will increase women’s economic security by improving their access to higher education, income, and urban ideation. PMID:24516341

Fapohunda, Bolaji; Orobaton, Nosakhare

2014-01-01

363

Epidemiology of stroke in a rural community in Southeastern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence and incidence of stroke vary from community to community worldwide. Nonetheless, not much is known about the current epidemiology of stroke in rural Nigeria and indeed Africa. Methods We carried out a two-phase door-to-door survey in a rural, predominantly low-income, community in Anambra, Southeastern Nigeria. We used a modified World Health Organization (WHO) protocol for detecting neurological diseases in the first phase, and a stroke-specific questionnaire and neurological examination in the second phase. An equal number of sex- and age-matched stroke-negative subjects were examined. Results We identified ten stroke subjects in the study. The crude prevalence of stroke in rural Nigeria was 1.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78–3.00) per 1,000 population. The crude prevalence of stroke in males was 1.99 (95% CI 0.73–4.33) per 1,000, while that for females was 1.28 (95% CI 0.35–3.28) per 1,000 population. The peak age-specific prevalence of stroke was 12.08 (95% CI 3.92–28.19) per 1,000, while after adjustment to WHO world population, the peak was 1.0 (95% CI 0.33–2.33) per 1,000. Conclusion The prevalence of stroke was found to be higher than previously documented in rural Nigeria, with a slightly higher prevalence in males than females. This is, however, comparable to data from rural Africa. PMID:25028556

Enwereji, Kelechi O; Nwosu, Maduaburochukwu C; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Nwani, Paul O; Asomugha, Azuoma L; Enwereji, Ezinna E

2014-01-01

364

The volatile constituents of Parquetina nigrescens from southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

The leaf essential oil of Parquetina nigrescens collected from Badary, Nigeria, was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. The essential oil had a simple composition with only five identified components. The oil was dominated by citral (35.0% neral and 53.7% geranial). The high concentration of citral in the essential oil likely contributes to the ethnomedicinal utility and bioactivities associated with this medicinal plant. PMID:25115099

Owolabi, Moses S; Lawal, Oladipupo A; Hauser, Rebecca M; Setzer, William N

2014-06-01

365

Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Nigeria, January 2011-September 2012.  

PubMed

In 1988, the World Health Assembly launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) and, in 2012, declared the completion of polio eradication a programmatic emergency for global public health. To date, wild poliovirus (WPV) cases reported worldwide in 2012 are at historically low levels. Nigeria is one of only three countries with uninterrupted WPV transmission (in addition to Pakistan and Afghanistan) and has been the origin of WPV imported into 25 previously polio-free countries since 2003. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Nigeria during January 2011-September 2012, as of October 30, 2012. The number of reported WPV cases increased from 21 in 2010 to 62 in 2011. During January-September 2012, a total of 99 WPV cases were reported, more than doubling from the 42 cases reported during the same period in 2011. During 2011, a total of 32 circulating vaccine-derived polio virus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases were confirmed; six cVDPV2 cases were confirmed during January-September 2012, compared with 18 cVDPV2 cases during the same period in 2011. Nigeria's 2012 Polio Eradication Emergency Plan includes senior government leadership oversight, new program management and strategic initiatives, an accountability framework, and a surge in human resources to address chronically missed children during supplemental immunization activities (SIAs).* In 2012, indicators of immunization campaign quality show modest improvements; available data indicate gaps in surveillance. Continuing WPV transmission in Nigeria poses an ongoing risk for WPV reintroduction and outbreaks in polio-free countries and is a major obstacle to achieving global eradication. PMID:23134973

2012-11-01

366

Factors associated with adolescent pregnancy in rural Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A community-based case-control study to determine the risk factors associated with adolescent pregnancy was conducted in the rural community of Gbongan in southwestern Nigeria. One hundred and thirty-two pregnant girls aged 20 years or less were compared with 131 nonpregnant girls of similar age. Information on their sociodemographic characteristics and those of their parents, their knowledge of reproductive health, and

Friday E. Okonofua

1995-01-01

367

Prevalence, types and demographic features of child labour among school children in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background To determine the prevalence, types and demographic features of child labour among school children in Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional interview study of 1675 randomly selected public primary and secondary school pupils aged 5 to less than 18 years was conducted in the Sagamu Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria from October 1998 to September 1999. Results The overall prevalence of child labour was 64.5%: 68.6% among primary and 50.3% among secondary school pupils. Major economic activities included street trading (43.6%), selling in kiosks and shops (25.4%) and farming (23.6%). No child was involved in bonded labour or prostitution. Girls were more often involved in labour activities than boys (66.8% versus 62.1%, p = 0.048): this difference was most obvious with street trading (p = 0.0004). Most of the children (82.2%) involved in labour activities did so on the instruction of one or both parents in order to contribute to family income. Children of parents with low socio-economic status or of poorly educated parents were significantly involved in labour activities (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001 respectively). Child labour was also significantly associated with increasing number of children in the family size (p = 0.002). A higher prevalence rate of child labour was observed among children living with parents and relations than among those living with unrelated guardians. Conclusion It is concluded that smaller family size, parental education and family economic enhancement would reduce the pressure on parents to engage their children in labour activities. PMID:15743516

Fetuga, Bolanle M; Njokama, Fidelis O; Olowu, Adebiyi O

2005-01-01

368

Risk Factors for Delayed Initiation of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Rural North central Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Timely initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in eligible HIV-infected patients is associated with substantial reductions in mortality and morbidity. Nigeria has the second largest number of persons living with HIV/AIDS in the world. We examined patient characteristics, time to ART initiation, retention and mortality at five rural facilities in Kwara and Niger states of Nigeria. Methods We analyzed program-level cohort data for HIV-infected, ART-naïve clients (?15 years) enrolled from June 2009-February 2011. We modeled the probability of ART initiation among clients meeting national ART eligibility criteria using logistic regression with splines. Results We enrolled 1,948 ART-naïve adults/adolescents into care, of whom 1174 were ART eligible (62% female). Only 74% of eligible patients (n=869) initiated ART within 90 days post-enrollment. The median CD4+ count for eligible clients was 156 cells/?L [IQR: 81–257], with 67% in WHO stage III/IV disease. Adjusting for CD4+ count, WHO stage, functional status, hemoglobin, body mass index, sex, age, education, marital status, employment, clinic of attendance, and month of enrollment, we found that immunosuppression (CD4 350 vs. 200, odds ratio (OR)=2.10 [95%CI: 1.31, 3.35], functional status (bedridden vs. working, OR=4.17 [95%CI: 1.63–10.67]), clinic of attendance (Kuta hospital vs. referent: OR=5.70 [95%CI:2.99–10.89]), and date of enrollment (December 2010 vs. June 2009: OR=2.13 [95%CI:1.19–3.81]) were associated with delayed ART initiation. Conclusion Delayed initiation of ART was associated with higher CD4+ counts, lower functional status, clinic of attendance, and later dates of enrollment among ART-eligible clients. Our findings provide targets for quality improvement efforts that may help reduce attrition and improve ART uptake in similar settings. PMID:23727981

Aliyu, Muktar H; Blevins, Meridith; Parrish, Deidra D; Megazzini, Karen M; Gebi, Usman I; Muhammad, Mukhtar Y; Ahmed, Mukhtar L; Hassan, Adiba; Shepherd, Bryan E; Vermund, Sten H; Wester, C. William

2013-01-01

369

A Qualitative Study of Intimate Partner Violence Among Women in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Negative health outcomes caused by intimate partner violence (IPV) have been recognized as a public health problem with extensive effects on the society. Cultural and traditional beliefs that reinforce IPV in Nigeria need to be understood to guide public health approaches aimed at preventing IPV. The purpose of this study was to determine women's attitudes and societal norms that support IPV, causes and consequences of IPV, and coping strategies, and to document suggested measures to prevent it. Six focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted among 56 women aged 15 to 49 years purposively selected from rural and urban communities in Akinyele Local Government Area (LGA) of Oyo State, Nigeria. The FGDs were conducted in Yoruba language, translated to English, and analyzed using thematic approach. Findings were grouped into six major themes: triggers, societal norms, attitude, consequences, coping strategies, and preventive measures. Women reported experience of physical, psychological, and sexual violence and controlling behavior. Major causes of IPV reported by the women were having more money than partner, and building a house or having a business without partner's knowledge. Most participants reported that social norms dictate that a woman should have full regard for in-laws, and submit to and agree with all that the partner says and does. Most of the discussants in both the urban and rural areas reported that violence in any form is not justifiable or acceptable. Participants mentioned various ways through which IPV negatively impacted on women's health such as depression, hypertension, and damage to the reproductive system. They were however willing to endure suffering because of their children. Women who experienced IPV reported to close relatives but did not seek legal redress because these were unavailable. Ending IPV requires long-term commitment and strategies involving contributions from the government, community, and the family. PMID:25392394

Balogun, Mary O; John-Akinola, Yetunde O

2014-11-11

370

Diabetes mellitus in Nigeria: The past, present and future  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a diverse group of metabolic disorders that is often associated with a high disease burden in developing countries such as Nigeria. In the early nineties, not much was known about DM in Nigeria and traditionally, people related DM to “curses” or “hexes” and diagnosis was made based on blood or urinary tests for glucose. Currently, oral hypoglycaemic agents but not insulin are readily accessible and acceptable to persons with DM. The cost of diabetes care is borne in most instances by individuals and often payment is “out of pocket”-this being a sequel of a poorly functional national health insurance scheme. An insulin requiring individual on a minimum wage would spend 29% of his monthly income on insulin. Complementary and alternative medicines are widely used by persons with DM and form an integral component of DM care. Towards reducing the burden of DM in Nigeria, we suggest that there be concerted efforts by healthcare professionals and stakeholders in the health industry to put in place preventative measures, a better functioning health insurance scheme and a structured DM program. PMID:25512795

Ogbera, Anthonia Okeoghene; Ekpebegh, Chukwuma

2014-01-01

371

Surveillance for African swine fever in Nigeria, 2006-2009.  

PubMed

African swine fever (ASF) has had significant economic and social impact in Nigeria since 1997. However, there has been no effective national response to bring it under control. In this report, we confirm that ASF is still prevalent and widespread in Nigeria. Results from both serosurveillance and virological analyses indicated that ASF is present in most of the agro-ecological zones of the country. Nine per cent (9%) of serum samples and 48% of tissue samples were positive for ASF virus antibody and genome, respectively. Areas with high pig-related activities (marketing, consumption and farming) have higher prevalences compared with areas with less pig activities. Farm-gate buyers, marketing systems and transport of untested pigs within the country assist with the circulation of the virus. Only by putting in place a comprehensive routine surveillance and testing system, reorganizing the market and transportation systems for pigs, implementing on-farm bio-security protocols and considering the option of compensation will it be possible to achieve a significant reduction in ASF prevalence in Nigeria. PMID:20561290

Fasina, F O; Shamaki, D; Makinde, A A; Lombin, L H; Lazarus, D D; Rufai, S A; Adamu, S S; Agom, D; Pelayo, V; Soler, A; Simón, A; Adedeji, A J; Yakubu, M B; Mantip, S; Benshak, A J; Okeke, I; Anagor, P; Mandeng, D C; Akanbi, B O; Ajibade, A A; Faramade, I; Kazeem, M M; Enurah, L U; Bishop, R; Anchuelo, R; Martin, J H; Gallardo, C

2010-08-01

372

Rural-to-urban migration, kinship networks, and fertility among the Igbo in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Like many African rural-to-urban migrants, Igbo-speaking migrants to cities in Nigeria maintain close ties to their places of origin. ‘Home people’ constitute a vital core of most migrants’ social networks. The institution of kinship enables migrants to negotiate Nigeria’s clientelistic political economy. In this context, dichotomous distinctions between rural and urban can be inappropriate analytical concepts because kinship obligations and community ties that extend across rural and urban space create a continuous social field. This paper presents ethnographic data to suggest that fertility behavior in contemporary Igbo-speaking Nigeria cannot be understood without taking into account the ways in which rural and urban social and demographic regimes are mutually implicated and dialectically constituted (anthropological demography; migration; kinship; reproductive behavior; Nigeria). PMID:24426181

Smith, Daniel Jordan

2013-01-01

373

Local barriers and solutions to improve care-seeking for childhood pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria in Kenya, Nigeria and Niger: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

We present qualitative research findings on care-seeking and treatment uptake for pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria among children under 5 in Kenya, Nigeria and Niger. The study aimed to determine the barriers caregivers face in accessing treatment for these conditions; to identify local solutions that facilitate more timely access to treatment; and to present these findings as a platform from which to develop context-specific strategies to improve care-seeking for childhood illness. Kenya, Nigeria and Niger are three high burden countries with low rates of related treatment coverage, particularly in underserved areas. Data were collected in Homa Bay County in Nyanza Province, Kenya; in Kebbi and Cross River States, Nigeria; and in the Maradi and Tillabéri regions of Niger. Primary caregivers of children under 5 who did not regularly engage with health services or present their child at a health facility during illness episodes were purposively selected for interview. Data underwent rigorous thematic analysis. We organise the identified barriers and related solutions by theme: financial barriers; distance/location of health facilities; socio-cultural barriers and gender dynamics; knowledge and information barriers; and health facility deterrents. The relative importance of each differed by locality. Participant suggested solutions ranged from community-level actions to facility-level and more policy-oriented actions, plus actions to change underlying problems such as social perceptions and practices and gender dynamics. We discuss the feasibility and implications of these suggested solutions. Given the high burden of childhood morbidity and mortality due to pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria in Kenya, Nigeria and Niger, this study provides important insights relating to demand-side barriers and locally proposed solutions. Significant advancements are possible when communities participate in both problem identification and resolution, and are engaged as important partners in improving child health and survival. PMID:24971642

Bedford, K Juliet A; Sharkey, Alyssa B

2014-01-01

374

Local Barriers and Solutions to Improve Care-Seeking for Childhood Pneumonia, Diarrhoea and Malaria in Kenya, Nigeria and Niger: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

We present qualitative research findings on care-seeking and treatment uptake for pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria among children under 5 in Kenya, Nigeria and Niger. The study aimed to determine the barriers caregivers face in accessing treatment for these conditions; to identify local solutions that facilitate more timely access to treatment; and to present these findings as a platform from which to develop context-specific strategies to improve care-seeking for childhood illness. Kenya, Nigeria and Niger are three high burden countries with low rates of related treatment coverage, particularly in underserved areas. Data were collected in Homa Bay County in Nyanza Province, Kenya; in Kebbi and Cross River States, Nigeria; and in the Maradi and Tillabéri regions of Niger. Primary caregivers of children under 5 who did not regularly engage with health services or present their child at a health facility during illness episodes were purposively selected for interview. Data underwent rigorous thematic analysis. We organise the identified barriers and related solutions by theme: financial barriers; distance/location of health facilities; socio-cultural barriers and gender dynamics; knowledge and information barriers; and health facility deterrents. The relative importance of each differed by locality. Participant suggested solutions ranged from community-level actions to facility-level and more policy-oriented actions, plus actions to change underlying problems such as social perceptions and practices and gender dynamics. We discuss the feasibility and implications of these suggested solutions. Given the high burden of childhood morbidity and mortality due to pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria in Kenya, Nigeria and Niger, this study provides important insights relating to demand-side barriers and locally proposed solutions. Significant advancements are possible when communities participate in both problem identification and resolution, and are engaged as important partners in improving child health and survival. PMID:24971642

Bedford, K. Juliet A.; Sharkey, Alyssa B.

2014-01-01

375

Drugs use pattern for uncomplicated malaria in medicine retail outlets in Enugu urban, southeast Nigeria: implications for malaria treatment policy  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria treatment policy recommends regular monitoring of drug utilization to generate information for ensuring effective use of anti-malarial drugs in Nigeria. This information is currently limited in the retail sector which constitutes a major source of malaria treatment in Nigeria, but are characterized by significant inappropriate use of drugs. This study analyzed the use pattern of anti-malarial drugs in medicine outlets to assess the current state of compliance to policy on the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Methods A prospective cross-sectional survey of randomly selected medicine outlets in Enugu urban, southeast Nigeria, was conducted between May and August 2013, to determine the types, range, prices, and use pattern of anti-malarial drugs dispensed from pharmacies and patent medicine vendors (PMVs). Data were collected and analyzed for anti-malarial drugs dispensed for self-medication to patients, treatment by retail outlets and prescription from hospitals. Results A total of 1,321 anti-malarial drugs prescriptions were analyzed. ACT accounted for 72.7%, while monotherapy was 27.3%. Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm) drugs contributed 33.9% (326/961) of ACT. Artemether-lumefantrine (AL), 668 (50.6%) was the most used anti-malarial drug, followed by monotherapy sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), 248 (18.8%). Median cost of ACT at $2.91 ($0.65-7.42) per dose, is about three times the median cost of monotherapy, $0.97 ($0.19-13.55). Total cost of medication (including co-medications) with ACT averaged $3.64 (95% CI; $3.53-3.75) per prescription, about twice the mean cost of treatment with monotherapy, $1.83 (95% CI; $1.57-2.1). Highest proportion 46.5% (614), of the anti-malarial drugs was dispensed to patients for self-treatment. Treatment by retail outlets accounted for 35.8% while 17.7% of the drugs were dispensed from hospital prescriptions. Self-medication, 82%, accounted for the highest source of monotherapy and a majority of prescriptions, 85.6%, was adults. Conclusion Findings suggest vastly improved use of ACT in the retail sector after eight years of policy change, with significant contributions from AMFm drugs. However the use of monotherapy, particularly through self-medication remains significant with increasing risk of undermining treatment policy, suggesting additional measures to directly target consumers and providers in the sector for improved use of anti-malarial drugs in Nigeria. PMID:24961280

2014-01-01

376

Ethnic differentials in under-five mortality in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Objective. There are huge regional disparities in under-five mortality in Nigeria. While a region within the country has as high as 222 under-five deaths per 1000 live births, the rate is as low as 89 per 1000 live births in another region. Nigeria is culturally diverse as there are more than 250 identifiable ethnic groups in the country; and various ethnic groups have different sociocultural values and practices which could influence child health outcome. Thus, the main objective of this study was to examine the ethnic differentials in under-five mortality in Nigeria. Design. The study utilized 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) data. We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample drawn from 33,385 women aged 15-49 that had a total of 104,808 live births within 1993-2008. In order to examine ethnic differentials in under-five mortality over a sufficiently long period of time, our analysis considered live births within 15 years preceding the 2008 NDHS. The risks of death in children below age five were estimated using Cox proportional regression analysis. Results were presented as hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results. The study found substantial differentials in under-five mortality by ethnic affiliations. For instance, risks of death were significantly lower for children of the Yoruba tribes (HR: 0.39, CI: 0.37-0.42, p < 0.001), children of Igbo tribes (HR: 0.58, CI: 0.55-0.61, p < 0.001) and children of the minority ethnic groups (HR: 0.66, CI: 0.64-0.68, p < 0.001), compared to children of the Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri tribes. Besides, practices such as plural marriage, having higher-order births and too close births showed statistical significance for increased risks of under-five mortality (p < 0.05). Conclusion. The findings of this study stress the need to address the ethnic norms and practices that negatively impact on child health and survival among some ethnic groups in Nigeria. PMID:24593689

Adedini, Sunday A; Odimegwu, Clifford; Imasiku, Eunice N S; Ononokpono, Dorothy N

2015-04-01

377

Prevalence and risk factors for hypertension and association with ethnicity in Nigeria: results from a national survey  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Non-communicable diseases are now a global priority. We report on the prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors, including ethnicity, in a nationally representative sample of Nigerian adults recruited to a survey of visual impairment. Methods A multi-stage, stratified, cluster random sample with probability proportional to size procedures was used to obtain a nationally representative sample of 13 591 subjects aged ? 40 years. Of these, 13 504 (99.4%) had a blood pressure measurement. Results The prevalence of hypertension was 44.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 43.5–46.3%]. Increasing age, gender, urban residence and body mass index were independent risk factors (p < 0.001). The Kanuri ethnic group had the highest prevalence of hypertension (77.5%, 95% CI: 71.0–84.0%). Conclusions The high prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria is a cause for concern and suggests that it is inevitable that the impact of hypertension-related ill health is imminent, with the accompanying financial and societal costs to families and the state of Nigeria. PMID:24042732

Murthy, Gudlavalleti VS; Fox, Samantha; Sivasubramaniam, Selvaraj; Gilbert, Clare E; Mahdi, Abdull M; Imam, Abdullahi U; Entekume, Gabriel; Adenike, Abiose; Bankole, Olufunmilayo O; Ezelum, C; Kyari, Fatima; Rabiu, Mansur M; Faal, Hannah; Lee, Pak Sang; Tafida, Abubakar

2013-01-01

378

Prevalence of bovine genital campylobacteriosis and trichomonosis of bulls in northern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of campylobacteriosis and trichomonosis, and their concurrence with brucellosis, in cattle in three states of northern Nigeria. Methods A total of 602 preputial samples was collected from bulls in 250 herds and tested using culture and identification. Various indigenous and exotic breeds were studied and four major management systems were encountered. Age of the cattle was estimated using dentition, farm records or cornual rings. Results The estimated true animal-level prevalence of Campylobacter fetus infection was 16.4% (95% CI: 13.0-20.7), of which 18.5% was C. f. fetus and 81.5% was C. f. venerealis. Of the latter, 92% were C. f. venerealis biovar intermedius strains. Animal-level prevalences in Adamawa, Kano and Kaduna states were 31.8%, 11.6% and 8.3% respectively, and were highest in bulls >7 years old (33.4%) and in the Gudali breed (28.8%). Of the 250 herds, 78 (25.5%, 95% CI: 19.4-32.7) had at least one infected bull, and herd prevalence was highest in the pastoral management system (43.5%). After adjustment for confounding using multivariable analysis, the odds of C. fetus infection were highest in Adamawa state (P?7 years old (P?=?0.01), and tended to be higher in Bos taurus breeds (P?=?0.06). There was a strong positive association between the presence of campylobacteriosis and brucellosis (P?Nigeria, with C. f. venerealis biovar intermedius as the major aetiology. There was a strong positive correlation between the occurrence of campylobacteriosis and brucellosis. No evidence of trichomonosis was found in herds in this study. PMID:23927676

2013-01-01

379

Towards universal coverage: a policy analysis of the development of the National Health Insurance Scheme in Nigeria.  

PubMed

This article examines why and how a national health insurance (NHI) proposal targeting universal health coverage (UHC) in Nigeria developed over time. The study involved document reviews, in-depth interviews, a further review of preliminary analysis by relevant actors and use of a stakeholder analysis approach. The need for strategies to improve healthcare funding during the economic recession of the 1980s stimulated the proposal. The inclusion of Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) as financing organizations for national health insurance at the expense of sub-national (state) government mechanisms increased credibility of policy implementation but resulted in loss of support from states. The most successful period of the policy process occurred when a new minister of health (strongly supported by the president that displayed interest in UHC) provided leadership through the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH), and effectively managed stakeholders' interests and galvanized their support to advance the policy. Later, the National Health Insurance Scheme (the federal government's implementing/regulatory agency) assumed this leadership role but has been unable to extend coverage in a significant way. Nigeria's experience shows that where political leaders are interested in a UHC-related proposal, the strong political leadership they provide considerably enhances the pace of the policy process. However, public officials should carefully guide policymaking processes that involve private sector actors, to ensure that strategies that compromise the chance of achieving UHC are not introduced. In contexts where authority is shared between federal and state governments, securing federal level commitment does not guarantee that a national health insurance proposal has become a 'national' proposal. States need to be provided with an active role in the process and governance structure. Finally, the article underscores the utility of retrospective stakeholder analysis in understanding the reasons for changes in stakeholder positions over time, which is useful to guide future policy processes. PMID:25339634

Onoka, Chima A; Hanson, Kara; Hanefeld, Johanna

2014-10-21

380

Post-graduate surgical training in Nigeria: The trainees’ perspective  

PubMed Central

Background: Quality surgical training is crucial to meeting manpower needs and creating a vibrant healthcare delivery. Feedback from trainees provides insight to understanding training challenges and needs to improve the programme. The objective of this study was to determine the challenges faced by surgical trainees and their perception of their training in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire survey of trainees in 16 academic surgical training centres in Nigeria between September and December 2012. Results: Of 235 respondents, 227 were males (96.6%) and 8 females (3.4%) with mean age of 33.9 years. A significant proportion (62.3%) of the respondents believed that the volume and diversities of surgical cases managed during their training were sufficient; however, 53.9% were less satisfied with their operative experience. Majority (71.8%) of the respondents felt “supported” by their trainers but they also believed that the training was skewed towards service provision. They were not actively involved in research due to lack of funds in 77.7%, lack of time/motivation in 15.8%, indifference in 11.8% and poor knowledge of research methods in 9.2%. Inadequate training facilities (50.7%), poor welfare (67.2%), inadequate sponsorship (65.9%) and poor remuneration (88.3%) were identified among their challenges. On the whole, majority (62.3%) believed that their training would adequately prepare them to function independently. Conclusion: Surgical residents in Nigeria face a variety of challenges. Based on our findings, a training that tracks and keeps trend with global changes through a higher investment in surgical training, improved facilities and residents’ well-being from both the teaching authorities and government will more likely improve the quality of training. PMID:25114372

Ojo, E. O.; Chirdan, O. O.; Ajape, A. A.; Agbo, S.; Oguntola, A. S.; Adejumo, A. A.; Babayo, U. D.

2014-01-01

381

Nigeria Anopheles Vector Database: An Overview of 100 Years' Research  

PubMed Central

Anopheles mosquitoes are important vectors of malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF), which are major public health diseases in Nigeria. Malaria is caused by infection with a protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium and LF by the parasitic worm Wuchereria bancrofti. Updating our knowledge of the Anopheles species is vital in planning and implementing evidence based vector control programs. To present a comprehensive report on the spatial distribution and composition of these vectors, all published data available were collated into a database. Details recorded for each source were the locality, latitude/longitude, time/period of study, species, abundance, sampling/collection methods, morphological and molecular species identification methods, insecticide resistance status, including evidence of the kdr allele, and P. falciparum sporozoite rate and W. bancrofti microfilaria prevalence. This collation resulted in a total of 110 publications, encompassing 484,747 Anopheles mosquitoes in 632 spatially unique descriptions at 142 georeferenced locations being identified across Nigeria from 1900 to 2010. Overall, the highest number of vector species reported included An. gambiae complex (65.2%), An. funestus complex (17.3%), An. gambiae s.s. (6.5%). An. arabiensis (5.0%) and An. funestus s.s. (2.5%), with the molecular forms An. gambiae M and S identified at 120 locations. A variety of sampling/collection and species identification methods were used with an increase in molecular techniques in recent decades. Insecticide resistance to pyrethroids and organochlorines was found in the main Anopheles species across 45 locations. Presence of P. falciparum and W. bancrofti varied between species with the highest sporozoite rates found in An. gambiae s.s, An. funestus s.s. and An. moucheti, and the highest microfilaria prevalence in An. gambiae s.l., An. arabiensis, and An. gambiae s.s. This comprehensive geo-referenced database provides an essential baseline on Anopheles vectors and will be an important resource for malaria and LF vector control programmes in Nigeria. PMID:22162764

Okorie, Patricia Nkem; McKenzie, F. Ellis; Ademowo, Olusegun George; Bockarie, Moses; Kelly-Hope, Louise

2011-01-01

382

Nigeria Anopheles vector database: an overview of 100 years' research.  

PubMed

Anopheles mosquitoes are important vectors of malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF), which are major public health diseases in Nigeria. Malaria is caused by infection with a protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium and LF by the parasitic worm Wuchereria bancrofti. Updating our knowledge of the Anopheles species is vital in planning and implementing evidence based vector control programs. To present a comprehensive report on the spatial distribution and composition of these vectors, all published data available were collated into a database. Details recorded for each source were the locality, latitude/longitude, time/period of study, species, abundance, sampling/collection methods, morphological and molecular species identification methods, insecticide resistance status, including evidence of the kdr allele, and P. falciparum sporozoite rate and W. bancrofti microfilaria prevalence. This collation resulted in a total of 110 publications, encompassing 484,747 Anopheles mosquitoes in 632 spatially unique descriptions at 142 georeferenced locations being identified across Nigeria from 1900 to 2010. Overall, the highest number of vector species reported included An. gambiae complex (65.2%), An. funestus complex (17.3%), An. gambiae s.s. (6.5%). An. arabiensis (5.0%) and An. funestus s.s. (2.5%), with the molecular forms An. gambiae M and S identified at 120 locations. A variety of sampling/collection and species identification methods were used with an increase in molecular techniques in recent decades. Insecticide resistance to pyrethroids and organochlorines was found in the main Anopheles species across 45 locations. Presence of P. falciparum and W. bancrofti varied between species with the highest sporozoite rates found in An. gambiae s.s, An. funestus s.s. and An. moucheti, and the highest microfilaria prevalence in An. gambiae s.l., An. arabiensis, and An. gambiae s.s. This comprehensive geo-referenced database provides an essential baseline on Anopheles vectors and will be an important resource for malaria and LF vector control programmes in Nigeria. PMID:22162764

Okorie, Patricia Nkem; McKenzie, F Ellis; Ademowo, Olusegun George; Bockarie, Moses; Kelly-Hope, Louise

2011-01-01

383

Rainfall geochemistry in the Sahel region of northern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical data and stable isotope ( ?18O, ?2H) results are presented for monsoon rains for several years during the 1990s from northern Nigeria in the Sahel region of Africa. The isotopic data from Garin Alkali (Nigeria) are related by a line ? 2H=6.33? 18O+9.9 with a weighted mean value of -3.6‰ for ?18O. The heaviest rains have the lightest isotopic compositions; the lighter rains' enrichment is as a result of convection. The mean 1992 concentrations of Cl in rain ranged from 1.3 to 2.8 mg l -1 for the two stations in Nigeria. The early rains have higher Cl than the later events although Cl accumulations are in general directly related to rainfall amount. The Br/Cl ratios of all rains are enriched above marine values, which may in part be attributed to a preferential concentration of Br in smaller size particles, although more likely, is related to release from the biomass as the air masses pass over vegetated areas. The high Br/Cl ratios rule out dust from halite sources during the monsoon. The ratios of Na and Cl are similar to those in sea water, although all other elements (especially Ca, SO 4, NO 3 and K) are enriched relative to marine aerosols and indicate continental sources. The element ratios (Ca/SO 4); K/Mg; K/Na) are remarkably similar to those in ash leachates from tropical vegetation and this is proposed as the main solute source in the present day monsoon rains, reinforcing the evidence of Br/Cl ratios. The chemical results show the considerable terrestrial influence and are in line with isotopic evidence, which demonstrates considerable modification by convective circulation and continental influence as the monsoon air masses track northwards over the Sahel.

Goni, I. B.; Fellman, E.; Edmunds, W. M.

384

A large seroprevalence survey of brucellosis in cattle herds under diverse production systems in northern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background This study was carried out to investigate the status of brucellosis in cattle under various management systems in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states, northern Nigeria. Using multi-stage sampling, serum samples of 4,745 cattle from 271 herds were tested using the Rose-Bengal plate-agglutination test (RBPT) and positives were confirmed using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). Results Prevalence estimates were calculated by adjusting for sampling weights and where possible for test sensitivity and specificity. Thirty-seven percent of all animals were RBPT positive, and after confirmation with c-ELISA the overall animal-level prevalence, adjusted for sampling weights, was 26.3% (95% CI, 22.1%-31.0%). Of the herds sampled, 210 (77.5%; 95% CI, 68.6%-84.5%) had at least one animal positive to both tests; this did not differ significantly between states (P?=?0.538). Mean within-herd seroprevalence in positive herds was 30.2% (95% CI, 25.3%-35.1%) and ranged from 3.1% to 85.7%. Overall animal-level seroprevalences of 29.2% (95% CI, 22.5%-36.9%) n = 1,827, 23.3% (95% CI, 18.9%-28.3%) n = 1,870 and 26.7% (95% CI, 18.8%-36.7%) n = 1,048 were observed in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states, respectively (P?=?0.496). A significantly higher seroprevalence was found in males (38.2%; 95% CI, 31.7%-45.2%) than in females (24.7%; 95% CI, 20.4%-29.5%) (P?7 years. Seroprevalence also varied between management systems (P?Nigeria, in a variety of management systems and using accurate tests. The seroprevalence of brucellosis was high, and higher than results of previous studies in northern Nigeria. The pastoral management systems of the traditional Fulanis may be encouraging the dissemination of the disease. Public enlightenment of the farmers about the disease, vaccination and appropriate national control measures are recommended. PMID:22920578

2012-01-01

385

Emergent Democracies: a case study of Nigeria By  

E-print Network

Shareholder activism has become a force for good in the extant corporate governance literature. In this paper, we present a case study of Nigeria, characterised by a very turbulent polity, to show how shareholder activism, as a corporate governance mechanism, can constitute a space for unhealthy politics and politicking. As a result, we point out some translational challenges, and suggest more caution, in the diffusion of corporate governance practices across different institutional environments. We primarily contribute to the literature on corporate governance in Africa, whilst creating an understanding of the political embeddedness of shareholder activism in different institutional contexts – i.e. a step closer to a political theorising of shareholder activism.

Emmanuel Adegbite; Kenneth Amaeshi Phd; Olufemi Amao Phd; Emmanuel Adegbite; Kenneth Amaeshi Phd; Olufemi Amao Phd; Emmanuel Adegbite; Kenneth Amaeshi; Olufemi Amao

386

Initial experience with endoscopic third ventriculostomy in Nigeria, West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) as an alternative to traditional shunt surgery in the management of hydrocephalus of\\u000a different etiologies is new in Nigeria and West Africa, with no published data till date. This initial study was done to determine\\u000a the success rate and complication among our patient population.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  This series consists of a prospective study of the clinical

Olufemi Idowu; Alaba Doherty; Ola Tiamiyu

2008-01-01

387

Use of group quarantine in ebola control - Nigeria, 2014.  

PubMed

On July 20, 2014, the first known case of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in Nigeria, in a traveler from Liberia, led to an outbreak that was successfully curtailed with infection control, contact tracing, isolation, and quarantine measures coordinated through an incident management system. During this outbreak, most contacts underwent home monitoring, which included instructions to stay home or to avoid crowded areas if staying home was not possible. However, for five contacts with high-risk exposures, group quarantine in an observation unit was preferred because the five had crowded home environments or occupations that could have resulted in a large number of community exposures if they developed Ebola. PMID:25674994

Grigg, Cheri; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya E; Olayinka, Adebola T; Vertefeuille, John F

2015-02-13

388

Prevalence of malnutrition among pre-school children in South-east Nigeria.  

PubMed

BackgroundMalnutrition can be defined as a state of nutrition where the weight for age, height for age and weight for height indices are below -2 Z-score of the NCHS reference. It has posed a great economic burden to the developing world.ObjectivesThe objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of malnutrition among pre-school children in abakiliki in Ebonyi state of Nigeria.MethodsThis is a cross-sectional studies that assess the prevalence of malnutrition and associated factors among children aged 1- 5 years attending nursery and primary schools. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometry and clinical examination.ResultsA total of 616 children aged one to 5 years were enrolled into this study. Three hundred and sixty-seven (59.6%) were males while 249 (40.4%) were females. Sixty of the 616 children (9.7%) had acute malnutrition based on WHZ-score. Moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) was present in 33 children (5.3%) while 27 (4.4%) had severe acute malnutrition.ConclusionsThe prevalence of global and severe acute malnutrition using z-score is 9.7% and 4.4% respectively while that of stunting is 9.9% with a male preponderance. PMID:25209154

Manyike, Pius C; Chinawa, Josephat M; Ubesie, Agozie; Obu, Herbert A; Odetunde, Odutola I; Chinawa, Awoere T

2014-09-11

389

Radiological safety assessment of surface-water dam sediments used as building material in southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Gamma-ray spectrometric measurements were performed on sediment samples collected from surface-water dams in five southwestern states of Nigeria with the aim of estimating the background radiation levels and assessing the radiological hazards associated with the use of sediments in building construction. The weighted mean concentration of (40)K varied from 199.1 to 796.7 Bq kg(-1), whereas that of (238)U varied from 22.6 to 27.6 Bq kg(-1) and that of (232)Th varied from 36.4 to 76.1 Bq kg(-1) in the five states where samples were collected. The radiological hazards due to the natural radioactivity in samples were inferred from calculations of radium equivalent activities, internal and external indices, and effective dose rates in indoor air. The values obtained are lower than internationally recommended limits for building materials. The results indicate an acceptably low radiological risk arising from the use of the sediments in the construction of buildings. PMID:19225186

Farai, I P; Isinkaye, M O

2009-03-01

390

Determinants of vaccination coverage in rural Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Childhood immunization is a cost effective public health strategy. Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) services have been provided in a rural Nigerian community (Sabongidda-Ora, Edo State) at no cost to the community since 1998 through a privately financed vaccination project (private public partnership). The objective of this survey was to assess vaccination coverage and its determinants in this rural

Olumuyiwa O Odusanya; Ewan F Alufohai; Francois P Meurice; Vincent I Ahonkhai

2008-01-01

391

Corruption, Governance and Political Instability in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nigerian State is a victim of high-level corruption, bad governance, political instability and a cyclical legitimacy crisis. Consequently, national development is retarded, and the political environment uncertain. The country's authoritarian leadership faced a legitimacy crisis, political intrigues, in an ethnically - differentiated polity, where ethnic competition for resources drove much of the pervasive corruption and profligacy. While the political

Omololu Fagbadebo

392

Molecular Diagnostics for Lassa Fever at Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Nigeria: Lessons Learnt from Two Years of Laboratory Operation  

PubMed Central

Background Lassa fever is a viral hemorrhagic fever endemic in West Africa. However, none of the hospitals in the endemic areas of Nigeria has the capacity to perform Lassa virus diagnostics. Case identification and management solely relies on non-specific clinical criteria. The Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital (ISTH) in the central senatorial district of Edo State struggled with this challenge for many years. Methodology/Principal Findings A laboratory for molecular diagnosis of Lassa fever, complying with basic standards of diagnostic PCR facilities, was established at ISTH in 2008. During 2009 through 2010, samples of 1,650 suspected cases were processed, of which 198 (12%) tested positive by Lassa virus RT-PCR. No remarkable demographic differences were observed between PCR-positive and negative patients. The case fatality rate for Lassa fever was 31%. Nearly two thirds of confirmed cases attended the emergency departments of ISTH. The time window for therapeutic intervention was extremely short, as 50% of the fatal cases died within 2 days of hospitalization—often before ribavirin treatment could be commenced. Fatal Lassa fever cases were older (p?=?0.005), had lower body temperature (p<0.0001), and had higher creatinine (p<0.0001) and blood urea levels (p<0.0001) than survivors. Lassa fever incidence in the hospital followed a seasonal pattern with a peak between November and March. Lassa virus sequences obtained from the patients originating from Edo State formed—within lineage II—a separate clade that could be further subdivided into three clusters. Conclusions/Significance Lassa fever case management was improved at a tertiary health institution in Nigeria through establishment of a laboratory for routine diagnostics of Lassa virus. Data collected in two years of operation demonstrate that Lassa fever is a serious public health problem in Edo State and reveal new insights into the disease in hospitalized patients. PMID:23029594

Hass, Meike; Gabriel, Martin; Ölschläger, Stephan; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Folarin, Onikepe; Phelan, Eric; Ehiane, Philomena E.; Ifeh, Veritas E.; Uyigue, Eghosasere A.; Oladapo, Yemisi T.; Muoebonam, Ekene B.; Osunde, Osagie; Dongo, Andrew; Okokhere, Peter O.; Okogbenin, Sylvanus A.; Momoh, Mojeed; Alikah, Sylvester O.; Akhuemokhan, Odigie C.; Imomeh, Peter; Odike, Maxy A. C.; Gire, Stephen; Andersen, Kristian; Sabeti, Pardis C.; Happi, Christian T.; Akpede, George O.; Günther, Stephan

2012-01-01

393

Pastoral Livelihoods and the Epidemiology of Emergent Trypanosomiasis on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria   

E-print Network

African trypanosomiasis is a widespread disease of livestock which is a major constraint to livestock production, mixed farming and the rural economy. The Jos Plateau in Nigeria was historically free of tsetse flies and ...

Majekodunmi, Ayodele

2012-01-01

394

Pastoral livelihoods and the epidemiology of emergent trypanosomiasis on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria   

E-print Network

African trypanosomiasis is a widespread disease of livestock which is a major constraint to livestock production, mixed farming and the rural economy. The Jos Plateau in Nigeria was historically free of tsetse flies and ...

Majekodunmi, Ayodele Oluwakemi

2012-06-22

395

Stimulating Nigeria's emerging real estate markets : investment opportunities through the public sector  

E-print Network

In its Global Economics Paper Nc.134, the Goldman Sachs Economics Group highlights the West African country of Nigeria as having the potential to be among the next generation of emerging markets around the world the next ...

Odusote, Oladimeji

2008-01-01

396

Knowledge, Power and the University in a Developing Country: Nigeria and Cultural Dependancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines cultural dependence in Nigeria and the manner in which university education enhances such dependancy by promoting the process of elite formation. Concludes by suggesting an alternative model of university education and cultural development. (BSR)

Woodhouse, Howard R.

1987-01-01

397

Infant feeding intentions and practices of HIV-positive mothers in southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

It has been shown that infant feeding pattern affects mother-to-child transmission of HIV. This study reports the infant feeding practices of HIV-positive mothers in southwestern Nigeria. PMID:18689717

Adejuyigbe, Ebunoluwa; Orji, Ernest; Onayade, Adedeji; Makinde, Niyi; Anyabolu, Henry

2008-08-01

398

Combating Violent-Extremism and Insurgency in Nigeria: A Case Study of the Boko Haram Scourge  

E-print Network

combustible mix of violent extremism and thriving homegrown insurgencies. Rather than internally tackling the challenge, the Nigerian government perpetually seeks international interventions to assist with the rising crisis. The fabric of Nigeria's unity...

Babalola, Oluwatosin Olayimika

2013-12-31

399

Gas Flaring in Nigeria: Some Aspects for Accelerated Development of SasolChevron GTL Plant at Escravos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drive for reduction of gas flaring in Nigeria, utilization of Nigeria's vast gas resources, and conversion of gas molecules into money for Nigeria, motivated the study of the development of Escravos gas-to-liquids (EGTL) project. SasolChevron is the product of the coalition of energy technologies for the exploitation of the EGTL project.This article discusses some aspects of the SasolChevron gas-to-liquids

George C. Oguejiofor

2006-01-01

400

Needs Assessment of International Students at Eastern Oregon State College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the research project was to assess the needs, satisfaction, and concerns of international students attending Eastern Oregon State College. The international student population consisted of students from Micronesia, Netherlands, Somalia, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Iran, Japan, Thailand, Zimbabwe, Belgium, Canada, Nigeria, China,…

Eid, Mamoud Taha; Jordan-Domschot, Theresa

401

The development role of community banks in rural Nigeria.  

PubMed

This paper examined the development role of community banks in rural Nigeria by using the deposit mobilization capability and funding capacity in key sectors of the rural economy as yardsticks. By using a cluster sampling technique, it looks at the achievements of the community banking scheme initiative in terms of economic development. The scheme, established in 1991, has sustained itself and promoted rural development in the country. It is noted that communities have, for the first time, realized that they can advance their own economic fortunes. However, the scheme's performance as supporter of the agricultural sector has not been as well as expected, despite the fact that agriculture dominates Nigeria's rural economy. In view of this, non-banking activities are a welcome development since some of their approaches are proven to be knowledge enhancing and empowering for the rural population. Overall, community banks should attempt to strengthen non-banking approaches by collaborating more with self-help groups or nongovernmental organizations to be more empowering, results-oriented, and sustainable. Moreover, regulatory authorities should ensure that guidelines relate to credit application in terms of volume and sector allocation. PMID:12295957

Onugu, C U

2000-02-01

402

Understanding cybercrime perpetrators and the strategies they employ in Nigeria.  

PubMed

A lot has been written on cybercrime and its prevention, but the problem has proved particularly resilient to remedial action. Desperate and vulnerable individuals in every continent continue to fall into its trap. Despite this, there is dearth of descriptive study that attempts to unravel the strategies employed by the perpetrators in Nigeria, as an important precondition for workable and reliable policy direction to address the problem. This article has filled this gap by using data from 40 cybercrime perpetrators selected with snowballing technique. The findings revealed that most of the cybercrime perpetrators in Nigeria are between the age of 22 and 29 years who were undergraduates and have distinctive lifestyles from other youths. Their strategies include collaboration with security agents and bank officials, local and international networking, and the use of voodoo that is, traditional supernatural power. It was clear that most perpetrators of cybercrime were involved in on-line dating and buying and selling with fake identity among others. The article discussed the need for reorientation of Nigerian youths in higher institutions, and various methods as guiding principles for potential victims. It recommended a complete reorganization of the Nigerian Police Force and Economic and Financial Crime Commission, as some of the officers in the institutions aid and abet cybercrime. It finally suggested a review of the Nigerian law guiding the operations of banking, poster agencies, and various speed post services in the country, as these are necessary preconditions to effectively combat the problem. PMID:22007957

Aransiola, Joshua Oyeniyi; Asindemade, Suraj Olalekan

2011-12-01

403

Pattern of Paediatric Neurological Disorders in Port Harcourt, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Paediatric Neurological disorders in developing countries are very challenging. This is due to its chronicity, late presentation and unavailability of modern diagnostic facilities in developing countries like Nigeria. Lack of these modern technology and manpower contribute significantly to increased morbidity and mortality. This study demonstrates the pattern of neurological disorders and the challenges in management in a developing country. Materials and Method: This was a retrospective hospital based analysis of neurological disorders seen in the Paediatric neurology unit of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching hospital, Nigeria from January 2004 to December 2009. Descriptive statistics was used to present the result. Result: A total of 35,473 patients were seen in the Paediatric unit. Of these 2,379 had neurological disorders. This gave a prevalence of 6.7% of Paediatric neurological disorders. There were 1,431 males and 948 females (male: female ratio of 1.51:1.0). The age ranged from 3 months to 15 years. The age group 1->5 years accounted for the most affected age group constituting 87.7%. The most frequent Paediatric neurological disorders were epilepsy (24.6%), cerebral palsy (15.4%), and central nervous system infections (9.5%). Conclusions/Recommendation: Wide spectrum of neurological disorders occur in our environment. The high incidence of epilepsy and cerebral palsy suggests that effort should be geared towards educating the populace about early diagnosis and prompt management. PMID:23675231

Frank-Briggs, A. I.; D Alikor, E. A.

2011-01-01

404

Echinococcus granulosus Prevalence in Dogs in Southwest Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Echinococcosis is a public health parasitic disease that is cosmopolitan (Echinococcus granulosus) in its distribution. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have been recognised as the definitive host of the parasite. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of canine echinococcosis in Southwest Nigeria using direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect sera antigen. Two hundred and seventy-three (273) canine sera were tested for the presence of Echinococcus antigen. Purpose of keeping (hunting or companion), age (young or adult), and sex of each dog were considered during sampling. Total prevalence recorded was 12.45% (34/273). There was significant difference (P < 0.05) between hunting (15.94%) and companion dogs (1.52%) but there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between young and adult dogs. There was no association between sex and prevalence of canine echinococcosis. The result of this study established the presence of canine echinococcosis in Southwest Nigeria; thus there is the possibility of occurrence of zoonotic form of the disease (human cystic hydatid diseases) in the region. PMID:24900911

Adediran, Oyeduntan Adejoju; Kolapo, Temitope Ubaidat; Uwalaka, Emmanuel Chibuike

2014-01-01

405

On black market exchange rate and demand for money in developing countries: The case of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the hitherto unexplored question of the effects of the black market exchange rate expectations on the\\u000a domestic demand for money in Nigeria. This study finds that real income and expected inflation rates are the appropriate scale\\u000a and opportunity cost variables for the demand for money function in Nigeria. The results also suggest that depreciation in\\u000a black market

M. Kabir Hassan; K. Choudhury; M. Waheeduzzaman

1995-01-01

406

Petroleum and structural change in a developing society: the case of Nigeria  

SciTech Connect

This study of Nigeria provides a multidimensional analysis of development. The Nigerian development experience is considered as the interrelation of: (a) economic development paradigm which guided development thinking; (b) the national planning model and apparatus employed; (c) the ideology of nationalism; and (d) the internal and external factors in Nigeria's environment that combined to influence its development strategies. As a society, Nigeria has undergone profound changes over the period of the last 25 years. It was transformed from a primarily agricultural society to an industrializing one. A key source of this change has been the emergence of the petroleum economy. Nigeria's GDP grew an extraordinary 81% per annum on average between 1960 and 1980. Yet, the aggregate performance of the petroleum economy was far better, adding to Nigerian economic wealth at an average rate of 7400% per annum. Judged on these terms, Nigeria's overall economic performance from independence to 1980 was spectacular; the performance of its petroleum economy astounding. Despite this performance, the structure of Nigeria's political economy is nearly the same as it was at independence. It remains one in which economic life depends critically upon world-market conditions and the level of trade with developed economies.

Olayiwola, P.O.

1985-01-01

407

Science Education in Nigeria: An Examination of People's Perceptions about Female Participation in Science, Mathematics and Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper brings to focus people's perception about female involvement in science, mathematics and technology (SMT). Data for the study were obtained from a survey conducted in March, 2005 in two Local Government Areas of Osun state, Southwest Nigeria. The paper reveals that: (i) about 57% of household heads, 45.6% of mothers and 57.6% of the children are of the opinion that both boys and girls are given equal right to SMT education (ii) social forces play an important role in determining people's attitude to SMT (iii) though, parents and stakeholders perceptions about girls' participation in some professions is changing, however, socio-cultural and economic factors still determine which sex to encourage to read SMT.

Ogunjuyigbe, Peter O.; Ojofeitimi, Ebenezer O.; Akinlo, Ambrose

2006-10-01

408

The hydrogeological and geotechnical parameters as agents for gully-type erosion in the Rain-Forest Belt of Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Agulu-Nanka gully complex is located in Anambra State, Nigeria. The gullies formed by erosion have damaged the environment extensively and driven people from homes and farm lands. The rate of growth of the gully system is estimated to be about 30 m per year. Earlier studies attributed the genesis and growth of the gullies to human activities and geomorphological processes. This study shows that the root causes of the gully genesis and growth strongly lie in the hydrogeological and geotechnical properties of a complex aquifer system. These properties are related to the high hydrostatic pressures in aquifers that reduce the effective stress of unconsolidated coarse sands, thereby leading to erosion. On the basis of the hydrogeological and geotechnical data available, it is suggested that a major dewatering scheme would check the growth of the gullies and also better supply water to the rural communities.

Egboka, B. C. E.; Nwankwor, G. I.

409

Theatre of Rural Empowerment: The Example of Living Earth Nigeria Foundation's Community Theatre Initiative in Cross River State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

About 60% of Nigerians live in rural areas with poor access roads and health facilities, near-absent communication media, unemployment, alienation and disempowerment by the political leadership. This scenario has excluded the rural Nigerian from meaningful participation in development action. A bottom-up participatory approach to…

Betiang, Liwhu

2010-01-01

410

Respiratory Symptoms among Crop Farmers Exposed to Agricultural Pesticide in Three Rural Communities in South Western Nigeria: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Background: The improper use of pesticide is associated with respiratory morbidity in many developing countries. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and its association with the use of agricultural pesticide among crop farmers in three rural communities in Ekiti State, South Western Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Ijero local government in Ekiti State, Nigeria from June 2009 to August 2009. Pre-tested structured questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers to obtain clinical information and exposure to pesticide and this was followed by peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) measurement using wright peak flow meter. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 15 (SPSS Corp., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: A total of 228 farmers participated in the study and 8.3% (19/228)of the farmers reported a lifetime exposure to pesticides. Recurrent breathlessness (odds ratio [OR] = 4.28; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.65-10.86), chronic cough (OR = 2.96; 95% CI: 1.21-7.23), chronic sputum (OR = 2.64; 95% CI: 1.12-6.24) and nasal symptoms (OR = 2.96; 95% CI: 1.21-7.25) were independently associated with pesticide exposure. Mean PEFR was lower in farmers using pesticide (323 [217] L/min) when compared with those not using pesticide (467 [189] L/min) P < 0.01. All the 228 (100.0%) respondents in this study were aware of the adverse effect of pesticide and only 2 (10.5%) of those exposed used a respiratory protective device. Previous pesticide education was not significantly associated with lower occurrence of respiratory symptoms. Conclusion: The use of pesticide among crop farmers is associated with increased respiratory symptoms and airflow limitations. Our results support the need for continuing pesticide education and promotion of safe practices among the farmers as the majority of them do not use protective devices. PMID:25221725

Desalu, OO; Busari, OA; Adeoti, AO

2014-01-01

411

Quality of anti-malarial drugs provided by public and private healthcare providers in south-east Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background There is little existing knowledge about actual quality of drugs provided by different providers in Nigeria and in many sub-Saharan African countries. Such information is important for improving malaria treatment that will help in the development and implementation of actions designed to improve the quality of treatment. The objective of the study was to determine the quality of drugs used for the treatment of malaria in a broad spectrum of public and private healthcare providers. Methods The study was undertaken in six towns (three urban and three rural) in Anambra state, south-east Nigeria. Anti-malarials (225 samples), which included artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), quinine, and chloroquine, were either purchased or collected from randomly selected providers. The quality of these drugs was assessed by laboratory analysis of the dissolution profile using published pharmacopoeial monograms and measuring the amount of active ingredient using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Findings It was found that 60 (37%) of the anti-malarials tested did not meet the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) specifications for the amount of active ingredients, with the suspect drugs either lacking the active ingredients or containing suboptimal quantities of the active ingredients. Quinine (46%) and SP formulations (39%) were among drugs that did not satisfy the tolerance limits published in USP monograms. A total of 78% of the suspect drugs were from private facilities, mostly low-level providers, such as patent medicine dealers (vendors). Conclusion This study found that there was a high prevalence of poor quality drugs. The findings provide areas for public intervention to improve the quality of malaria treatment services. There should be enforced checks and regulation of drug supply management as well as stiffer penalties for people stocking substandard and counterfeit drugs. PMID:19208221

Onwujekwe, Obinna; Kaur, Harparkash; Dike, Nkem; Shu, Elvis; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Hanson, Kara; Okoye, Viola; Okonkwo, Paul

2009-01-01

412

Use of complementary and alternative medicines for children with chronic health conditions in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is on the increase globally with a high prevalence in children and adults with chronic illnesses. Many studies have evaluated the epidemiology of medicine use for children in developing countries but none has evaluated the use of CAM for children with chronic illnesses. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence, pattern of use, parental sources of information, perceived benefits, cost, and adverse effects of CAM in children with epilepsy, sickle cell anaemia and asthma in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods Parents of children with epilepsy (122), asthma (78) or sickle cell anaemia (118) who presented consecutively to the paediatric neurology, respiratory and haematology clinics of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH), Ikeja were interviewed with a structured open- and close-ended questionnaire. The information obtained comprised the demography of both the patients and their parents; past and present treatments received by the patients; the type of CAM, if any, used by the patients; and the sources, cost, benefits and adverse effects of the CAM used. Results A total of 303 CAMs were used by the patients, either alone or in combination witother CAM. CAM was reportedly used by 99 (31%) patients (epilepsy -38%, sickle cell anaemia – 36% and asthma – 25%). The majority (84%) of these patients were currently using CAM. The use of CAM was stopped six months prior to the study by 16 patients (16%). Biological products were the most frequently used CAMs (58%), followed by alternative medical systems (27%) and mind-body interventions (14%). Relations, friends and neighbours had a marked influence on 76% of the parents who used CAM for their children. Eighty-five (86%) parents were willing to discuss the use of CAM with their doctors but were not asked. CAM use was associated with adverse reactions in 7.1% of the patients. Conclusion Parental use of CAMs to treat their children with epilepsy, asthma and sickle cell anaemia is common in Nigeria. Efforts should be made by doctors taking care of these patients to identify those CAM therapies that are beneficial, harmless and cheap for possible integration with conventional therapy. PMID:19113999

Oshikoya, Kazeem A; Senbanjo, Idowu O; Njokanma, Olisamedua F; Soipe, Ayo

2008-01-01

413

Identification of long-term trends in vegetation dynamics in the Guinea savannah region of Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of newly generated data from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) covering the last three decades has broaden our understanding of vegetation dynamics (greening) from global to regional scale through quantitative analysis of seasonal trends in vegetation time series and climatic variability especially in the Guinea savannah region of Nigeria where greening trend is inconsistent. Due to the impact of changes in global climate and sustainability of means of human livelihood, increasing interest on vegetation productivity has become important. The aim of this study is to examine association between NDVI and rainfall using remotely sensed data, since vegetation dynamics (greening) has a high degree of association with weather parameters. This study therefore analyses trends in regional vegetation dynamics in Kogi state, Nigeria using bi-monthly AVHRR GIMMS 3g (Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies) data and TAMSAT (Tropical Applications of Meteorology Satellite) monthly data both from 1983 to 2011 to identify changes in vegetation greenness over time. Analysis of changes in the seasonal variation of vegetation greenness and climatic drivers was conducted for selected locations to further understand the causes of observed interannual changes in vegetation dynamics. For this study, Mann-Kendall (MK) monotonic method was used to analyse long-term inter-annual trends of NDVI and climatic variable. The Theil-Sen median slope was used to calculate the rate of change in slopes between all pair wise combination and then assessing the median over time. Trends were also analysed using a linear model method, after seasonality had been removed from the original NDVI and rainfall data. The result of the linear model are statistically significant (p <0.01) in all the study location which can be interpreted as increase in vegetation trend over time (greening). Also the result of the NDVI trend analysis using Mann-Kendall test shows an increasing (i.e. positive) trend in the time series. The significance of the result was tested using Kendall's tau rank correlation coefficient and the results were significant. Finally the NDVI data and TAMSAT data were analysed together in order to describe the relationship between both values. Although, increase in rainfall over the last decades enhances vegetation greenness, other factors such as land use change and population density need to be investigated in order to better explain changing trends of vegetation greening for the study area in the future.

Osunmadewa, Babatunde A.; Wessollek, Christine; Karrasch, Pierre

2014-10-01

414

Communicable disease-related sudden death in the 21st century in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Some cases of sudden death (SD) have been attributed to communicable diseases (CD) in middle- and low-income countries of the world even in this 21st century. CDs produce clinical symptoms and signs over several days before culminating in death. They are also amenable to treatment with antimicrobials if affected persons present early. We sought to find out the incidence of CD-related SD at the Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital (Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria) – a tertiary health facility in southwest Nigeria – and the prevailing associated factors. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of CD-related SD in adult patients aged 18 years and older that occurred from January 2003 to December 2011. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 was used for analysis of the generated data. Percentages and frequencies were calculated. Results There were 17 (39.6%) CD-related SDs out of the 48 cases of SD studied. CD-related SD also accounted for 2.4% of all adult medical admissions. The mean age of the patients was 37.6 ± 11.6 years, age range of 25–62 years, mode of 25 years, and median 34 years. The male-to-female ratio was 1.8:1. Typhoid sepsis was responsible for SD in 47.1% of patients, pulmonary tuberculosis in 17.7% of patients, and lobar pneumonia in 17.7% of patients. The most affected age group was the 20–29-year-old group (41.2%), while the unskilled occupational group was the most affected occupational group with 35.3% of them having SD. Most of the patients with acute bacterial infection died of multiple organ failure. Conclusion There is an urgent need to step up public health strategies to curtail infections in this environment, encourage better use of the existing health facilities by the people, and the government should strive hard to make health a top priority. PMID:24124382

Akinwusi, Patience Olayinka; Komolafe, Akinwumi Oluwole; Olayemi, Olanrewaju Olayinka; Adeomi, Adeleye Abiodun

2013-01-01

415

Contamination of Tomatoes with Coliforms and Escherichia coli on Farms and in Markets of Northwest Nigeria.  

PubMed

Although recent reports indicated that produce contamination with foodborne pathogens is widespread in Nigeria, the sources and magnitude of microbial contamination of fruits and vegetables on farms and in markets have not been thoroughly identified. To ascertain possible pathways of contamination, the frequency and magnitude of coliform and Escherichia coli contamination of tomatoes produced in northwest Nigeria was assessed on farms and in markets. Eight hundred twenty-six tomato fruit samples and 36 irrigation water samples were collected and assessed for fecal indicator organisms. In addition, the awareness and use of food safety practices by tomato farmers and marketers were determined. Median concentration of coliforms on all field- and market-sourced tomato fruit samples, as well as in irrigation water sources, in Kaduna, Kano, and Katsina states exceeded 1,000 most probable number (MPN) per g. Median E. coli counts from 73 (17%) of 420 field samples and 231 (57%) of 406 market tomato fruit samples exceeded 100 MPN/g. Median E. coli concentrations on tomato fruits were higher (P < 0.01) in the rainy season (2.45 Log MPN/g), when irrigation was not practiced than in the dry (1.10 Log MPN/g) and early dry (0.92 Log MPN/g) seasons. Eighteen (50%) of 36 irrigation water samples had E. coli counts higher than 126 MPN/100 ml. Median E. coli contamination on market tomato fruit samples (2.66 Log MPN/g) were higher (P < 0.001) than those from tomatoes collected on farms (0.92 Log MPN/g). Farmers and marketers were generally unaware of the relationship between food safety practices and microbial contamination on fresh produce. Good agricultural practices pertaining to food safety on farms and in local markets were seldom used. Adoption of food safety practices on-farm, during transport, and during marketing could improve the microbial quality of tomatoes available to the public in this region of the world. PMID:25581178

Shenge, Kenneth C; Whong, Clement M Z; Yakubu, Lydia L; Omolehin, Raphael A; Erbaugh, J Mark; Miller, Sally A; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

2015-01-01

416

Natural occurrence of moulds and aflatoxin B1 in melon seeds from markets in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Shelled melon seeds (Colocynthis citrullus L.) were purchased from markets in randomly selected villages and towns in three states in each of the rain forest (Ogun, Oyo and Osun) and Northern guinea savanna (Kaduna, Niger and Bauchi) zones of Nigeria. The seed samples were analysed for incidence of visibly diseased seeds, moisture content, moulds and aflatoxin B1 contamination. The incidence of diseased seeds ranged from 6.4% to 50.4% in the forest, and 4.3% to 34.3% in the savanna, and the moisture content was 5.6% to 12.6% and 4.5% to 10.3%, respectively. Mould evaluation revealed that Aspergillus was the most frequent genus, followed by Penicillium, Botryodiplodia, Cladosporium and Rhizopus in decreasing sequential order. Aspergillus flavus had the highest individual count in melon seed from both zones. Aflatoxin B1 was detected at levels above 5 microg/kg in 32.2% of samples, while only 3.5% of the samples contained the toxin above the 20 microg/kg Nigerian tolerance level in food. The percentage of samples contaminated with aflatoxin B1 was statistically comparable for the pooled data of villages and towns. The median level of aflatoxin B1 was less than 5 microg/kg in the seed samples, while the mean aflatoxin B1 levels was 14.1 microg/kg in the forest and 13.0 microg/kg in the savanna samples. PMID:15207382

Bankole, S A; Ogunsanwo, B M; Mabekoje, O O

2004-08-01

417

Correlates of Willingness to Engage in Residential Gardening: Implications for Health Optimization in Ibadan, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Gardening is a worthwhile adventure which engenders health op­timization. Yet, a dearth of evidences that highlights motivations to engage in gardening exists. This study examined willingness to engage in gardening and its correlates, including some socio-psychological, health related and socio-demographic variables. Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, 508 copies of a structured questionnaire were randomly self administered among a group of civil servants of Oyo State, Nigeria. Multi-item measures were used to assess variables. Step wise multiple regression analysis was used to identify predictors of willingness to engage in gar­dening Results: Simple percentile analysis shows that 71.1% of respondents do not own a garden. Results of step wise multiple regression analysis indicate that descriptive norm of gardening is a good predictor, social support for gardening is better while gardening self efficacy is the best predictor of willingness to engage in gardening (P< 0.001). Health consciousness, gardening response efficacy, education and age are not predictors of this willingness (P> 0.05). Results of t-test and ANOVA respectively shows that gender is not associated with this willingness (P> 0.05), but marital status is (P< 0.05).  Conclusion: Socio-psychological characteristics and being married are very rele­vant in motivations to engage in gardening. The nexus between gardening and health optimization appears to be highly obscured in this population. PMID:24688974

Motunrayo Ibrahim, Fausat

2013-01-01

418

Primary Headache Disorders at a Tertiary Health Facility in Lagos, Nigeria: Prevalence and Consultation Patterns  

PubMed Central

Background. Primary headaches are underdiagnosed and undertreated, with a significant impact on social activities and work. Aim. To determine the last-year prevalence and health care utilization pattern of primary headaches at a tertiary centre. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out amongst staff of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. 402 staff members were selected by simple random sampling and administered a detailed structured headache assessment questionnaire. Migraine and tension-type headache were diagnosed according to the criteria of the International Headache Society (2004). Results. The participants comprised 168