These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Determinants of Technical Efficiency of Urban Farming in Uyo Metropolis of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the determinants of technical efficiency of urban farming in Uyo metropolis of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria using a stochastic frontier production function. Structured questionnaires were used to collect cost-route data from 75 respondents randomly selected from four designated locations in the project area. The findings revealed that the co-efficient of farm size, capital, manures and planting materials

V. O. EBONG; E. O. EFFIONG; Obio Akpa

2009-01-01

2

Prevalence and Management Issues Associated with Poultry Coccidiosis in Abak Agricultural Zone of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of six farms each randomly selected from each of five local government areas of Abak agricultural zone of Akwa Ibom State, Southeastern Nigeria, was conducted to assess on-farm prevalence and management of poultry coccidiosis. The study, which involved scrutiny of farm and clinical records, distribution of structured and pre-tested questionnaires to elicit relevant data, showed that in the

2004-01-01

3

Female circumcision and its health implications: a study of the Uruan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A total of 400 subjects was randomly selected from 40 villages in the Uruan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State for the study. The purposes of the study were to: i. identify the 'established benefits' of female circumcision; ii. identify the health hazards that accompany the practice; and iii. create awareness among community members of the ill-effects of the practice. The study discovered a strong belief in the established benefits and poor appreciation of the health hazards of female circumcision by the participants. Recommendations were made for more efforts in public health education programmes on the ill-effects of the practice. Studies were also recommended to be conducted in other parts of the country to assess the level of awareness on the ill-effects of such an operation and the institution of educational programmes where applicable. PMID:9223848

Ebong, R D

1997-04-01

4

Effects of parental involvement in HIV/AIDS preventive education on secondary student knowledge about transmission and prevention in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study investigated HIV/AIDS preventive health education involving nurses alone (IG1) and another involving both nurses and trained parents/ guardians (IG2) on students' knowledge of HIV/AIDS' transmission and prevention in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Subjects included 339 students selected through a multistage and stratified random sampling technique. A pre-test/post-test intervention design with control group was used. Data were obtained using questionnaire, and analysis involved the use of analysis of covariance, multiple classification analysis, and Scheffe's post-hoc test. Results show that students exposed to parental involvement had significantly better mean scores on knowledge of prevention (IG2: x=7.51; IG1: x=6.96 control: x=3.82). Furthermore, although the male students had significantly higher mean score with intervention involving only nurses, the females had higher mean score with intervention involving parents/guardians. It is recommended that parents/guardians should be trained and involved in HIV/AIDS' preventive education of secondary school students. PMID:19342358

Akpabio, I I; Asuzu, M C; Fajemilehin, B R; Ofi, Bola

5

A survey of the repository of groundwater potential and distribution using geoelectrical resistivity method in Itu Local Government Area (L.G.A), Akwa Ibom State, southern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical electrical sounding (VES), employing a Schlumberger electrode configuration, was used to investigate the sediments and aquifer repositories in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom state, southern Nigeria. This was done in sixteen (16) locations/communities with the maximum current electrode spread ranging between 800-1000m. The field data were interpreted using forward and iterative least square inversion modeling, which gives a resolution with 3-5 geoelectric layers. The observed frequencies in curve types include 31.25% of AKH, 18.8% of AAK and HK and 6.25% of K, QHK, AKH, KA and KHQ, respectively. These sets of curves show a wide range of variabilities in resistivities between and within the layers penetrated by current. The presence of K and H curve types in the study area indicates the alteration of the geomaterials with limited hydrologic significance to the prolific groundwater repository. A correlation of the constrained nearby borehole lithology logs with the VES results shows that the layers were all sandy formations (fine and well sorted sands to gravelly sands or medium to coarse-grained sands as described by nearby lithology logs) with some wide ranges of electrical resistivity values and thicknesses caused by electrostratigraphic inhomogeneity. The geologic topsoil (motley topsoil) is generally porous and permeable and as such the longitudinal conductance ( S) values for the covering/protective layer is generally less than unity of Siemens ( S < 1?-1), the value considered for efficient protection of the underlying aquifers by the topmost and overlying layer. The spatial orientations and the leveling patterns of the most economically viable potential groundwater repository within the maximum current electrode separations has been delineated in 2-D and 3-D contoured maps. The estimated depth range for the desired groundwater repository is 32.6-113.1m and its average depth value is 74.30m. The thickness of this layer ranges from 27.9-103m while its average depth has been evaluated to be 63.02m. Also, its resistivity range and average value have been estimated to be 507-5612m and 3365.125?m

Ibuot, J. C.; Akpabio, G. T.; George, N. J.

2013-12-01

6

PAH depositional history and sources in recent sediment core from Ukwa Ibom Lake, S. E. Nigeria.  

PubMed

Analyses of recent sediment core from the Ukwa Ibom Lake show evidence of aquatic production, terrigenous, combustion and petroleum inputs. Total organic carbon/total nitrogen values (>10) for the sediments indicate greater wash-in of land-plant organic matter relative to algal production. The characteristic combustion ratios, fluoranthene/fluoranthene + pyrene (>0.50), anthracene/anthracene + phenanthrene (>0.10), benzo(a)anthracene/benzo(a)anthracene + chrysene (>0.35) as well as 1,7/1,7 + 2,6-dimethylphenanthrene (>0.70) were observed for the top section only. These results coincided with the most recent pave-road extension exercise involving tree logging and burning of bush. The highest total PAH concentration (91.13 ng/g dry weight (dw)) observed for the bottom section coincided with the period of inhabitation of the lake catchments (~5 decades ago) when discharge to the Lake water of domestic sewage and mill waste water were prevalent. The regular decline in total PAH concentrations upcore is a reflection of the ban placed on indiscriminate dumping of wastes following relocation of the inhabitants of the catchments. Besides the local depositional history, the irregular decrease in unresolved complex mixture (UCM) profiles suggests regional contaminant influx from the adjacent upper Cross River estuary, especially during intense rainfall event. The non-uniformity in methylphenanthrene indices (MPI-1 and MPI-2) shows evidence of importation and utilization of petroleum products of different thermal maturity histories into the Nigerian economy. PMID:22821212

Oyo-Ita, O E; Oyo-Ita, I O

2013-04-01

7

Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents information on Nigeria for use in the elementary classroom. A basic theme of the text is change. Nigeria is currently in a state of change, as are most developing countries. North American children often have an idea of African people as poor and backward. In this text, Nigerian people are presented as a people with a rich…

Gage, Susan

8

Nigeria  

... smoke from fires burning throughout Nigeria and north central Africa on January 31, 2003. At left are natural-color views acquired by ... - Smoke from fires burning throughout Nigeria and north central Africa. project:  MISR category:  ...

2013-04-15

9

Maternal Birth Outcomes: Processes and Challenges in Anambra State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The views of nurse experts and policymakers on maternal birth outcomes in Anambra State, Nigeria, were explored using qualitative content analysis. The findings indicate that although there are different levels of birth attendants in Anambra State, nurses attend to most deliveries; are highly favored; and are the most trusted obstetric providers among skilled personnel. Obstetric complications are extensive, leading to

Mabel C. Ezeonwu

2011-01-01

10

Determinants of Internet use in Imo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research was designed to determine the use of internet in Imo state, Nigeria with a view to enlighten societal stakeholders on their implications to development. Self designed questionnaire was distributed to users from five internet centers in the three local government areas of Imo State. 219 (73%) of the 300 distributed questionnaires were…

Anunobi, C. V.; Mbagwu, F. C.

2009-01-01

11

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OSUN STATE, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the management of conflicts in the administration of secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. It also identifies, discusses and analyses the causes as well as the various ways conflicts manifested in the administration of secondary schools in the state. The effects of conflicts on school administration are equally examined. Quantitative and qualitative data were generated from both

OLU OKOTONI; ABOSEDE OKOTONI

2003-01-01

12

Forest conversion, conservation and forestry in Cross River State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents new data on the rate and patterns of loss of tropical moist forest cover to agriculture in Cross River State, Nigeria. Data from sequential aerial photographs and field surveys are used to derive an estimate of forest loss of 0.6 per cent per year. This rate is relatively modest, yet current conservation and forestry policy in the

Uwem E Ite; William M Adams

1998-01-01

13

Current trends of immunization in Nigeria: prospect and challenges.  

PubMed

Immunization is aimed at the prevention of infectious diseases. In Nigeria, the National Programme on Immunization (NPI) suffers recurrent setbacks due to many factors including ethnicity and religious beliefs. Nigeria is made up of 36 states with its federal capital in Abuja. The country is divided into six geo-political zones; north central, north west, north east, south east, south west and south south. The population is unevenly distributed across the country. The average population density in 2006 was estimated at 150 people per square kilometres with Lagos, Anambra, Imo, Abia, and Akwa Ibom being the most densely populated states. Most of the densely populated states are found in the south east. Kano with an average density of 442 persons per square kilometre, is the most densely populated state in the northern part of the country. This study presents a review on the current immunization programme and the many challenges affecting its success in the eradication of childhood diseases in Nigeria. PMID:25237283

Ophori, Endurance A; Tula, Musa Y; Azih, Azuka V; Okojie, Rachel; Ikpo, Precious E

2014-06-01

14

Constraints to Improved Cotton Production in Katsina State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims at providing insight into the constraints inhibiting technology adoption behavior of cotton farmers in Katsina state, Nigeria. The samples comprise of 250 farmers selected from Malumfashi, Funtua and Daudawa in Katsina state Nigeria. Data collected from the respondents were analysed using descriptive statistics. The results show that the major constraints facing farmers as identified by about 80% are lack of fertilizer, frequency of spray, market opportunities. Others are inadequate knowledge of the production packages and non availability of these technologies. Given the result, it was concluded that cotton production in the study area is affected by lots of constraints. It was suggested that drastic improvement on the conditions of farmers be made through efforts on the constraints identified.

Adeniji, O. B.

15

Adoption of Aquaculture Technology by Fish Farmers in Imo State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper evaluated the level of adoption of aquaculture technology extended to farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. To improve aquaculture practice in Nigeria, a technology package was developed and disseminated to farmers in the state. This package included ten practices that the farmers were supposed to adopt. Eighty-two respondents were randomly…

Ike, Nwachukwu; Roseline, Onuegbu

2007-01-01

16

THE ECONOMY OF THE BOARDING SYSTEM IN POST - PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN BENDEL STATE OF NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the benefits and costs of the boarding schools in Bendel State of Nigeria. The paper starts with a background story of the hoarding system in Nigeria, with emphasis on the original objectives. This is folio-wed by the social, academic mid political benefits as seen by parents, students principals and Ministry of officials.

J. A. AGHENTA

17

The 1970 yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Benue Plateau State, Nigeria. I. Epidemiological observations.  

PubMed

A focal epidemic of yellow fever occurred in late 1970 in southern Benue Plateau State, Nigeria, 1 year after a much larger outbreak in northern Nigeria. Like its predecessor, the 1970 epidemic was associated with virus transmission by wild-breeding Stegomyia mosquitos. Epidemiological data on the outbreak are reported in this paper. PMID:4545318

Monath, T P; Wilson, D C; Lee, V H; Stroh, G; Kuteyi, K; Smith, E A

1973-01-01

18

The 1970 yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Benue Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

A focal epidemic of yellow fever occurred in late 1970 in southern Benue Plateau State, Nigeria, 1 year after a much larger outbreak in northern Nigeria. Like its predecessor, the 1970 epidemic was associated with virus transmission by wild-breeding Stegomyia mosquitos. Epidemiological data on the outbreak are reported in this paper. PMID:4545318

Monath, T. P.; Wilson, D. C.; Lee, V. H.; Stroh, G.; Kuteyi, K.; Smith, E. A.

1973-01-01

19

The television viewing behaviour of families in Kwara State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

To investigate the television viewing patterns in Nigerian families, 600 household heads from all 12 local government areas of Kwara state were interviewed. 439 (70%) of the respondents were fathers. 396 (66%) of the household heads in the survey were civil servants and the remainder were involved in private enterprises such as trading, farming, and crafts. 343 household (57%) had at least 1 television set, most often a color television. Respondents without television gave lack of money as the main reason; however, there was no correlation between ownership of television sets and the occupation of the household head. All Nigerian stations are owned and controlled by the federal government through the Nigeria Television Authority. The program viewed most frequently by the most respondents (92%) was the nightly network news. The most popular programming (identified by 86% of respondents) was a Saturday drama series designed to provide amusement and moral lessons. Most of those questioned strongly agreed that television is an educational resource within the family. On the other hand, 59% of the male household heads and 72% of the female heads added that television also has negative effects on moral behavior and children's attention to school work. National planners are urged to find ways to channel widespread television ownership and viewing in Nigeria toward social development through innovative programming. PMID:12283104

Talabi, J K

1989-01-01

20

Adoption of Improved Cotton Production Technologies in Katsina State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research broadly aims at providing information on the technology adoption behaviour of cotton farmers in Katsina State of Nigeria., The study was conducted in 2001 farming season in the Sudan savanna ecological zone where Samcot 8, 9, 10 and other production packages have been introduced to farmers. The sample consisted of 250 farmers selected from Funtua, Daudawa and Malumfashi, in Katsina State. The results indicated a high rate of awareness in the zone. The main sources of information were extension agents and the use of radio. The rate of adoption of improved practice was 78%. The results showed that most sampled farmers were not aware of the complete set of technologies studied. Among the technologies, farmer`s awareness of herbicides was least (15%) while the use of fertilizer recorded (85%). The major reasons for non adoption of improved technologies were inadequate knowledge and non-availability of these technologies.

Adeniji, O. B.; Voh, J. P.; Atala, T. K.; Ogungbile, A. O.

21

Traumatic death from rival gang violence in Rivers State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A prospective autopsy study in Rivers State, Nigeria, was undertaken to evaluate the patterns of death as a result of rival gang clashes and to highlight the menace of rival gang violence. Between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 2003 medico-legally autopsied bodies in Rivers State, where death was the result of gang violence, were studied after being served with the coroner's form. In all cases, standard autopsy procedures were adopted and reports were issued. A total of 58 bodies were autopsied for the study. Three (5.2%) were females and 55 (94.8%) were males, giving a female to male ratio of 1:18.3. The age group of 10-29 years recorded the highest frequency of death (65.6%) with a peak in the age group 20-29 years (39.7%). Gang violence and politically motivated mob action were the most common precipitating factors (60.3% and 20.7% respectively). Firearms (41.4%) was the most common method applied for the killing. Death was more common in the rural areas of Rivers State. Gang clashes, volatile political rallies, illegal drug peddling and illegal oil bunkering should be banned and stringent laws be passed. Such laws should also cover gun handling and should be enforced. PMID:16302380

Seleye-Fubara, D; Bob-Yellowe, E

2005-10-01

22

Hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater in Moro area, Kwara state, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed study of chemical analysis results of several groundwater samples (UNICEF-Assisted Water project, Kwara state, Nigeria) were carried out in an attempt to assess the quality and usability of groundwaters in the Moro area. Chemical analysis results indicate higher concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, and HCO3 - as compared to Na+, K+, Cl-, and SO4 2-. With exception of few locations where Fe is relatively higher, the concentrations of these ions together with other water quality parameters are all within permissible limits of the domestic and agricultural standards. On the basis of the analytical results, groundwaters in the study area are largely characterized as Ca-(Mg)-HCO3 type reflecting (possibly) young facies with limited migratory history. The occurrence of Ca-(Mg)-Na-HCO3 water type in certain areas is attributed to cation exchange processes. In addition, the observed scattered relationship between the TDS and the thickness of weathered horizons in the boreholes indicates the contribution of precipitation (recharge) to the ionic inputs in the groundwaters in addition to the weathering and dissolution processes.

Tijani, M.'n.

1994-11-01

23

Technical Efficiency and Productivity of Yam in Kogi State Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study examined the technical efficiency and productivity of yam in Kogi States of Nigeria. Specifically the study examined the socioeconomic characteristics of yam producers in Kogi State, determined the technical efficiency and productivity of yam farmers in the study areas and made recommendations on ways of improving the efficiency of yam production in Kogi State. Primary data were collected using a set of structured questionnaire from 200 selected Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) contact yam farmers from the State. A multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting the farmers. The first stage was a purposive sampling of 5 Local Government Areas (LGAs) each from Kogi States. The LGAs selected were Omala, Ofu, Ankpa, Dekina and Ida. This was based on the high concentration of the population of yam producers and the availability of market for yam products. The second stage involved a simple random sampling of 5 villages from each LGA and 8 yam farmers from each village. In all 200 yam farmers were interviewed by trained enumerators. Out of the 200 only 144 copies of the questionnaires were found adequate and used in the analysis for the study. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation, as well as the stochastic frontier production function. Results from the study showed that on the average more males (98.6%) were involved in yam production as compared to 1.4% in the case of female. The mean age of farmers was 53 years. The average years of schooling by farmers was about 4 years suggesting that the farmers were not well educated. The average farming years was 25 years. In terms of cropping pattern all the farmers practiced sole yam cropping. Their average farm sizes were 0.97 ha. The technical efficiency of the farmers in the State varied. The technical efficiency of farmers varied from 0.05 to 0.95 with a mean of 0.62, while only about 23% of the farmers had technical efficiencies exceeding 0.80. The results also showed that yam production was profitable in State with net profit of N 108,299.67 ha-1.

Ekunwe, Peter A.; Orewa, Sylvester I.

24

Perceptions, attitudes and practices on schistosomiasis in Delta State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Urinary schistosomiasis, which is one of the commonest forms of the parasitic disease is a major debilitating disease characterized by blood in urine. The main objective of the study reported here was to assess the knowledge, attitude/perception and practices of the people in Oshimili South and Ndokwa Northeast Local Government Areas of Delta State in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study of 400 randomly selected persons aged > or =15 years was undertaken using a uniform set of structured interview schedule administered by trained field assistants. This was supported with some qualitative data collected from in-depth interview with community leaders and school teachers as well as focus group discussions with community members. One-third of the people interviewed were aware of the schistosomiasis. For a majority however, the perceived causes of the disease included witchcraft and sexual or body contact with infected persons. For some of the respondents, the disease is not serious since it does not harm or prevent the victim from eating. In many cases the disease was not treated because of the belief that there is no effective cure for it and that it reoccurs after treatment. But perhaps more importantly, the infection is not treated because it is considered a normal growing up process, which the infected person outgrows. A very high proportion of people depended on the schistosomiasis-infected river for all the domestic needs even where there are alternative sources of water. People argued that the river/ stream give them purer water than the hand dug wells. Furthermore, swimming is a popular activity in the river during all seasons, irrespective of sex and age. In conclusion, the study has identified gaps in the knowledge of the cause and means of transmission, poor perception and management practices, which calls for systematic health education on schistosomiasis in the communities PMID:24409637

Onyeneho, Nkechi G; Yinkore, Paul; Egwuage, John; Emukah, Emmanuel

2010-10-01

25

Gender, Geographic Locations, Achievement Goals and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students from Borno State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examined gender, geography location, achievement goals and academic performance of senior secondary school students in Borno State, Nigeria. The sample consists of 827 students from 18 public boarding secondary schools across South and North of Borno State: 414 (50.1 per cent) males and 413 (49.9 per cent) are females; 414 (50.1 per…

Musa, Alice K.J.

2013-01-01

26

Determinants of Adoption of Improved Fish Production Technologies among Fish Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to isolate the determinants of improved fish production technologies in Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample population of 250 fish farmers from ten randomly selected Local Government Areas of Delta State. The data were elicited from respondents with the use of structured interview schedule while…

Ofuoku, A. U.; Olele, N. F.; Emah, G. N.

2008-01-01

27

Economic Efficiency Of Fadama Telfairia Production In Imo State Nigeria: A Translog Profit Function Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study delved into economic efficiency analysis of Fadama Telfairia farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. Specifically, it identified the production systems; estimated the economic efficiency and their determinants. A multistage random sampling technique was adopted in the selection of 40 Fadama Telfairia farmers from each of the three agricultural zones of the State. A well-structured questionnaire was used to obtain

Ifeanyi Ndubuto Nwachukwu; Christian Ejike ONYENWEAKU

2007-01-01

28

Indigenous knowledge system for treatment of trypanosomiasis in Kaduna state of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was carried out in Kaduna State of Nigeria to establish the indigenous knowledge system for treating trypanosomiasis in domestic animals. Questionnaire and interviews were, respectively, administered to, or conducted with about 200 livestock farmers and traders spread around the state. Data obtained revealed the use of several plants either alone or in combination, for the treatment and management

S. E Atawodi; D. A Ameh; S Ibrahim; J. N Andrew; H. C Nzelibe; E. O Onyike; K. M Anigo; E. A Abu; D. B James; G. C Njoku; A. B Sallau

2002-01-01

29

Principals' Management of Conflicts in Public Secondary Schools in Ondo State, Nigeria: A Critical Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examined principals' management of conflicts in public secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. As a descriptive survey, the study population comprised all the 281 public secondary schools in the State. Out of this population, a sample of 80 schools was drawn while 340 respondents (80 principals and 260 teachers) were selected through…

Adeyemi, T. O.

2009-01-01

30

Case based rubella surveillance in Abia State, South East Nigeria, 2007-2011.  

PubMed

Introduction. Rubella infection has the potential of causing severe fetal birth defects collectively called congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) if the mother is infected early in pregnancy. However, little is known about rubella and CRS epidemiology in Nigeria and rubella vaccines are still not part of routine childhood immunization in Nigeria. Methods. Analysis of confirmed cases of rubella in Abia State, Nigeria from 2007 to 2011 detected through Abia State Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response system. Results. Of the 757 febrile rash cases, 81(10.7%) tested positive for rubella immunoglobulin M (IgM). New rubella infection decreased from 6.81/1,000,000 population in 2007 to 2.28/1,000,000 in 2009 and increased to 6.34/1,000,000 in 2011. The relative risk of rubella was 1.5 (CI [0.98-2.28]) times as high in females compared to males and 1.6 times (CI [0.90-2.91]) as high in rural areas compared to urban areas. Eighty six percent of rubella infections occurred in children less than 15 years with a high proportion of cases occurring between 5 and 14 years. Conclusion. Rubella infection in Abia State, Nigeria is predominantly in those who are younger than 15 years old. It is also more prevalent in females and in those living in rural areas of the state. Unfortunately, there is no surveillance of CRS in Nigeria and so the public health impact of rubella infection in the state is not known. Efforts should be made to expand the rubella surveillance in Nigeria to incorporate surveillance for CRS. PMID:25289179

Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Onyi, Stella Chioma

2014-01-01

31

Case based rubella surveillance in Abia State, South East Nigeria, 2007-2011  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Rubella infection has the potential of causing severe fetal birth defects collectively called congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) if the mother is infected early in pregnancy. However, little is known about rubella and CRS epidemiology in Nigeria and rubella vaccines are still not part of routine childhood immunization in Nigeria. Methods. Analysis of confirmed cases of rubella in Abia State, Nigeria from 2007 to 2011 detected through Abia State Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response system. Results. Of the 757 febrile rash cases, 81(10.7%) tested positive for rubella immunoglobulin M (IgM). New rubella infection decreased from 6.81/1,000,000 population in 2007 to 2.28/1,000,000 in 2009 and increased to 6.34/1,000,000 in 2011. The relative risk of rubella was 1.5 (CI [0.98–2.28]) times as high in females compared to males and 1.6 times (CI [0.90–2.91]) as high in rural areas compared to urban areas. Eighty six percent of rubella infections occurred in children less than 15 years with a high proportion of cases occurring between 5 and 14 years. Conclusion. Rubella infection in Abia State, Nigeria is predominantly in those who are younger than 15 years old. It is also more prevalent in females and in those living in rural areas of the state. Unfortunately, there is no surveillance of CRS in Nigeria and so the public health impact of rubella infection in the state is not known. Efforts should be made to expand the rubella surveillance in Nigeria to incorporate surveillance for CRS. PMID:25289179

Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony

2014-01-01

32

The problem of uveitis in Bendel State of Nigeria: experience in Benin City.  

PubMed Central

A review of 1987 patients with uveitis seen over an 11-year period in Bendel State of Nigeria has been undertaken; 56% of cases had a posterior/mid-peripheral uveitis, 15.1% a panuveitis, 21.5% an anterior uveitis. Acute anterior uveitis with classical symptoms was rarely seen. Its comparative rarity is presumably due to the absence of HL-A27 in Africans and altered immunological states from malaria and parasitic infections. Identified aetiological factors in anterior uveitis were leprosy (1 patient), tuberculosis (1 patient), herpes zoster (16 patients), and onchocerciasis (3 patients). The great majority of cases of posterior uveitis were of presumed toxoplasmic origin. Further studies are needed to demonstrate its mode of transmission in a population in which toxoplasmosis is endemic. Forest onchocerciasis is not a major cause of uveitis in southern Nigeria in the same way as savanna onchocerciasis is in northern Nigeria. Syphilis seems to play no part in the causation of uveitis in southern Nigeria. Better diagnostic facilities are required to determine the role of sarcoidosis and other possible causative factors. Uveitis is a major cause of blindness in Nigeria. PMID:563237

Ayanru, J. O.

1977-01-01

33

Sex stereotypes and school adolescents' sexual behaviour in Osun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the association between sex stereotypes and the sexual behaviour of Nigerian school-going adolescents. It also ascertained the effects of age and sex on adolescents' beliefs about sex stereotypes. The study sample consisted of 658 (male = 287, female = 371) adolescents from nine randomly selected secondary schools in three urban towns in Osun State, Nigeria. A survey questionnaire consisting of items

Bayode Isaiah Popoola

2011-01-01

34

Food Security and Marketing Problems in Nigeria: the Case of Maize Marketing in Kwara State  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines problems of food marketing and security in Nigeria, using maize marketing in Kwara State as a case study. This is against the background of persistent food crisis being experienced for sometimes now in the country. Primary data were collected during the 1997\\/98 farming season from two hundred food marketers consisting of eighty wholesalers and one hundred and

Raphael Babatunde; Eniola Oyatoye

35

Medicinal Herbs Used for Managing Some Common Ailments among Esan People of Edo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal herbs used for managing some common ailments in Esanland, Edo State, Nigeria were investigated in this study. The Esan people have a rich cultural heritage, which is reflected in the well- developed herbal medicine used to cure and manage various disease conditions. Herbal medicine offered remedies to common ailments ranging from common cold to complex pathological disorders including those

R. I. Okoli; O. Aigbe; Ohaju-Obodo; J. K. Mensah

2007-01-01

36

Ethnobotanical survey and preliminary evaluation of medicinal plants with antidiarrhoea properties in Sokoto state, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants use in Sokoto state of Nigeria for the treatment of diarrhoeal disorders was conducted. The plants documented were identified botanically and ranked based on informant frequency of citation. Ten top rank plants were then selected and screened for acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and antidiarrhoea properties. A fixed single dose (3000 mg\\/kg b.wt.) of aqueous extract

E. U. Etuk; M. O. Ugwah; O. P. Ajagbonna; P. A. Onyeyili

37

Some Issues in Formal Music Education in Nigeria: A Case Study of Kwara State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every educational system has its goals and objectives, curricula and modes of implementation. There is however the need for periodic assessment and evaluation. Specifically, this research paper sets out to evaluate the success or otherwise of the music education delivery system in Kwara state of Nigeria and its implications for the goals of music…

Emielu, Austin

2011-01-01

38

Orientation on Library Use for New Students, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To provide a core library instruction and orientation program for new students entering Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria. Design methodology\\/approach – How to communicate with new students who have a variety of backgrounds when they enter the campus about navigating their way around the University Library. A course design is described that is content intensive about core library

Stella E. Igun; Oghenevwogaga Benson Adogbeji

2006-01-01

39

Teaching Clothing and Textiles: An Appraisal by Students in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research is to find out how students appraise the teaching of Clothing and Textiles in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State, Nigeria. To do this two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to give direction to the study. The target population consisted of 660 Home Economics Students enrolled in Home Economics in…

Arubayi, D. O.

2009-01-01

40

Adolescent Girls' Need for Love in Two Cultures--Nigeria and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares a junior novel from the United States with one from Nigeria--Bette Greene's "Summer of My German Soldier" with Buchi Emecheta's "The Bride Price." Suggests that their similarity can inspire children from a variety of backgrounds to an awareness and appreciation of different cultures. (MM)

Osa, Osayimwense

1983-01-01

41

Conflict Resolution Strategies in Non-Government Secondary Schools in Benue State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated perceived CRSs (conflict resolution strategies) for the resolution of conflicts in non-government secondary schools in Benue State, Nigeria. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided this study. Proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used in drawing 15% of the population which gave a total of 500…

Oboegbulem, Angie; Alfa, Idoko Alphonusu

2013-01-01

42

Serological detection of yam viruses in farmers' fields in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field survey was conducted in eight local government areas (LGA) of Ogun state, Nigeria to assess the incidence of viral diseases of yams in the areas. Leaf samples were collected from 90 yam plants which were either symptomatic or asymptomatic. These were bulked into 45 during serological tests and the viruses indexed include yam mosaic virus (YMV); Dioscorea alata

Olusola O. Odedara; Emily I. Ayo-John; Moyosore M. Gbuyiro; Felicia O. Falade; Sunday E. Agbebi

2011-01-01

43

Serological detection of yam viruses in farmers' fields in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field survey was conducted in eight local government areas (LGA) of Ogun state, Nigeria to assess the incidence of viral diseases of yams in the areas. Leaf samples were collected from 90 yam plants which were either symptomatic or asymptomatic. These were bulked into 45 during serological tests and the viruses indexed include yam mosaic virus (YMV); Dioscorea alata

Olusola O. Odedara; Emily I. Ayo-John; Moyosore M. Gbuyiro; Felicia O. Falade; Sunday E. Agbebi

2012-01-01

44

Determinants of Condom Use among Monogamous Men in Ondo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the factors that influence condom use among monogamous men in Ondo State, Nigeria. Such information can help improve the design of male-involvement interventions in reproductive health and campaigns to reduce the spread of HIV among the general population. Overall, analysis was restricted to 394 men who were in their first union and reported a monogamous marriage at

Kolawole Azeez Oyediran

2003-01-01

45

Some Correlates of Risky Sexual Behavior among Secondary School Adolescents in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study is to examine factors associated with risky sexual behaviors among secondary school adolescents in Ogun State, Nigeria. Two hundred and fifty adolescents randomly selected from three schools participated in the study. The ages of the participants ranged from 13 to 18 years. Both the independent and dependent variables were measured with standardized instruments. The results

D. A. Adeyemo; T. M. Williams

2010-01-01

46

Integrated Science Teachers' Instructional Competencies: An Empirical Survey in Rivers State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The competencies of a sample of teachers of integrated science (ISC) in the induction of future scientists were investigated. Thirty teachers of integrated science in the junior secondary schools in Rivers State of Nigeria were observed by five science teacher educationists. The teachers were in general only fair in their demonstrated ISC teaching…

Green, Rosemund Dienye; Osah-Ogulu, Dele Joshua

2003-01-01

47

Pityriasis versicolor in school children in Cross River State of Nigeria.  

PubMed

Out of 2,353 primary school children aged 4-16 years in Cross River State of Nigeria examined, 88 (3.7%) showed lesions mycologically proven to be pityriasis versicolor. Incidence was highest (6.3%) in children aged 12-16. Lesions were much more common on the face than on other sites. PMID:2103592

Akpata, L E; Gugnani, H C; Utsalo, S J

1990-01-01

48

Participation of Elderly Women in Community Welfare Activities in Akinyele Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper assessed the participation of elderly women in community welfare activities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 elderly women from six out of the twelve political wards in the study area. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used to elicit information from the…

Odebode, Stella O.

2009-01-01

49

Dimensions of Job Stress among Public Secondary School Principals in Oyo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the dimensions of job stress among public secondary school principals in Oyo State, Nigeria. It also determined difference in job stress between demographic characteristics of principals (gender and years of experience) and school variables (type of school and location of the school). Descriptive survey design was adopted. The…

Olayiwola, Shina

2008-01-01

50

The distribution of ringworm infections among primary school children in Jos, Plateau State of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was carried out on the distribution of ringworm infections among school children in four primary schools in Jos, Plateau State of Nigeria. Out of a total population of 6 987, 237 (3.4%) were found to be infected by this disease. There was a high incidence of both scalp and foot ringworms among the infected children. Fourteen species of

C. I. C. Ogbonna; R. O. Robinson; J. M. Abubakar

1985-01-01

51

Information and Communication Technologies in Enhancing Learning Ability in Secondary Schools in Edo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dismal results of 2011, 2010, 2009, and previous years WAEC and NECO Senior School Certificate Examinations (SSCE) show the pitiable state of education in secondary schools in Nigeria. The youths of today live in a digital age. Web technologies and sites have become an integral part of the youth culture. Today's youths use the web tools to…

Osagie, Roseline O.

2012-01-01

52

The 1970 yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Benue Plateau State, Nigeria*  

PubMed Central

Serological surveys undertaken to define the geographic limits of the 1970 rural yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Nigeria, indicated that surrounding areas of Benue Plateau State and East Central State were not involved. However, the surveys uncovered a separate focus of unrecognized, recent epidemic yellow fever in Mbawsi, in southern East Central State. The highest proportions of yellow-fever-immune sera outside the Okwoga and Mbawsi foci were found in zones of Guinea savannah in the Benue River basin. PMID:4545319

Monath, T. P.; Wilson, D. C.; Stroh, G.; Lee, V. H.; Smith, E. A.

1973-01-01

53

Thermal gradient in the vicinity of Kwale\\/Okpai gas plant, Delta state, Nigeria: Preliminary observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental Pollution now persist in Nigeria especially the oil-rich regions of Delta State. One of these problems is due\\u000a to gas flaring. Thermal gradient resulting from the gas flared at Kwale\\/Okpai gas plant is hereby reported. Surface temperature\\u000a variations with distance from the flare point were investigated for the four cardinal directions. The results show a surface\\u000a temperature elevation of

Julius Otutu Oseji

2007-01-01

54

Natural multi-occurrence of mycotoxins in rice from Niger State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one rice samples from field (ten), store (six) and market (five) from the traditional rice-growing areas of Niger State,\\u000a Nigeria were analysed for aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2), and patulin (PAT) by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) respectively. T-2\\u000a toxin was determined using TLC only. AFs were

Hussaini Anthony Makun; Michael Francis Dutton; Patrick Berka Njobeh; Mulunda Mwanza; Adamu Y. Kabiru

2011-01-01

55

Timber Resource Status Of Ehor Forest Reserve In Uhunmwode Local Government Area Of Edo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five sample plots of 30m 30m were laid out in each of three selected compartments (81, 95 and 112) of 1.6 square kilometer within the Ehor Forest Reserve of Edo State, Nigeria. Fifty-four timber species were identified with compartment 81 having the highest number of species of thirty-four (34) and compartment 112 the least with thirty (30) species. Compartment 95

Jane Ihenyen; Okoegwale E. E; Mensah J. K

2009-01-01

56

Technical Education in Nigeria: The Way Forward. Summary of Proceedings of the Workshop on Technical Education: A Foundation for a Healthy Economy (Ota, Ogun State of Nigeria, March 1-2, 1994).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This summary of proceedings includes papers from and about a workshop on technical education in Nigeria and the lessons Nigeria may gain by examining the vocational and technical education systems of Germany, the United States, Great Britain, and Japan. The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Iyorchia Ayu); "Introduction: A Time for Action…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

57

Community-based surveillance of paediatric deaths in Cross River State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A house-to-house survey of paediatric deaths which occurred from January to December 1991 in the village of Nko, Cross River State, Nigeria, was carried out. Among the 471 total deaths recorded, the leading causes were malaria (29%), protein-energy malnutrition, pneumonia and diarrhoeal disease (11% each). Neonatal deaths were largely due to septicaemia, tetanus and birth asphyxia. Poor domestic and human waste disposal, lack of portable water and basic health facilities appear to be the important related factors to child health problems in this community. The provision of public toilets, safe water, primary health care centres and health education can definitely improve the health status of this rural community. Events in other rural communities in Nigeria are most likely to be similar to that in Nko. Such populations need to be identified and their problems urgently addressed. PMID:7855918

Ekanem, E E; Asindi, A A; Okoi, O U

1994-01-01

58

© IDOSI Publications, 2009 Adoption of Improved Maize Seeds and Production Efficiency in Rivers State, Nigeria  

E-print Network

Abstract: Maize is an important staple food in Nigeria. Declining yields of maize as a result of several environmental and biological factors have necessitated technological innovations focusing on maturity time, disease resistance and palatability of the crop. This study therefore assesses the adoption of improved seeds and efficiency levels of farmers in River state, Nigeria. The data were obtained from 150 farmers that were randomly selected using two-stage sampling procedures. The Probit model and production function analysis were the analytical methods. Results show that education, farming experience, mono-cropping, minimum tillage and use of fertilizer significantly influence adoption (p<0.1). Also, use of hybrid seeds significantly reduces inefficiency (p<0.1) along with other factors like age, experience, crop rotation, minimum tillage, fertilization. It was recommended that efforts to increase adoption of improved maize seeds for enhanced farm efficiency should focus on farmers ’ education, farming experience and access to fertilizers.

A. S. Oyekale; E. Idjesa

59

Redefining the HIV epidemic in Nigeria: from national to state level  

PubMed Central

Background: Governments are increasingly recognizing the need to focus limited HIV resources on specific geographic areas and specific populations to have a greater impact. Nigeria, with the second largest HIV epidemic in the world, is an important example of where more localized programming has the potential to improve the efficiency of the HIV response. Methods: Using Spectrum software we modelled the Nigerian HIV epidemic using two methods: First, we created national HIV estimates using trends in urban and rural areas. Second, we created national HIV estimates using trends from each of the 37 states in Nigeria and aggregated these results. In both instances we used HIV surveillance data from antenatal clinics and household surveys and aggregated the trends to determine the national epidemic. Results: The state models showed divergent trends in the 37 states. Comparing the national results calculated from the two methods resulted in different conclusions. In the aggregated state files, adult HIV incidence in Nigeria was stable between 2005 and 2013 (change of ?6%), whereas the urban and rural file suggested incidence was decreasing over the same time (change of ?50%). This difference was also reflected in the HIV prevalence trends, although the two methods showed similar trends in AIDS-related mortality. The two models had similar adult HIV prevalence in 2013: 3.0% (2.0–4.5%) in the aggregated state files versus 3.2% (3.0–3.5%) in the urban/rural file. Conclusion: The state-level estimates provide insight into the variations of the HIV epidemic in each state and provide useful information for programme managers. However, the reliability of the results is highly dependent on the amount and quality of data available from each sub-national area. PMID:25406749

Mahy, Mary; Nzima, Masauso; Ogungbemi, Michael K.; Ogbang, Doris A.; Morka, Mercy Chinenye; Stover, John

2014-01-01

60

The impact of declining vaccination coverage on measles control: a case study of Abia state Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Efforts at immunizing children against measles was intensified in Nigeria with nation-wide measles vaccination campaigns in 2005 - 2006, 2008 and 2011 targeting children between 9 and 59 months. However, there were measles outbreaks in 2010 and 2011in Abia state Nigeria. This study seeks to find out if there is any association between measles immunization coverage and measles outbreak. Methods This is a descriptive analysis of the 2007 to 2011 Abia state measles case-based surveillance data supplied to Abia state World Health Organization office and Abia State Ministry of Health by the disease surveillance and notification officers. Results As the proportion of cases with febrile rash who were immunized decreased from 81% in 2007 to 42% in 2011, the laboratory confirmed cases of measles increased from two in 2007 to 53 in 2011.Of the laboratory confirmed cases of measles, five (7%) occurred in children < 9 months, 48 (64%) occurred in children 9 - 59 months and 22 (29%) occurred in children < 59 months old. Seventy five percent of all laboratory confirmed cases of measles occurred in rural areas. Conclusion Efforts should be made to increase measles immunization in children between 9 and 59 months as most cases of measles occurred in this age group as immunization coverage dropped. In addition, further studies should be carried out to determine the cause of the disproportional incidence of measles in rural areas in Abia state bearing in mind that measles immunization coverage in urban and rural areas was not markedly different PMID:24244791

Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Ahaneku, Hycienth Peterson

2013-01-01

61

The Role of Counselling and Parental Encouragement on Re-Entry of Adolescents into Secondary Schools in Abia State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examined the role of counselling, and parental encouragement on re-entry of adolescents into secondary school in Abia State, Nigeria. A total of 353 adolescents who re-entered school were selected from six secondary schools in the State through a simple random sampling technique. A validated questionnaire was used for data analysis.…

Alika, Henrietta Ijeoma; Ohanaka, Blessing Ijeoma

2013-01-01

62

Application of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) in the Management of Universities in the North-Central State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the application of ICT (information and communication technology) in the management of universities in the north-central Nigeria. The study was a descriptive survey. The population of the study comprised 1,294 respondents in federal and state universities (763 in federal and 531 in state universities). The sample size…

Oboegbulem, Angie Ijeoma; Godwin, Ochai

2013-01-01

63

SocioEconomic Status of Women in Rural Poultry Production in Selected Areas of Kwara State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the socio-economic status of women in rural poultry production in selected areas of Kwara State, Nigeria. This is based on the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between women's participation and their socio-economic status such as age, marital status, level of education and occupation. The study was conducted in selected villages in Kwara State. A total

I. Ogunlade; S. A. Adebayo

2009-01-01

64

Access to and Use of Reproductive Health Information among In-School Adolescent Girls in Lagos State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study investigated access to and use of reproductive health information among in-school adolescent girls in Lagos State, Nigeria. Design: Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Setting: The study sample consisted of 1,800 girls randomly selected from 18 public senior secondary schools in Lagos State. Method:…

Nwalo, K. I. N.; Anasi, Stella N. I.

2012-01-01

65

Nigeria in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the 27th of September, 2003 Nigeria joined Space faring Nations with the launch of its first satellite "NigeriaSat-1" into the Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The Satellite which carries Remote sensing payload and has a Ground Sampling Distance of 32m is a fulfillment of one of Government thrust towards solving socio-economic problems and its realizing sustainable development plans through the applications of space science and technology. NigeriaSat-1 project also included the acquiring of expertise in the area of Satellite Technology as 15 Nigerian Engineers/Scientists under gone an 18 months Know How Technology Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL). The trainee along side their SSTL counterparts designed and built the NigeriaSat-1. The NigeriaSat-1 has been fully commissioned from the Ground Control Station in Nigeria and the spacecraft is in perfect working condition. The spacecraft has been sending down excellent images of the earth. NigeriaSat-1 is being controlled from Nigeria by Nigerian Ground Station Engineers. The NigeriaSat-1 is one of the Spacecrafts in the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) which has the following member states, United Kingdom, Turkey, Algeria, China, Vietnam and Thailand. The DMC is to provide real time data with a global coverage. This paper will focus on the NigeriaSat-1 project, the know-how technology training, the utilization plan of data from the NigeriaSat-1 and the gains from the DMC.

Chizea, F. D.

66

Making a difference in the lives of prostitutes in the midst of a Muslim Sharia State: a voyage of discovery by a female librarian in Northern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

For over fifty years a community of women whose lives have been violated physically mentally or financially have been settling down as prostitutes in a local village outside the predominantly Muslim state of Kano in Northern Nigeria. The community started with four prostitutes in 1957 but has now grown to be the largest community of prostitutes in Nigeria with 1831

Ghaji Badawi

67

Incidence of Avian Influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria: The Epidemiology, Economic Losses and the Possible Role of Wild Birds in the Transmission of the Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing the huge economic losses due to diseases in poultry as the second largest industry in Nigeria after oil means improving the protein intake of the majority. Similarly, this will also promotes a steady income for the teeming farmers. This study investigated the incidence of the lethal avian influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria, with particular emphasis on the socio-economic and

H. G. Balla; A. S. Tahir; C. Haskainu

2008-01-01

68

Technical efficiency of small scale farmers: An application of the stochastic frontier production function to rural and urban farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study was to estimate empirically the technical efficiency of rural and urban small-scale farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria, using the stochastic frontier production function. With the rapid urbanization being currently experienced in Nigeria, the socio-economic and the farming environment in both the rural and urban centres are undergoing transformation. This study involved collection and analysis

Igbekele A. Ajibefun; Adebiyi G. Daramola; Abiodun O. Falusi

2006-01-01

69

A Note on the Spatio Temporal Variations in the Temperature and Relative Humidity over Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out in one of the Administrative State Capitals in the southwestern part of Nigeria. Its aim is to serve as a baseline data for highlighting the effect of spatial distribution of settlements, population, and socioeconomic activities on urban air temperature and relative humidity. The main objective of the study is to assess the impact of urban

A. O. Eludoyin; O. M. Akinbode; E. O. Archibong

2007-01-01

70

Effects of Training Programme on HIV/AIDS Prevention among Primary Health Care Workers in Oyo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to train primary health care workers to be trainers and implementers of community-based AIDS prevention activities in Oyo State, Nigeria, by describing an evaluation of the project. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 148 primary health care workers recruited from the 33 local government areas (LGA) of the…

Ajuwon, Ademola; Funmilayo, Fawole; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Osungbade, Kayode; Asuzu, Michael

2008-01-01

71

Psychosocial Care in Complementary Feeding of Children: A Comparative Study of the Urban and Rural Communities of Osun State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated psychosocial care in complementary feeding of children under two years of age. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Osun State of Nigeria within Sub-Saharan Africa, and 450 mothers were interviewed of which 337 were from the urban and 113 from the rural communities. Results revealed that 37.4% of the respondents…

Ogunba, Beatrice Olubukola

2010-01-01

72

Assessing Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Learning Strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined metacognitive awareness of learning strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria. The study was an exploratory one, which utilized descriptive statistics. A total number of 1200 students drawn through multistage proportionate random sampling technique participated in the study. The study found that secondary…

Okoza, Jolly; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Owens-Sogolo, Osasere

2013-01-01

73

A Review of Special Education Services Delivery in the United States and Nigeria: Implications for Inclusive Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both Nigeria and the United States represent developing and developed countries respectively, and special education policy between these two countries are different. Both countries have contributed to help learners with exceptionalities in their policies. These policies help in the formulation and implementation of special education programmes for…

Michael, Eskay; Onu, Victoria; Janeth, Igbo

2012-01-01

74

Ethnobotanical Study of Economic Trees: Uses of Trees as Timbers and Fuelwoods in Ilorin Emirate of Kwara State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the five local government areas that make up Ilorin Emirate in Kwara State, Nigeria, revealed extensive use of economic trees as timber woods and fuel woods. The forest resources are indiscriminately exploited by the poor inhabitants who solely depend on the forest to earn their livelihood. Tree species such as Pterocarpus erinaceus, Parkia biglobosa, Prosobis africana, Trichilia

A. A. Abdulrahaman; O. J. Fajemiroye; F. A. Oladele

2006-01-01

75

Predictive Factors in Undergraduates' Involvement in Campus Secret Cults in Public Universities in Edo State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the predictive factors in undergraduates' involvement in campus secret cults in public universities in Edo State of Nigeria. The study employed the descriptive method, specifically the survey format. A random sample of three hundred and eighty (380) undergraduates was drawn from the two public universities. Data were elicited…

Azetta Arhedo, Philip; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Adomeh, Ilu O. C.

2011-01-01

76

Potassium Distribution in the Sand, Silt and Clay Separates of Soils Developed over Talc at Ejiba, Kogi State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potassium status of soils developed over talc at Ejiba in the Southern Guinea Savanna Zone of Kogi State, Nigeria was evaluated by the exchangeable, acid extractable, total and residual K values in the sand, silt and clay fractions of the soils. Soil samples collected from genetic horizons of profile pits dug in si x delineated mapping units were separated

G. A. Ajiboye; J. A. Ogunwale

77

Spatial distribution of urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria using geographical information system and school based questionnaire.  

PubMed

Urinary schistosomiasis is a serious disease in Cross River State, Nigeria. Dearth of information on its distribution has hampered the implementation of focused control of the disease. The availability of a rapid method for mapping the disease necessitated this research to provide data for control of Urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria. The study used a rapid validated school-based questionnaire method in mapping schistosomiasis. Geographical information system (GIS) software tools were used to produce a spatial map for prevalence of infection and areas at risk for urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State. Data analysis with SPSS package revealed that 9,993 (10.2%) female and 10,328 (10.0%) male pupils in 218 schools passed blood in urine in one month out of 199,794 pupils interviewed. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence between male and female pupils with infection (p < 0.005). The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis using questionnaire method correlated positively with the filtration method used in determining the egg output (r = 0.71, p < 0.001). Endemic schools were distributed in thirteen Local Government Areas of Cross River State, Nigeria. Yala and Yakurr LGAs had the highest number of schools that reported schistosomiasis with 39 (59%) and 13 (59%), respectively. Odukpani LGA had the lowest prevalence of 1 (0.2%). The overall results showed a mean urinary schistosomiasis prevalence of 10.2% for Cross River State, Nigeria. The findings of this study would guide Government and other relevant agencies in the implementation of control strategies for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria. PMID:24506017

Adie, H A; Okon, O E; Arong, G A; Braide, E I; Ekpo, U F

2013-10-15

78

Serological Evidence of Brucellosis in Goats in Kaduna North Senatorial District of Kaduna State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the current status of Brucella antibodies in goats in Kaduna North Senatorial District of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 442 serum samples (31 bucks and 411 does) were screened using Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test with ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (SAT-EDTA), and lateral flow assay (LFA). Results. The prevalence of Brucella antibodies was found to be 25.8%, 11.1%, and 2.5% using RBPT, SAT-EDTA, and LFA, respectively. The prevalence in bucks was 32.3%, 3.2%, and 0.0% and 17.5%, 12.4%, and 3.9% in does using RBPT, SAT-EDTA, and LFA, respectively. The prevalence rates for goats less than one year of age using the tests were 1.5%, 0.0%, and 0.0%. While for those within the age bracket of one to three years, the rates were 19.4%, 10.5%, and 3.5%, respectively. The corresponding values for goats above 3 years of age were 34.2%, 15.2%, and 1.8%, respectively. The prevalence of brucellosis in goats in the study area is high which poses a threat to the development of the livestock industry and is of important zoonotic implications in Nigeria. PMID:23762594

Kaltungo, B. Y.; Saidu, S. N. A.; Sackey, A. K. B.; Kazeem, H. M.

2013-01-01

79

A techno-economic analysis of aquaculture business in Ogun State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fish supplies 25% of the total protein source in developing countries. A techno-economic analysis was performed for developing a good business proposal for aquaculture loans to enhance aquaculture development in Nigeria. A case study of catfish Clarias gariepinus framing was conducted in Abeokuta North Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The results show that the fixed cost is N18 338 per year, and the variable cost is N459 700 per year, accounting for the largest amount of the total; therefore, a profit of N43 289 per month can be made. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess any risk(s) that associated with unfavorable changes in government policy with particular reference to monetary policy. Positive net present value shows that the investment in fish farm is economically feasible and the net investment ratio is 3.52. Also, the benefit-cost ratio is 2.17. The internal rate of return (IRR) is 21% showing that the enterprise is able to offset the interest being charged on the loan. It is therefore worthwhile to invest into fish farm business in the study area. The study suggests that to better sustain the local aquaculture business, the government should create a good conducive environment to foster development of the fish farming. Government intervention is urgently needed to solve problems such as in traditional land tenure, grant credit facilities and subsidies, to enhance the aquacultural development in the country.

Kareem, R. O.; Williams, S. B.

2009-05-01

80

Improving maternal and child healthcare programme using community-participatory interventions in Ebonyi State Nigeria  

PubMed Central

In Nigeria, the government is implementing the Free Maternal and Child Health Care Programme (FMCHCP). The policy is premised on the notion that financial barriers are one of the most important constraints to equitable access and use of skilled maternal and child healthcare. In Ebonyi State, Southeastern Nigeria the FMCHCP is experiencing implementation challenges including: inadequate human resource for health, inadequate funding, out of stock syndrome, inadequate infrastructure, and poor staff remuneration. Furthermore, there is less emphasis on community involvement in the programme implementation. In this policy brief, we recommend policy options that emphasize the implementation of community-based participatory interventions to strengthen the government’s FMCHCP as follows: Option 1: Training community women on prenatal care, life-saving skills in case of emergency, reproductive health, care of the newborn and family planning. Option 2: Sensitizing the community women towards behavioural change, to understand what quality services that respond to their needs are but also to seek and demand for such. Option 3: Implementation packages that provide technical skills to women of childbearing age as well as mothers’ groups, and traditional birth attendants for better home-based maternal and child healthcare. The effectiveness of this approach has been demonstrated in a number of community-based participatory interventions, building on the idea that if community members take part in decision-making and bring local knowledge, experiences and problems to the fore, they are more likely to own and sustain solutions to improve their communities’ health. PMID:25337602

Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ndukwe, Chinwendu Daniel; Ezeoha, Abel Abeh; Urochukwu, Henry Chukwuemeka; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla

2014-01-01

81

Improving maternal and child healthcare programme using community-participatory interventions in Ebonyi State Nigeria.  

PubMed

In Nigeria, the government is implementing the Free Maternal and Child Health Care Programme (FMCHCP). The policy is premised on the notion that financial barriers are one of the most important constraints to equitable access and use of skilled maternal and child healthcare. In Ebonyi State, Southeastern Nigeria the FMCHCP is experiencing implementation challenges including: inadequate human resource for health, inadequate funding, out of stock syndrome, inadequate infrastructure, and poor staff remuneration. Furthermore, there is less emphasis on community involvement in the programme implementation. In this policy brief, we recommend policy options that emphasize the implementation of community-based participatory interventions to strengthen the government's FMCHCP as follows: Option 1: Training community women on prenatal care, life-saving skills in case of emergency, reproductive health, care of the newborn and family planning. Option 2: Sensitizing the community women towards behavioural change, to understand what quality services that respond to their needs are but also to seek and demand for such. Option 3: Implementation packages that provide technical skills to women of childbearing age as well as mothers' groups, and traditional birth attendants for better home-based maternal and child healthcare. The effectiveness of this approach has been demonstrated in a number of community-based participatory interventions, building on the idea that if community members take part in decision-making and bring local knowledge, experiences and problems to the fore, they are more likely to own and sustain solutions to improve their communities' health. PMID:25337602

Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ndukwe, Chinwendu Daniel; Ezeoha, Abel Abeh; Urochukwu, Henry Chukwuemeka; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla

2014-10-01

82

Coroner autopsy study of homicides in Rivers State of Nigeria: 11-year review.  

PubMed

As most developing countries, including Nigeria, grapple with economic crisis, poor human capital development and high levels of income inequality, violent crimes - especially homicides - continue to be a cause for concern. We studied the pathology and demographic distribution of homicides in Rivers State of Nigeria expecting that the findings would be useful in formulating preventive strategies. Reports of homicide autopsies in the state for 11 years were retrospectively scrutinized for age, gender, type of weapon, site of injury, circumstances, mechanisms and causes of death. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Homicides constituted 50.5% of the medicolegal autopsies. Although the overall male:female ratio was 12.4?:?1, there was variation with weapon. Deaths by firearm had the highest male:female ratio of 24.6?:?1. The mean and peak ages were 29.2?±?11.4 and 21-30 years, respectively, while the range was 1 to 96 years. Firearms were the most common weapons, at 68.9%, hemorrhagic shock and head injuries at 61.5% and 28.2% respectively were the most common mechanisms and causes of death. Armed robbery incidents were the most common circumstances, while the head was the most common site of injury at 48.8%. The homicide rate is high in our environment and most homicides are committed during armed robberies using firearms. Improving medical care and providing emergency medical services will reduce cases of deaths from homicides, most of which occur due to manageable hemorrhagic shock. Increasing the drive towards controlling illegal arms acquisition and possession will reduce the present carnage in the state. PMID:23945261

Obiorah, C C; Amakiri, C N

2014-01-01

83

Phenotypic and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Ekiti State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction The characteristics and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Staphylococcus aureus differs according to geographical regions and in relation to antibiotic usage. The aim of this study was to determine the biochemical characteristics of the prevalent S. aureus from Ekiti State, Nigeria, and to evaluate three commonly used disk diffusion methods (cefoxitin, oxacillin, and methicillin) for the detection of methicillin resistance in comparison with mecA gene detection by polymerase chain reaction. Materials and methods A total of 208 isolates of S. aureus recovered from clinical specimens were included in this study. Standard microbiological procedures were employed in isolating the strains. Susceptibility of each isolate to methicillin (5 ?g), oxacillin (1 ?g), and cefoxitin (30 ?g) was carried out using the modified Kirby–Bauer/Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute disk diffusion technique. They were also tested against panels of antibiotics including vancomycin. The conventional polymerase chain reaction method was used to detect the presence of the mecA gene. Results Phenotypic resistance to methicillin, oxacillin, and cefoxitin were 32.7%, 40.3%, and 46.5%, respectively. The mecA gene was detected in 40 isolates, giving a methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) prevalence of 19.2%. The S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin (82.7%) and tetracycline (65.4%), but largely susceptible to erythromycin (78.8% sensitive), pefloxacin (82.7%), and gentamicin (88.5%). When compared to the mecA gene as the gold standard for MRSA detection, methicillin, oxacillin, and cefoxitin gave sensitivity rates of 70%, 80%, and 100%, and specificity rates of 76.2%, 69.1%, and 78.5% respectively. Conclusion When compared with previous studies employing mecA polymerase chain reaction for MRSA detection, the prevalence of 19.2% reported in Ekiti State, Nigeria in this study is an indication of gradual rise in the prevalence of MRSA in Nigeria. A cefoxitin (30 ?g) disk diffusion test is recommended above methicillin and oxacillin for the phenotypic detection of MRSA in clinical laboratories. PMID:23990730

Olowe, Olugbenga Adekunle; Kukoyi, Olayinka Oluwatoyin; Taiwo, Samuel Sunday; Ojurongbe, Olusola; Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele; Bolaji, Oloyede Samuel; Adegoke, Abiodun Adebimpe; Makanjuola, Olufunmilola Bamidele; Ogbolu, David Olusoga; Alli, Oyebode Terry

2013-01-01

84

Institutional and production characteristics among smallholder pig producers in Enugu State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A study on the institutional and production characteristics of pig farming in Enugu State, Nigeria, was conducted using 80 randomly selected smallholder pig producers. Data were collected by using an interview schedule. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze data. The mean number of pigs owned by smallholder producer was 18. Only 20.0 and 6.3 % of the producers had access to credit and to extension services, respectively. Ninety percent of the respondents practiced intensive management system. The major housing type used by producers was cement brick walls with aluminum roofing sheets (97.6 %). The majority (80 %) of producers reared mostly crossbred pigs and family labor (68.7 %) was most prevalent. Fourteen (50 %) of the 28 routine management practices were always performed by the pig producers. Extension service providers should intensify efforts to provide producers with appropriate management practices and training for effective disease control and improve productivity. PMID:24906223

Chah, Jane M; Dimelu, Mebel U; Ukwuani, Stella U

2014-10-01

85

An outbreak of dracunculiasis in a peri-urban community of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

An outbreak of dracunculiasis was investigated at Egbejila, a peri-urban community near the city of Ilorin, the capital of Kwara State, Nigeria. Of 589 persons examined in June 1983, 265 (45.0%) had active ulcers with protruding guinea worms. The infection rates among males (42.1%) and females (47.8%) were not statistically different (p greater than 0.1) but children below 10 years of age were significantly less infected than the older subjects (p less than 0.001). Altogether, 67.2% of the infected subjects had more than one guinea worm lesion while 54.7% were incapacitated by the infection. The peculiar circumstances which led to the spontaneous outbreak of dracunculiasis and contributed to its severity in this community after the construction of the Asa Dam to solve the problem of acute water scarcity in the Ilorin municipality, were identified and discussed. PMID:6147987

Edungbola, L D; Watts, S

1984-06-01

86

Inventory of antidiabetic plants in selected districts of Lagos State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study reports an ethnobotanical survey by means of semi-structured questionnaire of medicinal plants in five districts of Lagos State of Nigeria reputed for the treatment of diabetes. 100 respondents from the predominantly Yoruba tribe mostly males (76%) were knowledgeable in traditional treatment of diabetes. About half of the respondents with 20-30 years experience in treating diabetes used mainly herbs (96%) and have developed effective and easily recognised diagnostic tools. 92% of diabetic patients were usually out-patients aged 21-60 years. Diabetes trado-specialists (80%) rarely referred their patients but usually treated referred cases (96%). Fifty multi-component herbal recipes covered in the survey were mainly liquid preparations often administered without serious side effects (92%). The principal antidiabetic plants included Vernonia amygdalina, Bidens pilosa, Carica papaya, Citrus aurantiifolia, Ocimum gratissimum, Momordica charantia and Morinda lucida. Dietary recommendations also accompanied therapy. PMID:19013225

Gbolade, Adebayo A

2009-01-12

87

Tuberculosis in Humans and Cattle in Jigawa State, Nigeria: Risk Factors Analysis  

PubMed Central

A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2008 to March 2009 to identify risk factors for BTB in cattle and humans in Jigawa State, Nigeria. A total of 855 cattle belonging to 17 households were subjected to comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT) while interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtains information on the risk factors. Twenty-two (22) respondent (5%) amongst the families sampled had TB or clinical signs suggestive of TB, while 9 (2%) had reactor cattle in their herds; However, no statistically significant association (P ? 0.05) was observed between reactor cattle and human TB cases in the households. The habit of milk and meat consumption was found to be affected by occupation and location of the household residence. None of these risk factors (food consumption, living with livestock in the same house, and presence of BTB-positive cattle) were found to be statistically significant. PMID:22848868

Ibrahim, S.; Cadmus, S. I. B.; Umoh, J. U.; Ajogi, I.; Farouk, U. M.; Abubakar, U. B.; Kudi, A. C.

2012-01-01

88

Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Trachoma in Kano State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background In northern Nigeria, trachoma is an important public health problem, but there are currently few population-based data on prevalence of disease and no formal trachoma control programs. Methodology / Principal Findings In Kano state, Nigeria, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey using multistage cluster random sampling, combining examination for clinical signs of trachoma and application of questionnaires assessing potential household-level risk factors. A total of 4491 people were examined in 40 clusters, of whom 1572 were aged 1–9 years, and 2407 (53.6%) were female. In 1–9 year-olds, the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation–follicular (TF) was 17.5% (95% CI: 15.7–19.5%). In a multivariate model, independent risk factors for active trachoma were the presence of flies on the face (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.30–3.02); a dirty face (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.85–3.25) and presence of animal dung within the compound of residence (OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.62–7.41). The prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis in persons aged ?15years was 10.9% (95% CI: 9.7–12.2%). Trichiasis was significantly more common in adult females than in adult males. Conclusion/Significance There is an urgent need for a trachoma control program in Kano state, with emphasis given to provision of good quality trichiasis surgery. Particular effort will need to be made to identify women with trichiasis and engage them with appropriate services while also taking steps to secure azithromycin for mass treatment and ensuring personal and environmental hygiene. PMID:22792311

Mpyet, Caleb; Lass, Barka David; Yahaya, Hadi B.; Solomon, Anthony W.

2012-01-01

89

Epilepsy prevalence, potential causes and social beliefs in Ebonyi State and Benue State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder in Nigeria. Many individuals are affected in rural areas, although prevalence data is not available. In this study we aimed to establish the prevalence of epilepsy in a rural community in south-east Nigeria, a community suspected for having a high number of people living with epilepsy. We compared this with the prevalence in a nearby semi-urban community in north-central Nigeria. In both communities we identified potential causes of epilepsy and obtained information on the social beliefs regarding epilepsy. We used door-to-door surveys and focus group discussions. The epilepsy prevalence in the rural community was 20.8/1000 [95% confidence interval (CI): 15.7-27.4]. The prevalence in the semi-rural community was lower, namely 4.7/1000 [CI: 3.2-6.9]. The difference in prevalence was highly significant (?(2)-test, p<0.0001). In both communities most people with epilepsy were in the age range of 7-24 years. Causes that might be contributory to the prevalence of epilepsy in both communities included poor obstetric practices, frequent febrile convulsions, head trauma, meningitis and neurocysticercosis. In both communities we found stigma of people with epilepsy. In conclusion, the epilepsy prevalence in the semi-urban community is similar to that in industrialized countries. In contrast, the rural community has a much higher prevalence. This may require the establishment of specific community-based epilepsy control programs. Community interventions should focus on treatment of acute epilepsy and on stigma reduction. PMID:24300028

Osakwe, Chijioke; Otte, Willem M; Alo, Chimhurumnanya

2014-02-01

90

Distribution of vibrio species in shellfish and water samples collected from the atlantic coastline of south-east Nigeria.  

PubMed

Crayfish, lobster, and sea-water samples collected from five fishing islands on the Atlantic coast-Bight of Biafra (Bonny)-belonging to Ibaka Local Government Area of Akwa-Ibom State of Nigeria were bacteriologically evaluated on thiosulphate citrate bile-salt sucrose (TCBS) agar for Vibrio load and pathotypes. Mean log10 Vibrio counts of 7.64+/-2.78 cfu/g (in crayfish), 5.07+/-3.21 cfu/g (in lobster), and 3.06+/-2.27 cfu/mL (in sea-water) were obtained in rainy season (June-July) while counts in the dry season (November-December) were 6.25+/-1.93 cfu/g, 5.99+/-1.54 cfu/g, and 3.84+/-1.78 cfu/mL respectively. The physicochemical measurements (temperature, pH, and total dissolved solutes) of the sea-water did not vary significantly in the two seasons across all five islands. Vibrio species isolated were Vibrio cholerae (both O1 and non-O1 serotypes), V parahaemolyticus, V vulnificus, V mimicus, and V fluvialis. Both Ogawa and Inaba subtypes of V cholerae O1 serotype were found. In addition, the Hikojima subtype, which had not been previously reported in the region, was isolated in two samples. The results show that these Vibrio species are endemic in the area. PMID:24288944

Eyisi, Onyedikachukwu A L; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Iroegbu, Christian U

2013-09-01

91

Putting Out the Fire with Gasoline? Violence Control in “Fragile” States: A Study of Vigilantism in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For many communities in the “fragile” state order of Nigeria, vigilante groups represent the only pragmatic alternative for\\u000a providing a minimum of protection and order in the face of widespread insecurity. But vigilante groups are often more than\\u000a just controllers of violence and competing operators in security markets. They are also integrated into social networks, representing\\u000a a social response to

Andrea Kirschner

92

A 6-year survey of pathological conditions of slaughtered animals at Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 6-year retrospective study (2000–2005) of animals slaughtered at the Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria was\\u000a carried out to determine disease conditions encountered in slaughtered animals. Records kept at the abattoir were analysed.\\u000a A total of 69,307 cattle, 3,820 goats and 1,763 sheep were slaughtered for the period under study. Of the 69,307 cattle slaughtered\\u000a for the period,

Clement B. I. Alawa; I. Etukudo-Joseph; Judith N. Alawa

2011-01-01

93

Assessment of SocioEconomic Characteristics and Quality of Life Expectations of Rural Communities in Enugu State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the social, infrastructural and economic conditions prevalent in some rural communities of Enugu State,\\u000a Nigeria, where recent oil and gas prospecting activities have generated concerns for the environment and quality of rural\\u000a life. Mixed but complimentary methods of data collection employed include consultations with key stakeholders, focus group\\u000a discussions, questionnaire survey, field observations, key-informant interviews and secondary

Thaddeus Chidi Nzeadibe; Chukwuedozie Kelechukwu Ajaero

2010-01-01

94

Prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria: results of a population-based house-to-house survey  

PubMed Central

Background and objective Abdominal obesity is associated with the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes and hypertension. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Materials and methods We carried out a cross-sectional study aimed at ascertaining the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Participants in the study were recruited from communities in the three senatorial zones in the state. Screening for abdominal obesity was carried out in these subjects using waist circumference (the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel criteria were used). The World Health Organization Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of chronic disease risk factors was used. Body mass index, anthropometric measurements, and other relevant data were also collected. Results Data on waist circumference were obtained from 2,807 subjects. The prevalence of obesity using body mass index in the population was 11.12%. In men and women, it was 7.73%, and 14.37%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in the population was 21.75%. In men and women, it was 3.2% and 39.2%, respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of abdominal obesity is high in Nigeria, and needs to be monitored because it is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:23946664

Ijezie, Innocent Chukwuonye; Chuku, Abali; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

2013-01-01

95

Cattle cruelty and risks of meat contamination at Akinyele cattle market and slaughter slab in Oyo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Cattle transported to the government-run cattle market and slaughter slab in Akinyele, Oyo State, Nigeria on their final voyage are facing a disturbingly cruel, filthy and unsafe environment that is also raising the risk of contamination of meat sold for human consumption. This report gives a picture of what the cattle have to go through before they are slaughtered. This study also reveals cattle awaiting slaughter in abysmal health conditions, cows pulled with extreme force towards lairage and slaughter slab. Equally disturbing is the filthy situation inside the abattoir where the risk of contamination of meat is significant. Also, poor meat handling, transportation and sales practices subject meat to contamination leading to poor quality and exposure of human consumers to health risk. Development of hygienic slaughter slab operations, improved transportation system for both livestock and meat is therefore recommended; not only for Akinyele, but all abattoirs and slaughter slabs in Nigeria. PMID:19440852

Adeyemo, Olanike K; Adeyemi, Isaac G; Awosanya, Emmanuel J

2009-12-01

96

Cataract Blindness, Surgical Coverage, Outcome, and Barriers to Uptake of Cataract Services in Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The purpose was to estimate the prevalence of blindness due to cataract, assess visual outcomes of cataract surgery, and determine the cataract surgical coverage rate and barriers to uptake of services among individuals aged 50 years or older in Plateau State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional survey of 4200 adults 50 years or older was performed. Multistage stratified random sampling, with probability proportional to size was used to select a representative sample. The Rapid Assessment of Cataract Surgical Services protocol was used. Statistical significance was indicated by (P < 0.05). Results: The cohort comprised 4115 subjects (coverage: 98%). The prevalence of bilateral blindness due to cataract was 2.1%, [95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.7-2.5%] in the entire cohort, 2.4% in females (95% CI: 1.8-3.8%); and 1.8% in males (95% CI: 1.2-2.4%) (?2 = 0.85, P > 0.05). The prevalence of monocular blindness due to cataract was 5.9% (95% CI: 5.2-6.6%). The cataract surgical coverage for subjects with visual acuity (VA) less 3/60 was 53.8% in the entire cohort; 60.5% for males and 48% for females (?2 = 2.49, P > 0.05). The couching coverage for subjects who were blind was 12%. A total of 180 eyes underwent surgical intervention (surgery or couching) for cataract, of which, 48 (26.7%) eyes underwent couching. The prevalence of bilateral (pseudo) aphakia was 1.5%, (95% CI: 1.2-1.9%) and 2.7% (95% CI: 2.2-3.2%) for unilateral (pseudo) aphakia. Visual outcomes of the 180 eyes that underwent surgical intervention were good (VA ? 6/18) in 46 (25.6%) eyes and poor (VA < 6/60) in 105 (58.3%) eyes. Uncorrected aphakia was the most common cause of poor outcome (65.1%). Most subjects who underwent cataract surgery were not using spectacles 74 (71.2%). Cost and lack of awareness were the main barriers to uptake of cataract surgery services. Conclusion: Couching remains a significant challenge in Nigeria. The outcomes of cataract surgery are poor with the lack of aphakic correction being the main cause of the poor outcomes. PMID:22837620

Odugbo, Ojo P.; Mpyet, Caleb D.; Chiroma, Muhammad R.; Aboje, Aboje O.

2012-01-01

97

Molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in the Cross River State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

This study provides with a first insight on Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex epidemiology and genetic diversity in the Cross River State, Nigeria. Starting with 137 smear positive patients recruited over a period of 12 months (June 2008 to May 2009), we obtained 97 pure mycobacterial isolates out of which 81 (83.5%) were identified as M. tuberculosis complex. Genotyping revealed a total of 27 spoligotypes patterns with 10 clusters (n = 64% or 79% of clustered isolates, 2–32 isolates/cluster), with patients in the age group range 25–34 years being significantly associated with shared-type pattern SIT61 (p = 0.019). Comparison with SITVIT2 database showed that with the exception of a single cluster (SIT727/H1), all other clusters observed were representative of West Africa; the two main lineages involved were LAM10-CAM (n = 42/81% or 51.8%) of M. tuberculosis and AFRI_2 sublineage of Mycobacterium africanum (n = 27/81% or 33.3%). Subsequent 12-loci MIRU typing resulted in a total of 13 SIT/MIT clusters (n = 52 isolates, 2–9 isolates per cluster), with a resulting recent n ? 1 transmission rate of 48.1%. Available drug-susceptibility testing (DST) results for 58/81 clinical isolates revealed 6/58% or 10.4% cases of multiple drug-resistance (MDR); 5/6 MDR cases were caused by strains belonging to LAM10-CAM lineage (a specific cluster SIT61/MIT266 in 4/6 cases, and an orphan spoligotype pattern in 1/6 case). Additionally, MIT266 was associated with streptomycin resistance (p = 0.016). All the six MDRTB isolates were concomitantly resistance to streptomycin and ethambutol; however, 4/6 MDR strains with identical MIRU patterns were characterized by consecutive strain numbers hence the possibility of laboratory cross contamination could not be excluded in 3/4 serial cases. The present preliminary study underlines the usefulness of spoligotyping and 12-loci MIRU–VNTRs to establish a baseline of circulating genotypic lineages of M. tuberculosis complex in Nigeria. PMID:21878397

Thumamo, Benjamin P.; Asuquo, Anne E.; Abia-Bassey, Lydia N.; Lawson, Lovett; Hill, Veronique; Zozio, Thierry; Emenyonu, Nnamdi; Eko, Francis O.; Rastogi, Nalin

2012-01-01

98

Prevalence of hypertension in the rural adult population of Osun State, southwestern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension in two rural communities of Osun State, Nigeria. Methods A consenting adult population of the Alajue and Obokun rural communities in southwestern Nigeria that presented for the screening exercise participated in this community-based cross-sectional descriptive study. Two hundred and fifty-nine respondents aged older than 18 years completed a standardized, pretested, structured questionnaire as part of activities celebrating World Kidney Day and World Glaucoma Day in 2011. Anthropometric data and blood pressure were recorded, and the data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Results The mean age of the respondents was 49.7 ± 1.6 years, 100 (38.6%) were males, 84 (32.4%) were farmers, and 111 (42.9%) were traders. The prevalence of hypertension was 13.16% (present in 34 respondents). Seventeen (6.6%) had isolated systolic hypertension, while 11 (4.2%) had isolated diastolic hypertension. Two hundred and thirty-six (91.1%) undertook daily exercise lasting at least 30 minutes and 48 (18.5%) had ever taken antihypertensive drugs on a regular basis. Four respondents (1.6%) claimed a family history of hypertension. The average body mass index (BMI) among respondents was 23.4 ± 4.9 kg/m2, 51 (19.6%) had a BMI of 25.0–29.9, and 30 (11.5%) had a BMI ? 30. A significant association existed between age older than 40 years and having hypertension (P < 0.05), while no relationship existed between age and BMI or between gender and hypertension (P > 0.05). Rates of older age and high BMI were significantly higher among hypertensives than among normotensives. Respondents with BMI ? 25 had at least a three times greater likelihood of developing hypertension than those with BMI < 25 (odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 0.007–0.056, P = 0.011). Conclusion The prevalence of hypertension is high in this study population and we recommend scaling up primary prevention efforts to reduce this in Nigerian communities. PMID:23641157

Asekun-Olarinmoye, EO; Akinwusi, PO; Adebimpe, WO; Isawumi, MA; Hassan, MB; Olowe, OA; Makanjuola, OB; Alebiosu, CO; Adewole, TA

2013-01-01

99

Demographic and ecological survey of dog population in aba, abia state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1?:?7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic and 465/747 (62.2%) were males. A total of 319/500 (63.8%) of the households had fences that restrained dog movement and there was no incidence of dog bite in 447/500 (89.4%) of the households surveyed. There were statistical associations between vaccination against antirabies and breeds of dogs (? (2) = 79.8, df = 2, P < 0.005). Exotic breed (adjusted OR = 0.39; CI = 0.23-0.65) and local breed of dogs (adjusted OR = 0.08; CI = 0.04-0.14) had less odds of being vaccinated as compared to crossbreed of dogs. About 126 dogs (2.5 dogs per street) were estimated from street counts survey. The relative high dog to human ratio and low vaccination coverage of owned dogs population pose public health concerns requiring adequate public health education and proper antirabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the study area. PMID:25002978

Otolorin, Gbeminiyi Richard; Umoh, Jarlath U; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu

2014-01-01

100

Antinutrients Evaluation of Staple Food in Ebonyi State, South-Eastern, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluating the levels of antinutrients in the staple foods is an important aspect of nutritional studies. The levels of these antinutrients were quantitatively estimated in staple foods in a major food producing rural areas of Ebonyi State, South-Eastern Nigeria using spectrophotometric method. Results indicated that phytate was not detected in tubers while legumes recorded the highest mean values of phytate (260.07 mg gG1). The oxalate levels of legumes were significantly high compared to tubers and cereals (p< 0.000). Tubers had the highest mean. Concentration of cyanogenic glycoside 15.20 mg gG1 followed by legumes while cereals were the least correlation analysis shows that the cyanogenic glycoside was negatively related to all other antinutrients except tannin. Also tannin was related to all other antinutrients except cyanogenic glycoside. Interestingly, all other antinutrients were positively related to each other except cyanogenic glycoside and tannins. The consumption of staple foods rich in these antinutrients pose a health risk to livestock and poor communities that reside around the study sites, especially children.

Edeogu, C. O.; Ezeonu, F. C.; Okaka, A. N. C.; Ekuma, C. E.; Eiom, S. O.

101

Ethnobotanical study of plants used in treating hypertension in Edo State of Nigeria.  

PubMed

A study was undertaken in 12 local government areas (LGAs) of Edo State located in central southern Nigeria, representing 66.6% coverage, in order to obtain an inventory of the major medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension. One hundred and eighty nine respondents who were mainly traditional medical practitioners and were knowledgeable in the medicinal plants for treating hypertension were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers. The inventory of medicinal plants is summarized in a synoptic table, which contains the scientific, vernacular and common names of the plants/frequency of citation, the part of the plant and method of preparation of recipes. The study indicated 70 plants belonging to 67 genera in 43 families are commonly prescribed. Of these plants, 39 species are cultivated, 29 species grow in the wild, while only 2 both grow wild and also cultivated. Ninety three herbal antihypertensive recipes are recognized and are mainly prepared as decoctions, infusions, powders and juice. The leaf (43%) represented the dominant morphological part often included in recipes. Plants frequently included in antihypertensive recipes were Allium species, Persea americana, Acalypha godseffiana, Zingiber officinale, Sida acuta, Hunteria umbellata, Rauwolfia vomitoria, Viscum album and Aframomum melegueta. PMID:22975417

Gbolade, Adebayo

2012-10-31

102

Lymphatic filariasis and associated morbidities in rural communities of Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti is a serious public health problem in rural communities of Nigeria. The study assessed the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis and associated clinical morbidities in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government Area of Ogun State. Microscopic examination of thick blood smears of 500 participants of both sexes and age ranging from 1 to 79 years was conducted. Visual observations of clinical manifestations of chronic infection were also conducted. The overall prevalence and intensity of infection were 21% and 21.4 mf/mL of blood respectively. Microfilaraemic prevalence was significantly higher in males (27.1%) than in females (16%) (P < 0.001). However, intensity of infection was not gender and age dependent (P > 0.05). The overall prevalence of all clinical manifestations of infection due to W. bancrofti is 15% with hydrocele, limb and breast elephantiasis constituting 16.9%, 4.6% and 5.1% of the total population respectively. Prevalence of hydrocele and limb elephantiasis was significantly higher in the older age groups (P < 0.05). Occurrence of elephantiasis of the breast in women however was not associated with age (P > 0.05). Integrated approach through chemotherapy and vector control is therefore advocated to reduce morbidity due to infection in this study area. PMID:23518235

Christiana, Okonofua; Olajumoke, Morenikeji; Oyetunde, Salawu

2014-01-01

103

Natural radioactivity of the tar-sand deposits of Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combination of gamma spectrometry and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the presence and level of radioactivity of radionuclides in bituminous sand and overburden obtained from bituminous sand deposits in Ondo State Nigeria for the purpose of providing baseline data and assessing its impact on the environment. The radionuclides identified with reliable regularity belong to the decay series of naturally occurring radionuclides headed by 238U and 232Th. The non-decay series of naturally occurring 40K was found to be below the limit of detection. The average specific activity concentration values obtained for 214 Bi, 208Tl, and 226Ra in the overburden are 165.64±2.91, 150.25±2.91 and 60.97±2.27 Bq kg -1, respectively. The measured activity in the bituminous sand layer is so low that it can be said to be non-radioactive. The result of the EDXRF supports the presence of radioelements in the overburden, which are likely to be embedded in accessory minerals like zircon and tourmaline. Thus, surface exploration technique using soil-gas radon measurement will not yield the desired result. Furthermore, the level of radioelements and associated decay daughter 222Rn is not expected to cause any health hazard.

Fasasi, M. K.; Oyawale, A. A.; Mokobia, C. E.; Tchokossa, P.; Ajayi, T. R.; Balogun, F. A.

2003-06-01

104

A Comparative Analysis of Teacher Supply and Pupils' Enrolment in Public and Private Primary Schools in Kwara and Ekiti States, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated teacher supply and pupils' enrolment in public and private primary schools in Kwara and Ekiti States, Nigeria. The study population comprised all the 811 primary schools in Kwara State and 810 primary schools in Ekiti State. Out of the forty-seven higher institutions that supply teachers to primary schools in the two…

Adeyemi, T. O.

2012-01-01

105

Monitoring of Mass Distribution Interventions for Trachoma in Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Mass drug administration (MDA) with antibiotics is a key component of the SAFE strategy for trachoma control. Guidelines recommend that where MDA is warranted the whole population be targeted with 80% considered the minimum acceptable coverage. In other countries, MDA is usually conducted by salaried Ministry of Health personnel (MOH). In Plateau State, Nigeria, the existing network of volunteer Community Directed Distributors (CDD) was used for the first trachoma MDA. We conducted a population-based cluster random survey (CRS) of MDA participation to determine the true coverage and compared this to coverage reported from CDD registers. We surveyed 1,791 people from 352 randomly selected households in 24 clusters in three districts in Plateau State in January 2011, following the implementation of MDA. Households were enumerated and all individuals present were asked about MDA participation. Household heads were questioned about household-level characteristics and predictors of participation. Individual responses were compared with the CDD registers. MDA coverage was estimated as 60.3% (95% CI 47.9–73.8%) by the survey compared with 75.8% from administrative program reports. CDD registration books for comparison with responses were available in 19 of the 24 clusters; there was a match for 658/682 (96%) of verifiable responses. CDD registers did not list 481 (41.3%) of the individuals surveyed. Gender and age were not associated with individual participation. Overall MDA coverage was lower than the minimum 80% target. The observed discrepancy between the administrative coverage estimate from program reports and the CRS was largely due to identification of communities missed by the MDA and not reported in the registers. CRS for evaluation of MDA provides a useful additional monitoring tool to CDD registers. These data support modification of distributor training and MDA delivery to increase coverage in subsequent rounds of MDA. PMID:23326617

Cromwell, Elizabeth A.; King, Jonathan D.; McPherson, Scott; Jip, Falam N.; Patterson, Amy E.; Mosher, Aryc W.; Evans, Darin S.; Emerson, Paul M.

2013-01-01

106

Source to point of use drinking water changes and knowledge, attitude and practices in Katsina State, Northern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many Sub-Saharan countries such as Nigeria, inadequate access to safe drinking water is a serious problem with 37% in the region and 58% of rural Nigeria using unimproved sources. The global challenge to measuring household water quality as a determinant of safety is further compounded in Nigeria by the possibility of deterioration from source to point of use. This is associated with the use of decentralised water supply systems in rural areas which are not fully reticulated to the household taps, creating a need for an integrated water quality monitoring system. As an initial step towards establishing the system in the north west and north central zones of Nigeria, The Katsina State Rural Water and Sanitation Agency, responsible for ensuring access to safe water and adequate sanitation to about 6 million people carried out a three pronged study with the support of UNICEF Nigeria. Part 1 was an assessment of the legislative and policy framework, institutional arrangements and capacity for drinking water quality monitoring through desk top reviews and Key Informant Interviews (KII) to ascertain the institutional capacity requirements for developing the water quality monitoring system. Part II was a water quality study in 700 households of 23 communities in four local government areas. The objectives were to assess the safety of drinking water, compare the safety at source and household level and assess the possible contributory role of end users’ Knowledge Attitudes and Practices. These were achieved through water analysis, household water quality tracking, KII and questionnaires. Part III was the production of a visual documentary as an advocacy tool to increase awareness of the policy makers of the linkages between source management, treatment and end user water quality. The results indicate that except for pH, conductivity and manganese, the improved water sources were safe at source. However there was a deterioration in water quality between source and point of use in 18%, 12.5%, 27% and 50% of hand pump fitted boreholes, motorised boreholes, hand dug wells and streams respectively. Although no statistical correlation could be drawn between water management practices and water quality deterioration, the survey of the study households gave an indication of the possible contributory role of their knowledge, attitudes and practices to water contamination after provision. Some of the potential water related sources of contamination were poor source protection and location, use of unimproved water source and poor knowledge and practice of household water treatment methods, poor hand washing practices in terms of percentage that wash hands and use soap. Consequently 34 WASH departments have been created at the local government level towards establishment of a community based monitoring system and piloting has begun in Kaita local government area.

Onabolu, B.; Jimoh, O. D.; Igboro, S. B.; Sridhar, M. K. C.; Onyilo, G.; Gege, A.; Ilya, R.

107

Nigeria`s Escravos gas project starts up  

SciTech Connect

Nigeria`s Escravos gas project, Delta state, officially began late last year. The project -- 6,650 b/d of LPG and 1,740 b/d of condensate from 165 MMscfd of gas -- is the first attempt to rid Nigeria of incessant flares that have lit the Delta skies. Operator Chevron Nigeria Ltd. believes that the Escravos project will enable the joint venture to utilize a significant portion of the gas reserves, thus reducing gas flaring. The paper describes the background of the project, the gas fields, transport pipeline, process design, construction, and start-up.

Nwokoma, M. [Chevron Nigeria Ltd., Lekki (Nigeria)

1998-04-20

108

Determinants of routine immunization coverage in Bungudu, Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria, May 2010  

PubMed Central

Introduction Immunization is a cost-effective public health intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases. The Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey of 2008 indicated that only 5.4% of children aged 12-23 months in Bungudu, Zamfara State were fully immunized. We conducted this study to identify the determinants of routine immunization coverage in this community. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study. We sampled 450 children aged 12-23 months. We interviewed mothers of these children using structured questionnaire to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge on immunization, vaccination status of children and reasons for non-vaccination. We defined a fully immunized child as a child who had received one dose of BCG, three doses of oral polio vaccine, three doses of Diptheria-Pertusis-Tetanus vaccine and one dose of measles vaccine by 12 months of age. We performed bivariate analysis and logistic regression using Epi-info software. Results The mean age of mothers and children were 27 years (standard error (SE): 0.27 year) and 17 months (SE: 0.8 month) respectively. Seventy nine percent of mothers had no formal education while 84% did not possess satisfactory knowledge on immunization. Only 7.6% of children were fully immunized. Logistic regression showed that possessing satisfactory knowledge (Adjusted OR=18.4, 95% CI=3.6-94.7) and at least secondary education (Adjusted OR=3.6, 95% CI=1.2-10.6) were significantly correlated with full immunization. Conclusion The major determinants of immunization coverage were maternal knowledge and educational status. Raising the level of maternal knowledge and increasing maternal literacy level are essential to improve immunization coverage in this community. PMID:25328628

Gidado, Saheed; Nguku, Patrick; Biya, Oladayo; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Nsubuga, Peter; Akpan, Henry; Oyemakinde, Akin; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Suleman, Idris; Abanida, Emmanuel; Musa, Yusuf; Sabitu, Kabir

2014-01-01

109

Molecular characterizations of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon in humans in Kaduna State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The use of molecular diagnostic tools in epidemiological investigations of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon has provided new insights into their diversity and transmission pathways. In this study, 157 stool specimens from 2-month to 70-year-old patients were collected, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene was used to detect and differentiate Cryptosporidium species, and DNA sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene was used to subtype Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum. Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in the specimens were detected using PCR and sequence analysis of the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS), respectively. C. hominis and C. parvum were found in two (1.3%) and one (0.6%) specimen respectively, comprising of Ia and IIe (with 8 nucleotide substitutions) subtype families. The G. duodenalis A2 subtype was detected in five (3.2%) specimens, while four genotypes of E. bieneusi, namely A, type IV, D and WL7 were found in 10 (6.4%) specimens. Children aged two years or younger had the highest occurrence of Cryptosporidium (4.4%) and Enterocytozoon (13.0%) while children of 6 to 17 years had the highest Giardia infection rate (40.0%). No Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon were detected in patients older than 60 years. Enterocytozoon had high infection rates in both HIV-positive (3.3%) and HIV-negative (8.3%) patients. Results of the study suggest that anthroponotic transmission may be important in the transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis while zoonotic transmissions may also play a role in the transmission of E. bieneusi in humans in Kaduna State, Nigeria. PMID:22664352

Maikai, Beatty V; Umoh, Jarlath U; Lawal, Idris A; Kudi, Ayuba C; Ejembi, Clara L; Xiao, Lihua

2012-08-01

110

Characteristics of snail farming in Edo South Agricultural Zone of Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study was carried out to determine the characteristics of snail farming in Edo South Agricultural Zone of Edo State Nigeria. The interview schedule was used to collect data from 60 snail farmers randomly selected from six cells in the study area. Information on the socioeconomic status of the farmers, production system, management practices and production constraints in the snail farms were elicited. The constraints were determined using a four-point Likert-type scale; a mean score of ? 2.5 was considered as a production constraint. Majority (85.0 %) of the respondents were part-time snail farmers. The major species of snails reared were Achatina achatina and Archachatina marginata, reared by 43.3 and 26.7 % of the farmers, respectively. Semi-intensive system of production was practised by 40.0 % of the farmers. Majority (78.0 %) of the respondents used car tyres to house their snails. About 56 % of the respondents kept their snails for 1-2 years before sale. Up to 51.7 % of the respondents separated their snails into different pens according to their size/age. The most commonly used feeds were vegetables (71.2 %), plant leaves (67.8 %) and kitchen waste (59.3 %). Records of snail production activities were kept by 75.0 % of respondents. The major constraints identified were lack of capital (3.31), inability to get good laying stock (3.00), lack of formulated feed to buy (2.98) and slow growth rate of snails (2.52). The potentials of snail farming in the study area have not been fully exploited as farmers produced at subsistence level. PMID:23011673

Chah, Jane Mbolle; Inegbedion, Grace

2013-02-01

111

Cyanide and Aflatoxin Loads of Processed Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Tubers (Garri) in Njaba, Imo State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The present study sought to investigate the role of palm oil, in conjunction with the duration of fermentation, on cyanide and aflatoxin (AFT) loads of processed cassava tubers (Garri). Materials and Methods: Matured cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tubers were harvested from three different locations (Akunna, Mkporo-Oji and Durungwu) in Njaba Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. The cassava tubers were processed into Garri according to standard schemes with required modifications and measured for cyanide content using titrimetric methods. Samples of Garri for determination of AFT levels were stored for 30 days before the commencement of spectrophotometric analysis. Results: Cyanide content of peeled cassava tubers was within the range of 4.07 ± 0.16-5.20 ± 0.19 mg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) equivalent/100 g wet weight, whereas the various processed cassava tubers was within the range of 1.44 ± 0.34-3.95 ± 0.23 mg HCN equivalents/100 g. For the 48 h fermentation scheme, Garri treated with palm oil exhibited marginal reduction in cyanide contents by 0.96%, 3.52% and 3.69%, whereas 4 h fermentation scheme is in concurrence with palm oil treatment caused 4.42%, 7.47% and 5.15% elimination of cyanide contents compared with corresponding untreated Garri samples (P > 0.05). Levels of AFT of the various Garri samples ranged between 0.26 ± 0.07 and 0.55 ± 0.04 ppb/100 g. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in AFT levels among the various samples in relation to their corresponding sources. Conclusion: The present study showed that the 48 h fermentation scheme for Garri production caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction, but did not obliterate the cyanide content of cassava tubers. Conversely, the 48 h fermentation scheme promoted the elevation of AFT levels, but was relatively reduced in Garri samples treated with palm oil. PMID:24403736

Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Ojiako, Okey A.

2013-01-01

112

Current status of traditional mental health practice in Ilorin Emirate Council area, Kwara State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Twenty-seven traditional mental health practitioners (TMHPs) and 16 patients' relatives (PR) were studied with a view to gaining an understanding of the current status of traditional mental health practice in five local government areas in Ilorin Emirate Council Area, Kwara State, Nigeria. Data was collected using Practitioners' Questionnaire (PQ), Patients' Relatives' Questionnaire (PRQ), Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and observation of TMHPs in their clinics. Factors which affect utilization of traditional mental health services were also reviewed. We found that TMHPs still enjoy considerable patronage from the populace, are more in numerical strength, and are more widely and evenly dispersed in the community than orthodox mental health practitioners (OMHPs). About 74% of TMHPs expressed interest in attending seminars aimed at improving their skills. Most of the patients' relatives expressed the belief that only traditional healers can understand the supernatural aetiological basis of mental disorders, and can therefore offer more effective care than OMHPs. Some of the negative practices observed were (i) infliction of corporal punishment and physical restraints on patients by some TMHPs resulting in wounds, which often become septic (ii) low level of hygiene at the clinics and (iii) lack of adequate follow-up care. In conclusion, since TMHPs still play a major role in the treatment of the mentally ill in this environment, OMHPs should assist them in improving on some of the negative practices identified. Thus, there is an urgent need to organize a training programme for TMHPs to expose them to the general rules of hygiene in medical care, basic principles of orthodox mental health practice, including human treatment of the mentally ill. PMID:10821086

Makanjuola, A B; Adelekan, M L; Morakinyo, O

2000-01-01

113

FREQUENCY, URINALYSIS AND SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILE OF PATHOGENS CAUSING URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN ENUGU STATE, SOUTHEAST NIGERIA  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study was designed to determine the frequency and causative agent(s) of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in individuals with symptoms of urinary tract infections in Enugu State of Southeast Nigeria, and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of microbial agents isolated from urine culture. Methods: The study involved 211 individuals (149 females and 62 males) clinically suspected for UTI. Urine samples were collected by the mid-stream ‘clean catch’ method and tested using standard procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated pathogens was tested using the Kirby-Bauer technique according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: Microscopy of centrifuged urine samples showed 16 patients had pyuria while 54 had pus cells. Calcium oxalate crystals were found in 14 samples. Urinalysis performed with urine samples showed 17 had protein; seven were nitrite positive and three had moderate to high glucose concentration. Fifty-four urine samples (36.2%) from females and 12 (19.4%) from males showed significant growth upon culture. Gram stain and biochemical tests identified nine different organisms with Escherichia coli as the most common isolated species. Forty three randomly selected strains were further tested for their susceptibility against a panel of antibiotics. Thirty isolates (81.08%) were resistant to four or more antibiotics with the highest resistance shown by E. coli (76.67%). All the Gram- negative isolates were resistant to Ampicilox, Cefuroxime and Amoxicillin. Conclusion: Urinary tract infections were found more in females in the area under study. As found in other studies, E. coli was the most predominant isolate, although other organisms seem to be on the increase. PMID:24553609

Dibua, Uju M.E.; Onyemerela, Ifeoma S.; Nweze, Emeka I.

2014-01-01

114

Knowledge of self-care among type 2 diabetes patients in two states of Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the knowledge of self-care practices, as well as factors responsible for such knowledge among type 2 diabetes patients in two states of Nigeria. Methods Descriptive, cross sectional survey research design was employed. The study was conducted on type 2 diabetes out-patients attending Endocrinology Clinic at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH) and University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH) between June 2012 and February 2013. The Diabetes Self-care Knowledge (DSCK-30) was used in evaluating knowledge of self-care practices. Socio-demographic information and respondents’ opinion on the possible barrier(s) to knowledge of self-care were also obtained. Data were analysed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS version 14.0. Statistical significance for all analyses was defined as a p value less than 0.05. Results A total of 303 out of 380 questionnaires distributed were completed and returned (response rate =79.7%). The majority of the study sample (79.5%) had 70% or more overall knowledge level about self-care. Self-care knowledge was associated with level of education (p<0.001), monthly income (p<0.001) and duration of diabetes (p=0.008). Negative attitude to disease condition was the only factor associated with knowledge (chi-square value at one degree of freedom =6.215; p=0.013). Conclusion Diabetes self-care knowledge was generally high among the population studied. Educational status, monthly income, duration of diabetes and negative attitude to disease condition predicted knowledge level. PMID:25243026

Jackson, Idongesit L.; Adibe, Maxwell O.; Okonta, Matthew J.; Ukwe, Chinwe V.

2014-01-01

115

Playing politics with the mobile phone in Nigeria: civil society, big business & the state  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 19 September 2003, mobile phone subscribers in Nigeria took the unprecedented step of switching off their handsets en masse. The subscribers took this symbolic step in protest against perceived exploitation by the existing mobile phone companies. Among other things, they were angered by allegedly exorbitant tariffs, poor reception, frequent and unfavourable changes in contract terms, and arbitrary reduction of

Ebenezer Obadare

2006-01-01

116

Information Needs and Seeking Behaviours of Nurses: A Survey of Two Hospitals in Bayelsa State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the information needs of nurses in two hospitals in Nigeria and the ways in which they went about attempting to meet those needs. Design/methodology/approach: The study is a descriptive survey of nurses at the Federal Medical Center (FMC), Yenagoa, and Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital…

Baro, Emmanuel E.; Ebhomeya, Loveth

2013-01-01

117

Impact of Sexual Harassment on Women Undergraduates' Educational Experience in Anambra State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual harassment in educational settings is a common problem globally. While it is well addressed in college and university campuses in most developed countries of the world through specific policies and mechanisms of enforcement, it remains a taboo topic in African colleges and universities particularly in Nigeria. This study investigated the…

Okeke, Carina Maris Amaka

2010-01-01

118

Distribution of freshwater snails in the man-made Oyan Reservoir, Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors influencing patterns of snail distribution in Oyan Reservoir, a typically medium sized man-made reservoir in southwest Nigeria, were investigated once a month, for 28 months (August 1990-November 1992). During each monthly visit, seven stations were sampled for relative snail density, vegetation cover and physical and chemical properties of the lake water. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the

Ifeanyi Emmanuel Ofoezie

1999-01-01

119

Sociocultural factors and the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding in rural Yoruba communities of Osun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child survival strategies include prolonged and intensive breastfeeding, together with its early initiation, and breastmilk only for the first six months of life. This paper reports on local knowledge and attitudes of breastfeeding and the sociocultural factors that shape its practice in poor rural Yoruba communities of Southwestern Nigeria. The study has conducted 10 focus group discussions among homogeneous groups

Anita A. Davies-Adetugbo

1997-01-01

120

Children with paralytic poliomyelitis: a cross-sectional study of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents in Zamfara state, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Nigeria is one of the major African countries in which incidences of polio infection persist in spite of several eradication efforts. The preponderance of paralytic poliomyelitis particularly in the northern part of Nigeria raises the question as to whether parents of children affected with polio know how polio is contracted and spread, whether having a disabled child affects the parents’ attitude towards these children, and what they believe about poliomyelitis in view of their socio-cultural and belief system in the sub-region. Zamfara State, in the north-west of Nigeria is one of the endemic areas where resistance to the global campaign on polio eradication was very high. Therefore this study was conducted to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents/primary caregivers of children affected with paralytic poliomyelitis in Zamfara State. Methods This study is a cross-sectional survey in which the multistage probability sampling technique was used to randomly select two local government areas in Zamfara State where consenting parents/primary caregivers of children with paralytic poliomyelitis were purposively selected. The knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents were assessed with the aid of a 4-part 52-item structured researcher administered questionnaire and the data obtained were analyzed. Results Two hundred and seventeen parents/primary caregivers participated in the study. One hundred and forty-two, (65.4%) reported good, 51 (23.8%) reported fair, while 24 (11%) of participants reported poor knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis. More respondents 120 (55.3%) showed a positive attitude towards children with paralytic poliomyelitis. Younger age (P=0.016) and paid employment (P=0.020) were positively associated with good knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis. Female gender (P=0.020), higher educational level (P=0.015), being employed (P=0.010) and having from middle to high household income (P=0.016) were positively associated with a positive attitude toward children with paralytic poliomyelitis. Most respondents showed a reasonable belief over the cause of their children’s condition rather than the erroneous traditional belief that paralytic poliomyelitis is caused by spirit forces. Conclusions It is of great concern that the good knowledge, positive attitude and reasonable belief by parents/primary caregivers about paralytic poliomyelitis observed in this study did not play a prominent role in preventing susceptibility of children in north-west Nigeria to paralytic poliomyelitis. It is imperative that Nigerian policy makers should device more strategic measures toward the prevention of paralytic poliomyelitis in this sub region. PMID:23083466

2012-01-01

121

Prevalence of antimicrobial residues in raw table eggs from farms and retail outlets in Enugu State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The use of antimicrobial agents in poultry production results in their accumulation in the body tissues and products such as milk and egg. The subsequent accumulation of these drugs and their metabolites in body cells is known as drug residue. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial residues in eggs from poultry farms and retail outlets in Enugu State, Nigeria. Eggs from 25 selected commercial farms and ten retail outlets were screened for the prevalence of antimicrobial residue. Also, structured questionnaires were administered to 25 commercial farms in the state to determine the management practices and the most widely used antimicrobial drugs in farms and possible association between the management practices and the occurrence of antimicrobial residues in eggs from these farms. All the 25 farms surveyed use oxytetracycline. Eggs from nine of the surveyed farms tested positive for antimicrobial residue and three of the ten surveyed farms also tested positive for antimicrobial residue. No association was observed (p?0.05; Fisher's exact test) between the occurrence of antibiotic residues in eggs and farm size, feed source and housing systems. This study was able to demonstrate the presence of antimicrobial residues in eggs destined for human consumption. Drugs like nitrofurans which has been banned for use in food animals are still very much in use in Enugu State, Nigeria. Antibiotics given as feed additives may give rise to drug residues in food animals. PMID:21104128

Ezenduka, Ekene V; Oboegbulem, Steve I; Nwanta, John A; Onunkwo, Joseph I

2011-03-01

122

Source to point of use drinking water changes and knowledge, attitude and practices in Katsina State, Northern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many Sub-Saharan countries such as Nigeria, inadequate access to safe drinking water is a serious problem with 37% in the region and 58% of rural Nigeria using unimproved sources. The global challenge to measuring household water quality as a determinant of safety is further compounded in Nigeria by the possibility of deterioration from source to point of use. This

B. Onabolu; O. D. Jimoh; S. B. Igboro; M. K. C. Sridhar; G. Onyilo; A. Gege; R. Ilya

2011-01-01

123

RURAL AGE DISTRIBUTION AND FARM LABOUR SUPPLY IN FOOD CROP PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA (DISTRIBUCIÓN DE EDAD Y TRABAJO RURAL EN SISTEMAS DE PRODUCCIÓN DE GRANO EN EL ESTADO DE ABIA, NIGERIA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Rural age distribution and its interrelationships with household level socio-economic variables, were analysed in relation to farm labour supply. The data suggested an ageing farm labour force in the study area, Abia State. This result could be applied to the entire southeastern Nigeria, since the rural life and agricultural characteristics are largely homogeneous. Certain household-level socio-economic factors including migration,

R. N. Echebiri; J. A. Mbanasor; Michael Okpara

2003-01-01

124

Medical Rehabilitation of Leprosy Patients Discharged Home in Abia and Ebonyi States of Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the extent to which medical coverage is available to discharged leprosy patients in communities. Evidence has shown that after care services, follow-up visits and national disease prevention programs are important components of medical rehabilitation to leprosy patients discharged home after treatment. Denying them accessibility to these services could expose them to multiple disabilities as well as several disease conditions including HIV/AIDS. These adverse health conditions could be averted if health workers extend healthcare services to discharged leprosy patients. This study was conducted to examine the extent to which discharged leprosy patients have access to healthcare services in the communities. Methods All 33 leprosy patients who were fully treated with multi-drug therapy (MDT) and discharged home in the two leprosy settlements in Abia and Ebonyi States of Nigeria were included in this study. The list of discharged leprosy patients studied and their addresses were provided by the leprosy settlements where they were treated. Also, snowball-sampling method was used to identify some of the leprosy patients whose addresses were difficult to locate in the communities. Instruments for data collection were questionnaire, interview guide and checklist. These were administered because respondents were essentially those with no formal education. Analysis of data was done quantitatively and qualitatively. Results Findings showed that 20 (60.6%) of discharged patients did not receive health programs like HIV/AIDS prevention or family planning. Also, follow-up visits and after-care services were poor. About 14 (42.4%) of the patients live in dirty and overcrowded houses. On the whole, discharged patients were poorly medically rehabilitated (mean score: 4.7±1.1 out of total score of 7). Conclusion Denying discharged leprosy patients opportunity of accessing health care services could increase prevalence of infectious diseases including HIV/AIDS among them. There is need to extend national prevention programs, follow-up visits, after-care services and free treatment to discharged patients in the communities. PMID:22253946

Enwereji, Ezinne Ezinna; Ahuizi, Eke Reginald; Iheanocho, Okereke Chukwunenye; Enwereji, Kelechi Okechukwu

2011-01-01

125

Helminthiasis and Hygiene Conditions of Schools in Ikenne, Ogun State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background A study of the helminth infection status of primary-school children and the hygiene condition of schools in Ikenne Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria was undertaken between November 2004 and February 2005 to help guide the development of a school-based health programme. Methods and Findings Three primary schools were randomly selected: two government-owned schools (one urban and the other rural) and one urban private school. No rural private schools existed to survey. A total of 257 schoolchildren aged 4–15 y, of whom 146 (56.8%) were boys and 111 (43.2%) were girls, took part in the survey. A child survey form, which included columns for name, age, sex, and class level, was used in concert with examination of stool samples for eggs of intestinal helminths. A school survey form was used to assess the conditions of water supply, condition of latrines, presence of soap for handwashing, and presence of garbage around the school compound. The demographic data showed that the number of schoolchildren gradually decreased as their ages increased in all three schools. The sex ratio was proportional in the urban school until primary level 3, after which the number of female pupils gradually decreased, whereas in the private school, sexes were proportionally distributed even in higher classes. The prevalence of helminth infection was 54.9% of schoolchildren in the urban government school, 63.5% in the rural government school, and 28.4% in the urban private school. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent species, followed by Trichuris trichiura, Taenia species, and hookworm in the three schools. Prevalence of infection in the government-owned schools was significantly higher than in the private school (?2?=?18.85, df?=?2, p<0.0005). A survey of hygiene conditions in the three schools indicated that in the two government schools tapwater was unavailable, sanitation of latrines was poor, handwashing soap was unavailable, and garbage was present around school compounds. In the private school, in contrast, all hygiene indices were satisfactory. Conclusions These results indicate that burden of parasite infections and poor sanitary conditions are of greater public health importance in government-owned schools than in privately owned schools. School health programmes in government-owned schools, including deworming, health education, and improvement of hygiene conditions are recommended. PMID:18357338

Ekpo, Uwem Friday; Odoemene, Simon Nnayere; Mafiana, Chiedu Felix; Sam-Wobo, Sammy Olufemi

2008-01-01

126

Awareness of and Attitude towards Glaucoma among an Adult Rural Population of Osun State, Southwest Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To obtain baseline data and assess the level of awareness and attitudes towards glaucoma among rural communities of Osun State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a community-based study that involved interviews and descriptive cross-sectional analysis. Serial-recruitment was performed of consenting participants who presented at a community-based screening service in March 2011. Socio-demographic data and information about glaucoma were obtained through face-to-face semi-structured questionnaires. Results: The study population comprised 259 respondents (mean age 49.73 ± 16.6 years; range 18 to 90 years). There were 159 females (61.4%). Skilled workers were the most common 130/259 (50.3%) participants. Only 41 (15.8%; 95% CI: 11.4-20.2) participants had ever heard of glaucoma. Sources of information were from visits to an eye clinic for 21/41 (51.2%; 95% CI: 35.9-66.5) participants and 15/41 (36.6%) participants who know someone with glaucoma. Reponses to the causes of glaucoma included 20/41 (48.8%; 33.5-64.1) participant who said ‘I don't know’ and 24.4% of participants who responded ‘curse-from-God’. Responses to questions on treatment included 20/41 (48.8%) participants who responded ‘I don't know how it can be treated’ and 10/41 (36.6%) said ‘medically’. Thirty 30/41 (73.2%) participants would refuse surgery, half of them because ‘it cannot cure or reverse the disease’ while (26.7%) would refuse out of ‘fear’. Only 8/41 (19.5%; 95% CI: 7.4-31.6) would accept surgery for maintenance. Statistically significant predictors of glaucoma awareness were older participants, males and skilled workers (teachers) (P = 0.028, P = 0.018, P = 0.0001, respectively). Conclusions: The outcomes of study indicate a low level of awareness of glaucoma. Health education at all levels of health and eye care services is required to prevent ocular morbidity and irreversible blindness from glaucoma. PMID:24791109

Isawumi, Michaeline A.; Hassan, Mustapha B.; Akinwusi, Patience O.; Adebimpe, Olalekan W.; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther O.; Christopher, Alebiosu C.; Adewole, Taiwo A.

2014-01-01

127

Plasmodium falciparum malaria in pregnancy: Prevalence of peripheral parasitaemia, anaemia and malaria care-seeking behaviour among pregnant women attending two antenatal clinics in Edo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated malaria care-seeking behaviour, as well as the prevalence of parasitaemia and anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of two tertiary healthcare facilities in Edo State, Nigeria. Malaria was highly prevalent in the study group (20%) by microscopy and estimated 25%, by PCR), but parasitaemia and incidence decreased with increasing number of pregnancies. Although the level of

E. F. O. Enato; P. F. Mens; A. O. Okhamafe; E. E. Okpere; E. Pogoson; H. D. F. H. Schallig

2009-01-01

128

Cheating Tendency in Examinations among Secondary School Students in Nigeria: A Case Study of Schools in the Odukpani Local Government Area, Cross River State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is designed to examine cheating tendency among secondary school students in Nigeria, with evidence from schools in the Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River State. A total of 331 respondents in Senior Secondary 3 classes were randomly selected from 10 post-primary schools in the area. A survey questionnaire was used to elicit…

Bisong, Nonso Ngozika; Akpama, Felicia; Edet, Pauline B.

2009-01-01

129

Pattern and management of sports injuries presented by Lagos state athletes at the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA games 2009) in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of information on the epidemiology of sports injuries in Nigeria. The study was aimed at documenting sports injuries sustained by Lagos state athletes during the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA Games 2009). It was also aimed at providing information on treatments offered to injured athletes. METHODS: The study was carried out at Amadu Bello Stadium

Oluwatoyosi BA Owoeye

2010-01-01

130

Mode of Entry as a Predictor of Success in Final Year Bachelor of Education Degree Examinations in Universities in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the mode of entry as a predictor of success in final year bachelor of education degree examinations in universities in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria. As an ex-post facto and correlational research, the study population comprised all the 1810 final year 400 level students in the two universities offering education courses,…

Adeyemi, T. O.

2009-01-01

131

Diversity and Population of Timber Tree Species Producing Valuable Non-Timber Products in Two Tropical Rainforests in Cross River State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two tropical rainforest reserves, namely Afi River and Oban West forest reserves in Cross River State, Nigeria, were assessed for the diversity and population density of timber tree species producing economically valuable non-timber products. Species similarity index of the two forest reserves was determined using Sorensen's similarity function. Totals of 12 and 11 tree species were encountered in Afi River

OPEYEMI OLAJIDE; ENEFIOK S. UDO

132

A Critical Study of In-Service Teacher Education for Primary School Teachers in Rivers State Nigeria. African Studies in Curriculum Development & Evaluation No. 18.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This four-chapter study presents the results of an examination of inservice teacher education needs for primary school teachers in Rivers State, Nigeria. Chapter 1 presents an overview and analysis of the needs, and highlights the introduction of universal primary education in 1970, school enrollment increases, the short supply and inadequate…

Ajie, Victor Elemchuku Nawaji

133

Managing Muslim–Christian Conflicts in Northern Nigeria: A Case Study of Kaduna State  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article sets out to identify the causes of Christian–Muslim conflicts in Northern Nigeria and suggest strategies for peaceful co-existence among the adherents of the two religions. It is based on in-depth interviews with the community and religious leaders and a survey of media coverage of the crises. The article examines the sudden upsurge of violent conflicts between Christians and

Hajiya Bilkisu Yusuf

2007-01-01

134

Factors influencing knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate Medical, Nursing and Psychology students of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Knowledge and awareness about childhood autism is low among health care workers and the general populace in Nigeria. Poor knowledge about childhood autism among final year medical, nursing and psychology students who would form tomorrow's child health care professionals can compromise early recognition and interventions that are known to improve prognosis in childhood autism. Educational factors that could be

Monday N Igwe; Muideen O Bakare; Ahamefule O Agomoh; Gabriel M Onyeama; Kevin O Okonkwo

2010-01-01

135

The 1970 yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District Benue Plateau State, Nigeria. 2. Immunity survey to determine geographic limits and origins of the epidemic.  

PubMed

Serological surveys undertaken to define the geographic limits of the 1970 rural yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Nigeria, indicated that surrounding areas of Benue Plateau State and East Central State were not involved. However, the surveys uncovered a separate focus of unrecognized, recent epidemic yellow fever in Mbawsi, in southern East Central State. The highest proportions of yellow-fever-immune sera outside the Okwoga and Mbawsi foci were found in zones of Guinea savannah in the Benue River basin. PMID:4545319

Monath, T P; Wilson, D C; Stroh, G; Lee, V H; Smith, E A

1973-01-01

136

A Note on the Spatio Temporal Variations in the Temperature and Relative Humidity over Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was carried out in one of the Administrative State Capitals in the southwestern part of Nigeria. Its aim is to serve as a baseline data for highlighting the effect of spatial distribution of settlements, population, and socioeconomic activities on urban air temperature and relative humidity. The main objective of the study is to assess the impact of urban growth on the microclimate of the administrative city. Temperature and relative humidity data from 1992 to 2001 were obtained from the three existing meteorological stations in Akure, the Administrative Capital of Ondo State, Nigeria, namely the Federal Ministry of Aviation, Akure Airport station (FMA), Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) and the Federal School of Agriculture (SOA). Air temperature and relative humidity measurements along primary roads and in the built up areas were obtained from seventeen stations, using sling psychrometer. The data were subsequently analysed for spatial and temporal variations. The results obtained indicated that while the maximum, average and minimum temperatures showed significant annual variations, the spatial variations among the existing meteorological stations were not significant. The city is characterized by increasing annual mean temperatures whose maximum was significantly higher than that of Ondo town — another important town within the state. The annual mean temperatures ranged between 26.2°C and 30.4°C. Minimum and maximum temperatures varied from 12.3°C to 26°C and 22.5°C to 39.6°C, respectively while the relative humidity ranged between 27.5% and 98.2%. Urban `heat island' intensity was exhibited around central business district of the Oba market. 2007 American Institute of Physics

Eludoyin, A. O.; Akinbode, O. M.; Archibong, E. O.

2007-07-01

137

The Economic Burden of Malaria on Households and the Health System in Enugu State Southeast Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is the number one public health problem in Nigeria, responsible for about 30% of deaths in under-fives and 25% of deaths in infants and 11% maternal mortality. This study estimated the economic burden of malaria in Nigeria using the cost of illness approach. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken in two malaria holo-endemic communities in Nigeria, involving both community and hospital based surveys. A random sample of 500 households was interviewed using interviewer administered questionnaire. In addition, 125 exit interviews for inpatient department stays (IPD) and outpatient department visits (OPD) were conducted and these were complemented with data abstraction from 125 patient records. Results From the household survey, over half of the households (57.6%) had an episode of malaria within one month to the date of the interview. The average household expenditure per case was 12.57US$ and 23.20US$ for OPD and IPD respectively. Indirect consumer costs of treatment were higher than direct consumer medical costs. From a health system perspective, the recurrent provider costs per case was 30.42 US$ and 48.02 US$ for OPD and IPD while non recurrent provider costs were 133.07US$ and 1857.15US$ for OPD and IPD. The mode of payment was mainly through out-of-pocket spending (OOPS). Conclusion Private expenditure on treatment of malaria constitutes a high economic burden to households and to the health system. Removal of user fees and interventions that will decrease the use of OOPS for treatment of malaria will significantly decrease the economic burden of malaria to both households and the health system. PMID:24223796

Onwujekwe, Obinna; Uguru, Nkoli; Etiaba, Enyi; Chikezie, Ifeanyi; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Adjagba, Alex

2013-01-01

138

Religious Violence in Nigeria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Security was tight in northern Nigeria today, as armed police guarded mosques after days of religious rioting that have left hundreds dead and widespread destruction. While sparked by Christian opposition to the introduction of Sharia, or Muslim law, in the Nigerian state of Kaduna, most observers blame both sides for the rioting. Africa's most populous nation (115 million), Nigeria contains over 200 ethnic groups and is split almost evenly between a Muslim north and Christian south. Ironically, the violence can in part be traced to the return of democracy to Nigeria last year. Under the new and more open government led by President Olusegun Obasanjo, some of the Muslim-dominated states have taken steps to introduce Sharia. While the transition to Sharia passed peacefully in the overwhelmingly Muslim Zamfara state, Kaduna contains a sizable Christian majority who have reacted strongly at the mere prospect of the introduction of Islamic law. Previously circumspect on the issue, Obasanjo recently spoke out against Sharia, expressing doubts over whether it was compatible with the Nigerian constitution. In addition, Nigeria's Human Rights Law Service has also begun court proceedings to try to have Sharia declared unconstitutional in Zamfara. While order is slowly being restored in Kaduna, this issue will certainly remain in the forefront of Nigerian politics, as the governors of two more states have signed bills under which Sharia will come into effect in May, and two other states are actively considering taking similiar steps.

De Nie, Michael W.

139

NigeriaWorld  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite the fine coverage offered by the BBC and other news providers, finding detailed and up-to-date information about any number of African countries can be frustrating -- especially when looking for different perspectives on events that have bearing on international affairs and the like. Despite the presence of numerous advertisements, NigeriaWorld is a good way to find out about current events in the country and is a real boon for persons looking to stay current on the affairs of this region of Africa. From the main page, visitors can read news from each state in Nigeria, and browse news headlines and complete articles organized under such familiar sections as business, sports, arts, and politics. The site also contains feature columns that provide additional insight into Nigeria from such journalists as Tonye David-West and Rudolf Okonkwo.

140

Prevalence and risk factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection in slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir, Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is widespread yet poorly controlled in Nigeria hence posing a public health threat. This study determined the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and factors associated with MTC among slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir in Plateau State, Nigeria. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in which we collected 168 lung samples systematically from 485 slaughtered cattle from May-June, 2012, and tested for acid fact bacilli (AFB) using Ziehl-Neelsen test and a duplex polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) for MTC detection. Data on cattle socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors for zoonotic BTB infection was obtained and analyzed using Epi info version 3.5.3 to determine frequency, proportions, and prevalence odds ratios. Multiple logistic regression was done at 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Results The mean age of the cattle was 5.6 ± 1.3 years and (108) 64.3% were females. Majority were indigenous White Fulani breed of cattle (58.5%) and about half (54.8%) were slightly emaciated. Prevalence of MTB complex was 21.4% by AFB test and 16.7% by duplex PCR. Of 33 (19.6%) lungs with lesions, 27 (81.8%) were positive for AFB; while of 135 (80.4%) lungs without lesions, 9 (6.7%) were positive for AFB. Lungs with lesions were 52 times more likely to test positive to AFB test compared to tissues without lesions (AOR=52.3; 95% CI: 16.4-191.8) Conclusion The presence of MTC in cattle signifies its potential risk to public health. Presence of lesions on lungs is a reliable indicator of MTC infection that meat inspectors should look out for. PMID:25328626

Okeke, Lilian Akudo; Cadmus, Simeon; Okeke, Ikenna Osemeka; Muhammad, Maryam; Awoloh, Oluchi; Dairo, David; Waziri, Endie Ndadilnasiya; Olayinka, Adebola; Nguku, Patrick Mboyo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo

2014-01-01

141

Malarial Infection among Antenatal and Maternity Clinics Attendees at the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

This study assessed the level of malarial infection in relation to some epidemiological factors, gravidity and pregnancy period of antenatal clinic attendees of the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. We also assessed malarial infection in placental blood in relation to gravidity of pregnant women at delivery in the maternity clinic of the same hospital. Thin and thick blood films were prepared for microscopic examination. A questionnaire was administered to each pregnant woman at the antenatal clinic to collect data on educational level, occupation, gravidity, pregnancy period, malaria preventive measures and malaria symptoms. Of the 163 pregnant women examined at the antenatal clinic, 68.3% (111/163) were infected with malaria. Pregnant women that are illiterates (?2=15.44, P=0.100) and those that are farmers (?2=9.20, P=0.270) had the highest infection rate with no significant difference respectively. Malarial infection was significantly higher in the multigravidae, 57.6% (34/59) (?2=5.16, P=0.007) and non-significant in the pregnant women at their third trimester of pregnancy, 60.9% (53/89) (?2=4.45, P=0.108). Placental malaria was significantly higher in the primigravidae among pregnant women at delivery (?2=9.33, P=0.000). A significant difference (?2=33.52, P=0.000) was observed between pregnant women that did not use any malaria preventive methods, 91.2% (31/34) and those that used single, 64.3% (65/101) and combined, 46.4% (13/28) methods of prevention. Malaria remains highly prevalent among antenatal clinics attendees in Makurdi, Nigeria. Combined method of prevention (insecticides treated nets and insecticide spray) yielded good results and its use is advocated in preventing malaria among the pregnant women. PMID:24757507

Amuta, Elizabeth; Houmsou, Robert; Wama, Emmanuel; Ameh, Mary

2014-01-01

142

Health and environmental implications of rural female entrepreneurship practices in osun state Nigeria.  

PubMed

In rural Nigeria, food processing is mostly engaged in by women and children. Most of these processes are done using outdated technologies that make use of traditional woodstoves. This article presents the health and environmental implications of the rural female entrepreneurs involved in food processing and proffer means of bettering the lot of these women to handle these hazards. A partially structured questionnaire and focus group discussion was used to capture data from respondents. The study revealed that about 73 % of women involved in direct production of garri and palm oil processing could be at risk of early death or disability-adjusted life years from the mentioned diseases. The article concludes that the rural female entrepreneur needs to be better positioned to handle these hazards, for her health, that of her children, as well as for the environment. PMID:23341202

Akinbami, Catherine A O; Momodu, Abiodun S

2013-09-01

143

Analysis of women's reproductive health situation in Bida Emirate of Niger State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study examined the reproductive health situation in Bida Emirate of Nigeria, with a view to advancing frontiers in communication support for reproductive health education. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to randomly select 1,200 women respondents that participated in the study. Data was obtained on reproductive health and rights, reproductive health history, and personal and social characteristics of respondents. Data analyses showed that majority (68.1%) of respondents were aware of existing methods of birth control, while 31.9% were not. On the use of methods, abstinence, breastfeeding and use of condoms recorded 42.8%, 22% and 40.3% respectively. Respondents rarely used traditional methods of birth control. Forty five per cent blamed their husbands for not using family planning methods. Surprisingly, 84.8% of respondents had no idea of what HIV/AIDS is all about; only 13% and 3.1% could describe gonorrhoea and AIDS respectively. Results further revealed that there is no significant relationship between personal and social characteristics of respondents (religion, marital status and position, etc) and their attitude towards family planning. However, rural and urban women significantly differed in their health status (t = 0.2729; p < 0.001). Similar trend was observed for attitude towards family decision-making (t = 40; p < 0.001), sexuality and STD prevention (t = 90; p < 0.001), and maternity/childcare (t = 0.001; p < 0.001). In conclusion, the study reveals that there is a wide gap between social expectations of women's reproductive health and cultural realities in Nupeland of Nigeria. The study thus recommends, among others, the need for sustainable safe motherhood campaign in culture bound societies. PMID:12476729

Yahaya, Mohammed Kuta

2002-04-01

144

Effect of processing and storage on the ascorbic acid (vitamin C) content of some pineapple varieties grown in the Rivers State of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascorbic acid contents of the juice of four different pineapples species grown in the Rivers State of Nigeria were determined before and after storage of whole pineapple and processing and storage of the juice for two months. Ascorbic acid of the fresh juice ranged from 22.5 mg to 33.5 mg\\/100 g sample. After storage at room temperature (30–32 °C) of

S. C. Achinewhu; A. D. Hart

1994-01-01

145

Pattern and management of sports injuries presented by lagos state athletes at the 16th national sports festival (kada games 2009) in nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere is a dearth of information on the epidemiology of sports injuries in Nigeria.ObjectiveThe study was aimed at documenting sports injuries sustained by Lagos state athletes during the 16th National Sports Festival and providing information on treatments offered to injured athletes.DesignProspective descriptive study.SettingThe study was carried out at the Amadu Bello Stadium Complex, sporting arena of the Murtala Square and

O B A Owoeye

2011-01-01

146

Effect of water supply and sanitation on the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides among pre-school-age children in Ajebandele and Ifewara, Osun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between Ascaris lumbricoides infection and provisions for safe water supply and excreta disposal was investigated in Ajebandele and Ifewara, 2 peri-urban communities near Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria, from September 1998 to December 1999. Although there were more facilities for safe water supply (pipe-borne and shallow wells) and sanitation (flush toilets and pit latrines) in Ajebandele than in Ifewara,

S. O. Asaolu; I. E. Ofoezie; P. A. Odumuyiwa; O. A. Sowemimo; T. A. B. Ogunniyi

2002-01-01

147

Malaria prevalence, anemia and baseline intervention coverage prior to mass net distributions in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Nigeria suffers the world’s largest malaria burden, with approximately 51 million cases and 207,000 deaths annually. As part of the country’s aim to reduce by 50% malaria-related morbidity and mortality by 2013, it embarked on mass distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Methods Prior to net distribution campaigns in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria, a modified malaria indicator survey was conducted in September 2010 to determine baseline state-level estimates of Plasmodium prevalence, childhood anemia, indoor residual spraying (IRS) coverage and bednet ownership and utilization. Results Overall age-adjusted prevalence of Plasmodium infection by microscopy was similar between Abia (36.1%, 95% CI: 32.3%–40.1%; n?=?2,936) and Plateau (36.6%, 95% CI: 31.3%–42.3%; n?=?4,209), with prevalence highest among children 5-9 years. P. malariae accounted for 32.0% of infections in Abia, but only 1.4% of infections in Plateau. More than half of children ?10 years were anemic, with anemia significantly higher in Abia (76.9%, 95% CI: 72.1%–81.0%) versus Plateau (57.1%, 95% CI: 50.6%–63.4%). Less than 1% of households in Abia (n?=?1,305) or Plateau (n?=?1,335) received IRS in the 12 months prior to survey. Household ownership of at least one bednet of any type was 10.1% (95% CI: 7.5%–13.4%) in Abia and 35.1% (95% CI: 29.2%-41.5%) in Plateau. Ownership of two or more bednets was 2.1% (95% CI: 1.2%–3.7%) in Abia and 14.5% (95% CI: 10.2%–20.3%) in Plateau. Overall reported net use the night before the survey among all individuals, children <5 years, and pregnant women was 3.4%, 6.0% and 5.7%, respectively in Abia and 14.7%, 19.1% and 21.0%, respectively in Plateau. Among households owning nets, 34.4% of children <5 years and 31.6% of pregnant women in Abia used a net, compared to 52.6% of children and 62.7% of pregnant women in Plateau. Conclusions These results reveal high Plasmodium prevalence and childhood anemia in both states, low baseline coverage of IRS and LLINs, and sub-optimal net use—especially among age groups with highest observed malaria burden. PMID:24669881

2014-01-01

148

Human Rights and Sharia'h Justice in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the introduction of Sharia'h law in northern Nigeria, both in regard to the fundamental legal provisions of the Nigeria constitution and also as to the international rights conventions to which Nigeria is a signatory. The relationship between the new Sharia'h laws enacted in all 19 northern Nigerian states and the human rights provisions in the 1999 Constitution

M. Ozonnia Ojielo

2010-01-01

149

POVERTY AND FERTILITY DYNAMICS IN NIGERIA: A MICRO EVIDENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the role of poverty in Nigeria's fertility transition using household survey data from Nigeria - Kaduna and Lagos states - of which 2425 respondents were sampled. In Nigeria, much attention has not been paid to the link between poverty and fertility preferences. This paper is aimed at filling this research gap. It uses univariate and bivariate analyses

A. F. ODUSOLA

150

Nigeria: Teaching Plans and Materials for Secondary Teachers and Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains teacher developed units of study to teach secondary students about Nigerian history, government, geography, industry, and family life. The units are: Sources of Historical Information; History of Benin; Constitutions; Nigeria and the United States; Elections in Nigeria; Nigerian Diplomacy; and Family in Nigeria.…

Andriot, Karen; And Others

151

Knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes to female genital mutilation (FGM) in Shao community of Kwara State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

To determine the level of knowledge, belief, and assess the attitude to female genital mutilation (FGM) and its complications in Shao community, Nigeria, a cross-sectional descriptive study with a health education intervention was used. A majority of respondents (99.5%) understood female circumcision to mean cutting off parts of the female genitals. There was a high level of knowledge regarding most of the complications of FGM as more than 50% of respondents knew at least four complications of FGM. Awareness of the global anti-FGM campaign was also high (78.8%). The most common reasons proffered for the practice of FGM were based on tradition or religion. Paternal grandfathers (50.0%) and fathers (21.0%) were cited as decision makers in the family most often responsible for requesting FGM. Post-intervention results showed that there was a statistically significant increase in the proportion of respondents who know more complications of FGM and who have no intention of circumcising future female children. Despite a high level of knowledge regarding the complications of FGM and a high level of awareness of the global campaign against it, there still exists a high prevalence of practice of FGM in this community. FGM remains a pressing human rights and public health issue. It is our recommendation that this health education intervention strategy be replicated nationwide especially using mass media. PMID:18573755

Amusan, O A; Asekun-Olarinmoye, E O

152

An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they clean and sanitize food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens (r = 0.999), cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge (r = 0.992), and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge (r = 0.878). The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri. PMID:23917815

Onyeneho, Sylvester N.; Hedberg, Craig W.

2013-01-01

153

Relative Technical Efficiency of Cassava Farmers in the Three Agro-Ecological Zones of Edo State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study employed the use of the Stochastic Frontier Production Function in the comparative economic analysis of the relative technical efficiency of cassava farmers in the three agro-ecological zones of Edo State. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 156 cassava farmers from the three agro-ecological zones of the State and the differences in the results obtained were discussed. The empirical estimates showed individual technical efficiency values that ranged from 23 to 95%, 43 to 97% and 52 to 98% with a mean of 72, 83 and 91%, for Edo South, Edo North and Edo Central agro-ecological zones, respectively. This shows that systemic differences in relative technical efficiency levels exist between the three zones and these differences were shown to be related to particular farmer`s characteristics. Non-physical factors that served as determinants of technical inefficiency in the three zones were, farmers level of education, age, farming experience and variety of planting materials used. Gender and family size were however, not found to be significant determinants of the technical inefficiency of cassava farmers in the State. Apart from this estimates serving as a guide to potential investors in the cassava industry in the State, the relative variations in technical efficiency is also an indication of the gaps that exist in the current production technologies employed by cassava farmers in the three agro-ecological zones of the State. The gaps should serve as intervention points for government and non-governmental agencies as well as other stakeholders in the emerging cassava industry in Nigeria.

Erhabor, P. O.; Emokaro, C. O.

154

Water resources in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the limited data available, the components of the hydrologic cycle of which Nigeria's water resources form a part cannot be adequately quantified. However, some assessment of the water “reserves” of the surface and underground water sources indicate that there are large supplies that can be developed in Nigeria. The exploitation of Nigeria's water resources is in an early stage. Despite the progress that has been made in water supply development since the first waterworks in Nigeria was commissioned in Lagos in 1915, many Nigerians still have no access to a modern water supply. Water shortages exist periodically in almost every major town and are present in many rural areas of the country much of each year. New water laws are needed, as is the definition of the powers of the different water authorities, viz., the Federal Ministry of Water Resources, the River Basin Authorities, and the States' Water Boards. The goals of the water policy must be to make available enough good quality water for domestic uses and to exploit enough water for the use of rapidly growing industries and the year-round needs of agriculture, thereby lessening the adverse effect of the dry season.

Oteze, G. E.

1981-07-01

155

Studies into the prevalence of Mycoplasma species in small ruminants in Benue State, North-central Nigeria.  

PubMed

The indicative prevalence of respiratory Mycoplasma species in small ruminants (SR) was determined in North-central Nigeria. Nasal swabs from 172 sheep and 336 goats from the Northeast, Northwest and South Senatorial Districts of Benue State were examined. Initial Mycoplasma isolation used Mycoplasma culture techniques followed by digitonin sensitivity testing. Species identification was done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Overall, Mycoplasma organisms were isolated from 131 (25.8 %) of the 508 SR examined. Prevalence rates of 18.1 and 29.8 % were recorded for sheep and goats, respectively. A total of 135 isolates of Mycoplasma belonging to three different species were identified: Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (127), Mycoplasma arginini (7) and Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri (1). More than one Mycoplasma species were detected in four (3.1 %) of the 131 confirmed Mycoplasma positive cultures. Mycoplasma was isolated from 16.2 and 29.1 % of animals with and without respiratory signs, respectively. The high isolation rate of mycoplasmas in apparently healthy and clinically sick sheep and goats in this study indicates a carrier status in these SR which may constitute a serious problem in disease control. PMID:24828562

Akwuobu, Chinedu A; Ayling, Roger D; Chah, Kennedy Foinkfu; Oboegbulem, Stephen I

2014-08-01

156

Water level regulation and control of schistosomiasis transmission: a case study in Oyan Reservoir, Ogun State, Nigeria.  

PubMed Central

The effect of different water discharge patterns from the artificial Oyan Reservoir in Ogun State, Nigeria, on water level fluctuations and on schistosomiasis transmission was investigated between August 1990 and March 1993 to determine the impact of water level regulation on schistosomiasis transmission and control. The results show that transmission was greatly influenced by the pattern of water discharge during the hot dry season (January-April). A high discharge during this period of no rainfall, high temperatures, and intense sunshine stimulated rapid water level fluctuations and lake draw-down, which led to significant reductions in all indices of schistosomiasis transmission, i.e. snail density, snail infection rates, human water contact patterns, and incidence of infection. Although these results support continuous water discharges from the reservoir during the hot dry season, this may run counter to current water management policies. Further investigation is therefore required to harmonize the potential benefits in this type of discharge pattern with the objectives of efficient water management in artificial reservoirs. PMID:9447776

Ofoezie, I. E.; Asaolu, S. O.

1997-01-01

157

Awareness of IFSERar's pasteurized milk, perception and willingness to pay in Odeda local government area of Ogun State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Milk is a source of protein but contains some micro-organisms which could be harmful if consumed raw. Pasteurization helps in making it safe for consumption without substantial depletion of its nutrient composition. This study examined the level of awareness of pasteurized milk, amount willing to pay per liter and factors influencing willingness to pay in Ogun state, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used. Data were analyzed with descriptive and Probit regression methods. The results revealed that mean amount households were willing to pay was Nigerian Naira 138.44 per liter. The level of awareness of IFSERAR's milk was very low (21.20%). The factors that influenced willingness to pay were age, sex, household size, knowledge of the benefits of pasteurized milk, price, its flavour, and shelf life. It was recommended that in order to increase consumption, there is the need for awareness creation about the product, addition of flavour to give it better odour and tastes and improvement of shelf life of pasteurized milk. PMID:24498681

Oyekale, Tolulope Olayemi; Ayegbokiki, Adedayo Oladipo; Oyekale, Abayomi Samuel

2013-11-01

158

Hepatitis C Virus infection in apparentenly healthy individuals with family history of diabetes in Vom, Plateau State Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important public health problem worldwide. Its association with, and predisposing nature for diabetes mellitus (DM) has been long established. This research was carried out to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) amongst people with possible genetic predisposition to diabetes mellitus living in and around Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria. 188 subjects were screened after they filled a structured questionnaire to determine some of their demographic data, social habits and possible risk factors. 5 ml of blood was collected from each subject and sera separated out. Biotech's third generation ELISA Kit for HCV antibodies was used for the screening. Liver enzyme analysis was carried out on positive samples to determine their disease status. A prevalence of 14.36% was recorded with the highest seropositive group being those in the age bracket of 18 – 37 years. 13(13.40%) of males and 14(15.38%) of females were sero-positive. Liver enzyme analysis of sero-positive subjects showed increased levels which may imply early onset of liver damage. These result showed that these individuals could later suffer diabetes which may be triggered by their HCV infection if not treated. This is not over-looking the economic significance of their ill health, assuming they progress to cirrhotic HCV or develop hepatocelluar carcinoma due to HCV chronicity. PMID:19619316

Nwankiti, Obinna O; Ndako, James A; Echeonwu, Georgebest ON; Olabode, Atanda O; Nwosuh, Chika I; Onovoh, Ema M; Okeke, Lilian A; Akinola, Jumoke O; Duru, Boniface N; Nwagbo, Ijeoma O; Agada, Godwin O; Chukwuedo, Anthony A

2009-01-01

159

Effect of thermal environment on the temporal, spatial and seasonal occurrence of measles in Ondo state, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the temporal and spatial dynamics, as well as the seasonal occurrence of measles in Ondo state, Nigeria, to better understand the role of the thermal environment in the occurrence of the childhood killer disease measles, which ranks among the top ten leading causes of child deaths worldwide. The linkages between measles and atmospheric environmental factors were examined by correlating human-biometeorological parameters in the study area with reported clinical cases of measles for the period 1998-2008. We also applied stepwise regression analysis in order to determine the human-biometeorological parameters that lead to statistical changes in reported clinical cases of measles. We found that high reported cases of measles are associated with the least populated areas, where rearing and cohabitation of livestock/domestic animals within human communities are common. There was a significant correlation ( P < 0.01) between monthly cases of measles and human-biometeorological parameters except wind speed and vapour pressure. High transmission of measles occurred in the months of January to May during the dry season when human thermal comfort indices are very high. This highlights the importance of the thermal environment in disease demographics since it accounted for more than 40% variation in measles transmission within the study period.

Omonijo, Akinyemi Gabriel; Matzarakis, Andreas; Oguntoke, Olusegun; Adeofun, Clement Olabinjo

2012-09-01

160

Epidemiology of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes in the tropical rainforest of Imo State, south-east Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes was carried out in the tropical rainforest of Imo State Nigeria (two rural areas and two forest reserves in some parts of Orlu Senatorial Zone) between May-October 2002. Using standard entomological procedures, two macrohabitats (natural tree-holes and bamboo traps) and two microhabitats (leaf axils of cocoyams/pineapples and leaf axils of plantain/banana) were sampled for various mosquito species. Mosquitoes were recovered from all the various biotypes sampled. Types of mosquitoes species encountered, their relative abundance, as well as genera varied significantly during the study (p<0.05). Four genera of mosquitoes: Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Toxorhynchites were recovered while 16 species of mosquitoes encountered include: Aedes aegypti, Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni, Ae. albopictus, Ae. stokesi, Ae. taylori, Ae. apicoargenteus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. trigripes, Cx. decens, Anopheles gambiae, An. funiestus, An. coustani and Toxorhynchites viridibasis. Most of the mosquitoes showed oviposition preferences for one or more habitats. The presence of Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni and Ae. aegypti indicate that the study areas were at risk of yellow fever epidemic. The presence of Anopheles and Culex species ensured endemicity of malaria and filariasis, while the recovery of Ae. albopictus in this region suggests a possible outbreak of dengue fever in future if not properly controlled. PMID:17655174

Anosike, Jude C; Nwoke, Bertram E B; Okere, Anthony N; Oku, Ene E; Asor, Joe E; Emmy-Egbe, Ifeyinwa O; Adimike, Desmond A

2007-01-01

161

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in milk and milk products in Ogun State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 is a major cause of food-borne illnesses in humans. This study investigated the presence of STEC O157 in milk and milk products in Ogun State, Nigeria. Of a total of 202 samples 10 (5%) were positive for STEC O157 including 1 (2%) of 50 raw milk samples, 3 (6%) of 50 samples of fresh local cheese, 1 (2%) of 50 samples of fried local cheese and 5 (9.6%) of 52 fermented milk samples. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the prevalence of STEC O157 among the sample types. Of 10 isolates, shiga toxin 1 gene (stx1) was detected only in 2 samples (20%), shiga toxin 2 (stx2) was extracted only in 6 samples (60%), stx1 /stx2 in 2 samples (20.0%), intimin gene (eaeA) in 5 samples (50%), and enterohaemolysin (E-hlyA) gene was isolated in 7 (70%) samples. Rates of resistance of the STEC O157 isolates were: amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 100%, ampicillin 100%, chloramphenicol 60%, nalidixic acid 20%, norfloxacin 10%, streptomycin 30%, sulphamethoxazole/trimethprim 20%, and tetracycline 90%. The isolates were all susceptible to ciprofloxacin and neomycin. The presence of virulent multidrug resistant E. coli O157 strains in milk and milk products as revealed by this study unveils a risk of human exposure to these potentially fatal pathogens following consumption of contaminated products. PMID:25273960

Ivbade, Akhigbe; Ojo, Olufemi Ernest; Dipeolu, Morenike Atinuke

2014-09-30

162

Determinants of insecticide treated nets use among youth corp members in Edo State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The Africa Malaria Report shows that many countries are quite far from reaching the universal coverage targets of 80% coverage by 2010 and maintain it at this level. This paper examines ITN use and the factors associated with its adoption among the youths in Nigeria. This information will help in the design of effective methods of providing and distributing the nets in order to enhance its adoption and maximize the public health benefits of ITNs. Methods This cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2006 among university leavers serving compulsory national service (youth corpers) using total sampling technique. The study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. Results A total of 656 youth corp members were interviewed. Only 23.8% of these youths ever use ITN while 4.3% currently use ITN before reporting in camp. A significant proportion of the youths acquired information on ITN from Mass Media (p = 0.0001). Other statistically significant factors that encourage the use of ITN include inexpensive market price of ITN (p = 0.0001), frequency of Malaria infestation (p = 0.019) and perceived malaria preventive action of ITN ( p = 0.000). Following logistic regression analysis, perceived effective malaria preventive action of ITN [OR = 29.3, C.I = 17.17-50.0] and high frequency of Malaria infestation [OR = 1.55, C.I = 0.97-2.47] were predictors of ITN use. Conclusion The study shows that the use of ITN for the prevention of Malaria is low among these Nigerian youths. The major factors determining the adoption of ITN among the youths were perceived effective Malaria prevention action of ITN and high frequency of Malaria attack. These factors should be considered in the design of sustainable and effective locally relevant strategies for scale-up adoption of ITNs among a youthful African population. PMID:21943107

2011-01-01

163

Armillifer armillatus in Bendel State (Midwest) Nigeria (a village study in Ayogwiri Village, near Auchi, 120 kilometres from Benin City) phase I.  

PubMed

Armillifer armillatus (Porocephalosis or tongue worm Disease) in Ayogwiri Village (near Auchi) 120 kilometres from Benin City in Bendel State (Midwest) Nigeria, first detected by us in 1975, was studied. It was first detected incidentally by X-ray which is usual. Confirmation of the diagnosis was made by the radiologist at Benin City Hospital. The focus of this infection was studied by "contact tracing" of the household of the subject. Initially the diagnosis was Miliary Tuberculosis and subsequently multiple calcified nymphs of Armillifer armillatus. Phase one of this study consisted of X-ray of the chest, abdomen and thighs, as well as a history and examination of all ten members of the household. Forty per cent had evidence of calcified nymphs, a finding hitherto regarded as incidental by radiologists. Unlike Paragonomiasis in Eastern Nigeria, the above disease is endemic, largely symptomless, and occurs in snake eating rather than in crab eating communities. There was no increase in snake consumption. Porocephalosis in this part of Nigeria is being reported for the first time. No case of Paragonomiasis has yet been found by us in this area despite a constant search for it since 1972 by sputum examination of all cases of haemoptysis as well as Radiologically in a hospital with a large Pulmonary TB Department where both diseases may occur. PMID:566329

Azinge, N O; Ogidi-Gbegbaje, E G; Osunde, J A; Oduah, D

1978-05-01

164

Regulating child-related advertising in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to examine the Nigerian advertising environment with children as the target audience in relation to its regulatory system. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A comprehensive review of the extant relevant literature was conducted to provide the needed framework for exploring the state of ethics in advertising to children in Nigeria. Findings – While it is shown that Nigeria

Ayantunji Gbadamosi

2010-01-01

165

Territorial conflicts and urbanization in Yenagoa, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines why Yenagoa, the major town and headquarter of Bayelsa State in Nigeria, is experiencing territorial problems, including boundary disputes, which do not exist in larger, fast growing urban areas in Nigeria (such as Lagos, Port Harcourt, Kano and Ibadan). For the purpose of data collection, Yenagoa is divided into 14 zones. A questionnaire survey sought to discover

Innocent Miebaka Aprioku

2004-01-01

166

Magnitude and causes of blindness and low vision in Anambra State of Nigeria (results of 1992 point prevalence survey).  

PubMed

A survey to determine the prevalence and causes of blindness in Anambra State of Nigeria was conducted. The aim was to provide baseline data for the planning, implementation and evaluation of both the state's and the National Programme for Prevention of Blindness. A multistage cluster random sampling technique was used. The World Health Organization/Prevention of Blindness (WHO/PBL) Eye Examination Record Form was used. The WHOs definitions of blindness and low vision were adopted for the analysis. The prevalence of blindness in the state is estimated to be 0.33% +/- 0.27%. Visual acuity of from 3/60 to less than 6/60 has a prevalence of 0.41% +/- 0.30% while visual acuity of from 6/60 to less than 6/18 has a prevalence of 0.67% +/- 0.39. There are equal numbers of blind males as females, although the prevalence among males is 0.44% +/- 0.26% while among females it is 0.24% +/- 0.15%. Most of the blind are above 50 y of age with prevalence of blindness in this age group being 2.62% +/- 1.31% (3.27% +/- 2.1% for males and 2.02% +/- 1.58% for females). Cataract caused most of the blindness (70.59%), followed by glaucoma (17.65%). Macular degeneration is becoming important (5.88%) while obvious infective causes are rare. Errors of refraction are important public eye health care problems. Methods of tackling the cataract problem (both backlog and incident), and other eye health needs within the primary eye/health care are recommended. The need to extend refraction services to the rural areas is emphasized. PMID:9308379

Ezepue, U F

1997-09-01

167

Socio-Demographic Determinants of Maternal Health-Care Service Utilization Among Rural Women in Anambra State, South East Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Although, antenatal care (ANC) attendance in sub Saharan Africa is high, however this does not always translate into quality ANC care service utilization. Aim: This study therefore is aimed at exploring pattern of maternal health (MH) services utilization and the socio-demographic factors influencing it in Anambra State, South East Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A total of 310 women of reproductive age with a previous history of gestation attending ANC services between September, 2007 and August, 2008 in selected Primary Health Centers in Anambra State were studied. Responses were elicited from the study participants using a pre-tested, semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 (SPSS Inc, Chicago Illinois, USA). Association between socio-demographic characteristics and pattern of utilization of ANC and delivery services was measured using ?2-test, Regression analysis was done to identify factors associated with utilization of MH services. P < 0.05 was assumed to be significant. Results: Use of health facility was 293 (97.0%) and 277 (92,7%) out 302 women for ANC and delivery services respectively. Most women attended their first ANC consultation during the preceding pregnancy was after the first trimester and about 31% (94/298) of them had <4 ANC visits prior to delivery. Socio-demographic factors were found to be significantly associated with places where MH care services are accessed. Parity was found to be associated with timing of ANC booking and number of ANC attendance (?2 = 9.49, P = 0.05). Odds of utilizing formal health facility for MH services were found to be significantly associated with increasing age (P < 0.01) and educational status of mothers (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The study revealed high maternal service utilization and 10% fetal loss, hence the need to address the gaps of late ANC booking and low ANC visits. PMID:24971212

Emelumadu, OF; Ukegbu, AU; Ezeama, NN; Kanu, OO; Ifeadike, CO; Onyeonoro, UU

2014-01-01

168

Sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion among secondary school students in three states in North Eastern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Interest in the reproductive health of adolescents continues to grow throughout the world. Few studies had explored the reproductive health knowledge, sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion among secondary school students in North Eastern states of Nigeria. The objectives of this descriptive survey were to collect data to plan appropriate interventions that meet the reproductive health knowledge, service and skills needs of students in Bauchi, Borno and Gombe states. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted for 624 consenting students who were randomly selected from eighteen secondary schools using an 83-item structured questionnaire. Data were collected on demographic profile, reproductive health knowledge, sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion. Results The mean age of the respondents was 16.5 years. There were slightly more males (52%) than females (48%). Students' knowledge about reproductive health was generally low even though girls had better knowledge than boys. Thirteen percent of the entire students had had sexual experience; significantly more males (19%) than females (6%) had done so (p < 0.001). Among boys the age at sexual debut ranged from 10–26 with a mean of 15.7 and median of 16. By contrast, the age at first sex among girls ranged from 10 to 18 years with a mean and median of 16.1 and 17 years respectively. Only 24% of those who were sexually active used a condom during their last sexual encounter. Overall 11% of the students reported that they had been tricked into having sex, 9% had experienced unwanted touch of breast and backside, and 5% reported rape. Conclusion Students low reproductive health knowledge and involvement in risky sexual activities predispose them to undesirable reproductive health outcomes. PMID:17187685

Ajuwon, Ademola J; Olaleye, Adeniyi; Faromoju, Banji; Ladipo, Oladapo

2006-01-01

169

Printed in Nigeria doi:10.5707/cjnsci.2012.4.1.52.56 NURSING SHORTAGE PARADIGM: THE BAYELSA STATE SITUATION 1  

E-print Network

This paper attempted to educate the reader about the shortage of nursing staff and how it affects Bayelsa State’s health sector. Bayelsa State like any other state in Nigeria has enormous health challenges associated with manpower shortage. Bayelsa’s situation is unique because of its terrain. Some factors such as cost of river transport, insecurity of lives and properties due to incessant attacks from sea pirates, poor housing, lack of portable water, deplorable state of hospitals and health centres, erratic or lack of power supply, inadequate nursing personnel, and uneven distribution of the few nurses available, were identified to be peculiar with Bayelsa terrain. This consequently resulted in increased nurse- patient load, risk for error, infection spread, high mortality rate, quackery and chances of nurses being over stressed. Recommendation such as increase in the rural posting allowance for nurses, provision of social amenities in rural areas, employment of more nurses from various states of the federation among others were made.

Emmanuel Andy; Stanley I B; Barry Afoi; Gimba S. M

170

Radioactivity in drilled and dug well drinking water of Ogun state Southwestern Nigeria and consequent dose estimates.  

PubMed

Activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ac and (235)U were measured in 11 dug and 9 drilled well water samples from 3 large cities in Ogun state, Southwestern Nigeria, consumed by the population living in the cities. The measurement was done using co-axial type high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector (Canberra Industries Inc.). The measured activity concentrations in the water samples ranged from 1.74 +/- 1.83 to 4.69 +/- 0.17 Bq l(-1); 2.89 +/- 0.62 to 7.79 +/- 7.22 Bq l(-1); 0.35 +/- 0.07 to 1.17 +/- 0.40 Bq l(-1) and 0.18 +/- 0.05 to 4.77 +/- 0.34 Bq l(-1) for (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ac and (235)U, respectively. Total annual effective dose rates from the ingestion of these radionuclides in the untreated wells were estimated using measured activity concentrations in the radionuclides and their ingested dose conversion factors. Estimated annual effective dose rates ranged from 0.04 to 6.82; 0.01 to 1.36 and 0.01 to 1.49 mSv y(-1) for age groups <1, 2-7 and > or =17 y, respectively. Committed dose for age group > or =17 y ranged from 8.8 x 10(-4) to 8.9 x 10(-2) Sv. The calculated annual effective dose values due to the ingestion of (226)Ra in the Awujale, Ake, Saboab, Alagbon, Alapora and Totoro samples exceeded International Commission on Radiological Protection limit of 1.0 mSv y(-1) for individual public exposure. These wells are recommended for treatment that would remove radium from their waters. PMID:19482882

Ajayi, O S; Achuka, J

2009-07-01

171

Health care workers' knowledge and attitude towards TB patients under Direct Observation of Treatment in Plateau state Nigeria, 2011  

PubMed Central

Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a public health problem in Nigeria. Adherence to the total duration of treatment is critical to cure the patients. We explored the knowledge of the health care workers on management of TB patients including their perceived reasons for patient non adherence to treatment to develop strategies to improve the quality of the TB control service in the state. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study. We used self administered questionnaire to extract information from the health workers on their trainings for TB control, knowledge of the control services, patients’ education including prevention of defaulting from treatment. We conducted focus group discussion with the health care workers. We performed descriptive analysis using epiInfo software. Results Of the 76 respondents 41 (53.9%) were female, 39.9% were community health extension workers, 26.3% were nurses/midwifes 30.3% lacked training on management of TB patient. Only 43.4% knew when to take action on patients who miss their drugs in the intensive phase, 30.3% and 35.5% knew defaults among category 1 and category 2 in the continuation phases of treatment respectively. They identified side effects of drugs (80%), daily clinic attendance (76.3%), health workers attitude (73.4%) and lack of knowledge on duration of treatment (71.1%) including their unfriendly attitudes towards the patients as the major barriers to patients’ adherence to treatment. Conclusion Lack of knowledge of the health care workers on management of TB patients and poor interpersonal relation and communication with patients have negative effect on patients’ adherence to the long duration of TB treatment. PMID:25328627

Ibrahim, Luka Mangveep; Hadjia, Idris Suleiman; Nguku, Patrick; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Akhimien, Moses Obiemen; Patrobas, Phillip; Nsubuga, Peter

2014-01-01

172

Intersection between alcohol abuse and intimate partner's violence in a rural Ijaw community in Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria.  

PubMed

According to the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey, the south-south zone of Nigeria had the highest prevalence of domestic violence. This study is to find out if this is related to the widespread consumption of alcohol in the region. The study was carried out in Okoloba, a rural Ijaw community in Bayelsa State, where alcohol is produced and consumed in large quantities; using a cross-sectional study design. The data was collected from married or cohabitating adults aged between 16 and 65 years, with a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 346 subjects, comprising 187 males, and 159 females were studied. They had an average age of 41.4 ± 2.5 years, were mostly Christians (91.9%), farmers/fisher folk (52.3%), and had at most primary school education (64.2%). More than 90% of the subjects took alcohol in the preceding year, while 36% can be classified as alcohol abusers according to their AUDIT score. More than half (55.8%) were perpetrators of intimate partner violence during the preceding 12 months, with a male-to-female prevalence of 83.4%, and female-to-male prevalence of 23.3%. Out of these, 77.2% were under the influence of alcohol during the act. The violence was more likely to be perpetrated by male alcohol abusers (p-value < 0.001), but there were no significant differences in the educational levels and religion of the perpetrators (p-value > 0.05). The study therefore concludes that there is a link between intimate partner abuse and alcohol abuse in the study community. PMID:21987506

Brisibe, Seiyefa; Ordinioha, Best; Dienye, Paul O

2012-02-01

173

Prevalence and Severity of Malaria Parasitemia among Children Requiring Emergency Blood Transfusion in a Tertiary Hospital in Imo State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Malaria is one of the most serious and complex health problems in Sub Saharan Africa. Anemia in Children with malaria may require blood transfusion and has been be associated with high mortality rates. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence, pattern, and severity of malaria parasitemia among children 6 months to 14 years old, requiring blood transfusion. Subjects and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study carried out at the children emergency unit of the Imo state University Teaching Hospital South East Nigeria. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21, Chicago Il, USA Results: A total of 409 children were recruited into the study. The overall rate of malaria parasitemia was 83.1% (340/409) lower in males 81.6% (228/276) than in females 86.3% (112/133). The peak of parasitemia is similar in both sexes (5-9 years). Most of the children had medium levels of parasitemia, which decreased with increasing age. The proportion of children transfused also decreased with increasing age. At medium and high levels of parasitemia; in children below 5 years, 92.8% (132/142) were transfused while in 5 years and above only 79.6% (39/49) of the children were transfused. At medium level parasitemia the proportion of children transfused was significantly higher than those not transfused (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Most children 6 months to 14 years with medium level of parasitemia may require blood transfusion. Targeted measures toward primary prevention of malaria in children should be intensified as this will not only reduce morbidity and mortality of malaria, but will reduce the economic burden of the disease in Semi-rural and rural dwellers in Sub Saharan Africa. PMID:25221716

Austin, NIR; Adikaibe, EAB; Ethelbert, OO; Chioma, UE; Ekene, NU

2014-01-01

174

Nigeria's Triumph: Dracunculiasis Eradicated  

PubMed Central

This report describes how Nigeria, a country that at one time had the highest number of cases of dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) in the world, reduced the number of cases from more than 653,000 in 1988 to zero in 2009, despite numerous challenges. Village-based volunteers formed the foundation of the program, which used health education, cloth filters, vector control, advocacy for safe water, voluntary isolation of patients, and monitored program interventions and cases reported monthly. Other factors in the program's success were strong governmental support, advocacy by a former head of state of Nigeria, technical and financial assistance by The Carter Center, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the United Nations Children's Fund, the World Health Organization, and many other partners and donors. The estimated cost of the Nigerian program during 1988–2009 is $37.5 million, not including funding for water supply projects or salaries of Nigerian governmental workers. PMID:20682859

Miri, Emmanuel S.; Hopkins, Donald R.; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Keana, Adamu S.; Withers, P. Craig; Anagbogu, Ifeoma N.; Sadiq, Lola K.; Kale, Oladele O.; Edungbola, Luke D.; Braide, Eka I.; Ologe, Joshua O.; Ityonzughul, Cephas

2010-01-01

175

Antiretroviral Drug Therapy in Benue State, Nigeria: A Follow-up of 20 PLWA in a Private Hospital in Gboko  

Microsoft Academic Search

KEYWORDS Antiretroviral. Drug. AIDS. Benue. Nigeria. Follow-Up ABSTRACT The need for a drug policy on HIV\\/AIDS was investigated through a pilot clinical study of 20 Persons Living With AIDS (PLWA), (8 males and 12 females) who took combivir antiretroviral drugs (ARV). Their age range was between 11 and 60 years with those between 11 and 40 years presenting most for

Fred Iornongo Tamen; John Kpamor; Nyitor Alexander Shenge

176

Correlates of Unemployed Graduates' Perceptions of the Importance of Entrepreneurial Education in Poverty Alleviation in Cross River State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing from the empirical research on unemployment among young graduates and the question of economic relevance of curricula of the tertiary education in Nigeria, this investigation was carried out to answer the following research question: Will unemployed graduates' perceptions of the importance of entrepreneurial education in poverty…

Ekuri, E. E.; Alade, F. O.; Sule, M.; Odigwe, F. N.

2013-01-01

177

Blood Pressure Gradients and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Urban and Rural Populations in Abia State South Eastern Nigeria Using the WHO STEPwise Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) face a double burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and communicable diseases. As high blood pressure (BP) is a common global cardiovascular (CV) disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality, the relationship between gradients of BP and other CV risk factors was assessed in Abia State, Nigeria. Methods Using the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey in Abia state, Nigeria from August 2011 to March 2012. Data collected at various steps included: demographic and behavioral risk factors (Step 1); BP and anthropometric measurements (Step 2), and fasting blood cholesterol and glucose (Step 3). Results Of the 2983 subjects with complete data for analysis, 52.1% were females and 53.2% were rural dwellers. Overall, the distribution of selected CV disease risk factors was diabetes (3.6%), hypertension (31.4%), cigarette smoking (13.3%), use of smokeless tobacco (4.8%), physical inactivity (64.2%) and being overweight or obese (33.7%). Presence of hypertension, excessive intake of alcohol, smoking (cigarette and smokeless tobacco) and physical inactivity occurred more frequently in males than in females (p<0.05); while low income, lack of any formal education and use of smokeless tobacco were seen more frequently in rural dwellers than in those living in urban areas (p<0.05). The frequency of selected CV risk factors increased as BP was graded from optimal, normal to hypertension; and high BP correlated with age, gender, smokeless tobacco, overweight or obesity, annual income and level of education. Conclusion Given the high prevalence of hypertension in this part of Nigeria, there is an urgent need to focus on the reduction of preventable CV risk factors we have observed to be associated with hypertension, in order to effectively reduce the burden of NCDs in Africa. PMID:24039932

Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Tiffin, Nicki; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

2013-01-01

178

Prospects of using community directed intervention strategy in delivering health services among Fulani Nomads in Enugu State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The Community Directed Interventions (CDI) strategy has proven effective in increasing access to health services in sedentary populations. It remains to be seen if CDI strategy is feasible among nomads given the dearth of demographic and medical data on the nomads. This study thus characterized the nomadic populations in Enugu State, Nigeria and outlined the potentials of implementing CDI among nomads. Study design and methods This exploratory study adopted qualitative methods. Forty focus group discussions (FGD) were held with members of 10 nomadic camps in 2 LGAs in Enugu State, as well as their host communities. Thirty in-depth interviews (IDIs) were held with leaders of nomadic camps and sedentary populations. Ten IDIs with traditional healers in the nomadic camps and 14 key informant interviews with health workers and programme officers were also conducted. Documents and maps were reviewed to ascertain the grazing routes of the nomads as well as existing health interventions in the area. Results Like sedentary populations, nomads have definable community structures with leaders and followers, which is amenable to implementation of CDI. Nomads move their cattle, in a definite pattern, in search of grass and water. In this movement, the old and vulnerable are left in the camps. The nomads suffer from immunization preventable health problems as their host communities. The priority health problems in relation to CDI include malaria, measles, anemia, and other vaccine preventable infections. However, unlike the sedentary populations, the nomads lack access to health interventions, due to the mutual avoidance between the nomads and the sedentary populations in terms of health services. The later consider the services as mainly theirs. The nomads, however, are desirous of the modern health services and often task themselves to access these modern health services in private for profit health facilities when the need arises. Conclusion Given the definable organizational structure of the nomads in Enugu State and their desire for modern health intervention, it is feasible to test the CDI strategy for equitable healthcare delivery among nomads. They are willing and capable to participate actively in their own health programmes with minimal support from professional health workers. PMID:23566078

2013-01-01

179

Mental health care policy environment in Rivers State: experiences of mental health nurses providing mental health care services in neuro-psychiatric hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Mental health services for Rivers State and surrounding States in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria are provided only at the neuropsychiatric Rumuigbo Hospital in Port Harcourt City, Rivers State, Nigeria. The study explored mental health nurses’ experiences of providing mental health services at the hospital in an attempt to understand policy implications, identify difficulties and challenges of delivering mental health care services. Methods A qualitative study using in-depth interview was conducted among 20 mental health nurses working at the neuropsychiatric Rumuigbo Hospital. This was reviewed within the Townsend mental health policy template of context and resources domains. Results A lack of political support and senior position in the Ministry of Health hinders service delivery, the prevalence of institutionalized stigma, a lack of training, and system failure to provide services at all levels of care is hampering service delivery. The inadequate allocation of resources for hospital renovations and equipment is preventing appropriate client care, as does the lack of funding for drugs, the cost of which makes them unaffordable, affecting clients staying on treatment. Conclusion Education and training of mental health care professionals should be given priority to remedy human resource shortage, provide incentives to motivate health professionals for psychiatric practice, and move toward decentralization of care into general health care services. Information should be provided at all levels to overcome the myths surrounding the causes of mental illnesses, to reduce stigma and discrimination of the affected and their families. PMID:23414640

2013-01-01

180

PERFORMANCE OF NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS' WORKERS IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the performance of employees of Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) with respect to rural development in Cross River State. The factors that enhance job performance and attitudes of workers as well as the constraints to their job performance were also studied. Information derived from a sample of 45 respondents; representing 15 of the 60 registered NGOs in the

P. EKURI; I. A. AKPABIO

181

ASSESSING THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF IRRIGATED SOILS FOR SUSTAINABLE RICE PRODUCTION IN PATIGI KWARA STATE, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the physical and chemical properties of irrigated soils of a rice producing area in Kwara State with a view to identify the limiting soil physical and chemical properties whose proper management can enhance and increase rice yield to meet its demand in the country. Forty 100m x100m quadrats were demarcated from the 80hectares of irrigated rice field

A. D. Olabode; E. O. Oriola

2013-01-01

182

Perceived Sources of Occupational Stress among Primary School Teachers in Delta State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the most prevalent sources of occupational stress and also the demographic variables of gender, age and length of service among primary school teachers in Delta State. Two research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The study used a descriptive survey design. The population was the primary school teachers in…

Akpochafo, G. O.

2012-01-01

183

Incidence of Avian Influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria: The Epidemiology, Economic Losses and the Possible Role of Wild Birds in the Transmission of the Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing the huge economic losses due to diseases in poultry as the second largest industry in Nigeria after oil means improving the protein intake of the majority. Similarly, this will also promotes a steady income for the teeming farmers. This study investigated the incidence of the lethal avian influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria, with particular emphasis on the socio-economic and cultural activities of the poultry farmers, economic losses and the possible role of wild birds in the transmission of the disease. Data were collected from 316 and 458 direct and indirect respondents, respectively, from 6 affected villages and a town in 2 Local Government Areas (LGAs): Girei and Yola-North. Results revealed that a larger (25.71%) proportion of the respondents fell within the age range of 31-40 years, with majority (54.91%) as females. While the bulk (54.65%) of the respondents were illiterates, 95.47% of the direct respondents derived their incomes from crop production, whereas 59.17% of the indirect respondents from livestock rearing. About 26,049 birds worth N13, 454,800.00 was cumulative economic loss incurred by the poultry farmers, whereas that of the government was put at N1, 119,781.10. Of the mortalities experienced in the wildlife before the outbreak of the disease, Bubulcus ibis (64.29) and Tadarida nigeriae (86.36) were the highest. The study recommends a massive rural extension on Poultry Production with absolute biosecurity, involving all stakeholders (Veterinary Surgeons, Animal Scientists/health workers, wildlife specialists, Agricultural Economists, Information Officers etc.) in a collaborative form for high synergistic effects.

Ja`Afar-Furo, M. R.; Balla, H. G.; Tahir, A. S.; Haskainu, C.

184

Benefits of using magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) for eclampsia management and maternal mortality reduction: lessons from Kano State in Northern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Despite clear emphasis through the Millennium Development Goals, the problem of high maternal mortality persists especially within low and middle income countries. Various studies report remarkably high maternal mortality rates in northern Nigeria, where maternal mortality rates exceed 1,000 deaths per 100,000 live births and eclampsia contributes approximately 40% of maternal deaths. Across Nigeria, diazepam is routinely used for the management of eclampsia. Prior to February 2008, diazepam was widely used for the management of eclampsia in Kano State (within northern Nigeria) with case fatality rate being over 20%. While magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) is recognized as the most effective drug for the management of eclampsia; this study aims to compare MgSO4 therapy with diazepam therapy in terms of case fatality rates and costs. Findings This retrospective study, including 1045 patients with eclampsia and pre-eclampsia during the years 2008 and 2009, reports a drop in case fatality rates from 20.9% (95% CI: 18.7, 23.2) to 2.3% (95% CI: 1.4, 3.2) among eclampsia patients following the MgSO4 intervention. The study observed no significant difference in the cost of using MgSO4 therapy compared to diazepam therapy. Conclusions The study found a remarkable reduction in case fatality rate due to eclampsia in those who received MgSO4 therapy with minimal increase in costs when compared to diazepam therapy. Concerted efforts should be focused on properly introducing MgSO4 into emergency obstetric protocols especially within developing countries to reduce maternal mortality and also impact on health system performance. PMID:22873658

2012-01-01

185

Assessment of Quality in Early Childhood Education in Ekiti-State Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early child-hood Education is the bedrock upon which excellent basic and sound education is built. This study examined the concept of quality in early childhood education in Ekiti State. It is a descriptiv e research design of the survey type, which aimed at assessing the quality of early-child-hood education in 12 randomly selected private nursery schools in Ado-Ekiti Local Government

O. Olaleye; O. Florence; K. A. Omotayo

2009-01-01

186

Socioeconomic indicators and the survival of the tropical rainforest of cross river state of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

An internal household survey of socioeconomic indicators in the Cross River State forest communities showed that basic infrastructural\\u000a facilities such as clean water supply, adequate waste disposal system, good roads and electricity are grossly inadequate.\\u000a There is a total absence of modern family planning practices in the communities, and population is projected to increase by\\u000a 44.8% between 2000 and 2015

Matthew E. Eja

2006-01-01

187

Awareness and attitude to the law banning smoking in public places in Osun State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objective This study determined the awareness and attitude towards the Osun state prohibition of smoking in public places law. Method Descriptive cross-sectional study design. 520 consenting respondents recruited using a convenience sampling method were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire covering their smoking pattern, awareness and attitude towards the law of prohibition of smoking in public places in Osun State. Data analyzed using descriptive and chi-square statistics. Results Only 38% were aware of the law while none had seen the document. Fifty six percent felt cigarette smoking is a problem that required the law to be implemented, while only 20% agreed that the law will stop tobacco use. The radio (58%), bill boards (45%) and newspapers (44%) were the major sources of awareness of the law. The perception of risk posed to the public and family health by cigarette smoking was poor among the participants. Conclusion There is poor awareness and attitude to the law of prohibition of smoking in public places in Osun State. It is necessary to increase sensitization of the general public and enforcement of the law. PMID:24674579

2014-01-01

188

Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners to canine rabies in wukari metropolis, taraba state Nigeria.  

PubMed

Canine rabies is endemic and occurs throughout the year in all parts of Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional study was designed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, to check for the presence of rabies antigens in brain tissue of dogs slaughtered for human consumption and to assess rabies vaccination coverage of dogs in Wukari. Structured questionnaires were prepared and administered to 200 dog owners by face to face interview. The questionnaire sought information on demographic characteristics of the dog owners, their association with dogs, knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies. Associations between demographic variables and knowledge, attitude or practice scores were assessed using chi(2) analysis. Also, 188 brain samples from slaughtered dogs were analysed for presence of rabies antigen using direct fluorescent antibody test. Fifteen (7.89%) had rabies antigen. Record files and vaccination certificates of dogs presented to the State Veterinary Hospital Wukari were assessed for anti rabies vaccination coverage. Out of the 200 dog owners, only 26 (13%) knew that rabies virus can be found in nervous tissue, 121 (60.5%) were aware that rabies can be spread through the saliva of a rabid animal, but majority of respondents 172 (86%) did not know the age for first vaccination of dogs against rabies. Dog owners who were civil servants were 4.8 times more likely to have good knowledge (OR=4.84, 95% CI on OR 1.09-21.44) than those of other occupation groups. Positive attitude towards rabies increased with increase in age of dog owners, with respondents within the age group 20-30 years more likely to have negative attitude than those over 40 years. Civil servants were 9.8 times more likely to have good practice than other occupation groups. Rabies antigen was detected in 7.98% of slaughtered dogs. Out of 8370 dogs presented to the hospital between January 2003 and December 2012, only 1128 (13.50%) received anti rabies vaccine. Inadequate knowledge of some aspects of rabies, negative attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, the presence of rabies antigen in some dogs slaughtered for human consumption and low vaccination coverage in dogs are indicative of high risk of exposure of dog owners and dog meat processors to rabies. There is therefore a need for educational programmes targeted at dog owners to increase their level of knowledge and reduce the risk of exposure to rabies. PMID:25168987

Ameh, Veronica O; Dzikwi, Asabe A; Umoh, Jarlath U

2014-09-01

189

Pattern of paediatric corneal laceration injuries in the University of port Harcourt teaching hospital, Rivers state, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Corneal lacerations mostly affect younger children, commonly males, who will constitute the majority of the workforce. Clinical outcomes are reviewed and compared so that measures to reduce their occurrence and improve outcome can be proffered. Methods Records of all children between the ages of 1-18?yrs, who presented with penetrating eye injuries at the eye clinic of the University of Port Harcourt teaching Hospital, Rivers state, Nigeria between January 2002 and December 2009 were included. Information retrieved -patient’s Bio data, presenting symptoms, presenting visual acuity (VA), source of injury, surgical intervention and outcome using VA. All data analysed with EPI Info version 6 with the aid of a statistician. Results Folders of thirty-six children (36 eyes) between the ages of 0–18?years diagnosed with corneal laceration over a period of 8?years out of 65 cases managed within that period available. Other folders reported as missing. Male female ratio 3:1, the mean age is 8.7?years (SD?±?3.67). Only one presented within 24?hours. Objects causing injury mainly missiles with stones/catapult injuries (n?=?8, 22.2%). Presenting VAs in those that could be measured, ranged from 6/24 to 6/60 (n?=?4, 11%) to no light perception (NLP) (n?=?5, 13.9%). Associated injuries include lid laceration, cataract, vitreous haemorrhage and retinal detachment. Twenty one patients had primary corneal repair (58.3%) carried out within 7?days of presentation. Four had endophthalmitis. After 3?months follow up, VA of 6/60 and better was achieved in 11 of 18 eyes left in follow up (6/60-6/24 in 8 eyes (22.2%), 6/18 and better in 3 eyes (8.3%). Conclusion Most eye injuries in children are preventable. In this study, the prognosis was better in those whose injuries were confined to a peripheral part of the cornea, with no other associated injury, who presented within 5?days and who did not have any intraocular infection at the time of presentation. The importance of health education, adult supervision of play and application of appropriate measures that is necessary for reducing the incidence and severity of trauma is emphasized. PMID:23234255

2012-01-01

190

Prevalence and transmission dynamics of Schistosoma haematobium infection in a rural community of southwestern Ebonyi State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A twelve-month epidemio-ecological study on the prevalence, infection intensity, water contact and vector aspects of urinary schistosomiasis was conducted in a rural community of south-west Ebonyi State, Nigeria, using standard procedures, and involving 894 individuals (527, 58.9% males; and 367, 41.1% females). An overall community prevalence (15.3%) was established with more males (20.7%) than females (7.6%) being significantly positive for both micro-and macro-haematuria (?˛ = 0.806; df = 1, p < 0.05). Intensity of infection was generally of the light category (< 100 eggs/10 ml urine) with more infected males (n = 95, 87.2%) than infected females (n = 15, 53.6%). Correlation analysis showed no linear relationship between prevalence and intensity of infection. Individuals aged 16-20 years dominated interschool/intervillage infection profile (range 13.2-50%) while participants in 6-10 years age bracket recorded the lowest infection rates (range 2.8-5.0%). Age-related difference in prevalence was not significant (?˛ = 1.80; df = 2, p > 0.05). A total of 2877 ova of Schistosoma haematobium were recovered providing an overall mean egg burden of 21 ± 7 eggs/10 ml urine per infected person. Age-related infection intensity was similarly of the light category involving 80.3% of infected persons. Bulinus globosus (n = 308) was identified as the vector of the parasite with 20.1% snails found to be shedding cercariae. Monthly and seasonal infection rates in snails were season-dependent and peaking in May (35.5%). Participants aged 13-15 years accounted for 25.1% of total water contacts (n = 9938) whereas individuals aged 6-9 years accounted for only 9.6% contacts. The most performed water contact activity was bathing (33.3%), followed by washing of clothes (25.7%). Correlation analysis indicated that village of residence, age and cumulative water contacts were significant correlates of possible S. haematobium infection. PMID:24862047

Ivoke, N; Ivoke, O N; Nwani, C D; Ekeh, F N; Asogwa, C N; Atama, C I; Eyo, J E

2014-03-01

191

Sound management of brominated flame retarded (BFR) plastics from electronic wastes: State of the art and options in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of flame retarded plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been posing a major challenge to waste management experts because of the potential environmental contamination issues especially the formation of polybrominated-dioxins and -furans (PBDD\\/F) during processing. In Nigeria, large quantities of electronic waste (e-waste) are currently being managed—a significant quantity of which is imported illegally as secondhand

Innocent Chidi Nnorom; Oladele Osibanjo

2008-01-01

192

Improving Agricultural Extension Services through University Outreach Initiatives: A Case of Farmers in Model Villages in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

University outreach is an educational and research-based information source enabling farmers to make decisions that improve the quality of their lives. This paper explores how collaborative efforts between the university and farmers have directly impacted in albeit Striga (‘noxious witch weed’) ravaged maize farms in rainforest farming systems in southwest Nigeria. Data were collected using pre-tested instruments from cross-section of

Abayomi Oloruntoba; Dorcas A Adegbite

2006-01-01

193

Obstructed labour: a public health problem in Gombe, Gombe State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study reviewed retrospectively the cases of obstructed labour as seen at the specialist Gombe Hospital (SHG), Gombe State, over a period of 5 years. The incidence of obstructed labour was 4.0%. There was a progressive decline in the time trend over the study period. About 80.3% of the patients were unbooked emergencies and 99.5% of them had been in labour elsewhere before presenting at the hospital. The leading cause of obstructed labour was cephalopelvic disproportion (83.0%). Caesarean section (72.2%) was the most common method of delivery. Puerperal sepsis was the most frequent morbidity. However, the longest duration of hospital stay was as a result of a bedsore. The maternal mortality for cases of obstructed labour was 7605/100,000 and the perinatal mortality was 628/1000 births. The study aims to reinstate public interest in this health problem and offers suggestions on how to curb this human tragedy. PMID:12881074

Melah, G S; El-Nafaty, A U; Massa, A A; Audu, B M

2003-07-01

194

Bacteriuria and urinary schistosomiasis in primary school children in rural communities in Enugu State, Nigeria, 2012  

PubMed Central

Introduction According to a study conducted in1989, Enugu State has an estimated urinary schistosomiasis prevalence of 79%. Recently, studies have implicated bacteriuria co-infection in bladder cancer. These bacteria accelerate the multi-stage process of bladder carcinogenesis. Knowledge about the prevalence of this co-infection is not available in Enugu and the information provided by the 1989 study is too old to be used for current decision making. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional survey of primary school children aged5-15years, who were randomly selected through a multi stage sampling method using guidelines recommended by WHO for schistosomiasis surveys. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data on demography, socioeconomic variables and clinical presentations. Urine samples were collected between 10.00am and 2.00pm. Each sample was divided into two: (A) for prevalence and intensity using syringe filtration technique and (B) for culture. Intensity was categorized as heavy (>50ova/10mls urine) and light (<50ova/10mls urine). Significant bacteriuria was bacteria count ? 105 colony forming units/ml of urine. Results Of the 842 pupils, 50.6% were females. The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis was 34.1%. Infection rate was higher(52.8%) among 13-15 years(Prevalence Ratio = 2.45, 95% Confidence Interval 1.63-3.69). Heavy infections wad 62.7% and egg count/10mls urine ranged from 21-1138. Significant bacteriuria among pupils with urinary schistosomiasis was 53.7% compared to 3.6% in the uninfected(PR = 30.8,95% CI 18.91- 52.09). The commonest implicated organism was Escherchia coli. Conclusion We found high prevalence of bacteriuria co-infection among children with urinary schistosomiasis in Enugu State. This underscores the need for concurrent antibiotics administration and follow-up to avert later complications.

Ossai, Okechukwu Paulinus; Dankoli, Raymond; Nwodo, Chimezie; Tukur, Dahiru; Nsubuga, Peter; Ogbuabor, Daniel; Ekwueme, Osaeloka; Abonyi, Godwin; Ezeanolue, Echezona; Nguku, Patrick; Nwagbo, Douglas; Idris, Suleiman; Eze, George

2014-01-01

195

Maternal attitudes and values to youth sexuality-related activities in Delta State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This descriptive study assessed maternal attitudes to youth-related activities in Delta State. Using an adapted questionnaire, 300 women with adolescent children were chosen through a multistage sampling technique and relevant data obtained regarding their socio-economic status, perceptions and values as well as their knowledge of basic reproductive health concerns. Most of the women interviewed (95%), believed it was very important that young people completed secondary education and another 72% said they would normally set rules in their homes regarding what young people should read or watch. Sixty-seven percent of those studied, discussed sexuality issues regularly with their adolescent children, though only 46.4% of them were comfortable discussing these issue and about 50% admitted having enough information in such discussions. Another 76% of the women would approve of their children receiving reproductive health information and service including contraceptive condoms. The mothers studied believed that guided reproductive health information and services should be routinely provided for young people. The findings strongly suggest that the mothers who are important stakeholders in Adolescent Health would most likely be supportive of youth programmes. Most of the findings differ from those of other studies, and a qualitative study would be carried out to identify the reasons for these interesting findings. PMID:14692062

Okonkwo, I P; Ilika, A I

2003-09-01

196

Corruption, NGOs, and Development in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

This article examines corruption in Nigeria’s development sector, particularly in the vastly growing arena of local non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Grounded in ethnographic case studies, the analysis explores why local NGOs in Nigeria have proliferated so widely, what they do in practice, what effects they have beyond their stated aims, and how they are perceived and experienced by ordinary Nigerians. It shows that even faux NGOs and disingenuous political rhetoric about civil society, democracy, and development are contributing to changing ideals and rising expectations in these same domains. PMID:24265511

Smith, Daniel Jordan

2013-01-01

197

Gender inequities in sexually transmitted infections: implications for HIV infection and control in Lagos State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Beyond the statistics of sex-based differences in infection rates, there are profound differences in the underlying causes and consequences of HIV infections in male and female which need to be examined. The study therefore examines; the gender differences in the STI knowledge and gender-related potential risks of HIV heterosexual transmission. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected. A multistage random sampling procedure was employed in administration of 1358 questionnaires. For qualitative data, four focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted to collect information from stakeholders within the study population, while In-depth interview was employed to collect information from 188 people living with HIV/AIDS through support groups in the State. The data collected were subjected to basic demographic analytical techniques. Combination of univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis were employed. Information from focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were transcribed and organized under broad headings that depict different aspects of the discussions. Majority of the respondents interviewed did not inform their partners about their infection in the study area. It was also discovered that stigmatization did not allow some women to disclose their status to their sexual partners. Some of the HIV-positive patients interviewed agreed that they did not attend the health facilities to treat the STI’s before they were finally confirmed positive. The study hypothesis revealed that communication between partners about STI’s was associated with an increase in risk reduction behaviour. The paper concluded that there is need for more information and education on communication about STI’s between the sexual partners; to reduce the spread of sexually transmitted diseases within the nation. PMID:24470905

Adeyemi, Ezekiel Oluwagbemiga

2011-01-01

198

Perception of HIV/AIDS among the Igbo of Anambra State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Perception is fundamental in the fight against stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Perception generally influences discriminatory attitudes towards PLHIV which exacerbates their problems and quickens the degeneration of the disease from HIV to AIDS. This study examined the Anambra people's perception and knowledge of HIV/AIDS with the goal of creating knowledge on these issues in order to design effective intervention programmes towards the reduction of social stigmatization associated with the pandemic. The study was carried out in Idemmili North and Oyi local government areas of Anambra State. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used to elicit information from respondents who were adult males and females of 18 years and above. The research instruments were questionnaires and in-depth interview schedule. Questionnaires were administered on 1000 respondents while 13 people were interviewed in-depth. Analysis of quantitative data were conducted by using the Statistical package for Social Sciences. Univariate analysis in the form of frequencies were conducted which generated the distribution of respondents across the research variables. Furthermore, multivariate analysis were conducted to test the hypotheses and sought for relationships among variables. The qualitative data were reported in themes based on the research objectives and were analysed jointly with the quantitative data. The findings were that majority of the respondents viewed HIV/AIDS as a disease that afflict immoral people and as a punishment from God. Only a handful of them saw the disease as a disease that could afflict anybody. Also, many of the respondents said that AIDS is real but showed a low level of knowledge. It was further indicated that there were significant relationships between educational level, sex, occupation, income influence perception and peoples' reactions to HIV positive status of a relative while there were no significant relationships between these variables and knowledge of HIV/AIDS. It was concluded that these negative perceptions were as a result of the people's low level of knowledge and cultural belief systems, which see a strange illness as punishment from God for disobedience. Furthermore, the fact that most of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents had significant relationship with perception and reaction to HIV was an indication that most people in the study area had a uniform perception. It was also an indication that government HIV/AIDS awareness programmes were not effective. It was recommended that strategies for effective HIV educational programme should be sought and carried out in the study area. Effective intervention programme have the power to change behaviours and would likely change the people's negative perception and low level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS, thereby reducing stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:23808412

Muoghalu, Caroline Okumdi; Jegede, Samuel Ayodele

2013-03-01

199

Assessment of the Cotton Industry Using the Global Commodity Chain Analysis Approach in Katsina State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study examines the cotton commodity chain and assessed the share of each actor in the cotton industry and identified the constraints encountered in cotton production, marketing and processing. A sample of thirty cotton producers, 50 traders, 500 agents and 3 ginneries were selected from Funtua Local Government Area of Katsina State using both random and purposive sampling techniques. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the participants using focus group discussion and structured questionnaire during the 2004/2005 cropping season. Analysis of the data was done using descriptive statistics and budgeting technique. The farmersN budget analysis indicated that from an investment cost of N 33,146.00 ha-1, farmers obtained a revenue of N 44,544-00 ha-1, thus making a net income of N 11,398 ha-1, while the agent analysis shows that an agent is paid a commission of N 500.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchase on behalf of the merchant. The analysis of the tradersN budget revealed that from an investment cost of N 36,746.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchased, traders` N 41,700.00 (lint + seed) and a net profit of N 4,954.00 ton h-1 of seed cotton. The analysis of the ginnery budget revealed that from one ton of seed cotton processed, a ginnery is making a net profit of N 2,178.00. These analyses indicated that cotton production, marketing and processing under the current price and cost setting is profitable. In spite of the profitability in cotton business, the following problems were identified: adulteration of seed cotton with foreign materials, heterogeneous seeds resale in the market, inappropriate packaging systems, no good prices for improving the quality and no mechanism for ensuring transparency in the quality (trust between actors). There is the need for intensification and expansion of the cotton sector in terms of provision of high quality inputs, clean seed cotton, introduction of jute bags for packaging, introduction of quality control mechanisms and good prices in order to sustain the industry.

Kudi, T. M.; Akpoko, J. G.; Abdulsalam, Z.

200

Perception of HIV/AIDS among the Igbo of Anambra State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Perception is fundamental in the fight against stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Perception generally influences discriminatory attitudes towards PLHIV which exacerbates their problems and quickens the degeneration of the disease from HIV to AIDS. This study examined the Anambra people's perception and knowledge of HIV/AIDS with the goal of creating knowledge on these issues in order to design effective intervention programmes towards the reduction of social stigmatization associated with the pandemic. The study was carried out in Idemmili North and Oyi local government areas of Anambra State. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used to elicit information from respondents who were adult males and females of 18 years and above. The research instruments were questionnaires and in-depth interview schedule. Questionnaires were administered on 1000 respondents while 13 people were interviewed in-depth. Analysis of quantitative data were conducted by using the Statistical package for Social Sciences. Univariate analysis in the form of frequencies were conducted which generated the distribution of respondents across the research variables. Furthermore, multivariate analysis were conducted to test the hypotheses and sought for relationships among variables. The qualitative data were reported in themes based on the research objectives and were analysed jointly with the quantitative data. The findings were that majority of the respondents viewed HIV/AIDS as a disease that afflict immoral people and as a punishment from God. Only a handful of them saw the disease as a disease that could afflict anybody. Also, many of the respondents said that AIDS is real but showed a low level of knowledge. It was further indicated that there were significant relationships between educational level, sex, occupation, income influence perception and peoples' reactions to HIV positive status of a relative while there were no significant relationships between these variables and knowledge of HIV/AIDS. It was concluded that these negative perceptions were as a result of the people's low level of knowledge and cultural belief systems, which see a strange illness as punishment from God for disobedience. Furthermore, the fact that most of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents had significant relationship with perception and reaction to HIV was an indication that most people in the study area had a uniform perception. It was also an indication that government HIV/AIDS awareness programmes were not effective. It was recommended that strategies for effective HIV educational programme should be sought and carried out in the study area. Effective intervention programme have the power to change behaviours and would likely change the people's negative perception and low level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS, thereby reducing stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:23808412

Muoghalu, Caroline Okumdi; Jegede, Samuel Ayodele

2013-01-01

201

Nigeria: female circumcision row.  

PubMed

In October 1989 midwives and nurses held mass demonstrations in Benin city, the capital of Bendel State, Nigeria, to protest against female circumcision. This practice, which is firmly entrenched in the area, may involve cutting off the clitoris or more extensive removal of girls' genitalia, either in infancy or at puberty. Nigerian hospitals no longer perform circumcision, so people do it themselves or have traditional practitioners do so. Recent demonstrations reflect outrage on the part of Western-trained health care activists regarding aesthetic and obstetric complications, as well as added risk of spreading tetanus and AIDS by unsanitary procedures. PMID:12342692

Ezeh, P

1990-02-01

202

` Printed in Nigeria HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS MIGRATION AND BRAIN DRAIN PHENOMENON: PERCEPTION OF HEALTH CARE WORKERS IN LAGOS STATE IN SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA 1  

E-print Network

Introduction: As the movement of trained health care personnel out of developing countries in search of greener pastures continues, an end is not yet in view to the weak health systems created by imbalances and costs associated with brain drain in affected countries. The objective of this study is to determine knowledge and attitude of health care workers in Lagos State towards brain drain Methods: Descriptive cross sectional study of causes, implications and solutions to the phenomenon of

Adebimpe Wasiu Olalekan; Owolade Oladepo Adeniran; Adebimpe Mujidat Adebukola; Olowu Adekunle

203

Prevalence of hypertension in three rural communities of Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State, South West Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of hypertension is increasing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, but data are limited on hypertension prevalence. In addition, few population-based studies have been conducted recently in Nigeria on the prevalence and correlates of hypertension in both urban and rural communities. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of hypertension in adults in the three rural communities of Ipetumodu, Edunabon, and Moro, in South West Nigeria. Materials and methods One thousand adults between 15 and 90 years of age were recruited into this cross-sectional study, over a 6-month period, using a multistage proportional stratified random sampling technique. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric variables were obtained, and resting blood pressure (BP) was measured using an electronic sphygmomanometer. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on the JNC VII guidelines, the WHO/ISH 1999 guidelines, and the BP threshold of 160/95 mmHg. Results Four hundred and eighty-six men (48.6%) men and 514 women (51.4%) participated in the study. Their mean age, weight, height, and body mass index were 32.3±14.7 years, 62±13 kg, 1.5±0.1 m, and 23.02 kg/m2, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 140/90 mmHg definition, was 26.4% (Male: 27.3%; Female: 25.4%). The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 160/95 mmHg definition, was 11.8% (Male: 13.5%; Female: 10.1%). There were significant positive correlations between BP and some anthropometric indicators of obesity. Conclusion The prevalence of hypertension in the three rural communities was 26.4%, indicating a trend towards increasing prevalence of hypertension. There was also a significant positive correlation between anthropometric indicators of obesity and BP in this population. PMID:24348064

Adebayo, Rasaaq A; Balogun, Michael O; Adedoyin, Rufus A; Obashoro-John, Oluwayemisi A; Bisiriyu, Luqman A; Abiodun, Olugbenga O

2013-01-01

204

Schistosomiasis in Kano State, Nigeria. I. Human infections near dam sites and the distribution and habitat preferences of potential snail intermediate hosts.  

PubMed

Stool and urine samples from 813 schoolchildren and adults from the Tomas and Rimin Gado dam areas of Kano State, Nigeria, showed Schistosoma haematobium to be present at both localities with prevalences of 26.6 and 36.8%, respectively. No cases of S. mansoni were found. The prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium was low and similar in both study areas. Statistical analysis revealed a correlation between prevalence and location, but no evident association with professed patterns of water contact. Investigation of 165 freshwater habitats throughout the state revealed the presence of a number of potential snail intermediate host species, namely Bulinus senegalensis, B. forskali, B. globosus, B. rohlfsi and Biomphalaria pfeifferi. The most widespread species was Bulinus senegalensis, which inhabited shallow pools and excavations on a variety of substrata. Its habitats were typically devoid of aquatic vegetation and included those with highly turbid waters and conductivities as low as 11 microseconds. Bulinus forskali was by contrast relatively rare, occurring in more permanent water courses, although it was often found in mixed populations with B. senegalensis. Bulinus globosus also occurred in seasonally rainfilled pools, but was confined to areas south of the 12 degrees N parallel, and its habitats tended to have a well-developed aquatic flora and clear water. The dominant species in man-made lakes was B. rohlfsi, which occurred in both the Tomas and Rimin Gado reservoirs. Biomphalaria pfeifferi was also primarily lake dwelling, although all species save B. senegalensis were found in irrigation canals. PMID:3256277

Betterton, C; Ndifon, G T; Bassey, S E; Tan, R M; Oyeyi, T

1988-12-01

205

Appraisal of Observance of Behaviour Change Communication Programme for Maternal and Child Health at First Level of Midwifery Practice in Kaduna State Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Behaviour Change Communication (BCC) is a key component of the roadmap adopted by the Nigerian government to address the high maternal and child mortality in the country. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to appraise the participation of midwives in BCC at the first level of health care in Kaduna State, Nigeria before planning a context specific and sustainable BCC capacity building programme. Materials and Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with nine midwives selected by maximum variation technique across Kaduna State. Content analysis of the interviews was performed using a priory codes derived from the integrative framework. Results: The integrative framework provided a comprehensive appraisal of BCC in the facilities. Health talks were unplanned, difficult and more task-oriented than being behaviour change focused. The required skills, integrated services to enhance behaviour change by clients, and enabling environment, were missing. The findings were used, in collaboration with the midwives to develop and implement a context specific and efficient capacity building programme. Conclusions: The framework was adequate in identifying the gaps in the BCC activities of midwives at the facilities. There is a need to understand and support midwives with their BCC activities. Government policies should be brought closer to frontline staff who would implement them, by engaging such staff all through the process of developing the policies.

Akin-Otiko, Bridget Omowumi; Bhengu, Busisiwe Rosemary

2013-01-01

206

Gender differences in the use of insecticide-treated nets after a universal free distribution campaign in Kano State, Nigeria: post-campaign survey results  

PubMed Central

Background Recent expansion in insecticide-treated net (ITN) distribution strategies range from targeting pregnant women and children under five and distributing ITN at antenatal care and immunization programmes, to providing free distribution campaigns to cover an entire population. These changes in strategy raise issues of disparities, such as equity of access and equality in ITN use among different groups, including females and males. Analysis is needed to assess the effects of gender on uptake of key malaria control interventions. A recent post-universal free ITN distribution campaign survey in Kano State, Nigeria offered an opportunity to look at gender effects on ITN use. Methods A post-campaign survey was conducted three to five months after the campaign in Kano State, Nigeria from 19 October to 4 November, 2009, on a random sample of 4,602 individuals. The survey was carried out using a questionnaire adapted from the Malaria Indicator Survey. Using binary logistic regression, controlling for several covariates, the authors assessed gender effects on ITN use among individuals living in households with at least one ITN. Results The survey showed that household ITN ownership increased more than 10-fold, from 6% before to 71% after the campaign. There was no significant difference between the proportion of females and males living in households with at least one ITN. However, a higher percentage of females used ITNs compared to males (57.2% vs 48.8%). After controlling for several covariates, females remained more likely to use ITNs compared to males (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.3-1.7). Adolescent boys remained the least likely group to use an ITN. Conclusions This study reveals gender disparity in ITN use, with males less likely to use ITNs particularly among ages 15–25?years. The uptake of the intervention among the most at-risk group (females) is higher than males, which may be reflective of earlier strategies for malaria interventions. Further research is needed to identify whether gender disparities in ITN use are related to traditional targeting of pregnant women and children with malaria interventions; however, results provide evidence to design gender-sensitive messaging for universal ITN distribution campaigns to ensure that males benefit equally from such communications and activities. PMID:23574987

2013-01-01

207

Profile of dog bite victims in Jos Plateau State, Nigeria: a review of dog bite records (2006-2008)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Dogs are the major reservoir of rabies virus in Nigeria; transmission to humans is via a bite by rabid dog. Between 2006 and 2008 National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI) rabies laboratory reported increased numbers of rabies in dogs and human dog bites. The objective of the study was to use veterinary and health records to develop a profile of bite victims and recommend appropriate public health actions. Methods We used the dog brain specimen result register of Rabies Laboratory of NVRI, from “January, 2006” to “December, 2008” and traced dog bite cases. Structured questionnaires were administered to persons who reported dog bite incident and could be traced. We reviewed records from Evangelical Churches of West Africa (ECWA) clinic from “January, 2006” to “December, 2008” to collect detailed profiles of bite victims. Results Bite victims linked to positive dog samples were traced to “ECWA clinic” from “January, 2006” to “December, 2008”. Most bite victims were <16 years 141 (72.3%), male 128 (65.6%), and 48.2% had primary school education. Bites were unprovoked 184 (94.4%), mostly on arms. 54.4% victims received complete post exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Majority of the biting dogs were housed and unvaccinated. Conclusion This study provided important information on the profile of dog bite victims and highlights the need for a sustained awareness and education of children on the dangers of dog bite. It has shown lack of enforcement of regulations for licensing of dogs and rabies vaccination. PMID:25328631

Alabi, Olaniran; Nguku, Patrick; Chukwukere, Silvester; Gaddo, Ayika; Nsubuga, Peter; Umoh, Joliath

2014-01-01

208

Water supplies in some rural communities around Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria: impact on water-related diseases.  

PubMed

Two traditional surface water sources and one piped supply around Calabar, Nigeria were examined to reveal the community water use patterns and the impact on water-related diseases. Using questionnaires, it was shown that some communities trekked long distances (up to 5 km) to reach their supply source. The quantity of water collected per day in each of the five rural sources was inadequate (approximately 6 buckets or 90 liters). The traditional water sources were not available all year round, forcing users to trek longer distances for alternative supplies. Only 4.4% of rural water users subjected them to any further treatment, such as boiling or filtration. Fetching water was the occupation of children; they were the worst hit by water-related diseases, such as diarrhea/ dysentery, stomachache, worms and scabies/craw-craw. About 84% of the respondents were dissatisfied with their water supplies. Deaths due to apparent water-related diseases occurred among 6.3% of respondents during the twelve months preceding the study. The overall impact was a loss of school hours/days, loss of labor and general discouragement. The community served with piped treated water fared better in all respects. PMID:16295564

Opara, A A

2005-07-01

209

ABSTRACT FOR 3rd GLOBAL CONFERENCE PLURALISM, INCLUSION AND CITIZENSHIP TOPIC ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN A NATIONISTIC STATE: THE CRISIS OF NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The socio-linguistic picture of Nigeria, as a developing nation with so much economic, political, human resources and potentials is handicapped by her geo-linguistic landscape with regard to national integration. It is known that this country has over 450 different registered languages within this geo-polity. Nigeria is therefore a politico-geogr aphical linguistic lump begging for unity and the good will of

Ifeoma Obauasi

210

CYBERCRIME IN NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigated cybercrime and examined the relevant laws available to combat this crime in Nigeria. Therefore, we had a critical review of criminal laws in Nigeria and also computer network and internet security. The internet as an instrument to aid crime ranges from business espionage, to banking fraud, obtaining un-authorized and sabotaging data in computer networks of

Okonigene Robert Ehimen; Adekanle Bola

211

Communication Policies in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of monographs published as part of a UNESCO program to analyze the communication policies of selected countries, this report provides information about Nigeria. Various sections of the report discuss the following topics: (1) Nigeria's socioeconomic and political geography, (2) its system of mass communication, (3) its public…

Ugboajah, Frank Okwu

212

Welcome to Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson plans project provides information and classroom-ready lesson plans about Nigeria. These lesson plans can stand alone or be used in conjunction with one another. They have been correlated to coincide with the standards set forth in Geography for Life. Following background information "Why Study Nigeria?" (A. Shields), lesson plans are…

Northern Iowa Univ., Cedar Falls. Geographic Alliance of Iowa.

213

Efficacy of local herbal therapy in the management of dermatophytosis among primary school children in Cross River State, South-south Nigeria.  

PubMed

As a contribution to the on-going search for alternative, available and affordable treatment of common infections in Sub-saharan Africa, the efficacy of local herbs, Senna alata(Linn) and Borreria ocymoides (Burm), in comparison with conventional drugs, griseofulvin and clotrimazole in the treatment of dermatophytosis among primary school children, was examined in the three districts of Cross River State, South-South Nigeria. Out of 840 pupils screened, 68 (8.1%) were infected, with incidence ranging from 11 (1.3%) in the southern to 33 (3.9%) in the northern districts, indicating a widespread of the infection. Specimens taken from the infected pupils and analyzed for the causative agents, showed that Trichophyton tonsurans 29 (20.4%) followed by Microsporum soudanense 24 (16.9%) was most frequent. The greater sensitivity of the isolated dermatophytes to the local plants than the chemotherapeutic drugs (control) offers some hope of treatment and control. The antifungal activity of the plants was associated with their very high levels of chemical components, saponins, anthraquinones and flavonoids. We recommend further studies on the chemical properties and safety of the plants before total dependence on them for treatment. PMID:20175416

Eja, M E; Arikpo, G E; Enyi-Idoh, K H; Etim, S E; Etta, H E

2009-06-01

214

Barriers to use of modern contraceptives among women in an inner city area of Osogbo metropolis, Osun state, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the knowledge and attitudes on modern contraceptive use of women living in an inner city area of Osogbo. Materials and methods Three hundred and fifty nine women of childbearing age were studied utilizing a community-based, descriptive, cross-sectional study design. A multistage random sampling technique was used in recruiting respondents to the study. A four-part questionnaire was applied dually, by interviewers and by respondents’ self administration, and the data was analyzed using the SPSS software version 17.0. Results The mean age of respondents was 28.6 ± 6.65 years. The majority (90.3%) of respondents were aware of modern methods of family planning (FP), 76.0% claimed awareness of where to obtain FP services, and 74.9% knew of at least five methods. However, only 30.6% had ever used contraceptives, while only 13.1% were current users. The most frequently used method was the male condom. The commonly perceived barriers accounting for low use of FP methods were fear of perceived side effects (44.0%), ignorance (32.6%), misinformation (25.1%), superstition (22.0%), and culture (20.3%). Some reasons were proffered for respondents’ nonuse of modern contraception. Predictors of use of modern contraceptives include the awareness of a place of FP service provision, respondents’ approval of the use of contraceptives, higher education status, and being married. Conclusion Most of the barriers reported appeared preventable and removable and may be responsible for the reported low point prevalence of use of contraceptives. It is recommended that community-based behavioral-change communication programs be instituted, aimed at improving the perceptions of women with respect to bridging knowledge gaps about contraceptive methods and to changing deep-seated negative beliefs related to contraceptive use in Nigeria. PMID:24143124

Asekun-Olarinmoye, EO; Adebimpe, WO; Bamidele, JO; Odu, OO; Asekun-Olarinmoye, IO; Ojofeitimi, EO

2013-01-01

215

Challenging tradition in Nigeria.  

PubMed

In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs. PMID:12284522

Supriya, K E

1991-01-01

216

Prevalence and Causes of Blindness and Visual Impairment in Sokoto State, Nigeria: Baseline Data for Vision 2020: The Right to Sight Eye Care Programme  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of low vision and blindness, identify the causes, and suggest policies for an effective eye care program based on 2005 data from Sokoto State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A stratified two-stage cluster sampling method was used to quantify the prevalence of blindness and the causes from 4 health zones in Sokoto State. Subjects were evaluated using a magnifying loupe, direct ophthalmoscope and torchlight. Data were collected based on the World Health Organization prevention of blindness coding for an eye examination. Prevalences with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and surgical coverage for causes of blindness was also analyzed. Results: The response rate was 91%. The prevalence of bilateral blindness was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.5–2.3%) ranging from 1.6% to 2.0% across the four health zones. The prevalence was 2.1% (95% CI: 1.6–2.6%) in males and 1.6% (95% CI: 1.1–2.1%) in females. The leading cause of bilateral blindness was cataract (51.6%), followed by uncorrected aphakia (20.9%) and glaucoma (11%). The prevalence of bilateral operable cataract was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.5–2.3%). The cataract surgical coverage (individuals with visual acuity <6/60) for the study was lower than the couching coverage (4.4% vs. 14.9%, respectively). Surgical coverage for trichiasis was 4.4%. The major barrier to cataract and glaucoma management was cost. Conclusions: The prevalence of blindness in Sokoto State is high yet the main causes are largely avoidable. Barriers can be reduced by appropriate health education regarding the eye care program and the provision of integrated, sustainable, affordable and equitable services. PMID:21731322

Muhammad, Nasiru; Mansur, Rabiu M.; Dantani, Adamu M.; Elhassan, Elizabeth; Isiyaku, Sunday

2011-01-01

217

Resources, environment and economic development in Nigeria.  

PubMed

It is argued that Nigeria must focus on effective environmentally protective intensive farming, resource management methods, and strong family planning programs. Other contributory factors are recognized as the lack of democracy and the "ill-advised" internal policies of the government. The emphasis is on man-made decisions about migration, natality, and land use practices that have ecological consequences that significantly affect the economy. Land degradation in Nigeria is attributed to improper agricultural and husbandry practices. Land degradation has severe ecological, economic, and human costs. Awareness of environmental problems in Nigeria is growing. Natural disasters such as the droughts of 1984-85, continued soil depletion, accumulations of soil wastes, increased flooding in urban areas, and land erosion in Anambra state are evidence of the growing environmental problems. Agricultural development should involve changing rural land use practices, using technology that is "appropriate" to the climate, crops, and culture of the people, and introducing agroforestry. Population growth in Nigeria puts pressure on the fragile ecosystem. Actual carrying capacity is a rough calculation. Nigeria's population growth patterns follow a pattern that suggests population pressure on carrying capacity. The acceleration of population growth has strained the traditional system of agriculture. Land is overused, and cultivation continues on unsuitable land. Domestic policies during the oil boom encouraged rapid industrialization at the expense of the environment. Migration increased to urban centers, but cities did not provide suitable housing, waste disposal, safe water supplies, and other basic facilities. PMID:12347030

Okpala, A O

1995-06-01

218

Strangers, indigenes and settlers: Contested geographies of citizenship in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses contested geographies of citizenship in Nigeria. There, a confluence of geo-historical forces (cultural pluralism, colonialism, the political economy of oil and military rule) has promoted the proliferation of competing formal citizenship containers-cum-states. The creation of new states, coupled with an exclusionary ideology, has given rise to fractured and dysfunctional spaces of citizenship in Nigeria. Attention is given

Brennan Kraxberger

2005-01-01

219

Perception of quality of maternal healthcare services among women utilising antenatal services in selected primary health facilities in Anambra State, Southeast Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study aimed at assessing antenatal care service attendees’ perception of quality of maternal healthcare (MHC) services in Anambra State, southeast Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 310 pregnant women utilising antenatal care (ANC) services in three purposively selected primary health centres (PHCs) in rural communities in Anambra State were studied. Reponses were elicited from the participants selected consecutively over a 4-month period, using a pre-tested, semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, utilisation and perception of MHC services. Data collected were analysed using SPSS version 17. Results: Findings showed that utilisation of facility for both antenatal (97.0%; 95% CI, 94.4–98.4%) and natal services (92.7%; 95% CI 89.2–95.2%) were quite high. Generally, most of the women were satisfied with MHC services (89.7%). Most of them were satisfied with the staff attitude (85.1%), waiting time (84.1%) and cost of services (79.5%). Being ?30 years (X2 = 4.61, P = 0.032), married (X2 = 9.70, P = 0.008) and multiparous (X2 = 9.14, P = 0.028), as well as utilisation of formal health facility for antenatal (X2 = 26.94, P = 0.000) and natal (X2 = 33.42, P = 0.000) services were associated with satisfaction with maternal health services. Conclusions: The study showed high level of satisfaction with quality of maternal health services among antenatal attendees and highlights the need to strengthen interventions that increase uptake of formal MHC services. PMID:24791050

Emelumadu, Obiageli F.; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Ukegbu, Andrew Ugwunna; Ezeama, Nkiru N.; Ifeadike, Chigozie Ozoemena; Okezie, Obasi Kanu

2014-01-01

220

A Six-Year Study of the Clinical Presentation of Cervical Cancer and the Management Challenges Encountered at a State Teaching Hospital in Southeast Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer is still a major contributor to cancer-related mortality amongst women living in poor, rural communities of developing countries. The objective of this study is to establish the clinical presentation of cervical cancer and the management challenges encountered in Abakaliki, southeast Nigeria, with a view to finding intervention strategies. This study is a retrospective descriptive assessment of cases of clinically diagnosed cervical cancer managed at a state teaching hospital over six years. Of 76 cases managed, 61 (80.3%) cases notes were available for study. The mean age and parity of patients were 53.8 years and 6.8 years, respectively. The majority (75.4%) were illiterate. All had been married, but 42.6% were widowed. The main occupations were farming or petty trading. One patient (1.6%) had had a single Pap smear in her life. The major presenting complaints were abnormal vaginal bleeding (86.9%), offensive vaginal discharge (41.0%), and weight loss. Twenty patients (32.8%) were lost to follow-up prior to staging. Of the remaining 41 patients, 16 (39.0%) had stage III disease and 17.1% stage IV. Fifteen patients (24.6%) with late stage disease accepted referral, and were referred for radiotherapy. Those who declined were discharged home on request, though 4 (9.8%) died in the hospital. There was no feedback from referred patients confirming that they went and benefitted from the referral. The presentation followed known trends. Illiteracy, poverty, early marriages, high parity, widowhood, non-use of screening methods, late presentation, non-acceptance of referral, and lack of communication after referral were some of the major challenges encountered. These underscore the needs for health education and awareness creation, women educational and economic empowerment, legislation against early marriages and in protection of widows, and creation of a well-staffed and well-equipped dedicated gynecologic oncology unit to forestall further referral. PMID:23843724

Eze, Justus N.; Emeka-Irem, Esther N.; Edegbe, Felix O.

2013-01-01

221

Bacteriological quality of foods and water sold by vendors and in restaurants in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria: a comparative study of three microbiological methods.  

PubMed

Bacterial count in prepared food or water is a key factor in assessing the quality and safety of food. It also reveals the level of hygiene adopted by food handlers in the course of preparation of such foods. This comparative study evaluated the bacteriological quality of food and water consumed in Nsukka, Enugu state, Nigeria, using three bacteria enumeration methods. Data obtained are assumed to reflect the level of personal and environmental hygiene in the study population. Ten types of foods--beans, yam, abacha, okpa, moimoi, pear, cassava foofoo, rice, agidi, and garri--and 10 water samples were evaluated for bacteriological quality, precisely determining the level of coliform contamination, using the most probable number (MPN), lactose fermentation count (LFC), and Escherichia coli count (ECC) methods. Bacterial counts differed significantly (p < 0.05) among the various food samples. However, this did not differ significantly in the three methods used for the enumeration of coliforms, suggesting that any of the three methods could be validly used for such studies with confidence. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the two major coliforms identified among 98 coliform isolates obtained from the various food samples, of which 78 (79.6%) were assumed to be of human origin on account of their ability to grow at 44 degrees C. The level of coliform contamination in the food samples from vendors and restaurants (geometric mean count 7.64-9.21; MPN > or = 50) were above the accepted 10(4) colony-forming unit/g or MPN < or = 10 limits. The results of the study, therefore, call for stringent supervision and implementation of food-safety practices and regular education on food and personal hygiene among food vendors. PMID:22283029

Nkere, Chukwuemeka K; Ibe, Nnenne I; Iroegbu, Christian U

2011-12-01

222

Perceptions of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) and barriers to adherence in Nasarawa and Cross River States in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria during pregnancy is dangerous to both mother and foetus. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) is a strategy where pregnant women in malaria-endemic countries receive full doses of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), whether or not they have malaria. The Nigerian government adopted IPTp as a national strategy in 2005; however, major gaps affecting perception, uptake, adherence, and scale-up remain. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in peri-urban and rural communities in Nasarawa and Cross River States in Nigeria. Study instruments were based on the socio-ecological model and its multiple levels of influences, taking into account individual, community, societal, and environmental contexts of behaviour and social change. Women of reproductive age, their front-line care providers, and (in Nasarawa only) their spouses participated in focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews. Facility sampling was purposive to include tertiary, secondary and primary health facilities. Results The study found that systems-based challenges (stockouts; lack of provider knowledge of IPTp protocols) coupled with individual women’s beliefs and lack of understanding of IPT contribute to low uptake and adherence. Many pregnant women are reluctant to seek care for an illness they do not have. Those with malaria often prefer to self-medicate through drug shops or herbs, though those who seek clinic-based treatment trust their providers and willingly accept medicine prescribed. Conclusions Failing to deliver complete IPTp to women attending antenatal care is a missed opportunity. While many obstacles are structural, programmes can target women, their communities and the health environment with specific interventions to increase IPTp uptake and adherence. PMID:24059757

2013-01-01

223

Use of Web-based training for quality improvement between a field immunohistochemistry laboratory in Nigeria and its United States-based partner institution.  

PubMed

The importance of hormone receptor status in assigning treatment and the potential use of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapy have made it beneficial for laboratories to improve detection techniques. Because interlaboratory variability in immunohistochemistry (IHC) tests may also affect studies of breast cancer subtypes in different countries, we undertook a Web-based quality improvement training and a comparative study of accuracy of immunohistochemical tests of breast cancer biomarkers between a well-established laboratory in the United States (University of Chicago) and a field laboratory in Ibadan, Nigeria. Two hundred and thirty-two breast tumor blocks were evaluated for estrogen receptors (ERs), progesterone receptors (PRs), and HER2 status at both laboratories using tissue microarray technique. Initially, concordance analysis revealed ? scores of 0.42 (moderate agreement) for ER, 0.41 (moderate agreement) for PR, and 0.39 (fair agreement) for HER2 between the 2 laboratories. Antigen retrieval techniques and scoring methods were identified as important reasons for discrepancy. Web-based conferences using Web conferencing tools such as Skype and WebEx were then held periodically to discuss IHC staining protocols and standard scoring systems and to resolve discrepant cases. After quality assurance and training, the agreement improved to 0.64 (substantial agreement) for ER, 0.60 (moderate agreement) for PR, and 0.75 (substantial agreement) for HER2. We found Web-based conferences and digital microscopy useful and cost-effective tools for quality assurance of IHC, consultation, and collaboration between distant laboratories. Quality improvement exercises in testing of tumor biomarkers will reduce misclassification in epidemiologic studies of breast cancer subtypes and provide much needed capacity building in resource-poor countries. PMID:24095629

Oluwasola, Abideen O; Malaka, David; Khramtsov, Andrey Ilyich; Ikpatt, Offiong Francis; Odetunde, Abayomi; Adeyanju, Oyinlolu Olorunsogo; Sveen, Walmy Elisabeth; Falusi, Adeyinka Gloria; Huo, Dezheng; Olopade, Olufunmilayo Ibironke

2013-12-01

224

Association of Blood Lead Level with Neurological Features in 972 Children Affected by an Acute Severe Lead Poisoning Outbreak in Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontičres (MSF) investigated reports of high mortality in young children in Zamfara State, Nigeria, leading to confirmation of villages with widespread acute severe lead poisoning. In a retrospective analysis, we aimed to determine venous blood lead level (VBLL) thresholds and risk factors for encephalopathy using MSF programmatic data from the first year of the outbreak response. Methods and Findings We included children aged ?5 years with VBLL ?45 µg/dL before any chelation and recorded neurological status. Odds ratios (OR) for neurological features were estimated; the final model was adjusted for age and baseline VBLL, using random effects for village of residence. 972 children met inclusion criteria: 885 (91%) had no neurological features; 34 (4%) had severe features; 47 (5%) had reported recent seizures; and six (1%) had other neurological abnormalities. The geometric mean VBLLs for all groups with neurological features were >100 µg/dL vs 65.9 µg/dL for those without neurological features. The adjusted OR for neurological features increased with increasing VBLL: from 2.75, 95%CI 1.27–5.98 (80–99.9 µg/dL) to 22.95, 95%CI 10.54–49.96 (?120 µg/dL). Neurological features were associated with younger age (OR 4.77 [95% CI 2.50–9.11] for 1–<2 years and 2.69 [95%CI 1.15–6.26] for 2–<3 years, both vs 3–5 years). Severe neurological features were seen at VBLL <105 µg/dL only in those with malaria. Interpretation Increasing VBLL (from ?80 µg/dL) and age 1–<3 years were strongly associated with neurological features; in those tested for malaria, a positive test was also strongly associated. These factors will help clinicians managing children with lead poisoning in prioritising therapy and developing chelation protocols. PMID:24740291

Greig, Jane; Thurtle, Natalie; Cooney, Lauren; Ariti, Cono; Ahmed, Abdulkadir Ola; Ashagre, Teshome; Ayela, Anthony; Chukwumalu, Kingsley; Criado-Perez, Alison; Gomez-Restrepo, Camilo; Meredith, Caitlin; Neri, Antonio; Stellmach, Darryl; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Shanks, Leslie; Dargan, Paul I.

2014-01-01

225

This article has been retracted and is available online only: Religion, culture and male involvement in the use of family planning: evidence from Enugu and Katsina States of Nigeria.  

PubMed

The following article from the International Nursing Review, 'Religion, culture and male involvement in the use of family planning: evidence from Enugu and Katsina States of Nigeria', by C. Ujuju, J. Anyanti, S.B. Adebayo, F. Muhammad, O. Oluigbo and A. Gofwan, published online on 6 September 2010 on Wiley Online Library (http://wileyonlinelibrary.com) has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Jane J.A. Robinson and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. The retraction has been agreed as not all copyright permissions had been cleared. Jane J.A Robinson Editor International Nursing Review. PMID:21848764

Robinson, Jane J A

2011-09-01

226

An Evaluation of the Need for and Functioning of the Federal Sentencing Guidelines in the United States and Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Federal Sentencing Guidelines, in use since 1987, was set up to reduce disparity in sentencing and its application was made mandatory. Though there are a few who are in favor of the guidelines, the guidelines as mandatory have been severely criticized and many have called for their abolition. Consequently, in the twin cases of United States v.

Victoria T. Kajo

2008-01-01

227

The Almajiri Heritage and the Threat of Non-State Terrorism in Northern Nigeria--Lessons from Central Asia and Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Almajiri heritage is, like the madrassahs in Central Asia, a system of Muslim education that dates back several centuries. With the imposition of British colonial rule between 1902 and 1960 on parts of the Sokoto Empire that currently constitute northern Nigeria, the North's amalgamation with Southern Nigerian British protectorates in 1914, and the formal abolition of slavery in northern

NIYI AWOFESO; JAN RITCHIE; PIETER DEGELING

2003-01-01

228

STATE OF FORESTRY RESEARCH AND EDUCATION IN NIGERIA AND SUB SAHARAN AFRICA: IMPLICATIONS FOR SUSTAINED CAPACITY BUILDING AND RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forestry research and education in Nigeria has come a long way from the establishment of the first organized training of Silvicultural Assistants and later Forest Assistants initially at Zaria in 1939 and later at Ibadan and Yaba, Lagos from 1941 and 1942 respectively, although, this was preceded by organized forestry practice reported to have commenced in the country in 1886

Andrew Agbontalor Erakhrumen

229

IMPLICATION OF IMPROVED OIL PALM (Elaeis guineensis) FRUIT PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES FOR LABOUR AND INCOME AMONG RURAL HOUSEHOLDS IN IMO STATE, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil palm (Elais guinensis) is the most important tree crop in the rural economy of the humid rainforest of eastern Nigeria. The oil is consumed as household food, used domestically for industrial purposes, and was an important foreign exchange earning export. However, the processing of palm fruits to extract the oil is labour intensive. Although, in colonial times, some machines

Chinedum Nwajiuba; Adeola Akinsanmi

230

Pattern and management of sports injuries presented by Lagos state athletes at the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA games 2009) in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background There is a dearth of information on the epidemiology of sports injuries in Nigeria. The study was aimed at documenting sports injuries sustained by Lagos state athletes during the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA Games 2009). It was also aimed at providing information on treatments offered to injured athletes. Methods The study was carried out at Amadu Bello Stadium Complex, sporting arena of the Murtala Square and the team Lagos mini clinic. Participants were accredited Lagos state athletes who at one point in time during the games required treatment from any of the members of the medical team. Demographic data of athletes, type of injuries, body parts injured and treatment modalities used were documented and analysed using descriptive statistics. Results Within the period of the games, a total of 140 sports injuries were documented from 132 athletes with an approximate male to female ratio of 2:1 and age ranging from 15-38 years. Most of the injuries reported by the athletes were "minor" injuries. Muscle strain was the most common type of injury (31.4%) followed by ligament sprains (22.9%). The lower extremities were the most injured body region accounting for 50% of all injuries. Over 60% of injuries presented by the athletes were from basketball, cricket, hockey, rugby and baseball. Cryotherapy was the most frequently used treatment modality, followed by bandaging and massage with anti-inflammatory gels. Conclusion Establishing injury prevention programmes directed at the lower extremities may help reduce the risk of injuries to the lower extremities. Since cryotherapy was the most used treatment modality, it is suggested that it should be made abundantly available to the medical team preferably in forms of portable cold sprays for easy transportation and application during the games. It is also important that physiotherapists form the core of the medical team since they are trained to apply most of these treatment modalities and they also play a major role in establishing injury prevention routines. This data provides information that will be useful to both state and federal medical teams in preparing for future games. PMID:20205785

2010-01-01

231

A Checklist of the Flora of Edaphic Grasslands in the Rainforest Belts of Edo and Delta States of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flora of 18 and 28 grasslands in Edo and Delta States respectively were studied using a 1 m x 1 m quadrat. In Edo State (Zone A), fifty five plant species belonging to 25 families were identified as constituting the major part of the vegetation. Detailed analysis showed that 29.1% of the plants were grasses, trees (25.5%), herbs (21.8%),

B. O. Obadoni; N. E. Edema

232

Ethnobotany of Telfairia occidentalis (cucurbitaceae) among Igbos of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis), an important cucurbitaceous leaf and seed vegetable, is indigenous to the west tropical rainforest area from Bendel to\\u000a Cross Rivers states of Nigeria (c. longitude 7°–8° E and latitude 5°–6° N). Though endemic to southeastern Nigeria, Telfairia\\u000a is of local ethnobotanical importance in the folklore and the dietary and cropping systems of Igbos and their

M. O. Akoroda

1990-01-01

233

Cultural practices in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Nigeria has a rich cultural heritage. Cultural practices include extended family; adequate care for new mothers for 40 days after delivery; prolonged breastfeeding; and respect for elders. Many negative practices exist, most of them affecting the health of children and women. About 90% of babies are delivered by mostly untrained traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and healers. Child marriage is a common Nigerian practice. This deprives the girl of education and results in teenage pregnancy. Legislation does not seem to be very effective. It is hoped that will education, girls will be allowed to remain in school until the age of 18. Female circumcision and vaginal mutilation and also common in Nigerian culture. TBAs and healers have stated that there is severe bleeding after circumcision, sometimes so severe that it leads to death. Other harmful delivery practices include bathing in boiling water; gishiri cut, a crude local symphysiotomy; and agurya cut--removal of the hymen loop on 7-day-old females. Bathing in boiling water results in many women being burned or disfigured; gishiri cut has resulted in vesicovaginal fistula in many young girls. Other harmful practices are purging of infants to get rid of impurities "they might have swallowed while in the uterus;" uvulectomy in infants, and induction of postpartum hemorrhage to clear the uterus of impure blood. The list goes on and on. Women and children are exposed to many unhealthy practices in the name of tradition or culture. PMID:12157983

Alabi, E M

1990-05-01

234

BREAST FEEDING, BOTTLE FEEDING AND CARIES EXPERIENCE IN CHILDREN AGED 6 MONTHS TO 5 YEARS IN LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the relationship between breast feeding, bottle feeding pattern and caries experience in young children. Methods: Children aged 6 months - 5 years from 3 randomly selected local governments in Lagos State were examined intraorally. Structured questionnaire were administered to the mothers to inquire about the feeding pattern of their children. Results: The prevalence of dental caries amongst

C. A. Sowole; E. O. Sote

235

Vocational Interest as a Correlate of Re-Entry of Girls into School in Edo State, Nigeria: Implications for Counselling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated the relationship between vocational interest socio-economic status and re-entry of girls into school in Edo State. The research design adopted was correlational because it sought to establish the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable. A sample size of 306 girls who re-enrolled in institutes…

Alika, Ijeoma Henrietta; Egbochuku, Elizabeth Omotunde

2012-01-01

236

Role of Women in Agricultural Development and Their Constraints: A Case Study of Biliri Local Government Area, Gombe State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: The study focused on role of women in agricultural development and their constraints in Biliri Local Government Area of Gombe State. Simple random sampling technique was used to select six villages from the LGA and 60 women farmers. Interview scheduled was used to obtain information from the women, on their socio-economic characteristics, farm activities, farm production and their

E. F. Fabiyi; B. B. Danladi; K. E. Akande; Y. Mahmood

2007-01-01

237

Self Efficacy and Some Demographic Variables as Predictors of Occupational Stress among Primary School Teachers in Delta State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated self efficacy and some demographic variables as predictors of occupational stress among primary school teachers in Delta State. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey design that utilized an expost-facto research type. A sample of one hundred and twenty primary school…

Akpochafo, G. O.

2014-01-01

238

Nigeria: too many children?  

PubMed

Nigeria's underdevelopment and economic stagnation has been linked by many to its rapid rate of population growth and high birth rate (6.34 children/family). The World Bank, a leading force in the birth control for development campaign, maintains that rapidly growing populations increase the proportion of dependent and economically inactive people in society, thereby impeding capital accumulation needed for development. However, this approach ignores the inequitable structures for the distribution of wealth in developing countries that depend on poverty for their existence. A more sensible approach to population growth in Nigeria would include increased incomes, free education, improved public health and nutrition programs, and a changed social role for women. In fact, rather than being a barrier to development, Nigeria's growing population offers a rich labor reserve for the development of the country's vast resources. The anti-birth propaganda that has pressured the Nigeria Government to adopt a population policy has served to obscure and conceal the real causes of poverty and underdevelopment--the exploitation of the country by multinational corporations. If the income gap in Nigeria is reduced and the living standards of the majority rise, people will voluntarily lower their fertility without coercive family planning programs. PMID:12281080

Mbachu, D

1987-04-01

239

Pilot survey of oral health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study of adults in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Oral health studies conducted so far in Nigeria have documented prevalence and incidence of dental disease using traditional clinical measures. However none have investigated the use of an oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) instrument to document oral health outcomes. The aims of this study are: to describe how oral health affects and impacts quality of life (QoL) and

Christopher Okunseri; Amit Chattopadhyay; R Iván Lugo; Colman McGrath

2005-01-01

240

Effective planning and management as critical factors in urban water supply and management in Umuahia and Aba, Abia State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plan and policy development usually define the course, goal, execution, success or failure of any public utilities initiative. Urban water supply is not an exception. Planning and management in public water supply systems often determine the quality of service the water supply authorities can render. This paper, therefore, addresses the issue of effective planning and management as critical determinants of urban water supply and management with respect to two Nigerian cities Umuahia and Aba both in Abia State. Appropriate sampling methods systematic sampling and cluster techniques were employed in order to collect data for the study. The collected data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. The findings of the study indicate that planning and management indices such as funding, manpower, water storage tank capacity greatly influence the volume of water supplied in the study areas. Funding was identified as a major determinant of the efficiency of the water supply system. Therefore, the study advocates the need for sector reforms that would usher in private participants in the water sector both for improved funding and enhanced productivity.

Uchegbu, Smart N.

241

Roles of Counsellors in Promoting Sexuality Education for In-School Adolescents in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research was embarked upon to investigate the role of counselors in promoting sexuality education for in-school adolescents in Nigeria. The respondents were made up of 120 practicing guidance counselors in Enugu State situated in South-East geopolitical zone of Nigeria. They were drawn from both professional and teacher counselors practicing in…

Omeje, Joachim C.; Michael, Eskay; Obiageli, Modebelu Josephine

2012-01-01

242

Health Promotion Intervention for Hygienic Disposal of Children's Faeces in a Rural Area of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Community-based health promotion intervention for improving unhygienic disposal of children's faeces was conducted in a rural area of Nigeria. Setting: The study was conducted in Ife South Local Government area of Osun State, Nigeria. Design: The study was conducted in 10 randomly selected rural villages: five control and five active.…

Jinadu, M. K.; Adegbenro, C. A.; Esmai, A. O.; Ojo, A. A.; Oyeleye, B. A.

2007-01-01

243

Plants used for female reproductive health care in Oredo local government area, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of maternal health in Nigeria is poor and can be attributed to inadequate access to reproduce- tive health services, poverty and in some areas cultural resistance. Consequently, many rural people in Nigeria turn to ethno-medicinal health care systems due to accessibility, affordability, availability and an inherent trust in this method. These systems are threatened by erosion of plant

Folu M. Dania Ogbe; L. Eruogun; Marilyn Uwagboe

2009-01-01

244

Religion and institutions: Federalism and the management of conflicts over Sharia in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conflicts over the status of Sharia Islamic law have dominated constitutional politics and ethno-religious relations in the Nigerian federation for decades. The adoption of stringent Sharia codes by 12 Muslim majority states in northern Nigeria, beginning with Zamfara in 1999, was particularly contentious, provoking broad concerns about the viability and survival of Nigeria's innovatively structured multi-ethnic federal system. But Sharia

Rotimi T. Suberu

2009-01-01

245

An empirical analysis of factors associated with the profitability of Small and medium - enterprises in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper empirically investigated the relationship between profitability, bank loans, age of business and the size of small and medium enterprises in Nigeria. Using fixed-effects regression model, the paper was based on a balanced panel data of 115 SMEs of existing firms that have taken loans or currently have active loans, randomly selected in Ondo State, Nigeria. The equation specified

Grace Tola Olutunla; Tomola Marshal Obamuyi

2008-01-01

246

Computer Attitude, Ownership and Use as Predictors of Computer Literacy of Science Teachers in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of computer attitude, ownership and use on the computer literacy of science teachers in Nigeria. One hundred and twenty (120) science teachers drawn from the four political divisions of Ogun State, Nigeria were used for the study. Two valid and reliable instruments namely Computer Attitude, Ownership and Use…

Ogunkola, Babalola J.

2008-01-01

247

Factors affecting the attrition of community-directed distributors of ivermectin, in an onchocerciasis-control programme in the Imo and Abia states of south-eastern Nigeria.  

PubMed

In areas of Nigeria where onchocerciasis is endemic, community-directed distributors (CDD) distribute ivermectin annually, as part of the effort to control the disease. Unfortunately, it has been reported that at least 35% of the distributors who have been trained in Nigeria are unwilling to participate further as CDD. The selection and training of new CDD, to replace those unwilling to continue, leads to annual expense that the national onchocerciasis-programme is finding difficult to meet, given other programme priorities and the limited resources. If the reported levels of attrition are true, they seriously threaten the sustainability of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in Nigeria. In 2002, interviews were held with 101 people who had been trained as CDD, including those who had stopped serving their communities, from 12 communities in south-eastern Nigeria that had high rates of CDD attrition. The results showed that, although the overall reported CDD attrition was 40.6%, the actual rate was only 10.9%. The CDD who had ceased participating in the annual rounds of ivermectin blamed a lack of incentives (65.9%), the demands of other employment (14.6%), the long distances involved in the house-to-house distribution (12.2%) or marital duties (7.3%). Analysis of the data obtained from all the interviewed CDD showed that inadequate supplies of ivermectin (P<0.01), lack of supervision (P<0.05) and a lack of monetary incentives (P<0.001) led to significant increases in attrition. Conversely, CDD retention was significantly enhanced when the distributors were selected by their community members (P<0.001), supervised (P<0.001), supplied with adequate ivermectin tablets (P<0.05), involved in educating their community members (P<0.05), and/or involved in other health programmes (P<0.001). Although CDD who were involved in other health programmes were relatively unlikely to cease participating in the distributions, they were more likely to take longer than 14 days to complete ivermectin distribution than other CDD, who only distributed ivermectin. Data obtained in interviews with present and past CDD appear vital for informing, directing, protecting and enhancing the performance of CDTI programmes, in Nigeria and elsewhere. PMID:18186977

Emukah, E C; Enyinnaya, U; Olaniran, N S; Akpan, E A; Hopkins, D R; Miri, E S; Amazigo, U; Okoronkwo, C; Stanley, A; Rakers, L; Richards, F O; Katabarwa, M N

2008-01-01

248

Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Nigeria, January 2009-June 2010.  

PubMed

Nigeria has maintained a high incidence of wild poliovirus (WPV) cases attributed to persistently high proportions of under- and unimmunized children, and, for many years, the country has served as a reservoir for substantial international spread. In 2008, Nigeria reported 798 polio cases, the highest number of any country in the world. This report provides an update on poliovirus epidemiology in Nigeria during the past 18 months, January 2009-June 2010, and describes activities planned to interrupt transmission. Reported WPV cases in Nigeria decreased to 388 during 2009 (24% of global cases), and WPV incidence in Nigeria reached an all-time low during January--June 2010, with only three reported cases. Cases of circulating type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2), which first occurred in Nigeria in 2005, also declined, from 148 during the 12 months of 2009, to eight during the 6-month period, January-June 2010. One indicator of the effectiveness of immunization activities is the proportion of children with nonpolio acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) who never have received oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). In seven high-incidence northern states of Nigeria, this proportion declined from 17.6% in 2008 to 10.7% in 2009. During 2009-2010, increased engagement of traditional, religious, and political leaders has improved community acceptance of vaccination and implementation of high-quality supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Enhanced surveillance for polioviruses, further strengthened implementation of SIAs, and immediate immunization responses to newly identified WPV and cVDPV2 cases will be pivotal in interrupting WPV and cVDPV2 transmission in Nigeria. PMID:20613703

2010-07-01

249

Lagos, Koolhaas and partisan politics in Nigeria1 Laurent Fourchard, Fondation nationale des sciences politiques,  

E-print Network

2007, in Ikeja in the northern suburb of Lagos, Bola Tinubu, outgoing governor of Lagos state and its was the only state in Southwestern Nigeria in the hands of the opposition. Governor Bola Tinubu warmly thanked

Boyer, Edmond

250

Student Loans in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the operation of the student loan program in Nigeria, including its past problems and current attempts of the Nigerian Students Loans Board to improve efficiency of loan collection. It proposes the establishment of a new Education Bank to finance student loans and other forms of investment in higher education. (Author/DB)

Chuta, E. J.

1992-01-01

251

Geomatics Education in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geomatics education in Nigeria is offered at three main levels namely, (i) University (ii) College of technology\\/Polytechnic and (iii) Technical College. Some low-level manpower is also produced through apprenticeship and on the job training. Initially, the training offered in these Institutions was geared towards training in the field of Land Surveying. The advent of large memory personal computers and the

Francis A. FAJEMIROKUN; Peter C. NWILO; Olusegun T. BADEJO

252

Nigeria's Triumph: Dracunculiasis Eradicated  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes how Nigeria, a country that at one time had the highest number of cases of dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) in the world, reduced the number of cases from more than 653,000 in 1988 to zero in 2009, despite numerous challenges. Village-based volunteers formed the foundation of the program, which used health education, cloth filters, vector control, advocacy

Emmanuel S. Miri; Donald R. Hopkins; Ernesto Ruiz-Tiben; Adamu S. Keana; P. Craig; Ifeoma N. Anagbogu; Lola K. Sadiq; Oladele O. Kale; Luke D. Edungbola; Eka I. Braide; Joshua O. Ologe

2010-01-01

253

Pharmaceutical Education in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nigeria has six pharmacy schools, most offering graduate programs. The undergraduate program is being expanded from four to five years. Although behavioral and clinical sciences are offered, emphasis is on the pharmaceutical sciences. Overall, pharmaceutical education is oriented toward hospice practice. (Author/MSE)

Oyegbile, F. Rachel

1988-01-01

254

The use of the partograph in labor monitoring: a cross-sectional study among obstetric caregivers in General Hospital, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Prolonged and obstructed labor is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in Nigeria, one of the six countries contributing significantly to the global maternal mortality crisis. The use of the partograph would engender a remarkable reduction in the number of these deaths since abnormal markers in the progress of labor would be identified early on. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the non-physician obstetric caregivers’ (OCGs) knowledge of partograph use, assess the extent of its use, determine the factors that impede its usage, and unravel the relationship between years of experience and partograph use among the respondents (OCGs) in General Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. Methodology Using a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 130 purposely selected and consenting OCGs working in the General Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. Results The majority of the respondents (70.8%) had good general knowledge of the partograph but lacked detailed and in-depth knowledge of the component parts of the partograph. Knowledge of partograph (?2=12.05, P=0.0001) and partograph availability (?2=56.5, P=0.0001) had a significant relationship with its utilization. Previous training (?2=9.43, P=0.002) was significantly related to knowledge of partograph. Factors affecting utilization were: little or no knowledge of the partograph (85.4%), nonavailability (70%), shortage of staff (61.5%), and the fact that it is time-consuming to use (30%). Conclusion Lack of detailed knowledge of the partograph, nonavailability of the partograph, poor staff numbers, and inadequate training are factors that work against the effective utilization of the partograph in the study facility. Usage of this tool for labor monitoring can be enhanced by periodic training, making partographs available in labor wards, provision of reasonable staff numbers, and mandatory institutional policy. PMID:25342920

Asibong, Udeme; Okokon, Ita B; Agan, Thomas U; Oku, Affiong; Opiah, Margaret; Essien, E James; Monjok, Emmanuel

2014-01-01

255

Perception and utilization of traditional birth attendants by pregnant women attending primary health care clinics in a rural Local Government Area in Ogun State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background In developing countries, most childbirth occurs at home and is not assisted by skilled attendants. This situation increases the risk of death for both mother and child and has severe maternal and neonatal health complications. The purpose of this study was to explore pregnant women’s perceptions and utilization of traditional birth attendant (TBA) services in a rural Local Government Area (LGA) in Ogun State, southwest Nigeria. Methods A quantitative design was used to obtain information using a structured questionnaire from 250 pregnant women attending four randomly selected primary health care clinics in the LGA. Data were analyzed using Epi Info (v 3.5.1) statistical software. Results Almost half (48.8%) of the respondents were in the age group 26–35 years, with a mean age of 29.4 ± 7.33 years. About two-thirds (65.6%) of the respondents had been pregnant 2–4 times before. TBA functions, as identified by respondents, were: “taking normal delivery” (56.7%), “providing antenatal services” (16.5%), “performing caesarean section” (13.0%), “providing family planning services” (8.2%), and “performing gynaecological surgeries” (5.6%). About 6/10 (61.0%) respondents believed that TBAs have adequate knowledge and skills to care for them, however, approximately 7/10 (69.7%) respondents acknowledged that complications could arise from TBA care. Services obtained from TBAs were: routine antenatal care (81.1%), normal delivery (36.1%), “special maternal bath to ward off evil spirits” (1.9%), “concoctions for mothers to drink to make baby strong” (15.1%), and family planning services (1.9%). Reasons for using TBA services were: “TBA services are cheaper” (50.9%), “TBA services are more culturally acceptable in my environment” (34.0%), “TBA services are closer to my house than hospital services” (13.2%), “TBAs provide more compassionate care than orthodox health workers” (43.4%), and “TBA service is the only maternity service that I know” (1.9%). Approximately 8/10 (79.2%) of the users (past or current) opined that TBA services are effective but could be improved with some form of training (78.3%). More than three-quarters (77.1%) opposed the banning of TBA services. Almost 7/10 (74.8%) users were satisfied with TBA services. Conclusion Study findings revealed a positive perception and use of TBA services by the respondents. This underlines the necessity for TBAs’ knowledge and skills to be improved within permissible standards through sustained partnership between TBAs and health systems. It is hoped that such partnership will foster a healthy collaboration between providers of orthodox and traditional maternity services that will translate into improved maternal and neonatal health outcomes in relevant settings. PMID:22371657

Ebuehi, Olufunke M; Akintujoye, IA

2012-01-01

256

Exclusive breastfeeding practice in Nigeria: a bayesian stepwise regression analysis.  

PubMed

Despite the importance of breast milk, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in Nigeria is far lower than what has been recommended for developing countries. Worse still, the practise has been on downward trend in the country recently. This study was aimed at investigating the determinants and geographical variations of EBF in Nigeria. Any intervention programme would require a good knowledge of factors that enhance the practise. A pooled data set from Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 1999, 2003, and 2008 were analyzed using a Bayesian stepwise approach that involves simultaneous selection of variables and smoothing parameters. Further, the approach allows for geographical variations at a highly disaggregated level of states to be investigated. Within a Bayesian context, appropriate priors are assigned on all the parameters and functions. Findings reveal that education of women and their partners, place of delivery, mother's age at birth, and current age of child are associated with increasing prevalence of EBF. However, visits for antenatal care during pregnancy are not associated with EBF in Nigeria. Further, results reveal considerable geographical variations in the practise of EBF. The likelihood of exclusively breastfeeding children are significantly higher in Kwara, Kogi, Osun, and Oyo states but lower in Jigawa, Katsina, and Yobe. Intensive interventions that can lead to improved practise are required in all states in Nigeria. The importance of breastfeeding needs to be emphasized to women during antenatal visits as this can encourage and enhance the practise after delivery. PMID:24619227

Gayawan, Ezra; Adebayo, Samson B; Chitekwe, Stanley

2014-11-01

257

Identification of potential risk factors associated with highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 outbreak occurrence in Lagos and Kano States, Nigeria, during the 2006-2007 epidemics.  

PubMed

Highly pathogenic avian influenza HPAI H5N1 was first reported in Africa in 2006, in Nigeria. The country experienced severe outbreaks in 2006 and 2007, strongly affecting the poultry population. Current knowledge on potential risk factors for HPAI H5N1 occurrence in poultry farms in Nigeria is limited. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify potential farm-level risk factors for HPAI H5N1 occurrence in two areas of the country that were affected by the disease in 2006 and 2007, namely the States of Lagos and Kano. A case-control study was conducted at the farm level. A convenience sample of 110 farms was surveyed. Data on farm characteristics, farm management and trade practices were collected. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with farms that confirmed positive for HPAI. Having a neighbouring poultry farm was identified as a potential risk factor for disease occurrence [OR, 5.23; 95% CI, (0.88-30.97); P-value = 0.048]. Farm staff washing their hands before handling birds was a protective factor [OR, 0.14; 95% CI, (0.05-0.37); P-value <0.001], as well as not allowing traders to enter the farm [OR, 0.23; 95% CI, (0.08-0.70); P-value = 0.008]. Our study highlighted the importance of trade and proximity between poultry farms in the epidemiology of HPAI H5N1 and the role of biosecurity in disease prevention in Kano and Lagos States. Despite the limitations owing to the sampling strategy, these results are consistent with other risk factor studies previously conducted on HPAI H5N1 in both Africa and other regions, suggesting similar risk factor patterns for HPAI H5N1 virus spread and substantiating current knowledge regarding the epidemiology of the disease. Finally, this study generated information from areas where data are difficult to obtain. PMID:22469078

Métras, R; Stevens, K B; Abdu, P; Okike, I; Randolph, T; Grace, D; Pfeiffer, D U; Costard, S

2013-02-01

258

Abortion in sheep near Kano, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A sporadic natural infection of sheep with Brucella abortus in a sheep breeding centre in Kano State, Nigeria, is reported. Sera and milk samples from the flock of Sudanese long- and fat-tailed sheep used for cross-breeding purposes were examined for brucellosis by the Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test (SAT) and Milk Ring test (MRT) respectively. The overall positive reactor rate to SAT was 14.5%. All 22 ewe milk samples examined by MRT were positve and Brucella abortus was cultured from 5 of the 22 ewes sampled. This is believed to be the first report of bacteriological isolation of Brucella in sheep in Kano, Nigeria. PMID:7368315

Okoh, A E

1980-02-01

259

Political decentralisation and conflict: The Sharia crisis in Kaduna, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

When states in northern Nigeria started processes for implementing Sharia laws in 1999, it triggered sentiments all over the country. In Kaduna State, the proposal led to demonstrations and violent clashes. The article examines the ways in which different scales of politics are mutually constituted in the Sharia case and how the Sharia proposal subsequently resulted in clashes in Kaduna.

Henrik Angerbrandt

2011-01-01

260

Clinical nurses' perception of continuing professional education as a tool for quality service delivery in public hospitals Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine the perception of nurses on various aspects of continuing professional education (CPE). A mixed method design (quantitative/qualitative) was adopted. A self-explanatory, semi-structured questionnaire was validated and used to collect data in addition to unstructured interview. One hundred and fifty nurses were selected through stratified random sampling from two hospitals in Calabar, Nigeria and served as participants. Participants generally perceived CPE as valuable and worthwhile and participated because it is mandatory and helps them to retain their jobs. The content of CPE were perceived to be more relevant for clinicians than for nurse educators; clinical skills and quantitative research methodology were adequately covered while evidence-based practice, attitudinal issues, nursing theories and patient safety were inadequately covered. CPE was perceived to be fragmented without gaining points, follow-up monitoring and evaluation after CPE which make it difficult to objectively assess the influence of CPE on quality of care. It is recommended that nurse leaders in Nigeria should develop online CPE modules for nursing, and allocate points to them so that participation may contribute to career progression. Effective monitoring and evaluation systems should be put in place to assess impact of CPE on staff competence and patient outcomes. PMID:23664784

Nsemo, Alberta D; John, Mildred E; Etifit, Rita E; Mgbekem, Mary A; Oyira, Emilia J

2013-07-01

261

The Licensed Surveyor in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nigeria, a country well over 300,000 square miles in area, is roughly comparable to North Australia in geography and climate. Being nearer the equator however, Nigeria has a wider belt of tropical forest in the coastal area, and the interior climate is considerably modified by a greater range in elevation—from the coast, the general level of the country rises steadily

R. B. McVilly

1961-01-01

262

Patterns of case management and chemoprevention for malaria-in-pregnancy by public and private sector health providers in Enugu state, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria in pregnancy (MIP) is a major disease burden in Nigeria and has adverse consequences on the health of the mother, the foetus and the newborn. Information is required on how to improve its prevention and treatment from both the providers’ and consumers’ perspectives. Methods The study sites were two public and two private hospitals in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. Data was collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. The respondents were healthcare providers (doctors, pharmacists and nurses) providing ante-natal care (ANC) services. They consisted of 32 respondents from the public facilities and 20 from the private facilities. The questionnaire elicited information on their: knowledge about malaria, attitude, chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis using pyrimethamine, chloroquine proguanil as well as IPTp with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). The data was collected from May to June 2010. Results Not many providers recognized maternal and neonatal deaths as potential consequences of MIP. The public sector providers provided more appropriate treatment for the pregnant women, but the private sector providers found IPTp more acceptable and provided it more rationally than public sector providers (p?

2012-01-01

263

Analysis of Economic Efficiency in Sawnwood Production in Southwest Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the issue of improving economic efficiency in sawnwood production in Ondo and Osun states, southwest Nigeria. The stochastic frontier approach was used to estimate a self dual Cobb Douglas production function which gave estimates of technical, allocative and economic efficiencies. In a second stage analysis, the ordinary least square regression method was used to estimate the

A. L. Kehinde; T. T. Awoyemi

2009-01-01

264

Assessment of utilization of wind energy resources in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study critically reviews the prospects and challenges of utilizing wind energy resources for power generation in Nigeria. The various initiatives by governments and researchers were surveyed and the nation is found to sit in the midst of enormous potential for wind harvest for power generation. The far northern states, the mountainous regions and different places of the central and

Oluseyi O. Ajayi

2009-01-01

265

Is traditional ecological knowledge relevant in environmental conservation in Nigeria?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-section survey of five states in Nigeria was derived through a stratified random sampling technique in 1999–2000 to assess the contribution of traditional knowledge in environmental conservation. Data were collected through a combination of questionnaire survey and discussions with stakeholders, with field assessment of herb gardens. Interviews were held with 1953 respondents composed of women, men and youths drawn

Gbadebo J. Osemeobo

2001-01-01

266

Species diversity patterns along the forest savanna boundary in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study seeks to investigate the influence of human activities on the patterns of species diversities along the forest-savanna boundary in Oyo state of Nigeria. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A transect was placed along the study area from the rainforest belt, through the forest savanna ecotone to the southern fringe of the Guinea savanna vegetation belt. Each study site was

Emuh Christiana Ndidi; Gbadegesin Adeniyi Suleiman

2009-01-01

267

A Scottish Contribution to Eastern Nigeria's Educational Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the almost 130 year history of the Scottish-sponsored Presbyterian mission at Calabar, Nigeria, from 1846 until its secularization by the Nigerian government in 1974. Describes curriculum principles and priorities, Presbyterian values, mission educational policy, and relationship to the colonial state. Reveals a record of social, economic,…

Taylor, Bill

1985-01-01

268

Nigeria: communicating change in multi-ethnic society.  

PubMed

In Nigeria, 1 method of promoting family planning is through the song and dance of health nurses. Free samples of condoms and color-coded mimeographed leaflets identifying where and when services are available are distributed. Posters with family planning messages are also used. Various IEC materials carrying birth-spacing messages have been well received in many regions. A powerful television comedy drama was developed, reflecting everyday problems in the area of family planning. A 30-minute television documentary on the support and enthusiasm for family planning in Nigeria was also produced, showing interviews with medical experts who endorsed the use of family planning. Method-specific booklets on the IUD, pill and condom were introduced by the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria (PPFN). In 1985, Ogun State launched the 2nd official family planning program in Nigeria. The event lasted 5 days and consisted of several mini-ceremonies. Other states have followed in Ogun State's footstepts by consolidating and expanding their health and family planning programs. Clinic data for the 1st 3-month period after the official launching and the media campaign showed a marked increase in new acceptors by over 100%. The health appeal of family planning was found among females, whereas males favored its economic advantages. To assist nurses and clients in understanding modern contraceptive methods, booklets were developed on the pill, IUD and condom in the major languages in Nigeria. A booklet on sterilization is currently being prepared. In Plateau State, a comprehensive IEC program has been launched. Television programs on family planning have been developed in Anambra State. In almost all states, there are opportunities for implementing JOICEP's Integrated Parasite Control and Family Planning (FP) Program. PMID:12314466

Rimon Jg

1986-11-01

269

Peer education: The effects on knowledge of pregnancy related malaria and preventive practices in women of reproductive age in Edo State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background There is limited uptake of measures to prevent malaria by pregnant women in Nigeria which is often related to the lack of knowledge on Malaria in Pregnancy (MIP) and its effects on mother and foetus. This study, explored peer to peer education as a tool in raising knowledge of MIP among women of child bearing age. Methods 1105 women of child bearing age were interviewed in their households using a structured questionnaire about their knowledge of malaria in general, MIP and use of preventive measures. Thereafter, a peer education campaign was launched to raise the level of knowledge in the community. The interviews were repeated after the campaign and the responses between the pre- and post-intervention were compared. Results In the pre-assessment women on average answered 64.8% of the question on malaria and its possibility to prevent malaria correctly. The peer education campaign had a significant impact in raising the level of knowledge among the women; after the campaign the respondents answered on average 73.8% of the questions correctly. Stratified analysis on pre and post assessment scores for malaria in general (68.8 & 72.9%) and MIP (61.7 & 76.3%) showed also significant increase. Uptake of bed nets was reported to be low: 11.6% Conclusion Peer education led to a significant increase in knowledge of malaria and its prevention but we could not asses its influence on the use of preventive measures. PMID:21801460

2011-01-01

270

Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Nigeria, january 2013-september 2014.  

PubMed

In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to interrupt wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission worldwide. By 2013, only three countries remained that had never interrupted WPV transmission: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. Since 2003, northern Nigeria has been a reservoir for WPV reintroduction into 26 previously polio-free countries. In May 2014, the World Health Organization declared the international spread of polio a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Nigeria's main strategic goal is to interrupt WPV type 1 (WPV1) transmission by the end of 2014, which is also a main objective of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative's Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan for 2013-2018. This report updates previous reports (4-6) and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Nigeria during January 2013-September 30, 2014. Only six WPV cases had been reported in 2014 through September 30 compared with 49 reported cases during the same period in 2013. The quality of supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) improved during this period; the proportion of local government areas (LGAs) within 11 high-risk states with estimated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) campaign coverage at or above the 90% threshold increased from 36% to 67%. However, the number of reported circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases increased from four in 2013 to 21 to date in 2014, and surveillance gaps are suggested by genomic sequence analysis and continued detection of WPV1 by environmental surveillance. Interrupting all poliovirus circulation in Nigeria is achievable with continued attention to stopping cVDPV2 transmission, improving the quality of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance, increasing vaccination coverage by strengthened routine immunization services, continuing support from all levels of government, and undertaking special initiatives to provide vaccination to children in conflict-affected areas in northeastern Nigeria. PMID:25412063

Etsano, Andrew; Gunnala, Rajni; Shuaib, Faisal; Damisa, Eunice; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Korir, Charles; Enemaku, Ogu; Corkum, Melissa; Usman, Samuel; Davis, Lora B; Nganda, Gatei Wa; Burns, Cara C; Mahoney, Frank; Vertefeuille, John F

2014-11-21

271

Gas Flaring in Nigeria‘s Niger Delta: Failed Promises and Reviving Community Voices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Note examines the use of litigation to stop gas flaring in Nigeria’s Niger Delta, and proposes an alternative solution to the ongoing gas flaring in the Niger Delta region. In exploring an alternative solution, this Note (1) details the history of gas flaring in Nigeria; (2) discusses Nigeria’s gas-flaring legislation and its implementation; (3) analyzes the impact that landmark

Eferiekose Ukala

2010-01-01

272

Burns in Nigeria: a Review  

PubMed Central

Summary Burn injuries continue to be a major source of mortality and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries of the world, of which Nigeria is a part. Overview data on burn care in Nigeria are sparse but the available literature on burns and burn care in Nigeria was retrieved through Internet-based search engines, collated, and reviewed. Peculiarities of epidemiology, types of burn, pattern of injuries, complications, and outcome of burn care were reviewed. There were no broad-based overview statistical data on burns in Nigeria in all the articles reviewed. There was no documentation on the regionalization of care and there were no national databases. All reports on epidemiology were hospital-based. Flame is emerging as the predominant cause of burns, and burn injury is occurring increasingly away from the domestic setting. The severity of the injuries is also increasing. Deliberate burn injury remains a practice and a wide range of complications occur as burns sequelae in Nigeria. Several challenges militate against optimal care for burn victims. Burn injuries continue to contribute significantly to the burden of disease in Nigeria. There is a need for broad-based data collection systems. Avoidable complications are common and mortality remains high. Pooling of resources by regionalization of care could increase focus on burn prevention and improve the care of burn victims. Nongovernmental and governmental support to reduce the burden of burns is advocated. PMID:21991210

Oladele, A.O.; Olabanji, J.K.

2010-01-01

273

Profile of metabolic abnormalities seen in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and their first degree relatives with metabolic syndrome seen in Benin City, Edo state Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background To determine the profile of metabolic abnormalities in T2DM persons with metabolic syndrome and their non-diabetic first-degree relatives who also had metabolic syndrome in Benin City. Methodology This was a cross sectional case controlled study in which convenience sampling technique was used to recruit 106 persons with T2DM, 96 people who are first degree relatives of type 2 diabetic persons and 96 controls using a interviewer administered questionnaire technique. The following were assessed: anthropometric indices, blood pressure, serum lipid profile, fasting blood sugar, proteinuria, and microalbuminuria. The data obtained were analyzed using the statistical software-Statistical package for social sciences [SPSS] version 16. A p-value of less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results The mean age (SD) of the study groups were: persons living with T2DM: 58.6?±?11.2 years, control: 57.69?±?60.8 years and FDR: 57.4?±?10.6 years. No significant age and sex differences were observed in these groups. There were more females (59.7%) than males (40.3%) with T2DM. The prevalence of MS was 13.5%, 16.7%, and 87.1% in the control, FDR and T2DM patients respectively. For the T2DM group of subjects, impaired fasting glycaemia was the commonest metabolic abnormality followed by microalbuminuria, low HDL cholesterol, high LDL cholesterol, hypercholesterolaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia in decreasing frequency. For the FDR group, low HDL cholesterol was the commonest metabolic abnormality followed by hypertriglyceridaemia, impaired fasting glucose, high LDL cholesterol, hypertriglyceridaemia and microalbuminuria in decreasing frequency. Hypercholesterolemia and low HDL cholesterol were the commonest metabolic abnormalities in the control group. Conclusion The prevalence of the MS in persons with T2DM in Nigeria appears to be high. Secondly, there is a high prevalence of lipid abnormalities in all the study groups. PMID:24932458

2014-01-01

274

Evolutionary Dynamics of Multiple Sublineages of H5N1 Influenza Viruses in Nigeria from 2006 to 2008 ? †  

PubMed Central

Highly pathogenic A/H5N1 avian influenza (HPAI H5N1) viruses have seriously affected the Nigerian poultry industry since early 2006. Previous studies have identified multiple introductions of the virus into Nigeria and several reassortment events between cocirculating lineages. To determine the spatial, evolutionary, and population dynamics of the multiple H5N1 lineages cocirculating in Nigeria, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequences from 106 HPAI H5N1 viruses isolated between 2006 and 2008 and representing all 25 Nigerian states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) reporting outbreaks. We identified a major new subclade in Nigeria that is phylogenetically distinguishable from all previously identified sublineages, as well as two novel reassortment events. A detailed analysis of viral phylogeography identified two major source populations for the HPAI H5N1 virus in Nigeria, one in a major commercial poultry area (southwest region) and one in northern Nigeria, where contact between wild birds and backyard poultry is frequent. These findings suggested that migratory birds from Eastern Europe or Russia may serve an important role in the introduction of HPAI H5N1 viruses into Nigeria, although virus spread through the movement of poultry and poultry products cannot be excluded. Our study provides new insight into the genesis and evolution of H5N1 influenza viruses in Nigeria and has important implications for targeting surveillance efforts to rapidly identify the spread of the virus into and within Nigeria. PMID:20071565

Fusaro, Alice; Nelson, Martha I.; Joannis, Tony; Bertolotti, Luigi; Monne, Isabella; Salviato, Annalisa; Olaleye, Olufemi; Shittu, Ismaila; Sulaiman, Lanre; Lombin, Lami H.; Capua, Ilaria; Holmes, Edward C.; Cattoli, Giovanni

2010-01-01

275

Micronutrient dynamics in some wetland soils of south-eastern Nigeria.  

PubMed

The inventory of profile distribution of total iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese(Mn) and copper(Cu) were determined in three different soil horizons each of the wetland soils selected form Mbiabet(MB), Nkari (NK) and Nkana(NA) in Ini Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Total Fe ranged between 3.25 and 4.15 ppm. The average contents were 3.72, 3.91 and 3.62 ppm in Mbiabet(MB), Nkari(NK) and Nkana(NA) soils respectively. The total value of Zn also ranged between 2.4 and 4.9 ppm with the average content in each soil being 28.27, 17.73 and 36.53 ppm respectively. The amount of Fe and Zn in these soil profiles were strongly correlated with the clay content and high levels of organic matter of 3.70%, 2.47% and 2.5% respectively. The content clearly reflected a poor drainage conditions. In all the soil profiles Mn and Cu were detected in at least one of the soil horizons. However, Mn and Cu were not detected in the soil horizons at Nkari. Generally, the relative inventory of these micronutrients appeared to be influenced by pH, drainage pattern, organic matter and clay contents of these soils. The inventory of total values of the wetland soils considered are assessed in the light of establishing a baseline information. PMID:12602600

Okon, Aniefiokmkpong O; Antia-Obong, Emem

2003-01-01

276

Nigeria's war on terror: fighting dracunculiasis, onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, and schistosomiasis at the grassroots.  

PubMed

Africa's populous country, Nigeria, contains or contained more cases of dracunculiasis, onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, and schistosomiasis than any other African nation and ranks or ranked first (dracunculiasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis) or third (lymphatic filariasis) in the world for the same diseases. After beginning village-based interventions against dracunculiasis 20 years ago and confronting onchocerciasis a few years later, Nigeria has nearly eliminated dracunculiasis and has provided annual mass drug administration for onchocerciasis to over three quarters of that at-risk population for 7 years. With assistance from The Carter Center, Nigeria began treating lymphatic filariasis and schistosomiasis in two and three states, respectively, over the past decade, while conducting pioneering operational research as a basis for scaling up interventions against those diseases, for which much more remains to be done. This paper describes the status of Nigeria's struggles against these four neglected tropical diseases and discusses challenges and plans for the future. PMID:19407107

Njepuome, Ngozi A; Hopkins, Donald R; Richards, Frank O; Anagbogu, Ifeoma N; Pearce, Patricia Ogbu; Jibril, Mustapha Muhammed; Okoronkwo, Chukwu; Sofola, Olayemi T; Withers, P Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Miri, Emmanuel S; Eigege, Abel; Emukah, Emmanuel C; Nwobi, Ben C; Jiya, Jonathan Y

2009-05-01

277

Liberalization of abortion and reduction of abortion related morbidity and mortality in Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study aimed at determining the knowledge and perception of physicians in Nigeria on abortion related deaths, and also to find out if they will support the liberalization of abortion as a means of reducing deaths from unsafe abortion. Physicians' willingness to offer abortion services was also explored. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of physicians in Delta state of Nigeria. Physicians were equally divided on whether legal liberalization of abortion would significantly reduce maternal mortality in Nigeria. Only 13.4% of the doctors were willing to offer abortion services if legally liberalized. The majority of the doctors considered promoting abstinence from pre-marital sex and contraceptive use as best effective strategies for reducing abortion-related deaths. However, liberalization of abortion law in Nigeria was not considered a very effective strategy. PMID:20636247

Okonta, Patrick I; Ebeigbe, Peter N; Sunday-Adeoye, Ileogben

2010-08-01

278

Chemical injuries of the oesophagus: aetiopathological issues in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Chemical injuries of the oesophagus occur worldwide. There is paucity of information on aetiopathological profile of chemical injuries of the oesophagus in Nigeria. Aim The aim of the study was to determine the aetiopathological pattern of chemical injuries of the oesophagus in Nigeria. Materials and methods This is a multi-centre hospital based study in Lagos metropolis spanning a period of 10 years. The patients' bio data, substances ingested, sources of corrosives, reasons for ingesting corrosives and patients' mental state were recorded. Results In all, there were 78 patients (61 Males, 17 Females). The offending agents were acids in 55.1% of cases and it was accidental ingestion in 62 patients. The highest incidence of 57.6% was found in the middle 1/3 of the oesophagus. Conclusion Accidental ingestion of acids is the commonest cause of oesophageal injuries in Nigeria. The incidence of severe strictures necessitating oesophageal substitution could be reduced if early management of corrosive oesophagitis improves in Nigeria. PMID:19835579

Thomas, Martins O; Ogunleye, Ezekiel O; Somefun, Oladapo

2009-01-01

279

The physiologic climate of Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describes the spatial and temporal variations in the physiologic climate of Nigeria for 1951-2009 in terms of effective temperature (ET), temperature-humidity index (THI), relative strain index (RSI) and perception of 3,600 sampled populations. The main hypotheses are that (i) the existing vegetation-based ecological region could adequately elucidate the physiologic climate of the country, and (ii) physiologic stress has significantly increased over the years (1951-2009). Trends and changes in the selected indices (ET, THI and RSI) were examined over two time slices: 1951-1980 and 1981-2009. The results show that (1) the montane region was the most comfortable physiologic climate in Nigeria, and the regions around the Rivers Niger and Benue troughs were the most uncomfortable in most parts of the year, (2) physiologic stress in most parts of Nigeria has significantly increased in 1981-2009 over 1951-1980 ( p ? 0.05), (3) coping strategies to the uncomfortably hot and cold climate in Nigeria are limited to dressing mode, clothing materials and use of air conditioners or fan, (4) ET, THI and RSI results could be similar, and complementary; but each is with its strengths and weaknesses for annual or seasonal representations, which the others complemented for the interpretation of the physiologic climate of Nigeria. The study concluded that the relationship between the ecological classification of Nigeria and physiologic climate is rather complex, and the former could not elucidate the latter. The study cited inadequate meteorological data, especially on wind chill, and health records as limiting factors of studies on the Nigerian physiologic climates and the effect of extreme thermal conditions on the people.

Eludoyin, Oyenike Mary; Adelekan, Ibidun Onikepo

2013-03-01

280

The physiologic climate of Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study describes the spatial and temporal variations in the physiologic climate of Nigeria for 1951-2009 in terms of effective temperature (ET), temperature-humidity index (THI), relative strain index (RSI) and perception of 3,600 sampled populations. The main hypotheses are that (i) the existing vegetation-based ecological region could adequately elucidate the physiologic climate of the country, and (ii) physiologic stress has significantly increased over the years (1951-2009). Trends and changes in the selected indices (ET, THI and RSI) were examined over two time slices: 1951-1980 and 1981-2009. The results show that (1) the montane region was the most comfortable physiologic climate in Nigeria, and the regions around the Rivers Niger and Benue troughs were the most uncomfortable in most parts of the year, (2) physiologic stress in most parts of Nigeria has significantly increased in 1981-2009 over 1951-1980 (p ? 0.05), (3) coping strategies to the uncomfortably hot and cold climate in Nigeria are limited to dressing mode, clothing materials and use of air conditioners or fan, (4) ET, THI and RSI results could be similar, and complementary; but each is with its strengths and weaknesses for annual or seasonal representations, which the others complemented for the interpretation of the physiologic climate of Nigeria. The study concluded that the relationship between the ecological classification of Nigeria and physiologic climate is rather complex, and the former could not elucidate the latter. The study cited inadequate meteorological data, especially on wind chill, and health records as limiting factors of studies on the Nigerian physiologic climates and the effect of extreme thermal conditions on the people. PMID:22610082

Eludoyin, Oyenike Mary; Adelekan, Ibidun Onikepo

2013-03-01

281

Exploring variations in childhood stunting in Nigeria using league table, control chart and spatial analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Stunting, linear growth retardation is the best measure of child health inequalities as it captures multiple dimensions of children’s health, development and environment where they live. The developmental priorities and socially acceptable health norms and practices in various regions and states within Nigeria remains disaggregated and with this, comes the challenge of being able to ascertain which of the regions and states identifies with either high or low childhood stunting to further investigate the risk factors and make recommendations for action oriented policy decisions. Methods We used data from the birth histories included in the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) to estimate childhood stunting. Stunting was defined as height for age below minus two standard deviations from the median height for age of the standard World Health Organization reference population. We plotted control charts of the proportion of childhood stunting for the 37 states (including federal capital, Abuja) in Nigeria. The Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) were used as a measure of the overall clustering and is assessed by a test of a null hypothesis. Results Childhood stunting is high in Nigeria with an average of about 39%. The percentage of children with stunting ranged from 11.5% in Anambra state to as high as 60% in Kebbi State. Ranking of states with respect to childhood stunting is as follows: Anambra and Lagos states had the least numbers with 11.5% and 16.8% respectively while Yobe, Zamfara, Katsina, Plateau and Kebbi had the highest (with more than 50% of their under-fives having stunted growth). Conclusions Childhood stunting is high in Nigeria and varied significantly across the states. The northern states have a higher proportion than the southern states. There is an urgent need for studies to explore factors that may be responsible for these special cause variations in childhood stunting in Nigeria. PMID:23597167

2013-01-01

282

Assessing Nigeria’s drug control policy, 1994–2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drugs became a public issue in Nigeria by the 1960s with discoveries of cannabis farms in the country, arrests of Nigerian cannabis traffickers abroad, and reports of psychological disorders suspected to be associated with cannabis use. However, it was not until the early 1980s that the problem of drug trafficking had become a major social issue with the potential of

Isidore S Obot

2004-01-01

283

Environmental Ethics of Health Mission To Enugu Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Enugu USA Medical Mission is a humanitarian year round mission to provide free health care to the people of Enugu State\\u000a of Nigeria who are underserved and less privileged. The purpose of the Enugu USA Medical Mission is to contribute to solutions\\u000a that solve health issues. Toxic chemicals contaminate drinking waters, build up in human organs and bones, and

Godfrey A. Uzochukwu; Mary E. Uzochukwu; Ethelbert Odo

284

Predominant rice weeds in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a survey conducted in the four major rice ecological zones in Nigeria the predominant weeds of the flora growing in association with both direct?seeded and transplanted rice (Oryza sativa L.) were determined. Most of the predominant weed species differed with differing rice ecologies. Among the predominant broadleaved species, Ageratum conyzoides L., Sphenochlea zeylanica Gaertn, Tridax procumbens L., Portulaca oleracea

L. I. Okafor

1986-01-01

285

Tax Policy Reforms in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nigeria is governed by a federal system, hence its fiscal operations also adhere to the same principle, a fact which has serious implications on how the tax system is managed. The country's tax system is lopsided, and dominated by oil revenue. It is also characterized by unnecessarily complex, distortionary and largely inequitable taxation laws that have limited application in the

Ayodele Odusola

2006-01-01

286

Developments in Space Research in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nigeria's desire to venture into space technology was first made known to ECA/ OAU member countries at an inter-governmental meeting in Addis Ababa, 1976. The Nigerian space research is highly rated in Africa in terms of reputation and scientific results. The National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA), Nigeria's space research coordinating body; has taken a more active role to help Nigeria's space research community to succeed internationally. The paper presents recent examples of Nigeria's successes in space and its detailed applications in areas such as remote sensing, meteorology, communication and Information Technology. and many more. It gave an analysis of the statistics of Nigerian born space scientists working in the other space-faring nations. The analysis have been used to develop a model for increasing Nigerian scientist's involvement in the development of space research in Nigeria. It concluded with some thoughts on the current and future of Nigeria's space borne scientific experiments, policies and programs.

Oke, O.

2006-08-01

287

Comparative Studies on the Fungi and BioChemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake

E. C. Chuku; D. N. Ogbonna; B. A. Onuegbu; M. T. V. Adeleke

2008-01-01

288

Evaluation of Social Studies Programme in Government Teachers' Colleges of Borno State, Nigeria. African Studies in Curriculum Development & Evaluation No. 31.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of social studies instruction in the Nigerian state of Borno was investigated with emphasis on teachers' skills. The study had three objectives: (1) to evaluate preservice teacher education social studies programs in terms of their objectives, curricula, methods, media, and evaluation procedures; (2) to evaluate teachers' skills…

Samba, Wutama Bulama; And Others

289

The Aftermath of the Withdrawal of the World Bank Counterpart Funding for the Ogun State Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The involvement of the World Bank in the funding of the Nigerian Agricultural Development Programmes (ADPs) has shown that a properly functioning extension service with positively disposed government policy can help transform agriculture in the country. This study used data from ninety-six (96) farmers and sixteen (16) extension officers of the Ogun State ADP to examine the implications and aftermath

K. Adebayo; I. A. Idowu

2001-01-01

290

Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) towards Flood Management in Calabar, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calabar, the capital city of Cross River State is located on a fan shaped alluvial formation of the Niger delta region, south-south of Nigeria. It is characterized by fast growth in population, economic activities and urbanization, like most coastal cities of the world. The challenges of climate change, rapid land use changes and the fragile geomorphic state of the city

Marcus IDOKO

291

The cultural, social and attitudinal context of male sexual behaviour in urban south-west Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1989 onward a research program based at Ondo State University, Nigeria, investigated the social and behavioural context of the sexually transmitted disease and AIDS epidemics (Orubuloye et al. 1994). Between 1989 and 1993 the researchers reached the conclusion that premarital and extramarital sexual activities were on a sufficient scale in Ondo State to maintain an STD epidemic and possibly

John C. Caldwell; Pat Caldwell

292

Ebola virus disease outbreak - Nigeria, july-september 2014.  

PubMed

On July 20, 2014, an acutely ill traveler from Liberia arrived at the international airport in Lagos, Nigeria, and was confirmed to have Ebola virus disease (Ebola) after being admitted to a private hospital. This index patient potentially exposed 72 persons at the airport and the hospital. The Federal Ministry of Health, with guidance from the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), declared an Ebola emergency. Lagos, (pop. 21 million) is a regional hub for economic, industrial, and travel activities and a setting where communicable diseases can be easily spread and transmission sustained. Therefore, implementing a rapid response using all available public health assets was the highest priority. On July 23, the Federal Ministry of Health, with the Lagos State government and international partners, activated an Ebola Incident Management Center as a precursor to the current Emergency Operations Center (EOC) to rapidly respond to this outbreak. The index patient died on July 25; as of September 24, there were 19 laboratory-confirmed Ebola cases and one probable case in two states, with 894 contacts identified and followed during the response. Eleven patients with laboratory-confirmed Ebola had been discharged, an additional patient was diagnosed at convalescent stage, and eight patients had died (seven with confirmed Ebola; one probable). The isolation wards were empty, and 891 (all but three) contacts had exited follow-up, with the remainder due to exit on October 2. No new cases had occurred since August 31, suggesting that the Ebola outbreak in Nigeria might be contained. The EOC, established quickly and using an Incident Management System (IMS) to coordinate the response and consolidate decision making, is largely credited with helping contain the Nigeria outbreak early. National public health emergency preparedness agencies in the region, including those involved in Ebola responses, should consider including the development of an EOC to improve the ability to rapidly respond to urgent public health threats. PMID:25275332

Shuaib, Faisal; Gunnala, Rajni; Musa, Emmanuel O; Mahoney, Frank J; Oguntimehin, Olukayode; Nguku, Patrick M; Nyanti, Sara Beysolow; Knight, Nancy; Gwarzo, Nasir Sani; Idigbe, Oni; Nasidi, Abdulsalam; Vertefeuille, John F

2014-10-01

293

Awareness of antimalarial policy and use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for malaria treatment in communities of two selected local government areas of Ogun State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

With limited data on the awareness of changes in the use of antimalaria drugs and availability and use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in the context of the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) program, we conducted this descriptive cross-sectional study of 262 registered women attending antenatal clinics and 233 mothers of under-five children. We used a questionnaire to assess the awareness, availability and use of ACT in Ijebu North and Yewa North Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Ogun State. Malaria is holo-endemic in these areas, and the RBM program has been implemented for years prior to the 2010 RBM deadline. Data were also collected through focus group discussions, along with secondary data from hospital records. Hospital stock records showed inadequate and inconsistent supplies of ACT drugs in hospitals surveyed. Only 23.0% of respondents knew about ACT drugs. About 48% preferred analgesics over ACT drugs (0.6%) for malaria treatment. Lack of awareness was the major reason for non-use of ACT drugs (86.1%). Communities in Yewa North had more supplies of ACT drugs and knew more about ACT than those in Ijebu North. Adequate information on ACT needs to be made available and accessible under a public-private partnership if 2010 RBM targets (now past) and the 2015 Millennium Development Goal (ongoing) for malaria are to be realized in the study communities and Ogun State in general. PMID:24702765

Adeneye, Adeniyi K; Jegede, Ayodele S; Mafe, Margaret A; Nwokocha, Ezebunwa E

2014-01-01

294

Household Structure and Living Conditions in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data on 7,632 households from the 1999 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey are used to examine household structure and living conditions in Nigeria. The study finds significant disadvantage in living conditions of single-adult, female- and single-adult, male-headed households relative to two-parent households. Extended households show no…

Mberu, Blessing Uchenna

2007-01-01

295

Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Exclusive breast feeding (EBF) has important protective effects on the survival of infants and decreases risk for many early-life diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the factors associated with EBF in Nigeria. METHODS: Data on 658 children less than 6 months of age were obtained from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2003. The 2003

Kingsley E Agho; Michael J Dibley; Justice I Odiase; Sunday M Ogbonmwan

2011-01-01

296

ICT and Higher Educational System in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the integration of ICT in higher education in Nigeria. The possibilities and reach of information technologies can tear down territorial boundaries and make available equal information and knowledge of different categories as soon as necessary data are fed on the website. Nevertheless, Nigeria as a nation is yet to take full…

Idowu, Adeyemi I.; Esere, Mary

2013-01-01

297

Rights of the Child in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Federation of Nigeria. The report's introduction asserts that the rule by decree of Nigeria's present military regime has…

Lacroix, Anne Laurence; Shoenberg, Cheryl; Schonveld, Ben

298

Challenges facing women entrepreneurs in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study seeks to examine the business and social profiles of 67 women entrepreneurs in three regions of Nigeria in order to identify patterns of entrepreneurship and social and economic challenges facing women business owners in Nigeria. The study aims to support and encourage sustainable small-scale economic development activities by Nigerian women and determine ways to integrate these

Daphne Halkias; Chinedum Nwajiuba; Nicholas Harkiolakis; Sylva M. Caracatsanis

2011-01-01

299

The development of air transportation in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the development of the Nigerian civil aviation industry since its inception in the 1920s, but particularly since 1980, examining the institutional framework, partial deregulation, infrastructural provision and passenger traffic. The current crisis in Nigeria's civil aviation industry, following the decline and near collapse of Nigeria Airways, is blamed on the absence of a coherent air transport policy,

Osi S Akpoghomeh

1999-01-01

300

Preconception care in South Eastern Nigeria.  

PubMed

The objective was to determine the awareness and practice of preconception care in a developing country. This is a cross-sectional study of women receiving antenatal care at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital and Enugu state university teaching hospital (ESUT) between October 2005 and March 2006. Sampling was systematic where every consenting second of two pregnant women receiving antenatal care at the hospital was mobilised for the study. Data analysis was by descriptive and inferential statistics using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) software version 11 (SPSS Inc. 2001). A total of 1,500 questionnaires were distributed while 1,331 were completed and returned giving a response rate of 88.7%. The mean age was 30.0 + 5.0 years. Of these, 573 (43.1%) women had heard of preconception care. The respondent's awareness of preconception care and their ability to define the subject correctly increase significantly with their educational status and parity. However, there was a difference between knowledge and behaviour. The practice of preconception care was not affected significantly by the parity of the patients. The majority believed that preconception care might improve the health of mother and child. The practice of preconception care is almost non-existent in developing countries. It is important that all stake holders in maternal and child health be involved in vigorous, targeted and sustained female education to improve knowledge and utilisation of preconception care by women of reproductive age groups in developing countries. Health institutions in these underserved populations should develop, and maintain functional dedicated and multidisciplinary clinics for preconception care to decrease perinatal and maternal mortality. Preconception clinics are more important in developing countries such as Nigeria compared with the western world because they would help correct inadequate education and identify a high level of existing illness relevant to pregnancy - much higher than in the western world. PMID:19085540

Ezegwui, H U; Dim, C; Dim, N; Ikeme, A C

2008-11-01

301

Detection of Rabies Antigen in the Saliva and Brains of Apparently Healthy Dogs Slaughtered for Human Consumption and Its Public Health Implications in Abia State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

The study was carried out in eight dogs slaughtering outlets within four Local Government Areas of the State for the determination of rabies antigen in the saliva and brain of apparently healthy dogs slaughtered for human consumption. A total of one hundred (100) samples each of saliva and brain were collected before and after slaughter, respectively, between April to June, 2013, in the selected areas. The saliva was subjected to rapid immune-chromatographic test (RICT) while direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT) was carried out on the brain samples. Structured questionnaire was administered to nineteen (19) dog meat processors comprising 18 males and 1 female in the selected areas. Sixty four percent of the samples tested were from female dogs while 36% were from males, 5% tested positive for rabies antigen with the use of both tests; there was no statistical association between sex and rabies status of the dogs sampled (P > 0.05). Butchers bitten during the course of slaughtering were 94.7% out of which 72.8% utilized traditional method of treatment and only 27.8% reported to the hospital for proper medical attention. This study has established the presence of rabies antigen in apparently healthy dogs in the study area. PMID:24416598

Mshelbwala, P. P.; Ogunkoya, A. B.; Maikai, B. V.

2013-01-01

302

Detection of rabies antigen in the saliva and brains of apparently healthy dogs slaughtered for human consumption and its public health implications in abia state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study was carried out in eight dogs slaughtering outlets within four Local Government Areas of the State for the determination of rabies antigen in the saliva and brain of apparently healthy dogs slaughtered for human consumption. A total of one hundred (100) samples each of saliva and brain were collected before and after slaughter, respectively, between April to June, 2013, in the selected areas. The saliva was subjected to rapid immune-chromatographic test (RICT) while direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT) was carried out on the brain samples. Structured questionnaire was administered to nineteen (19) dog meat processors comprising 18 males and 1 female in the selected areas. Sixty four percent of the samples tested were from female dogs while 36% were from males, 5% tested positive for rabies antigen with the use of both tests; there was no statistical association between sex and rabies status of the dogs sampled (P > 0.05). Butchers bitten during the course of slaughtering were 94.7% out of which 72.8% utilized traditional method of treatment and only 27.8% reported to the hospital for proper medical attention. This study has established the presence of rabies antigen in apparently healthy dogs in the study area. PMID:24416598

Mshelbwala, P P; Ogunkoya, A B; Maikai, B V

2013-01-01

303

Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (28±1°C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

304

Multilingualism and healthcare in Nigeria: a management perspective.  

PubMed

Nigeria has a healthcare system that has been described as defective even by its managers. A year 2000 study by the World Health Organization (WHO) of health systems in 191 member countries ranked Nigeria 187th. These several evaluations consistently point to inadequate managerial skills. Regrettably, very little is known of the import of language and communication as management issues in healthcare delivery in this country of 400 languages. This article therefore proposes a language-driven audit of health management in Borno State (northeast Nigeria) as a means of sensitizing policy makers and implementers. Based largely on data from questionnaires completed by 129 health professionals belonging to various professional categories (physicians, nurses, pharmacy staff, laboratory staff, and medical and health workers) and drawn from four hospitals, the study explores the relationship between multilingualism and the following: (a) patients' rights; (b) staff recruitment, deployment and commitment; (c) human asset accounting; (d) physician-population ratio. This language-driven audit reveals a number of points, including: ethically questionable practices; distributional imbalance in personnel; commendable cases of employee commitment; and inequity in renumeration. PMID:16808694

Antia, Bassey E; Bertin, Fankep D A

2004-01-01

305

Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Nigeria, January 2008-July 2009.  

PubMed

Although wild poliovirus (WPV) cases in Nigeria decreased from 1,129 in 2006 to 285 in 2007, Nigeria had the world's highest polio burden in 2008, with 798 (48%) of 1,651 WPV cases reported globally, including 721 (74%) of 976 WPV type 1 (WPV1) cases. This report provides an update on progress toward polio eradication in Nigeria during 2008-2009 and activities planned to interrupt transmission. During 2008-2009, Nigeria was the source for WPV1 transmission to 11 countries and WPV type 3 (WPV3) transmission to four countries. In addition, transmission of circulating type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) has been ongoing since 2005. WPV1 cases decreased 87%, from 574 during January-July 2008 to 73 for the same period in 2009. However, WPV3 cases rose approximately six-fold, from 51 during January-July 2008 to 303 during the same period in 2009, partly because of the increased emphasis on controlling WPV1. The decline in the proportion of children who have never received oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in the highest- incidence northern states, from 31% in 2006 to 11% in the first half of 2009 indicates progress toward eradication. During 2008-2009, activities to accelerate polio eradication included use of mobile teams to vaccinate children not at home during supplemental immunization activities (SIAs), and efforts to increase political oversight and the engagement of community leaders. Sustained support of traditional, religious, and political leaders and improved implementation of SIAs will be needed to interrupt WPV and cVDPV2 transmission. PMID:19847150

2009-10-23

306

Wind Power: An Untapped Renewable Energy Resource in Nigeria  

E-print Network

Wind power is one of the untapped renewable energy resources in Nigeriawhich requires government, private and individual’s participation to harness it, the utilization of this type of energy has been minimal in the country despite the abundance of its enormous resources in different part of the country. The wind speed in the southern and northern Nigeria ranges from 1.4 to 3.0 m/s and 4.0 to 5.12 m/s respectively. Apart from its environmental friendliness, it’s also one of the lowest priced renewable energy technologies available today costing between 4-6 cent/KWh depending upon the wind resource and project finance. Windmills were used in Nigeria as early as the mid 1960s, in Sokoto and Garo over 20 homes and schools used windmills to pump water. The following decades saw the prices of fossil fuels drop and therefore with cheap energy, wind power was not an appealing alternative, investment in windmills ceased and the infrastructure deteriorated. Research into the feasibility of wind power in certain regions has suggested the potential for this type of energy sources for power generation, this paper review the situation of wind power in Nigeria and world in general, prospects of wind power and existing wind power project in Nigeria, their location, year of installation, capacity and current situation of the projects. From the review, only four existing project were found in the whole country A 5.0 KW/hWind Power Project in Sayya Gidan-Gada Sokoto, 0.75 KW/h Danjawa Village, 1KW/h, Hybrid Wind-Solar in NCCE, Benin, and finally A 10 MW Wind farm under construction in katsina state.

Amina I. Saddik; Bilyaminu Alhassan

307

A description of HIV prevalence trends in Nigeria from 2001 to 2010: what is the progress, where is the problem?  

PubMed Central

Introduction Nigeria's population of 160 million and estimated HIV prevalence of 3.34% (2011) makes Nigeria the second highest HIV burden worldwide, with 3.2 million people living with HIV (PLHIV). In 2010, US government spent about US$456.5 million on the Nigerian epidemic. Antenatal clinic (ANC) HIV sero-prevalence sentinel survey has been conducted biennially in Nigeria since 1991 to track the epidemic. This study looked at the trends of HIV in Nigeria over the last decade to identify progress and needs. Methods We conducted description of HIV sero-prevalence sentinel cross-sectional surveys conducted among pregnant women attending ANC from 2001 to 2010, which uses consecutive sampling and unlinked-anonymous HIV testing (UAT) in160 sentinel facilities. 36,000 blood samples were collected and tested. We used Epi-Info to determine national and state HIV prevalence and trends. The Estimation and Projection Package with Spectrum were used to estimate/project the burden of infection. Results National ANC HIV prevalence rose from 1.8% (1991) to 5.8% (2001) and dropped to 4.1% (2010). Since 2001, states in the center, and south of Nigeria had higher prevalence than the rest, with Benue and Cross Rivers notable. Benue was highest in 2001 (14%), 2005 (10%), and 2010 (12.7%). Overall, eight states (21.6%) showed increased HIV prevalence while six states (16.2%) had an absolute reduction of at least 2% from 2001 to 2010. In 2010, Nigeria was estimated to have 3.19 million PLHIV, with the general population prevalence projected to drop from 3.34% in 2011 to 3.27% in 2012. Conclusion Examining a decade of HIV ANC surveillance in Nigeria revealed important differences in the epidemic in states that need to be examined further to reveal key drivers that can be used to target future interventions. PMID:25328622

Bashorun, Adebobola; Nguku, Patrick; Kawu, Issa; Ngige, Evelyn; Ogundiran, Adeniyi; Sabitu, Kabir; Nasidi, Abdulsalam; Nsubuga, Peter

2014-01-01

308

Incidence of Fusarium moniliforme Sheld. in Zea mays L. in the rainforest zone of Nigeria.  

PubMed

45 seed samples from 7 states of the rainforest zone of Nigeria (Ogun, Ondo, Oyo, Bendel, Anambra, Imo, and Cross River) were screened for phytopathogen incidence. Whereas Drechslera maydis was found in 30 and Cephalosporium maydis in 79% of the samples were infected by Fusarium moniliforme, with 70% of the samples showing heavy infection. In view of the widespread nature of this economically important fungus on maize in the main cultivation area of Nigeria, the necessity for routine laboratory seed health tests is clearly indicated. PMID:550860

Iloba, C

1979-01-01

309

Prevalence and intensity of Paragonimus uterobilateralis infection among school children in Oban village, South Eastern, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A survey of Paragonimus infection among primary school children aged 6-10 years in Oban village, Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria, was conducted. A total of 198 children were examined:112 (56.6%) were boys while 86 (43.4%) were girls. Eleven of the subjects were sputum positive for paragonimus eggs, giving an overall prevalence rate of 5.5%. The findings show that paragonimiasis is a significant health problem in South Eastern Nigeria; the risk of infection could be minimized by the proper cooking of fresh water crabs and crayfish before consumption. PMID:17988485

Ochigbo, S O; Ekanem, E E; Udo, J J

2007-10-01

310

Session: The Impact of External Shocks (Climate Change, Global Financial Crisis) on Social Security 1 Title: The Socioeconomic Implication of Climatic Change, Desert Encroachment and Communal Conflicts in Northern Nigeria By  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic activities in Nigeria clearly show that over 60 percent of the population are engaged in agriculture for their livelihoods directly or indirectly. However overtime especially in the last decade, a dwindling state of agriculture and the decreasing number of farming population mostly in Northern Nigeria, known for the production of over 70 percent of the food crops in

Daniel Adediran

311

Self-Medication: potential risks and hazards among pregnant women in Uyo, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction There is increasing evidence that self-medications among pregnant women are common in many developing countries. Despite the adverse impact on pregnancy, there are few programs available for their control. The objective of this study was to assess the level of self-medication amongst Nigerian pregnant women in order to determine possible harmful effects on fetus. Methods Five hundred and eighteen 518 pregnant women, aged between 18 and 40 years, drawn from three General hospitals in Akwa Ibom State were assessed for self-medication and substance abuse using an instrument, adapted from a modified form of 117-item self-report questionnaire based on the WHO guidelines for students’ substance use survey. Results Of the 518 pregnant women assessed, 375 (72.4%) indulged in one form of self-medication or the other; 143 (27.6%) used only drugs prescribed from the antenatal clinic. A total of 157 (41.9%) pregnant women self-medicate fever/pain relievers; 47 (9.1%) mixture of herbs and other drugs; 15 (4.0%) sedatives; 13 (3.5%) alcohol; while 5 (1.3%) used kolanuts. Reasons for using these substances range from protection from witches and witchcrafts, preventing pregnancy from coming out, for blood; poor sleep, fever and vomiting and infections. There was a significant difference in the rate of using analgesics (X2=9.43, p=0.001); and antibiotic (X2=4.43, p=0.001) among pregnant women who were highly educated compared to those with little or no education. However, the level of education has no impact in the usage of native herbs. Conclusion This study shows that self-medication is common among pregnant women in our environment. There is need for adequate education of pregnant women during antenatal clinics on the potential danger of self-medication so as to prevent child and maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:23308320

Abasiubong, Festus; Bassey, Emem Abasi; Udobang, John Akpan; Akinbami, Oluyinka Samuel; Udoh, Sunday Bassey; Idung, Alphonsus Udo

2012-01-01

312

Natural occurrence of moulds and aflatoxin B 1 in melon seeds from markets in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shelled melon seeds (Colocynthis citrullus L.) were purchased from markets in randomly selected villages and towns in three states in each of the rain forest (Ogun, Oyo and Osun) and Northern guinea savanna (Kaduna, Niger and Bauchi) zones of Nigeria. The seed samples were analysed for incidence of visibly diseased seeds, moisture content, moulds and aflatoxin B1 contamination. The incidence

S. A Bankole; B. M Ogunsanwo; O. O Mabekoje

2004-01-01

313

Critical control points of complementary food preparation and handling in eastern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate microbial contamination and critical control points (CCPs) in the preparation and handling of complementary foods in 120 households in Imo state, Nigeria. Methods The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) approach was used to investigate processes and procedures that contributed to microbial contamination, growth and survival, and to identify points where controls could be applied to prevent

John E. Ehiri; Marcel C. Azubuike; Collins N. Ubbaonu; Ebere C. Anyanwu; Kasimir M. Ibe; Michael O. Ogbonna

2001-01-01

314

Demographic Information Sources and Utilization as Determinants of Educational Policy Making in South Western Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines demographic information sources and utilization as determinants of educational policy making in South West Nigeria. Using validated and structured questionnaire, the study population of 398 officers in the ministries of education in the affected states were enumerated. The study establishes population census, vital registration,…

Gbadamosi, Belau Olatunde

2013-01-01

315

Evaluation of Fertilizer Value of Organic Waste Materials in South Western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one organic waste materials were collected from different locations in five states located in south western Nigeria. The organic wastes were evaluated for their fertilizer value.The chemical analysis of the organic waste materials showed that the nutrient contents of the waste materials varied greatly with source. No organic waste material consistently had high values of all macro and micro elements

E. O. Titiloye; E. O. Lucas; A. A. Agboola

1985-01-01

316

Evolution of Private Universities in Nigeria: Matters Arising and the Way Forward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many issues such as the increasing cases of unsatisfied demand for admission, moral decadence among students, incessant strikes, student unrest and cultism, among others necessitated the establishment of private alongside the federal and state universities in Nigeria. It is however expected that the advent of private universities will provide…

Ige, Akindele M.

2013-01-01

317

A baseline survey of the Primary Healthcare System in South Eastern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A baseline survey to audit the PHC operations and determine community perception and expectations of PHC service delivery was conducted in 72 communities in Enugu state, southeastern Nigeria. The study was intended to facilitate the development of intermediate performance indicators for monitoring the progress of an ongoing health sector reform and to gather baseline data for planning and policy formulation.The

Chinyere Mercellina Chukwuani; Akindeji Olugboji; Edward Erdorga Akuto; Akim Odebunmi; Ezenta Ezeilo; Emmanuel Ugbene

2006-01-01

318

Protection Practices Against Mosquito Among Students of a Tertiary Institution in Southwest Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various species of mosquitoes are recognized as vectors of a number of human infections in the tropics. One thousand (490 males, 510 females) self-selected students of a tertiary institution (Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye) in Ogun State, southwest Nigeria were interviewed between November 2007 and March 2008 to determine their protective measures against mosquitoes and their knowledge of the vectorial role

Olufemi Moses Agbolade; Olayemi Basirat Akintola; Ndubuisi Chinweike Agu; Tolulope Raufu; Olusola Johnson

319

Limnological studies of two contrasting but closely linked springs in Nigeria, West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

An account is presented of the chemistry and algal flora of two streams in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The two streams, one of which is much warmer than the other, are separate upstream but subsequently merge. A comparison of the springs revealed that while they differed markedly in temperature, colour, turbidity, conductivity, solids, total alkalinity, total hardness, Ca, SiO3, SO4, Mg,

Medina Omo Kadiri

2000-01-01

320

Studies on the chemical compositions and anti nutrients of some lesser known Nigeria fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit samples of Cola millenii, Strychnos innocua, Bombax glabra, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Parkia biglobosa and Gardenia erubescens were collected from various locations in Oyo and Osun States of Nigeria. The chemical compositions of these fruits were analyzed with a view to evaluating their levels of nutrient and anti-nutrients. The nutrients compositions of the fruits showed that the amount of crude fat

M. O. Bello; O. S. Falade; S. R. A. Adewusi

321

An Analysis of the Private Rate of Return to Vocational Nursing Education in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following a literature review, this paper examines the economic rationale for choosing nursing training through analyzing the private rate of return to nursing schools in River State, Nigeria. Findings reveal a 146 percent private rate of return ascribable to negative opportunity costs and booster effects on expected income. (21 references) (MLH)

Enaohwo, J. Okpako; Osakwe, H. O.

1986-01-01

322

Managerial strategies to conflict management of not- for-profit organizations in Nigeria: A study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is an investigation of the managerial strategies to conflict management in non-profit making organizations in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. The essences of this study are to device effective strategies to conflict management and make appropriate recommendations for an effective conflict resolution, aimed at ensuring organizational development, productivity and societal growth. The study adopted the descriptive study pattern

Austin O. Oparanma; Donald I. Hamilton; John Ohaka

323

Use of household wastes and crop residues in small ruminant feeding in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted of 252 households in five communities within Ogun State, Nigeria, to survey the use of household and farm wastes by small livestock holders. Over 90% of the respondents were farmers whose average farm size was 0.8 ha with cassava, maize and yam as major crops. Flock sizes were one to three sheep and one to four

C. F. I. Onwuka; P. O. Adetiloye; C. A. Afolami

1997-01-01

324

Religious leaders' response to AIDS in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Increasingly, faith-based organisations are being asked to participate in HIV prevention and care activities. This paper presents formative research on HIV/AIDS prevention messages, activities and policies within six religious institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria, at urban and rural sites. Data collection methods included a review of written HIV policies gathered from national church and mosque offices and 48 key informant interviews. The study highlights differences in messages between mainstream and Pentecostal Christians and Muslims. Although all groups stated a core message of abstinence outside marriage and faithfulness within marriage, Pentecostal churches tended to have more messages of punishment and condemnation for people infected with HIV. Urban churches/mosques tended to have more HIV resources and programmes. Attitudes towards condom use varied by denomination and individual; although few saw a role for religious institutions to promote condoms there were exceptions voiced. These findings indicate that religious organisations are already playing a role in HIV prevention but their responses are not uniform. Public health organisations and policy-makers should be aware of these denominational differences as they engage with religious institutions and leaders in HIV prevention and care. PMID:20155545

Ucheaga, D N; Hartwig, K A

2010-01-01

325

Developments in Space Research in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nigeria s desire to venture into space technology was first made known to ECA OAU member countries at an inter-governmental meeting in Addis Ababa 1976 The Nigerian space research is highly rated in Africa in terms of reputation and scientific results The National Space Research and Development Agency NASRDA Nigeria s space research coordinating body has taken a more active role to help Nigeria s space research community to succeed internationally The paper presents recent examples of Nigeria s successes in space and its detailed applications in areas such as remote sensing meteorology communication and Information Technology and many more It gave an analysis of the statistics of Nigerian born space scientists working in the other space-faring nations The analysis have been used to develop a model for increasing Nigerian scientist s involvement in the development of space research in Nigeria It concluded with some thoughts on the current and future of Nigeria s space borne scientific experiments policies and programs

Oke, O.

326

Development of a Master Health Facility List in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Abstract Introduction Routine Health Information Systems (RHIS) are increasingly transitioning to electronic platforms in several developing countries. Establishment of a Master Facility List (MFL) to standardize the allocation of unique identifiers for health facilities can overcome identification issues and support health facility management. The Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) recently developed a MFL, and we present the process and outcome. Methods The MFL was developed from the ground up, and includes a state code, a local government area (LGA) code, health facility ownership (public or private), the level of care, and an exclusive LGA level health facility serial number, as part of the unique identifier system in Nigeria. To develop the MFL, the LGAs sent the list of all health facilities in their jurisdiction to the state, which in turn collated for all LGAs under them before sending to the FMOH. At the FMOH, a group of RHIS experts verified the list and identifiers for each state. Results The national MFL consists of 34,423 health facilities uniquely identified. The list has been published and is available for worldwide access; it is currently used for planning and management of health services in Nigeria. Discussion Unique identifiers are a basic component of any information system. However, poor planning and execution of implementing this key standard can diminish the success of the RHIS. Conclusion Development and adherence to standards is the hallmark for a national health information infrastructure. Explicit processes and multi-level stakeholder engagement is necessary to ensuring the success of the effort.

Azeez, Aderemi; Bamidele, Samson; Oyemakinde, Akin; Oyediran, Kolawole Azeez; Adebayo, Wura; Fapohunda, Bolaji; Abioye, Abimbola; Mullen, Stephanie

2014-01-01

327

An investigation on using GIS to prospect for renewable energy in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on Nigeria, a region in the tropics bounded between latitude 4°N and 14°N, and longitude 3°E and 14°E. The project investigated, in a geographic information system, the spatial and seasonal variation in wind and solar energy over Nigeria, using the surface meteorology and solar energy (SSE version 6) dataset. These data, derived from satellites and models, were recently released by the United States' National Aeronautical Space Agency (NASA). The data used for the study was collected between 1983 and 2005. The results from NASA's SSE dataset were used to evaluate previous work done on renewable energy in Nigeria, using conventional data measured from the ground. This study confirmed some observations, made from conventional data, about the wind and solar energy characteristics of Nigeria. For example, the meridional increase in surface insolation towards the semi-arid northern part of the country; the meridional increase in averaged annual precipitation towards the coastal region of the south; and the phenomenon known as the 'little dry season', characterized by an abnormal decrease in precipitation which occurred during the month of August, within a narrow belt at the coastal region, during the peak of the rainy season. Furthermore, the trend in seasonal variations of surface wind, and the predominant directions of the prevailing winds within the study area were similar. However, this investigation revealed that wind speed in Nigeria increased towards a northeastern direction, as opposed to the northward increase in wind speed recorded with conventional data. Also, the remotely sensed estimates for wind in most of the stations in Nigeria are much less than the ground measured values. According to NASA's SSE data, the range of the wind power density for the country indicated that Nigeria is among those countries that have the lowest wind power density in the world. Comparing measurements at 35 locations within Nigeria, the study concluded that there was a strong correlation between NASA's SSE dataset, and insolation data obtained from measurements on the ground, thus making remote sensing a reliable method for analyzing solar energy for this region.

Alabi, Omowumi Oluwayemisi

328

A Single-Center 7-Year Experience with End-Stage Renal Disease Care in Nigeria--A Surrogate for the Poor State of ESRD Care in Nigeria and Other Sub-Saharan African Countries: Advocacy for a Global Fund for ESRD Care Program in Sub-Saharan African Countries  

PubMed Central

Background. A single-center ESRD care experience in a Nigerian teaching hospital is presented as a surrogate case to demonstrate the prevailing ESRD care situation in Nigeria and most SSA countries. Methods. The data of 320 consecutive ESRD patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis treatment during a seven-year period were retrospectively analyzed. Results. Over 80% of the subjects funded dialysis treatments from direct out of pocket payment. The mean duration on dialysis before dropout was 5.2 ± 7.6 weeks, with majority 314 (98.1%) of the patients unable to sustain dialysis above 12 weeks. Total dialysis sessions during the 7-year period was 1476 giving an average weekly dialysis session of 0.013 (0.05 hour/week) per patient per week. One hundred and twenty-eight (40%) patients died within 90 days of entry into dialysis care. Conclusions. ESRD care in this single centre was characterized by gross dialysis inadequacy and case fatality due to the inability to access and afford care. The opportunities for kidney transplantation are also very low. Poverty and the absence of government support for ESRD care are responsible for the poor outcomes. A global focus on ESRD care in SSA countries has thus become imperative. PMID:22811906

Alasia, Datonye Dennis; Emem-Chioma, Pedro; Wokoma, Friday Samuel

2012-01-01

329

Use of the enzyme?linked immunosorbent assay for screening cattle for Brucella antibodies in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of Brucella antibodies in settled Fulani cattle herds in Kaduna State, Nigeria, was determined by using the enzyme?linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Out of a total of 762 animals drawn randomly from 40 cattle herds in various areas of the state, 50 (6.6%) tested positive. There was no significant difference (P<0.01) in the number of reactors between male

P. A. Ocholi; C. D. Ezeokoli; O. O. Akerejola; D. I. Saror

1996-01-01

330

Knowledge of HIV/AIDS among nurses in southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to find out how much this group of nurses from south-western Nigeria knew about the HIV/AIDS phenomenon. A survey questionnaire was distributed to two population convenient samples of nurses; one group at a university teaching hospital, and the other at a post-basic institution of higher learning. The respondents stated that many of them knew quite a bit about HIV/AIDS, but only a few affirmed that they were taught informal classroom setting. Many of the nurses were able to identify the HIV as the culprit in causing the infection that leads to AIDS. The sources of information about HIV/AIDS vary. The nurses attributed the spread of HIV/AIDS to promiscuous teenage girls predominantly, as well as older men due to infidelity. Many of the nurses stated that sex education should be given to children as young as five years old, and as old as over sixteen years of age. It is recommended that curricular infusion should be done to incorporate HIV/AIDS education in the nursing schools in south-western Nigeria. PMID:17252879

Adepoju, Joseph A

2006-01-01

331

Public Awareness and Knowledge of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) Control Activities in Abuja, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

The need to engage the public in Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) control activities has become imperative in the context of morbidity reduction through preventive chemotherapy and community participation. Therefore, a survey was conducted among the general public to assess their knowledge and awareness of NTDs control activities in Nigeria. A simple questionnaire was administered to the general public attending a job fair in Abuja, Nigeria. Of the 461 respondents, a significant proportion 337 (73.1%) have heard of NTD before, but only 291 (63.1%) have good knowledge about NTDs. However, among the specific NTDs, only the control of onchocerciasis (50.8%) was of average public awareness in Nigeria, while all the other NTDs control activities were significantly less known to the general public. 397 (87.1%) stated that government support for NTD control activities is poor and were willing to assist to advocate for NTDs control. This survey demonstrates that despite government's numerous activities towards the control of NTDs in Nigeria, there is little sensitization of the general public. There is a need for policy changes that would raise the participation and involvement of the general public in NTDs control activities for sustainability. PMID:25254362

Olamiju, Olatunwa J.; Olamiju, Francisca O.; Adeniran, Adebiyi A.; Mba, Ifeanyi C.; Ukwunna, Chidera C.; Okoronkwo, Chukwu; Ekpo, Uwem F.

2014-01-01

332

Molecular characterization of the circulating strains of Vibrio cholerae during 2010 cholera outbreak in Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study aimed at characterizing the phenotypic and toxigenic status of circulating strains of cholera during outbreaks in Nigeria, employing molecular typing techniques. Two hundred and one samples of rectal swabs, stool, vomitus, water (from the well, borehole, sachet, stream, and tap) and disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite) were collected from three states in the country. The samples were inoculated on thiosulphate-citrate bile salt-sucrose (TCBS), Cary-Blair transport medium and smeared on glass slides for direct examination. The Vibrio cholerae isolates were serotyped, biotyped, and characterized using PCR of the cytotoxin gene A (ctxA), wbeO1, and wbfO139 gene primer. Of the 201 samples screened, 96 were positive for V cholerae O1 (48%), with 69 (72%) positive for ctxA gene. The results from this study showed that the circulating strains of cholera in Nigeria were of Ogawa serotype, also observed in other outbreaks in Nigeria (1991, 1992, and 1996). However, the strains were of the Classical biotype and were mainly (72%) ctxA gene-positive. This current investigation has confirmed the production of cholera toxin by the circulating strains, and this could be harnessed for possible cholera vaccine production in Nigeria. PMID:23930335

Oyedeji, Kolawole S; Niemogha, Mary-Theresa; Nwaokorie, Francisca O; Bamidele, Tajudeen A; Ochoga, Michael; Akinsinde, Kehinde A; Brai, Bartholomew I; Oladele, David; Omonigbehin, Emmanuel A; Bamidele, Moses; Fesobi, Toun W; Musa, Adesola Z; Adeneye, Adeniyi K; Smith, Stella I; Ujah, Innocent A

2013-06-01

333

The impacts of anthropogenic factors on the environment in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Generally speaking, there has been a consensus on the primary drivers of anthropogenic induced environmental degradation. However, little progress has been made in determining the magnitude of the impacts, particularly in developing countries. This creates a lacuna that needs to be filled up. The purpose of this study therefore is to ascertain the degree of anthropogenic induced environmental impacts in Nigeria. To achieve the aim, fossil fuel consumption was used as a surrogate for carbon dioxide emissions while the magnitude of the impacts was determined by regression statistics and the STIRPAT model. The results show that only three variables, namely population, affluence and urbanization, were statistically significant and that the regression model accounts for 60% of the variation in the environmental impacts. However, population and affluence, which have ecological elasticities of 1.699 and 2.709, respectively, are the most important anthropogenic drivers of environmental impacts in Nigeria while urbanization, with an elasticity of -0.570, reduces the effect of the impacts. This implies that modernization brings about a reduction in environmental impacts. The paper therefore makes a significant contribution to knowledge by successfully testing the STIRPAT model in this part of the world and by being the first application of the model at political units below the regional or nation states. PMID:18926616

Madu, Ignatius A

2009-03-01

334

Eocene ostracoda from Oshosun formation Southwestern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A biostratigraphic study of the phosphate-bearing Oshosun Formation in southwestern Nigeria (eastern Dahomey Embayment) gave ostracos which are diagnostic for the Eocene. The ostracod assemblage contains the early to middle Eocene zonal index Costa dahomeyi. The majority of the species are common to the phosphatic sequence in the western Dahomey Embayment. This paleontologic evidence, and the association of clay and shale with the phosphate occurrences in different parts of the basin, suggest that the phosphatic beds were deposited in the Dahomey Embayment under similar paleoenvironmental conditions. Phosphatic sedimentation in southwestern Nigeria is inferred to have occurred during an early to early middle Eocene minor marine transgression.

Okosun, E. A.

335

Tobacco control in Nigeria- policy recommendations  

PubMed Central

Major strides towards national tobacco control have been made since Nigeria became signatory to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in June 2004. The Nigerian senate passed a bill on March 15, 2011 which is expected to be signed into law shortly, to regulate and control production, manufacture, sale, advertising, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco or tobacco products. This paper highlights how the proposed tobacco control law provides a unique opportunity to domesticate the WHO FCTC, expand on smokeless tobacco regulation and develop a science base to improve tobacco control measures in Nigeria. PMID:22713586

2012-01-01

336

Occurrence and distribution of pepper veinal mottle virus and cucumber mosaic virus in pepper in Ibadan, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Viral diseases constitute obstacles to pepper production in the world. In Nigeria, pepper plants are primarily affected by pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Pepper leaf curl Virus (TLCV), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Pepper mottle virus (PMV) and a host of other viruses. The experiment was carried out with a diagnostic survey on the experimental field of the National Horticultural Research Institute, Ibadan, Nigeria and on pepper farms in six local government areas within Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria, forty samples were collected from each of the farms. Diseased samples were obtained from the field and taken to the laboratory for indexing. In ELISA test some of the samples from the pepper farms showed positive reaction to single infection with PVMV (36.79%), CMV (22.14%) while some others showed positive reaction to mixed infection of the two viruses (10%) but some also negative reaction to PVMV and CMV antisera (31.07). PMID:22495040

2012-01-01

337

Implementation of Geographic Information Systems for a Nigerian State: A Case Study of the Catholic Dioceses of Delta State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is an understandable concern among practitioners of education, academic analysts, policy formulators, and curriculum designers that a large number of government officials have both neglected and ignored the salient topic of the changing demographics of Nigeria and of Delta State (NPC, 2007). The economic upturn of Nigeria and in particular…

Banye, Anthony

2011-01-01

338

Geophysical mapping of the occurrence of shallow oil sands in Idiopopo at Okitipupa area, South-western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil sands are known to be an alternate source of energy and of great economic value. To map the occurrence of shallow oil sand deposits in Idiopopo, Okitipupa area in Ondo state southwestern Nigeria, vertical electric sounding (VES) in 11 stations along 3 profiles were carried out using the Schlumberger configuration. Apparent resistivity value obtained ranged from (135.7 ± 0.05)

R. K. Odunaike; J. A. Laoye; G. C. Ijeoma; L. P. Akinyemi

339

Knowledge, attitudes and experiences of sex trafficking by young women in Benin City, South-South Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benin City, the headquarters of Edo State, is known to have one of the highest rates of international sex trafficking of young women in Nigeria. This study was designed to determine the knowledge, attitudes and experiences of young women in Benin City, towards international sex trafficking. A random household sample of 1456 women aged 15–25 years was interviewed with a

F. E. Okonofua; S. M. Ogbomwan; A. N. Alutu; Okop Kufre; Aghahowa Eghosa

2004-01-01

340

Epidemiological and biochemical studies of human lymphatic filariasis and associated parasitoses in Oguta, South-Eastern, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible organ infections associated with human filariasis, helminthiasis and malaria in Oguta Local Government Area of Imo State, South-Eastern Nigeria were investigated. Blood, urine and stool samples were collected in appropriate containers from 200 male and female respondents aged 31 - 85 years. Parasitological studies were carried out on blood samples for malaria and\\/or microfilariae parasites while stool samples were

Okey A. Ojiako

341

An assessment of use of radio in agricultural information dissemination: a case study of radio Benue in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the use of radio as a medium of agricultural information delivery to farmers in Benue State, Nigeria. The objective was to determine the impact of radio agricultural programmes on the target audience (farmers). The data were collected from a sample of one hundred respondents selected through a simple random sampling technique. The data were analyzed with descriptive

O. J. Okwu; A. A. Kuku; J. I. Aba

342

Methods Used by Pre-Service Nigeria Certificate in Education Teachers in Solving Quantitative Problems in Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports part of the results of research on chemical problem solving behavior of pre-service teachers in Plateau and Northeastern states of Nigeria. Specifically, it examines and describes the methods used by 204 pre-service teachers in solving quantitative problems from four topics in chemistry. Namely, gas laws; electrolysis;…

Danjuma, Ibrahim Mohammed

2011-01-01

343

Social Theory and Poverty Reduction with Special Attention to Nigeria: Social-Institutional Explanation of Small-Scale Financial Institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do institutions and social capital provide a viable means for advancing the goals of poverty reduction programs in low capacity states? This question has particular importance for Nigeria and Africa as a whole because of the poor performance of poverty reduction programs despite domestic and global efforts to reduce poverty in the continent. In this paper, I assess the usefulness

Osaore Aideyan

2011-01-01

344

Comparing Students' Enrolment and Graduate Output in Home Economics with Other Vocational Subjects in Colleges of Education in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare students' enrolment and graduate output in Home Economics with other Vocational subjects in the Colleges of Education in Nigeria. The target population included twenty (20) Federal Colleges and twenty-seven (27) State Colleges of Education offering eight Vocational and Technical disciplines during the…

Arubayi, D. O.

2009-01-01

345

Towards an Effective Teacher Evaluation Practice in Nigeria: A Case Study of the Evaluation of Selected Primary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A teacher appraisal instrument was developed and validated for a system of teacher evaluation in Rivers State (Nigeria). The developed Likert scale for teacher scoring was tested for 410 teachers evaluated by 16 headteacher evaluators. Initial findings suggest areas in which the appraisal process and instrument can be improved. (SLD)

Akpe, C. S.

1994-01-01

346

Peer youth physical violence among secondary schools students in south west Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundYouth violence has been associated with adverse health behaviours and health outcomes in developed countries. However, there is limited information on the prevalence and factors associated with violence among adolescents in schools in Africa.MethodsA cross sectional survey of 516 adolescents aged 13–15 years in six public secondary schools, in Ogun State located in south west Nigeria, was conducted using the

E T Owoaje; N M Ndubusi

2010-01-01

347

Avian Flu: Multiple introductions of H5N1 in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the avian influenza virus H5N1 swept from Asia across Russia to Europe, Nigeria was the first country in Africa to report the emergence of this highly pathogenic virus. Here we analyse H5N1 sequences in poultry from two different farms in Lagos state and find that three H5N1 lineages were independently introduced through routes that coincide with the flight paths

M. F. Ducatez; C. M. Olinger; A. A. Owoade; S. de Landtsheer; W. Ammerlaan; A. D. M. E. Osterhaus; R. A. M. Fouchier; C. P. Muller

2006-01-01

348

RELATIVE ECONOMIC VALUE OF MAIZE - OKRA INTERCROPS IN RAINFOREST ZONE, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined the relative economic value of maize- okra intercrops in Edo State, Nigeria. The results of analysis show Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) of 0.82, Relative Value Total (RVT) of 0.99 and Relative Value of Intercropping (RVI) of 1.10. Although LER and RVT show that monocrops of maize and okra have advantage over intercrops, RVI shows that the profi

R. A Alabi

349

Cholera Epidemiology in Nigeria: an overview  

PubMed Central

Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium, Vibrio cholera. Choleragenic V. cholera O1 and O139 are the only causative agents of the disease. The two most distinguishing epidemiologic features of the disease are its tendency to appear in explosive outbreaks and its predisposition to causing pandemics that may progressively affect many countries and spread into continents. Despite efforts to control cholera, the disease continues to occur as a major public health problem in many developing countries. Numerous studies over more than a century have made advances in the understanding of the disease and ways of treating patients, but the mechanism of emergence of new epidemic strains, and the ecosystem supporting regular epidemics, remain challenging to epidemiologists. In Nigeria, since the first appearance of epidemic cholera in 1972, intermittent outbreaks have been occurring. The later part of 2010 was marked with severe outbreak which started from the northern part of Nigeria, spreading to the other parts and involving approximately 3,000 cases and 781 deaths. Sporadic cases have also been reported. Although epidemiologic surveillance constitutes an important component of the public health response, publicly available surveillance data from Nigeria have been relatively limited to date. Based on existing relevant scientific literature on features of cholera, this paper presents a synopsis of cholera epidemiology emphasising the situation in Nigeria. PMID:22937199

Adagbada, Ajoke Olutola; Adesida, Solayide Abosede; Nwaokorie, Francisca Obiageri; Niemogha, Mary-Theresa; Coker, Akitoye Olusegun

2012-01-01

350

Computational Biology and Bioinformatics in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Over the past few decades, major advances in the field of molecular biology, coupled with advances in genomic technologies, have led to an explosive growth in the biological data generated by the scientific community. The critical need to process and analyze such a deluge of data and turn it into useful knowledge has caused bioinformatics to gain prominence and importance. Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary research area that applies techniques, methodologies, and tools in computer and information science to solve biological problems. In Nigeria, bioinformatics has recently played a vital role in the advancement of biological sciences. As a developing country, the importance of bioinformatics is rapidly gaining acceptance, and bioinformatics groups comprised of biologists, computer scientists, and computer engineers are being constituted at Nigerian universities and research institutes. In this article, we present an overview of bioinformatics education and research in Nigeria. We also discuss professional societies and academic and research institutions that play central roles in advancing the discipline in Nigeria. Finally, we propose strategies that can bolster bioinformatics education and support from policy makers in Nigeria, with potential positive implications for other developing countries. PMID:24763310

Fatumo, Segun A.; Adoga, Moses P.; Ojo, Opeolu O.; Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga; Adeoye, Tolulope; Ewejobi, Itunuoluwa; Adebiyi, Marion; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; Bewaji, Clement; Nashiru, Oyekanmi

2014-01-01

351

Women, Education and Work in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the implication of the growing educational opportunities for women in Nigeria. Although bias has existed from the traditional Nigerian society against women, recent events especially in education reveal a conquering of this deep-rooted prejudice. Enrollment figures particularly in the last ten years show a remarkable bridging…

Anugwom, Edlyne E.

2009-01-01

352

Family Quality of Life in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The limited literature that exists about intellectual disabilities (ID) in Nigeria suggests that perceptions of ID may be shaped by social and cultural beliefs, and that socio-economic factors have prevented the development of policy and services. The present study sought to explore these suggestions in more detail by administering the…

Ajuwon, P. M.; Brown, I.

2012-01-01

353

Analysis of Nigeria's National Policy on Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nigeria will discontinue the use of the school leaving certificate examination and will instead rely on continuous assessment of students which is systematic, comprehensive, cumulative, and guidance-oriented. Eight evaluation criteria are suggested: achievement; personal qualities; interests; attitudes; physical health; and cocurricular, outdoor,…

Ojerinde, Dibu

1985-01-01

354

SUSTAINABLE WATER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM FOR RURAL NIGERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa face the most acute water supply challenges in the world. Nigeria, the most populous African country, has considerable populations without basic access to safe drinking water, with over 50% of the country lacking coverage. The village of Adu A...

355

Economic importance of bovine fascioliasis in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt was made to determine the annual economic losses due to bovine fascioliasis in Nigeria. The estimates were based on an average annual disease incidence of 2·5%, an assumed mortality rate of 1%, a total liver condemnation rate of 7%, a cattle population of 10 million and an annual slaughter rate of 10%.

A. Ogunrinade; Bola I. Ogunrinade

1980-01-01

356

Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.…

Ayotamuno, M. J.

1993-01-01

357

Feminism and family abuse in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the dilemma of family abuse and the struggle to integrate women into political leadership and economic development in Nigeria. It argues that, whether expressed as wife battery or female circumcision, the right to abuse women amounts to social control. This study further presents some theoretical perspectives on the role of women in a nation's development processes. It

Robert Dibie

2000-01-01

358

The Drink Driving Situation in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was carried out to assess the magnitude and nature of the drink-drive problem in Nigeria and evaluate the institutional capacities for preventing drinking and driving, using the methodology developed by the International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP) described in the overview paper in this issue.Methods: Data and information were collected using existing reports and by consulting officials

CHIDI OGAZI; E MA EDISON

2012-01-01

359

Traditional fermented protein condiments in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional fermented condiments (dawadawa, iru, ogiri) based on vegetable proteins, and consumed by different ethnic groups in Nigeria have been the pride of culinary traditions for centuries. It is evident that these products have played a major role in the food habits of communities in the rural regions serving not only as a nutritious non-meat proteins substitute but also as

O. K. Achi

360

Nigeria's Satellite Programme Development: Prospects and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nigeria's desire to maximize the benefits of space technology for its sustainable development, has become a reality with the establishment of the National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA) in May 1999 and the approval of the national Space Policy and Programmes in July 2001. In November, 2000, the Federal Government took a bold step with the signing of an

Joseph Akinyede

2008-01-01

361

Cladocera of coastal rivers of western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies indicate that there are at least 100 species of Cladocera in the families Bosminidae, Chydoridae, Daphnidae, Macrothricidae, Moinidae and Sididae in the inland waters of Nigeria. Over 50% of these have been found in net plankton samples from the coastal rivers in addition to Evadne tergestina Claus (Family: Podonidae), and Daphnia barbata Weltner, hitherto unreported in the equatorial

Austin B. M. Egborge; Egborge Onwudinjo; P. C. Chigbu

1994-01-01

362

Port-hinterland trucking constraints in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reliable and efficient transportation system contributes immensely to growth and prosperity of a nation. Nigeria, with its vast import traffic cannot afford to transport hinterland bound cargo in a manner not consistent with reliable practices. This study seeks to evaluate the rank-order and magnitude of the operational constraints associated with cargo haulage from Nigerian seaports to the hinterland. Data

A. E. Ubogu; J. A. Ariyo; M. Mamman

2011-01-01

363

Educational decentralization, public spending, and social justice in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study situates the process of educational decentralization in the narrower context of social justice. Its main object, however, is to analyze the implications of decentralization for strategies of equity and social justice in Nigeria. It starts from the premise that the early optimism that supported decentralization as an efficient and effective educational reform tool has been disappointed. The author maintains that decentralization — on its own — cannot improve education service delivery, the capacities of subordinate governments, or the integration of social policy in broader development goals. If the desired goals are to be met, public spending must be increased, greater tax revenues must be secured, and macro-economic stabilization must be achieved without re-instituting the welfare state.

Geo-Jaja, Macleans A.

2007-01-01

364

Diphtheria outbreak with high mortality in northeastern Nigeria.  

PubMed

SUMMARY A diphtheria outbreak occurred from February to November 2011 in the village of Kimba and its surrounding settlements, in Borno State, northeastern Nigeria. We conducted a retrospective outbreak investigation in Kimba village and the surrounding settlements to better describe the extent and clinical characteristics of this outbreak. Ninety-eight cases met the criteria of the case definition of diphtheria, 63 (64.3%) of whom were children aged <10 years; 98% of cases had never been immunized against diphtheria. None of the 98 cases received diphtheria antitoxin, penicillin, or erythromycin during their illness. The overall case-fatality ratio was 21.4%, and was highest in children aged 0-4 years (42.9%). Low rates of immunization, delayed clinical recognition of diphtheria and absence of treatment with antitoxin and appropriate antibiotics contributed to this epidemic and its severity. PMID:23866913

Besa, N C; Coldiron, M E; Bakri, A; Raji, A; Nsuami, M J; Rousseau, C; Hurtado, N; Porten, K

2014-04-01

365

The post-harvest fruit rots of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) in Nigeria.  

PubMed

A survey of the post-harvest fruit rot diseases of tomato was conducted in five states of Nigeria. During severe infections, the diseases could cause 25% loss at harvest and 34% loss of the remaining product in transit, storage and market stalls; thus giving an overall loss of about 50% of the product. Two types of rots, soft and dry were recognised. The soft rot was found to account for about 85% and the dry rot about 15% of the overall loss. Erwinia carotovora, Rhizopus oryzae, R. stolonifer, Fusarium equiseti, F. nivale and F. oxysporum were established as the soft rot pathogens; while Aspergillus aculeatus, A. flavus, Cladosporium tenuissimum, Corynespora cassiicola, Curvularia lunata, Penicillium expansum P. multicolor and Rhizoctonia solani were established as the dry rot pathogens of tomato fruits in Nigeria. PMID:471028

Fajola, A O

1979-01-01

366

Building Nigeria’s Response to Climate Change: Pilot Projects for Community-Based Adaptation in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Throughout history, human societies have had to effectively devise ways and means to adapt to climate variability by altering\\u000a their lifestyles, agriculture, settlements and other critical aspects of their economies and livelihoods. The capacity to\\u000a adapt enables societies to deal with a range of uncertainties. Coping and adaptation is a way of life in Nigeria, where climate\\u000a variability is the

Ellen Woodley

367

Rate of timber production in a tropical rainforest ecosystem of Southwestern Nigeria and its implications on sustainable forest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Timber harvesting data are very essential for sustainable management of forest resources. These data are very scarce in developing\\u000a countries. Therefore, we collected and analyzed data on the rate of timber production of the free areas and the forest reserves\\u000a in Ondo State, Nigeria. The data collected from the State Department of Forestry’s official records, annual reports and files\\u000a were

V. A. J. Adekunle; A. O. Olagoke; L. F. Ogundare

2010-01-01

368

Perspectives on the battered child syndrome in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The battered child syndrome remains an understudied phenomenon in Nigeria. This is partly due to the romanticized and the “noble savage” image which holds that child abuse cannot occur in Africa. Even when it is occasionally discovered, it tends to be blamed on urbanization. Evidence now shows that some cultural practices in Nigeria could be defined as child battering. Many

Adewale Rotimi

1988-01-01

369

The Use of Adolescents as Domestic Servants in Ibadan, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of adolescents as domestic servants has become prevalent in most urban centers in Nigeria. This study focused on adolescents who work as domestic househelps in urban centers with special reference to Ibadan, Nigeria. The main objective of the study is to examine their mode of recruitment, the nature of their work as well the impact of such…

Okafor, Emeka Emmanuel

2009-01-01

370

NELA: A Community Response to HIV/AIDS in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The greatest current threat to humanity, most especially in the developing countries of the world, is HIV/AIDS. The first case of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria was in 1986 in Lagos. Due to inaction and denial by the people, there was a rapid but subtle transmission of the virus within Nigeria's various populations and communities. Presently, the disease has…

Soyinka, Femi; Ogundare, Dipo; Olowookere, Kemi; Akinsola, Yemisi; Alade, Adeyemi; Moronkola, O. A.

2004-01-01

371

Education, Horizontal Inequalities and Ethnic Relations in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article focuses on the role of higher education in generating or mitigating inequality among ethno-regional groups and its impact on ethnic relations with evidence from Nigeria. It shows that access to education in Nigeria has been politicised. This is because of the perceived role of education in engendering political and socio-economic…

Ukiwo, Ukoha

2007-01-01

372

Professional Counseling in Nigeria: Past, Present, and Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The events that circumscribed the parameters of today's counseling in Nigeria are many and varied regarding their influence in shaping the development of the profession in the country. The authors review these events and the current status of counseling in Nigeria, including the challenges faced in the profession. Future trends and suggestions for…

Okocha, Aneneosa A. G.; Alika, Ijeoma H.

2012-01-01

373

Health Literacy and the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the authors examined health related challenges facing Nigeria. They argued that the relationship between literacy and health in today's knowledge-based economy further puts pressure on countries like Nigeria to raise its literacy rates if it is to compete in the global market. This line of thought is based on the fact that in…

Evawoma-Enuku, Usiwoma; Oyitso, Mabel; Enuku, Christie Akpoigho

2010-01-01

374

The Western Pennsylvania Educators Inter-Cultural Experience in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The project selected 16 educators representing liberal arts faculty, education faculty, and public school teachers to train them about Africa. The training had three phases: (1) an on-campus program on African history, politics, economics, and geography, focusing on Nigeria; (2) six weeks in Nigeria, meeting with prominent educators, politicians,…

Vold, Larry A.; Vold, Edwina

375

The ecological distribution of monitor lizards (Reptilia, Varanidae) in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecological distribulion of three varanid lizards (Varanus exanthematicus, K niloticus niloticus, and V. niloticus ornatusj in Nigeria is studied in the present paper, from both literature records and long-term field ecological research. V. exanthematicus is present only in central and northern Nigeria, where it seerns to be widespread and locally cornrnon in the Guinea savanna vegetation zone, but rnay

M. K. Bayless; L. Luiselli

2000-01-01

376

Multilingualism and healthcare in Nigeria: A management perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nigeria has a healthcare system that has been described as defective even by its managers. A year 2000 study by the World Health Organization (WHO) of health systems in 191 member countries ranked Nigeria 187th. These several evaluations consistently point to inadequate managerial skills. Regrettably, very little is known of the import of language and communication as management issues in

Bassey E. Antia; Fankep D. A. Bertin

2004-01-01

377

Entrepreneurial Education in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions and Sustainable Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The higher education in Nigeria has witnessed a tremendous growth in the last 50 years in terms of producing manpower that could bring about development. However, the problem of Nigeria today is not about human and natural resources, but how to translate the human potentials to meet the realization of its all round development and sustain economic…

Agboola, B. M.

2010-01-01

378

The Politics of Shareholder Activism in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shareholder activism has become a force for good in the extant corporate governance literature. In this article, we present\\u000a a case study of Nigeria to show how shareholder activism, as a corporate governance mechanism, can constitute a space for\\u000a unhealthy politics and turbulent politicking, which is a reflection of the country’s brand of politics. As a result, we point\\u000a out

Emmanuel AdegbiteKenneth Amaeshi; Kenneth Amaeshi; Olufemi Amao

2012-01-01

379

The Practice of Archaeology in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter presents a brief summary of the historical development of archaeology in Nigeria from the first digs at Ile Ife\\u000a in 1910 by the German anthropologist Leo Frobenius, who searched for buried terracotta figurines, to the accidental discovery\\u000a of the first piece of what have become known as the Nok terracotta figurines in tin mines on the Jos Plateau

C. A. Folorunso

380

Geography in general education in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper traces the development of geographic education in Nigeria and examines the views of geographers, other academics,\\u000a students and the public at large about the importance of geography. Geography's value is immense despite the non-professional\\u000a nature of the discipline. Nevertheless, there is a need to define geography's status and ensure career prospects for students.\\u000a The Nigerian Geographical Association (from

1990-01-01

381

Cadmium determination in cigarettes available in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

± 0.46 ?g\\/g) compared to the Nigerian brands (1.10 ± ± ± ± 0.35 ?g\\/g). Relatively lower Cd values were observed in cigarettes from developing countries (~ 1.3 ?g\\/g) compared to brands from developed countries (>1.3 ?g\\/g). The average Cd content of cigarettes available in Nigeria is 1.28 ?g per cigarette and a person who smokes 20 cigarettes per day

382

The 'beyond parental control' label in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Recent reports in Nigeria indicate a geometric rise in incarcerated adolescents, with an overwhelming majority of this increase being attributed to adolescents being declared 'beyond parental control'. There is a nagging suspicion that the Nigerian juvenile justice system has over criminalised adolescents by declaring them 'beyond control' when behavioural problems have actually resulted from child abuse/neglect and family disruption. A study was undertaken in a juvenile justice institution in Nigeria to assess the adequacy of pre-incarceration parental care among adolescents that had been declared as 'beyond parental control'. The study included 75 adolescent boys that had been declared as 'beyond parental control' and a comparison group of 144 matched school going boys. It examined self-reports received from the adolescent boys regarding their pre-incarceration family life and social circumstances, as well as the behavioural problems they had experienced. The findings indicate that adolescent boys who were declared as 'beyond parental control' had a significantly higher lifetime history of behavioural problems than the comparison group, and they also had significantly higher indicators of pre-incarceration child abuse/neglect and problems with stability and consistency of primary support. These findings pose questions regarding the presumption of adequate parental care prior to the declaration of 'beyond parental control'. It also raises questions about child rights protection and juvenile justice reform in Nigeria. PMID:24284377

Atilola, Olayinka; Omigbodun, Olayinka; Bella-Awusah, Tolulope

2014-01-01

383

The childless elderly in Tiriki, Kenya, and Irigwe, Nigeria: A comparative analysis of the relationship between beliefs about childlessness and the social status of the childless elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in Tiriki, Western province, Kenya, in 1954–56, 1961, and 1982, and Irigwe, Plateau State, Nigeria, in 1963–5 and 1980, reveals that these two geographically and culturally disparate tribal groups both prescribe “parenthood” as a precondition for attainment of full adult status and thus as a prerequisite for true elderhood. In Irigwe anyone of sound mind can achieve “parenthood” and

Walter H. Sangree

1987-01-01

384

AIDS NGOS and corruption in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Using two ethnographic case studies, the intersecting dynamics of inequality, morality, and corruption are examined as they play out in Nigerian AIDS NGOs. To the Nigerian public, local AIDS organizations are widely seen as conduits for corruption. But local opinions of particular NGOs and their leaders turn less on whether donor resources were misused and more on the ways that people who accumulate the benefits of corruption use them socially. Nevertheless, discontent swirls about corruption in general, a fact that suggests a gradual change in people's understandings of the processes that produce inequality in Nigeria. PMID:22469532

Smith, Daniel Jordan

2012-05-01

385

A case of blastomycosis from Zaria, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A case of blastomycosis from Zaria, Nigeria is reported. The clinical features were indistinguishable from those of tuberculosis which is very common in this environment. Lack of response to anti-tuberculosis therapy within eight weeks prompted the search for other organisms which resulted in the isolation of Blastomyces dermatitidis. Compatible histological evidence was obtained. Subsequent favourable response to amphotericin B was evident. Infection with this organism should be included in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary and pleural lesions simulating tuberculosis in West Africa. PMID:6506148

Anjorin, F I; Kazmi, R; Malu, A O; Lawande, R V; Fakunle, Y M

1984-01-01

386

AIDS NGOS and corruption in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Using two ethnographic case studies, the intersecting dynamics of inequality, morality, and corruption are examined as they play out in Nigerian AIDS NGOs. To the Nigerian public, local AIDS organizations are widely seen as conduits for corruption. But local opinions of particular NGOs and their leaders turn less on whether donor resources were misused and more on the ways that people who accumulate the benefits of corruption use them socially. Nevertheless, discontent swirls about corruption in general, a fact that suggests a gradual change in people's understandings of the processes that produce inequality in Nigeria. PMID:22469532

Smith, Daniel Jordan

2011-01-01

387

Intervention for the control of STDs including HIV among commercial sex workers, commercial drivers and students in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Ondo State University-Australian National University collaborative research program on sexual networking, a survey of the commercial sex industry and the people engaged in it was undertaken in five major cities and large towns in Nigeria in 1992-93 (Orubuloye, Caldwell and Caldwell 1994). A total of 914 sex workers were interviewed and all participated in subsequent in-depth

F. Oguntimehin

1999-01-01

388

Status of Job Motivation and Job Performance of Field Level Extension Agents in Ogun State: Implications for Agricultural Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The field level extension agents (FLEAs) are the lifeline of the agricultural extension system in Nigeria. Their motivation and job performance are therefore important to achieving faster agricultural development in Nigeria. The study identified the factors motivating the FLEAs working with Ogun State Agricultural development programme (OGADEP)…

Fabusoro, E.; Awotunde, J. A.; Sodiya, C. I.; Alarima, C. I.

2008-01-01

389

An Assessment of the Level of Influence of Family Life and HIV/AIDS Education on Knowledge, Attitude and Decision Making among Adolescents with Hearing Impairment in Some States in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated knowledge, attitude and decision making on HIV/AIDS among adolescents with hearing impairment in Oyo, Lagos and Kwara States. Seventy-six respondents participated in the study with age range between 16 and 20. The research adopted a descriptive survey research design. Seventy-six students with hearing impairment…

Adeniyi, S. O.; Oyewumi, A. M.; Fakolade, O. A.

2011-01-01

390

Educational and Social Welfare Programs for Older Populations in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gives an overview of the aging population in nations such as Nigeria and of adult education's role in their adjustment and well being. Recommends adult day programs rather than isolation in homes for the aged. (Contains 16 references.) (SK)

Imhabekhai, Clement I.

2003-01-01

391

Variability of daily precipitation over Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study identified coherent daily precipitation regions in Nigeria by analyzing the spatial and temporal homogeneity of daily precipitation; investigating the dependence of wet day amount (WDAMT) and percentage of wet day (PWD) on latitude, longitude, elevation and distance from the ocean and finally regionalizing the daily precipitation stations. Non-parametric spatial homogeneity test was carried out on daily precipitation over 23 stations in Nigeria between 1992 and 2000 while the temporal analysis was done from 1971 to 2000. Regression analysis was used to determine the dependence of WDAMT and PWD on latitude, longitude, elevation and distance from the ocean. Principal component and cluster analyses were conducted to regionalize the precipitation stations. Seven homogeneous groups of stations were identified. Elevation explains 19.9 and 4.8 % of the variance in WDAMT and PWD, respectively, while latitude explains 76.2 % of variance in PWD. Eight principal components that explain 63.1 % of the variance in the daily precipitation data were retained for cluster analysis. Precipitation in the six daily precipitation regions that emerged from the cluster analysis is influenced by the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone, latitude, distance from ocean and southwesterlies while the northern region alone is influenced by the African Easterly Wave. In addition, precipitation in all the regions is influenced by topography. Low to medium spatial coherence exists in the precipitation regions. The spatial variations of PWD and WDAMT have implications for agricultural productivity and water resources in different parts of the country.

Adeniyi, M. O.

2014-08-01

392

Variability of daily precipitation over Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study identified coherent daily precipitation regions in Nigeria by analyzing the spatial and temporal homogeneity of daily precipitation; investigating the dependence of wet day amount (WDAMT) and percentage of wet day (PWD) on latitude, longitude, elevation and distance from the ocean and finally regionalizing the daily precipitation stations. Non-parametric spatial homogeneity test was carried out on daily precipitation over 23 stations in Nigeria between 1992 and 2000 while the temporal analysis was done from 1971 to 2000. Regression analysis was used to determine the dependence of WDAMT and PWD on latitude, longitude, elevation and distance from the ocean. Principal component and cluster analyses were conducted to regionalize the precipitation stations. Seven homogeneous groups of stations were identified. Elevation explains 19.9 and 4.8 % of the variance in WDAMT and PWD, respectively, while latitude explains 76.2 % of variance in PWD. Eight principal components that explain 63.1 % of the variance in the daily precipitation data were retained for cluster analysis. Precipitation in the six daily precipitation regions that emerged from the cluster analysis is influenced by the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone, latitude, distance from ocean and southwesterlies while the northern region alone is influenced by the African Easterly Wave. In addition, precipitation in all the regions is influenced by topography. Low to medium spatial coherence exists in the precipitation regions. The spatial variations of PWD and WDAMT have implications for agricultural productivity and water resources in different parts of the country.

Adeniyi, M. O.

2014-11-01

393

Dermatologic conditions in teenage adolescents in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Skin disorders are common in adolescents, and the impact on quality of life can be enormous, particularly when viewed against the backdrop of the visibility of skin diseases and the psychologically vulnerable period of adolescence. However, few studies have documented the magnitude of skin disorders in this subset of individuals. We therefore estimated the point prevalence and pattern of dermatologic conditions in adolescents attending various secondary schools in Calabar, Southern Nigeria. Methods Using a structured questionnaire, relevant sociodemographic information was obtained from 1,447 teenage adolescents from eight secondary schools. Thereafter, a whole body examination was conducted to determine the presence and types of skin disorders seen. Results Skin diseases were seen in 929 students. The point prevalence was higher in males (72.1%) than in females (58.3%). Private schools had a higher prevalence than public schools. The six most common dermatoses were acne vulgaris, pityriasis versicolor, nevi, tinea, miliaria, and keloid/hypertrophic scars, and accounted for over 80% of the dermatoses seen. Conclusion The point prevalence of dermatoses in senior secondary school adolescents was 64.2%. Although a large number of skin disorders were observed, only a handful accounted for a significant proportion of the diseases seen. This increases the ease of training community health workers in the recognition and treatment of common skin diseases. Age, race, and climatic factors are important determinants of skin diseases in adolescents in Nigeria. PMID:24966708

Henshaw, Eshan B; Olasode, Olayinka A; Ogedegbe, Evelyn E; Etuk, Imaobong

2014-01-01

394

Evaluation of pH Levels in Some Common Carbohydrate Food Items Consumed by Communities in the Central Senatorial District of Cross River State, South-South of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: This work evaluates and provides data on the seasonal pH of common carbohydrate food sources in major communities of central senatorial districts of Cross River State. The result shows that most of the locally consumed food items within these zones are mostly acidic within a mean value of pH of 4.6 and conductivity of 48.6 Siemens for the

E. N. Tawo; A. E. Abara; S. P. Malu; N. O. Alobi

2009-01-01

395

HIV\\/AIDS in Nigeria: a bibliometric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Nigeria is home to more people living with HIV than any other country in the world, except South Africa and India-where an estimated 2.9 million [1.7 million – 4.2 million] people were living with the virus in 2005. A systematic assessment of recent HIV\\/AIDS research output from Nigeria is not available. Without objective information about the current deficiencies and

Olalekan A Uthman

2008-01-01

396

Human resource management practices in Nigeria: challenges and insights  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper generated current knowledge on aspects of human resource management practices in Nigeria from a sample of 185 human resource management professionals employed in over ninety-six corporations located in three major cities in Nigeria. Furthermore, the convergence\\/divergence\\/cross-vergence perspective was utilized to provide theoretical insights on the human resource management practices. The findings support a cross-vergence perspective as evidenced by

Uzoamaka P. Anakwe

2002-01-01

397

Surgeon-Patient Information Disclosure Practices in Southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined the practice of information disclosure to patients by surgeons in Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A 55-item self-administered semi-structured questionnaire was sent to 150 surgeons in southwestern Nigeria in 2004–2005. The data obtained from the completed questionnaire were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Of the 150 surgeons, 102 completed the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 68.0%.

T. O. Ogundiran; C. A. Adebamowo

2012-01-01

398

The social meaning of infertility in Southwest Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been very little documentation of the social meaning given to infertility in many developing countries, including Nigeria, where the prevalence of infertility is known to be high. We have conducted a number of qualitative studies aimed at exploring socio-cultural issues associated with infertility in Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria. Twenty-five focus-group discussions were held with knowledgeable persons in the rural

Friday E. Okonofua; Rachel C. Snow; Boston M

399

The cost-effectiveness in the use of HIV counselling and testing-mobile outreaches in reaching men who have sex with men (MSM) in northern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk of HIV and other STI infections in Nigeria. This is because MSM are afraid to seek medical help because the healthcare workers in various facilities are afraid of the consequences if they provide services for MSM citing the law as a reason not to intervene. MSM in northern states of Nigeria are facing double-jeopardy because the few international partners working in MSM in Nigeria are pulling out of these volatile areas because of the fear of attacks by the Boko Haram and the Nigerian law enforcement agencies. Objectives The intervention was conducted to promote affordable and sustainable HIV care and treatment for MSM in Nigeria. Methods This intervention was conducted in the Boko Haram ravaged cities of Kano and Maiduguri (North-East Nigeria). Twenty MSM-key influencers from the two cities were identified and trained on HIV counselling and testing, caregivers, case managers and on initiation process for ARV treatment for new HIV+MSM as well as ethical considerations. Results The mean age of the key influencers was 24 years +/?SD. Each of the trained 20 key influencers reached 20 MSM-peer with condom promotion, HCT, referral to identified MSM-community health centers and follow-up/caregiving within the space of one month. The project was able to reach 400 MSM in the two cities. 89% of the peers consented to HCT. HIV prevalence among the participants was at 18%. The project recorded ARV-successful referral to healthcare facilities for the respondents that tested positive. The key influencers have been following up for ARV-adherence. Conclusions Use of community members should be promoted for sustainability and ownership. It also helps in eradicating socio-cultural barrier to HIV intervention for MSM. Moreover, this proves to be one of the safest and affordable methods of reaching MSM in Nigeria in this ugly time of legalization of homophobia in the country's constitution.

Ifekandu, Chiedu; Suleiman, Aliyu; Aniekwe, Ogechukwu

2014-01-01

400

An Overview of Female Genital Mutilation in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Nigeria, due to its large population, has the highest absolute number of female genital mutilation (FGM) worldwide, accounting for about one-quarter of the estimated 115–130 million circumcised women in the world. The objective of this review is to ascertain the current status of FGM in Nigeria. Pertinent literature on FGM retrieved from internet services [Google search on FGM in Nigeria, www.online Nigeria, PubMed of the national library of medicine www.medconsumer. Info/tropics/fgm.htm, Biomedcentral and African Journal Online (AJOL) (FGM)] and textbooks, journals, and selected references for proper understanding of the topic was included in this review. The national prevalence rate of FGM is 41% among adult women. Evidence abound that the prevalence of FGM is declining. The ongoing drive to eradicate FGM is tackled by World Health Organization, United Nations International Children Emergency Fund, Federation of International Obstetrics and Gynecology (FIGO), African Union, The economic commission for Africa, and many women organizations. However, there is no federal law banning FGM in Nigeria. There is need to eradicate FGM in Nigeria. Education of the general public at all levels with emphasis on the dangers and undesirability of FGM is paramount. PMID:23209995

Okeke, TC; Anyaehie, USB; Ezenyeaku, CCK

2012-01-01

401

Constraints to Women's Involvement in Community Development in Nigeria: Case Study of Osun State, Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with 120 rural Nigerian women found that 96% participate in self-help community development projects and 68% were engaged in farming. Constrains on participation included domestic responsibilities, lack of funding and resources, male domination, and politics. There was a significant relationship between their sociocultural beliefs and…

Odebode, S. O.; Oladeji, J. O.

2001-01-01

402

Environmental legal implications of oil and gas exploration in the Niger Delta of Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nigeria is an African country endowed with a wealth of oil and gas resources, and they are mainly found in the core Niger Delta (home to the Ijaw and Ogoni indigenous, ethnic minorities). Since Great Britain granted Nigeria political independence on October 1, 1960, successive Nigerian governments (military and civilian) have been dominated by the majority ethnic groups (Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, and Ibo). Significantly, the government adopted a socialist-based model of absolute state ownership over oil and gas resources. The socialist model formed the basis of Nigeria's business collaboration with multinational oil and gas corporations from Europe and the United States (notably Shell, Chevron Texaco, Agip, Exxon Mobil, Total, and Elf). This model is fraught with contradictions and has led to unacceptable consequences, including policies that allow exploitation of natural resources without reference to environmental sustainability. When oil was first struck in 1956 at Oloibori (Ijaw area), people thought it would bring prosperity and an improved quality of life. Sadly, the opposite has occurred. Forty-nine years of hardship, agonizing pain, debilitating anger, extreme poverty, poisoned rivers, destroyed occupations, devastated environment, and stunted growth of the youth are the negative impacts of oil and gas exploitation in the Niger Delta. In other words, oil and gas exploration and production have visited a full range of evils---socio-political, economic, and cultural---upon the indigenous Niger Delta people. Furthermore, the wealth extracted from the area is used by the state and multinational corporations to enhance their own wealth and quality of life. Revenue has been conspicuously looted and misappropriated by political leaders at the expense of the Niger Delta environment and its people. This confluence of exploitation and injury has led to social upheavals and armed rebellions, all capable of precipitating the disintegration of the country. In this dissertation, research materials have been used to identify fundamental problems inherent in the current approach to oil and gas exploration and development. Primary research findings were used to develop the recommended shift in environmental paradigm that is critical to achieving sustainable development in Nigeria. Central to the recommendations in this dissertation is a rigorous, participatory Environmental Impact Assessment ("EIA") process.

Orubebe, Bibobra Bello

403

The Epidemiological features of lymphoid malignancies in Benin City, Nigeria: a 15 years study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Lymphoid malignancies compose a wide spectrum of different morphologic and clinical syndromes known to vary widely throughout the world. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence and time trends of lymphoid malignancies. Methods A 15 (May 1st 1996-April 30th 2010) years study of all patients who had lymph node biopsy at the Department of Haematology and Pathology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Results The 391 patients had a male preponderance (M:F; 1.6:1). An increase in the lymphoid malignant cases was noted from 95 cases in the first 5-year interval (1996–2000) to 179 cases in the last 5-year interval (2006–2010) giving an average increase of 84.0%. Non-Hodgkins lymphoma (61.1%) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (18.2%) were the most frequent followed by Hodgkin's lymphoma and myeloma with equal proportions of 9.0% each. A positive correlation with a significant linear trends was obtained (r=0.1949, p<0.0001). Geographic areas at risk were found mainly in patients residing in Delta State (67.0%) which is a major oil producing state and Edo State (30.4%) where the hospital is located, both in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Conclusion Future research into environmental agents and genetic makeup/HLA typing of patients can be carried out. PMID:22368753

Omoti, Caroline Edijana; Nwannadi, Alexander Ikenna; Obieche, Jude Chike; Olu-Eddo, Adesuwa Noma

2012-01-01

404

Modeling optimal cervical cancer prevention strategies in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to assess the most efficient combinations of vaccination and screening coverage for the prevention of cervical cancer (CC) at different levels of expenditure in Nigeria. Methods An optimization procedure, using a linear programming approach and requiring the use of two models (an evaluation and an optimization model), was developed. The evaluation model, a Markov model, estimated the annual number of CC cases at steady state in a population of 100,000 women for four alternative strategies: screening only; vaccination only; screening and vaccination; and no prevention. The results of the Markov model for each scenario were used as inputs to the optimization model determining the optimal proportion of the population to receive screening and/or vaccination under different scenarios. The scenarios varied by available budget, maximum screening and vaccination coverage, and overall reachable population. Results In the base-case optimization model analyses, with a coverage constraint of 20% for one lifetime screening, 95% for vaccination and a budget constraint of $1 per woman per year to minimize CC incidence, the optimal mix of prevention strategies would result in a reduction of CC incidence of 31% (3-dose vaccination available) or 46% (2-dose vaccination available) compared with CC incidence pre-vaccination. With a 3-dose vaccination schedule, the optimal combination of the different strategies across the population would be 20% screening alone, 39% vaccination alone and 41% with no prevention, while with a 2-dose vaccination schedule the optimal combination would be 71% vaccination alone, and 29% with no prevention. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the results are sensitive to the constraints included in the optimization model as well as the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and CC treatment cost. Conclusions The results of the optimization model indicate that, in Nigeria, the most efficient allocation of a limited budget would be to invest in both vaccination and screening with a 3-dose vaccination schedule, and in vaccination alone before implementing a screening program with a 2-dose vaccination schedule. PMID:24885048

2014-01-01

405

Living well with HIV in Nigeria? Stigma and survival challenges preventing optimum benefit from an ART clinic.  

PubMed

Thirty years into the HIV pandemic, the interactions of stigma, social and economic survival, and clinical interventions continue to be key to understanding and managing HIV at both personal and societal levels. With antiretroviral therapy, HIV is increasingly a chronic condition requiring lifelong treatment, near-perfect adherence, and support from both social networks and formal services. This study asked: is stigma still a significant problem for people living with HIV (PLHIV) who have secured access to antiretrovirals (ARVs)? How do PLHIV accessing ARVs in Nigeria experience the social, economic and health service supports intended to address their needs? What are the concerns and challenges of PLHIV and health workers regarding these supports? What are the implications for approaches to stigma and discrimination? This qualitative study at the Antiretroviral (ART) Clinic of the Osogbo State Hospital, Osun State, Nigeria involved in-depth interviews with 15 PLHIV who have been attending the clinic for at least one year, and three health workers. The results reveal both the diversity among even a small number of patients, and persistent cross-cutting themes of stigma, discrimination, poverty, and the psychological impacts of insecure livelihoods and well-intentioned but ultimately stigmatizing supports such as selective food parcels. Both population-based interventions against stigma and poverty, as well as micro-level, contextualized attention to patients', families' and health workers' fear of social exclusion and infection at a clinic and community level are needed if patients - and society - are to live well with HIV in Nigeria. PMID:24569837

Aransiola, Joshua; Imoyera, Winifred; Olowookere, Samuel; Zarowsky, Christina

2014-03-01

406

Polio eradication in Nigeria and the role of the national stop transmission of polio program, 2012-2013.  

PubMed

To strengthen the Nigeria polio eradication program at the operational level, the National Stop Transmission of Polio (N-STOP) program was established in July 2012 as a collaborative effort of the National Primary Health Care Development Agency, the Nigerian Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Since its inception, N-STOP has recruited and trained 125 full-time staff, 50 residents in training, and 50 ad hoc officers. N-STOP officers, working at national, state, and district levels, have conducted enumeration outreaches in 46 437 nomadic and hard-to-reach settlements in 253 districts of 19 states, supported supplementary immunization activities in 236 districts, and strengthened routine immunization in 100 districts. Officers have also conducted surveillance assessments, outbreak response, and applied research as needs evolved. The N-STOP program has successfully enhanced Global Polio Eradication Initiative partnerships and outreach in Nigeria, providing an accessible, flexible, and culturally competent technical workforce at the front lines of public health. N-STOP will continue to respond to polio eradication program needs and remain a model for other healthcare initiatives in Nigeria and elsewhere. PMID:25316824

Waziri, Ndadilnasiya E; Ohuabunwo, Chima J; Nguku, Patrick M; Ogbuanu, Ikechukwu U; Gidado, Saheed; Biya, Oladayo; Wiesen, Eric S; Vertefeuille, John; Townes, Debra; Oyemakinde, Akin; Nwanyanwu, Okey; Gassasira, Alex; Mkanda, Pascal; Muhammad, Ado J G; Elmousaad, Hashim A; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Mahoney, Frank J

2014-11-01

407

Energy assessment of Ivory Coast, Morocco, Nigeria, and Senegal  

SciTech Connect

This report is an overview of the energy market in four West African countries: The Ivory Coast, Morocco, Nigeria, and Senegal. We feel these countries are representative of the West African region. Together they account for 75% of the total energy use in West Africa, 78% of GDP, and 76% of population. The purpose of the study is to analyze the evolution of energy demand in the context of the general socio-economic background of the region. The study also examines energy supply and trade related to the energy sector. The analysis focuses on the study of commercial fuels. Although we have reviewed studies of wood, solar, wind, and agricultural residues, we leave out detailed discussions of these non-commercial energy forms. The first part of the report is an assessment of the trends in energy demand in the four study countries. We discuss the main factors driving energy demand sector by sector. This is followed by a review of the primary energy resources of the countries, and of the capacity for production of secondary fuels. The last section looks at energy trade, with particular emphasis on the role of the United States.

Ghirardi, A.; Sathaye, J.; Goering, P.

1986-11-01

408

Childhood Mortality in Federal Medical Centre Umuahia, South Eastern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the mortality pattern in children seen at Federal Medical Centre Umuahia (FMCU) Abia state, South Eastern Nigeria. Methods A retrospective cross sectional descriptive study over a 5-year period from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2008 using data retrieved from the hospital’s medical records department. Results A total of 3,814 children were admitted in the hospital and 434 of them died giving a mortality rate of 11%. The mean age was 1.7 (Std D of 3.19). Two hundred and thirty eight of them were males while 196 of them were females giving a sex ratio of 1.2:1. Majority of the mortality (49%) occurred within 24 hours of admission. The major causes of death during neonatal period were birth asphyxia (34%), prematurity (24%) and neonatal sepsis (24%). Malaria was the leading cause of death beyond the neonatal period accounting for 42% of cases. Other common mortality causes were pneumonia, septicaemia, diarrhea, HIV AIDS and meningitis each accounting for 10%, 10%, 7%, 7% and 5% respectively. The months of July, May and March accounted for most deaths (12%, 12% and 11% respectively). Conclusion Birth asphyxia and malaria associated deaths were responsible for most deaths during neonatal and beyond neonatal periods respectively. Presence of trained personal at all deliveries will help to reduce neonatal asphyxia. Efforts should be made to reinforce the existing effective malaria control tools. PMID:25337306

Charles, Nwafor Chukwuemeka; Chuku, Abali; Anazodo, Nnoli Martin

2014-01-01

409

Meren field water injection project offshore Nigeria  

SciTech Connect

The Meren Water Injection Project, which is one of the largest in West Africa in terms of injection volume, secondary reserves to be recovered and cost, is located in the Meren field offshore Nigeria. This study presents an updated comprehensive plan to deplete 7 reservoir units in sands that have been producing under solution gas drive and gravity segregation with minimal water influx. The reservoir units contain ca 80% of the original oil-in-place in Meren field. Detailed studies have been undertaken to evaluate the performances of the 7 reservoirs with a view to developing a secondary recovery plan which has been brought into reality. Injection was to start in mid-1982 but was delayed until mid-1983. The effect of the delay and the changing of injector locations on recovery and cost is discussed.

Adetoba, L.A.

1984-04-01

410

Nigeria: An Opportunity for Civilian Rule?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News discusses the current political situation in Nigeria. The nine resources discussed offer breaking news, commentary, and analysis. The next few weeks may prove crucial for Nigeria, which is beginning to see some signs of calm and civil order after a week of rioting and violence. The rioting erupted after opposition leader Moshood Abiola died of a heart attack on July 7 after four years in custody. In 1993 Abiola was poised to win a presidential election when the military annulled the poll and Infantry General Sani Abacha seized power. In June 1994 Abiola defiantly declared himself president and was quickly arrested and detained. After General Abacha's sudden death on June 8, his successor General Abdulsalam Abubakar immediately set out a course of modest reform, freeing a number of prominent political detainees. Abiola's release also appeared imminent when he suddenly died. Despite the unrest that followed, some analysts see the deaths of Abiola and Abacha as an opportunity for political progress in Africa's most populous country. Abubakar, some say, can now move forward and implement political reforms without fear of making the supporters or Abiola or Abacha lose face. In fact, the General is widely expected to announce a plan to ease the military out of power by October 1, independence day. This plan will likely center around the creation of a government of national unity, which will sit for four or five years and consist of four representatives from each of the nation's six main regions. Regardless if this or another plan is implemented, the transition from military to civilian rule will prove, as in almost every other nation making this tremendous leap, a painful and gradual process.

De Nie, Michael W.

1998-01-01

411

Urinary Schistosomiasis in Urban and Semi-Urban Communities in South-Eastern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background In view of the massive rural-to-urban migration in Nigeria, investigations on transmission of urinary schistosomiasis were carried out in urban and semi-urban communities in Nike Lake area of Enugu State, Nigeria. Methods Urine samples of school children were tested for micro-haematuria using reagent strips followed by microscopic examination for Schistosoma haematobium eggs. Water contact sites were also identified and sampled for snails. Results The overall prevalence of S. haematobium eggs in school children was 4.64%. The mean intensity of infection was 1.14 ± 0.41 eggs/10ml urine. Males had insignificantly higher prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium infection than females. The youngest age group (4-7 years) had no infection. The prevalence of micro-haematuria (6.2%) was higher than that of microscopy, and this correlated positively with prevalence (r = 0.65, P < 0.01) and intensity (r = 0.50, P < 0.01) of the infection. Potential intermediate host of human shistosome collected were: Bulinus globosus, B. senegalensis and Biomphalaria pfeifferi. However, only B. globosus shed cercariae of S. haematobium, with a snail infection rate of 0.73%. Transmission was in the dry season coinciding with the drying of wells. Conclusion The results revealed that urinary schistosomiasis is prevalent, and that B. globosus and not B. truncatus as previously reported is the main intermediate host of urinary schistosomiasis in this part of Enugu State. PMID:24454442

OKEKE, Ogochukwu Caroline; UBACHUKWU, Patience Obiageli

2013-01-01

412

Sexual dysfunction among female patients of reproductive age in a hospital setting in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Although sexual dysfunction is an important public-health problem in Nigeria, little research has been conducted on this topic in Nigeria. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and their correlates among female patients of reproductive age using a questionnaire. Respondents were recruited from the out-patients clinics of a teaching hospital setting in Ile-Ife/ Ijesa administrative health zone, Osun State, Nigeria. Of 384 female patients interviewed, 242 (63%) were sexually dysfunctional. Types of sexual dysfunction included disorder of desire (n=20; 8.3%), disorder of arousal (n=l 3; 5.4%), disorder of orgasm (n=154; 63.6%), and painful coitus (dyspareunia) (n=55; 22.7%). The peak age of sexual dysfunction was observed among the age-group of 26-30 years. Women with higher educational status were mostly affected. The reasons for unsatisfactory sexual life mainly included psychosexual factors and medical illnesses, among which included uncaring partners, present illness, excessive domestic duties, lack of adequate foreplay, present medication, competition among wives in a polygamous family setting, previous sexual abuse, and guilt-feeling of previous pregnancy termination among infertile women. The culture of male dominance in the local environment which makes women afraid of rejection and threats of divorce if they ever complain about sexually-related matters might perpetrate sexual dysfunction among the affected individuals. Sexual dysfunction is a real social and psychological problem in the local environment demanding urgent attention. It is imperative to carry out further research in society at large so that the health and lifestyles of affected women and their partners could be improved. PMID:17615910

Fajewonyomi, Benjamin A; Orji, Ernest O; Adeyemo, Adenike O

2007-03-01

413

Mothers’ human papilloma virus knowledge and willingness to vaccinate their adolescent daughters in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in sexually active adolescents and young women and has been implicated as a cause of the majority of cases of cervical cancer, which is the second most common cancer in women in Nigeria. HPV is preventable with the use of HPV vaccines. Objectives The objective of this study was to assess mothers’ HPV knowledge and their willingness to vaccinate their adolescent daughters in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and methods This study was a community-based, descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in July, 2012 in Shomolu Local Government Area (LGA) of Lagos State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling method was employed to select the 290 respondents who participated in the study. Structured, pretested, interviewer-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Data was analyzed with Epi Info™ version 7. Results The study revealed low awareness of HPV (27.9%) and HPV vaccines (19.7%) among the mothers that participated. There was a high awareness for cervical cancer but little knowledge of its link to HPV. Awareness and utilization of HPV vaccines increased with increasing educational level (P < 0.05). There was a high willingness and intention among the mothers to vaccinate their girls (88.9%) and to recommend the vaccine to others (91.0%). Accessibility and affordability of the HPV vaccines were found to be possible barriers to future utilization of the vaccines. Conclusion Despite low knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccines, mothers were willing to vaccinate their daughters. We recommend improving mothers’ knowledge by education and the possible inclusion of the vaccine in the national immunization schedule to eliminate the financial barrier. PMID:23874123

Ezenwa, Beatrice N; Balogun, Mobolanle R; Okafor, Ifeoma P

2013-01-01

414

First detection and molecular characterization of Ehrlichia canis from dogs in Nigeria.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to detect the presence of Ehrlichia canis in naturally infected dogs in Nigeria, using a combination of PCR and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and two genes encoding the tandem repeat-containing proteins (TRPs), TRP19 and TRP36. Out of a total of 100 blood samples collected from domestic dogs presented to veterinary hospitals in Jos, the capital city of Plateau State of Nigeria, 11 were positive in nested PCR for E. canis. Sequencing results for these amplicons showed that all of the 16S rDNA sequences (1623 bp) or the TRP19 coding sequences (414 bp) were identical to each other and had very high similarities (99.3-100%) with those from other E. canis strains accessible in GenBank. The TRP36 gene sequences derived from the 11 Nigerian isolates were identical to each other except for the number of the 27-bp repeat unit in a tandem repeat region, which was found to be 8, 12 or 18. Without considering the number of tandem repeats, these sequences had 100% identity to that of the reported Cameroon 71 isolate, but distinctly differed from those obtained from other geographically distant E. canis strains previously published. A phylogenetic tree of E. canis based on the TRP36 amino acid sequences showed that the Nigerian isolates and the Cameroon 71 isolate fell into a separate clade, indicating that they may share a common ancestor. Overall, this study not only provides the first molecular evidence of E. canis infections in dogs from Nigeria but also highlights the value of the TRP36 gene as a tool to classify E. canis isolates and to elucidate their phylogeographic relationships. PMID:22925936

Kamani, Joshua; Lee, Chung-Chan; Haruna, Ayuba M; Chung, Ping-Jun; Weka, Paul R; Chung, Yang-Tsung

2013-02-01

415

Lead levels in paint flakes from buildings in Nigeria: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

Lead is a malleable metal previously used to improve the durability and color luster of paint applied in homes and on industrial structures such as bridges. Lead has deleterious effects on multiple organs in humans. There is paucity of information on the extent of the use of lead-based paint in Nigerian houses. This study has attempted to estimate the extent of use of lead-based paint in buildings in Eastern Nigeria using 168 buildings. Flaked paint samples were collected from residential, church, commercial, and school buildings from four most populous cities in Eastern Nigeria namely Enugu, Onitsha, Aba, and Port Harcourt, and they were digested using conc HNO(3):HCLO(4) (1:1) and analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The lead levels from buildings in Enugu ranged from 39.385 +/- 1.111-69.843 +/- 4.886 mg/kg. The highest level of lead was found in Onitsha ranging from 49.503 +/- 0.000-74.352 +/- 0.571 mg/kg. Residential buildings, which mainly serve the under privileged populations, has the highest lead level in this study. In Aba, the highest lead level (66.432 +/- 0.013 mg/kg) was found in commercial buildings aged 5-10 years. The lead levels in paint flakes from buildings in the four cities tended to decrease with increasing age of the buildings. Taken together all the building paint flakes from the four cities had lead levels higher than the United States Environmental Protection Agency permissible level of 5 mg/kg. There is a need for primary intervention strategy to reduce the paint lead levels in Nigeria. PMID:19039082

Nduka, J K C; Orisakwe, O E; Maduawguna, C A

2008-09-01

416

Recovery and recycling practices in municipal solid waste management in Lagos, Nigeria  

SciTech Connect

The population of Lagos, the largest city in Nigeria, increased seven times from 1950 to 1980 with a current population of over 10 million inhabitants. The majority of the city's residents are poor. The residents make a heavy demand on resources and, at the same time, generate large quantities of solid waste. Approximately 4 million tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) is generated annually in the city, including approximately 0.5 million of untreated industrial waste. This is approximately 1.1 kg/cap/day. Efforts by the various waste management agencies set up by the state government to keep its streets and neighborhoods clean have achieved only minimal success. This is because more than half of these wastes are left uncollected from the streets and the various locations due to the inadequacy and inefficiency of the waste management system. Whilst the benefits of proper solid waste management (SWM), such as increased revenues for municipal bodies, higher productivity rate, improved sanitation standards and better health conditions, cannot be overemphasized, it is important that there is a reduction in the quantity of recoverable materials in residential and commercial waste streams to minimize the problem of MSW disposal. This paper examines the status of recovery and recycling in current waste management practice in Lagos, Nigeria. Existing recovery and recycling patterns, recovery and recycling technologies, approaches to materials recycling, and the types of materials recovered from MSW are reviewed. Based on these, strategies for improving recovery and recycling practices in the management of MSW in Lagos, Nigeria are suggested.

Kofoworola, O.F. [Environment Division, Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi, 91 Prachauthit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)], E-mail: sholafemi28@yahoo.com

2007-07-01

417

Twin-singleton differences in cognitive abilities in a sample of Africans in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Recent studies comparing cognitive abilities between contemporary twins and singletons in developed countries have suggested that twin deficits in cognitive abilities no longer exist. We examined cognitive abilities in a sample of twins and singletons born recently in Nigeria to determine whether recent findings can be replicated in developing countries. Our sample consisted of 413 pairs of twins and 280 singletons collected from over 45 public schools in Abuja and its neighboring states in Nigeria. The ages of twins and singletons ranged from 9 to 20 years with a mean (SD) of 14.6 years (2.2 years) for twins and 16.1 years (1.8 years) for singletons. Zygosity of the same-sex twins was determined by analysis of 16 deoxyribonucleic acid markers. We asked participants to complete a questionnaire booklet that included Standard Progressive Matrices-Plus Version (SPM+), Mill-Hill Vocabulary Scale (MHV), Family Assets Questionnaire, and demographic questions. The data were corrected for sex and age and then analyzed using maximum likelihood model-fitting analysis. Although twins and singletons were comparable in family social class indicators, singletons did better than twins across all the tests (d = 0.10 to 0.35). The average of d for SPM+ total [0.32; equivalent to 4.8 Intelligence Quotient (IQ) points] and d for MHV (0.24; equivalent to 3.6 IQ points) was 0.28 (equivalent to 4.2 IQ points), similar to the twin-singleton gap found in old cohorts in developed countries. We speculate that malnutrition, poor health, and educational systems in Nigeria may explain the persistence of twin deficits in cognitive abilities found in our sample. PMID:23835288

Hur, Yoon-Mi; Lynn, Richard

2013-08-01

418

Mapping and prediction of schistosomiasis in Nigeria using compiled survey data and Bayesian geospatial modelling.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis prevalence data for Nigeria were extracted from peer-reviewed journals and reports, geo-referenced and collated in a nationwide geographical information system database for the generation of point prevalence maps. This exercise revealed that the disease is endemic in 35 of the country's 36 states, including the federal capital territory of Abuja, and found in 462 unique locations out of 833 different survey locations. Schistosoma haematobium, the predominant species in Nigeria, was found in 368 locations (79.8%) covering 31 states, S. mansoni in 78 (16.7%) locations in 22 states and S. intercalatum in 17 (3.7%) locations in two states. S. haematobium and S. mansoni were found to be co-endemic in 22 states, while co-occurrence of all three species was only seen in one state (Rivers). The average prevalence for each species at each survey location varied between 0.5% and 100% for S. haematobium, 0.2% to 87% for S. mansoni and 1% to 10% for S. intercalatum. The estimated prevalence of S. haematobium, based on Bayesian geospatial predictive modelling with a set of bioclimatic variables, ranged from 0.2% to 75% with a mean prevalence of 23% for the country as a whole (95% confidence interval (CI): 22.8-23.1%). The model suggests that the mean temperature, annual precipitation and soil acidity significantly influence the spatial distribution. Prevalence estimates, adjusted for school-aged children in 2010, showed that the prevalence is <10% in most states with a few reaching as high as 50%. It was estimated that 11.3 million children require praziquantel annually (95% CI: 10.3-12.2 million). PMID:23733296

Ekpo, Uwem F; Hürlimann, Eveline; Schur, Nadine; Oluwole, Akinola S; Abe, Eniola M; Mafe, Margaret A; Nebe, Obiageli J; Isiyaku, Sunday; Olamiju, Francisca; Kadiri, Mukaila; Poopola, Temitope O S; Braide, Eka I; Saka, Yisa; Mafiana, Chiedu F; Kristensen, Thomas K; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

2013-05-01

419

HIV/AIDS in Nigeria: a bibliometric analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Nigeria is home to more people living with HIV than any other country in the world, except South Africa and India-where an estimated 2.9 million [1.7 million – 4.2 million] people were living with the virus in 2005. A systematic assessment of recent HIV/AIDS research output from Nigeria is not available. Without objective information about the current deficiencies and strengths in the HIV research output from Nigeria, it is difficult to plan substantial improvements in HIV/AIDS research that could enhance population health. The aim of this study was to analyse the trends in Nigeria's SCI publications in HIV/AIDS from 1980 to 2006. Special attention was paid to internationally collaborated works that were identified based on the countries of the authors' affiliation. Methods A bibliometric analysis regarding Nigerian HIV/AIDS research was conducted in the ISI databases for the period of 1980 to 2006. An attempt was made to identify the patterns of the growth in HIV/AIDS literature, as well as type of document published, authorship, institutional affiliations of authors, and subject content. International collaboration was deemed to exist in an article if any co-author's affiliation was located outside Nigeria. The impact factors in the 2006 Journal Citations Reports Science Edition was arbitrarily adopted to estimate the quality of articles. Results Nigeria's ISI publications in HIV/AIDS increased from one articles in 1987 to 33 in 2006, and the articles with international collaboration increased from one articles in 1980 to 16 in 2006. Articles with international collaboration appeared in journals with higher impact factors and received more citations. A high pattern of co-authorship was found. Over 85% of the articles were published in collaboration among two or more authors. The USA, as the most important collaborating partner of Nigeria's HIV/AIDS researchers, contributed 30.8% of articles with international collaboration. Conclusion Nigeria has achieved a significant increase in the number of SCI publications and collaborations in HIV literature from 1987 to 2005. There is need to challenge the status, scientists from Nigeria should forge multiple collaborations beyond historical, political, and cultural lines to share knowledge and expertise on HIV/AIDS. PMID:18302752

Uthman, Olalekan A

2008-01-01

420

Unmet need for contraception among clients of FP/HIV integrated services in Nigeria: the role of partner opposition.  

PubMed

While women are aware of family planning (FP) methods in Nigeria, the unmet need for modern contraception remains high. We assessed the association between male partner opposition to FP and unmet need for modern contraception among women seeking anti-retroviral therapy (ART), HIV counseling and testing (HCT) and prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services in Cross-River State, Nigeria. This secondary analysis used data from a facility-based FP/HIV integration study. Logistic regression was used to model the association of interest. Unmet need for modern contraception was high among all clients--ART (49%), HCT (75%), and PMTCT (32%). Perceived partner opposition to FP was widespread (> or = 70%); however, multivariate analysis showed no significant association with unmet need for modern contraception. Significant covariates were woman's age, marital status, parity, and previous use of modern contraception. Efforts to improve modern contraceptive use among women at risk of HIV infection in Nigeria should contemplate involving their male partners. PMID:25022150

Okigbo, Chinelo C; McCarraher, Donna R; Gwarzo, Usman; Vance, Gwyneth; Chabikuli, Otto

2014-06-01

421

The Effect of Mass Media Campaign on the Use of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets among Pregnant Women in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background. Malaria during pregnancy is a major public health problem in Nigeria especially in malaria-endemic areas. It increases the risk of low birth weight and child/maternal morbidity/mortality. This paper addresses the impact of radio campaigns on the use of insecticide-treated bed nets among pregnant women in Nigeria. Methods. A total of 2,348 pregnant women were interviewed during the survey across 21 of Nigeria's 36 states. Respondents were selected through a multistage sampling technique. Analysis was based on multivariate logistic regression. Results. Respondents who knew that sleeping under ITN prevents malaria were 3.2 times more likely to sleep under net (OR: 3.15; 95% CI: 2.28 to 4.33; P < 0.0001). Those who listened to radio are also about 1.6 times more likely to use ITN (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.28; P = 0.020), while respondents who had heard of a specific sponsored radio campaign on ITN are 1.53 times more likely to use a bed net (P = 0.019). Conclusion. Pregnant women who listened to mass media campaigns were more likely to adopt strategies to protect themselves from malaria. Therefore, behavior change communication messages that are aimed at promoting net use and antenatal attendance are necessary in combating malaria. PMID:24778895

Ankomah, A.; Adebayo, S. B.; Arogundade, E. D.; Anyanti, J.; Nwokolo, E.; Inyang, U.; Ipadeola, Oladipupo B.; Meremiku, M.

2014-01-01

422

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Three Leprosy Case Detection Methods in Northern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Despite several leprosy control measures in Nigeria, child proportion and disability grade 2 cases remain high while new cases have not significantly reduced, suggesting continuous spread of the disease. Hence, there is the need to review detection methods to enhance identification of early cases for effective control and prevention of permanent disability. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of three leprosy case detection methods in Northern Nigeria to identify the most cost-effective approach for detection of leprosy. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the additional benefits of using several case detection methods in addition to routine practice in two north-eastern states of Nigeria. Primary and secondary data were collected from routine practice records and the Nigerian Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Programme of 2009. The methods evaluated were Rapid Village Survey (RVS), Household Contact Examination (HCE) and Traditional Healers incentive method (TH). Effectiveness was measured as number of new leprosy cases detected and cost-effectiveness was expressed as cost per case detected. Costs were measured from both providers' and patients' perspectives. Additional costs and effects of each method were estimated by comparing each method against routine practise and expressed as incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). All costs were converted to the U.S. dollar at the 2010 exchange rate. Univariate sensitivity analysis was used to evaluate uncertainties around the ICER. Results The ICER for HCE was $142 per additional case detected at all contact levels and it was the most cost-effective method. At ICER of $194 per additional case detected, THs method detected more cases at a lower cost than the RVS, which was not cost-effective at $313 per additional case detected. Sensitivity analysis showed that varying the proportion of shared costs and subsistent wage for valuing unpaid time did not significantly change the results. Conclusion Complementing routine practice with household contact examination is the most cost-effective approach to identify new leprosy cases and we recommend that, depending on acceptability and feasibility, this intervention is introduced for improved case detection in Northern Nigeria. PMID:23029580

Ezenduka, Charles; Post, Erik; John, Steven; Suraj, Abdulkarim; Namadi, Abdulahi; Onwujekwe, Obinna

2012-01-01

423

Knowledge of safe motherhood among women in rural communities in northern Nigeria: implications for maternal mortality reduction  

PubMed Central

Background Most developed countries have made considerable progress in addressing maternal mortality, but it appears that countries with high maternal mortality burdens like Nigeria have made little progress in improving maternal health outcomes despite emphasis by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Knowledge about safe motherhood practices could help reduce pregnancy related health risks. This study examines knowledge of safe motherhood among women in selected rural communities in northern Nigeria. Methods This was a cross-sectional study carried out in two states (Kaduna and Kano States) within northern Nigeria. Pretested, interviewer-administered questionnaires were applied by female data collectors to 540 randomly selected women who had recently delivered within the study site. Chi-square tests were used to determine possible association between variables during bivariate analysis. Variables significant in the bivariate analysis were subsequently entered into a multivariate logistic regression analysis. The degree of association was estimated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) between knowledge of maternal danger signs and independent socio-demographic as well as obstetric history variables which indicated significance at p< 0.05. Results Over 90% of respondents in both states showed poor knowledge of the benefits of health facility delivery by a skilled birth attendant. More than 80% of respondents in both states displayed poor knowledge of the benefits of ANC visits. More than half of the respondents across both states had poor knowledge of maternal danger signs. According to multivariate regression analysis, ever attending school by a respondent increased the likelihood of knowing maternal danger signs by threefold (OR 2.63, 95% CI: 1.2-5.8) among respondents in Kaduna State. While attendance at ANC visits during most recent pregnancy increased the likelihood of knowing maternal danger signs by twofold among respondents in Kano State (OR 2.05, 95% CI: 1.1-3.9) and threefold among respondents in Kaduna State (OR 3.33, 95% CI: 1.6-7.2). Conclusion This study found generally poor knowledge about safe motherhood practices among female respondents within selected rural communities in northern Nigeria. Knowledge of safe pregnancy practices among some women in rural communities is strongly associated with attendance at ANC visits, being employed or acquiring some level of education. Increasing knowledge about safe motherhood practices should translate into safer pregnancy outcomes and subsequently lead to lower maternal mortality across the developing world. PMID:24160692

2013-01-01

424

Women and high fertility in Islamic northern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Research on fertility trends in Islamic northern Nigeria has rarely sought the perspectives of the people of that region concerning the causes of high fertility in the area. Relying on qualitative data elicited from women in northwestern Nigeria, we explore their views on high fertility in the region. A principal finding is that respondents ascribed to their husbands the responsibility for high parity; these women reported deliberately giving birth to many children in order to inhibit men's tendency to divorce or engage in plural marriage. We contend that the social meanings that women ascribe to their husbands' behaviors and the ways they respond to them are significant contributors to current high fertility in northern Nigeria. PMID:21469272

Izugbara, Chimaraoke O; Ezeh, Alex C

2010-09-01

425

Review of the radioactive waste management system in Nigeria.  

PubMed

The management of radioactive waste in Nigeria from early 1960 to date is reviewed. As in many developing countries, waste management in Nigeria has been shown to be ineffective. The factors that are responsible for this ineffectiveness are identified and discussed. The steps being taken by and the opportunities available to the newly established Nigerian Nuclear Regulatory Authority towards addressing this problem of ineffectiveness are discussed. The efforts of this newly set up body towards managing the resultant radioactive wastes that will be generated during the use of a reactor and an accelerator that will soon be commissioned in Nigeria are also mentioned. Likely ways of further addressing the problems militating against waste management in developing countries are suggested. PMID:12729418

Ogundare, F O

2003-03-01

426

Human gastro-intestinal parasites in Bendel State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Faecal samples from 862 male and female donors of nine age groups (1-90 years) in three geographical zones were screened by the examination of concentrates from formal other concentration technique. The overall percentage incidence of six parasites which were encountered were as follows: Entamoeba coli (19.7%), E. histolytica (3.9%), Giradia lamblia (1.4%), hookworm (29.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (38.2%) and Trichuris trichiura (7.3%). However, the percentage incidence of parasites in the delta mangrove zone subject to heavy flooding and excess run-offs during the rainy season, were as follows: E. coli (44.7%), E. histolytica (0%), G. lamblia (37.5%), hookworm (44.9%), A. lumbricoides (51.0%) and T. trichiura (77.6%). Except for E. histolytica and G. lamblia, the percentage incidence in the delta zone were comparatively higher than values observed in the better drained middle rainforest and savanna zones. The age groups in the first two decades of life had 61.7% infection and this stabilised to a low level of 2.8% in the eighth and ninth decades. Males and higher protozoan and helminthic infections than females. PMID:1928804

Obiamiwe, B A; Nmorsi, P

1991-08-01

427

Epidemiology of dermatophytoses in a rural community in Eastern Nigeria and review of literature from Africa.  

PubMed

A total of 4,287 primary school children, comprising 1,740 males and 2,547 females in Arochukwu local government area of Abia state Nigeria were examined for clinical signs of dermatophytoses. About 873 (20.4%), consisting of 505 males and 368 females had lesions consistent with dermatophytoses. The disease was more prevalent in males (29%) than females (14.4%) in a ratio of approximately 2:1 (P < 0.05). The infection rate increased from 16.8% in the 4-6 year age group to a peak of 28.1% in the 10-12 year age bracket and dropped sharply to 5.6% in the 16-18 year group. The highest prevalence (39%) was observed among males aged 10-12 years while females 16-18 years had the lowest prevalence (2.5%). Tinea capitis was the predominant clinical type of dermatophytoses, and occurred in 13.7% of the total population studied and 67% of lesion positive cases. Trichophyton soudanense and Trichophyton tonsurans the predominant aetiological agents of dermatophytoses with a prevalence of 26.2% and 21.6%, respectively. Others include Trichophyton mentagrophytes (18.8%), Epidermophyton floccosum (8.3%), Microsporum audouinii (6.4%), Microsporum gypseum (6.0%), Trichophyton rubrum (5.5%) and Microsporum ferrugineum (7.3%), which was isolated for the first time in Nigeria. PMID:17657581

Ngwogu, Ada C; Otokunefor, Tosanwumi Vincent

2007-10-01

428

Microwave anomalous propagation (AP) measurement over Akure South-Western Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anomalous propagation (Anaprop) of microwave radiation is known to be caused by several meteorological conditions. In this study, radio refractive index and modified refractivity gradient were computed using the results of measurements of atmospheric pressure, temperature and relative humidity made in Akure (7.15°N, 5.12°E), South Western Nigeria using Davis 6162 Wireless Vantage Pro2 weather stations (Integrated Sensor Suite, ISS) positioned at five different height levels beginning from the ground surface and at intervals of 50 m from the ground to a height of 200 m on a tower/mast owned by the Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) located at Iju in Akure north local government area of Ondo state but which is no longer being used. The study utilized one year of data measured between January and December 2008. From t