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1

A survey of the repository of groundwater potential and distribution using geoelectrical resistivity method in Itu Local Government Area (L.G.A), Akwa Ibom State, southern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical electrical sounding (VES), employing a Schlumberger electrode configuration, was used to investigate the sediments and aquifer repositories in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom state, southern Nigeria. This was done in sixteen (16) locations/communities with the maximum current electrode spread ranging between 800-1000m. The field data were interpreted using forward and iterative least square inversion modeling, which gives a resolution with 3-5 geoelectric layers. The observed frequencies in curve types include 31.25% of AKH, 18.8% of AAK and HK and 6.25% of K, QHK, AKH, KA and KHQ, respectively. These sets of curves show a wide range of variabilities in resistivities between and within the layers penetrated by current. The presence of K and H curve types in the study area indicates the alteration of the geomaterials with limited hydrologic significance to the prolific groundwater repository. A correlation of the constrained nearby borehole lithology logs with the VES results shows that the layers were all sandy formations (fine and well sorted sands to gravelly sands or medium to coarse-grained sands as described by nearby lithology logs) with some wide ranges of electrical resistivity values and thicknesses caused by electrostratigraphic inhomogeneity. The geologic topsoil (motley topsoil) is generally porous and permeable and as such the longitudinal conductance (S) values for the covering/protective layer is generally less than unity of Siemens (S < 1?-1), the value considered for efficient protection of the underlying aquifers by the topmost and overlying layer. The spatial orientations and the leveling patterns of the most economically viable potential groundwater repository within the maximum current electrode separations has been delineated in 2-D and 3-D contoured maps. The estimated depth range for the desired groundwater repository is 32.6-113.1m and its average depth value is 74.30m. The thickness of this layer ranges from 27.9-103m while its average depth has been evaluated to be 63.02m. Also, its resistivity range and average value have been estimated to be 507-5612m and 3365.125?m

Ibuot, J.; Akpabio, G.; George, N.

2013-12-01

2

A survey of the repository of groundwater potential and distribution using geoelectrical resistivity method in Itu Local Government Area (L.G.A), Akwa Ibom State, southern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical electrical sounding (VES), employing a Schlumberger electrode configuration, was used to investigate the sediments and aquifer repositories in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom state, southern Nigeria. This was done in sixteen (16) locations/communities with the maximum current electrode spread ranging between 800-1000m. The field data were interpreted using forward and iterative least square inversion modeling, which gives a resolution with 3-5 geoelectric layers. The observed frequencies in curve types include 31.25% of AKH, 18.8% of AAK and HK and 6.25% of K, QHK, AKH, KA and KHQ, respectively. These sets of curves show a wide range of variabilities in resistivities between and within the layers penetrated by current. The presence of K and H curve types in the study area indicates the alteration of the geomaterials with limited hydrologic significance to the prolific groundwater repository. A correlation of the constrained nearby borehole lithology logs with the VES results shows that the layers were all sandy formations (fine and well sorted sands to gravelly sands or medium to coarse-grained sands as described by nearby lithology logs) with some wide ranges of electrical resistivity values and thicknesses caused by electrostratigraphic inhomogeneity. The geologic topsoil (motley topsoil) is generally porous and permeable and as such the longitudinal conductance ( S) values for the covering/protective layer is generally less than unity of Siemens ( S < 1?-1), the value considered for efficient protection of the underlying aquifers by the topmost and overlying layer. The spatial orientations and the leveling patterns of the most economically viable potential groundwater repository within the maximum current electrode separations has been delineated in 2-D and 3-D contoured maps. The estimated depth range for the desired groundwater repository is 32.6-113.1m and its average depth value is 74.30m. The thickness of this layer ranges from 27.9-103m while its average depth has been evaluated to be 63.02m. Also, its resistivity range and average value have been estimated to be 507-5612m and 3365.125?m

Ibuot, J. C.; Akpabio, G. T.; George, N. J.

2013-12-01

3

Examining Socioeconomic Characteristics and Adoption Trend of Artisanal Fishers of Akwa Ibom State in West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the foods domestically available to Nigeria is fish. But for the fishers to continue to produce to feed the teeming population they must be exposed to fishing innovations in order to adopt them. However, the fishers are constrained to adopt the innovations. A study to examine the fisher's socioeconomic characteristics and adoption trend by artisanal fishers was conducted

AUGUSTINE J. UDOH; MONDAY G. NYIENAKUNA

4

Heavy Metals Accumulation by Talinum triangulare grown on Waste Dumpsites in Uyo Metropolis, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accumulation of some heavy metals by Talinum triangulare grown on waste dumpsites in Uyo Metropolis was studied using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results obtained indicated the following ranges for the metals in dumpsite soil: Cd: 1.85-8.65 mg kg-1; Pb: 42.05-60.85 mg kg-1; Ni: 11.05-20.55 mg kg-1; Fe: 183.00-237.20 mg kg-1 and Zn: 11.35-119.30 mg kg-1, while the ranges in Talinum triangure were Cd: 0.10-0.30 mg kg-1; Pb: 0.33-1.55 mg kg-1; Ni:0.05-0.45 mg kg-1; Fe: 223.43-260.00 mg kg-1 and Zn: 2.20-29.95 mg kg-1. These results indicated higher levels of the metals in soils and plants from dumpsites than the values recorded in the Control samples. In the dumpsite soil and plant samples, Fe recorded the highest mean concentrations in both samples while Cd and Ni concentrations were the lowest in soil and plant respectively. Although, the ranges obtained for the metals in plant and soil were within the recommended limits except for Cd in soil and Fe in plant, it maybe risky to consume water leaf grown on dumpsites since it can accumulate much of these toxic metals. The results obtained also revealed that apart from Cd, the concentrations of other metals analyzed for in plant and soil correlated positively at p = 0.05. The transfer Ratio between dumpsite soil and plant samples indicated the following trend: Fe> Zn> Cd> Pb> Ni showing that the rate of metal uptake by T. triangulare was greatest with Fe, while the rate of Ni uptake was the least. Relative standard deviations in the distribution of the metals in plant and soil samples from one dumpsite to the other were also studied; results obtained showed a high degree of variability in the distributions of the metals in both samples with the locations.

Ebong, G. A.; Etuk, H. S.; Johnson, A. S.

5

Determinants of Internet use in Imo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research was designed to determine the use of internet in Imo state, Nigeria with a view to enlighten societal stakeholders on their implications to development. Self designed questionnaire was distributed to users from five internet centers in the three local government areas of Imo State. 219 (73%) of the 300 distributed questionnaires were…

Anunobi, C. V.; Mbagwu, F. C.

2009-01-01

6

Nigeria  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... oblique forward viewing cameras. The images extend from arid Niger in the north (including the dark-colored Aïr Mountains), through forested Nigeria, and beyond the Niger Delta to the Gulf of Guinea and the open ocean. Smoke present in the ...

2013-04-15

7

Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nigeria is Africa's most populous nation, and one of its richest. During the 1970s, oil prices fueled rapid development. With world-wide crude oil prices now fluctuating, the future of this diverse, turbulent country is uncertain. The unit contains three sections: the Text, Suggestions for the Teacher, and the Slide-Tape Script. An overview of the…

Semaan, Leslie; Hillian, John

8

PIXE analysis of Thaumatococcus danielli in Osun State of Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was employed for the determination of elemental compositions of Thaumatococcus danielli (T. danielli) {Marantaceae} (Benn.) Benth [miraculous berry] in Osun State of Nigeria. The objective is to show the usefulness of T. danielli and especially the beneficial effects of the mineral concentrations from the leaves and fruits of T. danielli. The results show the detection of seventeen elements at different concentrations, and their beneficial effects to humans were discussed.

Olabanji, S. O.; Osinkolu, G. A.; Pelemo, D. A.; Obiajunwa, E. I.; Oladele, A. T.

2014-01-01

9

Socioeconomic status and obesity in Abia State, South East Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in developed and emerging economies. There is a paucity of data from Nigeria on the association between socioeconomic status and obesity. The aim of this study is to highlight that association in Abia State, South East Nigeria. Material and methods This was a cross-sectional survey in South East Nigeria. Participating subjects were recruited from the three senatorial zones of Abia state. A total of 2,487 adults took part in the study. The subjects were classified based on their monthly income and level of educational attainment (determinants of obesity). Monthly income was classified into three groups: low, middle, and upper income, while educational level was classified into four groups: no formal education, primary, secondary, and tertiary education. Body mass index of subjects was determined and used for defining obesity. Data on blood pressure and other anthropometric measurements were also collected using a questionnaire, modified from the World Health Organization STEPwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance. Results Overall, the prevalence of obesity in low, middle, and upper income groups was 12.2%, 16%, and 20%, respectively. The overall prevalence of obesity in individuals with no formal education, primary, secondary, and tertiary education was 6.3%, 14.9%, 10.5%, and 17.7%, respectively. Educational status was found to be significantly associated with obesity in women, but not in men, or in the combined group. However, level of income was observed to be significantly associated with obesity in men, women, and in the combined group. Conclusion Sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors are important determinants of obesity in our study population, and therefore may be indirectly linked to the prevalence and the outcomes of cardiovascular disease in Nigeria. PMID:24204167

Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Chuku, Abali; Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Okafor, Godwin Oguejiofor Chukwuebuka; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

2013-01-01

10

Adoption of Aquaculture Technology by Fish Farmers in Imo State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper evaluated the level of adoption of aquaculture technology extended to farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. To improve aquaculture practice in Nigeria, a technology package was developed and disseminated to farmers in the state. This package included ten practices that the farmers were supposed to adopt. Eighty-two respondents were randomly…

Ike, Nwachukwu; Roseline, Onuegbu

2007-01-01

11

Current Trends of Immunization in Nigeria: Prospect and Challenges  

PubMed Central

Immunization is aimed at the prevention of infectious diseases. In Nigeria, the National Programme on Immunization (NPI) suffers recurrent setbacks due to many factors including ethnicity and religious beliefs. Nigeria is made up of 36 states with its federal capital in Abuja. The country is divided into six geo-political zones; north central, north west, north east, south east, south west and south south. The population is unevenly distributed across the country. The average population density in 2006 was estimated at 150 people per square kilometres with Lagos, Anambra, Imo, Abia, and Akwa Ibom being the most densely populated states. Most of the densely populated states are found in the south east. Kano with an average density of 442 persons per square kilometre, is the most densely populated state in the northern part of the country. This study presents a review on the current immunization programme and the many challenges affecting its success in the eradication of childhood diseases in Nigeria. PMID:25237283

Ophori, Endurance A.; Tula, Musa Y.; Azih, Azuka V.; Okojie, Rachel; Ikpo, Precious E.

2014-01-01

12

The 1970 yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Benue Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

A focal epidemic of yellow fever occurred in late 1970 in southern Benue Plateau State, Nigeria, 1 year after a much larger outbreak in northern Nigeria. Like its predecessor, the 1970 epidemic was associated with virus transmission by wild-breeding Stegomyia mosquitos. Epidemiological data on the outbreak are reported in this paper. PMID:4545318

Monath, T. P.; Wilson, D. C.; Lee, V. H.; Stroh, G.; Kuteyi, K.; Smith, E. A.

1973-01-01

13

Cataract Blindness in Osun State, Nigeria: Results of a Survey  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To estimate the burden of blindness and visual impairment due to cataract in Egbedore Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Twenty clusters of 60 individuals who were 50 years or older were selected by systematic random sampling from the entire community. A total of 1,183 persons were examined. Results: The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of bilateral cataract-related blindness (visual acuity (VA) < 3/60) in people of 50 years and older was 2.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6–2.4%). The Cataract Surgical Coverage (CSC) (persons) was 12.1% and Couching Coverage (persons) was 11.8%. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of bilateral operable cataract (VA < 6/60) in people of 50 years and older was 2.7% (95% CI: 2.3–3.1%). In this last group, the cataract intervention (surgery + couching) coverage was 22.2%. The proportion of patients who could not attain 6/60 vision after surgery were 12.5, 87.5, and 92.9%, respectively, for patients who underwent intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, cataract surgery without IOL implantation and those who underwent couching. “Lack of awareness” (30.4%), “no need for surgery” (17.6%), cost (14.6%), fear (10.2%), “waiting for cataract to mature” (8.8%), AND “surgical services not available” (5.8%) were reasons why individuals with operable cataract did not undergo cataract surgery. Conclusions: Over 600 operable cataracts exist in this region of Nigeria. There is an urgent need for an effective, affordable, and accessible cataract outreach program. Sustained efforts have to be made to increase the number of IOL surgeries, by making IOL surgery available locally at an affordable cost, if not completely free. PMID:23248537

Kolawole, Olubayo U.; Ashaye, Adeyinka O.; Mahmoud, Abdulraheem O.; Adeoti, Caroline O.

2012-01-01

14

RAPID URBAN SECTOR PROFILING FOR SUSTAINABILITY STUDIES (RUSPS) IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR URBAN PLANNING IN ONDO STATE, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the application of rapid urban profiling for sustainability studies (RUSPS) in articulating city strategic plans in developing countries with the aim of determining its implications for urban planning in Ondo State, Nigeria. Ondo State is one of the 36 states of Nigeria where urban planning is undertaken by the state government. It discusses the usefulness of the

Johnson Bade FALADE; Afolabi ARIBIGBOLA

2010-01-01

15

Isosporiasis in HIV/AIDS Patients in Edo State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: The role of opportunistic infections in accelerating disease progression in HIV-positive individuals, leading to quick death, is still receiving serious attention. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Isospora belli infections in HIV-positive patients in Edo State, Nigeria between August 2007 and March 2008. Methods: A total of 268 samples from HIV-positive patients and 20 samples from HIV-negative patients were processed using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique to microscopically identify the presence of I. belli oocysts. Results: The overall prevalence of the coccidian was 3.1%. Gender and age had no correlation with the prevalence of the parasite (P > 0.05). There was a significant relationship between isosporiasis and CD4+ T cell counts in HIV-positive patients (OR=11.388, 95% CI= 2.797–46.371, P=0.0004). Conclusions: Routine investigation of I. belli in HIV-positive subjects is advocated in tertiary health institutions. PMID:22589664

Olusegun, Akinbo Frederick; Okaka, Christopher Ehis; Luiz Dantas Machado, Ricardo

2009-01-01

16

Gender, Geographic Locations, Achievement Goals and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students from Borno State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examined gender, geography location, achievement goals and academic performance of senior secondary school students in Borno State, Nigeria. The sample consists of 827 students from 18 public boarding secondary schools across South and North of Borno State: 414 (50.1 per cent) males and 413 (49.9 per cent) are females; 414 (50.1 per…

Musa, Alice K.J.

2013-01-01

17

Factors Responsible for Career Choice among Sampled Nigerian Teenagers in Bendel State of Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Male and female students in four urban locations of Bendel State of Nigeria were administered a questionnaire on choice of careers. The sample consisted of 640 students, 160 in each location ranging in age from 14 to 17. It was hypothesized that factors influencing career choice were money-yielding prospects, desire to work in state of origin,…

Odebunmi, Akin

18

A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF BEEKEEPING AND CROP PRODUCTION IN ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative analysis of the beekeeping industry and crop production in Adamawa State, Nigeria was conducted to determine the more profitable form of sustainable income for small- scale farmers. Data were collected from 120 traditional beekeepers across the state who engaged in both forms of farming. Farm budgeting analysis and descriptive statistics revealed that beekeeping was a far more profitable

MUHAMMAD R. JA' AFAR-FURO; ABDURRAHMAN SULEIMAN; YUSUF EL-SAHAB HONG

2006-01-01

19

Determinants of Adoption of Improved Fish Production Technologies among Fish Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to isolate the determinants of improved fish production technologies in Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample population of 250 fish farmers from ten randomly selected Local Government Areas of Delta State. The data were elicited from respondents with the use of structured interview schedule while…

Ofuoku, A. U.; Olele, N. F.; Emah, G. N.

2008-01-01

20

Policy Imperative, Management Challenge: A Case Study in College of Education Reform from Kwara State in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2007, Kwara State in Nigeria embarked on a process of college of education reform. This article explores the strategic and managerial issues associated with that process. It sets out the policy imperative for reform within the context of an urgent need to improve the quality of education in Nigeria and traces progress over a four year period,…

Thomas, Harold G.

2012-01-01

21

Tested, Trusted, Yet Frustrating: An Investigation into the Effectiveness of Environmental Radio Jingles in Oyo State Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Radio stations have used jingles for environmental education and communication in Nigeria for decades though not much has been done to study the impact of such use--which is the purpose of this article. Through 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) in six local government areas of Oyo state, Nigeria, interviews with the program directors of two radio…

Ojebode, Ayo

2005-01-01

22

Economic burden of glaucoma in Rivers State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Primary open angle glaucoma is reported to blind 150,000 people in the Nigerian population and over 7000 in Rivers State, and requires constant follow-up. Compliance is a challenge, given that most inhabitants live below the poverty line. This study was performed to determine how Nigerian patients are affected economically by the disease. Methods Consecutive adult patients attending the eye clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria, with a diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma and on outpatient antiglaucoma treatment in the first 6 months of 2006, were recruited for the study. The lowest paid government worker was on USD50 (N7500.00) per month and the gross domestic product per capita was USD1150 for the period under review. Results We enrolled 120 consecutive patients of mean age 52.7 ± 10.4 years, with a male to female ratio of 2:3. The most common occupations were in the civil service (n = 56, 46.7%). All participants were on topical antiglaucoma treatment. The average cost of medical antiglaucoma medication was N6000 (USD40) per month. Computed to include indirect costs, including medical laboratory tests, transportation, and care by patient escorts, an average sum of USD105.4 (N15,810) was spent by each patient per month. Most of the patients (73.3%) were responsible for their own treatment costs. No patient accepted the cheaper option of surgery (USD275.4, N41,310). Eighty of the patients (66.7%) visited our eye clinic monthly. Direct and indirect loss to the economy was USD3,064587 per annum from those already blind. This was in addition to the USD 4.1 million being spent yearly on medical treatment by those who were visually impaired by glaucoma. Conclusion Middle-income earners spent over 50% of their monthly income and low-income earners spend all their monthly earnings on treatment for glaucoma. This situation often resulted in noncompliance with treatment and hospital follow-up visits. To reduce the economic burden of glaucoma, trabeculectomy performed by experienced surgeons should be offered as first-line treatment for glaucoma in this country, rather than medical therapy. PMID:23271881

Adio, Adedayo O; Onua, Alfred A

2012-01-01

23

Emotional Abuse of Secondary School Students by Teachers in Edo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the forms of emotional abuse experienced by students and the percentage of victims that experience the various forms of emotional abuse. The survey design was adopted for this study. A total of 1,559 students drawn from public secondary schools in Edo State, Nigeria, who were randomly selected through the multi-stage…

Aluede, Oyaziwo; Ojugo, A. I.; Okoza, Jolly

2012-01-01

24

Some Issues in Formal Music Education in Nigeria: A Case Study of Kwara State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every educational system has its goals and objectives, curricula and modes of implementation. There is however the need for periodic assessment and evaluation. Specifically, this research paper sets out to evaluate the success or otherwise of the music education delivery system in Kwara state of Nigeria and its implications for the goals of music…

Emielu, Austin

2011-01-01

25

Gender Factor in Utilisation of Library Resources at Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses results of a survey of gender factors in library resource use at Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria (Africa). Highlights include reasons for library use, how library materials are located, materials consulted, relevance of library materials to information needs, frequency of use, and factors inhibiting effective use of the library.…

Adomi, Esharenana E.; Ogbomo, Monday O.

2003-01-01

26

Teacher Factors and Perceived Assessment Practices Needs of Social Studies Teachers in Cross River State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated perceived assessment practices needs among social studies teachers in Cross River State, Nigeria, in relation to some teacher factors (attitude towards social studies, sex, teaching experience and educational qualification). Subjects who participated in this study were 297 social studies teachers (144 males and 153 females)…

Ekuri, Emmanuel Etta; Egbai, Julius Michael; Ita, Caroline Iserome

2011-01-01

27

Natural radioactivity of the tar-sand deposits of Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of gamma spectrometry and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the presence and level of radioactivity of radionuclides in bituminous sand and overburden obtained from bituminous sand deposits in Ondo State Nigeria for the purpose of providing baseline data and assessing its impact on the environment. The radionuclides identified with reliable regularity belong to the decay

M. K. Fasasi; A. A. Oyawale; C. E. Mokobia; P. Tchokossa; T. R. Ajayi; F. A. Balogun

2003-01-01

28

Assessment of the qualitative adequacy of newly constructed public housing in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present research assessing the level of qualitative adequacy of newly constructed public housing in urban centres in Ogun State, Nigeria. Design\\/methodology\\/ approach – The study followed a quantitative research strategy. A survey of 517 housing units constructed through four different strategies and selected based on quota of their existence in nine

Eziyi O. Ibem; O. O. Amole

2011-01-01

29

Participation of Elderly Women in Community Welfare Activities in Akinyele Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper assessed the participation of elderly women in community welfare activities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 elderly women from six out of the twelve political wards in the study area. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used to elicit information from the…

Odebode, Stella O.

2009-01-01

30

Assessment of Nutritional Status of Queens College Students of Lagos State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Malnutrition is a major public health and social problems among secondary school students in Nigeria. The study focuses on the assessment of nutritional status of 40 Queens College Students of Lagos State age 10-19 years. It was glaringly shown that most of the nutrients are lacking with inadequate energy intake especially among students of younger ages.

O. Akinyemi; A. G. Ibraheem

2009-01-01

31

Ethnobotanical survey and preliminary evaluation of medicinal plants with antidiarrhoea properties in Sokoto state, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants use in Sokoto state of Nigeria for the treatment of diarrhoeal disorders was conducted. The plants documented were identified botanically and ranked based on informant frequency of citation. Ten top rank plants were then selected and screened for acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and antidiarrhoea properties. A fixed single dose (3000 mg\\/kg b.wt.) of aqueous extract

E. U. Etuk; M. O. Ugwah; O. P. Ajagbonna; P. A. Onyeyili

32

Medicinal Herbs Used for Managing Some Common Ailments among Esan People of Edo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal herbs used for managing some common ailments in Esanland, Edo State, Nigeria were investigated in this study. The Esan people have a rich cultural heritage, which is reflected in the well- developed herbal medicine used to cure and manage various disease conditions. Herbal medicine offered remedies to common ailments ranging from common cold to complex pathological disorders including those

R. I. Okoli; O. Aigbe; Ohaju-Obodo; J. K. Mensah

2007-01-01

33

Nutrient Intakes of Adolescent Girls in Secondary Schools and Universities in Abia State of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: A total of 160 adolescent girls aged 10 to 19 years were surveyed for nutrient intake. Three-days weighed food intake was the technique used for this study. Subjects were from model secondary schools and universities in Abia State, Nigeria. The values for food nutrients were calculated using food composition tables. Foods that were not in the food composition

J. U. Anyika; A. C. Uwaegbute; A. O. Olojede; J. U. Nwamarah

2009-01-01

34

Some Correlates of Risky Sexual Behavior among Secondary School Adolescents in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study is to examine factors associated with risky sexual behaviors among secondary school adolescents in Ogun State, Nigeria. Two hundred and fifty adolescents randomly selected from three schools participated in the study. The ages of the participants ranged from 13 to 18 years. Both the independent and dependent variables were measured with standardized instruments. The results

D. A. Adeyemo; T. M. Williams

2010-01-01

35

Farmers' Adoption of Soil Conservation Technologies: A Case Study from Osun State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of this study was to determine the attitude of farmers towards erosion and the adoption of appropriate soil conservation technologies (SCTs). For the survey, farmers were selected from the communities Esa Oke, Elwure and Owode-Ede and Akoda in Osun State in Nigeria. In the first three communities farmers did receive training on…

Junge, B.; Deji, O.; Abaidoo, R.; Chikoye, D.; Stahr, K.

2009-01-01

36

Personality Variables as Correlates of Marital Adjustment among Married Persons in Delta State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the extent to which emotional expression, communication flow, financial management and work involvement predict marital adjustment among married persons in Delta State, Nigeria. One question was raised and one hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. 2561 married persons were selected through the use of purposive sampling…

Ebenuwa-Okoh, E. E.

2008-01-01

37

ALLEVIATING RURAL POVERTY: WHAT ROLE FOR SMALLHOLDER LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to examine the role of small-holder livestock production in reducing rural poverty among small-scale farmers in Delta State, Nigeria, structured questionnai res were administered randomly to 264 small-scale farmers in 24 comm un ities in 6 local government areas of the State, using multistage sampling technique. Data collected include socio-economic characteristics of households, flock size, livestock income, annual

38

Alleviating Rural Poverty: What Role for SmallHolder Livestock Production in Delta State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In order to examine the role of small-holder livestock production in reducing rural poverty among small-scale farmers in Delta State, Nigeria, structured questionnaire were administered randomly to 264 small-scale farmers in 24 communities in six local government areas of the State, using multistage sampling technique. Data collected include socio-economic characteristics of households, fl ock size, livestock income, annual income

Odjuvwuederhie E. INONI; Christopher O. CHUKWUJI; D. OGISI; William J. OYAIDE

39

Technical Education in Nigeria: The Way Forward. Summary of Proceedings of the Workshop on Technical Education: A Foundation for a Healthy Economy (Ota, Ogun State of Nigeria, March 1-2, 1994).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This summary of proceedings includes papers from and about a workshop on technical education in Nigeria and the lessons Nigeria may gain by examining the vocational and technical education systems of Germany, the United States, Great Britain, and Japan. The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Iyorchia Ayu); "Introduction: A Time for Action…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

40

Maternal mortality in northern Nigeria: findings of a health and demographic surveillance system in Zamfara State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to estimate: (1) the lifetime risk (LTR) of maternal death; and (2) the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in the Zamfara State of northern Nigeria. Data from the Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System were utilized using the 'sisterhood method' for estimating maternal mortality. Female respondents (15-49 years) from six districts in the surveillance area were interviewed, creating a retrospective cohort of their sisters who had reached the reproductive age of 15 years. Based on population and fertility estimates, we calculated the LTR of maternal death and the MMR. A total of 17,087 respondents reported 38,761 maternal sisters of whom 3592 had died and of whom 1261 were maternal-related deaths. This corresponded to an LTR of maternal death of 8% (referring to a period of about 10.5 years prior to the survey) and an MMR of 1049 deaths per 100,000 live births (95% confidence interval, 1021-1136). The study provides documented evidence of high maternal mortality in the study area and the state as a whole. Thus, there is a need to improve the health system with an emphasis on interventions that will accelerate reduction in MMR such as the availability of skilled birth attendants and emergency obstetric care, promotion of facility delivery and antenatal care attendance. This can be achieved through a holistic approach and is critical in order to accelerate progress in meeting the Millennium Development Goal of maternal mortality reduction. PMID:22544044

Doctor, Henry Victor; Olatunji, Alabi; Findley, Sally E; Afenyadu, Godwin Y; Abdulwahab, Ahmad; Jumare, Abdulazeez

2012-07-01

41

Human filariasis in Dass local government area of Bauchi state, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Dass area of Bauchi state Northern Nigeria we studied the infection rates, intensity and clinical manifestations of human filarial infections. After an initial census, 1,638 persons who presented themselves were physically examined from a total population of 53.213. Two hundred and fifteen (20.3%) of 1059 males and 99 (19.1%) of 569 females examined had fi- larial infections. Overall, 314

J. C. ANOSIKE; C. O. E. ONWULIRI; V. A. ONWULIRI

42

Incidence of Malaria Infection among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients in Ondo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: Blood samples from 1410 patients within the age groups of 0-9, 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49 and 50-59, in Akure Owo, Ondo, Okitipupa and Ikare-Akoko all in Ondo State, Nigeria, were screened for the presence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, (HIV-1) and (HIV-2 antibodies. The subjects were made up of 570 (40.43%) males and 840 (59.57%) females. In all, 206

A. K. Onifade; E. O. Akanni

43

FACTORS INFLUENCING ADOPTION OF RESEARCH RESULTS AND AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGIES AMONG COCOA FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN OYO STATE, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lawal J. O. and Oluyole K. A. 2008. Factors Influencing Adoption of Research Results and Agricultural Technologies among Cocoa Farming Households in Oyo State, Nigeria. Int. J. Sustain. Crop Prod. 3(5):10-12 Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN) is mandated to develop, improve and translate appropriate research results and post-harvest agricultural technologies to farmers (end users) and the general public on

J. O. LAWAL; K. A. OLUYOLE

44

Redefining the HIV epidemic in Nigeria: from national to state level  

PubMed Central

Background: Governments are increasingly recognizing the need to focus limited HIV resources on specific geographic areas and specific populations to have a greater impact. Nigeria, with the second largest HIV epidemic in the world, is an important example of where more localized programming has the potential to improve the efficiency of the HIV response. Methods: Using Spectrum software we modelled the Nigerian HIV epidemic using two methods: First, we created national HIV estimates using trends in urban and rural areas. Second, we created national HIV estimates using trends from each of the 37 states in Nigeria and aggregated these results. In both instances we used HIV surveillance data from antenatal clinics and household surveys and aggregated the trends to determine the national epidemic. Results: The state models showed divergent trends in the 37 states. Comparing the national results calculated from the two methods resulted in different conclusions. In the aggregated state files, adult HIV incidence in Nigeria was stable between 2005 and 2013 (change of ?6%), whereas the urban and rural file suggested incidence was decreasing over the same time (change of ?50%). This difference was also reflected in the HIV prevalence trends, although the two methods showed similar trends in AIDS-related mortality. The two models had similar adult HIV prevalence in 2013: 3.0% (2.0–4.5%) in the aggregated state files versus 3.2% (3.0–3.5%) in the urban/rural file. Conclusion: The state-level estimates provide insight into the variations of the HIV epidemic in each state and provide useful information for programme managers. However, the reliability of the results is highly dependent on the amount and quality of data available from each sub-national area. PMID:25406749

Mahy, Mary; Nzima, Masauso; Ogungbemi, Michael K.; Ogbang, Doris A.; Morka, Mercy Chinenye; Stover, John

2014-01-01

45

The Role of Counselling and Parental Encouragement on Re-Entry of Adolescents into Secondary Schools in Abia State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examined the role of counselling, and parental encouragement on re-entry of adolescents into secondary school in Abia State, Nigeria. A total of 353 adolescents who re-entered school were selected from six secondary schools in the State through a simple random sampling technique. A validated questionnaire was used for data analysis.…

Alika, Henrietta Ijeoma; Ohanaka, Blessing Ijeoma

2013-01-01

46

Access to and Use of Reproductive Health Information among In-School Adolescent Girls in Lagos State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study investigated access to and use of reproductive health information among in-school adolescent girls in Lagos State, Nigeria. Design: Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Setting: The study sample consisted of 1,800 girls randomly selected from 18 public senior secondary schools in Lagos State. Method:…

Nwalo, K. I. N.; Anasi, Stella N. I.

2012-01-01

47

Parental Involvement, Interest In Schooling And Science Achievement Of Junior Secondary School Students In Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relative and combined influences of parental involvement and interest in schooling on science achievement of selected Junior Secondary School students in Ogun State, Nigeria. Twelve secondary schools were selected from the four administrative divisions of the State. A sample of 360 students participated in the study and three instruments were used to collect data. The combined

R. A. Olatoye

48

The Private Cost of National Certificate in Education (NCE) through National Teachers Institute Distance Learning Programme in Ekiti State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study set out to examine the private cost of a National Certificate in Education, through the distance learning mode as organized by the National Teachers Institute (NTI) Ekiti State branch in Nigeria. This was to open the eyes of the prospective students to know what on the average he has to spend, and also to provide data for the state

Borode, Matthew

2010-01-01

49

Incidence of Avian Influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria: The Epidemiology, Economic Losses and the Possible Role of Wild Birds in the Transmission of the Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing the huge economic losses due to diseases in poultry as the second largest industry in Nigeria after oil means improving the protein intake of the majority. Similarly, this will also promotes a steady income for the teeming farmers. This study investigated the incidence of the lethal avian influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria, with particular emphasis on the socio-economic and

H. G. Balla; A. S. Tahir; C. Haskainu

2008-01-01

50

Combating cyber crime in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe cyber crime and techniques adopted for combating it in Nigeria. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Reviews the state of cyber crime in Nigeria, and how it is being stemmed in the country. Findings – The types of cyber crime in Nigeria are revealed together with the efforts geared towards combating\\/preventing cyber crime in

Esharenana E. Adomi; Stella E. Igun

2008-01-01

51

Factors associated with interruption of treatment among Pulmonary Tuberculosis patients in Plateau State, Nigeria. 2011  

PubMed Central

Introduction Nigeria has one of the highest tuberculosis (TB) burdens in the world with estimated incidence of 133 per 100,000 populations. Multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) is an emerging threat of the TB control in Nigeria caused mainly by incomplete treatment. This study explored factors that affect adherence to treatment among patients undergoing direct observation of TB treatment in Plateau state, Nigeria. Methods Between June and July 2011, we reviewed medical records and interviewed randomly selected pulmonary TB patients in their eighth month of treatment. Information on patients? clinical, socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics was collected using checklist and structured questionnaire for knowledge of treatment duration and reasons for interruption of treatment. We conducted focus group discussions with patients about barriers to treatment adherence. Data were analyzed with Epi Info software. Results Of 378 records reviewed, 229 (61%) patients were male; mean age 37.6 ±13.5 years and 71 (19%) interrupted their treatment. Interruption of treatment was associated with living > 5 km from TB treatment site (AOR: 11.3; CI 95%: 5.7-22.2), lack of knowledge of duration of treatment (AOR: 6.1; CI 95%: 2.8-13.2) and cigarette smoking (AOR: 3.4; CI 95%: 1.5- 8.0). Major reasons for the interruption were lack of transport fare (40%) and feeling well (25%). Focused group discussions revealed unfriendly attitudes of health care workers as barriers to adherence to treatment. Conclusion This study revealed knowledge of the patients on the duration of treatment, distance and health workers attitude as the major determinants of adherent to TB treatment. Training for health care workers on patient education was conducted during routine supportive supervision. PMID:24711884

Ibrahim, Luka Mangveep; Hadejia, Idris Suleiman; Nguku, Patrick; Dankoli, Raymond; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Akhimien, Moses Obiemen; Ogiri, Samuel; Oyemakinde, Akin; Dalhatu, Ibrahim; Nwanyanwu, Okey; Nsubuga, Peter

2014-01-01

52

Screening for Common Occupational Health Diseases Among Long Distance Professional Drivers in Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Long term exposure to hazards at the work place is injurious to health and usually leads to diseased conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the occupational health problems associated with driving among the professional drivers in Sagamu, Ogun state, Nigeria. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study. Total sample of all the consenting professional drivers in the five interstate motor parks, including the cement factory [WAPCO] in the local government area, were recruited into the study. An interviewer administered structured questionnaire was administered by trained health workers and respondents were screen for common occupational health problems. Results: A total of 400 professional drivers were interviewed, all [100%] of them were males with age range from 21 to 59 yrs and nearly half [42%] were non indigenes. Only half, 208 [52%] of them were married with majority, 232 [58.0%] working for about 12 hrs daily and 46% of them had been working for 5 yrs or more. Most, 382 [95.5%] had been educated on HIV/AIDS before and 313 [78.3%] of them had multiple sexual partners. Only 241 [60.3%] used condom at the last sexual act and 55 [13.5%] had ever been tested for HIV/AIDS. Common occupational health diseases were renal tubular acidosis (RTA) 52 [13%] in the last one year and most of them currently have myalgia 352 [88.0%], upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) 20 [5.0%], sexually transmitted diseases (STD) 15 [3.8%], short sightedness 41 [10.3%], and Hypertension 90 [22.5%]. Conclusions: The study shows that common occupational diseases among long distance professional drivers in Western Nigeria were myalgia, upper respiratory tract infection, hypertension, short sightedness, sexually transmitted diseases, and RTA. Prevention and control of these common diseases among the drivers will lead to reduction of road traffic accidents in Western Nigeria and other low income countries. PMID:24829742

Amoran, Olorunfemi Emmanuel; Salako, Albert Adekunle; Jeminusi, Olubunmi

2014-01-01

53

National health insurance scheme: how protected are households in Oyo State, Nigeria from catastrophic health expenditure?  

PubMed Central

Background: The major objective of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Nigeria is to protect families from the financial hardship of large medical bills. Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE) is rampart in Nigeria despite the take-off of the NHIS. This study aimed to determine if households enrolled in the NHIS were protected from having CHE. Methods: The study took place among 714 households in urban communities of Oyo State. CHE was measured using a threshold of 40% of monthly non-food expenditure. Descriptive statistics were done, Principal Component Analysis was used to divide households into wealth quintiles. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were done. Results: The mean age of household respondent was 33.5 years. The median household income was 43,500 naira (290 US dollars) and the range was 7,000–680,000 naira (46.7–4,533 US dollars) in 2012. The overall median household healthcare cost was 890 naira (5.9 US dollars) and the range was 10-17,700 naira (0.1–118 US dollars) in 2012. In all, 67 (9.4%) households were enrolled in NHIS scheme. Healthcare services was utilized by 637 (82.9%) and CHE occurred in 42 (6.6%) households. CHE occurred in 14 (10.9%) of the households in the lowest quintile compared to 3 (2.5%) in the highest wealth quintile (P= 0.004). The odds of CHE among households in lowest wealth quintile is about 5 times. They had Crude OR (CI): 4.7 (1.3–16.8), P= 0.022. Non enrolled households were two times likely to have CHE, though not significant Conclusion: Households in the lowest wealth quintiles were at higher risk of CHE. Universal coverage of health insurance in Nigeria should be fast-tracked to give the expected financial risk protection and decreased incidence of CHE. PMID:24847483

Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi; Fatiregun, Akinola Ayoola

2014-01-01

54

Lymphatic filariasis among the Yakurr people of Cross River State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background In order to initiate a disease elimination programme for lymphatic filariasis based on mass drug administration, a proper understanding of the geographical distribution and degree of risk is essential. Methods An investigation of lymphatic filariasis due to Wuchereria bancrofti was carried out among 785 people in four communities of Yakurr Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria between March and August, 2009. Finger prick blood smear samples collected from the subjects were examined for W. bancrofti using standard parasitological protocol. The subjects were also screened for clinical manifestations of lymphatic filariasis. Results Of the 785 persons examined, 48 (6.1%) were positive for microfilariae in their thick blood smear. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis among the various age groups (P??0.05). The overall mean microfilarial density of the infected individuals was 5.6mf/50 ?l. There was a significant variation (P?State, Nigeria. PMID:22992226

2012-01-01

55

A Review of Special Education Services Delivery in the United States and Nigeria: Implications for Inclusive Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both Nigeria and the United States represent developing and developed countries respectively, and special education policy between these two countries are different. Both countries have contributed to help learners with exceptionalities in their policies. These policies help in the formulation and implementation of special education programmes for…

Michael, Eskay; Onu, Victoria; Janeth, Igbo

2012-01-01

56

Influence of Retraining Programme on Self-Esteem of Primary School Teachers in Ebonyi State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the influence of retraining programme on self-esteem of primary school teachers in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. The study was guided by one research question and a null hypothesis. A purposively selected sample of 775 primary school teachers who attended capacity building retraining programme provided the data collected using…

Igbo, Janet N.; Eze, Justina U.; Eskay, M.; Onu, V. C.; Omeje, J.

2012-01-01

57

Psychosocial Care in Complementary Feeding of Children: A Comparative Study of the Urban and Rural Communities of Osun State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated psychosocial care in complementary feeding of children under two years of age. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Osun State of Nigeria within Sub-Saharan Africa, and 450 mothers were interviewed of which 337 were from the urban and 113 from the rural communities. Results revealed that 37.4% of the respondents…

Ogunba, Beatrice Olubukola

2010-01-01

58

Intersection between Alcohol Abuse and Intimate Partner's Violence in a Rural Ijaw Community in Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey, the south-south zone of Nigeria had the highest prevalence of domestic violence. This study is to find out if this is related to the widespread consumption of alcohol in the region. The study was carried out in Okoloba, a rural Ijaw community in Bayelsa State, where alcohol is produced…

Brisibe, Seiyefa; Ordinioha, Best; Dienye, Paul O.

2012-01-01

59

Assessing Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Learning Strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined metacognitive awareness of learning strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria. The study was an exploratory one, which utilized descriptive statistics. A total number of 1200 students drawn through multistage proportionate random sampling technique participated in the study. The study found that secondary…

Okoza, Jolly; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Owens-Sogolo, Osasere

2013-01-01

60

Qualification and Gender Dimensions in Attitude of Secondary School Social Studies Teachers towards Computer Usage in Kogi State Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined attitude dimensions of secondary school social studies teachers towards computer usage in Kogi State Nigeria. Qualification and Gender influence on their use was examined. Participants were 427 (Male = 224; female = 203) social studies teachers. Sampling was purposive and random. The study adopted the survey design. Data were…

Achor, Emmanuel E.; Shaibu, Joshua S.

2013-01-01

61

Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) Seeds Collected from Three Locations in Edo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was initiated to ascertain some physical and chemical characteristics of the breadfruit seed collected from three locations (Benin City in Oredo, Egor in Egor, and NIFOR in Ovia North-East Local Government Areas) in Edo State, Nigeria. 150 units of well-matured seeded breadfruits were harvested, the fruits were opened and the following physical characters were determined; weight of fruits,

2006-01-01

62

Cultivation of Mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) on Various Farm Wastes in Obubra Local Government of Cross River State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 Abstract: A study on the cultivation of Volvariella volvacea mushroom (Basidiomycetes), a Non-Timber Forest Product (NTFP) on different wastes (palm fibers, rice husk and saw dust) was conducted at CRUTECH, Obubra Campus, Cross River State, Nigeria. The aim was to investigate the influence of selected farm wastes on the growth of V. volvacea, so as to organically utilize these

H. N. Ukoima; L. O. Ogbonnaya; G. E. Arikpo; F. N. Ikpe

2009-01-01

63

Spatial distribution of urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria using geographical information system and school based questionnaire.  

PubMed

Urinary schistosomiasis is a serious disease in Cross River State, Nigeria. Dearth of information on its distribution has hampered the implementation of focused control of the disease. The availability of a rapid method for mapping the disease necessitated this research to provide data for control of Urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria. The study used a rapid validated school-based questionnaire method in mapping schistosomiasis. Geographical information system (GIS) software tools were used to produce a spatial map for prevalence of infection and areas at risk for urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State. Data analysis with SPSS package revealed that 9,993 (10.2%) female and 10,328 (10.0%) male pupils in 218 schools passed blood in urine in one month out of 199,794 pupils interviewed. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence between male and female pupils with infection (p < 0.005). The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis using questionnaire method correlated positively with the filtration method used in determining the egg output (r = 0.71, p < 0.001). Endemic schools were distributed in thirteen Local Government Areas of Cross River State, Nigeria. Yala and Yakurr LGAs had the highest number of schools that reported schistosomiasis with 39 (59%) and 13 (59%), respectively. Odukpani LGA had the lowest prevalence of 1 (0.2%). The overall results showed a mean urinary schistosomiasis prevalence of 10.2% for Cross River State, Nigeria. The findings of this study would guide Government and other relevant agencies in the implementation of control strategies for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria. PMID:24506017

Adie, H A; Okon, O E; Arong, G A; Braide, E I; Ekpo, U F

2013-10-15

64

Comparative analysis of pathogenic organisms in cockroaches from different community settings in Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents. PMID:24850961

Isaac, Clement; Orue, Philip Ogbeide; Iyamu, Mercy Itohan; Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetiyan; Isaac, Osesojie

2014-04-01

65

Improving maternal and child healthcare programme using community-participatory interventions in Ebonyi State Nigeria.  

PubMed

In Nigeria, the government is implementing the Free Maternal and Child Health Care Programme (FMCHCP). The policy is premised on the notion that financial barriers are one of the most important constraints to equitable access and use of skilled maternal and child healthcare. In Ebonyi State, Southeastern Nigeria the FMCHCP is experiencing implementation challenges including: inadequate human resource for health, inadequate funding, out of stock syndrome, inadequate infrastructure, and poor staff remuneration. Furthermore, there is less emphasis on community involvement in the programme implementation. In this policy brief, we recommend policy options that emphasize the implementation of community-based participatory interventions to strengthen the government's FMCHCP as follows: Option 1: Training community women on prenatal care, life-saving skills in case of emergency, reproductive health, care of the newborn and family planning. Option 2: Sensitizing the community women towards behavioural change, to understand what quality services that respond to their needs are but also to seek and demand for such. Option 3: Implementation packages that provide technical skills to women of childbearing age as well as mothers' groups, and traditional birth attendants for better home-based maternal and child healthcare. The effectiveness of this approach has been demonstrated in a number of community-based participatory interventions, building on the idea that if community members take part in decision-making and bring local knowledge, experiences and problems to the fore, they are more likely to own and sustain solutions to improve their communities' health. PMID:25337602

Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ndukwe, Chinwendu Daniel; Ezeoha, Abel Abeh; Urochukwu, Henry Chukwuemeka; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla

2014-10-01

66

Improving maternal and child healthcare programme using community-participatory interventions in Ebonyi State Nigeria  

PubMed Central

In Nigeria, the government is implementing the Free Maternal and Child Health Care Programme (FMCHCP). The policy is premised on the notion that financial barriers are one of the most important constraints to equitable access and use of skilled maternal and child healthcare. In Ebonyi State, Southeastern Nigeria the FMCHCP is experiencing implementation challenges including: inadequate human resource for health, inadequate funding, out of stock syndrome, inadequate infrastructure, and poor staff remuneration. Furthermore, there is less emphasis on community involvement in the programme implementation. In this policy brief, we recommend policy options that emphasize the implementation of community-based participatory interventions to strengthen the government’s FMCHCP as follows: Option 1: Training community women on prenatal care, life-saving skills in case of emergency, reproductive health, care of the newborn and family planning. Option 2: Sensitizing the community women towards behavioural change, to understand what quality services that respond to their needs are but also to seek and demand for such. Option 3: Implementation packages that provide technical skills to women of childbearing age as well as mothers’ groups, and traditional birth attendants for better home-based maternal and child healthcare. The effectiveness of this approach has been demonstrated in a number of community-based participatory interventions, building on the idea that if community members take part in decision-making and bring local knowledge, experiences and problems to the fore, they are more likely to own and sustain solutions to improve their communities’ health. PMID:25337602

Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ndukwe, Chinwendu Daniel; Ezeoha, Abel Abeh; Urochukwu, Henry Chukwuemeka; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla

2014-01-01

67

Comparative Analysis of Pathogenic Organisms in Cockroaches from Different Community Settings in Edo State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents. PMID:24850961

Orue, Philip Ogbeide; Iyamu, Mercy Itohan; Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetiyan; Isaac, Osesojie

2014-01-01

68

Quantitative analysis of nitrate and nitrite contents in vegetables commonly consumed in Delta State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Plasma thiocyanate has been reported to be high among cassava-eating populations such as that in Nigeria because of the cyanide content of cassava. Thiocyanate, which is secreted into the stomach contents of animals, has been demonstrated to catalyse the formation of nitrosamines (potent carcinogens) in the stomach from secondary amines and nitrite. The main source of the nitrite precursor in this environment is vegetables, primarily eaten as the chief supplier of proteins. The present study attempts to analyse the levels of nitrate and nitrite in vegetables commonly grown and consumed in Delta State, Nigeria. The nitrate and nitrite contents in green vegetable (Amaranthus spp.), bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina), pumpkin (Telfaria occidentalis) and water leaf (Talinum triangulare) grown in different localities of the state were determined by standard analytical procedures. The results show that those vegetables grown in the industrialised urban centres of the state had higher nitrate (223 (SD 71) mg/kg dry weight; P<0.05) and nitrite (12.6 (SD 1.7) mg/kg dry weight; P>0.05) levels when compared with the same species (188 (SD 77) mg nitrate/kg dry weight and 10.9 (SD 1.1) mg nitrite/kg dry weight) cultivated in less industrialised suburbs. We conclude that frequent consumption of such vegetables whose nitrate and nitrite contents are high by cassava-eating individuals might put them at risk of developing stomach cancer and other possible results of nitrate and/or nitrite toxicity. In order to avoid an outbreak in our communities, appropriate agencies should monitor and regulate the release of chemicals into the environment. In the meantime, the cultivation and consumption of vegetables grown in industrialised areas of the state should be discouraged. PMID:17092380

Onyesom, I; Okoh, P N

2006-11-01

69

Anti-malaria prescription in pregnancy among general practitioners in Enugu state, south east Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: The national policy on malaria control recommends use of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (IPT-SP) for chemoprophylaxis against malaria in pregnancy; and use of quinine and arthemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for acute treatment of malaria in the first, and second/third trimesters, respectively. In Nigeria, a large proportion of pregnant women are seen by the general practitioners (GPs). Objective: To determine the pattern of anti-malaria prescription in pregnancy among GPs in Enugu state, and access the level of conformity with the national policy on malaria control. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires were administered to a cross-section of 147 GPs that attended the 2010 Enugu state branch of the Nigeria Medical Association Scientific Conference/Annual General Meeting/Election. Results: The mean age of the GPs was 37 ± 3.6 (range 27-70) years. Quinine was the commonly (45.6% (n = 67)) prescribed anti-malaria drug in the first trimester while in the second/third trimester ACT was commonly (48.3% (n = 71)) prescribed. Seventy-six (51.7%) practitioners prescribed IPT-SP for chemoprophylaxis against malaria while the rest (48.3%) prescribed other drugs. GPs who obtained MBBS qualification less than or equal to 5 years prior to the survey were more likely to comply with the national policy on malaria control in their prescriptions (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The pattern of anti-malaria prescription among GPs in Enugu state is varied, and conformed poorly to the evidence-based national policy on malaria control. There is need for continuing professional development to keep the GPs abreast with current trends in malaria treatment during pregnancy. PMID:23798794

Ugwu, Emmanuel Onyebuchi; Iferikigwe, E. S.; Obi, S. N.; Ugwu, A. O.; Agu, P. U.; Okezie, O. A.

2013-01-01

70

Treatment outcome and impact of leprosy elimination campaign in Sokoto and Zamfara states, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A Leprosy Elimination Campaign (LEC) was implemented in 37 districts of Sokoto and Zamfara states, Nigeria from 13 August to 30 November 1998. The campaign utilized intensive community mobilization and training of local health personnel to detect hidden leprosy cases. During 8 weeks of case finding, 160,127 persons were screened; 353 new cases of leprosy were detected and placed on MDT; 236 (67%) of new cases detected were classified as MB, 64 cases (18%) suffered visible deformities and 24 patients (6.8%) were children. Follow-up in December 1999 of patients placed on MDT revealed 97% PB and 96% MB cure rates, respectively. Detection of cases in communities led some community leaders to ask for repeat surveys in their communities. Repeat surveys continue to yield new cases. The authors recommend that LECs be maintained for 3 years to accelerate leprosy elimination in the region. The cost effectiveness and impact of LEC in Sokoto-Zamfara are discussed. PMID:11495450

Ebenso, B E; Tureta, S M; Udo, S O

2001-06-01

71

Prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria: results of a population-based house-to-house survey  

PubMed Central

Background and objective Abdominal obesity is associated with the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes and hypertension. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Materials and methods We carried out a cross-sectional study aimed at ascertaining the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Participants in the study were recruited from communities in the three senatorial zones in the state. Screening for abdominal obesity was carried out in these subjects using waist circumference (the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel criteria were used). The World Health Organization Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of chronic disease risk factors was used. Body mass index, anthropometric measurements, and other relevant data were also collected. Results Data on waist circumference were obtained from 2,807 subjects. The prevalence of obesity using body mass index in the population was 11.12%. In men and women, it was 7.73%, and 14.37%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in the population was 21.75%. In men and women, it was 3.2% and 39.2%, respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of abdominal obesity is high in Nigeria, and needs to be monitored because it is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:23946664

Ijezie, Innocent Chukwuonye; Chuku, Abali; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

2013-01-01

72

Perceived causes of eclampsia in four ethnic groups in Borno State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study was conducted among the four major ethnic groups(Kanuri, Babur, Shuwa and Marghi) of Borno State, North-east Nigeria. The aim of the study was to identify the perceived causes of eclampsia, a leading cause of maternal death in the State. The data were obtained through focus group discussions (FGDs), questionnaires and in-depth interviews. A total of 16 FGDs and 1,167 questionnaire interviews were conducted among the rural populace. In-depth interviews were conducted on relatives of thirty eclamptic patients admitted to the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. The findings revealed that evil spirits/witches and wizards, poor nutrition, heredity early marriage, destiny from God and machinations of co-wives are the perceived causes of eclampsia in the area. These perceptions result in the use of the following as means of treatment: drinks of various concoctions, inhalation of smoked herbs in rooms, potash drinks, and the wearing of talisman around the neck. These perceptions and traditional medications have implications for design of educational and informational messages aimed at reducing maternal mortality from eclampsia in Borno State. PMID:10214425

el-Nafaty, A U; Omotara, B A

1998-04-01

73

Occurrence of tick-transmitted pathogens in dogs in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia rossi, transmitted by Haemaphysalis elliptica in South Africa, has also been reported from Nigeria. Although H. leachi (sensu lato) is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, published literature on the occurrence of canine babesiosis is meagre. It has been postulated that the genotype of Babesia rossi Erythrocyte Membrane Antigen 1 (BrEMA1) may be linked to virulence of the specific isolate. The primary objective of this study was to detect and characterise tick-borne pathogens in dogs presented to a veterinary hospital using molecular techniques. In B. rossi-positive specimens, we aimed to determine whether the BrEMA1 gene occurred and to compare genotypes with those found in other isolates. Lastly, we wished to identify the tick species that were recovered from the sampled dogs. Methods Blood specimens (n?=?100) were collected during January to March 2010 from domestic dogs presented at an animal hospital in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. They were screened for the presence of Babesia/Theileria and Ehrlichia/Anaplasma genomic DNA using PCR and Reverse Line Blot (RLB) assays. Positive B. rossi specimens were tested for the presence of the BrEMA1gene using an RT-PCR. In addition, ticks were collected from dogs found to be infested during sampling. Results On RLB, 72 (72%) of the specimens were positive for one or more haemoparasites. Of the positive specimens, 38 (53%) were infected with B. rossi; 9 (13%) with Theileria sp. (sable); 5 (7%) with either Ehrlichia canis or Anaplasma sp. Omatjenne, respectively; 3 (4%) with Theileria equi; and 1 (1%) with B. vogeli and E. ruminantium, respectively. Co-infections were detected in 13 (18%) of the specimens. Results of RT-PCR screening for the BrEMA1 gene were negative. A total of 146 ticks belonging to 8 species were collected and identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus 107 (73%), Haemaphysalis leachi (sensu stricto) 27 (18%), R. turanicus 3 (2%), and Amblyomma variegatum, H. elliptica, R. lunulatus, R. muhsamae and R. senegalensis 1 (1%), respectively. Conclusions Up to 8 tick-borne pathogens possibly occur in the dog population at Jos, with B. rossi being the most prevalent. The absence of the BrEMA1 gene suggests that B. rossi occurring in that area may be less virulent than South African isolates. PMID:24661795

2014-01-01

74

Molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in the Cross River State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study provides with a first insight on Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex epidemiology and genetic diversity in the Cross River State, Nigeria. Starting with 137 smear positive patients recruited over a period of 12months (June 2008 to May 2009), we obtained 97 pure mycobacterial isolates out of which 81 (83.5%) were identified as M. tuberculosis complex. Genotyping revealed a total of 27 spoligotypes patterns with 10 clusters (n=64% or 79% of clustered isolates, 2-32 isolates/cluster), with patients in the age group range 25-34 years being significantly associated with shared-type pattern SIT61 (p=0.019). Comparison with SITVIT2 database showed that with the exception of a single cluster (SIT727/H1), all other clusters observed were representative of West Africa; the two main lineages involved were LAM10-CAM (n=42/81% or 51.8%) of M. tuberculosis and AFRI_2 sublineage of Mycobacterium africanum (n=27/81% or 33.3%). Subsequent 12-loci MIRU typing resulted in a total of 13 SIT/MIT clusters (n=52 isolates, 2-9 isolates per cluster), with a resulting recent n-1 transmission rate of 48.1%. Available drug-susceptibility testing (DST) results for 58/81 clinical isolates revealed 6/58% or 10.4% cases of multiple drug-resistance (MDR); 5/6 MDR cases were caused by strains belonging to LAM10-CAM lineage (a specific cluster SIT61/MIT266 in 4/6 cases, and an orphan spoligotype pattern in 1/6 case). Additionally, MIT266 was associated with streptomycin resistance (p=0.016). All the six MDRTB isolates were concomitantly resistance to streptomycin and ethambutol; however, 4/6 MDR strains with identical MIRU patterns were characterized by consecutive strain numbers hence the possibility of laboratory cross contamination could not be excluded in 3/4 serial cases. The present preliminary study underlines the usefulness of spoligotyping and 12-loci MIRU-VNTRs to establish a baseline of circulating genotypic lineages of M. tuberculosis complex in Nigeria. PMID:21878397

Thumamo, Benjamin P; Asuquo, Anne E; Abia-Bassey, Lydia N; Lawson, Lovett; Hill, Véronique; Zozio, Thierry; Emenyonu, Nnamdi; Eko, Francis O; Rastogi, Nalin

2012-06-01

75

Molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in the Cross River State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

This study provides with a first insight on Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex epidemiology and genetic diversity in the Cross River State, Nigeria. Starting with 137 smear positive patients recruited over a period of 12 months (June 2008 to May 2009), we obtained 97 pure mycobacterial isolates out of which 81 (83.5%) were identified as M. tuberculosis complex. Genotyping revealed a total of 27 spoligotypes patterns with 10 clusters (n = 64% or 79% of clustered isolates, 2–32 isolates/cluster), with patients in the age group range 25–34 years being significantly associated with shared-type pattern SIT61 (p = 0.019). Comparison with SITVIT2 database showed that with the exception of a single cluster (SIT727/H1), all other clusters observed were representative of West Africa; the two main lineages involved were LAM10-CAM (n = 42/81% or 51.8%) of M. tuberculosis and AFRI_2 sublineage of Mycobacterium africanum (n = 27/81% or 33.3%). Subsequent 12-loci MIRU typing resulted in a total of 13 SIT/MIT clusters (n = 52 isolates, 2–9 isolates per cluster), with a resulting recent n ? 1 transmission rate of 48.1%. Available drug-susceptibility testing (DST) results for 58/81 clinical isolates revealed 6/58% or 10.4% cases of multiple drug-resistance (MDR); 5/6 MDR cases were caused by strains belonging to LAM10-CAM lineage (a specific cluster SIT61/MIT266 in 4/6 cases, and an orphan spoligotype pattern in 1/6 case). Additionally, MIT266 was associated with streptomycin resistance (p = 0.016). All the six MDRTB isolates were concomitantly resistance to streptomycin and ethambutol; however, 4/6 MDR strains with identical MIRU patterns were characterized by consecutive strain numbers hence the possibility of laboratory cross contamination could not be excluded in 3/4 serial cases. The present preliminary study underlines the usefulness of spoligotyping and 12-loci MIRU–VNTRs to establish a baseline of circulating genotypic lineages of M. tuberculosis complex in Nigeria. PMID:21878397

Thumamo, Benjamin P.; Asuquo, Anne E.; Abia-Bassey, Lydia N.; Lawson, Lovett; Hill, Véronique; Zozio, Thierry; Emenyonu, Nnamdi; Eko, Francis O.; Rastogi, Nalin

2012-01-01

76

Natural radioactivity of the tar-sand deposits of Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combination of gamma spectrometry and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the presence and level of radioactivity of radionuclides in bituminous sand and overburden obtained from bituminous sand deposits in Ondo State Nigeria for the purpose of providing baseline data and assessing its impact on the environment. The radionuclides identified with reliable regularity belong to the decay series of naturally occurring radionuclides headed by 238U and 232Th. The non-decay series of naturally occurring 40K was found to be below the limit of detection. The average specific activity concentration values obtained for 214 Bi, 208Tl, and 226Ra in the overburden are 165.64±2.91, 150.25±2.91 and 60.97±2.27 Bq kg -1, respectively. The measured activity in the bituminous sand layer is so low that it can be said to be non-radioactive. The result of the EDXRF supports the presence of radioelements in the overburden, which are likely to be embedded in accessory minerals like zircon and tourmaline. Thus, surface exploration technique using soil-gas radon measurement will not yield the desired result. Furthermore, the level of radioelements and associated decay daughter 222Rn is not expected to cause any health hazard.

Fasasi, M. K.; Oyawale, A. A.; Mokobia, C. E.; Tchokossa, P.; Ajayi, T. R.; Balogun, F. A.

2003-06-01

77

Lymphatic filariasis and associated morbidities in rural communities of Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti is a serious public health problem in rural communities of Nigeria. The study assessed the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis and associated clinical morbidities in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government Area of Ogun State. Microscopic examination of thick blood smears of 500 participants of both sexes and age ranging from 1 to 79 years was conducted. Visual observations of clinical manifestations of chronic infection were also conducted. The overall prevalence and intensity of infection were 21% and 21.4 mf/mL of blood respectively. Microfilaraemic prevalence was significantly higher in males (27.1%) than in females (16%) (P < 0.001). However, intensity of infection was not gender and age dependent (P > 0.05). The overall prevalence of all clinical manifestations of infection due to W. bancrofti is 15% with hydrocele, limb and breast elephantiasis constituting 16.9%, 4.6% and 5.1% of the total population respectively. Prevalence of hydrocele and limb elephantiasis was significantly higher in the older age groups (P < 0.05). Occurrence of elephantiasis of the breast in women however was not associated with age (P > 0.05). Integrated approach through chemotherapy and vector control is therefore advocated to reduce morbidity due to infection in this study area. PMID:23518235

Christiana, Okonofua; Olajumoke, Morenikeji; Oyetunde, Salawu

2014-01-01

78

Radiological study of soils in oil and gas producing areas in Delta State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Measurements of radioactivity concentrations in soils around the oil and gas producing areas in Delta State of Nigeria were carried out using a high-purity germanium detector gamma-ray spectrometer. Soil samples were collected from 20 locations from the study area and analysed. The radionuclides detected are traceable to the primordial series of (238)U and(232)Th as well as (40)K and traces of globally released (137)Cs. The specific activity values ranged between 7 and 60 Bq kg(-1) with a mean of 24±2 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U; while for (232)Th the range was 7-73 Bq kg(-1) with a mean of 29±3 Bq kg(-1). Relatively higher specific activity values were recorded in (40)K with a range of 15-696 Bq kg(-1), while the mean was 256±37 Bq kg(-1). However, a relatively low-specific radioactivity was obtained from(137)Cs with a range of 1-25 Bq kg(-1) and a mean of 7±1 Bq kg(-1). The estimated dose equivalent obtainable per year from these levels of radioactivity is <5 % of the recommended safe level of 1 mSv per annum. Therefore, the area and the use of the soils as building materials may be considered safe. PMID:22791838

Tchokossa, P; Olomo, J B; Balogun, F A; Adesanmi, C A

2013-01-01

79

The use of the sisterhood method for estimating maternal mortality ratio in Lagos state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Summary Estimates of maternal mortality are crucial to inform the planning of reproductive health programmes and guide advocacy. The aim of this study was to obtain a population-based estimate of maternal mortality in Lagos State, Nigeria. The sisterhood method was used in 2008 to carry out the survey using a questionnaire in which respondents were asked about their sisters who died during pregnancy, childbirth or within 6 weeks after childbirth. The survey involved 4,315 respondents who provided information on 9,910 ever married sisters. The life-time likelihood (risk) of maternal death for women aged 15-49 years was found to be 0.0239 or 1 in 42. The estimated maternal mortality ratio was 450 per 100,000 live births with a 95% CI of 360 and 530. Out of 111 reported deaths, 35 (31.5%) occurred during pregnancy, 49 (44.1%) occurred during delivery and 27 (24.3%) within 6 weeks of delivery. PMID:21534753

Oye-Adeniran, B A; Odeyemi, K A; Gbadegesin, A; Ekanem, E E; Osilaja, O K; Akin-Adenekan, O; Umoh, A V

2011-05-01

80

Antinutrients Evaluation of Staple Food in Ebonyi State, South-Eastern, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluating the levels of antinutrients in the staple foods is an important aspect of nutritional studies. The levels of these antinutrients were quantitatively estimated in staple foods in a major food producing rural areas of Ebonyi State, South-Eastern Nigeria using spectrophotometric method. Results indicated that phytate was not detected in tubers while legumes recorded the highest mean values of phytate (260.07 mg gG1). The oxalate levels of legumes were significantly high compared to tubers and cereals (p< 0.000). Tubers had the highest mean. Concentration of cyanogenic glycoside 15.20 mg gG1 followed by legumes while cereals were the least correlation analysis shows that the cyanogenic glycoside was negatively related to all other antinutrients except tannin. Also tannin was related to all other antinutrients except cyanogenic glycoside. Interestingly, all other antinutrients were positively related to each other except cyanogenic glycoside and tannins. The consumption of staple foods rich in these antinutrients pose a health risk to livestock and poor communities that reside around the study sites, especially children.

Edeogu, C. O.; Ezeonu, F. C.; Okaka, A. N. C.; Ekuma, C. E.; Eiom, S. O.

81

A Comparative Analysis of Teacher Supply and Pupils' Enrolment in Public and Private Primary Schools in Kwara and Ekiti States, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated teacher supply and pupils' enrolment in public and private primary schools in Kwara and Ekiti States, Nigeria. The study population comprised all the 811 primary schools in Kwara State and 810 primary schools in Ekiti State. Out of the forty-seven higher institutions that supply teachers to primary schools in the two…

Adeyemi, T. O.

2012-01-01

82

Distribution of Vibrio species in Shellfish and Water Samples Collected from the Atlantic Coastline of South-East Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Crayfish, lobster, and sea-water samples collected from five fishing islands on the Atlantic coast–Bight of Biafra (Bonny)–belonging to Ibaka Local Government Area of Akwa-Ibom State of Nigeria were bacteriologically evaluated on thiosulphate citrate bile-salt sucrose (TCBS) agar for Vibrio load and pathotypes. Mean log10 Vibrio counts of 7.64±2.78 cfu/g (in crayfish), 5.07±3.21 cfu/g (in lobster), and 3.06±2.27 cfu/mL (in sea-water) were obtained in rainy season (June-July) while counts in the dry season (November-December) were 6.25±1.93 cfu/g, 5.99±1.54 cfu/g, and 3.84±1.78 cfu/mL respectively. The physicochemical measurements (temperature, pH, and total dissolved solutes) of the sea-water did not vary significantly in the two seasons across all five islands. Vibrio species isolated were Vibrio cholerae (both O1 and non-O1 serotypes), V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. mimicus, and V. fluvialis. Both Ogawa and Inaba subtypes of V. cholerae O1 serotype were found. In addition, the Hikojima subtype, which had not been previously reported in the region, was isolated in two samples. The results show that these Vibrio species are endemic in the area. PMID:24288944

Eyisi, Onyedikachukwu A.L.; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.

2013-01-01

83

Relevance of thermal environment to human health: a case study of Ondo State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interconnection between weather and climate and the performance, well-being, and human health cannot be overemphasized. The relationship between them is of both local and global significance. Information about weather, climate, and thermal environment is very important to human health and medical practitioners. The most crucial environmental information needed by medical practitioners and for maintaining human health, performance, and well-being are thermal conditions. The study used meteorological variables: air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, and RayMan model as an analytical tool to compute physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) in order to assess thermo-physiological thresholds in Ondo State. The study revealed that there are marked spatial and seasonal variations in the environmental thermal conditions in the study area. The results of physiologically equivalent temperature for different grades of thermal sensation and physiological stress on human beings indicate that about 60 % of the total study period (1998-2008) fall under physiological stress level of moderate heat stress (PET 31-36 °C). In derived savannah, 32.6 % out of the total study period was under strong heat stress. In view of this, the study concluded that Ondo State may likely be prone to heat-related ailments and that some of the death recorded in the State, in recent times, may be heat-related mortality, but this is difficult to ascertain because there is no postmortem records in Nigeria where it could be confirmed. This type of study is relevant to help government to improve health care interventions and achieve Millennium Development Goals in health sector.

Omonijo, Akinyemi Gabriel; Adeofun, Clement Olabinjo; Oguntoke, Olusegun; Matzarakis, Andreas

2013-07-01

84

Utilization of Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria by Pregnant Women in Rivers State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: This study was conducted to assess the level of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) in Rivers State, Nigeria, to identify obstacles prohibiting utilization in order to make recommendations for improved uptake and malaria control in general. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in November 2008 among 339 pregnant women and those who had delivered children in the last 1 year, using a multistage sampling method. Data were analyzed using the Epi-Info version 6.04d statistical software package and hypothesis tests were conducted to compare summary statistics at 95% significance level. Results: Most of the respondents (76.4%) had knowledge that malaria was caused by mosquitoes and was harmful in pregnancy. Although majority of the pregnant women (80.8%) attended antenatal care clinics, knowledge of the correct use of SP was low (32.6%) and only 62.8% took malaria preventive treatment. Of these, 58.4% took SP, while nearly a third, 31.8%, took chloroquine. Only 16.4% took their SP at the health facility directly observed by health workers according to the national guidelines. The commonest reason for not preventing malaria was that they were not sick during the period of pregnancy. Conclusions: Misconceptions about IPTp persist among women known to have attended antenatal care clinics, resulting in only a minority of pregnant women receiving IPTp as recommended by national guidelines. Efforts directed at awareness creation on the new malaria prevention and treatment policy are therefore necessary to enhance the uptake of IPT in pregnancy in Rivers State. Further studies are however, needed to evaluate the knowledge and practices of health care workers on the new malaria treatment policy. PMID:23412963

Tobin-West, Charles I; Asuquo, Eme O

2013-01-01

85

Source to point of use drinking water changes and knowledge, attitude and practices in Katsina State, Northern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many Sub-Saharan countries such as Nigeria, inadequate access to safe drinking water is a serious problem with 37% in the region and 58% of rural Nigeria using unimproved sources. The global challenge to measuring household water quality as a determinant of safety is further compounded in Nigeria by the possibility of deterioration from source to point of use. This is associated with the use of decentralised water supply systems in rural areas which are not fully reticulated to the household taps, creating a need for an integrated water quality monitoring system. As an initial step towards establishing the system in the north west and north central zones of Nigeria, The Katsina State Rural Water and Sanitation Agency, responsible for ensuring access to safe water and adequate sanitation to about 6 million people carried out a three pronged study with the support of UNICEF Nigeria. Part 1 was an assessment of the legislative and policy framework, institutional arrangements and capacity for drinking water quality monitoring through desk top reviews and Key Informant Interviews (KII) to ascertain the institutional capacity requirements for developing the water quality monitoring system. Part II was a water quality study in 700 households of 23 communities in four local government areas. The objectives were to assess the safety of drinking water, compare the safety at source and household level and assess the possible contributory role of end users’ Knowledge Attitudes and Practices. These were achieved through water analysis, household water quality tracking, KII and questionnaires. Part III was the production of a visual documentary as an advocacy tool to increase awareness of the policy makers of the linkages between source management, treatment and end user water quality. The results indicate that except for pH, conductivity and manganese, the improved water sources were safe at source. However there was a deterioration in water quality between source and point of use in 18%, 12.5%, 27% and 50% of hand pump fitted boreholes, motorised boreholes, hand dug wells and streams respectively. Although no statistical correlation could be drawn between water management practices and water quality deterioration, the survey of the study households gave an indication of the possible contributory role of their knowledge, attitudes and practices to water contamination after provision. Some of the potential water related sources of contamination were poor source protection and location, use of unimproved water source and poor knowledge and practice of household water treatment methods, poor hand washing practices in terms of percentage that wash hands and use soap. Consequently 34 WASH departments have been created at the local government level towards establishment of a community based monitoring system and piloting has begun in Kaita local government area.

Onabolu, B.; Jimoh, O. D.; Igboro, S. B.; Sridhar, M. K. C.; Onyilo, G.; Gege, A.; Ilya, R.

86

Knowledge of self-care among type 2 diabetes patients in two states of Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the knowledge of self-care practices, as well as factors responsible for such knowledge among type 2 diabetes patients in two states of Nigeria. Methods Descriptive, cross sectional survey research design was employed. The study was conducted on type 2 diabetes out-patients attending Endocrinology Clinic at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH) and University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH) between June 2012 and February 2013. The Diabetes Self-care Knowledge (DSCK-30) was used in evaluating knowledge of self-care practices. Socio-demographic information and respondents’ opinion on the possible barrier(s) to knowledge of self-care were also obtained. Data were analysed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS version 14.0. Statistical significance for all analyses was defined as a p value less than 0.05. Results A total of 303 out of 380 questionnaires distributed were completed and returned (response rate =79.7%). The majority of the study sample (79.5%) had 70% or more overall knowledge level about self-care. Self-care knowledge was associated with level of education (p<0.001), monthly income (p<0.001) and duration of diabetes (p=0.008). Negative attitude to disease condition was the only factor associated with knowledge (chi-square value at one degree of freedom =6.215; p=0.013). Conclusion Diabetes self-care knowledge was generally high among the population studied. Educational status, monthly income, duration of diabetes and negative attitude to disease condition predicted knowledge level. PMID:25243026

Jackson, Idongesit L.; Adibe, Maxwell O.; Okonta, Matthew J.; Ukwe, Chinwe V.

2014-01-01

87

Determinants of routine immunization coverage in Bungudu, Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria, May 2010  

PubMed Central

Introduction Immunization is a cost-effective public health intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases. The Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey of 2008 indicated that only 5.4% of children aged 12-23 months in Bungudu, Zamfara State were fully immunized. We conducted this study to identify the determinants of routine immunization coverage in this community. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study. We sampled 450 children aged 12-23 months. We interviewed mothers of these children using structured questionnaire to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge on immunization, vaccination status of children and reasons for non-vaccination. We defined a fully immunized child as a child who had received one dose of BCG, three doses of oral polio vaccine, three doses of Diptheria-Pertusis-Tetanus vaccine and one dose of measles vaccine by 12 months of age. We performed bivariate analysis and logistic regression using Epi-info software. Results The mean age of mothers and children were 27 years (standard error (SE): 0.27 year) and 17 months (SE: 0.8 month) respectively. Seventy nine percent of mothers had no formal education while 84% did not possess satisfactory knowledge on immunization. Only 7.6% of children were fully immunized. Logistic regression showed that possessing satisfactory knowledge (Adjusted OR=18.4, 95% CI=3.6-94.7) and at least secondary education (Adjusted OR=3.6, 95% CI=1.2-10.6) were significantly correlated with full immunization. Conclusion The major determinants of immunization coverage were maternal knowledge and educational status. Raising the level of maternal knowledge and increasing maternal literacy level are essential to improve immunization coverage in this community. PMID:25328628

Gidado, Saheed; Nguku, Patrick; Biya, Oladayo; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Nsubuga, Peter; Akpan, Henry; Oyemakinde, Akin; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Suleman, Idris; Abanida, Emmanuel; Musa, Yusuf; Sabitu, Kabir

2014-01-01

88

Cyanide and Aflatoxin Loads of Processed Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Tubers (Garri) in Njaba, Imo State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The present study sought to investigate the role of palm oil, in conjunction with the duration of fermentation, on cyanide and aflatoxin (AFT) loads of processed cassava tubers (Garri). Materials and Methods: Matured cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tubers were harvested from three different locations (Akunna, Mkporo-Oji and Durungwu) in Njaba Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. The cassava tubers were processed into Garri according to standard schemes with required modifications and measured for cyanide content using titrimetric methods. Samples of Garri for determination of AFT levels were stored for 30 days before the commencement of spectrophotometric analysis. Results: Cyanide content of peeled cassava tubers was within the range of 4.07 ± 0.16-5.20 ± 0.19 mg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) equivalent/100 g wet weight, whereas the various processed cassava tubers was within the range of 1.44 ± 0.34-3.95 ± 0.23 mg HCN equivalents/100 g. For the 48 h fermentation scheme, Garri treated with palm oil exhibited marginal reduction in cyanide contents by 0.96%, 3.52% and 3.69%, whereas 4 h fermentation scheme is in concurrence with palm oil treatment caused 4.42%, 7.47% and 5.15% elimination of cyanide contents compared with corresponding untreated Garri samples (P > 0.05). Levels of AFT of the various Garri samples ranged between 0.26 ± 0.07 and 0.55 ± 0.04 ppb/100 g. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in AFT levels among the various samples in relation to their corresponding sources. Conclusion: The present study showed that the 48 h fermentation scheme for Garri production caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction, but did not obliterate the cyanide content of cassava tubers. Conversely, the 48 h fermentation scheme promoted the elevation of AFT levels, but was relatively reduced in Garri samples treated with palm oil. PMID:24403736

Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Ojiako, Okey A.

2013-01-01

89

Prevalence of antimicrobial residues in raw table eggs from farms and retail outlets in Enugu State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The use of antimicrobial agents in poultry production results in their accumulation in the body tissues and products such as milk and egg. The subsequent accumulation of these drugs and their metabolites in body cells is known as drug residue. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial residues in eggs from poultry farms and retail outlets in Enugu State, Nigeria. Eggs from 25 selected commercial farms and ten retail outlets were screened for the prevalence of antimicrobial residue. Also, structured questionnaires were administered to 25 commercial farms in the state to determine the management practices and the most widely used antimicrobial drugs in farms and possible association between the management practices and the occurrence of antimicrobial residues in eggs from these farms. All the 25 farms surveyed use oxytetracycline. Eggs from nine of the surveyed farms tested positive for antimicrobial residue and three of the ten surveyed farms also tested positive for antimicrobial residue. No association was observed (p?0.05; Fisher's exact test) between the occurrence of antibiotic residues in eggs and farm size, feed source and housing systems. This study was able to demonstrate the presence of antimicrobial residues in eggs destined for human consumption. Drugs like nitrofurans which has been banned for use in food animals are still very much in use in Enugu State, Nigeria. Antibiotics given as feed additives may give rise to drug residues in food animals. PMID:21104128

Ezenduka, Ekene V; Oboegbulem, Steve I; Nwanta, John A; Onunkwo, Joseph I

2011-03-01

90

Ecological and cultural barriers to treatment of childhood diarrhea in riverine areas of Ondo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Nigeria diarrhea still poses the greatest health problem to the survival of the under-fives in spite of the fact that the majority of mothers are reportedly to have been reached by health education on oral rehydration therapy (ORT) regardless of their ecological and socioeconomic situations. This study assesses the effect of different ecological and sociocultural conditions on use of

B. Folasade Iyun; E. Adewale Oke

2000-01-01

91

Impact of Sexual Harassment on Women Undergraduates' Educational Experience in Anambra State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual harassment in educational settings is a common problem globally. While it is well addressed in college and university campuses in most developed countries of the world through specific policies and mechanisms of enforcement, it remains a taboo topic in African colleges and universities particularly in Nigeria. This study investigated the…

Okeke, Carina Maris Amaka

2010-01-01

92

Information Needs and Seeking Behaviours of Nurses: A Survey of Two Hospitals in Bayelsa State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the information needs of nurses in two hospitals in Nigeria and the ways in which they went about attempting to meet those needs. Design/methodology/approach: The study is a descriptive survey of nurses at the Federal Medical Center (FMC), Yenagoa, and Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital…

Baro, Emmanuel E.; Ebhomeya, Loveth

2013-01-01

93

Mode of Entry as a Predictor of Success in Final Year Bachelor of Education Degree Examinations in Universities in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the mode of entry as a predictor of success in final year bachelor of education degree examinations in universities in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria. As an ex-post facto and correlational research, the study population comprised all the 1810 final year 400 level students in the two universities offering education courses,…

Adeyemi, T. O.

2009-01-01

94

Relative Contributions of Selected Teachers' Variables and Students' Attitudes toward Academic Achievement in Biology among Senior Secondary School Students in Ondo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relative contributions of selected teachers' variables and students' attitude towards academic achievement in biology among senior secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. It involved descriptive survey research and ex-post facto research designs. The sample, 360 respondents which consists of 180 biology teachers and…

Gbore, L. O.; Daramola, C. A.

2013-01-01

95

An Appraisal of Beekeeping Activities among Beneficiaries and Non-Beneficiaries of Ekiti State Agricultural Credit Agency (ESACA) Scheme in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined beekeeping activities in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Specifically the study appraised the costs and returns structure of beekeeping activities by beneficiaries of the ESACA scheme, examined the constraints to beekeeping under the scheme and outside the scheme and identified factors that affect beekeeping under the scheme and outside the scheme. A total of 150 beekeeper households were selected;

S. B. Fakayode; Raphael O. Babatunde; S. T. Olowogbon; W. S. Adesuyi

2010-01-01

96

Consumption patterns and intra-household roles in the production, processing and marketing of soyabeans in the Northern Agricultural Zone of Benue State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study determined the consumption patterns and intra-household roles in the production, processing and marketing of soyabeans in the Northern Agricultural Zone of Benue State, Nigeria. A structured interview schedule was used to collect data from a sample of 80 randomly selected respondents from ten extension blocks. Findings indicated that majority (71.3%) of the households prepared their soyabeans farm manually

A. E. Agwu; J. Ellah; E. Ekweagwu; J. C. Iwuchukwu

97

The Use of Associations Between Anthropometric and Food Variables in the Assessment of Nutritional Status of Queens College Students of Lagos State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, malnutrition is identified using anthropometric indices based on NCHS\\/WH O reference standards, in this paper, we explore the associations that exist between anthropometric and nutrition variables for assessing the nutritional status of Queens College Students of Lagos State, Nigeria. Results show that the nature of associations are causally related to nutritional status; the participants are not adequately fed on

O. Akinyemi

2009-01-01

98

The 1970 yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Benue Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Serological studies of persons infected with yellow fever (YF) during the 1970 epidemic in Okwoga District, Nigeria, indicated that epidemic YF occurred despite a high prevalence of pre-existing group B arbovirus immunity, which increased with age. The viruses involved were primarily dengue, Zika, and Wesselsbron. Patterns of responses of haemagglutination-inhibiting, complement-fixing, and neutralizing antibodies in primary YF and in superinfections are defined in this paper. PMID:4546521

Monath, T. P.; Wilson, D. C.; Casals, J.

1973-01-01

99

HIV/Tuberculosis Co-Infection among Patients Attending a Referral Chest Clinic in Nasarawa State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) coinfection rate was investigated among patients referred to a chest clinic in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Out of the 344 patients who presented with respiratory problems at the clinic, 44.8% had M. tuberculosis infection, 24.7% HIV infection and 12.8% HIV/tubercle bacilli co-infection. Coinfection rate in HIV infected persons (HIV+) was 51.8 and 28.6% in those with M. tuberculosis infection. The relative risk of HIV positive persons being coinfected was 1.075, while it was 0.401 for TB infected persons. The estimated Odds Ratio (OR) shows that the risk of co-infection was 2.68 times higher among HIV+ persons than among those with tuberculosis. The attributable risk was 45% and shows the extent to which co-infection could be attributed to HIV infection. A key socio-economic variable, eating in groups, was significantly correlated with coinfection (r = 0.107; p< 0.05). The results of this study may provide a useful policy guide in the formulation of HIV and tuberculosis control measures in Nigeria.

Umeh, E. U.; Ishaleku, D.; Iheukwumere, C. C.

100

Factors influencing knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate Medical, Nursing and Psychology students of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Knowledge and awareness about childhood autism is low among health care workers and the general populace in Nigeria. Poor knowledge about childhood autism among final year medical, nursing and psychology students who would form tomorrow's child health care professionals can compromise early recognition and interventions that are known to improve prognosis in childhood autism. Educational factors that could be

Monday N Igwe; Muideen O Bakare; Ahamefule O Agomoh; Gabriel M Onyeama; Kevin O Okonkwo

2010-01-01

101

Religious Violence in Nigeria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Security was tight in northern Nigeria today, as armed police guarded mosques after days of religious rioting that have left hundreds dead and widespread destruction. While sparked by Christian opposition to the introduction of Sharia, or Muslim law, in the Nigerian state of Kaduna, most observers blame both sides for the rioting. Africa's most populous nation (115 million), Nigeria contains over 200 ethnic groups and is split almost evenly between a Muslim north and Christian south. Ironically, the violence can in part be traced to the return of democracy to Nigeria last year. Under the new and more open government led by President Olusegun Obasanjo, some of the Muslim-dominated states have taken steps to introduce Sharia. While the transition to Sharia passed peacefully in the overwhelmingly Muslim Zamfara state, Kaduna contains a sizable Christian majority who have reacted strongly at the mere prospect of the introduction of Islamic law. Previously circumspect on the issue, Obasanjo recently spoke out against Sharia, expressing doubts over whether it was compatible with the Nigerian constitution. In addition, Nigeria's Human Rights Law Service has also begun court proceedings to try to have Sharia declared unconstitutional in Zamfara. While order is slowly being restored in Kaduna, this issue will certainly remain in the forefront of Nigerian politics, as the governors of two more states have signed bills under which Sharia will come into effect in May, and two other states are actively considering taking similiar steps.

de Nie, Michael Willem.

102

NigeriaWorld  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite the fine coverage offered by the BBC and other news providers, finding detailed and up-to-date information about any number of African countries can be frustrating -- especially when looking for different perspectives on events that have bearing on international affairs and the like. Despite the presence of numerous advertisements, NigeriaWorld is a good way to find out about current events in the country and is a real boon for persons looking to stay current on the affairs of this region of Africa. From the main page, visitors can read news from each state in Nigeria, and browse news headlines and complete articles organized under such familiar sections as business, sports, arts, and politics. The site also contains feature columns that provide additional insight into Nigeria from such journalists as Tonye David-West and Rudolf Okonkwo.

103

Taboos of childbearing and child-rearing in Bendel state of Nigeria.  

PubMed

Certain marriage, childbearing, and child rearing practices within the Bendel State of Nigeria are outlined. In the rural communities early marriage is encouraged in order to ensure partners for eligible bachelors and "maidens of good repute." Childbearing and child rearing is incorporated within the framework of the extended family system, including monogamous and polygamous forms of marriages. Most marriages take place for the major purpose of childbearing. In Bendel State 2 types of birth attendants are prevalent. The traditional birth attendant (TBA) who does not have formal schooling and who acquires her skill and knowledge from either a relation or friend by means of an informal apprenticeship. In contrast the midwife has a formal--basic and professional--education and can only practice independently after passing the prescribed national examination and being registerd by the Nigerian Nursing and Midwifery Council. The midwife is responsible for the care of the woman during the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum period. She is also responsible for the care of the baby during the same period and up to the age of 28 days. From the 3rd month of pregnancy onward, the midwife will carry out regular abdominal massage and palpation. This technique is used to loosen the nerves and relax the muscles, facilitating an easy pregnancy and delivery as well as correcting malpresentations. The mother to be will also make a paste with kola nuts and rub the paste on her abdomen every day to prevent thrush and other skin infections in the newborn baby. In the northern parts of the state, the young primigravida is sent to her parents for circumcision. This practice is dying out as the young mothers to be become more knowledgeable about the risk of infection and other problems. During pregnancy the husband tries to support all his wife's needs. The mother to be is encouraged to avoid places where people fight and quarrel so that the baby is peace loving when born. After birth, the placenta is disposed of with care because it is regarded as part of the baby even after birth. The mother is given a warm bath and a specially prepared oil is applied over her body. The abdomen is bound tightly with a cloth believing it will help the abdominal muscles regain their tone and maintain the prepregnancy figure. Much importance is attached to the 1st bath of the baby, for it is believed that lifelong body odor can be prevented at this stage. Lactation is encouraged by giving the mother palm wine to drink or an unripe paw paw is crushed and the liquid is given to the mother to drink. These liquids are believed to have an almost immediate effect on the mammary glands. As soon as the baby is born, the mother or grandmother talks to the baby with words of praise and blessing. It is believed that a baby talked to in this manner grows to be happy and peace loving. PMID:6552278

Iweze, F A

1983-01-01

104

A Note on the Spatio Temporal Variations in the Temperature and Relative Humidity over Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was carried out in one of the Administrative State Capitals in the southwestern part of Nigeria. Its aim is to serve as a baseline data for highlighting the effect of spatial distribution of settlements, population, and socioeconomic activities on urban air temperature and relative humidity. The main objective of the study is to assess the impact of urban growth on the microclimate of the administrative city. Temperature and relative humidity data from 1992 to 2001 were obtained from the three existing meteorological stations in Akure, the Administrative Capital of Ondo State, Nigeria, namely the Federal Ministry of Aviation, Akure Airport station (FMA), Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) and the Federal School of Agriculture (SOA). Air temperature and relative humidity measurements along primary roads and in the built up areas were obtained from seventeen stations, using sling psychrometer. The data were subsequently analysed for spatial and temporal variations. The results obtained indicated that while the maximum, average and minimum temperatures showed significant annual variations, the spatial variations among the existing meteorological stations were not significant. The city is characterized by increasing annual mean temperatures whose maximum was significantly higher than that of Ondo town — another important town within the state. The annual mean temperatures ranged between 26.2°C and 30.4°C. Minimum and maximum temperatures varied from 12.3°C to 26°C and 22.5°C to 39.6°C, respectively while the relative humidity ranged between 27.5% and 98.2%. Urban `heat island' intensity was exhibited around central business district of the Oba market. 2007 American Institute of Physics

Eludoyin, A. O.; Akinbode, O. M.; Archibong, E. O.

2007-07-01

105

The Economic Burden of Malaria on Households and the Health System in Enugu State Southeast Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is the number one public health problem in Nigeria, responsible for about 30% of deaths in under-fives and 25% of deaths in infants and 11% maternal mortality. This study estimated the economic burden of malaria in Nigeria using the cost of illness approach. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken in two malaria holo-endemic communities in Nigeria, involving both community and hospital based surveys. A random sample of 500 households was interviewed using interviewer administered questionnaire. In addition, 125 exit interviews for inpatient department stays (IPD) and outpatient department visits (OPD) were conducted and these were complemented with data abstraction from 125 patient records. Results From the household survey, over half of the households (57.6%) had an episode of malaria within one month to the date of the interview. The average household expenditure per case was 12.57US$ and 23.20US$ for OPD and IPD respectively. Indirect consumer costs of treatment were higher than direct consumer medical costs. From a health system perspective, the recurrent provider costs per case was 30.42 US$ and 48.02 US$ for OPD and IPD while non recurrent provider costs were 133.07US$ and 1857.15US$ for OPD and IPD. The mode of payment was mainly through out-of-pocket spending (OOPS). Conclusion Private expenditure on treatment of malaria constitutes a high economic burden to households and to the health system. Removal of user fees and interventions that will decrease the use of OOPS for treatment of malaria will significantly decrease the economic burden of malaria to both households and the health system. PMID:24223796

Onwujekwe, Obinna; Uguru, Nkoli; Etiaba, Enyi; Chikezie, Ifeanyi; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Adjagba, Alex

2013-01-01

106

Investigating gender disparities in the profile and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis in Ebonyi state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Globally, twice as many men as women are being diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) annually. Little is known about gender differentials in TB in Africa. A retrospective cohort analysis of routine data was conducted on adult TB patients treated between 2011 and 2012 in two large healthcare facilities in Nigeria. Gender differences in their demographic characteristics and treatment outcomes were analysed accordingly. Of 1668 TB patients enrolled, the male:female ratio was 1·4:1. The mean ages of males and females were 40·2 ± 14·7 and 36·1 ± 14·6 years, respectively (t test 6·62, P < 0·001). Male gender was associated with a higher failure to smear convert after 2 months (21·8% vs. 17·5%, P = 0·06) and 5 months (4·3% vs. 1·5%, P = 0·02) of treatment for smear-positive TB patients. Moreover, men were more likely than women to fail treatment (2·2% vs. 0·7%, P = 0·01). No significant differences exist in the treatment success rates between women and men (78·2% vs. 74·5%, P = 0·08). Adjusted analyses showed significant association between being an urban male and a HIV-infected female with unsuccessful outcome adjusted by socio-demographic and clinical factors. We found that gender disparities exist in TB profile and treatment outcomes in Nigeria and gender-specific strategies are needed to optimize TB management. PMID:25355040

Oshi, S N; Alobu, I; Ukwaja, K N; Oshi, D C

2015-04-01

107

Introducing Nigeria at fifty: the nation in narration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nigeria, Africa's most populous democracy, celebrates her 50th year as an independent nation in October 2010. As the cliché states, ‘As Nigeria goes, so goes Africa’. This volume frames the socio-historical and political trajectory of Nigeria while examining the many dimensions of the critical choices that she has made as an independent nation. How does the social composition of interest

Wale Adebanwi; Ebenezer Obadare

2010-01-01

108

Nigeria's foreign policy and transnational security challenges in West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores how Nigeria's foreign policy has responded to transnational security challenges in West Africa. It engages in a conceptual overview of the discourse on transnational security and links this with a discussion of Nigeria's foreign policy towards West Africa. Of note is Nigeria's pursuit of a leadership role in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), in

Cyril I. Obi

2008-01-01

109

Population redistribution in Nigeria.  

PubMed

One of the major consequences of the reorganization of Nigeria from 4 states into 12 states in 1967 and then into 19 states in the late 1970s was the redistribution of the Nigerian population. Prior to 1967 Nigeria's rural population migrated primarily to the 4 state capitals of Kaduna, Ibadan, Enugu, Benin City and to the federal capital of Lagos. The creation of additional states, each with their own capital, provided new urban environments where migrants from rural areas were afforded opportunities for employment and social mobility. Between 1960-1980, World Bank estimates indicate that 1) population in Nigerian cityes of over 500,000 population increased from 22-57%; 2) the number of cities with a population of 500,000 or more increased from 2 to 9 and 3) the urban population increased from 13-20%. Given Nigeria's estimated population growth rate of 3.6%/year, it is imperative that the goverment continue its decentralization efforts. Tables show 1) population by region based on the 1963 census; 2) estimated population of the 19 state capitals for 1963 and 1975; and 3) estimated population of the areas included in each of the 19 states for 196o, 1977, 1979, and 19819 PMID:12266187

Adebayo, A

1984-07-01

110

Health and environmental implications of rural female entrepreneurship practices in osun state Nigeria.  

PubMed

In rural Nigeria, food processing is mostly engaged in by women and children. Most of these processes are done using outdated technologies that make use of traditional woodstoves. This article presents the health and environmental implications of the rural female entrepreneurs involved in food processing and proffer means of bettering the lot of these women to handle these hazards. A partially structured questionnaire and focus group discussion was used to capture data from respondents. The study revealed that about 73 % of women involved in direct production of garri and palm oil processing could be at risk of early death or disability-adjusted life years from the mentioned diseases. The article concludes that the rural female entrepreneur needs to be better positioned to handle these hazards, for her health, that of her children, as well as for the environment. PMID:23341202

Akinbami, Catherine A O; Momodu, Abiodun S

2013-09-01

111

Effect of water supply and sanitation on the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides among pre-school-age children in Ajebandele and Ifewara, Osun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between Ascaris lumbricoides infection and provisions for safe water supply and excreta disposal was investigated in Ajebandele and Ifewara, 2 peri-urban communities near Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria, from September 1998 to December 1999. Although there were more facilities for safe water supply (pipe-borne and shallow wells) and sanitation (flush toilets and pit latrines) in Ajebandele than in Ifewara,

S. O. Asaolu; I. E. Ofoezie; P. A. Odumuyiwa; O. A. Sowemimo; T. A. B. Ogunniyi

2002-01-01

112

Malaria prevalence, anemia and baseline intervention coverage prior to mass net distributions in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Nigeria suffers the world’s largest malaria burden, with approximately 51 million cases and 207,000 deaths annually. As part of the country’s aim to reduce by 50% malaria-related morbidity and mortality by 2013, it embarked on mass distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Methods Prior to net distribution campaigns in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria, a modified malaria indicator survey was conducted in September 2010 to determine baseline state-level estimates of Plasmodium prevalence, childhood anemia, indoor residual spraying (IRS) coverage and bednet ownership and utilization. Results Overall age-adjusted prevalence of Plasmodium infection by microscopy was similar between Abia (36.1%, 95% CI: 32.3%–40.1%; n?=?2,936) and Plateau (36.6%, 95% CI: 31.3%–42.3%; n?=?4,209), with prevalence highest among children 5-9 years. P. malariae accounted for 32.0% of infections in Abia, but only 1.4% of infections in Plateau. More than half of children ?10 years were anemic, with anemia significantly higher in Abia (76.9%, 95% CI: 72.1%–81.0%) versus Plateau (57.1%, 95% CI: 50.6%–63.4%). Less than 1% of households in Abia (n?=?1,305) or Plateau (n?=?1,335) received IRS in the 12 months prior to survey. Household ownership of at least one bednet of any type was 10.1% (95% CI: 7.5%–13.4%) in Abia and 35.1% (95% CI: 29.2%-41.5%) in Plateau. Ownership of two or more bednets was 2.1% (95% CI: 1.2%–3.7%) in Abia and 14.5% (95% CI: 10.2%–20.3%) in Plateau. Overall reported net use the night before the survey among all individuals, children <5 years, and pregnant women was 3.4%, 6.0% and 5.7%, respectively in Abia and 14.7%, 19.1% and 21.0%, respectively in Plateau. Among households owning nets, 34.4% of children <5 years and 31.6% of pregnant women in Abia used a net, compared to 52.6% of children and 62.7% of pregnant women in Plateau. Conclusions These results reveal high Plasmodium prevalence and childhood anemia in both states, low baseline coverage of IRS and LLINs, and sub-optimal net use—especially among age groups with highest observed malaria burden. PMID:24669881

2014-01-01

113

Poor Availability of Skilled Birth Attendants in Nigeria: A Case Study of Enugu State Primary Health Care System  

PubMed Central

Background: The Government of Enugu State plans to offer free perinatal services at the primary health care (PHC) centers in order to improve perinatal outcomes in the state, but it was not clear whether there are skilled birth attendants (SBAs) at the PHC level to implement the program. Aims: To determine whether there are sufficient numbers of SBAs in the public PHC system in Enugu State of Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional survey involved enumeration of health workers who worked at each public PHC facility in Enugu State and included verification of the qualifications and trainings of each health worker. Data analysis was performed with the help of Stata statistical package version 13 and results were presented in tables and as simple proportions. Results: There were 55 nurses and no midwife or doctor in the 152 PHC clinics studied. This number represents 0.36 nurses per health facility or about 9% (i.e., 55/608) of a minimum of 608 SBAs required for 24-h perinatal services at the 152 PHC clinics. There were 1233 junior community health extension worker/community health extension workers (JCHEW/CHEWs), averaging 8.1 JCHEW/CHEWs per PHC clinic. Conclusions: Enugu State has an acute shortage of SBAs. We recommend employment of qualified SBAs and in-service training of the JCHEW/CHEW and nurses to upgrade their midwifery skills. Incorporation of competency-based midwifery training into the pre-service training curricula of nurses and JCHEW/CHEW would provide a more sustainable supply of SBAs in Enugu state. PMID:25745571

Nkwo, Peter O; Lawani, Lucky O; Ubesie, Agozie C; Onodugo, Vincent A; Obu, Herbert A; Chinawa, Josephat M

2015-01-01

114

Impact of Mechanized Farming on the Heavy Metals Load of an Ultisol Located in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Top soil samples from a mechanized farm located in Awot Uta, Akwa Ibom State in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer for their Cr; Cd; Fe; Cu; Zn and Pb concentrations. Top soil samples were also collected from a local farm situated close to the study area and analyzed for their metal contents. The following mean concentrations were observed in the mechanized farm: 0.343±0.200 mg kg-1 for Cr; 0.012±0.006 mg kg-1 for Cd; 0.959±8.814 mg kg-1 for Fe; 0.031± 0.011 mg kg-1 for Cu; 0.169±0.041 mg kg-1 for Zn and 0.010±0.005 mg kg-1 for Pb. While the local farm recorded the following concentrations: 0.115±0.005 mg kg-1 for Cr; 0.001±0.001 mg kg-1 for Cd; 22.115±3.351 mg kg-1 for Fe; 0.015±0.004 mg kg-1 for Cu; 0.098±0.008 mg kg-1 for Zn and 0.001±0.001 mg kg-1 for Pb. Generally, the metal levels obtained in the mechanized farm were higher than their corresponding levels in the local farm. Although the metals loads were within the recommended standards for agricultural soils, the elevated loads obtained from the mechanized farmland is of serious health implications because of the attendant metals effects on the food chain. Coefficient of variations were also calculated for the metal concentrations in the mechanized farm and results obtained indicated Cr as having the highest CV value (58%) while Fe had the lowest (22%).

Ebong, G. A.; Etuk, H. S.; Essien, J. P.

115

Tobacco related knowledge and support for smoke-free policies among community pharmacists in Lagos state, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: There are no safe levels of exposure to second hand smoke and smoke-free policies are effective in reducing the burden of tobacco-related diseases and death. Pharmacists, as a unique group of health professionals, might be able to play a role in the promotion of smoke-free policies. Objective: To determine the tobacco-related knowledge of community pharmacists and assess their support for smoke-free policies in Lagos state, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study design using both quantitative and qualitative methods was employed. Two hundred and twelve randomly selected community pharmacists were surveyed using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. In addition, one focus group discussion was conducted with ten members of the Lagos state branch of the Association of Community Pharmacists of Nigeria. Results: The quantitative survey revealed that the majority (72.1%) of the respondents were aged between 20 and 40 years, predominantly male (60.8%), Yoruba (50.2%) or Igbo (40.3%) ethnicity and had been practicing pharmacy for ten years or less (72.2%). A majority (90.1%) of respondents were aware that tobacco is harmful to health. Slightly less (75.8%) were aware that second hand smoke is harmful to health. Among the listed diseases, pharmacists responded that lung (84.4%) and esophageal (68.9%) cancers were the most common diseases associated with tobacco use. Less than half of those surveyed associated tobacco use with heart disease (46.9%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (27.8%), bladder cancer (47.2%), peripheral vascular disease (35.8%) and sudden death (31.1%). Only 51.9% had heard of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). A little over half of the respondents (53.8%) were aware of any law in Nigeria controlling tobacco use. The majority of respondents supported a ban on smoking in homes (83.5%), in public places (79.2%), and in restaurants, nightclubs and bars (73.6%). For every additional client attended to daily, knowledge scores increased by 0.022 points. Current smokers were 1.3 times less likely to support smoke-free policies compared with non-smokers. The findings emanating from the focus group discussion reinforced the fact that the pharmacists were in support of smoke-free policies particularly in homes and public places. It also demonstrated that most of them were aware of the health risks associated with tobacco use and second hand smoke however some misconceptions seemed to exist. Conclusion: The pharmacists surveyed expressed support of smoke-free policies and most of them were aware of the health risks associated with tobacco use. However, awareness of WHO FCTC and country-level tobacco legislation was low. Current smokers were less likely to support smoke-free policies. Community pharmacists should therefore be considered worth engaging for the promotion of smoke-free policies. Efforts should also be made to educate pharmacists about country level smoke-free laws.

Poluyi, Edward O.; Odukoya, Oluwakemi O.; Aina, Bolajoko; Faseru, Babalola

2014-01-01

116

FINANCING OF GREEN REVOLUTION IN NIGERIA: SOME LESSONS FROM KWARA STATE \\/ LE FINANCEMENT DE LA REVOLUTION VERTE EN NIGERIA: L'EXAMPLE DU KWARA STATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cet article traite du financement du Programme Révolution Verte en Nigéria en général et dans le Kwara State en particulier. En Nigéria, comme ailleurs, le manque d'un financement adéquat est l'une des entraves les plus gênantes dans le développement de l'agriculture, tandis que, d'après quelques commentateurs, les Autorités de la Nigéria n'auraient pas encore compris ce simple message. L'allocation de

Ifeyori I. Ihimodu

1981-01-01

117

Implications of hydrogeophysical investigations of the Agulu-Nanka gullies area of Anambra state of Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Agulu-Nanka gully complex area forms a part of Anambra River Sedimentary Basin of southeastern Nigeria. The lithology in the basin includes the Nanka Formation and the Imo Shale. After detailed geological and hydrogeological studies of the area, seven geoelectric depth soundings with the Schlumberger configuration using the Abem Terrameter SAS 300 were made within the gully complex area. Array lengths of 1200 m were taken and the sounding curves were evaluated by automatic computer interpretation using Dar-Zarouk curves. The hydrogeophysical results show that the lithology consists of series of aquifers separated by aquitards forming a multi-aquifer system. Two borehole logs from the area matched well with the geoelectric sections. The integrated hydrogeological and geophysical investigations revealed that groundwater in conjuction with surface water hydrology and their activities contribute immensely to the present extensive soil and gully erosion. Groundwater flow dynamics, consequent aquifer parameters of transmissivity, conductivity, flow directions, flow velocities, pore water pressures and effluent discharges in relation to the micro- and macro-lithology exacerbate gully incidents. Control measures for checking the destructive water run-off and groundwater movements are recommended. It is also suggested that such detailed and combined multi-objective and intergrated hydrogeological and hydrogeophysical investigations provide complementary information on the stratigraphic and sedimentological characteristics thereby making interpretations of the subsurface more meaningful.

Onwuemesi, A. G.; Egboka, B. C. E.; Orajaka, I. P.; Emenike, E. A.

118

Knowledge of Childhood Autism and Challenges of Management among Medical Doctors in Kaduna State, Northwest Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with serious implications in childhood. There is a significant gap in the identification and provision of health and social services for autism in Africa. The knowledge of autism among health care providers and identifying challenges associated with its management could facilitate bridging the gap and ensuring better outcomes. A self-administered tool, the Knowledge about Childhood Autism among Health Workers (KCAHW) questionnaire, was used in assessing knowledge of autism among 175 medical doctors (participants) attending an annual scientific meeting in northwest Nigeria. Other parameters assessed were sociodemographic and professional characteristics of the participants and challenges encountered in the management of autism. Out of 175 questionnaires distributed, 167 (95.4%) were returned. Good knowledge (KCAHW score ?15) was significantly associated with being a paediatrician or psychiatrist and practicing in a tertiary health facility (P < 0.05), while poor knowledge (KCAHW score <15) was significant among general practitioners (P < 0.05). The highest knowledge gap was associated with onset of autism and its comorbidities (KCAHW Domain 4) while the least was concerning communication impairments (KCAHW Domain 2). Major challenges encountered in autism management were dearth of specialist services, cost of evaluation, and poor caregiver perspectives of autism.

Eseigbe, E. E.; Nuhu, F. T.; Sheikh, T. L.; Eseigbe, P.; Sanni, K. A.; Olisah, V. O.

2015-01-01

119

An assessment of food safety needs of restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they cleaned and sanitized food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearson's Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens (r = 0.999), cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge (r = 0.992), and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge (r = 0.878). The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri. PMID:23917815

Onyeneho, Sylvester N; Hedberg, Craig W

2013-08-01

120

An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they clean and sanitize food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens (r = 0.999), cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge (r = 0.992), and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge (r = 0.878). The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri. PMID:23917815

Onyeneho, Sylvester N.; Hedberg, Craig W.

2013-01-01

121

Village health workers' and traditional birth attendants' record keeping practices in two rural LGAs in Oyo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Village health workers (VHWs) and Traditional Birth attendants (TBAs) provide health care services to the communities in which they live, improving access to health care as well as serving as an important link between the periphery (the communities) and the health sector. The data this category of workers generates about their communities will strengthen primary health care management information system in Nigeria. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of VHWs and TBAs regarding record keeping in Ibarapa Central and Akinyele local government areas (LGAs) of Oyo State, Nigeria. Using a pre-tested, semi structured questionnaire and an observation checklist, trained research assistants visited and interviewed all the active, registered VHWs and TBAs in the two LGAs. Results showed that there were a total of 62 and 102 active VHWs/TBAs in Ibarapa Central and Akinyele LGAs respectively with most of them being farmers aged between 30-59 years. Over two-thirds in both LGAs knew the uses of record keeping for monitoring and evaluation purposes and most of them felt that keeping records was easy. Sixty-one percent of the respondents in Ibarapa Central and 96% of those in Akinyele LGA reported keeping records of their health activities. Of those who kept records, two thirds in Ibarapa Central and almost all (96%) in Akinyele LGA reported forwarding the records they keep. The type of records they keep was mostly on patients' treatment and (in Akinyele) delivery records using an exercise book. Most did not have the VHW/TBA record of work or the community profiles (wall chats) developed and recommended by the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) because they were not supplied. The factors associated with record keeping included duration as a VHW/TBA, previous training on record keeping, receiving feedback. Recommendations made included ensuring availability of materials and periodic training and re-training of the VHWs/TBAs by the LGAs, and regular provision of feedback by the National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA). PMID:15032467

Umar, U S; Olumide, E A A; Bawa, S B

2003-06-01

122

International note: awareness and context of cyber-harassment among secondary school students in Oyo state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

We determined the awareness and context of cyber-harassment among secondary school students (653 survey respondents and 18 in-depth interviewees) in Oyo state, Nigeria. Respondents' mean age was 14.2 ± 2.2 years and 53.9% were aware of cyber-harassment occurring in their school or among their friends. Cyber-harassment was often perpetrated via phone calls (62.5%), text messaging (36.9%), chat rooms (28.7%), through pictures or video clips sent via mobile phones (11.9%), emails (6.8%) or websites (5.9%). Cyber-harassment behaviours mentioned were the use of abusive words (25.4%), saying mean things or making fun of the victim (13.9%), solicitations for relationships (7.9%) or sex (6.8%) and spreading rumours about the victim (6.8%). In-depth interviewees recounted experiences of cyber-harassment suffered by their friends. Many were relationship-related, sexual solicitations and threats and corroborated quantitative findings. Respondents are aware of cyber-harassment occurring among students in the study area. Comprehensive interventions to address the problem need to be instituted. PMID:25544425

Olumide, Adesola O; Adams, Patricia; Amodu, Olukemi K

2015-02-01

123

?-Caprolactam Utilization by Proteus sp. and Bordetella sp. Isolated From Solid Waste Dumpsites in Lagos State, Nigeria, First Report.  

PubMed

The ?-caprolactam is the monomer of the synthetic non-degradable nylon-6 and often found as nonreactive component of nylon-6 manufacturing waste effluent. Environmental consequences of its toxicity to natural habitats and humans pose a global public concern. Soil samples were collected from three designated solid waste dumpsites, namely, Abule-Egba, Olusosun and Isheri-Igando in Lagos State, Nigeria. Sixteen bacteria isolated from these samples were found to utilize the ?-caprolactam as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen at concentration of ?20 g l(-1). The isolates were characterized using their 16S rRNA gene sequence and showed similarity with Pseudomonas sp., Proteus sp., Providencia sp., Corynebacterium sp., Lysinibacillus sp., Leucobacter sp., Alcaligenes sp. and Bordetella sp. Their optimal growth conditions were found to be at temperature range of 30 to 35 °C and pH range of 7.0-7.5. High Performance liquid chromatography analysis of the ?-caprolactam from supernatant of growth medium revealed that these isolates have potential to remove 31.6-95.7 % of ?-caprolactam. To the best of our knowledge, this study is first to report the ability of Proteus sp. and Bordetella sp. for ?-caprolactam utilization. PMID:24426112

Sanuth, Hassan Adeyemi; Yadav, Amit; Fagade, Obasola Ezekiel; Shouche, Yogesh

2013-06-01

124

Knowledge, Attitude, and Preventive Practices among Prison Inmates in Ogbomoso Prison at Oyo State, South West Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Prisoners are at special risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because of overcrowded prisons, unprotected sex and sexual assault, occurrence of sexual practices that are risky to health, unsafe injecting practices, and inadequate HIV prevention, care, and support services. This study aimed to describe the knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices towards HIV/AIDS by male inmates in Ogbomoso Prison at Oyo State, South West Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study. A simple random sampling method was employed to select 167 male participants and data were collected using pretested structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The data were collated and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Fifty (29.9%) were in the age group 20–24 years with mean age of 30.99 ± 11.41. About half (50.3%) had been married before incarceration. Family and friends (30%), health care workers (25%), prison staff (20%), and mass media (25%) were the commonest sources of information on HIV/AIDS. Knowledge about HIV was found to be high (94.6%). About 68.9% believed that people with the disease should be avoided. The knowledge about HIV/AIDS among inmates was high, but misconceptions about HIV/AIDS are still rife among the prisoners and educational programs would be required to correct this.

Saliu, Abdulsalam; Akintunde, Babatunde

2014-01-01

125

Comparison of knowledge on diarrheal disease management between two types of community-based distributors in Oyo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Community-based distributors (CBDs) have been trained and utilized to promote a variety of health commodities. In addition, a variety of different types of community residents have been trained ranging from traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to patent medicine vendors. A training programme for CBD agents in the Akinyele Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria, provided the opportunity to compare the knowledge of two different types of CBD agents, TBAs and volunteer village health workers (VHWs). Although VHWs were younger and better educated than the TBAs, the two groups had similar levels of knowledge about diarrhea recognition, cause and prevention. It was common for the respondents to confuse diarrhea and dehydration in their answers about signs (recognition) and prevention, showing that at least they had some perception that the two conditions were connected. Overall knowledge results showed some gaps that may likely be a natural result of knowledge decay. The major lesson learned is that the type of CBD agent may not be as important as the fact that they receive follow-up after they have been trained. PMID:15020550

Ande, Oluyinka; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Brieger, William R

2004-02-01

126

Aflatoxin M1 contamination of milk and ice cream in Abeokuta and Odeda local governments of Ogun State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A survey was undertaken to determine the aflatoxin M(1) contamination of milk and some locally produced dairy products in Abeokuta and Odeda local governments of Ogun State, Nigeria. Samples of human and cow milk, yoghurt, "wara", ice cream and "nono" were collected randomly within the local governments and analysed for aflatoxin M(1) using the two-dimensional TLC. Aflatoxin M(1) contamination in the range of 2.04-4.00 microg l(-1) was noticed only in milk and ice cream. In particular, samples of human milk, cow milk and ice cream recorded high scores of 4.0 microg l(-1), 2.04 microg l(-1) and 2.23 microg l(-1), respectively in Abeokuta local governments and a score of 4.0 microg l(-1) for cow milk in Odeda local government. This indicates a high level contamination in the local governments since the weighted mean concentration of aflatoxin M1 in milk for African diet is 0.002 microg l(-1). Therefore the concentration of AFB1 in feeds which is transformed to AFM1 in milk should be reduced by good manufacturing and good storage practices. Furthermore, there is need for stringent quality control during processing and distribution of these products. PMID:17490709

Atanda, Olusegun; Oguntubo, Adenike; Adejumo, Oloyede; Ikeorah, John; Akpan, Iyang

2007-07-01

127

Epidemiology of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes in the tropical rainforest of Imo State, south-east Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes was carried out in the tropical rainforest of Imo State Nigeria (two rural areas and two forest reserves in some parts of Orlu Senatorial Zone) between May-October 2002. Using standard entomological procedures, two macrohabitats (natural tree-holes and bamboo traps) and two microhabitats (leaf axils of cocoyams/pineapples and leaf axils of plantain/banana) were sampled for various mosquito species. Mosquitoes were recovered from all the various biotypes sampled. Types of mosquitoes species encountered, their relative abundance, as well as genera varied significantly during the study (p<0.05). Four genera of mosquitoes: Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Toxorhynchites were recovered while 16 species of mosquitoes encountered include: Aedes aegypti, Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni, Ae. albopictus, Ae. stokesi, Ae. taylori, Ae. apicoargenteus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. trigripes, Cx. decens, Anopheles gambiae, An. funiestus, An. coustani and Toxorhynchites viridibasis. Most of the mosquitoes showed oviposition preferences for one or more habitats. The presence of Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni and Ae. aegypti indicate that the study areas were at risk of yellow fever epidemic. The presence of Anopheles and Culex species ensured endemicity of malaria and filariasis, while the recovery of Ae. albopictus in this region suggests a possible outbreak of dengue fever in future if not properly controlled. PMID:17655174

Anosike, Jude C; Nwoke, Bertram E B; Okere, Anthony N; Oku, Ene E; Asor, Joe E; Emmy-Egbe, Ifeyinwa O; Adimike, Desmond A

2007-01-01

128

Effect of thermal environment on the temporal, spatial and seasonal occurrence of measles in Ondo state, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the temporal and spatial dynamics, as well as the seasonal occurrence of measles in Ondo state, Nigeria, to better understand the role of the thermal environment in the occurrence of the childhood killer disease measles, which ranks among the top ten leading causes of child deaths worldwide. The linkages between measles and atmospheric environmental factors were examined by correlating human-biometeorological parameters in the study area with reported clinical cases of measles for the period 1998-2008. We also applied stepwise regression analysis in order to determine the human-biometeorological parameters that lead to statistical changes in reported clinical cases of measles. We found that high reported cases of measles are associated with the least populated areas, where rearing and cohabitation of livestock/domestic animals within human communities are common. There was a significant correlation ( P < 0.01) between monthly cases of measles and human-biometeorological parameters except wind speed and vapour pressure. High transmission of measles occurred in the months of January to May during the dry season when human thermal comfort indices are very high. This highlights the importance of the thermal environment in disease demographics since it accounted for more than 40% variation in measles transmission within the study period.

Omonijo, Akinyemi Gabriel; Matzarakis, Andreas; Oguntoke, Olusegun; Adeofun, Clement Olabinjo

2012-09-01

129

Evaluation of aquifer protective capacity of overburden unit and soil corrosivity in Makurdi, Benue state, Nigeria, using electrical resistivity method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents result of 30 vertical electrical soundings carried out in Makurdi, Benue state capital, north-central Nigeria to evaluate aquifer protective capacity and soil corrosivity of overburden units in the study area. This was done using the Schlumberger electrode array to obtain the data and was modelled using computer iteration (Winresist software). The field data gives a resolution with 3-4 geoelectric layers and the observed frequencies in curve types include: 30% of KQ, 16.67% of QH, 6.67% of AA and K, 3.33% of HA, Q and A, 10% of H, KH and HK. Using the longitudinal unit conductance (S), the protective capacities of the study area were classified as 36.67% weak, 10% poor, 40% moderate, and 13.33% as good. The corrosivity ratings of the study area show that 10% is strongly corrosive, 23% moderately corrosive, 37% slightly corrosive, and 30% noncorrosive The results reasonably provide information on areas where industries can be sited and iron pipes can be laid in order to safeguard the hydrological setting for resident's safety in the study area. Regions with moderate/good protective capacity are good sites for locating boreholes.

Obiora, Daniel N.; Ajala, Adeolu E.; Ibuot, Johnson C.

2015-02-01

130

Adverse Drug Reactions amongst Adult Patients Admitted in Lagos State University Teaching Hospital Lagos, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Background: Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is a global drug therapy problem. It has been rated as one of the top leading causes of morbidity and mortality. In Nigeria, not much is known about ADRs especially with the existing weak post marketing surveillance for monitoring drug use, and its effect on the population. Objectives: The study is aimed to determining the incidence of ADRs, presentations of ADRs, classes of drugs that frequently cause ADRs and predictors of ADRs in adult medical in-patients in LASUTH. Method: A retrospective study of six hundred and twenty four (624) case notes of all patients admitted to the medical wards in LASUTH between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2009 was carried out. Information obtained includes age, gender, and adverse drug reaction and drug details. The results obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 16 statistical software. Level of significance was set at p ? 0.05. Results: A total of 624 case notes consisting of 358 males and 266 females were assessed. The number of patients who experienced adverse drug reactions was 67 (n = 624, 10.7%). The incidence rate of ADRs in LASUTH from the study was 10.7 per 100 patients' population. Most of the ADRs observed were type A reactions (97.8%). Mostly implicated classes of drugs are antidiabetics (26.7%) and NSAIDs (29.3%). Conclusion: The incidence rate of ADRs was 10.7%. ADRs which are predictable and preventable occur in hospitalized patients, such may be prevented or minimized by implementing measures to target specific drugs that are commonly suspected. PMID:24909574

Aderemi-Williams, R I; Awodele, O; Boyle, C A

2014-06-01

131

A geospatial approach to evaluation of accessibility to secondary educational institution in Ogun State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study therefore examined the spatial distribution of secondary school and the accessibility levels to students in Yewa South local Government area of Nigeria and the factors that give rise to them with a view to providing a framework for effective placement of students. Primary and secondary data were used for the study. Primary data was collected using questionnaire and a hand-held GPS receiver used to capture the coordinate points of schools and other relevant data. Secondary data include administrative map, population figures of both students and Teachers, Names and addresses of the secondary schools in the study area, the school placement sheet and list of schools. The data analysis was carried out using network analysis. School location, number of secondary schools in each ward and the total area were used to determine the pattern of distribution of secondary schools in the study area. Settlements, roads, schools location, number of secondary schools, ward and school enrolments were used to generate both school accessibility and effective placement measure using network analysis. Network analyses were also performed to evaluate nearest school to student and a set of origin-destination (OD) matrix. However, the whole of 25 secondary schools in Yewa south were considered for network analysis ward by ward, and the results of the distance students travel from their settlements to their various schools were shown for all the secondary schools in each ward. Out of 415 Students, 210 students travel below 2 km to their schools which constitute 50.60% total number of students in the local government area while 205 students travel above 2 km to their schools which constitute 49.40%.

Ogunyemi, S. A.; Muibi, K. H.; Eguaroje, O. E.; Fabiyi, O. O.; Halilu, A. S.

2014-06-01

132

Nigeria's Triumph: Dracunculiasis Eradicated  

PubMed Central

This report describes how Nigeria, a country that at one time had the highest number of cases of dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) in the world, reduced the number of cases from more than 653,000 in 1988 to zero in 2009, despite numerous challenges. Village-based volunteers formed the foundation of the program, which used health education, cloth filters, vector control, advocacy for safe water, voluntary isolation of patients, and monitored program interventions and cases reported monthly. Other factors in the program's success were strong governmental support, advocacy by a former head of state of Nigeria, technical and financial assistance by The Carter Center, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the United Nations Children's Fund, the World Health Organization, and many other partners and donors. The estimated cost of the Nigerian program during 1988–2009 is $37.5 million, not including funding for water supply projects or salaries of Nigerian governmental workers. PMID:20682859

Miri, Emmanuel S.; Hopkins, Donald R.; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Keana, Adamu S.; Withers, P. Craig; Anagbogu, Ifeoma N.; Sadiq, Lola K.; Kale, Oladele O.; Edungbola, Luke D.; Braide, Eka I.; Ologe, Joshua O.; Ityonzughul, Cephas

2010-01-01

133

Epidemiology and Associated Risk Factors of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

A cross-sectional study in Nigeria was undertaken to determine the epidemiology, seroprevalence, and associated risk factors, of hepatitis E virus (HEV). A total of 462 subjects were used for the study, categorized into four groups: apparently healthy persons, pregnant women, HIV positive subjects, and animal handlers. Information was obtained from subjects using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for HEV antibodies (IgG and IgM) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Results obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 statistical software. The overall seroprevalence of IgG and IgM was 42.7 and 0.9%, respectively. Animal handlers had the highest seroprevalence (66.7%). The associated risk factors for IgM seroprevalence were rural dwelling (P = 0.039, odds ratio (OR) 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7–15.4), blood transfusion (P < 0.001, OR 9.6, 95% CI 2.6–35.6), attending to animals (P = 0.032, OR 4.9, 95% CI 0.9–26.6), and waste disposal (P < 0.001). Factors associated with IgG were age (P = 0.044), location (P < 0.001), marital status (P < 0.001), formal education (P < 0.001), farming as occupation (P < 0.001), rural dwelling (P = 0.001), waste disposal (P < 0.001), alcohol consumption (P = 0.001, OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.4–4.0), open defecation (P < 0.001, OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4–5.7), attending to animals (P < 0.001, OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6–3.4), consuming unwashed fruits/vegetables (P < 0.001, OR 4.2, 95% CI 0.3–54.1), and stream/river as a source of drinking water (P < 0.001, OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.6–7.8). Preventive public health measures should be reinforced among all communities, particularly domestic animal handlers and pregnant women. Potable water should be provided for all communities. Data suggest that HEV remains an under-recognized and significant public health problem, warranting further attention and research. PMID:25512696

Junaid, Surajudeen A; Agina, Samuel E; Abubakar, Khadijah A

2014-01-01

134

Assessing exclusive breastfeeding practices, dietary intakes and body mass index (BMI) of nursing mothers in Ekiti State of Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the infants. The benefits of breastfeeding practices to infants and mothers are well documented. However, information on breastfeeding practices and its effect on body mass index (BMI) of mothers are scarce, particularly in Ekiti State of Nigeria. Therefore, the present study is designed to assess breastfeeding practices and its association with BMI of mothers. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted among breastfeeding mothers that attended postnatal clinic of the state specialist hospitals and maternity centers in the study location. The specialist hospital and two-third of the nine maternity centers were purposively selected because of their health facilities and personnel. The mother-child pairs (200 respondents) were randomly selected from the study locations. Information on demographic characteristic, socio-economic parameters, nutritional knowledge of breastfeeding and dietary intakes of mothers were collected using questionnaires. BMI of mothers was determined as described by World Health Organization. Age distribution of mothers was between 25-34 years; and almost half of respondents had good educational background and were engaged in different occupations. The respondent monthly income ranged between = N = 3500 - 26000 ($26.92 - $200); and their dietary intakes varied between starchy and protein-based food. The result also showed that the respondent consumed enough nutrients to meet up the recommended daily allowance for protein, carbohydrate, fat, zinc, magnesium, sodium and phosphorous requirements. The BMI classifications showed that over three-fifth of respondents were normal, while the remaining were underweight (6%) and overweight/obese (26.5%). Also, large proportion of respondents engaged in exclusive breastfeeding and with good knowledge of breastfeeding practices. Statistically, exclusive breastfeeding practices had no correlation between the BMI and frequency of breastfeeding. The study, therefore, concluded that mothers had good knowledge of breastfeeding practice; and that there was no association between breastfeeding practices and BMI. PMID:20607068

2010-01-01

135

Prevalence of dental caries and oral hygiene status of a screened population in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The study was designed to determine the prevalence of dental caries and partial edentulism, in addition to assessing the oral hygiene status and restorative care among adults in a community-based outreach program in Port Harcourt. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among adults who participated in oral health screening program, which took place in Alakahia and Obigbo rural communities in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. After a brief oral health education, clinical examination was conducted and the diagnosis of caries was made based on the guidelines laid down by World Health Organization. Prevalence of caries was measured using decayed missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index, and oral hygiene status was assessed using the OHI-S. The restorative index [(F/F + D) ×100] was also calculated and the sociodemographic factors of the subjects were noted. Chi-square test, independent t-test and descriptive statistic were employed for analysis. Results: One fifty-five females (53.8%) and 133 males (46.2%) attended the events and their mean age was 29.3 ± 10.5 years. About one-third of the participants (35.1%) presented with dental caries. The mean DMFT for the whole group was 0.67 ± 2.0. The restorative index for the subjects was 26.8%. The oral hygiene status of most of the participants was fair. This was significantly better in females than in males (P = 0.002). Conclusion: Although about one-third of the participants had dental caries, only a quarter of them had received restorative care. Most of the respondents had fair and poor oral hygiene, this suggests the need to educate and motivate the community toward adopting and maintaining positive oral health attitudes and practices.

Olabisi, Arigbede Abiodun; Udo, Umanah Ayamma; Ehimen, Ukegheson Gabriel; Bashiru, Braimoh Omoigberai; Gbenga, Omitola Olufemi; Adeniyi, Akadiri Oladimeji

2015-01-01

136

Assessment of iodine deficiency and goitre incidence in parts of Yewa Area of Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to determine the occurrence, prevalence and contributing factors to the incidence of goitre in Yewa north local government area of Ogun state, southwestern Nigeria. To achieve these objectives, soil, water, and cassava tubers were collected from four villages -- Igbogila, Egua, Sawonjo and Imoto and from Lagos (about 250 m to the ocean) as a reference location, in order to determine their iodine concentrations. The results of the analyses indicated a soil mean iodine range of 2.1-5.8 microg g(-1); a cassava mean iodine value of 2.3-3.5 mug g(-1) and a drinking water mean iodine value of generally <1.0 microg L(-1) in all the four villages. These values of iodine in soil and water of the four villages are considered low when compared with the soil iodine value of 7.4 microg g(-1) and water iodine value of 6.1 microg L(-1) obtained from Lagos. The limestone unit of the study area remains an inhibiting factor in the bioavailability of the iodine because of its alkalinity. Statistical analysis has shown that there was significant difference between iodine concentration in the soils and the drinking water, and a correlation between the soil iodine and organic matter content at p < 0.05. The correlation between soil iodine and granulometric fractions occurred at p < 0.01. Potential goitrogens in the commonly consumed cassava products might also have contributed to the prevalence of goitre in the study area. Both the females and the adults (i.e., less mobile groups) were found to be vulnerable to goitre development in these villages. PMID:16237605

Gbadebo, A M; Oyesanya, T M

2005-09-01

137

Clinical epidemiology of lymphatic filariasis and community practices and perceptions amongst the ado people of benue state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

As part of efforts to initiate lymphatic filariasis elimination activities in Benue State, this study employed the use of lymphatic filariasis-related clinical signs as rapid diagnostic features, immunochromatographic card test (ICT) to detect circulating filarial antigen (CFA) and questionnaire to investigate community perceptions and beliefs. 81 (32.6%) out of the 248 persons were positive for circulating filarial antigen (CFA). Infection rates denoted by CFA ranged from 41 (46.1%) in Uffia to 1(6.6%) in Ijigbam districts. Distribution of community ICT prevalence showed a significant variation (X(2), P < 0.05). The prevalence of clinical signs and/or symptoms in the communities also showed significant variations (X(2), P < 0.05). Community hydrocoele prevalence ranged from 8 (9.0%) in Uffia to 1(6.6%) in Ijigbam. The overall hydrocoele prevalence was 21 (8.5%), while the overall lymphoedema prevalence was 16 (6.4%) and women accounted for 14 (87.5%) of persons with swollen limbs. Only about 14 (15.9%) of unaffected respondents knew that lymphatic filariasis is transmitted through mosquito bites, this differ significantly from affected respondents 10 (66.6%) (X(2), P < 0.05). The communities' capacity to protect themselves is hindered by a lack of understanding of the true cause, symptoms, transmission route and prevention of the disease. Our study demonstrates the need for the development of health education programmes that will enable people to protect themselves against mosquito bites. As Nigeria commence her lymphatic filariasis elimination programmes, there is an urgent need to develop morbidity management activities that will alleviate the burden of patients. PMID:23878707

Omudu, Edward Agbo; Ochoga, Jennifer Ochanya

2011-01-01

138

Blood Pressure Gradients and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Urban and Rural Populations in Abia State South Eastern Nigeria Using the WHO STEPwise Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) face a double burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and communicable diseases. As high blood pressure (BP) is a common global cardiovascular (CV) disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality, the relationship between gradients of BP and other CV risk factors was assessed in Abia State, Nigeria. Methods Using the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey in Abia state, Nigeria from August 2011 to March 2012. Data collected at various steps included: demographic and behavioral risk factors (Step 1); BP and anthropometric measurements (Step 2), and fasting blood cholesterol and glucose (Step 3). Results Of the 2983 subjects with complete data for analysis, 52.1% were females and 53.2% were rural dwellers. Overall, the distribution of selected CV disease risk factors was diabetes (3.6%), hypertension (31.4%), cigarette smoking (13.3%), use of smokeless tobacco (4.8%), physical inactivity (64.2%) and being overweight or obese (33.7%). Presence of hypertension, excessive intake of alcohol, smoking (cigarette and smokeless tobacco) and physical inactivity occurred more frequently in males than in females (p<0.05); while low income, lack of any formal education and use of smokeless tobacco were seen more frequently in rural dwellers than in those living in urban areas (p<0.05). The frequency of selected CV risk factors increased as BP was graded from optimal, normal to hypertension; and high BP correlated with age, gender, smokeless tobacco, overweight or obesity, annual income and level of education. Conclusion Given the high prevalence of hypertension in this part of Nigeria, there is an urgent need to focus on the reduction of preventable CV risk factors we have observed to be associated with hypertension, in order to effectively reduce the burden of NCDs in Africa. PMID:24039932

Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Tiffin, Nicki; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

2013-01-01

139

Mental health care policy environment in Rivers State: experiences of mental health nurses providing mental health care services in neuro-psychiatric hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Mental health services for Rivers State and surrounding States in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria are provided only at the neuropsychiatric Rumuigbo Hospital in Port Harcourt City, Rivers State, Nigeria. The study explored mental health nurses’ experiences of providing mental health services at the hospital in an attempt to understand policy implications, identify difficulties and challenges of delivering mental health care services. Methods A qualitative study using in-depth interview was conducted among 20 mental health nurses working at the neuropsychiatric Rumuigbo Hospital. This was reviewed within the Townsend mental health policy template of context and resources domains. Results A lack of political support and senior position in the Ministry of Health hinders service delivery, the prevalence of institutionalized stigma, a lack of training, and system failure to provide services at all levels of care is hampering service delivery. The inadequate allocation of resources for hospital renovations and equipment is preventing appropriate client care, as does the lack of funding for drugs, the cost of which makes them unaffordable, affecting clients staying on treatment. Conclusion Education and training of mental health care professionals should be given priority to remedy human resource shortage, provide incentives to motivate health professionals for psychiatric practice, and move toward decentralization of care into general health care services. Information should be provided at all levels to overcome the myths surrounding the causes of mental illnesses, to reduce stigma and discrimination of the affected and their families. PMID:23414640

2013-01-01

140

Formal and Informal Crime Control Views in Nigeria and the United States: An Exploratory Study Among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal and informal crime control is used to deter individuals from engaging in criminal behavior. Formal crime control relies on the law and official government agencies to curb criminal actions. Informal crime control relies on moral and social institutions (e.g., family or church) to promote lawful behavior. This study examined the importance of formal and informal crime control in Nigeria

Eric G. Lambert; O. Oko Elechi; Shanhe Jiang

2010-01-01

141

Iodine status and the effect of soil erosion on trace elements in Nanka and Oba towns of Anambra State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) is common in all populations. Iodine and other trace elements naturally occur in the soil but erosion leaches off these elements from the soil. This results in a continued loss of trace elements from the soil. In the present study, the levels of iodine, selenium, zinc and lead in the environment (measured in soil, bitter leaves (Vernonia amygdalina), cassava roots (mannihot utilissima, staple food in Nigeria), and drinking water) and urinary iodine from school children (n=200), pregnant women (n=60) and women of child bearing age (n=60) were determined for Nanka prone to soil erosion and Oba all in Anambra State, Nigeria (used as control) to assess their risk to IDD. The levels of selenium, zinc and lead were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry while the levels of iodine in the environment and urinary iodine were estimated using the method of Dunn et al.,(1993). In this study there was a positive correlation between iodine and the metals. The results show that the mean concentrations of total soil zinc (0.69 +/- 0.16 ppm); lead (0.40 +/- 0.12 ppm) values in Oba were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than values from Nanka (Zn = 0.33 +/- 0.10 ppm; Pb = 0.21 +/- 0.09 ppm). However, total soil values for selenium and iodine in soil were not significantly different in the two communities. Mean concentration of total vegetable zinc (0.63 +/- 0.14 ppm) value in Oba is significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the value from Nanka (Zn = 0.31 +/- 0.07 ppm). However, total vegetable values for I, Se and Pb were not significantly different in the two communities. Also, mean concentration of total cassava zinc (0.65 = 0.15 ppm) in Oba was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than Zn (0.44 +/- 0.1l ppm) from Nanka. However, values for Se, Pb, and I were not significantly different in the two communities. Mean concentration of total water iodine (105.25 +/- 10.44 microg/L) in Oba was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the value from Nanka (I = 89.8 +/- 6.42 microg/L). However, total water values for Se, Zn, and Pb were not significantly different in the two communities. The mean urinary iodine concentration of 170.65 +/- 27.17 microg/L in school children from Oba was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the mean concentration of 156.12 +/- 16.48 microg/L found in school children from Nanka. However, the mean urinary iodine concentration of all the women (pregnant and non-pregnant) were not significantly different in the two communities but they are below the recommended daily intake. The results show that people living in Nanka and Oba, could be at risk of IDD. PMID:17970305

Olife, Ifeyinwa C; Okaka, Antoinette N; Dioka, Chudi E; Meludu, Samuel C; Orisakwe, Orish E

2007-09-01

142

Prospects of using community directed intervention strategy in delivering health services among Fulani Nomads in Enugu State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The Community Directed Interventions (CDI) strategy has proven effective in increasing access to health services in sedentary populations. It remains to be seen if CDI strategy is feasible among nomads given the dearth of demographic and medical data on the nomads. This study thus characterized the nomadic populations in Enugu State, Nigeria and outlined the potentials of implementing CDI among nomads. Study design and methods This exploratory study adopted qualitative methods. Forty focus group discussions (FGD) were held with members of 10 nomadic camps in 2 LGAs in Enugu State, as well as their host communities. Thirty in-depth interviews (IDIs) were held with leaders of nomadic camps and sedentary populations. Ten IDIs with traditional healers in the nomadic camps and 14 key informant interviews with health workers and programme officers were also conducted. Documents and maps were reviewed to ascertain the grazing routes of the nomads as well as existing health interventions in the area. Results Like sedentary populations, nomads have definable community structures with leaders and followers, which is amenable to implementation of CDI. Nomads move their cattle, in a definite pattern, in search of grass and water. In this movement, the old and vulnerable are left in the camps. The nomads suffer from immunization preventable health problems as their host communities. The priority health problems in relation to CDI include malaria, measles, anemia, and other vaccine preventable infections. However, unlike the sedentary populations, the nomads lack access to health interventions, due to the mutual avoidance between the nomads and the sedentary populations in terms of health services. The later consider the services as mainly theirs. The nomads, however, are desirous of the modern health services and often task themselves to access these modern health services in private for profit health facilities when the need arises. Conclusion Given the definable organizational structure of the nomads in Enugu State and their desire for modern health intervention, it is feasible to test the CDI strategy for equitable healthcare delivery among nomads. They are willing and capable to participate actively in their own health programmes with minimal support from professional health workers. PMID:23566078

2013-01-01

143

Nigeria. Spotlight.  

PubMed

Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, currently has no official population policy; however, recent news releases from the Federal Ministry of Information indicate that efforts to deal with rapid population growth may be forthcouming. Adequate census materials are lacking. In 1984 population size was estimated to be 88 million, and in 1983 the estimated crude birth rate was 48-51/1000, the estimated crude death rate was 16-18/1000, and the population growth rate was approximately 3.0%-3.5%. Other estimates for 1983 placed the infant mortality rate at 134 and life expectancy at 49 years. The total fertility rate observed in a 1981 World Fertility Study was 5.4, but this rate was questioned by investigators, who believe it is too low. World Bank projections, based on the assumption that fertility declines will begin soon, indicate that the population will reach 618 million before stabilizing toward the end of the 21st century. At the present time, only 6% of Nigeria's women of reproductive age use contraception, and most of these women contracept only for spacing purposes. Nigeria, which obtained independence in 1960, is plagued by internal strife between different ethnic groups. The northern region, populated by the Hausa is less developed economically than the southern region. The Ibo, who play a major role in the nation's commerical and government sectors, predominated in the the southeastern region, and the Yoruba are the most populous group in the southwestern region. 1/2 of the population if Muslim, 40% is Christian, and the remaining proportion practices traditional religions. During the 1960s, Nigeria derived 2/3 of it gross national product from agriculture, and especially from the export of cocoa, groundnuts, and palm oil. During the 1970s the economy changed markedly as the country began to exploit its oil reserves. By 1983, agriculture accounted for only 20% of the gross national product, and 98% of the country's total exports of US$11.3 billion were derived from oil. Oil reserves are expected to be exhausted in 15 years. To compensate for this expected loss, an effort was initiated in 1980 to revive the country's deteriorating agricultural sector. In addition, the government instituted educational programs aimed at increasing the supply of skilled labor for industrial development. PMID:12313400

Lecky, M

1984-12-01

144

Corruption, NGOs, and Development in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

This article examines corruption in Nigeria’s development sector, particularly in the vastly growing arena of local non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Grounded in ethnographic case studies, the analysis explores why local NGOs in Nigeria have proliferated so widely, what they do in practice, what effects they have beyond their stated aims, and how they are perceived and experienced by ordinary Nigerians. It shows that even faux NGOs and disingenuous political rhetoric about civil society, democracy, and development are contributing to changing ideals and rising expectations in these same domains. PMID:24265511

Smith, Daniel Jordan

2013-01-01

145

Incidence of Avian Influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria: The Epidemiology, Economic Losses and the Possible Role of Wild Birds in the Transmission of the Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing the huge economic losses due to diseases in poultry as the second largest industry in Nigeria after oil means improving the protein intake of the majority. Similarly, this will also promotes a steady income for the teeming farmers. This study investigated the incidence of the lethal avian influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria, with particular emphasis on the socio-economic and cultural activities of the poultry farmers, economic losses and the possible role of wild birds in the transmission of the disease. Data were collected from 316 and 458 direct and indirect respondents, respectively, from 6 affected villages and a town in 2 Local Government Areas (LGAs): Girei and Yola-North. Results revealed that a larger (25.71%) proportion of the respondents fell within the age range of 31-40 years, with majority (54.91%) as females. While the bulk (54.65%) of the respondents were illiterates, 95.47% of the direct respondents derived their incomes from crop production, whereas 59.17% of the indirect respondents from livestock rearing. About 26,049 birds worth N13, 454,800.00 was cumulative economic loss incurred by the poultry farmers, whereas that of the government was put at N1, 119,781.10. Of the mortalities experienced in the wildlife before the outbreak of the disease, Bubulcus ibis (64.29) and Tadarida nigeriae (86.36) were the highest. The study recommends a massive rural extension on Poultry Production with absolute biosecurity, involving all stakeholders (Veterinary Surgeons, Animal Scientists/health workers, wildlife specialists, Agricultural Economists, Information Officers etc.) in a collaborative form for high synergistic effects.

Ja`Afar-Furo, M. R.; Balla, H. G.; Tahir, A. S.; Haskainu, C.

146

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Peer Education in Improving HIV Knowledge, Attitude, and Sexual Behaviours among In-School Adolescents in Osun State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Young people are at the centre of the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of peer education in improving HIV knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices among in-school adolescents in Osun State, Nigeria. Methods. This was an intervention study that was carried out among in-school adolescents attending mixed secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. The study was in three stages: before intervention, intervention, and after intervention. The impact of peer education was evaluated twelve weeks after intervention. Data were collected using pretested semistructured questionnaires and data analysis was done with SPSS version 16. Results. At the preintervention stage, the study and control groups were similar in their sociodemographic characteristics, HIV knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices, including high risk behaviours for HIV/AIDS transmission. After the peer education intervention, those with good knowledge and positive attitudes towards HIV/AIDS increased significantly from 50.0% to 86.7% and from 49.0% to 85.6%, respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The study showed that peer education is effective in improving knowledge, attitude, and some preventive practices towards HIV/AIDS among in-school adolescents. Educational programmes about HIV/AIDS should therefore be designed to target this age group putting into consideration their unique characteristics. PMID:25478212

Adeomi, Adeleye Abiodun; Adeoye, Oluwatosin Adediran; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther Olufunmilayo; Abodunrin, Olugbemiga Lanre; Olugbenga-Bello, Adenike Iyanuoluwa; Sabageh, Adedayo Olukemi

2014-01-01

147

Assessment of Computer Literacy of Secondary School Teachers in Ekiti State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study assessed computer literacy of secondary school teachers in Ekiti State. Three hundred teachers (Male = 150; Female = 150) selected from 30 public schools in 15 out of 16 local government areas participated. The instrument for collecting data was a 25-item Self-Assessment of Computer Literacy questionnaire and each item was rated on a…

Oluwatayo, James Ayodele

2012-01-01

148

Perceived Sources of Occupational Stress among Primary School Teachers in Delta State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the most prevalent sources of occupational stress and also the demographic variables of gender, age and length of service among primary school teachers in Delta State. Two research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The study used a descriptive survey design. The population was the primary school teachers in…

Akpochafo, G. O.

2012-01-01

149

THE IMPLICATIONS OF POLITICAL THUGGERY ON SOCIOECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT OF MAIDUGURI, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the years the activities of thugs have been legitimatized and powerfully backed by the political class and unfortunately in Maiduguri most of these thugs have metamorphosed to Boko Haram. This study is, therefore, meant to examine the implications of political thuggery on socio- economic and political development of Maiduguri capital city of Borno State. To achieve the above, both

PAUL Y. MBAYA

2013-01-01

150

Non-Timber Forest Products' Marketing in Nigeria. A Case Study of Osun State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on markets and marketing of some non-timber forest products (NTFPs) was carried out in selected locations of Osun State. The NTFPs considered are chewing sticks such as "Massularia acuminata" and bush meat like "Thryonomys swinderianus", representing both the flora and fauna aspects of NTFPs, respectively. Five Local Government Areas were…

Aiyeloja, Adedapo Ayo; Ajewole, Opeyemi Isaac

2006-01-01

151

Lameness and reproductive performance in small ruminants in Nsukka Area of the Enugu State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four communities in Nsukka Area of Enugu State, known for sheep and goat keeping were purposefully selected for this work. Seventy-one sheep and goat farms were visited between January 1995 and December 1999. During the course of visit no one animal was registered twice in one farm during the study except where the cause of lameness was entirely different from

C. A Eze

2002-01-01

152

COMMUNICATION FACTORS AFFECTING THE ADOPTION OF INNOVATION AT THE GRASSROOTS LEVEL IN OGUN STATE, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigates communication factors affecting the adoption of innovation at the grassroots level in Ogun State. Two hundred farmers and twenty-five extension agents were selected using a multi - stage sampling technique, and were interviewed for the purpose of the study. Data collected were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistical tools. The study revealed that the majority of

A. S. Onasanya; S. F. Adedoyin; O. A. Onasanya

153

Evaluating the performance of wind turbines in selected locations in Oyo state, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wind speed distribution and wind energy potential are investigated in three selected locations in Oyo state using wind speed data that span between 12 and 20 years measured at 10 m height. In addition, the performance of selected small to medium size wind turbines in these sites were examined. The annual energy output and capacity factor for these turbines were

M. S. Adaramola; O. M. Oyewola

2011-01-01

154

Seeking evidence to support efforts to increase use of antenatal care: a cross-sectional study in two states of Nigeria.  

PubMed

BackgroundAntenatal care (ANC) attendance is a strong predictor of maternal outcomes. In Nigeria, government health planners at state level and below have limited access to population-based estimates of ANC coverage and factors associated with its use. A mixed methods study examined factors associated with the use of government ANC services in two states of Nigeria, and shared the findings with stakeholders.MethodsA quantitative household survey in Bauchi and Cross River states of Nigeria collected data from women aged 15¿49 years on ANC use during their last completed pregnancy and potentially associated factors including socio-economic conditions, exposure to domestic violence and local availability of services. Bivariate and multivariate analysis examined associations with having at least four government ANC visits. We collected qualitative data from 180 focus groups of women who discussed the survey findings and recommended solutions. We shared the findings with state, Local Government Authority, and community stakeholders to support evidence-based planning.Results40% of 7870 women in Bauchi and 46% of 7759 in Cross River had at least four government ANC visits. Women's education, urban residence, information from heath workers, help from family members, and household owning motorized transport were associated with ANC use in both states. Additional factors for women in Cross River included age above 18 years, being married or cohabiting, being less poor (having enough food during the last week), not experiencing intimate partner violence during the last year, and education of the household head. Factors for women in Bauchi were presence of government ANC services within their community and more than two previous pregnancies. Focus groups cited costly, poor quality, and inaccessible government services, and uncooperative partners as reasons for not attending ANC. Government and other stakeholders planned evidence-based interventions to increase ANC uptake.ConclusionUse of ANC services remains low in both states. The factors related to use of ANC services are consistent with those reported previously. Efforts to increase uptake of ANC should focus particularly on poor and uneducated women. Local solutions generated by discussion of the evidence with stakeholders could be more effective and sustainable than externally driven interventions. PMID:25410003

Omer, Khalid; Afi, Nshadi; Baba, Moh D; Adamu, Maijiddah; Malami, Sani; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil

2014-11-20

155

Impact of intestinal helminthiases on the nutritional status of primary-school children in Osun state, south-western Nigeria.  

PubMed

In January-March 2000, the impact of intestinal helminthiases on the nutritional status of 749 pupils (353 boys and 396 girls) attending public primary schools in the Ife Central local government area of Osun state, in south-western Nigeria, was investigated. Demographic, socio-economic and other relevant information was collected on the pupils, on the same day that a single stool sample was collected from each subject and examined, using Stoll's dilution egg-count technique. The weights, heights and ages of the subjects were recorded and converted to percentages of the reference medians for weight-for-height, weight-for-age and height-for-age. The overall prevalences of helminth infection detected among the 465 malnourished pupils (i.e. those with any form of under-nutrition) and the 284 well-nourished pupils were 32.9% and 25.4%, respectively (P=0.029). The nutritional indices of the pupils who were found helminth-infected were generally lower than those of the pupils who appeared free of intestinal helminths. The mean values for weight-for-height, for example, were higher in the apparently uninfected pupils than in those found infected with any intestinal helminth (P=0.02) or only with Ascaris lumbricoides (P=0.05). Similarly, the mean height-for-age of the pupils who were apparently uninfected was higher than the corresponding value for the pupils found hookworm-positive (P=0.003). The pupils who were each found infected with two or more species of intestinal infection had significantly lower weights-for-heights, weights-for-ages and heights-for-ages than the pupils who appeared to be helminth-free. The results of a multivariate logistic-regression analysis indicated that hookworm infection was a significant risk factor for underweight (P=0.015), wasting (P=0.033) and stunting (P=0.015) whereas Trichuris was only a significant risk factor for stunting (P=0.025). It appears that intestinal helminthiasis may play a causal or contributory role in the occurrence of childhood malnutrition, at least in the present study area. Steps should be taken to control both of these important health problems, through functional school-health programmes that provide regular deworming, supervised school meals and health education. PMID:21092395

Oninla, S O; Onayade, A A; Owa, J A

2010-10-01

156

Sound management of brominated flame retarded (BFR) plastics from electronic wastes: State of the art and options in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of flame retarded plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been posing a major challenge to waste management experts because of the potential environmental contamination issues especially the formation of polybrominated-dioxins and -furans (PBDD\\/F) during processing. In Nigeria, large quantities of electronic waste (e-waste) are currently being managed—a significant quantity of which is imported illegally as secondhand

Innocent Chidi Nnorom; Oladele Osibanjo

2008-01-01

157

Assessment of the Reproductive Health Status of Adult Prison Inmates in Osun State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction. All over the world, numbers of prisoners have being increasing with majority in the sexually active age group; hence diseases such as HIV, Tuberculosis and Hepatitis are more prevalent in prisons than in the community. This study thus aims to provide an overview of the reproductive health status of adult prison inmates in Osun State. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study among adult inmates in Osun State prison. Data was obtained from 209 selected respondents using pre-tested semi structured questionnaire. Result. Majority of the respondents were in the age group 20–39 years with mean age of 30.9 + 7.5. 73.2% are aware of STIs, 93.3% HIV/AIDS and 81.3% contraception. 54.6% had multiple sexual partners before incarceration and 23.3% of them used condom always. 89.5% were not involved in any sexual practice inside the prison, 9.1% masturbated and 1.4% had homosexual partners. Less than 6% had access to male condoms gotten from prison staffs and prison clinics. Conclusion and recommendation. No comprehensive reproductive health care system to address reproductive health services in prisons. Respondents' knowledge about STIs, HIV/AIDS and contraception is good, but their condom usage is low compared with the knowledge. Government should put in place specific reproductive health programmes in prisons.

Olugbenga-Bello, A. I.; Adeoye, O. A.; Osagbemi, K. G.

2013-01-01

158

Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has generated renewed interest in recent times, as herbal preparations are increasingly being used in both human and animal healthcare systems. Diarrhoea is one of the common clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders caused by both infectious and non-infectious agents and an important livestock debilitating condition. Plateau State is rich in savannah and forest vegetations and home to a vast collection of plants upheld in folklore as having useful medicinal applications. There is however scarcity of documented information on the medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in the state, thus the need for this survey. Ten (10) out of 17 Local Government Areas (LGAs), spread across the three senatorial zones were selected. Farmers were interviewed using well structured, open-ended questionnaire and guided dialogue techniques between October and December 2010. Medicinal plants reported to be effective in diarrhoea management were collected using the guided field-walk method for identification and authentication. Results A total of 248 questionnaires were completed, out of which 207 respondents (83.47%) acknowledged the use of herbs in diarrhoea management, while 41 (16.53%) do not use herbs or apply other traditional methods in the treatment of diarrhoea in their animals. Medicinal plants cited as beneficial in the treatment of animal diarrhoea numbered 132, from which 57(43.18%) were scientifically identified and classified into 25 plant families with the families Fabaceae (21%) and Combretaceae (14.04%) having the highest occurrence. The plant parts mostly used in antidiarrhoeal herbal preparations are the leaves (43.86%) followed by the stem bark (29.82%). The herbal preparations are usually administered orally. Conclusion Rural communities in Plateau State are a rich source of information on medicinal plants as revealed in this survey. There is need to scientifically ascertain the authenticity of the claimed antidiarrhoeal properties of these plants and perhaps develop more readily available alternatives in the treatment of diarrhoea. PMID:21745405

2011-01-01

159

Strengthening primary healthcare through community involvement in Cross River State, Nigeria: a descriptive study  

PubMed Central

Introduction In preparation for implementation of primary healthcare (PHC) services in Cross River State, a study to identify perceptions of communities and health systems concerning such interventions was conducted. Methods Existing PHC practices were documented through observation and document reviews, including facility checklists at frontline levels. Perceptions of consumers and providers on PHC were elucidated through 32 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and 78 semi-structured questionnaires. Results There was some level of implementation of the Nigerian PHC policy in the study districts. However, this policy emphasized curative instead of preventive services. Private partners perceived healthcare programmes as largely donor driven with poor release of allocations for health by government. Conclusion Both providers and consumers presented similar perceptions on the current PHC implementation and similar perspectives on services to be prioritized. These common views together with their on-going participatory experience are important platforms for strengthening community participation in the delivery of PHC. PMID:25237418

Adie, Hilary; Igbang, Thomas; Otu, Akaninyene; Braide, Ekanem; Okon, Okpok; Ikpi, Edet; Joseph, Charles; Desousa, Alexander; Sommerfeld, Johannes

2014-01-01

160

HIV association with conventional STDS (sexual transmitted diseases) in Lagos State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study examined a possible association between HIV infection and conventional sexually transmitted diseases (STDS) in a population of 700 patients seen in some hospitals and clinics in Lagos State between November 1997 and December 1999. The patients were drawn mainly from LUTH and Jolad hospitals in Lagos State. In these hospitals, patients who presented with symptoms of STDS were screened clinically and microbiologically for agents of STDS and HIV antibodies. Screening was carried out using conventional methods. A total of 150 (21.5%) were found positive for various STDS while 550 (78.5%) were negative Also, 109 (15.8%) were sero-positive for HIV while 591 (84.4%) were sero-negative. The frequency of STDS diagnosed were, Treponema pallidum, 38(25.3%), Neisseria gonorrhoea 3(2.0%), Chlamydia trachomatis 26(17.3), Hepatitis B virus 60(40.0%) Staphylococcus aureaus, 20 (13.3%) and Candida albicans 3(2.0%). Data showed that Syphillis was the most prevalent STDS diagnosed while Calbicans and N. gonorrhoea are the least. Amongst the 150 (21.5%) patients positive with STDS, 82(54.65%) were found to be positive for HIV antibodies. The remaining 68(45.3%) patients were negative for HIV. The difference in sero-prevalence on the true group of patients rates was significant. The higher rate in the STDS patients strongly suggest some association between HIV infections andSTDS amongst the patients studied p = 0.05. It was also recorded that HIV-1 infection is four times more prevalent than HIV-2 in these patients. PMID:12403041

Otuonye, N M; Olukoya, D K; Odunukwe, N N; Idigbe, E O; Udeaja, M N; Bamidele, M; Onyewuchie, J I; Oparaugu, C T; Ayelari, O S; Oyekunle, B

2002-01-01

161

Bacteriuria and urinary schistosomiasis in primary school children in rural communities in Enugu State, Nigeria, 2012  

PubMed Central

Introduction According to a study conducted in1989, Enugu State has an estimated urinary schistosomiasis prevalence of 79%. Recently, studies have implicated bacteriuria co-infection in bladder cancer. These bacteria accelerate the multi-stage process of bladder carcinogenesis. Knowledge about the prevalence of this co-infection is not available in Enugu and the information provided by the 1989 study is too old to be used for current decision making. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional survey of primary school children aged5-15years, who were randomly selected through a multi stage sampling method using guidelines recommended by WHO for schistosomiasis surveys. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data on demography, socioeconomic variables and clinical presentations. Urine samples were collected between 10.00am and 2.00pm. Each sample was divided into two: (A) for prevalence and intensity using syringe filtration technique and (B) for culture. Intensity was categorized as heavy (>50ova/10mls urine) and light (<50ova/10mls urine). Significant bacteriuria was bacteria count ? 105 colony forming units/ml of urine. Results Of the 842 pupils, 50.6% were females. The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis was 34.1%. Infection rate was higher(52.8%) among 13-15 years(Prevalence Ratio = 2.45, 95% Confidence Interval 1.63-3.69). Heavy infections wad 62.7% and egg count/10mls urine ranged from 21-1138. Significant bacteriuria among pupils with urinary schistosomiasis was 53.7% compared to 3.6% in the uninfected(PR = 30.8,95% CI 18.91- 52.09). The commonest implicated organism was Escherchia coli. Conclusion We found high prevalence of bacteriuria co-infection among children with urinary schistosomiasis in Enugu State. This underscores the need for concurrent antibiotics administration and follow-up to avert later complications. PMID:25328634

Ossai, Okechukwu Paulinus; Dankoli, Raymond; Nwodo, Chimezie; Tukur, Dahiru; Nsubuga, Peter; Ogbuabor, Daniel; Ekwueme, Osaeloka; Abonyi, Godwin; Ezeanolue, Echezona; Nguku, Patrick; Nwagbo, Douglas; Idris, Suleiman; Eze, George

2014-01-01

162

Gender inequities in sexually transmitted infections: implications for HIV infection and control in Lagos State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Beyond the statistics of sex-based differences in infection rates, there are profound differences in the underlying causes and consequences of HIV infections in male and female which need to be examined. The study therefore examines; the gender differences in the STI knowledge and gender-related potential risks of HIV heterosexual transmission. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected. A multistage random sampling procedure was employed in administration of 1358 questionnaires. For qualitative data, four focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted to collect information from stakeholders within the study population, while In-depth interview was employed to collect information from 188 people living with HIV/AIDS through support groups in the State. The data collected were subjected to basic demographic analytical techniques. Combination of univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis were employed. Information from focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were transcribed and organized under broad headings that depict different aspects of the discussions. Majority of the respondents interviewed did not inform their partners about their infection in the study area. It was also discovered that stigmatization did not allow some women to disclose their status to their sexual partners. Some of the HIV-positive patients interviewed agreed that they did not attend the health facilities to treat the STI’s before they were finally confirmed positive. The study hypothesis revealed that communication between partners about STI’s was associated with an increase in risk reduction behaviour. The paper concluded that there is need for more information and education on communication about STI’s between the sexual partners; to reduce the spread of sexually transmitted diseases within the nation. PMID:24470905

Adeyemi, Ezekiel Oluwagbemiga

2011-01-01

163

Lessons from the implementation of LLIN distribution campaign in Ilorin Kwara State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Studies implemented to evaluate the success of Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) distribution campaigns are often limited to ownership and utilization rates, neglecting other factors that directly affect the efficacy of the tool in malaria control. This study investigates sleeping habits and net maintenance behaviour in addition to LLIN ownership, utilization and the challenges associated with LLIN use among residents in Ilorin City where the tool has been massively distributed. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted using pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire to obtain information from randomly selected household respondents in Ilorin, the Kwara State Capital. The study was conducted in July 2012, about sixteen months after the March 2011 distribution of LLIN in the locality. The results were analyzed using the EPI INFO 2007 version. Results LLIN ownership (85%) and utilization (37%) rates improved compared to earlier reports, though 29% of net users have noticed holes in the nets even as 26% claimed to have actually experienced mosquito bites under it. Most (92%) of the respondents who slept under LLIN the previous night before the study spent the first five hours of the night (19.00-23.00 hr) outdoors while 88% also engage in inappropriate net washing practices. All the LLIN users claimed to have experienced at least one malaria episode while 43% have had two or more episodes within the past twelve months. Conclusion The use of LLIN among the respondents in this study was accompanied by chancy sleeping habits, inappropriate net maintenance practices and repeated experience of mosquito bites under the nets. This shows the need to sustain the will and confidence of LLIN users in this area through frequent monitoring and surveillance visits targeted at enlightening the people on habits that increase malaria exposure risks as well as proper use and maintenance of LLIN for maximum malaria vector control benefits. PMID:24885737

2014-01-01

164

Application of remote-sensing data to groundwater exploration: A case study of the Cross River State, southeastern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cross River State, Nigeria, is underlain by the Precambrian-age crystalline basement complex and by rocks of Cretaceous to Tertiary age. The exploration for groundwater in this area requires a systematic technique in order to obtain optimum results, but the non-availability of funds and facilities has made it extremely difficult to carry out site investigations prior to the drilling of water wells. Therefore, the failure rate is as high as 80%. In order to delineate areas that are expected to be suitable for future groundwater development, black and white radar imagery and aerial photographs were used to define some hydrological and hydrogeological features in parts of the study area. Lineament and drainage patterns were analysed using length density and frequency. Lineament-length density ranges from 0.04-1.52 lineament frequency is 0.11-5.09 drainage-length density is 0.17-0.94, and the drainage frequency is 0.16-1.53. These range of values reflect the differences in the probability of groundwater potentials. Results were then used to delineate areas of high, medium, and low groundwater potential. Study results also indicate that correlations exist between lineament and drainage patterns, lithology, water temperature, water conductivity, well yield, transmissivity, longitudinal conductance, and the occurrence of groundwater. Résumé La géologie de l'Etat de Cross River (Nigéria) est constituée d'un socle cristallin d'âge précambrien et de roches datées du Crétacé au Tertiaire. Dans cette région, l'exploration des eaux souterraines nécessite une analyse systématique pour obtenir les meilleurs résultats ; cependant le manque de moyens a rendu particulièrement difficile les recherches de sites de forage destinés au captage de l'eau. C'est pourquoi le taux d'échec a atteint 80%. Afin de délimiter les zones susceptibles de permettre la future mise en valeur des eaux souterraines, des images radar et des photos aériennes en noir et blanc ont été utilisées pour mettre en évidence certains phénomènes hydrologiques et hydrogéologiques en certains points de la région étudiée. L'analyse des réseaux de linéaments et de drainage a porté sur la densité de leurs longueurs et sur leur fréquence. La densité de longueur des linéaments s'étend de 0,04 à 1,52 et la fréquence des linéaments de 0,11 à 5,09 ; la densité des longueurs de drainage est comprise entre 0,17 et 0,94, et la fréquence du drainage entre 0,16 et 1,53. Ces gammes de valeurs rendent compte des différences dans la probabilité des potentiels en eau souterraine. Ces résultats ont ensuite été utilisés pour délimiter les zones à potentiel en eau souterraine fort, moyen et faible. Les résultats de l'étude indiquent aussi qu'il existe des corrélations entre les réseau de linéaments et de drainage, la lithologie, la température de l'eau, la conductivité de l'eau, le rendement des puits, la transmissivité, la conductance longitudinale et la présence d'eau souterraine. Resumen Bajo el Estado de Cross River, Nigeria, subyace un complejo basal cristalino del Precámbrico, así como rocas de edad entre Cretácica y Terciaria. La exploración hidrogeológica en esta área requiere una técnica sistemàtica para poder alcanzar resultados óptimos, pero la falta de medios y de infraestructura ha hecho extremadamente difícil el poder realizar investigaciones previas a la perforación de los pozos, de manera que el porcentaje de fallos se eleva al 80%. Para poder delinear las áreas adecuadas para el posterior desarrollo hidrogeológico, se han usado imágenes de radar en blanco y negro y fotografías aéreas, con el objetivo de definir algunos rasgos hidrológicos e hidrogeológicos en partes del área de estudio. Se analizaron los esquemas de lineamiento y drenaje usando densidad y frecuencia de longitudes. La densidad de longitudes de lineamiento oscila entre 0.04-1.52 y la frecuencia entre 0.11-5.09. La densidad de longitud de drenaje oscila entre 0.17-0.94 y su frecuencia entre 0.16-1.53. Estos rangos de valores refleja

Edet, A. E.; Okereke, C. S.; Teme, S. C.; Esu, E. O.

165

Assessment of the Cotton Industry Using the Global Commodity Chain Analysis Approach in Katsina State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study examines the cotton commodity chain and assessed the share of each actor in the cotton industry and identified the constraints encountered in cotton production, marketing and processing. A sample of thirty cotton producers, 50 traders, 500 agents and 3 ginneries were selected from Funtua Local Government Area of Katsina State using both random and purposive sampling techniques. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the participants using focus group discussion and structured questionnaire during the 2004/2005 cropping season. Analysis of the data was done using descriptive statistics and budgeting technique. The farmersN budget analysis indicated that from an investment cost of N 33,146.00 ha-1, farmers obtained a revenue of N 44,544-00 ha-1, thus making a net income of N 11,398 ha-1, while the agent analysis shows that an agent is paid a commission of N 500.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchase on behalf of the merchant. The analysis of the tradersN budget revealed that from an investment cost of N 36,746.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchased, traders` N 41,700.00 (lint + seed) and a net profit of N 4,954.00 ton h-1 of seed cotton. The analysis of the ginnery budget revealed that from one ton of seed cotton processed, a ginnery is making a net profit of N 2,178.00. These analyses indicated that cotton production, marketing and processing under the current price and cost setting is profitable. In spite of the profitability in cotton business, the following problems were identified: adulteration of seed cotton with foreign materials, heterogeneous seeds resale in the market, inappropriate packaging systems, no good prices for improving the quality and no mechanism for ensuring transparency in the quality (trust between actors). There is the need for intensification and expansion of the cotton sector in terms of provision of high quality inputs, clean seed cotton, introduction of jute bags for packaging, introduction of quality control mechanisms and good prices in order to sustain the industry.

Kudi, T. M.; Akpoko, J. G.; Abdulsalam, Z.

166

Perception of HIV/AIDS among the Igbo of Anambra State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Perception is fundamental in the fight against stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Perception generally influences discriminatory attitudes towards PLHIV which exacerbates their problems and quickens the degeneration of the disease from HIV to AIDS. This study examined the Anambra people's perception and knowledge of HIV/AIDS with the goal of creating knowledge on these issues in order to design effective intervention programmes towards the reduction of social stigmatization associated with the pandemic. The study was carried out in Idemmili North and Oyi local government areas of Anambra State. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used to elicit information from respondents who were adult males and females of 18 years and above. The research instruments were questionnaires and in-depth interview schedule. Questionnaires were administered on 1000 respondents while 13 people were interviewed in-depth. Analysis of quantitative data were conducted by using the Statistical package for Social Sciences. Univariate analysis in the form of frequencies were conducted which generated the distribution of respondents across the research variables. Furthermore, multivariate analysis were conducted to test the hypotheses and sought for relationships among variables. The qualitative data were reported in themes based on the research objectives and were analysed jointly with the quantitative data. The findings were that majority of the respondents viewed HIV/AIDS as a disease that afflict immoral people and as a punishment from God. Only a handful of them saw the disease as a disease that could afflict anybody. Also, many of the respondents said that AIDS is real but showed a low level of knowledge. It was further indicated that there were significant relationships between educational level, sex, occupation, income influence perception and peoples' reactions to HIV positive status of a relative while there were no significant relationships between these variables and knowledge of HIV/AIDS. It was concluded that these negative perceptions were as a result of the people's low level of knowledge and cultural belief systems, which see a strange illness as punishment from God for disobedience. Furthermore, the fact that most of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents had significant relationship with perception and reaction to HIV was an indication that most people in the study area had a uniform perception. It was also an indication that government HIV/AIDS awareness programmes were not effective. It was recommended that strategies for effective HIV educational programme should be sought and carried out in the study area. Effective intervention programme have the power to change behaviours and would likely change the people's negative perception and low level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS, thereby reducing stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:23808412

Muoghalu, Caroline Okumdi; Jegede, Samuel Ayodele

2013-01-01

167

Development Imperatives for the Twenty-First Century in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Development as a growth process is what every person, nation and state seeks from day to day. The issues of development and better welfare are generally important to the average man and woman, especially in developing countries like Nigeria. Nigeria and other African countries need to instigate the principles and strategies that will bring about…

Arikpo, Arikpo B.; Etor, Robert B.; Usang, Ewa

2007-01-01

168

Unknown risk: co-exposure to lead and other heavy metals among children living in small-scale mining communities in Zamfara State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The lead poisoning crisis in Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria has been called the worst such case in modern history and it presents unique challenges for risk assessment and management of co-exposure to multiple heavy metals. More than 400 children have died in Zamfara as a result of ongoing lead intoxication since early in 2010. A review of the common toxic endpoints of the major heavy metals advances analysis of co-exposures and their common pathologies. Environmental contamination in Bagega village, examined by X-ray fluorescence of soils, includes lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic and manganese. Co-exposure risk is explored by scoring common toxic endpoints and hazard indices to calculate a common pathology hazard risk ranking of Pb?>?As?>?Hg?>?Cd?>?Mn. Zamfara presents an extreme picture of both lead and multiple heavy metal mortality and morbidity, but similar situations have become increasingly prevalent worldwide. PMID:24044870

Bartrem, Casey; Tirima, Simba; von Lindern, Ian; von Braun, Margrit; Worrell, Mary Claire; Mohammad Anka, Shehu; Abdullahi, Aishat; Moller, Gregory

2014-08-01

169

Care related and transit neuronal injuries after cervical spine trauma: state of care and practice in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Suboptimal care during extraction and transfer after spinal trauma predisposes patients to additional spinal cord injury. This study examines the factors that contribute to care related and transit injuries and suggests steps to improve standard of care in spinal trauma patients in Nigeria. It is a questionnaire-based prospective study of patients admitted with cervical cord injury to two neurosurgical centers in Enugu, Nigeria, between March 2008 and October 2010. Demography, mechanism of injury, mode of extraction from the scene and transportation to first visited hospital, precautions taken during transportation, and treatment received before arriving at the neurosurgical unit were analyzed. There were 53 (77.9%) males, the mean age was 33.9 years, and 23.5% had concomitant head injury. Average delay was 3.5 h between trauma and presentation to initial care and 10.4 days before presentation to definitive care. Only 26.5% presented primarily to tertiary centers with trauma services. About 94.1% were extracted by passersby. None of the patients received cervical spine protection either during extrication or in the course of transportation to initial care, and 35.3% were sitting in a motor vehicle or supported on a motorbike during transport. Of the 43 patients transported lying down, 41.9% were in the back seat of a sedan, and only 11.8% were transported in an ambulance. Neurological dysfunction was first noticed after removal from the scene by 41.2% of patients, while 7.4% noticed it on the way to or during initial care. During subsequent transfer to definitive centers, only 36% had cervical support, although 78% were transported in ambulances. Ignorance of pre-hospital management of cervically injured patients exists in the general population and even among medical personnel and results in preventable injuries. There is need for urgent training, provision of paramedical services, and public enlightenment. PMID:23758277

Mezue, Wilfred C; Onyia, Ephraim; Illoabachie, Izuchukwu C; Chikani, Mark C; Ohaegbulam, Samuel C

2013-09-15

170

Evidence for Stopping Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis in Some, But Not All Local Government Areas of Plateau and Nasarawa States, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

An average of six annual rounds of ivermectin and albendazole were distributed in Plateau and Nasarawa States, Nigeria, to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. From 2007 to 2008, population-based surveys were implemented in all 30 local government areas (LGAs) of the two states to determine the prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia to assess which LGA mass drug administration (MDA) could be halted. In total, 36,681 persons from 7,819 households were examined for filarial antigen as determined by immunochromatographic card tests. Overall antigen prevalence was 3.05% (exact upper 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.41%) with an upper 95% CI range by LGA of 0.50–19.3%. Among 3,233 children 6–7 years of age, overall antigen prevalence was 1.71% (exact upper 95% CI = 2.19%), too high to recommend generally halting MDA in the two-state area. However, based on criteria of < 2% antigenemia among persons > 2 years of age, stopping MDA was recommended for 10 LGAs. PMID:22855758

King, Jonathan D.; Eigege, Abel; Umaru, John; Jip, Nimzing; Miri, Emmanuel; Jiya, Jonathan; Alphonsus, Kal M.; Sambo, Yohanna; Graves, Patricia; Richards, Frank

2012-01-01

171

The WWW in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Before Nigeria can connect to the World Wide Web, it must have a national computer network and a series of organization-based intranets. This letter assesses Nigeria's communications infrastructure; discusses what is being done to improve it; and credits its shortcomings to low university funding, rising computers costs, currency exchange rates,…

Olorunsola, R.; Adeoti-Adekeye, A.

1997-01-01

172

Welcome to Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson plans project provides information and classroom-ready lesson plans about Nigeria. These lesson plans can stand alone or be used in conjunction with one another. They have been correlated to coincide with the standards set forth in Geography for Life. Following background information "Why Study Nigeria?" (A. Shields), lesson plans are…

Northern Iowa Univ., Cedar Falls. Geographic Alliance of Iowa.

173

Challenging tradition in Nigeria.  

PubMed

In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs. PMID:12284522

Supriya, K E

1991-01-01

174

Correlation between aflatoxin M1 content of breast milk, dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 and socioeconomic status of lactating mothers in Ogun State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Aflatoxin M1 (AF M1), a hydroxylated metabolite of AF B1, is an important toxin that can contaminate the milk of lactating mothers. A correlation study was conducted to determine the relationship between AF M1 content of breast milk, dietary exposure to AF B1 and socioeconomic status of lactating mothers in the three Senatorial districts of Ogun State, Nigeria. Equal amounts of breast milk (20 ml) and food rations (40 kg) obtained from 50 volunteer lactating mothers and eighty-two frequently consumed food commodities in the preceding month were used for the study. The level of contamination of the foods by AF B1 was low (0.16-0.33 ?g/kg) and differed significantly (p<0.05) across the state but did not exceed the EU limit of 2 ?g/kg. The occurrence level of AF B1 was however high (93.75-94.45%) and was more pronounced in Ogun East Senatorial district (94.45%). Eighty-two percent of the breast milk was contaminated with AF M1 (3.49-35 ng/l) and 16% exceeded the EU limit of 25 ng/l while a 100% occurrence risk was recorded in Ogun Central Senatorial district. The socioeconomic status of the mothers also significantly influenced their dietary exposure and exposure risk of the sucklings to AF M1. PMID:23462105

Adejumo, Oloyede; Atanda, Olusegun; Raiola, Assunta; Somorin, Yinka; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Ritieni, Alberto

2013-06-01

175

Resources, environment and economic development in Nigeria.  

PubMed

It is argued that Nigeria must focus on effective environmentally protective intensive farming, resource management methods, and strong family planning programs. Other contributory factors are recognized as the lack of democracy and the "ill-advised" internal policies of the government. The emphasis is on man-made decisions about migration, natality, and land use practices that have ecological consequences that significantly affect the economy. Land degradation in Nigeria is attributed to improper agricultural and husbandry practices. Land degradation has severe ecological, economic, and human costs. Awareness of environmental problems in Nigeria is growing. Natural disasters such as the droughts of 1984-85, continued soil depletion, accumulations of soil wastes, increased flooding in urban areas, and land erosion in Anambra state are evidence of the growing environmental problems. Agricultural development should involve changing rural land use practices, using technology that is "appropriate" to the climate, crops, and culture of the people, and introducing agroforestry. Population growth in Nigeria puts pressure on the fragile ecosystem. Actual carrying capacity is a rough calculation. Nigeria's population growth patterns follow a pattern that suggests population pressure on carrying capacity. The acceleration of population growth has strained the traditional system of agriculture. Land is overused, and cultivation continues on unsuitable land. Domestic policies during the oil boom encouraged rapid industrialization at the expense of the environment. Migration increased to urban centers, but cities did not provide suitable housing, waste disposal, safe water supplies, and other basic facilities. PMID:12347030

Okpala, A O

1995-06-01

176

Efficacy of local herbal therapy in the management of dermatophytosis among primary school children in Cross River State, South-south Nigeria.  

PubMed

As a contribution to the on-going search for alternative, available and affordable treatment of common infections in Sub-saharan Africa, the efficacy of local herbs, Senna alata(Linn) and Borreria ocymoides (Burm), in comparison with conventional drugs, griseofulvin and clotrimazole in the treatment of dermatophytosis among primary school children, was examined in the three districts of Cross River State, South-South Nigeria. Out of 840 pupils screened, 68 (8.1%) were infected, with incidence ranging from 11 (1.3%) in the southern to 33 (3.9%) in the northern districts, indicating a widespread of the infection. Specimens taken from the infected pupils and analyzed for the causative agents, showed that Trichophyton tonsurans 29 (20.4%) followed by Microsporum soudanense 24 (16.9%) was most frequent. The greater sensitivity of the isolated dermatophytes to the local plants than the chemotherapeutic drugs (control) offers some hope of treatment and control. The antifungal activity of the plants was associated with their very high levels of chemical components, saponins, anthraquinones and flavonoids. We recommend further studies on the chemical properties and safety of the plants before total dependence on them for treatment. PMID:20175416

Eja, M E; Arikpo, G E; Enyi-Idoh, K H; Etim, S E; Etta, H E

2009-06-01

177

Pollution indexing and health risk assessments of trace elements in indoor dusts from classrooms, living rooms and offices in Ogun State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metals are known to have a negative impact on human health especially children through oral ingestion. Total metal concentrations were determined in indoor dust from 19 locations consisting of classrooms, living rooms and offices in Ogun State, Nigeria. Digestion and instrumentation reproducibility were validated using certified reference materials (BCR 723 (Road Dust), NIST 2711a (Montana Soil) and NIST SRM 1640e (Trace element in water)). The measured and certified values showed good agreement. Potential threat levels using geo-accumulation (Igeo) and human health risk for both children and adult were assessed. The mean Igeo levels for the classified and probable carcinogens is in the order Cd (4.84) > Cr (3.28) > Pb (2.61) > Ni (2.48) > As (1.64) while other elements are in the order Zn (5.41) > Ba (4.86) > Sr (4.38) > Zn (4.27) > V (3.24) > Cu (3.14) > Hg (2.61) ? TI (2.61). For human health risk, ingestion was the main route of exposure followed by dermal uptake and inhalation. Hazard index values for all studied metals were lower than the safe level of 1 while Hg vapor exhibited the highest risk value (0.13) in the case of children. The carcinogenic risk for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb were all within the acceptable level (10-4-10-6), but there was potential carcinogenic risk posed by Cr for both adults and children.

Olujimi, Olanrewaju; Steiner, Oliver; Goessler, Walter

2015-01-01

178

Barriers to use of modern contraceptives among women in an inner city area of Osogbo metropolis, Osun state, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the knowledge and attitudes on modern contraceptive use of women living in an inner city area of Osogbo. Materials and methods Three hundred and fifty nine women of childbearing age were studied utilizing a community-based, descriptive, cross-sectional study design. A multistage random sampling technique was used in recruiting respondents to the study. A four-part questionnaire was applied dually, by interviewers and by respondents’ self administration, and the data was analyzed using the SPSS software version 17.0. Results The mean age of respondents was 28.6 ± 6.65 years. The majority (90.3%) of respondents were aware of modern methods of family planning (FP), 76.0% claimed awareness of where to obtain FP services, and 74.9% knew of at least five methods. However, only 30.6% had ever used contraceptives, while only 13.1% were current users. The most frequently used method was the male condom. The commonly perceived barriers accounting for low use of FP methods were fear of perceived side effects (44.0%), ignorance (32.6%), misinformation (25.1%), superstition (22.0%), and culture (20.3%). Some reasons were proffered for respondents’ nonuse of modern contraception. Predictors of use of modern contraceptives include the awareness of a place of FP service provision, respondents’ approval of the use of contraceptives, higher education status, and being married. Conclusion Most of the barriers reported appeared preventable and removable and may be responsible for the reported low point prevalence of use of contraceptives. It is recommended that community-based behavioral-change communication programs be instituted, aimed at improving the perceptions of women with respect to bridging knowledge gaps about contraceptive methods and to changing deep-seated negative beliefs related to contraceptive use in Nigeria. PMID:24143124

Asekun-Olarinmoye, EO; Adebimpe, WO; Bamidele, JO; Odu, OO; Asekun-Olarinmoye, IO; Ojofeitimi, EO

2013-01-01

179

Shelf circulation patterns off Nigeria  

E-print Network

Little has been published about the shelf circulation off the coast of Nigeria. Due to increased activity and associated incidents in the shallow waters offshore Nigeria, there is a need to more clearly define the near-shore circulation patterns...

Rider, Kelly Elizabeth

2005-08-29

180

Reducing mother-to-child transmission of HIV: findings from an early infant diagnosis program in south-south region of Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Early diagnosis of HIV in infants provides a critical opportunity to strengthen follow-up of HIV-exposed children and assure early access to antiretroviral (ARV) treatment for infected children. This study describes findings from an Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) program and the effectiveness of a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) intervention in six health facilities in Cross-River and Akwa-Ibom states, south-south Nigeria. Methods This was a retrospective study. Records of 702 perinatally exposed babies aged six weeks to 18 months who had a DNA PCR test between November 2007 and July 2009 were reviewed. Details of the ARV regimen received to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), breastfeeding choices, HIV test results, turn around time (TAT) for results and post test ART enrolment status of the babies were analysed. Results Two-thirds of mother-baby pairs received ARVs and 560 (80%) babies had ever been breastfed. Transmission rates for mother-baby pairs who received ARVs for PMTCT was 4.8% (CI 1.3, 8.3) at zero to six weeks of age compared to 19.5% (CI 3.0, 35.5) when neither baby nor mother received an intervention. Regardless of intervention, the transmission rates for babies aged six weeks to six months who had mixed feeding was 25.6% (CI 29.5, 47.1) whereas the transmission rates for those who were exclusively breastfed was 11.8% (CI 5.4, 18.1). Vertical transmission of HIV was eight times (AOR 7.8, CI: 4.52-13.19) more likely in the sub-group of mother-baby pairs who did not receive ARVS compared with mother-baby pairs that did receive ARVs. The median TAT for test results was 47 days (IQR: 35-58). A follow-up of 125 HIV positive babies found that 31 (25%) were enrolled into a paediatric ART program, nine (7%) were known to have died before the return of their DNA PCR results, and 85 (67%) could not be traced and were presumed to be lost-to-follow-up. Conclusion Reduction of MTCT of HIV is possible with effective PMTCT interventions, including improved access to ARVs for PMTCT and appropriate infant feeding practices. Loss to follow up of HIV exposed infants is a challenge and requires strategies to enhance retention. PMID:22410161

2012-01-01

181

Perceptions of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) and barriers to adherence in Nasarawa and Cross River States in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria during pregnancy is dangerous to both mother and foetus. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) is a strategy where pregnant women in malaria-endemic countries receive full doses of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), whether or not they have malaria. The Nigerian government adopted IPTp as a national strategy in 2005; however, major gaps affecting perception, uptake, adherence, and scale-up remain. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in peri-urban and rural communities in Nasarawa and Cross River States in Nigeria. Study instruments were based on the socio-ecological model and its multiple levels of influences, taking into account individual, community, societal, and environmental contexts of behaviour and social change. Women of reproductive age, their front-line care providers, and (in Nasarawa only) their spouses participated in focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews. Facility sampling was purposive to include tertiary, secondary and primary health facilities. Results The study found that systems-based challenges (stockouts; lack of provider knowledge of IPTp protocols) coupled with individual women’s beliefs and lack of understanding of IPT contribute to low uptake and adherence. Many pregnant women are reluctant to seek care for an illness they do not have. Those with malaria often prefer to self-medicate through drug shops or herbs, though those who seek clinic-based treatment trust their providers and willingly accept medicine prescribed. Conclusions Failing to deliver complete IPTp to women attending antenatal care is a missed opportunity. While many obstacles are structural, programmes can target women, their communities and the health environment with specific interventions to increase IPTp uptake and adherence. PMID:24059757

2013-01-01

182

The frequency of ABO blood group maternal–fetal incompatibility, maternal iso-agglutinins, and immune agglutinins quantitation in Osogbo, Osun State, South-West of Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: ABO incompatibility in maternal–fetal relationship has been shown to cause hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDNB); a survey which is not yet done in this locality. Aim: Frequency of ABO blood group maternal-fetal incompatibility, maternal iso-agglutinins, and immune agglutinins quantitation was carried out in Osogbo, Osun State, South-West of Nigeria. Settings and Designs: A total of 260 subjects comprising 130 postpartum mothers within the age range of 22-35 years having good obstetrics history and normal delivery, with their 130 neonate babies were used for the study. Materials and Methods: ABO cell and serum groupings were carried out on the subjects using standard antisera and cells with appropriate controls. Direct Coomb’s Test was carried out on neonate red cells. Antibody quantitation by double dilution on the maternal serum using red cells containing corresponding antigen to the antibody was determined. A titer, which is the reciprocal of the highest dilution showing agglutination by Indirect Coombs Test, was determined. Another batch of sera was pretreated with 2-mecarptoethanol before determining the titer. Statistical Analysis: The distribution study results obtained were compared in percentages, whereas the antibodies quantitation was expressed as titers using the mode of the titers for compariso-agglutininsn. Results and Conclusions: Thirty-eight percent (50) mothers were ABO incompatible with their babies, whereas 62% (80) mothers were compatible. The distribution of blood groups in the compatible population showed blood group O (45%); A (30%); B (20%); and AB (5%). Mothers O, A, and B carrying incompatible babies had a frequency of 24% each, whereas mothers AB had 28%. Serologist differences occur in maternal ABO antibodies of corresponding incompatible baby ABO antigens. A high incidence of ABO maternal-fetal incompatibility observed without detection of immune agglutinins is indicative of a rare incidence of HDNB due to ABO incompatibility in the population studied. PMID:21572716

Oseni, Bashiru S.; Akomolafe, Oluseun F.

2011-01-01

183

Nigeria: too many children?  

PubMed

Nigeria's underdevelopment and economic stagnation has been linked by many to its rapid rate of population growth and high birth rate (6.34 children/family). The World Bank, a leading force in the birth control for development campaign, maintains that rapidly growing populations increase the proportion of dependent and economically inactive people in society, thereby impeding capital accumulation needed for development. However, this approach ignores the inequitable structures for the distribution of wealth in developing countries that depend on poverty for their existence. A more sensible approach to population growth in Nigeria would include increased incomes, free education, improved public health and nutrition programs, and a changed social role for women. In fact, rather than being a barrier to development, Nigeria's growing population offers a rich labor reserve for the development of the country's vast resources. The anti-birth propaganda that has pressured the Nigeria Government to adopt a population policy has served to obscure and conceal the real causes of poverty and underdevelopment--the exploitation of the country by multinational corporations. If the income gap in Nigeria is reduced and the living standards of the majority rise, people will voluntarily lower their fertility without coercive family planning programs. PMID:12281080

Mbachu, D

1987-04-01

184

(Eco) Tourism in the Cross River National Park (Cross River State, Nigeria): Sustainability of National Park through Private Companies involvement and Occupational Diversification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oban Hills are adjacent to the Korup National Park in Cameroon. The Cross River National Park, together with the Oban Hills, forms the focus of the activities of WWF in Nigeria. Currently, the WWF, the Nigerian Conservation Foundation and the Federal Parks Service are carrying out an integrated conservation and development project in the northern part of the park.

Jesse Ojobor H

185

Imperial Expansion, Ethnic Change, and Ceramic Traditions in The Southern Chad Basin: A Terminal Nineteenth-Century Pottery Assemblage from Dikwa, Borno State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of an archaeological project in the southern Chad Basin of Nigeria, excavations were conducted at several deeply stratified mound sites that date from the Late Neolithic to the Late Iron Age. As a way to complement the ceramic sequence obtained so far and to link it with today's pottery tradition, a small excavation was conducted at a

Detlef Gronenborn; Carlos Magnavita

2000-01-01

186

Adult Learners' Demographic Variable as Predictor of Access and Participation in Literacy Programmes in Oyo and Ondo States, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Literacy is an indispensable foundation that enables young people and adults to engage in learning opportunities at all stages of the learning continuum. Literacy is a prerequisite for the development of personal, social, economic and political empowerment. In Nigeria, attempt to increase access to literacy education for the enhancement of…

Olojede, Adeshina Abideen; Oladitan, Idowu Oladiran

2013-01-01

187

The Role of Sandwich In-Service Program in Developing Agricultural Science Teachers in Delta State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the role of the sandwich in-service educational program of Delta State University, Abraka in developing agricultural science teachers in the state. Data were collected from 895 agricultural science teachers who completed the program between 1989-2004. However, response to the questionnaire was by 391 in-service agricultural…

Ikeoji, Canice N.; Agwubike, Christian C.; Ideh, Victor

2007-01-01

188

78 FR 76698 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Nigeria  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Nigeria Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State...similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to Nigeria and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination...

2013-12-18

189

Repositioning Guidance and Counselling and Curriculum Innovation in Higher Education in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on repositioning guidance and counseling and curriculum innovation in higher education in Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was employed in the study. The study covered four Federal universities in the South-West Geopolitical zone of Nigeria, namely University of Ibadan in Oyo State; Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife…

Onyilofor, Florence N. C.

2013-01-01

190

Cultural, Socio-Economic and Political Influences on Special Education in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper describes the present state of education in Nigeria with emphasis on the cultural, socio-economic, and political influences affecting special education. After a brief summary of education in Nigeria since independence (1960), the paper looks at problems identified in special education and at Section 8, that portion of the National Policy…

Obiakor, Festus E.

191

Computer Attitude, Ownership and Use as Predictors of Computer Literacy of Science Teachers in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of computer attitude, ownership and use on the computer literacy of science teachers in Nigeria. One hundred and twenty (120) science teachers drawn from the four political divisions of Ogun State, Nigeria were used for the study. Two valid and reliable instruments namely Computer Attitude, Ownership and Use…

Ogunkola, Babalola J.

2008-01-01

192

Stress Management Strategies of Secondary School Teachers in Nigeria. Short Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study provides empirical evidence for the management of stress by teachers of secondary schools in Nigeria. A total of 3466 teachers, drawn from secondary schools in Ogun State of Nigeria, returned their questionnaire for the study. Data were analysed using simple percentage and chi-square. The findings indicate that teachers frequently use…

Arikewuyo, M. Olalekan

2004-01-01

193

Health Promotion Intervention for Hygienic Disposal of Children's Faeces in a Rural Area of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Community-based health promotion intervention for improving unhygienic disposal of children's faeces was conducted in a rural area of Nigeria. Setting: The study was conducted in Ife South Local Government area of Osun State, Nigeria. Design: The study was conducted in 10 randomly selected rural villages: five control and five active.…

Jinadu, M. K.; Adegbenro, C. A.; Esmai, A. O.; Ojo, A. A.; Oyeleye, B. A.

2007-01-01

194

Plants used for female reproductive health care in Oredo local government area, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of maternal health in Nigeria is poor and can be attributed to inadequate access to reproduce- tive health services, poverty and in some areas cultural resistance. Consequently, many rural people in Nigeria turn to ethno-medicinal health care systems due to accessibility, affordability, availability and an inherent trust in this method. These systems are threatened by erosion of plant

Folu M. Dania Ogbe; L. Eruogun; Marilyn Uwagboe

2009-01-01

195

Roles of Counsellors in Promoting Sexuality Education for In-School Adolescents in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research was embarked upon to investigate the role of counselors in promoting sexuality education for in-school adolescents in Nigeria. The respondents were made up of 120 practicing guidance counselors in Enugu State situated in South-East geopolitical zone of Nigeria. They were drawn from both professional and teacher counselors practicing in…

Omeje, Joachim C.; Michael, Eskay; Obiageli, Modebelu Josephine

2012-01-01

196

Effect of Cuisenaire Rods' Approach on Some Nigeria Primary Pupils' Achievement in Decimal Fractions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study determined the effect of Cuisenaire Rods' approach on some Nigeria primary pupils' achievement in decimal fractions. Three hypotheses guided the study. A total of 200 Primary six pupils (that is, 6th grade) from randomly selected schools in Makurdi metropolis of Benue State of Nigeria served as the sample for the study. A Mathematics…

Kurumeh, M. S. C.; Achor, E. E.

2008-01-01

197

Self Efficacy and Some Demographic Variables as Predictors of Occupational Stress among Primary School Teachers in Delta State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated self efficacy and some demographic variables as predictors of occupational stress among primary school teachers in Delta State. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey design that utilized an expost-facto research type. A sample of one hundred and twenty primary school…

Akpochafo, G. O.

2014-01-01

198

Carriage rate of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among different ABO and Rhesus blood groups in Adamawa state, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carriage rate of HIV infection among ABO and rhesus blood groups was conducted on one thousand five hundred and twenty subjects randomly selected from fifteen health institu- tions in Adamawa State. Prior to the enrollment of the subjects in the study, ethical ap- proval of the health institutions was obtained and the informed consent of the subjects sought. One thousand

AA Abdulazeez; EB Alo; SN Rebecca

199

Home Influences on the Academic Performance of Agricultural Science Students in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to investigate the home influences on the academic performance of agricultural science secondary school students in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State. The instrument used in data collection was a validated questionnaire structured on a two point rating scale. Simple random sampling technique was used to select…

Ndirika, Maryann C.; Njoku, U. J.

2012-01-01

200

Geomatics Education in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geomatics education in Nigeria is offered at three main levels namely, (i) University (ii) College of technology\\/Polytechnic and (iii) Technical College. Some low-level manpower is also produced through apprenticeship and on the job training. Initially, the training offered in these Institutions was geared towards training in the field of Land Surveying. The advent of large memory personal computers and the

Francis A. FAJEMIROKUN; Peter C. NWILO; Olusegun T. BADEJO

201

?-Spectroscopy measurement of natural radioactivity and assessment of radiation hazard indices in soil samples from oil fields environment of Delta State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) has been carried out in soil samples collected from oil and gas field environment of Delta state, using gamma spectroscopy operated on a Canberra vertical high purity 2?×2? NaI(TI) detector. The activity concentration of the samples ranges from 19.2 ± 5.6Bqkg(-1) to 94.2 ± 7.7Bqkg(-1) with mean value of 41.0 ± 5.0Bqkg(-1) for (226)Ra, 17.1 ± 3.0Bqkg(-1) to 47.5 ± 5.3Bqkg(-1) with mean value of 29.7 ± 4Bqkg(-1) for (232)Th and 107.0 ± 10.2Bqkg(-1) to 712.4 ± 38.9Bqkg(-1) with a mean value of 412.5 ± 20.0Bqkg(-1) for (40)K. These values obtained are well within the world range and values reported elsewhere in other countries, but are little above some countries reported average values and some part of Nigeria. The study also examined some radiation hazard indices, the mean values obtained are, 98.5 ± 12.3Bq.kg(-1), 0.8Bqkg(-1), 54.6?Gyh(-1), 0.07?Svy(-1), 0.3 and 0.4 for Radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), Representative level index (I?), Absorbed Dose rates (D), Annual Effective Dose Rates (E(ff) Dose), External Hazard Index (H(ex)) and Internal Hazard Index (H(in)) respectively. These calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate associated with it are well below their permissible limit. The soil and sediments from the study area provide no excessive exposures for inhabitants and can be use as construction materials without posing any immediate radiological threat to the public. However, oil workers in the fields and host communities are cautioned against excess exposure to avoid future accumulative dose of these radiations from sludge and sediment of this area. PMID:22310017

Agbalagba, E O; Avwiri, G O; Chad-Umoreh, Y E

2012-07-01

202

Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) eradication: a pilot study conducted at the Ohaukwu Local Government Areas, Ebonyi State, Nigeria, West Africa.  

PubMed

The incidence and the prevalence of Guinea worm disease, a major cause of disability and a frequent cause of serious permanent deformity, were both drastically reduced in Ohaukwu Local Government Communities, with the provision (through bore holes) of a safer form of drinking water. Since 1986, the Carter Center program has been working to eradicate Guinea worm. The bore holes were dug through the Wasatan Project, a Japanese-funded grant awarded to the Enugu State Ministry of Health to help provide safer drinking water in the local communities. Bore holes were dug in several communities in Ohaukwu Local Government Areas between January 1991 and June 1991. The number of Guinea worm cases in the selected communities was ascertained and recorded by health workers. There was more than a 90% reduction in the number of Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) cases after one year. Data collection began in June 1991, shortly after the completion of bore holes in the selected communities. By December 1998, when one of the villages was spot checked for Guinea worm infection, no active case was found. There is a need for post evaluation of all the villages studied to determine the current prevalence of Guinea worm disease. PMID:11456007

Ogamdi, S O; Onwe, F

2001-01-01

203

A Multilevel Analysis of Late Entry in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores how factors operating at the state and community levels are associated with the prevalence of late school enrolment in Nigeria. We investigate the following three research themes. First, whether late entry varies across states and across communities and how much of this variation can be explained by the composition of…

Delprato, Marcos; Sabates, Ricardo

2015-01-01

204

Occurrence of Hepatitis C Virus infection in type 2 diabetic patients attending Plateau state specialist hospital Jos Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Glucose intolerance is observed more in patients with HCV infection compared with control subjects with liver disease, Initial studies suggested that Hepatitis C virus infection may be an additional risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus. This study was therefore carried out to determine the correlation of HCV infection and diabetes. Methods Three hundred (300) confirmed type 2 diabetic patients were screened for hepatitis C virus antibodies at the Plateau state specialist hospital, Jos, using Grand diagnostic test strip. Questionnaire comprising of age, sex, family history on diabetes, duration of disease and marital status were issued to subjects. Results Overall result showed that the prevalence rate of HCV infection was 33(11%). In response to diabetic status, females subjects had a higher prevalence of 178(59.3%) compared to males 122(40.7%). Those aged 47–57 recorded the highest seroprevalence 10(30.3%) to the Hepatitis C Virus, while Patients without family history of diabetes showed a higher seroprevalence of 13(39.4%). Subjects who never had any blood transfusion recorded a prevalence rate of 6(18.2%). Marital status showed no significant difference [(P = 0.275; P.0.05)]. Considering duration of developing diabetes, patients within the range of 1–10 years diabetic status recorded the highest prevalence rate 25(75.8%) compared to other ranges considered. Conclusion This study hence, suggests a relatively strong association between HCV infection and diabetes, this therefore call for an urgent approach strategy in the control and management of this disease of the endocrine system. PMID:19586535

Ndako, James A; Echeonwu, Georgebest O; Shidali, Nathaniel N; Bichi, Iliyasu A; Paul, Grace A; Onovoh, Ema; Okeke, Lilian A

2009-01-01

205

The use of the partograph in labor monitoring: a cross-sectional study among obstetric caregivers in General Hospital, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Prolonged and obstructed labor is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in Nigeria, one of the six countries contributing significantly to the global maternal mortality crisis. The use of the partograph would engender a remarkable reduction in the number of these deaths since abnormal markers in the progress of labor would be identified early on. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the non-physician obstetric caregivers’ (OCGs) knowledge of partograph use, assess the extent of its use, determine the factors that impede its usage, and unravel the relationship between years of experience and partograph use among the respondents (OCGs) in General Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. Methodology Using a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 130 purposely selected and consenting OCGs working in the General Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. Results The majority of the respondents (70.8%) had good general knowledge of the partograph but lacked detailed and in-depth knowledge of the component parts of the partograph. Knowledge of partograph (?2=12.05, P=0.0001) and partograph availability (?2=56.5, P=0.0001) had a significant relationship with its utilization. Previous training (?2=9.43, P=0.002) was significantly related to knowledge of partograph. Factors affecting utilization were: little or no knowledge of the partograph (85.4%), nonavailability (70%), shortage of staff (61.5%), and the fact that it is time-consuming to use (30%). Conclusion Lack of detailed knowledge of the partograph, nonavailability of the partograph, poor staff numbers, and inadequate training are factors that work against the effective utilization of the partograph in the study facility. Usage of this tool for labor monitoring can be enhanced by periodic training, making partographs available in labor wards, provision of reasonable staff numbers, and mandatory institutional policy. PMID:25342920

Asibong, Udeme; Okokon, Ita B; Agan, Thomas U; Oku, Affiong; Opiah, Margaret; Essien, E James; Monjok, Emmanuel

2014-01-01

206

Clinical nurses' perception of continuing professional education as a tool for quality service delivery in public hospitals Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine the perception of nurses on various aspects of continuing professional education (CPE). A mixed method design (quantitative/qualitative) was adopted. A self-explanatory, semi-structured questionnaire was validated and used to collect data in addition to unstructured interview. One hundred and fifty nurses were selected through stratified random sampling from two hospitals in Calabar, Nigeria and served as participants. Participants generally perceived CPE as valuable and worthwhile and participated because it is mandatory and helps them to retain their jobs. The content of CPE were perceived to be more relevant for clinicians than for nurse educators; clinical skills and quantitative research methodology were adequately covered while evidence-based practice, attitudinal issues, nursing theories and patient safety were inadequately covered. CPE was perceived to be fragmented without gaining points, follow-up monitoring and evaluation after CPE which make it difficult to objectively assess the influence of CPE on quality of care. It is recommended that nurse leaders in Nigeria should develop online CPE modules for nursing, and allocate points to them so that participation may contribute to career progression. Effective monitoring and evaluation systems should be put in place to assess impact of CPE on staff competence and patient outcomes. PMID:23664784

Nsemo, Alberta D; John, Mildred E; Etifit, Rita E; Mgbekem, Mary A; Oyira, Emilia J

2013-07-01

207

Food Security among Urban Households: A Case Study of Gwagwalada Area Council of the Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban areas are faced with the problem of increasing population and consequently inadequate supply of food items. Many urban households and individuals in Nigeria merely eat for Survival. This study was therefore designed to assess the state of food security among urban households in the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 respondents

H. Ibrahim; N. R. Uba-Eze; S. O. Oyewole; E. G. Onuk

2009-01-01

208

HIV prevalence and risk behaviours among men having sex with men in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo evaluate HIV and syphilis prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria, and assess their HIV-related risk behaviours and exposure to HIV prevention interventions.MethodsCross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling conducted in Lagos, Kano and Cross River states, Nigeria, between July and September 2007.ResultsA total of 879 MSM participated, 293 from each state. Eight participants (1.1%, CI 0.1%

Mike Merrigan; Aderemi Azeez; Bamgboye Afolabi; Otto Nzapfurundi Chabikuli; Obinna Onyekwena; George Eluwa; Bolatito Aiyenigba; Issa Kawu; Kayode Ogungbemi; Christoph Hamelmann

2010-01-01

209

Impact of long-term treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in Kaduna State, Nigeria: first evidence of the potential for elimination in the operational area of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control  

PubMed Central

Background Onchocerciasis can be effectively controlled as a public health problem by annual mass drug administration of ivermectin, but it was not known if ivermectin treatment in the long term would be able to achieve elimination of onchocerciasis infection and interruption of transmission in endemic areas in Africa. A recent study in Mali and Senegal has provided the first evidence of elimination after 15-17 years of treatment. Following this finding, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has started a systematic evaluation of the long-term impact of ivermectin treatment projects and the feasibility of elimination in APOC supported countries. This paper reports the first results for two onchocerciasis foci in Kaduna, Nigeria. Methods In 2008, an epidemiological evaluation using skin snip parasitological diagnostic method was carried out in two onchocerciasis foci, in Birnin Gwari Local Government Area (LGA), and in the Kauru and Lere LGAs of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The survey was undertaken in 26 villages and examined 3,703 people above the age of one year. The result was compared with the baseline survey undertaken in 1987. Results The communities had received 15 to 17 years of ivermectin treatment with more than 75% reported coverage. For each surveyed community, comparable baseline data were available. Before treatment, the community prevalence of O. volvulus microfilaria in the skin ranged from 23.1% to 84.9%, with a median prevalence of 52.0%. After 15 to 17 years of treatment, the prevalence had fallen to 0% in all communities and all 3,703 examined individuals were skin snip negative. Conclusions The results of the surveys confirm the finding in Senegal and Mali that ivermectin treatment alone can eliminate onchocerciasis infection and probably disease transmission in endemic foci in Africa. It is the first of such evidence for the APOC operational area. PMID:22313631

2012-01-01

210

The Boko Haram Uprising: how should Nigeria respond?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the execution of Osama bin Laden and a few other al-Qaeda kingpins, the incidence of international terrorism seems to be on the decline and the ‘war on terror’ has been applauded as a huge success, with some even arguing that terrorism will fizzle out sooner rather than later. But recent experiences in Nigeria and some other African states reveal

Iro Aghedo; Oarhe Osumah

2012-01-01

211

Assessment of Solar Thermal Energy Technologies in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar thermal energy resource situation in Nigeria including the estimated potential and available amount of the resource, are presented in this paper. The status of the database is discussed, indicating its degree of adequacy and an identification of the gaps. The National Energy Policy Document states that \\

A. A. Adeyanju; K. Manohar

2011-01-01

212

Astronomy and Culture in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy cannot be said to be entirely new in Nigeria. There are hundreds of cosmogony and ancient astronomical practices in Nigeria, but these need to be studied systematically. Nigerian ethnoastronomy is revealed in the folklore, ancient architecture, religious practices, traditional poetry and art works of the different ethnic groups. Though expressed within a cultural framework, much of Nigerian ethnoastronomy contains scientific principles of astronomy. This paper discusses the need to bridge the gap between ethnoastronomy in Nigeria and modern astronomy by providing scientific interpretation to such cosmogonies and ancient astronomical practices.

Urama, J. O.

213

Nigeria using more condoms.  

PubMed

Marie Stopes International says a project it supports in Nigeria is making good progress in its efforts to promote the use of condoms to protect against STDs and for contraception. The program, which uses social marketing methods, is headed by Stewart Parkinson from the UK. His previous experience has been in the private sector; he has worked in sales, marketing, and advertising for companies like Coca Cola, Budweiser, Securicor, and Mates. "Social marketing," he says, "is simply getting people to buy a product". He sees no clash with more conventional health education practitioners, believing that the two approaches can complement each other. "Much of the work simply involves pointing out the benefits of condoms," says Parkinson. "You can convert large numbers of people to the idea in a short space of time if you get the message right]" Nevertheless, as he points out, the conversion rate usually drops after that. "At first the take-up is from middle-income people, who already have a latent demand for condoms. The poor are harder to reach." He says Nigeria is a very suitable country for a private sector approach to condom promotion, as there is no functioning public sector. He recently paid a visit to Zimbabwe, where the public sector is strong, and agrees that different approaches may be suitable there. The scheme provided 85% of the 65 million condoms used in Nigeria last year. Stewart Parkinson says, "It's working out at only US$5 to provide protection for one couple per year--a very cheap intervention]" PMID:12321241

1997-09-01

214

Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Nigeria, January 2013-September 2014.  

PubMed

In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to interrupt wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission worldwide. By 2013, only three countries remained that had never interrupted WPV transmission: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. Since 2003, northern Nigeria has been a reservoir for WPV reintroduction into 26 previously polio-free countries. In May 2014, the World Health Organization declared the international spread of polio a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Nigeria's main strategic goal is to interrupt WPV type 1 (WPV1) transmission by the end of 2014, which is also a main objective of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative's Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan for 2013-2018. This report updates previous reports (4-6) and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Nigeria during January 2013-September 30, 2014. Only six WPV cases had been reported in 2014 through September 30 compared with 49 reported cases during the same period in 2013. The quality of supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) improved during this period; the proportion of local government areas (LGAs) within 11 high-risk states with estimated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) campaign coverage at or above the 90% threshold increased from 36% to 67%. However, the number of reported circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases increased from four in 2013 to 21 to date in 2014, and surveillance gaps are suggested by genomic sequence analysis and continued detection of WPV1 by environmental surveillance. Interrupting all poliovirus circulation in Nigeria is achievable with continued attention to stopping cVDPV2 transmission, improving the quality of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance, increasing vaccination coverage by strengthened routine immunization services, continuing support from all levels of government, and undertaking special initiatives to provide vaccination to children in conflict-affected areas in northeastern Nigeria. PMID:25412063

Etsano, Andrew; Gunnala, Rajni; Shuaib, Faisal; Damisa, Eunice; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Korir, Charles; Enemaku, Ogu; Corkum, Melissa; Usman, Samuel; Davis, Lora B; Nganda, Gatei wa; Burns, Cara C; Mahoney, Frank; Vertefeuille, John F

2014-11-21

215

Astronomy and Culture in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astronomy cannot be said to be entirely new in Nigeria. There are hundreds of cosmogony and ancient astronomical practices\\u000a in Nigeria, but these need to be studied systematically. Nigerian ethnoastronomy is revealed in the folklore, ancient architecture,\\u000a religious practices, traditional poetry and art works of the different ethnic groups. Though expressed within a cultural framework,\\u000a much of Nigerian ethnoastronomy contains

J. O. Urama

216

Evolutionary Dynamics of Multiple Sublineages of H5N1 Influenza Viruses in Nigeria from 2006 to 2008 ? †  

PubMed Central

Highly pathogenic A/H5N1 avian influenza (HPAI H5N1) viruses have seriously affected the Nigerian poultry industry since early 2006. Previous studies have identified multiple introductions of the virus into Nigeria and several reassortment events between cocirculating lineages. To determine the spatial, evolutionary, and population dynamics of the multiple H5N1 lineages cocirculating in Nigeria, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequences from 106 HPAI H5N1 viruses isolated between 2006 and 2008 and representing all 25 Nigerian states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) reporting outbreaks. We identified a major new subclade in Nigeria that is phylogenetically distinguishable from all previously identified sublineages, as well as two novel reassortment events. A detailed analysis of viral phylogeography identified two major source populations for the HPAI H5N1 virus in Nigeria, one in a major commercial poultry area (southwest region) and one in northern Nigeria, where contact between wild birds and backyard poultry is frequent. These findings suggested that migratory birds from Eastern Europe or Russia may serve an important role in the introduction of HPAI H5N1 viruses into Nigeria, although virus spread through the movement of poultry and poultry products cannot be excluded. Our study provides new insight into the genesis and evolution of H5N1 influenza viruses in Nigeria and has important implications for targeting surveillance efforts to rapidly identify the spread of the virus into and within Nigeria. PMID:20071565

Fusaro, Alice; Nelson, Martha I.; Joannis, Tony; Bertolotti, Luigi; Monne, Isabella; Salviato, Annalisa; Olaleye, Olufemi; Shittu, Ismaila; Sulaiman, Lanre; Lombin, Lami H.; Capua, Ilaria; Holmes, Edward C.; Cattoli, Giovanni

2010-01-01

217

Impact Assessment of University-Based Rural Youths Agricultural Extension Out-Reach Program in Selected Villages of Kaduna-State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concern about youths development borders on the believe that they constitute an important labour force which can easily become leaders in employing and innovating modern techniques of agricultural production. The National Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services (NAERLS) of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria in recognition of these potentials has established a rural youths extension out-reach Program to encourage the youths to adopt modern techniques of agricultural production. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of this program on agricultural production. This study was carried out during the 2005/2006 cropping season by comparing the performance of the program participants with non-participants. The results revealed that the participants had an adoption level of improved practices higher than the non-participants. This was further confirmed by the significant relationship found between respondents access to extension services and level of adoption (R = 0.46, p = 0.01). Yield of major crops and income of farmers were slightly higher among the participants than the non-participants. The results of the study have helped to identify for the benefit of policy makers, the type of extension approaches required to encourage rural youths to adopt modern farming techniques.

Gambo Akpoko, Joseph; Kudi, Thomas M.

218

Forensic Investigation of mass disasters in Nigeria: A review  

PubMed Central

This paper is to establish the present state of things in the country in terms of legal framework and the availability of personnel with a view to presenting an overview of proper mass disaster investigations. This is a retrospective review of mass disasters in Nigeria that occurred within the last 20 years. The study therefore reviews the state of the forensic investigation of the mass disasters as well as the efforts made to identify the victims of the disaster. The process of proper forensic investigation from the stage of evaluation of the scene and recovery process to the final identification of victims are presented to serve as a protocol for the country. The assessment of the present state of preparedness in Nigeria is also examined with a view to improving the practice to international standards. Data were retrieved from official documents from the aviation industry as well as Nigeria news reports. The standard protocols for disaster victim identification were retrieved from the guide released by the INTERPOL. The state of preparedness of the country and recommendations for improvement are presented. The Federal government and the states of the federation should without further delay put in place the process of reviewing the law of Coroner's system and provide the enabling environment for the proper forensic investigation. The training curriculum of the first responders should incorporate mass disaster investigations in order to produce efficient officers and personnel. A functional disaster victim identification (DVI) team is strongly advocated to incorporate different professionals involved in mass disaster management. PMID:25657485

Obafunwa, John Oladapo; Faduyile, Francis Adedayo; Soyemi, Sunday Sokunle; Eze, Uwom Okereke; Nwana, Edmund J. C.; Odesanmi, William Olufemi

2015-01-01

219

Forensic Investigation of mass disasters in Nigeria: A review.  

PubMed

This paper is to establish the present state of things in the country in terms of legal framework and the availability of personnel with a view to presenting an overview of proper mass disaster investigations. This is a retrospective review of mass disasters in Nigeria that occurred within the last 20 years. The study therefore reviews the state of the forensic investigation of the mass disasters as well as the efforts made to identify the victims of the disaster. The process of proper forensic investigation from the stage of evaluation of the scene and recovery process to the final identification of victims are presented to serve as a protocol for the country. The assessment of the present state of preparedness in Nigeria is also examined with a view to improving the practice to international standards. Data were retrieved from official documents from the aviation industry as well as Nigeria news reports. The standard protocols for disaster victim identification were retrieved from the guide released by the INTERPOL. The state of preparedness of the country and recommendations for improvement are presented. The Federal government and the states of the federation should without further delay put in place the process of reviewing the law of Coroner's system and provide the enabling environment for the proper forensic investigation. The training curriculum of the first responders should incorporate mass disaster investigations in order to produce efficient officers and personnel. A functional disaster victim identification (DVI) team is strongly advocated to incorporate different professionals involved in mass disaster management. PMID:25657485

Obafunwa, John Oladapo; Faduyile, Francis Adedayo; Soyemi, Sunday Sokunle; Eze, Uwom Okereke; Nwana, Edmund J C; Odesanmi, William Olufemi

2015-01-01

220

The physiologic climate of Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describes the spatial and temporal variations in the physiologic climate of Nigeria for 1951-2009 in terms of effective temperature (ET), temperature-humidity index (THI), relative strain index (RSI) and perception of 3,600 sampled populations. The main hypotheses are that (i) the existing vegetation-based ecological region could adequately elucidate the physiologic climate of the country, and (ii) physiologic stress has significantly increased over the years (1951-2009). Trends and changes in the selected indices (ET, THI and RSI) were examined over two time slices: 1951-1980 and 1981-2009. The results show that (1) the montane region was the most comfortable physiologic climate in Nigeria, and the regions around the Rivers Niger and Benue troughs were the most uncomfortable in most parts of the year, (2) physiologic stress in most parts of Nigeria has significantly increased in 1981-2009 over 1951-1980 ( p ? 0.05), (3) coping strategies to the uncomfortably hot and cold climate in Nigeria are limited to dressing mode, clothing materials and use of air conditioners or fan, (4) ET, THI and RSI results could be similar, and complementary; but each is with its strengths and weaknesses for annual or seasonal representations, which the others complemented for the interpretation of the physiologic climate of Nigeria. The study concluded that the relationship between the ecological classification of Nigeria and physiologic climate is rather complex, and the former could not elucidate the latter. The study cited inadequate meteorological data, especially on wind chill, and health records as limiting factors of studies on the Nigerian physiologic climates and the effect of extreme thermal conditions on the people.

Eludoyin, Oyenike Mary; Adelekan, Ibidun Onikepo

2013-03-01

221

Exploration gaps exist in Nigeria`s prolific delta  

SciTech Connect

The Niger delta region of the Republic of Nigeria is Africa`s largest oil producing area. It is clear that Nigeria will continue to contribute significantly to world petroleum production well into the 21st century: with increases in recoverable oil reserves in the Niger delta onshore and offshore; the promising potential of the Niger delta deepwater region; and a lesser but not insignificant contribution from the unexplored onshore Benue trough, part of the mid-African rift system, which has already proved to hold substantial oil reserves in the Doba basin of neighboring Chad. This is the first of five parts on Nigeria`s oil and gas potential. The later articles deal with Niger delta oil reserves and production, Niger delta gas reserves, the delta`s deepwater region, and the Benue trough and onshore cretaceous rift basins. This article deals with the geologic setting of the Niger delta-Benue trough region, the synrift deposits, marine sedimentation, margin evolution, geologic strata and reservoirs, reservoir character, structure and traps, hydrocarbon types, geotemperatures, and source rock quality.

Thomas, D. [Thomas and Associates, Hastings (United Kingdom)

1995-10-30

222

An assessment of heavy metals loading in River Benue in the Makurdi Metropolitan Area in Central Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

River Benue, the second largest river in Nigeria, serves as the major source of municipal water supplies for towns and villages\\u000a along its course. Water samples from the river were collected at ten stations in the Makurdi metropolitan area (7°44? N, 8°32? E) in Benue State, Central Nigeria, for 12 months and analyzed for their heavy metals concentration, along with other

Ishaq S. Eneji; Rufus Sha’Ato; Paul A. Annune

223

Climate Change Impacts on Crop Production in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The agricultural sector in Nigeria is particularly important for the country's food security, natural resources, and growth agenda. The cultivable areas comprise more than 70% of the total area; however, the cultivated area is about the 35% of the total area. The most important components in the food basket of the nation are cereals and tubers, which include rice, maize, corn, millet, sorghum, yam, and cassava. These crops represent about 80% of the total agricultural product in Nigeria (from NPAFS). The major crops grown in the country can be divided into food crops (produced for consumption) and export products. Despite the importance of the export crops, the primary policy of agriculture is to make Nigeria self-sufficient in its food and fiber requirements. The projected impacts of future climate change on agriculture and water resources are expected to be adverse and extensive in these area. This implies the need for actions and measures to adapt to climate change impacts, and especially as they affect agriculture, the primary sector for Nigerian economy. In the framework of the Project Climate Risk Analysis in Nigeria (founded by World Bank Contract n.7157826), a study was made to assess the potential impact of climate change on the main crops that characterize Nigerian agriculture. The DSSAT-CSM (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer - Cropping System Model) software, version 4.5 was used for the analysis. Crop simulation models included in DSSAT are tools that simulate physiological processes of crop growth, development and production by combining genetic crop characteristics and environmental (soil and weather) conditions. For each selected crop, the models were calibrated to evaluate climate change impacts on crop production. The climate data used for the analysis are derived by the Regional Circulation Model COSMO-CLM, from 1971 to 2065, at 8 km of spatial resolution. The RCM model output was "perturbed" with 10 Global Climate Models to have a wide variety of possible climate projections for the impact analysis. Multiple combinations of soil and climate conditions and crop management and varieties were considered for each Agro-Ecological Zone (AEZ) of Nigeria. A sensitivity analysis was made to evaluate the model response to changes in precipitation and temperature. The climate impact assessment was made by comparing the yield obtained with the climate data for the present period and the yield obtainable under future climate conditions. The results were analyzed at state, AEZ and country levels. The analysis shows a general reduction in crop yields in particular in the dryer regions of northern Nigeria.

Mereu, V.; Gallo, A.; Carboni, G.; Spano, D.

2011-12-01

224

Youth Reproductive & Sexual Health in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nearly one third of Nigeria's total population of 148.1 million is between the ages of 10 and 24. Nigerian adolescents' sizeable share of the population makes them integral to the country's social, political and economic development. Nigeria's development is compromised by the sexual and reproductive health issues afflicting its youth. Lack of…

Sampson, Melodi

2010-01-01

225

Household Structure and Living Conditions in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data on 7,632 households from the 1999 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey are used to examine household structure and living conditions in Nigeria. The study finds significant disadvantage in living conditions of single-adult, female- and single-adult, male-headed households relative to two-parent households. Extended households show no…

Mberu, Blessing Uchenna

2007-01-01

226

Rights of the Child in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Federation of Nigeria. The report's introduction asserts that the rule by decree of Nigeria's present military regime has…

Lacroix, Anne Laurence; Shoenberg, Cheryl; Schonveld, Ben

227

ICT and Higher Educational System in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the integration of ICT in higher education in Nigeria. The possibilities and reach of information technologies can tear down territorial boundaries and make available equal information and knowledge of different categories as soon as necessary data are fed on the website. Nevertheless, Nigeria as a nation is yet to take full…

Idowu, Adeyemi I.; Esere, Mary

2013-01-01

228

Mud volcanoes in deepwater Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed study of 3D seismic data from deepwater Nigeria has revealed the presence of features interpreted to be mud volcanoes. They occur in an upper slope environment seen as 1–2km circular features at the seabed. Seabed cores from the mud volcanoes contain oil, gas and sand\\/shale–clast content richer than the seabed background. Pliocene fossils have been identified in the cores,

K Graue

2000-01-01

229

Statistics of geophysical activity in Nigeria (1975 1984)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistics on geophysical activities in Nigeria for the ten-year period (1975-1984) was compiled mainly from questionnaires distributed to government and private agencies, oil and mining companies, and universities which engage in groundwater, petroleum and mineral exploration, engineering and research work. Similar studies had been done worldwide by Epsey (1975, 1976, 1977) and Whitmire (1978). From the statistics, it was deduced that electrical resistivity, magnetic, seismic, radiometric, gravity, airborne and ground magnetic survey methods are the main geophysical techniques used which resulted in the discovery of some of the natural resources (oil, gas, minerals and groundwater) buried a few kilometers below the Nigerian soil. Airborne and ground magnetic surveys have been carried out by at least two government agencies, namely: the Geological Survey of Nigeria and Nigerian Steel Council. The compilation also reveals that a greater part of geophysical and drilling activities of operating oil companies is currently concentrated in the sedimentary basins, mainly the oil-rich Niger Delta and near offshore areas. From the available statistics, at least three companies, the National Steel Council, the Geological Survey of Nigeria, and Kano State Water Resources Engineering and Construction Agency have employed geophysical methods for engineering.

Umo, A. J.; Ajakaiye, D. E.

1993-11-01

230

Capitalizing on Nigeria’s demographic dividend: reaping the benefits and diminishing the burdens  

PubMed Central

Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the eighth most populous country in the world, yet there is a dearth of published research about its demography. As Nigeria enters a period of potentially rapid economic growth due to the increase in the working-age population, it is critical to understand the demographic trends in the country. This paper examines the age and sex composition of Nigeria as it relates to various population characteristics using the two most recent Demographic and Health Surveys for Nigeria (2003 and 2008), as well as some data from the 2006 Census. It also highlights Nigeria’s demographic composition and trends using United Nations population projection data, and its implications for the country reaping the demographic dividend. Finally, it draws some conclusions and makes some policy recommendations based on the findings. PMID:25705077

Reed, Holly E.; Mberu, Blessing U.

2015-01-01

231

A description of HIV prevalence trends in Nigeria from 2001 to 2010: what is the progress, where is the problem?  

PubMed Central

Introduction Nigeria's population of 160 million and estimated HIV prevalence of 3.34% (2011) makes Nigeria the second highest HIV burden worldwide, with 3.2 million people living with HIV (PLHIV). In 2010, US government spent about US$456.5 million on the Nigerian epidemic. Antenatal clinic (ANC) HIV sero-prevalence sentinel survey has been conducted biennially in Nigeria since 1991 to track the epidemic. This study looked at the trends of HIV in Nigeria over the last decade to identify progress and needs. Methods We conducted description of HIV sero-prevalence sentinel cross-sectional surveys conducted among pregnant women attending ANC from 2001 to 2010, which uses consecutive sampling and unlinked-anonymous HIV testing (UAT) in160 sentinel facilities. 36,000 blood samples were collected and tested. We used Epi-Info to determine national and state HIV prevalence and trends. The Estimation and Projection Package with Spectrum were used to estimate/project the burden of infection. Results National ANC HIV prevalence rose from 1.8% (1991) to 5.8% (2001) and dropped to 4.1% (2010). Since 2001, states in the center, and south of Nigeria had higher prevalence than the rest, with Benue and Cross Rivers notable. Benue was highest in 2001 (14%), 2005 (10%), and 2010 (12.7%). Overall, eight states (21.6%) showed increased HIV prevalence while six states (16.2%) had an absolute reduction of at least 2% from 2001 to 2010. In 2010, Nigeria was estimated to have 3.19 million PLHIV, with the general population prevalence projected to drop from 3.34% in 2011 to 3.27% in 2012. Conclusion Examining a decade of HIV ANC surveillance in Nigeria revealed important differences in the epidemic in states that need to be examined further to reveal key drivers that can be used to target future interventions. PMID:25328622

Bashorun, Adebobola; Nguku, Patrick; Kawu, Issa; Ngige, Evelyn; Ogundiran, Adeniyi; Sabitu, Kabir; Nasidi, Abdulsalam; Nsubuga, Peter

2014-01-01

232

Session: The Impact of External Shocks (Climate Change, Global Financial Crisis) on Social Security 1 Title: The Socioeconomic Implication of Climatic Change, Desert Encroachment and Communal Conflicts in Northern Nigeria By  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic activities in Nigeria clearly show that over 60 percent of the population are engaged in agriculture for their livelihoods directly or indirectly. However overtime especially in the last decade, a dwindling state of agriculture and the decreasing number of farming population mostly in Northern Nigeria, known for the production of over 70 percent of the food crops in

Daniel Adediran

233

Knowledge and attitude toward smoke-free legislation and second-hand smoking exposure among workers in indoor bars, beer parlors and discotheques in Osun State of Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: One of the requirements of the Osun State smoke-free legislation is to ensure smoke-free enclosed and partially enclosed workplaces. This survey was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of workers in indoor bars, beer parlors and discotheques to smoke-free legislation in general and the Osun State smoke-free law in particular. Methods: A convenience sampling of 36 hospitality centers was conducted. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to elicit responses about the objectives from non-smoking workers. The questionnaires had sections on knowledge of the Osun State smoke-free law, attitude toward the law and smoke-free legislation in general and exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke by the workers. Questions were also asked about the second-hand tobacco smoking status of these workers. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. Results: We had 154 participants recruited into the study. There were 75 males (48.0%) and 79 females (52.0%). On the overall, respondents had a good knowledge of the effects of second-hand smoke on health (70.2%) with 75.0% of them being aware of the general smoke-free law and 67.3% being aware of the Osun State smoke-free law although none of them had ever seen a copy of the law. A high proportion (60.0%) was in support of the Osun smoke-free law although all of them think that the implementation of the law could reduce patronage and jeopardize their income. Attitude toward second-hand smoking was generally positive with 72.0% of them having no tolerance for second-hand tobacco smoke in their homes. Most participants (95.5%) had been exposed to tobacco smoke in the workplace within the past week. Conclusion: Despite the high level of awareness of the respondents about the dangers of second hand smoke and their positive attitude to smoke-free laws, nearly all were constantly being exposed to second hand smoke at work. This calls for policy level interventions to improve the implementation of the smoke-free law. PMID:25844384

Onigbogi, Olanrewaju Olusola; Odukoya, Oluwakemi; Onigbogi, Modupe; Sekoni, Oluwakemi

2015-01-01

234

Demographic Information Sources and Utilization as Determinants of Educational Policy Making in South Western Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines demographic information sources and utilization as determinants of educational policy making in South West Nigeria. Using validated and structured questionnaire, the study population of 398 officers in the ministries of education in the affected states were enumerated. The study establishes population census, vital registration,…

Gbadamosi, Belau Olatunde

2013-01-01

235

Helminthic reduction with albendazole among school children in riverine communities of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to report the prevalence and reduction in geohelminthic infection among Primary School children living in riverine communities of Delta State, Nigeria. Stool samples from randomly selected Primary School pupils were obtained before and after treatment with a single 200 mg dose of albendazole. The Kato-Katz method was used in the processing of the stool

Oyewole F MPH; Sanyaolu A; Faweya T MPH; Ukpong M; Soremekun B

2007-01-01

236

Rural Youths' Participation in Agriculture: Prospects, Challenges and the Implications for Policy in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study aimed at assessing rural youth participation in agriculture, their access to production resources and services and the effects of youths' access to inputs and services on farm productivity and youths' welfare. The study was conducted in three states (each randomly selected from the three agro-ecological zones of northern Nigeria). Two…

Auta, Sarah Jehu; Abdullahi, Yusuf M.; Nasiru, Mohammed

2010-01-01

237

Institutions for Collective Action among Settled Fulani Agro-Pastoralists in Southwest Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study identifies institutions for organizing collective action among settled Fulani agro-pastoralists in southwest Nigeria and examines their functions, processes and tools for fostering collective action. Four Fulani communities were selected purposively in Ekiti State; data were collected from 55 settled pastoralists through informal…

Fabusoro, E.; Sodiya, C. I.

2011-01-01

238

Simulation of the use of Yersinia pestis as a Biological Weapon in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation study using the Spatiotemporal Epidemiological Modeler was carried out on the potential usage of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, as a biological weapon of terror. The study revealed widespread infections, incidences and deaths due to the infection all over Nigeria with bioweapon attacks originating from Maiduguri (Borno State) and Abaji (Federal Capital Territory). Instituting an effective

P.H. Bamaiyi

2014-01-01

239

Under-Five Mortality in Nigeria: Perception and Attitudes of the Yorubas Towards the Existence of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the perception and attitudes of the Yorubas about the existence of abiku (children from the spirit world) and the mode of treatment given to such children. The study elicited information from 1695 women of reproductive age in Ondo and Ekiti state of Southwest Nigeria. The study shows (i) more than half of the respondents believe in the

Peter Olasupo Ogunjuyigbe

2004-01-01

240

Constraints Affecting ICT Utilization by Agricultural Extension Officers in the Niger Delta, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study focused on constraints affecting the utilization of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for agricultural extension activities by Agricultural Extension Officers in Nigeria's Niger Delta Region. Data were derived from 160 extension officers affiliated to both public and private extension organizations in four states of the…

Akpabio, I. A.; Okon, D. P.; Inyang, E. B.

2007-01-01

241

Evolution of Private Universities in Nigeria: Matters Arising and the Way Forward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many issues such as the increasing cases of unsatisfied demand for admission, moral decadence among students, incessant strikes, student unrest and cultism, among others necessitated the establishment of private alongside the federal and state universities in Nigeria. It is however expected that the advent of private universities will provide…

Ige, Akindele M.

2013-01-01

242

Assessment of preference and intake of browse species by Yankasa sheep at Shika, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments involving different browse species were carried out during the early dry season in an area of subhumid Nigeria with adult Yankasa sheep. Experiment 1 involved preference studies of nine browse species offered simultaneously in different post-harvest treatments (fresh, wilted or dried state). Experiment 2 determined the short-term intake rate of top four browse species from Experiment 1 offered

A. T Omokanye; R. O Balogun; O. S Onifade; R. A Afolayan; M. E Olayemi

2001-01-01

243

Risk and Insurance in a Rural Credit Market: An Empirical Investigation in Northern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Credit contracts play a direct role in pooling risk between households in northern Nigeria. Repayments owed by borrowers depend on realizations of random shocks by both borrowers and lenders. The paper develops two models of state-contingent loans. The first is a competitive equilibrium in perfectly enforceable contracts. The second permits imperfect information and equilibrium default. Estimates of both models indicate

Christopher Udry

1994-01-01

244

Nutrient composition of commonly used complementary foods in North western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on the nutrient composition of commonly used complementary foods in North Western Nigeria were carried out using Kaduna, Kebbi and Niger states as case studies. Ready to eat complementary food samples were collected from mothers with children older than 6 months but younger than 24 months and evaluated for its nutrient components using standard procedures. Results obtained showed that

K. M. Anigo; D. A. Ameh; S. Ibrahim; S. S. Danbauchi

2009-01-01

245

Women Education in Nigeria: Predicaments and Hopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is focused on women education in Nigeria. It traces the genesis of western education in Nigeria and bias that existed from the traditional Nigerian society against women education. It identified and discussed barriers to women education in Nigeria. Recent trend in enrolment at various levels of education shows improvement in favor of women. In view of this realization, this paper argues that if the current momentum is sustained, women will not only achieve equal status to men in educational attainment but also have the tendency to surpass men within the next ten to fifteen years. The implications could be outreaching as the paper proffers some recommendations.

Akubuilo, Francis; Omeje, Monica

2012-10-01

246

Astronomy Development in Nigeria: Challenges and Advances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nigeria evidently has huge potentials to develop a strong astronomy community. Much of the strength lies in the great number of intelligent students with the potential of becoming good astronomers. Sadly, astronomy development in Nigeria has stagnated in the past decades owing to poor funding and/or indifferent attitude of the funding bodies, research-unfriendly environment, and non-existence of facilities. Currently, efforts toward fuelling advancement in astronomy are focused on building 'critical mass', establishing collaborations with universities/astronomy institutes outside Nigeria, converting out-of-use communication antennas into radio telescopes, and acquiring out-of-use telescopes for educational and low-level research purposes.

Okwe Chibueze, James

2015-01-01

247

Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (28±1°C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

248

Surficial geophysical deduction of the geomaterial and aquifer distributions at Ngor-Okpala local government area of Imo State, South Eastern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twenty seven vertical electrical sounding (VES) profiles surrounding four known traverses were obtained in Ngor-Okpala local government area of Imo state to examine the subsurface geomaterials and the associated groundwater potential. The VES data, constrained by borehole data, provided useful information about the subsurface hydrogeologic and lithologic conditions. From the validated interpretation, the area assessed has loamy soil, medium grained sands, well-sorted medium-grained/gravelly sands and river sand as the lithologic succession from top to the bottom of the depth penetrated. The aquifers in the area were found in the medium-grained sands and well-sorted medium-coarse-grained sands. The aquifer depth for all-season groundwater that would be devoid of draw-down can be found at a depth range of 42-50 m. The resistivity maps of selected depths exhibit sharp resistivity changes at depth due mainly to undulating subsurface topography. A map of the distribution of the k?-values shows that good quality groundwater can be found in most parts of the area.

Victor, Obianwu; Innocent, Chimezie; Anthony, Akpan; Jimmy, George

2011-12-01

249

Surficial geophysical deduction of the geomaterial and aquifer distributions at Ngor-Okpala local government area of Imo State, South Eastern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twenty seven vertical electrical sounding (VES) profiles surrounding four known traverses were obtained in Ngor-Okpala local government area of Imo state to examine the subsurface geomaterials and the associated groundwater potential. The VES data, constrained by borehole data, provided useful information about the subsurface hydrogeologic and lithologic conditions. From the validated interpretation, the area assessed has loamy soil, medium grained sands, well-sorted medium-grained/gravelly sands and river sand as the lithologic succession from top to the bottom of the depth penetrated. The aquifers in the area were found in the medium-grained sands and well-sorted medium-coarse-grained sands. The aquifer depth for all-season groundwater that would be devoid of draw-down can be found at a depth range of 42-50 m. The resistivity maps of selected depths exhibit sharp resistivity changes at depth due mainly to undulating subsurface topography. A map of the distribution of the k ?-values shows that good quality groundwater can be found in most parts of the area.

Victor, Obianwu I.; Innocent, Chimezie C.; Anthony, Akpan E.; Jimmy, George N.

2011-12-01

250

Koranic education and militant Islam in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article the author outlines and discusses the influence of Koranic schools, and their students ( almagiri) on the rise of fundamentalism and the spreading of militant Islam in Northern Nigeria. The author contends that while Islamic fundamentalism is the banner of both the Western-oriented Muslims and traditional Nigerian Muslims, it differs in expression in Northern Nigeria. The article shows that these differences result from the influence of the Koranic schools on the traditional teachers ( ulama) and their students on the one hand, and Western universities, Wahhabi Arabs, and Western-oriented teachers and their students on the other. The origins of the Koranic school curriculum in Nigeria, the training of traditional Muslim teachers, and the lifestyle of the students are discussed. The author shows how certain socialization patterns found in the Koranic schools and `almagiri' system seem congruent with the political attitudes and values stressed by spokesmen of militant Islamic sects in Northern Nigeria.

Winters, Clyde Ahmad

1987-06-01

251

Foreign Fishery Developments Nigeria Plans Large  

E-print Network

trawlers to Wale Seafoods in 1979, which are currently manned by joint Nigerian- U.K. crews. Wale Sea in 1980. Shetland Boats constructed a fish transport vessel for Nigeria in 1978. A British shipyard agreed

252

Intracranial tumors in Enugu, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Over a five-year period, there were 48 cases of intracranial tumors at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. All the patients were Nigerian Negroes. Glial tumors accounted for 20.8%, pituitary tumors 18.8%, and meningiomas 16.7%. There were five cases of tuberculomas and five cases of metastatic tumors. Miscellaneous tumors contributed 22.9% of the total. There were more males than females, especially in the meningioma and tuberculoma groups. Nearly one-half of the tumors were in people in their first and second decades of life; two-thirds of the tumors were in those under 30 years of age. One-third of the patients have died within the five years under review. The results of this survey are strikingly different from Caucasian series. The relatively low incidence of gliomas and the high incidence of meningiomas and pituitary tumors in this study are interestingly similar to the results of other workers who studied Negro populations and may underscore the importance of genetic factors in the development of some brain tumors. PMID:7427874

Ohaegbulam, S C; Saddeqi, N; Ikerionwu, S

1980-11-15

253

Niger Delta play types, Nigeria  

SciTech Connect

Exploration databases can be more valuable when sorted by play type. Play specific databases provide a system to organize E & P data used in evaluating the range of values of parameters for reserve estimation and risk assessment. It is important both in focusing the knowledge base and in orienting research effort. A play in this context is any unique combination of trap, reservoir and source properties with the right dynamics of migration and preservation that results in hydrocarbon accumulation. This definitions helps us to discriminate the subtle differences found with these accumulation settings. About 20 play types were identified around the Niger Delta oil province in Nigeria. These are grouped into three parts: (1) The proven plays-constituting the bulk of exploration prospects in Nigeria today. (2) The unproven or semi-proven plays usually with some successes recorded in a few tries but where knowledge is still inadequate. (3) The unproven or analogous play concept. These are untested but geologically sound ideas which may or may not have been tried elsewhere. With classification and sub grouping of these play types into specific databases, intrinsic attributes and uniqueness of each of them with respect to the four major risk elements and the eight parameters for reserve estimation can be better understood.

Akinpelu, A.O. [Chevron Nigeria Limited, Lagos (Nigeria)

1995-08-01

254

Gangs in Nigeria: an updated examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes gangs in Nigeria, providing an updated examination of their current strategies and activities. The premise\\u000a of this analysis partly draws on Social Identity Theory, with respect to gang affiliation. Particularly explored are (1) gang\\u000a cultism as a common phenomenon on college campuses in Nigeria (through their malicious, secret, fraternity-like activities)\\u000a and (2) the role of Islam in

Jonathan Matusitz; Michael Repass

2009-01-01

255

Epidemiological analysis, serological prevalence and genotypic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease in Nigeria 2008-2009.  

PubMed

The epidemiological situation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is uncertain in Nigeria, where the disease is endemic, and the majority of outbreaks are unreported. Control measures for FMD in Nigeria are not being implemented due to the absence of locally produced vaccines and an official ban on vaccine importation. This study summarizes the findings of a 3-year study aimed at quantifying the seroprevalence of FMD, its distribution in susceptible species and the genetic diversity of FMDV isolated from the Plateau State of Nigeria. A 29% FMD prevalence was estimated using 3ABC enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (3ABC ELISA). Farms with suspected FMD nearby, with contact with wildlife, that used drugs or FMD vaccines or with >100 animals, and animals of large ruminant species and in pastures other than nomadic grazing were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with FMD. Antibodies against five FMDV serotypes, (A, O, SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3) were detected by the virus neutralization test (VNT) at various titres (<100->800) from all tested sera from most parts of the region. This is probably the first report of the presence of FMDV SAT3 in Nigeria. Further studies to investigate the potential probable presence and prevalence of SAT 3 virus in Nigeria are required. Tissue samples collected from clinical animals were positive for FMDV. Virus isolates were sequenced and confirmed as serotype A. All of the isolates showed marked genetic homogeneity with >99% genetic identity in the VP1 region and were most closely related to a previously described virus collected from Cameroon in 2000. This study provides knowledge on the epidemiological situation of FMD in Plateau State, Nigeria, and will probably help to develop effective control and preventive strategies for the disease in Nigeria and other countries in the West African subregion. PMID:23347819

Ehizibolo, D O; Perez, A M; Carrillo, C; Pauszek, S; AlKhamis, M; Ajogi, I; Umoh, J U; Kazeem, H M; Ehizibolo, P O; Fabian, A; Berninger, M; Moran, K; Rodriguez, L L; Metwally, S A

2014-12-01

256

E-Learning and Distance Education in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the relevance of e-learning in the position of distance education in Nigeria. It commences by discussing the meaning of e-learning and distance education. It also discusses the historical background of distance education in Nigeria as well as the operations of National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) as the first federal…

Ajadi, Timothy Olugbenga; Salawu, Ibrahim Olatunde; Adeoye, Femi Adetunji

2008-01-01

257

Monocular blindness in Bayelsa state of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Monocular blindness has not received much attention in developing countries despite its numerous disadvantages. A monocularly blind person is at high risk of being bilaterally blind. The objective of this study was to determine the causes of monocular blindness in the study population and to suggest strategies for prevention. Methods: A prospective study was conducted among new consecutive patients

Azonobi Ifeanyi Richard

2010-01-01

258

Childhood intracranial neoplasms Enugu, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This paper reviews children with intracranial neoplasms seen at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, (UNTH), Enugu, over an 8-year period (1978-1985). There were 21 children, aged 4-14 years, with histologically confirmed intracranial neoplasms. The male to female ratio was 2:1. Of all cases, there was a preponderance of cranio-pharyngiomas (38.1%), followed by the astrocytomas and medulloblastomas with 14.3% each, a result which is at variance with findings elsewhere. The poor prognosis was partly due to late presentation complicated by relatively inadequate diagnostic and therapeutic facilities. A plea is made for the improvement of neurodiagnostic and therapeutic facilities in some regional hospitals in developing countries. PMID:2486793

Izuora, G I; Ikerionwu, S; Saddeqi, N; Iloeje, S O

1989-01-01

259

Public Awareness and Knowledge of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) Control Activities in Abuja, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

The need to engage the public in Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) control activities has become imperative in the context of morbidity reduction through preventive chemotherapy and community participation. Therefore, a survey was conducted among the general public to assess their knowledge and awareness of NTDs control activities in Nigeria. A simple questionnaire was administered to the general public attending a job fair in Abuja, Nigeria. Of the 461 respondents, a significant proportion 337 (73.1%) have heard of NTD before, but only 291 (63.1%) have good knowledge about NTDs. However, among the specific NTDs, only the control of onchocerciasis (50.8%) was of average public awareness in Nigeria, while all the other NTDs control activities were significantly less known to the general public. 397 (87.1%) stated that government support for NTD control activities is poor and were willing to assist to advocate for NTDs control. This survey demonstrates that despite government's numerous activities towards the control of NTDs in Nigeria, there is little sensitization of the general public. There is a need for policy changes that would raise the participation and involvement of the general public in NTDs control activities for sustainability. PMID:25254362

Olamiju, Olatunwa J.; Olamiju, Francisca O.; Adeniran, Adebiyi A.; Mba, Ifeanyi C.; Ukwunna, Chidera C.; Okoronkwo, Chukwu; Ekpo, Uwem F.

2014-01-01

260

Molecular Characterization of the Circulating Strains of Vibrio cholerae during 2010 Cholera Outbreak in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

This study aimed at characterizing the phenotypic and toxigenic status of circulating strains of cholera during outbreaks in Nigeria, employing molecular typing techniques. Two hundred and one samples of rectal swabs, stool, vomitus, water (from the well, borehole, sachet, stream, and tap) and disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite) were collected from three states in the country. The samples were inoculated on thiosulphate-citrate bile salt-sucrose (TCBS), Cary-Blair transport medium and smeared on glass slides for direct examination. The Vibrio cholerae isolates were serotyped, biotyped, and characterized using PCR of the cytotoxin gene A (ctxA), wbeO1, and wbfO139 gene primer. Of the 201 samples screened, 96 were positive for V. cholerae O1 (48%), with 69 (72%) positive for ctxA gene. The results from this study showed that the circulating strains of cholera in Nigeria were of Ogawa serotype, also observed in other outbreaks in Nigeria (1991, 1992, and 1996). However, the strains were of the Classical biotype and were mainly (72%) ctxA gene-positive. This current investigation has confirmed the production of cholera toxin by the circulating strains, and this could be harnessed for possible cholera vaccine production in Nigeria. PMID:23930335

Oyedeji, Kolawole S.; Niemogha, Mary-Theresa; Nwaokorie, Francisca O.; Bamidele, Tajudeen A.; Ochoga, Michael; Akinsinde, Kehinde A.; Brai, Bartholomew I.; Oladele, David; Omonigbehin, Emmanuel A.; Bamidele, Moses; Fesobi, Toun W.; Musa, Adesola Z.; Adeneye, Adeniyi K.; Ujah, Innocent A.

2013-01-01

261

Molecular characterization of the circulating strains of Vibrio cholerae during 2010 cholera outbreak in Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study aimed at characterizing the phenotypic and toxigenic status of circulating strains of cholera during outbreaks in Nigeria, employing molecular typing techniques. Two hundred and one samples of rectal swabs, stool, vomitus, water (from the well, borehole, sachet, stream, and tap) and disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite) were collected from three states in the country. The samples were inoculated on thiosulphate-citrate bile salt-sucrose (TCBS), Cary-Blair transport medium and smeared on glass slides for direct examination. The Vibrio cholerae isolates were serotyped, biotyped, and characterized using PCR of the cytotoxin gene A (ctxA), wbeO1, and wbfO139 gene primer. Of the 201 samples screened, 96 were positive for V cholerae O1 (48%), with 69 (72%) positive for ctxA gene. The results from this study showed that the circulating strains of cholera in Nigeria were of Ogawa serotype, also observed in other outbreaks in Nigeria (1991, 1992, and 1996). However, the strains were of the Classical biotype and were mainly (72%) ctxA gene-positive. This current investigation has confirmed the production of cholera toxin by the circulating strains, and this could be harnessed for possible cholera vaccine production in Nigeria. PMID:23930335

Oyedeji, Kolawole S; Niemogha, Mary-Theresa; Nwaokorie, Francisca O; Bamidele, Tajudeen A; Ochoga, Michael; Akinsinde, Kehinde A; Brai, Bartholomew I; Oladele, David; Omonigbehin, Emmanuel A; Bamidele, Moses; Fesobi, Toun W; Musa, Adesola Z; Adeneye, Adeniyi K; Smith, Stella I; Ujah, Innocent A

2013-06-01

262

Understanding Subgroup Fertility Differentials in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

As Nigeria enters a period of potentially rapid economic growth due to the increase in the working age population, it is critical to understand why fertility remains so high there. Nigeria’s current total fertility rate (TFR) of 5.5 (0.2 fewer children per woman than the TFR of 5.7 reported in both the 2003 and 2008 NDHS surveys) is projected to continue to decline, but questions remain about whether this decline is inevitable and whether it will continue apace. Regardless, Nigeria’s population growth will continue through at least 2050 due to simple population momentum. Other challenges are the persistent and vast fertility differentials; many groups remain above replacement fertility across various social and geographical sub-units of the country. Using data primarily from the 2013 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), as well as from 2003 and 2008 surveys, we document that many population subgroups and zones of the country are finally beginning to show signs of fertility convergence and decline. Nevertheless, some population subgroups still have higher fertility, especially: Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri women, women who live in the North West geopolitical zone, Muslim and traditionalist women, women who live in poor households, women who have lower levels of education, women who are opposed to family planning, women who marry early, and women who give birth early. In order for the projected decline in the TFR to continue, these subgroups must be highlighted, understood, and targeted with fertility- and poverty-reducing interventions. PMID:25684828

Mberu, Blessing U.; Reed, Holly E.

2015-01-01

263

Tobacco control in Nigeria- policy recommendations  

PubMed Central

Major strides towards national tobacco control have been made since Nigeria became signatory to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in June 2004. The Nigerian senate passed a bill on March 15, 2011 which is expected to be signed into law shortly, to regulate and control production, manufacture, sale, advertising, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco or tobacco products. This paper highlights how the proposed tobacco control law provides a unique opportunity to domesticate the WHO FCTC, expand on smokeless tobacco regulation and develop a science base to improve tobacco control measures in Nigeria. PMID:22713586

2012-01-01

264

Self-Medication: potential risks and hazards among pregnant women in Uyo, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction There is increasing evidence that self-medications among pregnant women are common in many developing countries. Despite the adverse impact on pregnancy, there are few programs available for their control. The objective of this study was to assess the level of self-medication amongst Nigerian pregnant women in order to determine possible harmful effects on fetus. Methods Five hundred and eighteen 518 pregnant women, aged between 18 and 40 years, drawn from three General hospitals in Akwa Ibom State were assessed for self-medication and substance abuse using an instrument, adapted from a modified form of 117-item self-report questionnaire based on the WHO guidelines for students’ substance use survey. Results Of the 518 pregnant women assessed, 375 (72.4%) indulged in one form of self-medication or the other; 143 (27.6%) used only drugs prescribed from the antenatal clinic. A total of 157 (41.9%) pregnant women self-medicate fever/pain relievers; 47 (9.1%) mixture of herbs and other drugs; 15 (4.0%) sedatives; 13 (3.5%) alcohol; while 5 (1.3%) used kolanuts. Reasons for using these substances range from protection from witches and witchcrafts, preventing pregnancy from coming out, for blood; poor sleep, fever and vomiting and infections. There was a significant difference in the rate of using analgesics (X2=9.43, p=0.001); and antibiotic (X2=4.43, p=0.001) among pregnant women who were highly educated compared to those with little or no education. However, the level of education has no impact in the usage of native herbs. Conclusion This study shows that self-medication is common among pregnant women in our environment. There is need for adequate education of pregnant women during antenatal clinics on the potential danger of self-medication so as to prevent child and maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:23308320

Abasiubong, Festus; Bassey, Emem Abasi; Udobang, John Akpan; Akinbami, Oluyinka Samuel; Udoh, Sunday Bassey; Idung, Alphonsus Udo

2012-01-01

265

Trends in delivery with no one present in Nigeria between 2003 and 2013  

PubMed Central

Purpose Skilled attendance at birth is a proven intervention to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes. Unfortunately, in Nigeria there are many women who give birth alone, with no one present (NOP). The purpose of this study was to document trends in women delivering with NOP between 2003 and 2013, and to identify the characteristics of women who are engaging in this risky practice. Methods We utilized pooled data sets from the 2003, 2008, and 2013 Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys. Married women, who had given birth in the 5 years before each survey were included, resulting in a sample size of 38,949 women. We used logistic regression to assess the unadjusted and adjusted odds of a woman delivering with NOP over time, by socio-demographic characteristics. Results Prevalence of delivery with NOP in Nigeria declined by 30% between 2003 and 2013. The largest declines occurred in Sokoto State, where the number of women giving birth with NOP declined by almost 100% between 2003 and 2013. In the North West of the country, however, there was a 27% increase in the number of women giving birth alone over this time period. Older, poorer, less educated, higher parity, Muslim women residing in the Northern regions were significantly more likely to give birth with NOP. Women, who were involved in decisions surrounding their own health, and who had accessed antenatal care were significantly less likely to give birth with NOP. Conclusion Although there have been improvements in Nigeria’s Maternal Mortality Ratio since 1990, recent estimates suggest a stagnation in this trend. One reason for this protracted decline may be lack of access to skilled delivery care. The 2013 national prevalence of Nigerian women giving birth with NOP was 14%, equivalent to over 1 million births in 2013. Nigeria must implement interventions to ensure every woman’s timely access to, and use of skilled care to reduce preventable maternal mortality and morbidity.

Austin, Anne; Fapohunda, Bolaji; Langer, Ana; Orobaton, Nosakhare

2015-01-01

266

Language Deficit in English and Lack of Creative Education as Impediments to Nigeria's Breakthrough into the Knowledge Era  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay discusses the linguistic and cultural factors that have acted as impediments to Nigeria's breakthrough into the knowledge era. It identifies language deficit in English by most Nigerians, under-developed state of most Nigerian languages, absence of creative education and the presence of certain cultural taboos which stifles the…

Mowarin, Macaulay; Tonukari, Emmanuel Ufuoma

2010-01-01

267

Methods Used by Pre-Service Nigeria Certificate in Education Teachers in Solving Quantitative Problems in Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports part of the results of research on chemical problem solving behavior of pre-service teachers in Plateau and Northeastern states of Nigeria. Specifically, it examines and describes the methods used by 204 pre-service teachers in solving quantitative problems from four topics in chemistry. Namely, gas laws; electrolysis;…

Danjuma, Ibrahim Mohammed

2011-01-01

268

Comparing Students' Enrolment and Graduate Output in Home Economics with Other Vocational Subjects in Colleges of Education in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare students' enrolment and graduate output in Home Economics with other Vocational subjects in the Colleges of Education in Nigeria. The target population included twenty (20) Federal Colleges and twenty-seven (27) State Colleges of Education offering eight Vocational and Technical disciplines during the…

Arubayi, D. O.

2009-01-01

269

Effect of cooking and soaking on physical, nutrient composition and sensory evaluation of indigenous and foreign rice varieties in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose - The objective of this study is to ascertain the effect of cooking and soaking on the physical characteristics, nutrient composition and sensory evaluation of an indigenous ''ofada'' rice and a foreign ''aroso'' rice varieties in Nigeria. Design\\/methodology\\/approach - The two rice varieties were freshly purchased in the raw state, soaked in water and cooked. The physical characteristics, such

Osaretin Albert; T. Ebuehi

270

Community-Based Vocational Rehabilitation (CBVR) for People with Disabilities: Experiences from a Pilot Project in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the community-based vocational rehabilitation (CBVR) of persons with disabilities. In 1991, a pilot project was instituted by the International Labour Organisation and the United Nations Development Programme in conjunction with Oyo State Government in Nigeria. The aim was to facilitate the reintegration of persons with…

Alade, Eunice B.

2004-01-01

271

Chronic renal failure in children: a report from Port Harcourt, Nigeria (1985-2000)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 15-year review of children who presented with chronic renal failure (CRF) to the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State of Nigeria, was carried out. Forty-five children (28 boys, 17 girls) with CRF, defined as a glomerular filtration rate below 30 ml\\/min per 1.73 m2 body surface area or a rise in serum creatinine above 120 µmol\\/l for at least 6 months,

Ifeoma Anochie; Felicia Eke

2003-01-01

272

Avian Flu: Multiple introductions of H5N1 in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the avian influenza virus H5N1 swept from Asia across Russia to Europe, Nigeria was the first country in Africa to report the emergence of this highly pathogenic virus. Here we analyse H5N1 sequences in poultry from two different farms in Lagos state and find that three H5N1 lineages were independently introduced through routes that coincide with the flight paths

M. F. Ducatez; C. M. Olinger; A. A. Owoade; S. de Landtsheer; W. Ammerlaan; A. D. M. E. Osterhaus; R. A. M. Fouchier; C. P. Muller

2006-01-01

273

Combating Violent-Extremism and Insurgency in Nigeria: A Case Study of the Boko Haram Scourge  

E-print Network

” or forbidden for Muslims to take part in political or social activity associated with Western society. Several forbidden activities include voting in elections, wearing shirts and trousers, or receiving secular education (Chothia, 2012). Ustaz Mohammed... Yusuf, a charismatic Muslim cleric founded Boko Haram in 2002 in Maiduguri, the capital city of the Borno state in northeastern Nigeria. The sect’s philosophy is rooted in the practice of orthodox Islam and the group’s official name in Arabic is Jama...

Babalola, Oluwatosin Olayimika

2013-12-31

274

Pathogenic variation of Phakopsora pachyrhizi in Nigeria  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) is endemic to soybean growing areas in Nigeria. To determine the pathogenic variation, infected leaves were collected from 85 locations in the Derived Savanna, Southern Guinea Savanna, Northern Guinea Savanna and Mid-Altitude agroecological zones. A total of 116 ...

275

Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.…

Ayotamuno, M. J.

1993-01-01

276

Family Quality of Life in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The limited literature that exists about intellectual disabilities (ID) in Nigeria suggests that perceptions of ID may be shaped by social and cultural beliefs, and that socio-economic factors have prevented the development of policy and services. The present study sought to explore these suggestions in more detail by administering the…

Ajuwon, P. M.; Brown, I.

2012-01-01

277

Melioidosis Acquired by Traveler to Nigeria  

PubMed Central

We describe melioidosis associated with travel to Nigeria in a woman with diabetes, a major predisposing factor for this infection. With the prevalence of diabetes projected to increase dramatically in many developing countries, the global reach of melioidosis may expand. PMID:21762592

Salam, Alex P.; Khan, Nisa; Malnick, Henry; Kenna, Dervla T.D.; Dance, David A.B.

2011-01-01

278

Scientific and Technical Information in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys bibliographic services for scientific and technical information currently available in Nigeria and identifies problems that are impeding effective national bibliographic and information services. The need for national coordination of bibliographic services is discussed and the functions of a proposed national technical and information…

Aguolu, C. C.

1989-01-01

279

Aspects of Tar Sands Development in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of Nigerian massive reserves of crude bitumen and associated heavy oil is imminent in view of the impacts that the huge importation of these materials and their products have on the nation's economy, coupled with the depleting reserves of Nigerian conventional oil. This article reviews the extent of the tar sands resources in Nigeria and highlights the appropriate production

V. A. ADEWUSI

1992-01-01

280

SUSTAINABLE WATER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM FOR RURAL NIGERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa face the most acute water supply challenges in the world. Nigeria, the most populous African country, has considerable populations without basic access to safe drinking water, with over 50% of the country lacking coverage. The village of Adu A...

281

Globalisation and Industrial Performance in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of the neo-liberal globalisation of African economies on industrial performance in Nigeria. Evidence from the study indicates that, contrary to claims by the World Bank, the economic performance of firms in the manufacturing sector during the globalisation period in the study was adversely affected by the process. The study confirms the position that the globalisation

Ifeanyi Onyeonoru

2004-01-01

282

Leadership, Governance and Corruption in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nigeria gained independence in 1960 from Britain. The political elite who inherited political power have since found that corruption, bad governance and poor leadership only result in underdevelopment and political instability. Corruption and bad governance in the era of military rule has been so bad that the civilian government of Chief Olusegun Obasanjo (1999 to 2007) attempts to control corruption

DERIN K. OLOGBENLA

2007-01-01

283

Computational Biology and Bioinformatics in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Over the past few decades, major advances in the field of molecular biology, coupled with advances in genomic technologies, have led to an explosive growth in the biological data generated by the scientific community. The critical need to process and analyze such a deluge of data and turn it into useful knowledge has caused bioinformatics to gain prominence and importance. Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary research area that applies techniques, methodologies, and tools in computer and information science to solve biological problems. In Nigeria, bioinformatics has recently played a vital role in the advancement of biological sciences. As a developing country, the importance of bioinformatics is rapidly gaining acceptance, and bioinformatics groups comprised of biologists, computer scientists, and computer engineers are being constituted at Nigerian universities and research institutes. In this article, we present an overview of bioinformatics education and research in Nigeria. We also discuss professional societies and academic and research institutions that play central roles in advancing the discipline in Nigeria. Finally, we propose strategies that can bolster bioinformatics education and support from policy makers in Nigeria, with potential positive implications for other developing countries. PMID:24763310

Fatumo, Segun A.; Adoga, Moses P.; Ojo, Opeolu O.; Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga; Adeoye, Tolulope; Ewejobi, Itunuoluwa; Adebiyi, Marion; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; Bewaji, Clement; Nashiru, Oyekanmi

2014-01-01

284

Use of satellite precipitation data in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of satellite precipitation data for forecast in Nigeria is greatly advancing, this is due to the availability of satellite imagery and measured real time rainfall data that can be used to validating the estimated amount of rainfall been derived from imagery captured by satellite of an area. Rainfall data from rain gauge measurements have been used to validate the data of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Precipitation Radar (TRMM PR) and the data of two other satellite algorithms namely 3B43 and TMPI for 36 months (Jan1998-Dec2000) at 1.00?×1.00? latitude/longitude grid boxes over Nigeria. Between 1998 and 2000 we studied the interconnection between precipitation imageries captured over Nigeria and the amount of Rainfall measured. We noted that there is critical connection between the Thermodynamic properties over the surface, the estimated amount of rainfall from a particular captured imagery and measured rainfall data. Therefore proper understanding of the satellite precipitation imagery will enable forecasters in Nigeria to forecast the amount of precipitation from a particular type of imagery for flood and disaster monitoring. More practical issues will be presented. Flood disaster related event has claimed million of lives, make thousand homeless and devastated more million arable land in Africa.

Adesi, A. P.; Adelugba, T.; Salami, T.

2009-04-01

285

Development of a Master Health Facility List in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Abstract Introduction Routine Health Information Systems (RHIS) are increasingly transitioning to electronic platforms in several developing countries. Establishment of a Master Facility List (MFL) to standardize the allocation of unique identifiers for health facilities can overcome identification issues and support health facility management. The Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) recently developed a MFL, and we present the process and outcome. Methods The MFL was developed from the ground up, and includes a state code, a local government area (LGA) code, health facility ownership (public or private), the level of care, and an exclusive LGA level health facility serial number, as part of the unique identifier system in Nigeria. To develop the MFL, the LGAs sent the list of all health facilities in their jurisdiction to the state, which in turn collated for all LGAs under them before sending to the FMOH. At the FMOH, a group of RHIS experts verified the list and identifiers for each state. Results The national MFL consists of 34,423 health facilities uniquely identified. The list has been published and is available for worldwide access; it is currently used for planning and management of health services in Nigeria. Discussion Unique identifiers are a basic component of any information system. However, poor planning and execution of implementing this key standard can diminish the success of the RHIS. Conclusion Development and adherence to standards is the hallmark for a national health information infrastructure. Explicit processes and multi-level stakeholder engagement is necessary to ensuring the success of the effort. PMID:25422720

Azeez, Aderemi; Bamidele, Samson; Oyemakinde, Akin; Oyediran, Kolawole Azeez; Adebayo, Wura; Fapohunda, Bolaji; Abioye, Abimbola; Mullen, Stephanie

2014-01-01

286

Implementation of Geographic Information Systems for a Nigerian State: A Case Study of the Catholic Dioceses of Delta State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is an understandable concern among practitioners of education, academic analysts, policy formulators, and curriculum designers that a large number of government officials have both neglected and ignored the salient topic of the changing demographics of Nigeria and of Delta State (NPC, 2007). The economic upturn of Nigeria and in particular…

Banye, Anthony

2011-01-01

287

Contamination of shallow wells in Nigeria from surface contaminant migration  

SciTech Connect

Contaminated wells, located in six south/western and western states of Nigeria, were sampled and analyzed for pollution characteristics. Results of analysis indicated migration of contaminants into the wells from places where there was a potential source. There was a significant microbiological population in the wells placed near domestic waste sites. Also, there were excessive levels of trace heavy metals in those placed near metal dumping sites. On the other hand, the contaminants were minimal in wells that were not close to polluting sources. The studies revealed that groundwater contamination occurred primarily by dumping of wastes, wrong placement of waste disposal facilities, and improper construction of wells. The groundwater sources (wells, etc.) are used when pipe-borne water facilities are inadequate.

Ademoroti, C.M.A. (Univ. of Benin (Nigeria))

1987-01-01

288

Exploring cigarette use among male migrant workers in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: There is limited knowledge about the use of cigarettes by blacks outside the United States (U.S). Nigeria creates an opportunity to explore smoking behaviours, smoking cessation (nicotine dependence) and use of cigarettes in a country that has a large black population outside the U.S. Methods: We conducted three Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) involving twenty-four male migrant workers who reported that they were current cigarette smokers. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. Results: Four major themes namely: reasons for initiating and continuing to smoke cigarettes, factors affecting brand choice, barriers to quitting, effect of smoking mentholated cigarette brands were identified. Conclusion: This study provides insight into the use of mentholated and non-mentholated cigarettes and suggests the need for further studies to explore smoking behavior among Nigerians.

Onigbogi, Olanrewaju Olusola; Karatu, David; Sanusi, Sarafa; Pratt, Rebekah; Okuyemi, Kolawole

2015-01-01

289

The post-harvest fruit rots of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) in Nigeria.  

PubMed

A survey of the post-harvest fruit rot diseases of tomato was conducted in five states of Nigeria. During severe infections, the diseases could cause 25% loss at harvest and 34% loss of the remaining product in transit, storage and market stalls; thus giving an overall loss of about 50% of the product. Two types of rots, soft and dry were recognised. The soft rot was found to account for about 85% and the dry rot about 15% of the overall loss. Erwinia carotovora, Rhizopus oryzae, R. stolonifer, Fusarium equiseti, F. nivale and F. oxysporum were established as the soft rot pathogens; while Aspergillus aculeatus, A. flavus, Cladosporium tenuissimum, Corynespora cassiicola, Curvularia lunata, Penicillium expansum P. multicolor and Rhizoctonia solani were established as the dry rot pathogens of tomato fruits in Nigeria. PMID:471028

Fajola, A O

1979-01-01

290

Seasonal fractional integrated time series models for rainfall data in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainfall variability, seasonality and extremity have a lot of consequences in planning and decision making of every sphere of human endeavour especially in Nigeria where majority of agricultural practices and planning is dependent on rainfed agriculture. For this reason, an extensive understanding of rainfall regime is an important prerequisite in such planning. We approach this work using time series approach. Seasonality and possibility of long-term dependence in rainfall data are considered, and these have significant effects in explaining the distribution of rainfall in each state of the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. The estimated seasonal autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average (SARFIMA) model for each of the six rainfall zones was found to perform better in predicting rainfall distribution than the corresponding seasonal autoregressive moving average (SARMA) model in terms of minimum Akaike information criterion (AIC) and other model diagnostic measures.

Yaya, Olaoluwa S.; Fashae, Olutoyin A.

2014-04-01

291

Building Nigeria’s Response to Climate Change: Pilot Projects for Community-Based Adaptation in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Throughout history, human societies have had to effectively devise ways and means to adapt to climate variability by altering\\u000a their lifestyles, agriculture, settlements and other critical aspects of their economies and livelihoods. The capacity to\\u000a adapt enables societies to deal with a range of uncertainties. Coping and adaptation is a way of life in Nigeria, where climate\\u000a variability is the

Ellen Woodley

292

Allergic conjunctivitis in Jos-Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) may follow seasonal or perennial pattern. There are climatic and racial risk factors involved in some types of AC. It is more prevalent in warm climatic conditions and among Afro-Caribbeans, Arabs and Asians and less among the White populations. Clinical presentations also seem to follow climatic and genetic predisposition. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of AC and its clinical presentations in a hospital setting in this region in people of all ages. Materials and Methods: This is a hospital-based retrospective study of new patients seen at Adoose Specialist Hospital, Jos the capital city of Plateau State in North Central Nigeria with clinical diagnosis of AC from 2000 to 2009. Results: There were 972 subjects, 474 (48.8%) males and 498 (51.2%) females with M:F ratio of 1:1.05. The most common symptom was itching followed by redness, pains, watery/mucoid discharge, sticky eyes, puffy eyes and photophobia. The presence of papillae in the upper tarsal or lower conjunctiva, a discrete or confluent gelatinous hypertrophy of the limbal conjunctiva (Trantas dots), hyperpigmentation, hyperemia/chemosis of the conjunctiva were the common signs. AC was more prevalent in those aged 1?16 years 38.4% decreasing to 4.9% in the age group above 50 years. The presentation followed perennial pattern, with a peak around July. The most prevalent ocular comorbid condition was refractive error (distant RE and presbyopia) in 15.4%, followed by pterygium/pinguecula 3.6%, bacterial conjunctivitis in 2.2%, glaucoma 2.1% and eyelid disorders 1.7%. Cataract was present in 1.3%, and keratopathy 1.1%. Other conditions such as episcleritis, dry eye, vitamin A deficiency and posterior segment disease were also present in decreasing order. Systemic association were few with generalised body atopy in 0.3%. Conclusion: The prevalence of AC was 32% and is similar to what pertains in some of the African hospital studies, but differs in presentation from the Caucasians. PMID:24791053

Malu, Keziah N.

2014-01-01

293

Oyo-first field Deepwater Nigeria?  

SciTech Connect

The Oyo-1 well was drilled in 3Q95 in OPL 210. The partners in the block are Allied Energy (Operator) and the Statoil and BP Alliance. This well was the first well drilled in Deepwater Nigeria and is a reported hydrocarbon discovery. Although the well was within the Niger Delta depositional system, the deepwater play types drilled were quite different than anything previously tested on the Nigerian shelf or onshore. One year on, some of the questions to be asked are: (1) What did Oyo-1 discover? (2) What has been done to establish the commerciality, or otherwise, of the hydrocarbon pools encountered? (3) What impact does this discovery have on other prospects identified in the deepwater area? The answer to these questions will help to identify whether a new hydrocarbon province in the deepwater Nigeria area can be developed, or not.

Lilletveit, R.; Nelson, L. [The Statoil and BP Alliance, Stavanger (Norway); Osahon, G. [Allied Energy Resources (Nig) Ltd., Lagos (Nigeria)

1996-08-01

294

Ethics of clinical trials in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

The conduct of clinical trials for the development and licensing of drugs is a very important aspect of healthcare. Drug research, development and promotion have grown to a multi-billion dollar global business. Like all areas of human endeavour involving generation and control of huge financial resources, it could be subject to deviant behaviour, sharp business practices and unethical practices. The main objective of this review is to highlight potential ethical challenges in the conduct of clinical trials in Nigeria and outline ways in which these can be avoided. Current international and national regulatory and ethical guidelines are reviewed to illustrate the requirements for ethical conduct of clinical trials. Past experiences of unethical conduct of clinical trials especially in developing countries along with the increasing globalisation of research makes it imperative that all players should be aware of the ethical challenges in clinical trials and the benchmarks for ethical conduct of clinical research in Nigeria. PMID:25013247

Okonta, Patrick I.

2014-01-01

295

Ethics of clinical trials in Nigeria.  

PubMed

The conduct of clinical trials for the development and licensing of drugs is a very important aspect of healthcare. Drug research, development and promotion have grown to a multi-billion dollar global business. Like all areas of human endeavour involving generation and control of huge financial resources, it could be subject to deviant behaviour, sharp business practices and unethical practices. The main objective of this review is to highlight potential ethical challenges in the conduct of clinical trials in Nigeria and outline ways in which these can be avoided. Current international and national regulatory and ethical guidelines are reviewed to illustrate the requirements for ethical conduct of clinical trials. Past experiences of unethical conduct of clinical trials especially in developing countries along with the increasing globalisation of research makes it imperative that all players should be aware of the ethical challenges in clinical trials and the benchmarks for ethical conduct of clinical research in Nigeria. PMID:25013247

Okonta, Patrick I

2014-05-01

296

Health Literacy and the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the authors examined health related challenges facing Nigeria. They argued that the relationship between literacy and health in today's knowledge-based economy further puts pressure on countries like Nigeria to raise its literacy rates if it is to compete in the global market. This line of thought is based on the fact that in…

Evawoma-Enuku, Usiwoma; Oyitso, Mabel; Enuku, Christie Akpoigho

2010-01-01

297

Entrepreneurial Education in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions and Sustainable Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The higher education in Nigeria has witnessed a tremendous growth in the last 50 years in terms of producing manpower that could bring about development. However, the problem of Nigeria today is not about human and natural resources, but how to translate the human potentials to meet the realization of its all round development and sustain economic…

Agboola, B. M.

2010-01-01

298

Pathogenic Variation of Phakopsora pachyrhizi Infecting Soybean in Nigeria  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybean rust is an important disease in Nigeria and many other soybean-producing countries world-wide. To determine the geographical distribution of soybean rust in Nigeria, soybean fields were surveyed in the Derived Savanna, Northern Guinea Savanna, and Southern Guinea Savanna agroecological zones...

299

Admission Policies and the Quality of University Education in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The population of Nigeria is 140 million according to the last 2006 census. Only 75 Universities are available to cater to this population with one University for 1,866,000 people. The inability of the available Universities in Nigeria to cope with the high demand for University education has put much pressure on University admissions. In order to…

Okoroma, N. S.

2008-01-01

300

Secret Cults in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria: An Appraisal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultism has remained a problem for tertiary institutions in Nigeria and the Larger Nigerian society since the first decade of the existence of university education in Nigeria. It has been worrisome to have children on campuses and several measures had been adopted to curb cultism some of such measures were the expulsion of the cultists caught and…

Aluede, Raymond O. A.; Oniyama, Hope O.

2009-01-01

301

Financing Adult and Non-Formal Education in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to determine how adult and non formal education is financed in Nigeria; and to examine areas or forms of and the problems of financing adult and non-formal education in Nigeria. Survey research was used in order to carry out the study. Three hundred and twenty five (325) respondents from government agencies,…

Hassan, Moshood Ayinde

2009-01-01

302

Professional Counseling in Nigeria: Past, Present, and Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The events that circumscribed the parameters of today's counseling in Nigeria are many and varied regarding their influence in shaping the development of the profession in the country. The authors review these events and the current status of counseling in Nigeria, including the challenges faced in the profession. Future trends and suggestions for…

Okocha, Aneneosa A. G.; Alika, Ijeoma H.

2012-01-01

303

Evolving Creativity in Nigeria Education: A Philosophy Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acquisition of appropriate creative skills, abilities and competence both mental and physical as equipment for the individual to live in and contribute to the development of the society' is one of the cardinal objectives of national policy on education by the Federal Government of Nigeria. It suffices to say, that the Nigeria educational system is presently at a cross-road,

STEPHEN BOLAJI

304

The MacArthur Foundation in Nigeria: Report on Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2007, Nigeria passed an important milestone: one elected government passed power to another for the first time in the nation's history. Though imperfect, the poll demonstrated powerfully that Nigeria's representative democracy was not a transient phase between periods of military repression but a growing reality. For 20 years, the MacArthur…

John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 2009

2009-01-01

305

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON BASIC EDUCATION IN NIGERIA  

E-print Network

the available literature, the review aims to identify the gaps in the research ­ both substantiveJune 2014 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON BASIC EDUCATION IN NIGERIA Issues of access, quality, equity and impact Sara Humphreys with Lee Crawfurd #12;Review of the literature on basic education in Nigeria EDOREN

Sussex, University of

306

Listenership of Radio Agricultural Broadcasts in Southwestern Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agricultural broadcasts on radio play a major role in agricultural extension and rural development in Nigeria due to the low ratio of extension agents in relation to the farming population. The broadcasts have been on air for some time and therefore there is a need to investigate their acceptance among the rural dwellers in Southwestern Nigeria.…

Emmanuel, Adekoya Adegbenga; Olabode, Badiru Idris

2012-01-01

307

Policy and Experiment in Mother Tongue Literacy in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses Nigeria's efforts to achieve mother-tongue literacy for its citizens. Describes Nigeria's complicated sociolinguistic landscape, national language policies, and the Ife experimental project, studying the use of the mother tongue in primary schools. Points to nonlinguistic factors in educational success, including parental background,…

Akinnaso, F. Niyi

1993-01-01

308

OIL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND FOOD INSECURITY IN NIGERIA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing spate of fluctuations in the world price of crude oil and the global food crisis in recent years have been issues of concern to policymakers the world over. Since the first oil shock in 1974, oil has annually produced over 90 per cent of Nigeria's export income. In 2000, Nigeria received 99.6 per cent of its export income

Eme O. Akpan

2009-01-01

309

Developing mental health services in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This grass-roots level mental health awareness programme considerably increased use of community-based mental health services\\u000a in a part of Nigeria where knowledge about treatability of mental illness was limited. The benefits of the programme were\\u000a sustained for a significant period after the initial awareness programme. In order for attitude changes to be reinforced,\\u000a similar awareness programmes must be repeated at

Julian Eaton; Ahamefula O. Agomoh

2008-01-01

310

Aspects of tar sands development in Nigeria  

SciTech Connect

Development of Nigerian massive reserves of crude bitumen and associated heavy oil is imminent in view of the impacts that the huge importation of these materials and their products have on the nation's economy, coupled with the depleting reserves of Nigeria and highlights the appropriate production technology options and their environmental implications. The utilization potentials of these resources are also enumerated, as well as the government's role in achieving accelerated, long-term tar sands development in the country.

Adewusi, V.A. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (NG))

1992-07-01

311

Child Abuse in Africa: Nigeria as focus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ebigbo through the example of Nigeria illustrates the sheer magnitude of the problem of child abuse and neglect in Africa.\\u000a The traditional farming and trading Nigerian society, impacted by economic and political misery, cultural conflict, unemployment,\\u000a illiteracy, and urban drift, is leading to exploited, uneducated, abused, malnourished children. Economic misery hits the\\u000a children and women the hardest, producing broken marriages

P. O. Ebigbo

2003-01-01

312

Floating Vegetation of Lake Kainji, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

FEARS1 that Lake Kainji in Nigeria would become infested with the water weed Pistia stratiotes have not been borne out by recent events. This man-made lake now seems to be free of weed, in contrast to similar lakes elsewhere. At Kariba (area 4,300 km2, closed in 1958) where the lake took 4.5 yr to fill, extensive mats of Salvinia auriculata

A. M. A. Imevbore

1971-01-01

313

Factors which predict violence victimization in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Violence is a major public health issue, globally as well as in the African continent. This paper looks at Nigeria and begins the process of identifying the factors that predict interpersonal violence in that country. The purpose is to interpret the implications of the results presented here for violence prevention programmes in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study is based on the responses of 2324 Nigerians included in Round Four of the Afrobarometer surveys. The study concentrates on 579 respondents who reported either they or someone else in their family had been the victim of violence, defined as being physically attacked, in the past year. Results: A logistical regression analysis revealed five significant factors that predicted interpersonal violence: being the victim of a property crime, the fear of crime, the respondents faith, whethera police station was in the local area and poverty. The findings revealed that 43.7% of the sample had been victimised within the past year and 18.8% had been the victim of both violent and property crimes. One surprising findingwas the number of respondents who were re-victimised; 75% of violence victims also had been property crime victims. Conclusions: These findings suggest that target hardening should be the basis to plan, implement and evaluate violence prevention programmes in Nigeria. Prevention personnel and/or law enforcement need to respond to reported incidents of property and/or violence victimisation and attempt to prepare victims to protect both their premises and their persons in the future. PMID:24970968

Fry, Lincoln J.

2014-01-01

314

The 'beyond parental control' label in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Recent reports in Nigeria indicate a geometric rise in incarcerated adolescents, with an overwhelming majority of this increase being attributed to adolescents being declared 'beyond parental control'. There is a nagging suspicion that the Nigerian juvenile justice system has over criminalised adolescents by declaring them 'beyond control' when behavioural problems have actually resulted from child abuse/neglect and family disruption. A study was undertaken in a juvenile justice institution in Nigeria to assess the adequacy of pre-incarceration parental care among adolescents that had been declared as 'beyond parental control'. The study included 75 adolescent boys that had been declared as 'beyond parental control' and a comparison group of 144 matched school going boys. It examined self-reports received from the adolescent boys regarding their pre-incarceration family life and social circumstances, as well as the behavioural problems they had experienced. The findings indicate that adolescent boys who were declared as 'beyond parental control' had a significantly higher lifetime history of behavioural problems than the comparison group, and they also had significantly higher indicators of pre-incarceration child abuse/neglect and problems with stability and consistency of primary support. These findings pose questions regarding the presumption of adequate parental care prior to the declaration of 'beyond parental control'. It also raises questions about child rights protection and juvenile justice reform in Nigeria. PMID:24284377

Atilola, Olayinka; Omigbodun, Olayinka; Bella-Awusah, Tolulope

2014-01-01

315

The convergence of American and Nigerian religious conservatism in a biopolitical shaping of Nigeria's HIV/AIDS prevention programmes  

PubMed Central

Nigeria has the largest number of HIV/AIDS cases in West Africa, with 3.3 million people estimated to be living with the disease. The country remains a fragile democratic state and has allocated insufficient resources to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS among its citizens. The preponderance of President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) dollars, expert knowledge, conservative ideology and activities has shaped the direction of HIV/AIDS sexual-transmission prevention programmes in Nigeria. PEPFAR channels significant resources through Nigerian faith-based organisations (FBOs), and considers these organisations integral for HIV prevention strategies. In many instances, HIV/AIDS prevention programmes managed by FBOs reflect their ideologies of morality and sexuality. There is a convergence of religious ideology concerning morality and HIV infectivity between American and Nigerian conservatives; this produces a fertile ground for the influence and expansion of the conservative activities of PEPFAR in Nigeria. The paper highlights this nexus and draws attention to the biopolitical underpinning of PEPFAR in shaping Nigeria's HIV prevention programmes. The paper further notes both positive and negative effects of PEPFAR activities and attempts by the Obama administration to redirect PEPFAR to a more holistic approach in order to optimise outcomes. PMID:23391163

Jappah, Jlateh V.

2013-01-01

316

Management of sickle cell disease: a review for physician education in Nigeria (sub-saharan Africa).  

PubMed

Sickle cell disease (SCD) predominates in sub-Saharan Africa, East Mediterranean areas, Middle East, and India. Nigeria, being the most populous black nation in the world, bears its greatest burden in sub-Saharan Africa. The last few decades have witnessed remarkable scientific progress in the understanding of the complex pathophysiology of the disease. Improved clinical insights have heralded development and establishment of disease modifying interventions such as chronic blood transfusions, hydroxyurea therapy, and haemopoietic stem cell transplantation. Coupled with parallel improvements in general supportive, symptomatic, and preventive measures, current evidence reveals remarkable appreciation in quality of life among affected individuals in developed nations. Currently, in Nigeria and other West African states, treatment and control of SCD are largely suboptimal. Improved knowledge regarding SCD phenotypes and its comprehensive care among Nigerian physicians will enhance quality of care for affected persons. This paper therefore provides a review on the aetiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and management of SCD in Nigeria, with a focus on its local patterns and peculiarities. Established treatment guidelines as appropriate in the Nigerian setting are proffered, as well as recommendations for improving care of affected persons. PMID:25667774

Adewoyin, Ademola Samson

2015-01-01

317

Management of Sickle Cell Disease: A Review for Physician Education in Nigeria (Sub-Saharan Africa)  

PubMed Central

Sickle cell disease (SCD) predominates in sub-Saharan Africa, East Mediterranean areas, Middle East, and India. Nigeria, being the most populous black nation in the world, bears its greatest burden in sub-Saharan Africa. The last few decades have witnessed remarkable scientific progress in the understanding of the complex pathophysiology of the disease. Improved clinical insights have heralded development and establishment of disease modifying interventions such as chronic blood transfusions, hydroxyurea therapy, and haemopoietic stem cell transplantation. Coupled with parallel improvements in general supportive, symptomatic, and preventive measures, current evidence reveals remarkable appreciation in quality of life among affected individuals in developed nations. Currently, in Nigeria and other West African states, treatment and control of SCD are largely suboptimal. Improved knowledge regarding SCD phenotypes and its comprehensive care among Nigerian physicians will enhance quality of care for affected persons. This paper therefore provides a review on the aetiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and management of SCD in Nigeria, with a focus on its local patterns and peculiarities. Established treatment guidelines as appropriate in the Nigerian setting are proffered, as well as recommendations for improving care of affected persons. PMID:25667774

Adewoyin, Ademola Samson

2015-01-01

318

Piloting Laboratory Quality System Management in Six Health Facilities in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Achieving accreditation in laboratories is a challenge in Nigeria like in most African countries. Nigeria adopted the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa Stepwise Laboratory (Quality) Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (WHO/AFRO– SLIPTA) in 2010. We report on FHI360 effort and progress in piloting WHO-AFRO recognition and accreditation preparedness in six health facility laboratories in five different states of Nigeria. Method Laboratory assessments were conducted at baseline, follow up and exit using the WHO/AFRO– SLIPTA checklist. From the total percentage score obtained, the quality status of laboratories were classified using a zero to five star rating, based on the WHO/AFRO quality improvement stepwise approach. Major interventions include advocacy, capacity building, mentorship and quality improvement projects. Results At baseline audit, two of the laboratories attained 1- star while the remaining four were at 0- star. At follow up audit one lab was at 1- star, two at 3-star and three at 4-star. At exit audit, four labs were at 4- star, one at 3-star and one at 2-star rating. One laboratory dropped a ‘star’ at exit audit, while others consistently improved. The two weakest elements at baseline; internal audit (4%) and occurrence/incidence management (15%) improved significantly, with an exit score of 76% and 81% respectively. The elements facility and safety was the major strength across board throughout the audit exercise. Conclusion This effort resulted in measurable and positive impact on the laboratories. We recommend further improvement towards a formal international accreditation status and scale up of WHO/AFRO– SLIPTA implementation in Nigeria. PMID:25542022

Mbah, Henry; Ojo, Emmanuel; Ameh, James; Musuluma, Humphrey; Negedu-Momoh, Olubunmi Ruth; Jegede, Feyisayo; Ojo, Olufunmilayo; Uwakwe, Nkem; Ochei, Kingsley; Dada, Michael; Udah, Donald; Chiegil, Robert; Torpey, Kwasi

2014-01-01

319

An Appraisal of Female Sex Work in Nigeria - Implications for Designing and Scaling Up HIV Prevention Programmes  

PubMed Central

Background The HIV epidemic in Nigeria is complex with diverse factors driving the epidemic. Accordingly, Nigeria's National Agency for the Control of AIDS is coordinating a large-scale initiative to conduct HIV epidemic appraisals across all states. These appraisals will help to better characterize the drivers of the epidemic and ensure that the HIV prevention programmes match the local epidemic context, with resources allocated to interventions that have the greatest impact locally. Currently, the mapping and size estimation of Female Sex Workers (FSWs) - a major component of the appraisal has been completed in seven states. These states are using the data generated to plan, prioritize and scale-up sub-national HIV prevention programmes. Methodology It involved a two-level process of identifying and validating locations where FSWs solicit and/or meet clients (“hotspots”). In the first level, secondary key informants were interviewed to collect information about the geographic location and description of the hotspots. For the second level, FSWs were interviewed at each hotspot and information on population size estimates, typologies and operational dynamics of the FSWs were collected. Results Across the seven states, a total of 17,266 secondary key informants and 5,732 FSWs were interviewed. 10,233 hotspots were identified with an estimated 126,489 FSWs ranging from 5,920 in Anambra to 46,691 in Lagos. The most common hotspots were bars/nightclubs (30%), hotels/lodges (29.6%), streets (16.6%), and brothels (14.6%). Furthermore, the population density of FSWs (per thousand adult men) across the states ranged from 2 in Anambra to 17 in the Federal Capital Territory. Conclusion FSW populations in Nigeria are large and diverse, with substantial differences between and within states. Improved understanding of the location, population size, density, organizational typologies and clients of sex work has informed and is central to Nigeria's planning process for scaling up focused HIV prevention programmes. PMID:25118691

Ikpeazu, Akudo; Momah-Haruna, Amaka; Madu Mari, Baba; Thompson, Laura H.; Ogungbemi, Kayode; Daniel, Uduak; Aboki, Hafsatu; Isac, Shajy; Gorgens, Marelize; Mziray, Elizabeth; Njie, Ndella; Akala, Francisca Ayodeji; Emmanuel, Faran; Odek, Willis Omondi; Blanchard, James F.

2014-01-01

320

Serum Lipid Profiles and Homocysteine Levels in Adults with Stroke or Myocardial Infarction in the Town of Gombe in Northern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the incidence of infectious diseases has been on the decline in developing countries, the toll of cardiovascular diseases, including stroke and myocardial infarction, has been increasing. The impres- sion of physicians in certain regions of the western Sahel, including the state of Gombe in northeastern Nigeria, is that macrovascular disease in the indigenous population is on the rise. This

Robert H. Glew; Henry Okolie; Michael Crossey; Ojo Suberu; Miguel Trujillo; Mario Pereyra; Dorothy J. VanderJagt

2004-01-01

321

Basement geology in the sedimentary basins of Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Nigeria, the dominant type of basement rock intersected by wells drilled for hydrocarbons, limestone, or water is granite. The three sedimentary basins in Nigeria are underlain by continental crust except in the Niger delta, where the basement rock is interpreted to be oceanic crust. Most of the wells that penetrated the basement are in the Eastern Dahomey embayment of western Nigeria. A maximum thickness of about 12,000 m of sedimentary rocks is attained in the offshore western Niger delta, but maximum thicknesses of sedimentary rocks are about 2,000 m in the Chad basin and only 500 m in the Sokoto embayment.

Avbovbo, Akpo A.

1980-07-01

322

AIDS NGOS and corruption in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Using two ethnographic case studies, the intersecting dynamics of inequality, morality, and corruption are examined as they play out in Nigerian AIDS NGOs. To the Nigerian public, local AIDS organizations are widely seen as conduits for corruption. But local opinions of particular NGOs and their leaders turn less on whether donor resources were misused and more on the ways that people who accumulate the benefits of corruption use them socially. Nevertheless, discontent swirls about corruption in general, a fact that suggests a gradual change in people's understandings of the processes that produce inequality in Nigeria. PMID:22469532

Smith, Daniel Jordan

2011-01-01

323

Ocular injuries among industrial welders in Port Harcourt, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of ocular injuries among industrial welders and rate the use of protective eyewear at work among industrial welders in Port Harcourt. Information from this study will provide a database for effective policy formation on prevention of occupational eye injuries in Port Harcourt Rivers State. Methods A cross-sectional survey of ocular injuries and use of protective eyewear among industrial welders in the Port Harcourt local government area of Rivers State, Nigeria, was carried out over a three-month period. Five hundred welders were selected by simple random sampling. Information was obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. All welders were examined in their workshops. Results Flying metal chips were the chief source of ocular injury, as reported by 199 (68.15%) of those who gave a history of work-related eye injury, while arc rays accounted for the remaining 93 (31.85%). There was a high level of awareness of the risk of sustaining an eye injury from welding (n = 490, 98%), but only 46 (15.3%) of the welders were using protective eyewear at the time of injury. Conclusion To minimize ocular injury and promote eye health amongst industrial welders, safety intervention programs, such as awareness campaigns, setting up of targeted programs by the relevant government agencies, and encouragement of locally produced eye protectors is recommended. The involvement of occupational medical practitioners is also strongly recommended. PMID:21966197

Fiebai, B; Awoyesuku, EA

2011-01-01

324

Negotiating culture: Christianity and the Ogo society in Amasiri, Nigeria   

E-print Network

There have been two key difficulties concerning the study of indigenous rituals, religious conversion and change among the Igbo of South-eastern Nigeria, both before and after the missionary upsurge of the mid-nineteenth ...

Obinna, Elijah Oko

2011-07-01

325

High Genetic Variability of Schistosoma haematobium in Mali and Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Schistosoma haematobium is one of the most prevalent parasitic flatworms, infecting over 112 million people in Africa. However, little is known about the genetic diversity of natural S. haematobium populations from the human host because of the inaccessible location of adult worms in the host. We used 4 microsatellite loci to genotype individually pooled S. haematobium eggs directly from each patient sampled at 4 endemic locations in Africa. We found that the average allele number of individuals from Mali was significantly higher than that from Nigeria. In addition, no significant difference in allelic composition was detected among the populations within Nigeria; however, the allelic composition was significantly different between Mali and Nigeria populations. This study demonstrated a high level of genetic variability of S. haematobium in the populations from Mali and Nigeria, the 2 major African endemic countries, suggesting that geographical population differentiation may occur in the regions. PMID:25748721

Ezeh, Charles; Yin, Mingbo; Li, Hongyan; Zhang, Ting; Xu, Bin; Sacko, Moussa; Feng, Zheng; Hu, Wei

2015-01-01

326

The cost-effectiveness in the use of HIV counselling and testing-mobile outreaches in reaching men who have sex with men (MSM) in northern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk of HIV and other STI infections in Nigeria. This is because MSM are afraid to seek medical help because the healthcare workers in various facilities are afraid of the consequences if they provide services for MSM citing the law as a reason not to intervene. MSM in northern states of Nigeria are facing double-jeopardy because the few international partners working in MSM in Nigeria are pulling out of these volatile areas because of the fear of attacks by the Boko Haram and the Nigerian law enforcement agencies. Objectives The intervention was conducted to promote affordable and sustainable HIV care and treatment for MSM in Nigeria. Methods This intervention was conducted in the Boko Haram ravaged cities of Kano and Maiduguri (North-East Nigeria). Twenty MSM-key influencers from the two cities were identified and trained on HIV counselling and testing, caregivers, case managers and on initiation process for ARV treatment for new HIV+MSM as well as ethical considerations. Results The mean age of the key influencers was 24 years +/?SD. Each of the trained 20 key influencers reached 20 MSM-peer with condom promotion, HCT, referral to identified MSM-community health centers and follow-up/caregiving within the space of one month. The project was able to reach 400 MSM in the two cities. 89% of the peers consented to HCT. HIV prevalence among the participants was at 18%. The project recorded ARV-successful referral to healthcare facilities for the respondents that tested positive. The key influencers have been following up for ARV-adherence. Conclusions Use of community members should be promoted for sustainability and ownership. It also helps in eradicating socio-cultural barrier to HIV intervention for MSM. Moreover, this proves to be one of the safest and affordable methods of reaching MSM in Nigeria in this ugly time of legalization of homophobia in the country's constitution. PMID:25394114

Ifekandu, Chiedu; Suleiman, Aliyu; Aniekwe, Ogechukwu

2014-01-01

327

Variability of daily precipitation over Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study identified coherent daily precipitation regions in Nigeria by analyzing the spatial and temporal homogeneity of daily precipitation; investigating the dependence of wet day amount (WDAMT) and percentage of wet day (PWD) on latitude, longitude, elevation and distance from the ocean and finally regionalizing the daily precipitation stations. Non-parametric spatial homogeneity test was carried out on daily precipitation over 23 stations in Nigeria between 1992 and 2000 while the temporal analysis was done from 1971 to 2000. Regression analysis was used to determine the dependence of WDAMT and PWD on latitude, longitude, elevation and distance from the ocean. Principal component and cluster analyses were conducted to regionalize the precipitation stations. Seven homogeneous groups of stations were identified. Elevation explains 19.9 and 4.8 % of the variance in WDAMT and PWD, respectively, while latitude explains 76.2 % of variance in PWD. Eight principal components that explain 63.1 % of the variance in the daily precipitation data were retained for cluster analysis. Precipitation in the six daily precipitation regions that emerged from the cluster analysis is influenced by the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone, latitude, distance from ocean and southwesterlies while the northern region alone is influenced by the African Easterly Wave. In addition, precipitation in all the regions is influenced by topography. Low to medium spatial coherence exists in the precipitation regions. The spatial variations of PWD and WDAMT have implications for agricultural productivity and water resources in different parts of the country.

Adeniyi, M. O.

2014-11-01

328

Indications for eye removal in southern Nigeria.  

PubMed

To determine the trend in frequency and clinical indications of surgical removal of eyes in a tertiary eye centre in Calabar, Nigeria. This is a 10-year retrospective review of patients who underwent surgical removal of eyes in a tertiary centre. The clinical records were reviewed (between Jan 2001 and Dec 2010) for demographic data, type of surgery, and clinical indications. A total of 137 eyes were surgically removed within the study period. Of these 46 were children (<16 years). There were 85 males and 52 females giving a M:F ratio of 1.6:1. Clinical indications for surgical eye removal include infective causes (32.1 %; perforated corneal ulcers, endophthalmitis, panophthalmitis), trauma (21.2 %), tumours (21.2 %), anterior staphyloma (13.1 %), and painful blind eyes (9.5 %). Phthisis bulbi, expulsive haemorrhage and aphakic bullous keratopathy accounted for the remaining 2.8 %. The eyes were removed by evisceration (63.5 %), enucleation (29.9 %) and modified exenteration (6.6 %). The commonest indication for eye removal in children was tumour (retinoblastoma). Eye removal in southern Nigeria is often due to infective causes (panophthalmitis and endophthalmitis), perforated corneal ulcer, mechanical trauma (blunt or open globe injury from gunshots or direct trauma), chemical burns, tumours, persistently painful blind eye and anterior staphyloma. Other indications for eye removal were phthisis bulbi, expulsive haemorrhage and aphakic bullous keratopathy. PMID:23275188

Ibanga, Affiong; Asana, Uduak; Nkanga, Dennis; Duke, Roseline; Etim, Bassey; Oworu, Olugbemisola

2013-08-01

329

Petroleum prospects of Southern Nigeria's Anambra Basin  

SciTech Connect

Surrounded by the Benue trough, the Middle Niger River depression, the Niger River delta, and the Abakaliki anticlinorium, Nigeria's Anambra basin probably holds a thick, unexplored sequence with significant hydrocarbon potential. The basin's sediment could be 16,000 ft thick; a Bouguer gravity survey indicates two parallel northeast-southwest trending gravity lows (the Anambra low and the Awka depression) separated by the Onitsha high. Although geologists interpret the basin as Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary, its southern portion is down-warped and overlapped by the delta's thick Tertiary deposits, lowering the Cretaceous to prohibitive depths in the overlap areas; wells drilled to 16,000 ft at the delta's apex thus have not encountered the Cretaceous sediments. An evaluation of the basin's pre-Santonian hydrocarbon prospects will require a deep exploratory drilling program. As Nigeria shifts its production emphasis from oil to gas and firms up plans for an LNG plant in the Niger delta, exploration in the gas-prone Anambra basin will probably surge.

Avbovbo, A.A.; Ayoola, O.

1981-05-04

330

Dermatologic conditions in teenage adolescents in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Skin disorders are common in adolescents, and the impact on quality of life can be enormous, particularly when viewed against the backdrop of the visibility of skin diseases and the psychologically vulnerable period of adolescence. However, few studies have documented the magnitude of skin disorders in this subset of individuals. We therefore estimated the point prevalence and pattern of dermatologic conditions in adolescents attending various secondary schools in Calabar, Southern Nigeria. Methods Using a structured questionnaire, relevant sociodemographic information was obtained from 1,447 teenage adolescents from eight secondary schools. Thereafter, a whole body examination was conducted to determine the presence and types of skin disorders seen. Results Skin diseases were seen in 929 students. The point prevalence was higher in males (72.1%) than in females (58.3%). Private schools had a higher prevalence than public schools. The six most common dermatoses were acne vulgaris, pityriasis versicolor, nevi, tinea, miliaria, and keloid/hypertrophic scars, and accounted for over 80% of the dermatoses seen. Conclusion The point prevalence of dermatoses in senior secondary school adolescents was 64.2%. Although a large number of skin disorders were observed, only a handful accounted for a significant proportion of the diseases seen. This increases the ease of training community health workers in the recognition and treatment of common skin diseases. Age, race, and climatic factors are important determinants of skin diseases in adolescents in Nigeria. PMID:24966708

Henshaw, Eshan B; Olasode, Olayinka A; Ogedegbe, Evelyn E; Etuk, Imaobong

2014-01-01

331

Helping women traders. Organizing for change: Nigeria.  

PubMed

In Nigeria, the World Bank developed a pilot project, the Women's Management Training Outreach Programme (WMTOP), to improve the managerial skills of illiterate and semiliterate rural business women and farmers. In 1993, WMTOP chose the Country Women's Association of Nigeria (COWAN) for training. The result for a local group of cooperative kola nut traders was improved time management techniques, a more profitable division of labor, and the ability to keep better written financial records. WMTOP has taught women from 58 local groups (reaching 2600 women) the principles of human resource management, finance and credit, microproject management, and marketing. Although participants praise the project, a lack of money for business expansion continues to hold the women back from real success. Funding for WMTOP comes from the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank, which exists primarily to train government functionaries. This extension to include nongovernmental organizations in the training program is a result of the World Bank's effort to promote self-sufficiency. WMTOP attempts to take the program directly to the women, and the trainers live with the trainees in their home villages during the follow-up sessions. All of the WMTOP materials have been translated into Yoruba to eliminate misunderstandings. WMTOP seed money will end in 1996, but there is hope that this positive program will interest donors. PMID:12290003

Obadina, E

1995-01-01

332

Surgeons' opinions and practice of informed consent in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundInformed consent is perhaps more relevant to surgical specialties than to other clinical disciplines. Fundamental to this concept is the provision of relevant information for the patient to make an informed choice about a surgical intervention. The opinions of surgeons in Nigeria about informed consent in their practice were surveyed.MethodsA cross-sectional survey of surgeons in Nigeria was undertaken in 2004\\/5

Temidayo O Ogundiran; Clement A Adebamowo

2010-01-01

333

An Overview of Female Genital Mutilation in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Nigeria, due to its large population, has the highest absolute number of female genital mutilation (FGM) worldwide, accounting for about one-quarter of the estimated 115–130 million circumcised women in the world. The objective of this review is to ascertain the current status of FGM in Nigeria. Pertinent literature on FGM retrieved from internet services [Google search on FGM in Nigeria, www.online Nigeria, PubMed of the national library of medicine www.medconsumer. Info/tropics/fgm.htm, Biomedcentral and African Journal Online (AJOL) (FGM)] and textbooks, journals, and selected references for proper understanding of the topic was included in this review. The national prevalence rate of FGM is 41% among adult women. Evidence abound that the prevalence of FGM is declining. The ongoing drive to eradicate FGM is tackled by World Health Organization, United Nations International Children Emergency Fund, Federation of International Obstetrics and Gynecology (FIGO), African Union, The economic commission for Africa, and many women organizations. However, there is no federal law banning FGM in Nigeria. There is need to eradicate FGM in Nigeria. Education of the general public at all levels with emphasis on the dangers and undesirability of FGM is paramount. PMID:23209995

Okeke, TC; Anyaehie, USB; Ezenyeaku, CCK

2012-01-01

334

Status of Job Motivation and Job Performance of Field Level Extension Agents in Ogun State: Implications for Agricultural Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The field level extension agents (FLEAs) are the lifeline of the agricultural extension system in Nigeria. Their motivation and job performance are therefore important to achieving faster agricultural development in Nigeria. The study identified the factors motivating the FLEAs working with Ogun State Agricultural development programme (OGADEP)…

Fabusoro, E.; Awotunde, J. A.; Sodiya, C. I.; Alarima, C. I.

2008-01-01

335

The Epidemiological features of lymphoid malignancies in Benin City, Nigeria: a 15 years study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Lymphoid malignancies compose a wide spectrum of different morphologic and clinical syndromes known to vary widely throughout the world. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence and time trends of lymphoid malignancies. Methods A 15 (May 1st 1996-April 30th 2010) years study of all patients who had lymph node biopsy at the Department of Haematology and Pathology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Results The 391 patients had a male preponderance (M:F; 1.6:1). An increase in the lymphoid malignant cases was noted from 95 cases in the first 5-year interval (1996–2000) to 179 cases in the last 5-year interval (2006–2010) giving an average increase of 84.0%. Non-Hodgkins lymphoma (61.1%) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (18.2%) were the most frequent followed by Hodgkin's lymphoma and myeloma with equal proportions of 9.0% each. A positive correlation with a significant linear trends was obtained (r=0.1949, p<0.0001). Geographic areas at risk were found mainly in patients residing in Delta State (67.0%) which is a major oil producing state and Edo State (30.4%) where the hospital is located, both in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Conclusion Future research into environmental agents and genetic makeup/HLA typing of patients can be carried out. PMID:22368753

Omoti, Caroline Edijana; Nwannadi, Alexander Ikenna; Obieche, Jude Chike; Olu-Eddo, Adesuwa Noma

2012-01-01

336

Some Thoughts about the Future of Guidance and Counselling in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examined guidance and counselling profession in Nigeria, with a discussion on the history, the present status and the problems confronting the profession in Nigeria. Recommendations are made that the authors believe if implemented would bring the counselling profession in Nigeria into relevance.

Aluede, Oyaziwo; Adomeh, Ilu O.C.; Afen-Akpaida, Justina E.

2004-01-01

337

Adult Education in Nigeria: The Consequence of Neglect and Agenda for Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In spite of the rich variety of natural resources in Nigeria, the country is still very much underdeveloped. Within and outside Nigeria, analysts are of the view that the country clearly has the potential to be prosperous. As Nigeria attempts without much success to pull itself out of the quagmire of underdevelopment, the inevitably persistent…

Nnazor, Reginald

2005-01-01

338

Buruli Ulcer in South Western Nigeria: A Retrospective Cohort Study of Patients Treated in Benin  

PubMed Central

Nigeria is known to be endemic to Buruli ulcer, but epidemiological data are remarkably rare. Here, we present a large cohort of 127 PCR-confirmed M. ulcerans infection patients coming from Nigeria and treated in a neighbouring country, Benin. Severe lesions and delay of consultation are factors that should encourage establishment of a treatment centre in South Western Nigeria. PMID:25569775

Marion, Estelle; Carolan, Kevin; Adeye, Ambroise; Kempf, Marie; Chauty, Annick; Marsollier, Laurent

2015-01-01

339

Harnessing science and technology for cassava productivity and food security in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Nigeria, cassava has grown to become one of the most popular staple food crops. For more than a decade, Nigeria has maintained global leadership in cassava production. This paper reviews and discusses the Nigeria capacity in cassava production and processing. The aim is to make policy suggestions that can assist government initiatives on promotion of cassava production and processing

Abolaji D. Dada; Oladele O. Afolabi; Willie O. Siyanbola

2009-01-01

340

Quality library and information science education in Nigeria: The place of public–private collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper espouses the rationale for public–private sector collaboration for quality library and information science education in Nigeria. In all the phases librarianship has passed through in Nigeria, it has been public sector sponsored. The paper identifies ways in which the private sector could participate towards ensuring quality library and information science education in Nigeria. It identifies the token presence

Augonus Nnamdi Uhegbu

2011-01-01

341

Government Regulations and Legislations Will Ensure Sustainable Waste Management in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the result of an independent investigation of Nigeria solid waste management systems. The report is anticipated to serve as stimulus to stakeholders in Nigeria and also to create awareness of the deplorable solid waste problems. It will also serve as information to prospective investors in solid waste management services in Nigeria. Towards the end of last century,

Simeon Afun

342

Modeling optimal cervical cancer prevention strategies in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to assess the most efficient combinations of vaccination and screening coverage for the prevention of cervical cancer (CC) at different levels of expenditure in Nigeria. Methods An optimization procedure, using a linear programming approach and requiring the use of two models (an evaluation and an optimization model), was developed. The evaluation model, a Markov model, estimated the annual number of CC cases at steady state in a population of 100,000 women for four alternative strategies: screening only; vaccination only; screening and vaccination; and no prevention. The results of the Markov model for each scenario were used as inputs to the optimization model determining the optimal proportion of the population to receive screening and/or vaccination under different scenarios. The scenarios varied by available budget, maximum screening and vaccination coverage, and overall reachable population. Results In the base-case optimization model analyses, with a coverage constraint of 20% for one lifetime screening, 95% for vaccination and a budget constraint of $1 per woman per year to minimize CC incidence, the optimal mix of prevention strategies would result in a reduction of CC incidence of 31% (3-dose vaccination available) or 46% (2-dose vaccination available) compared with CC incidence pre-vaccination. With a 3-dose vaccination schedule, the optimal combination of the different strategies across the population would be 20% screening alone, 39% vaccination alone and 41% with no prevention, while with a 2-dose vaccination schedule the optimal combination would be 71% vaccination alone, and 29% with no prevention. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the results are sensitive to the constraints included in the optimization model as well as the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and CC treatment cost. Conclusions The results of the optimization model indicate that, in Nigeria, the most efficient allocation of a limited budget would be to invest in both vaccination and screening with a 3-dose vaccination schedule, and in vaccination alone before implementing a screening program with a 2-dose vaccination schedule. PMID:24885048

2014-01-01

343

Living well with HIV in Nigeria? Stigma and survival challenges preventing optimum benefit from an ART clinic.  

PubMed

Thirty years into the HIV pandemic, the interactions of stigma, social and economic survival, and clinical interventions continue to be key to understanding and managing HIV at both personal and societal levels. With antiretroviral therapy, HIV is increasingly a chronic condition requiring lifelong treatment, near-perfect adherence, and support from both social networks and formal services. This study asked: is stigma still a significant problem for people living with HIV (PLHIV) who have secured access to antiretrovirals (ARVs)? How do PLHIV accessing ARVs in Nigeria experience the social, economic and health service supports intended to address their needs? What are the concerns and challenges of PLHIV and health workers regarding these supports? What are the implications for approaches to stigma and discrimination? This qualitative study at the Antiretroviral (ART) Clinic of the Osogbo State Hospital, Osun State, Nigeria involved in-depth interviews with 15 PLHIV who have been attending the clinic for at least one year, and three health workers. The results reveal both the diversity among even a small number of patients, and persistent cross-cutting themes of stigma, discrimination, poverty, and the psychological impacts of insecure livelihoods and well-intentioned but ultimately stigmatizing supports such as selective food parcels. Both population-based interventions against stigma and poverty, as well as micro-level, contextualized attention to patients', families' and health workers' fear of social exclusion and infection at a clinic and community level are needed if patients - and society - are to live well with HIV in Nigeria. PMID:24569837

Aransiola, Joshua; Imoyera, Winifred; Olowookere, Samuel; Zarowsky, Christina

2014-03-01

344

Comparison of the thermal properties of clay samples as potential walling material for naturally cooled building design.  

PubMed

The thermal properties of different clay samples obtained from locations in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria were investigated and compared, and in order to establish their suitability as building material from energy conservation point of view. The results showed that stoneware clay has the highest solar radiation absorptivity of 22.32 m(-1) while kaolin clay has the lowest radiation absoptivity of 14.46 m(-1). A model for the prediction of temperature variation with thickness of the samples was developed. Results showed that kaolin would make the best choice for the design of a naturally cooled building. PMID:12602605

Etuk, Sunday E; Akpabio, Idara O; Udoh, E M

2003-01-01

345

Energy assessment of Ivory Coast, Morocco, Nigeria, and Senegal  

SciTech Connect

This report is an overview of the energy market in four West African countries: The Ivory Coast, Morocco, Nigeria, and Senegal. We feel these countries are representative of the West African region. Together they account for 75% of the total energy use in West Africa, 78% of GDP, and 76% of population. The purpose of the study is to analyze the evolution of energy demand in the context of the general socio-economic background of the region. The study also examines energy supply and trade related to the energy sector. The analysis focuses on the study of commercial fuels. Although we have reviewed studies of wood, solar, wind, and agricultural residues, we leave out detailed discussions of these non-commercial energy forms. The first part of the report is an assessment of the trends in energy demand in the four study countries. We discuss the main factors driving energy demand sector by sector. This is followed by a review of the primary energy resources of the countries, and of the capacity for production of secondary fuels. The last section looks at energy trade, with particular emphasis on the role of the United States.

Ghirardi, A.; Sathaye, J.; Goering, P.

1986-11-01

346

Childhood Mortality in Federal Medical Centre Umuahia, South Eastern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the mortality pattern in children seen at Federal Medical Centre Umuahia (FMCU) Abia state, South Eastern Nigeria. Methods A retrospective cross sectional descriptive study over a 5-year period from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2008 using data retrieved from the hospital’s medical records department. Results A total of 3,814 children were admitted in the hospital and 434 of them died giving a mortality rate of 11%. The mean age was 1.7 (Std D of 3.19). Two hundred and thirty eight of them were males while 196 of them were females giving a sex ratio of 1.2:1. Majority of the mortality (49%) occurred within 24 hours of admission. The major causes of death during neonatal period were birth asphyxia (34%), prematurity (24%) and neonatal sepsis (24%). Malaria was the leading cause of death beyond the neonatal period accounting for 42% of cases. Other common mortality causes were pneumonia, septicaemia, diarrhea, HIV AIDS and meningitis each accounting for 10%, 10%, 7%, 7% and 5% respectively. The months of July, May and March accounted for most deaths (12%, 12% and 11% respectively). Conclusion Birth asphyxia and malaria associated deaths were responsible for most deaths during neonatal and beyond neonatal periods respectively. Presence of trained personal at all deliveries will help to reduce neonatal asphyxia. Efforts should be made to reinforce the existing effective malaria control tools. PMID:25337306

Charles, Nwafor Chukwuemeka; Chuku, Abali; Anazodo, Nnoli Martin

2014-01-01

347

Promoting cancer control training in resource limited environments: Lagos, Nigeria.  

PubMed

In resource limited nations, cancer control is often a lower priority issue creating challenges for the prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. Training and education are vital components of efforts to tackle this problem. A 3-day cancer control workshop was conducted at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH), Nigeria, in 2013. The curriculum included didactic lectures, panel discussions, and interactive sessions on local cancer statistics, preventive strategies, cancer registries, screening and diagnostic options, and treatment approaches with limited resources (chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery, and palliative care) and several site-specific (breast, lung, cervical, prostate, and colon) topics. Pre-workshop and post-workshop questionnaires were completed by participants. Eighty-six percent of the 50 workshop participants completed at least one questionnaire. Participants were mainly nurses and physicians (89% of responders), and 40% reported >25 years of practice experience. The more common local needs identified were professional education (65%) and increasing public cancer awareness (63%). The greatest interest for future programs was on research collaborations (70%). An immediate impact of the workshop was the commencement of monthly tumor board conferences and a review of the current cancer registry data. Capacity building is critical for the execution of effective cancer control strategies. Conducting collaborative workshops represents a cost-effective means of launching programs and energizing the medical community to pursue ongoing education and research addressing the anticipated cancer epidemic on the African continent. PMID:24243400

Nwogu, C; Mahoney, M; George, S; Dy, G; Hartman, H; Animashaun, M; Popoola, A; Michalek, A

2014-03-01

348

Systems-Based Aspects in the Training of IMG or Previously Trained Residents: Comparison of Psychiatry Residency Training in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, India, and Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: International medical graduates (IMGs) account for a significant proportion of residents in psychiatric training in the United States. Many IMGs may have previously completed psychiatry residency training in other countries. Their experiences may improve our system. Authors compared and contrasted psychiatry residency training in the…

Jain, Gaurav; Mazhar, Mir Nadeem; Uga, Aghaegbulam; Punwani, Manisha; Broquet, Karen E.

2012-01-01

349

Liver biopsy: experience at Enugu, eastern Nigeria.  

PubMed

A retrospective analysis of liver biopsies done at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, between January 1980 to December 1985 was done to determine the indications, level of preparation and investigation of the patients, biopsy techniques and failure rate, complications and histopathological results. The register of all biopsies sent to the Morbid Anatomy Department and the clinical records of the patients were used for the analysis. Of the 154 biopsies done, the Menghini technique was used in 128 cases (83.1%), the rest was by exploratory laparotomy. The commonest indication was unexplained hepatomegaly with or without splenomegaly 46 cases (29.8%). Adult cases accounted for 132 cases (85.7%) with male/female distribution of 3:1. Histologically proven cases of hepatocellular carcinoma accounted for 38 cases (14.2%). Pain requiring analgesics occurred in 8 cases (5.2%). The need for adequate clinical documentation of patients is emphasized. PMID:3508625

Osuafor, T O; Ikerionwu, S E; Ukabam, S O

1986-01-01

350

Otomycosis in Nigeria: treatment with mercurochrome.  

PubMed

Seventy-two mycologically proven cases of otomycosis (38 males, 34 females) aged 8-80 years were investigated. Aspergillus niger was the commonest aetiological agent (43.1%) followed by Candida spp. (22.2%), A. flavus (19.4%) and A. fumigatus (15.3%). Three topical drugs, namely mercurochrome, clotrimazole and locacorten-vioform, were evaluated for otomycosis therapy in separate groups of 24 patients each. Mercurochrome was found to be the most efficacious in terms of healing, relief from symptoms of the disease and production of negative fungal cultures. Mercurochrome is recommended as a safe and economical drug for the topical treatment of otomycosis in developing countries like Nigeria. PMID:11766105

Mgbor, N; Gugnani, H C

2001-11-01

351

Meren field water injection project offshore Nigeria  

SciTech Connect

The Meren Water Injection Project, which is one of the largest in West Africa in terms of injection volume, secondary reserves to be recovered and cost, is located in the Meren field offshore Nigeria. This study presents an updated comprehensive plan to deplete 7 reservoir units in sands that have been producing under solution gas drive and gravity segregation with minimal water influx. The reservoir units contain ca 80% of the original oil-in-place in Meren field. Detailed studies have been undertaken to evaluate the performances of the 7 reservoirs with a view to developing a secondary recovery plan which has been brought into reality. Injection was to start in mid-1982 but was delayed until mid-1983. The effect of the delay and the changing of injector locations on recovery and cost is discussed.

Adetoba, L.A.

1984-04-01

352

Nigeria: An Opportunity for Civilian Rule?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News discusses the current political situation in Nigeria. The nine resources discussed offer breaking news, commentary, and analysis. The next few weeks may prove crucial for Nigeria, which is beginning to see some signs of calm and civil order after a week of rioting and violence. The rioting erupted after opposition leader Moshood Abiola died of a heart attack on July 7 after four years in custody. In 1993 Abiola was poised to win a presidential election when the military annulled the poll and Infantry General Sani Abacha seized power. In June 1994 Abiola defiantly declared himself president and was quickly arrested and detained. After General Abacha's sudden death on June 8, his successor General Abdulsalam Abubakar immediately set out a course of modest reform, freeing a number of prominent political detainees. Abiola's release also appeared imminent when he suddenly died. Despite the unrest that followed, some analysts see the deaths of Abiola and Abacha as an opportunity for political progress in Africa's most populous country. Abubakar, some say, can now move forward and implement political reforms without fear of making the supporters or Abiola or Abacha lose face. In fact, the General is widely expected to announce a plan to ease the military out of power by October 1, independence day. This plan will likely center around the creation of a government of national unity, which will sit for four or five years and consist of four representatives from each of the nation's six main regions. Regardless if this or another plan is implemented, the transition from military to civilian rule will prove, as in almost every other nation making this tremendous leap, a painful and gradual process.

de Nie, Michael Willem.

1998-01-01

353

Legal and regulatory aspects of prescribing and marketing emergency contraception in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Emergency contraception remains so little used or understood and the lack of its awareness can be traced to a myriad of factors including legal and regulatory obstacles. The aim of this study was to determine the legal and regulatory aspects of dispensing or marketing a contraceptive method for reasons (especially emergency purposes) other than stated by the manufacturers. The existing drugs' and devices' regulatory systems in Nigeria, especially those governing family planning methods, were reviewed. A questionnaire was administered to 363 health workers, comprising of physicians, pharmacists, nurses and midwives, to determine the implications of dispensing some currently available oral contraceptives (OCs) for emergency purposes despite the fact that there is no explicit description of emergency use in the labelling of such drugs. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with regulatory bodies. It was observed that, with the exception of Postinor, the drug manufacturers' leaflets did not indicate that they could be used for emergency contraceptive purposes. Although 64.5% of the healthcare providers were aware that OCs and intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs) can be used for emergency purposes, 42.1% actually prescribed or recommended them. Many health workers (62.3%) were unaware of any legal implication with regards to prescribing unregistered drugs in Nigeria. The existing guidelines stipulate that a manufacturer or marketer should 're-register' a product if a new indication or use not contained in the initial application was found later. To satisfy legal requirements, it does appear that the currently available OCs and IUCDs in Nigeria must be labelled and registered for emergency contraceptive purposes. PMID:14510172

Adekunle, A O; Babarinsa, I A; Akinyemi, Z; Okediran, A Y

2001-01-01

354

Recovery and recycling practices in municipal solid waste management in Lagos, Nigeria  

SciTech Connect

The population of Lagos, the largest city in Nigeria, increased seven times from 1950 to 1980 with a current population of over 10 million inhabitants. The majority of the city's residents are poor. The residents make a heavy demand on resources and, at the same time, generate large quantities of solid waste. Approximately 4 million tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) is generated annually in the city, including approximately 0.5 million of untreated industrial waste. This is approximately 1.1 kg/cap/day. Efforts by the various waste management agencies set up by the state government to keep its streets and neighborhoods clean have achieved only minimal success. This is because more than half of these wastes are left uncollected from the streets and the various locations due to the inadequacy and inefficiency of the waste management system. Whilst the benefits of proper solid waste management (SWM), such as increased revenues for municipal bodies, higher productivity rate, improved sanitation standards and better health conditions, cannot be overemphasized, it is important that there is a reduction in the quantity of recoverable materials in residential and commercial waste streams to minimize the problem of MSW disposal. This paper examines the status of recovery and recycling in current waste management practice in Lagos, Nigeria. Existing recovery and recycling patterns, recovery and recycling technologies, approaches to materials recycling, and the types of materials recovered from MSW are reviewed. Based on these, strategies for improving recovery and recycling practices in the management of MSW in Lagos, Nigeria are suggested.

Kofoworola, O.F. [Environment Division, Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi, 91 Prachauthit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)], E-mail: sholafemi28@yahoo.com

2007-07-01

355

Mothers’ human papilloma virus knowledge and willingness to vaccinate their adolescent daughters in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in sexually active adolescents and young women and has been implicated as a cause of the majority of cases of cervical cancer, which is the second most common cancer in women in Nigeria. HPV is preventable with the use of HPV vaccines. Objectives The objective of this study was to assess mothers’ HPV knowledge and their willingness to vaccinate their adolescent daughters in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and methods This study was a community-based, descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in July, 2012 in Shomolu Local Government Area (LGA) of Lagos State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling method was employed to select the 290 respondents who participated in the study. Structured, pretested, interviewer-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Data was analyzed with Epi Info™ version 7. Results The study revealed low awareness of HPV (27.9%) and HPV vaccines (19.7%) among the mothers that participated. There was a high awareness for cervical cancer but little knowledge of its link to HPV. Awareness and utilization of HPV vaccines increased with increasing educational level (P < 0.05). There was a high willingness and intention among the mothers to vaccinate their girls (88.9%) and to recommend the vaccine to others (91.0%). Accessibility and affordability of the HPV vaccines were found to be possible barriers to future utilization of the vaccines. Conclusion Despite low knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccines, mothers were willing to vaccinate their daughters. We recommend improving mothers’ knowledge by education and the possible inclusion of the vaccine in the national immunization schedule to eliminate the financial barrier. PMID:23874123

Ezenwa, Beatrice N; Balogun, Mobolanle R; Okafor, Ifeoma P

2013-01-01

356

Twin-singleton differences in cognitive abilities in a sample of Africans in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Recent studies comparing cognitive abilities between contemporary twins and singletons in developed countries have suggested that twin deficits in cognitive abilities no longer exist. We examined cognitive abilities in a sample of twins and singletons born recently in Nigeria to determine whether recent findings can be replicated in developing countries. Our sample consisted of 413 pairs of twins and 280 singletons collected from over 45 public schools in Abuja and its neighboring states in Nigeria. The ages of twins and singletons ranged from 9 to 20 years with a mean (SD) of 14.6 years (2.2 years) for twins and 16.1 years (1.8 years) for singletons. Zygosity of the same-sex twins was determined by analysis of 16 deoxyribonucleic acid markers. We asked participants to complete a questionnaire booklet that included Standard Progressive Matrices-Plus Version (SPM+), Mill-Hill Vocabulary Scale (MHV), Family Assets Questionnaire, and demographic questions. The data were corrected for sex and age and then analyzed using maximum likelihood model-fitting analysis. Although twins and singletons were comparable in family social class indicators, singletons did better than twins across all the tests (d = 0.10 to 0.35). The average of d for SPM+ total [0.32; equivalent to 4.8 Intelligence Quotient (IQ) points] and d for MHV (0.24; equivalent to 3.6 IQ points) was 0.28 (equivalent to 4.2 IQ points), similar to the twin-singleton gap found in old cohorts in developed countries. We speculate that malnutrition, poor health, and educational systems in Nigeria may explain the persistence of twin deficits in cognitive abilities found in our sample. PMID:23835288

Hur, Yoon-Mi; Lynn, Richard

2013-08-01

357

Serological evidence of camel exposure to peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), a viral disease of sheep and goats, is endemic in Nigeria. There are reports indicating the involvement of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), the causative agent of PPR, in a camel respiratory syndrome in Africa. Considering that camels share the same grazing land and drinking points with other ruminants, this study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence and extent of PPRV antibodies in Nigerian camels. A total of 1517 camel sera samples were collected from four states (Borno, Kano, Kastina and Sokoto). The seroprevalence was determined by the H-protein-based competitive ELISA. The overall prevalence was 3.36 % (51/1517, 95 % confidence interval of 2.51-4.39 %). There was no significant differences in prevalence between states (p?=?0.8921) and between male and female camels (p?=?0.7424). The prevalence differed significantly (p?5 years (p?=?0.0042). These results show occasional transient PPRV infection of camels in Nigeria, and there is the need to include camels among species to be studied in elucidating the epidemiology of the disease in sheep and goats. PMID:25547805

Woma, Timothy Yusufu; Kalla, Demo Joab Usman; Ekong, Pius Stephen; Ularamu, Hussaini Gulak; Chollom, Solomon Chuwang; Lamurde, Iliya Iliyasu; Bajehson, Dogonyaro Benjamin; Tom, Nenfa Danjuma; Aaron, Gideon Bature; Shamaki, David; Bailey, Dalan; Diallo, Adama; Quan, Melvyn

2015-03-01

358

Mapping and prediction of schistosomiasis in Nigeria using compiled survey data and Bayesian geospatial modelling.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis prevalence data for Nigeria were extracted from peer-reviewed journals and reports, geo-referenced and collated in a nationwide geographical information system database for the generation of point prevalence maps. This exercise revealed that the disease is endemic in 35 of the country's 36 states, including the federal capital territory of Abuja, and found in 462 unique locations out of 833 different survey locations. Schistosoma haematobium, the predominant species in Nigeria, was found in 368 locations (79.8%) covering 31 states, S. mansoni in 78 (16.7%) locations in 22 states and S. intercalatum in 17 (3.7%) locations in two states. S. haematobium and S. mansoni were found to be co-endemic in 22 states, while co-occurrence of all three species was only seen in one state (Rivers). The average prevalence for each species at each survey location varied between 0.5% and 100% for S. haematobium, 0.2% to 87% for S. mansoni and 1% to 10% for S. intercalatum. The estimated prevalence of S. haematobium, based on Bayesian geospatial predictive modelling with a set of bioclimatic variables, ranged from 0.2% to 75% with a mean prevalence of 23% for the country as a whole (95% confidence interval (CI): 22.8-23.1%). The model suggests that the mean temperature, annual precipitation and soil acidity significantly influence the spatial distribution. Prevalence estimates, adjusted for school-aged children in 2010, showed that the prevalence is <10% in most states with a few reaching as high as 50%. It was estimated that 11.3 million children require praziquantel annually (95% CI: 10.3-12.2 million). PMID:23733296

Ekpo, Uwem F; Hürlimann, Eveline; Schur, Nadine; Oluwole, Akinola S; Abe, Eniola M; Mafe, Margaret A; Nebe, Obiageli J; Isiyaku, Sunday; Olamiju, Francisca; Kadiri, Mukaila; Poopola, Temitope O S; Braide, Eka I; Saka, Yisa; Mafiana, Chiedu F; Kristensen, Thomas K; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

2013-05-01

359

The Effect of Mass Media Campaign on the Use of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets among Pregnant Women in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Background. Malaria during pregnancy is a major public health problem in Nigeria especially in malaria-endemic areas. It increases the risk of low birth weight and child/maternal morbidity/mortality. This paper addresses the impact of radio campaigns on the use of insecticide-treated bed nets among pregnant women in Nigeria. Methods. A total of 2,348 pregnant women were interviewed during the survey across 21 of Nigeria's 36 states. Respondents were selected through a multistage sampling technique. Analysis was based on multivariate logistic regression. Results. Respondents who knew that sleeping under ITN prevents malaria were 3.2 times more likely to sleep under net (OR: 3.15; 95% CI: 2.28 to 4.33; P < 0.0001). Those who listened to radio are also about 1.6 times more likely to use ITN (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.28; P = 0.020), while respondents who had heard of a specific sponsored radio campaign on ITN are 1.53 times more likely to use a bed net (P = 0.019). Conclusion. Pregnant women who listened to mass media campaigns were more likely to adopt strategies to protect themselves from malaria. Therefore, behavior change communication messages that are aimed at promoting net use and antenatal attendance are necessary in combating malaria. PMID:24778895

Ankomah, A; Adebayo, S B; Arogundade, E D; Anyanti, J; Nwokolo, E; Inyang, U; Ipadeola, Oladipupo B; Meremiku, M

2014-01-01

360

Unmet need for contraception among clients of FP/HIV integrated services in Nigeria: the role of partner opposition.  

PubMed

While women are aware of family planning (FP) methods in Nigeria, the unmet need for modern contraception remains high. We assessed the association between male partner opposition to FP and unmet need for modern contraception among women seeking anti-retroviral therapy (ART), HIV counseling and testing (HCT) and prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services in Cross-River State, Nigeria. This secondary analysis used data from a facility-based FP/HIV integration study. Logistic regression was used to model the association of interest. Unmet need for modern contraception was high among all clients--ART (49%), HCT (75%), and PMTCT (32%). Perceived partner opposition to FP was widespread (> or = 70%); however, multivariate analysis showed no significant association with unmet need for modern contraception. Significant covariates were woman's age, marital status, parity, and previous use of modern contraception. Efforts to improve modern contraceptive use among women at risk of HIV infection in Nigeria should contemplate involving their male partners. PMID:25022150

Okigbo, Chinelo C; McCarraher, Donna R; Gwarzo, Usman; Vance, Gwyneth; Chabikuli, Otto

2014-06-01

361

Sequential Outbreaks Due to a New Strain of Neisseria Meningitidis Serogroup C in Northern Nigeria, 2013-14  

PubMed Central

Background Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (NmC) outbreaks occur infrequently in the African meningitis belt; the most recent report of an outbreak of this serogroup was in Burkina Faso, 1979. Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) has been responding to outbreaks of meningitis in northwest Nigeria since 2007 with no reported cases of serogroup C from 2007-2012. MenAfrivac®, a serogroup A conjugate vaccine, was first used for mass vaccination in northwest Nigeria in late 2012. Reactive vaccination using polysaccharide ACYW135 vaccine was done by MSF in parts of the region in 2008 and 2009; no other vaccination campaigns are known to have occurred in the area during this period. We describe the general characteristics of an outbreak due to a novel strain of NmC in Sokoto State, Nigeria, in 2013, and a smaller outbreak in 2014 in the adjacent state, Kebbi. Methods Information on cases and deaths was collected using a standard line-list during each week of each meningitis outbreak in 2013 and 2014 in northwest Nigeria. Initial serogroup confirmation was by rapid Pastorex agglutination tests. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from suspected meningitis patients were sent to the WHO Reference Laboratory in Oslo, where bacterial isolates, serogrouping, antimicrobial sensitivity testing, genotype characterisation and real-time PCR analysis were performed. Results In the most highly affected outbreak areas, all of the 856 and 333 clinically suspected meningitis cases were treated in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Overall attack (AR) and case fatality (CFR) rates were 673/100,000 population and 6.8% in 2013, and 165/100,000 and 10.5% in 2014. Both outbreaks affected small geographical areas of less than 150km2 and populations of less than 210,000, and occurred in neighbouring regions in two adjacent states in the successive years. Initial rapid testing identified NmC as the causative agent. Of the 21 and 17 CSF samples analysed in Oslo, NmC alone was confirmed in 11 and 10 samples in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Samples confirmed as NmC through bacterial culture had sequence type (ST)-10217. Conclusions These are the first recorded outbreaks of NmC in the region since 1979, and the sequence (ST)-10217 has not been identified anywhere else in the world. The outbreaks had similar characteristics to previously recorded NmC outbreaks. Outbreaks of NmC in 2 consecutive years in northern Nigeria indicate a possible emergence of this serogroup. Increased surveillance for multiple serogroups in the region is needed, along with consideration of vaccination with conjugate vaccines rather than for NmA alone. PMID:25685621

Funk, Anna; Uadiale, Kennedy; Kamau, Charity; Caugant, Dominique A.; Ango, Umar; Greig, Jane

2014-01-01

362

Trace metal contents of selected seeds and vegetables from oil producing areas of Nigeria.  

PubMed

The concentrations of accumulated trace metals in selected seeds and vegetables collected in the oil producing Rivers State of Nigeria were investigated. The values were compared with those of seeds and vegetables cultivated in Owerri, a less industrialized area in Nigeria. The lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contents of the seeds obtained from Rivers State ranged between 0.10 and 0.23 microg/g dry weight, while those of the seeds cultivated in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The highest manganese (Mn) level (902 microg/g dry weight) was found in Irvingia garbonesis seeds cultivated in Rivers State. Similarly, the highest nickel (Ni) value (199 microg/g dry weight) was also obtained in I. garbonesis, however, in the seeds sampled in Owerri. The highest copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) levels (16.8, 5.27, and 26.2 microg/g dry weight, resp.) were detected in seeds collected in Rivers State. With the exception of Talinum triangulae, Ocinum gratissimum, and Piper guineese, with Pb levels of 0.09, 0.10, and 0.11 microg/g dry weight, respectively, the Pb and Cd levels in the vegetables grown in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The trace metal with the highest levels in all the vegetables studied was Mn, followed by Fe. The highest concentrations of Ni and Cu occurred in vegetables collected from Rivers State, while the highest level of Zn was observed in Piper guineese collected in Owerri, with a value of 21.4 microg/g dry weight. Although the trace metal concentrations of the seeds and vegetables collected in Rivers State tended to be higher than those of the seeds and vegetables grown in Owerri, the average levels of trace metals obtained in this study fell far below the WHO specifications for metals in foods. PMID:20658661

Wegwu, Matthew O; Omeodu, Stephen I

2010-07-01

363

Review of the radioactive waste management system in Nigeria.  

PubMed

The management of radioactive waste in Nigeria from early 1960 to date is reviewed. As in many developing countries, waste management in Nigeria has been shown to be ineffective. The factors that are responsible for this ineffectiveness are identified and discussed. The steps being taken by and the opportunities available to the newly established Nigerian Nuclear Regulatory Authority towards addressing this problem of ineffectiveness are discussed. The efforts of this newly set up body towards managing the resultant radioactive wastes that will be generated during the use of a reactor and an accelerator that will soon be commissioned in Nigeria are also mentioned. Likely ways of further addressing the problems militating against waste management in developing countries are suggested. PMID:12729418

Ogundare, F O

2003-03-01

364

Metal contamination and infiltration into the soil at refuse dump sites in Awka, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Awka has been the site of increased human activities since it became a state capital in 1991. Because refuse dumps have hitherto been a disregarded environmental menace in Nigeria, the authors sought to find out how much of the current environmental metal pollutant load comes from refuse dumps. They investigated the metal contamination of the refuse dumps in Awka. The authors collected four soil samples (from the surface and from depths of 0.45 m, 0.90 m, and 1.35 m) from 5 dumpsites digested with nitric acid and perchloric acid, and they analyzed iron, sodium, arsenic, lead, magnesium, potassium, cobalt, zinc, nickel, copper, chromium, and cadmium by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Sites A and C showed the highest levels of arsenic (2300 mg/kg) and lead (2467 mg/kg), respectively. Site D had highest level of both iron (72,200 mg/kg) and sodium (3561 mg/kg), whereas Site E had the lowest level of lead (572 mg/kg). The metal levels exceed the limits set forth by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This study suggests that the refuse dumps in Awka may increase the level of environmental heavy metals in Nigeria. PMID:17891887

Nduka, John Kanayochukwu Chiemezugo; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Ezenweke, Linus Obi; Abiakam, Chioma Alex; Nwanguma, Constance Kelechi; Maduabuchi, Ugwuona John-Moses

2006-01-01

365

Community-level distribution of misoprostol to prevent postpartum hemorrhage at home births in northern Nigeria.  

PubMed

In Nigeria, most deaths due to postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) occur in the absence of skilled birth attendants. A study using community mobilization and the training of community drug keepers to increase access to misoprostol for PPH prevention was conducted in five communities around Zaria in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Community-oriented resource persons (CORPs) and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) recruited and counseled pregnant women on bleeding after delivery, the importance of delivery at a health facility, and the role of misoprostol. Drug keepers stored and dispensed misoprostol during a woman's third trimester of pregnancy. TBAs and CORPs enrolled 1,875 women from January through December 2009. These results are based on 1,577 completed postpartum interviews. Almost all women delivered at home (95%) and skilled attendance at delivery was low (7%). The availability of misoprostol protected 83% of women who delivered at home against PPH who otherwise would not have been protected. Policymakers working in similar contexts should consider utilizing commuity-level distribution models to reach women with this life-saving intervention. PMID:25022154

Ejembi, Clara; Shittu, Oladapo; Moran, Molly; Adiri, Faraouk; Oguntunde, Olugbenga; Saadatu, Babalafia; Aku-Akai, Larai; Abdul, Mohammed A; Ajayi, Victor; Williams, Natalie; Prata, Ndola

2014-06-01

366

Consumer response and satisfaction to prepackaged antimalarial drugs for children in Aba, Nigeria.  

PubMed

In July 2003, a consortium of three USAID partners launched a project to promote the correct use of color-coded, age-specific, prepackaged drugs (PPDs) to treat malaria promptly in preschool-aged children in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria. A 3-pronged promotional approach included training of patent medicine vendors (PMVs), home visits by community health promoters, and mass media. Five hundred seventy respondents were interviewed in February-March 2004. People heard about the PPDs from medicine sellers (33.4%), health workers (24.3%), the electronic mass media (18.4%), and friends or relatives (13.5%). Most children (81.1%) took Robaquine (chloroquine-CQ), while 108 (18.9%) took Fansidar (sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine-SP). The median amount paid for Robaquine was 50 naira (dollars 0.36) and for Fansidar, 80 naira (dollars 0.57). Respondents rated the effectiveness of the PPD treatment as very effective (86.8%). Most respondents had something positive to say about the drug (94.9%) and the packaging (93.8%). Only 19.5%) had a complaint about either the drug or the packaging. Overall, 454 (83.9%) received the correct age-appropriate packet. Continuing education is needed for the PMVs to ensure that they obtain accurate age information about the child and sell the age-specific packet. Underdosing is just as serious a concern as overdosing in Nigeria where parasite resistance is rapidly developing for both drugs. PMID:17686741

Salami, Kabiru K; Brieger, William R

367

A survey of abattoir data in northern Nigeria.  

PubMed

A survey of the abattoirs in 10 selected towne in Nigeria showed that about 41.9 per cent of whole carcasses condemned between 1975 and 1977 were due to tuberculosis and 22.2 per cent to beef cysticercosis. Seventy per cent of organ condemnations, mainly of livers, were due to fascioliasis. Other major causes of organ condemnations were hydatid cysts, tuberculosis and pneumonia of various causes. An estimated 500 tonnes of meat valued at about 1.25 million Naira (US $1.8 million) are condemned each year throughout Nigeria. The use of abattoirs as monitoring stations in national animal disease eradication programmes is highlighted. PMID:442214

Alonge, D O; Fasanmi, E F

1979-02-01

368

Bacteriological survey of leptospirosis in Zaria, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A total of 252 rodents were trapped in the environs of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, over a two-year period, of which 221 were brown field rats (Arvicanthus niloticus). Only these were found positive (4.5%). Titers were detected against Leptospira interrogans, serovars australis, icterohaemorrhagiae, tarassovi and hardjo. All positive sera except one reacted against a single serovar. Eight isolates were obtained from field rats: five were serovar australis, one ballum and two unidentified. Five isolates were recovered from 74 bovine kidneys examined: one was serovar pyrogenes and four unidentified. One unidentified isolate failed to react with any of the 16 screening leptospira antisera and another was tentatively considered to be serovar ballum. Two isolates, one ballum and one unidentified, were recovered from the Kubani stream waters. No leptospira was isolated from piggery sewage effluents collected at Kano and Kaduna. It is suggested that serovar ballum be included in any screening battery for leptospirosis in man and animals in Nigeria. PMID:7043824

Diallo, A A; Dennis, S M

1982-03-01

369

Ikpeshi Areas, S.W. Nigeria 1  

E-print Network

Marble deposits occur prominently in Igarra and Ikpeshi areas of Southwestern Nigeria. Forty marble samples were subjected to geochemical and physical analysis in order to determine their applications. Geochemical data show that the Igarra marble is characterized by low SiO2 (1.84 – 4.83%), Al2O3 (0.16 – 0.67%) and MgO (1.10 – 5.33%) and high CaO (46.51 – 53.06%) and LOI (40.59 – 44.26%). This results in markedly low dolomite, MgCO3 (2.30 – 11.14%) and high calcite, CaCO3 (85.45 – 94.68%). The Ikpeshi marble is majorly calcitic having contained high values of CaCO3 (61.003 – 95.61%) and low values of MgCO3 (1.35 – 7.44%). However, the marble at the Golden Girl quarry is dolomitic having a MgCO3 content of 41.38 – 41.42%. The marble is suitable as sources of industrial raw materials for a variety of consumer products such as drugs, toothpaste, animal feeds and paper production. Other areas of application include agriculture, monuments, electrical, interior decoratives, flooring tiles, terrazzo chips, and fittings. However, the marble cannot be used for cement production due to low values of CaO (53.06%) and high values of LOI (>43%) unless the CaO and the SiO2 are

Obasi R A; Anike O. L

370

Special Education Provision in Nigeria: Analyzing Contexts, Problems, and Prospects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nigeria has made some efforts to educate all of its citizenry, including those with disabilities. And, it has struggled to make sure that programs are available to those who need them. However, its traditional, sociocultural, and educational problems have prevented some programmatic consistency and progress. As a result, the special education…

Obiakor, Festus E.; Offor, MaxMary Tabugbo

2011-01-01

371

Christian Education and Nation Building: A Focus on Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the relevance of Christian education to nation building with a focus on Nigeria. Books, journal articles, and personal observations combined to serve as the resources for the study. The major questions addressed relate to the importance of Christian education to building the Nigerian nation in order to promote infrastructure…

Ajani, Ezekiel

2013-01-01

372

Access to University Education in Nigeria: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demand for university education has increased due to the recent innovations of universal, free and compulsory education at the basic and senior secondary education level. Education has been expanding very rapidly at all levels in Nigeria. However, there are serious problems related to quality, equity, unavailable human and material resources and…

Agboola, B. M.; Ofoegbu, F. I.

2010-01-01

373

IDENTIFICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANCE TO SOYBEAN RUST IN NIGERIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybean rust is now endemic in Nigeria after it was first reported in 1999. The objectives of our research were to identify sources of resistance and polymorphic markers between combinations of resistant and susceptible lines. To identify sources of resistance, field, screen house and laboratory env...

374

Pathogenic variation of Phakopsora pachyrhizi infecting soybean in Nigeria  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is a major disease in many soybean-producing areas in Nigeria. To determine the virulence and the genetic structure of Nigerian field populations of the soybean rust pathogen, a total of 116 purified isolates established from infected leaves randomly co...

375

Ceramics Art Education and Contemporary Challenges in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formal ceramics art education is becoming a fundamental requirement for professional practice in ceramics in Nigeria. Considering the ample resources available for ceramic practices in the country with a teeming population of over 140 million people, there is a promising future for the art, in spite of the effects of globalization and…

Kashim, Isah Bolaji; Adelabu, Oluwafemi Samuel

2013-01-01

376

Curbing Examination Dishonesty in Nigeria through Value Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examination dishonesty is one of the most devastating and conspicuous forms of indiscipline in Nigeria. It has become a cankerworm in the Nigerian education system over the years. It has graduated from being an educational issue to an educational crisis. It has many forms, causes and consequences and the Nigerian government has tried on many…

Jekayinfa, Alice Arinlade; Omosewo, E. O.; Yusuf, A. A.; Ajidagba, U. A.

2011-01-01

377

Internationalizing the Curriculum: The Case of the Sleeping Giant, Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a Fulbright-Hays project to enhance multicultural education, 16 Pennsylvania educators traveled to Nigeria to develop curricula concerning that culture. Five resulting curriculum suggestions for the elementary level are listed and three college-level courses in modern art, communications media, and the role and status of Nigerian women are…

Lucas, Emma T.; And Others

1990-01-01

378

Foreign Assistance Contribution in Adult Education in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proceedings of a nation-wide conference in Nigeria concerning adult education are presented. The following steps are proposed in the line of national and international cooperation; these steps can be taken without waiting for financial and administrative approval: (1) the registration of all kinds of adult education programs and activities…

Nasution, Amir H.

379

Motivations for Gang Membership in Lagos, Nigeria: Challenge and Resilience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study explores the major challenges (in the form of risk factors) that may influence unemployed youths' involvement in gang and criminal activity in Lagos, Nigeria. A combination of techniques (e.g., oral, in-depth interviews, and questionnaires) were used for the data collection. The computed outcomes establish some of the major…

Salaam, Abeeb Olufemi

2011-01-01

380

Zoonotic infections in Nigeria: overview from a medical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infections of domestic and wild animals that are transmitted directly or by an arthropod vector to humans are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and particularly in Nigeria. With a population of over 100 million and the need for improved health care delivery, Nigerians are at considerable risk considering the seriousness of these infections. Zoonotic infections that are

A. O Coker; R. D Isokpehi; B. N Thomas; A. F Fagbenro-Beyioku; S. A Omilabu

2000-01-01

381

A New Curriculum for Surveying Education in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The Nigerian Surveyor was one of the first professionals to be exposed to formal training locally in the country. As early as 1908, a survey school was opened in Lagos. Formal training of surveying personnel in Nigeria is at present done at all tertiary levels. Surveying as a profession had many definitions applied to it over the years. Geoinformation

Francis A. FAJEMIROKUN; Olusegun T. BADEJO

382

Recent Trends and Patterns in Nigeria's Industrial Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses recent trend and spatial patterns of manufacturing in Nigeria. In particular, the paper shows that industrial development in the country involved considerable artisanal crafts firms in the early stages and grew progressively in number over the years to large-scale manufacturing. The pattern of the distribution of manufacturing industries at the city level indicates that there is a

Dare Ajayi

2007-01-01

383

The Impact of Wireless Phone Technology on Users in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies have shown that with the increasing diffusion of cell phones in Nigeria have come with problems such as network congestion, service inefficiencies, rising costs, and increased taxes. The purpose of this study was to examine and explore which, if any, sociopersonal variables (theft of handsets, educational levels, security risk) and…

Ezenezi, Robins E.

2010-01-01

384

Open access journal publishing in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open Access has been identified as an initiative that can improve access and provide global visibility for research work conducted by researchers and scholars. This study examined scholarly publication, particularly open access journals in Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria. Survey research method was adopted for this study and purposive sampling technique was adopted to collect data using questionnaire from twenty-one chief-editors

EZRA SHILOBA GBAJE

2010-01-01

385

INFORMAL CAPITAL MARKET AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our environments are closely instutionalized with collections of human and material resources for the purpose of economic production and profitability. It was based on this premise that, this study sought to examine the effect of environmental factors on informal capital market in Nigeria. In doing this, Chi-square method was employed. The result revealed the existence of a significant relationship between

ADEUSI Stephen Oluwafemi; OGUNMAKIN Adeduro Adesola

2014-01-01

386

The Boko Haram Uprising and Islamic Revivalism in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the 1980 Maitatsine uprising to the 2009 Boko Haram uprising, Nigeria was bedevilled by ethno-religious conflicts with devastating human and material losses. But the Boko Haram uprising of July 2009 was significant in that it not only set a precedent, but also reinforced the attempts by Islamic conservative elements at imposing a variant of Islamic religious ideology on a

Abimbola Adesoji

2010-01-01

387

The Belief in Reincarnation Among the Igbo of Nigeria1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modern Igbo of Nigeria, even when adhering to the Christian religion, have preserved many features of Igbo traditional religion. The belief in reincarnation seems to be particularly strong. The Igbo believe that reincarnation usually occurs within the same immediate or extend ed family. They try to identify the reincarnated ancestor by means of birthmarks, statements a child makes when

Ian Stevenson

1985-01-01

388

Coastal Erosion Phenomenon in Nigeria: Causes, Control and Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal erosion, which is a natural occurrence and process have become an increasing problem in many parts of the world as a result of the socio-economic impacts that are often associated with this event. Nigeria with about 853 km stretch of coastline has also been characterized with differing erosive activities; a result of combination of natural and anthropogenic forces. However,

Adeyinka Sunday Okude; Israel Ajewole Ademiluyi

389

Reflections on the Development of Gifted Education in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The genesis of a formal gifted education program in Nigeria is traced from the period of the articulation of a national policy on education, through the pioneer magnet school approach, to the establishment of an academy for gifted children in 1987. Issues and problems besetting gifted education are recounted. (Author/CR)

Kolo, Ibrahim A.

1996-01-01

390

Skills Mismatch among University Graduates in the Nigeria Labor Market  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University graduates in Nigeria have been reported to be poorly prepared for work in recent years. This has implications on the relevance of university education, the employability and productivity of university graduates. One of the reasons suggested for this condition by previous studies was skill mismatch--a situation where there is a disparity…

Pitan, Oluyomi S.; Adedeji, S. O.

2012-01-01

391

ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA. by  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, it was argued that the self-sufficiency drive in food and raw material, as well as the self-employment programs are most likely to put increased pressure on the resources of the Nigeria. The avoidance of adverse consequences, therefore, calls for deliberate actions to preserve and conserve the environment. Unfortunately, however, several human activities such as; bush fallow, inappropriate

S. Tunji Titilola

392

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Ethnoreligious Conflict in Jos, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In September 2001, ethnoreligious rioting occurred in Jos, Nigeria. Using a multistage cluster sampling technique, 290 respondents were recruited in Jos 7 to 9 months after the riots. Data were collected regarding demographics, exposure to traumatic events, and psychological symptoms. Resting pulse and blood pressure were recorded. A total of 145…

Obilom, Rose E.; Thacher, Tom D.

2008-01-01

393

The Hausa Community in Agege, Nigeria 1906 - 1967  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is a study of the historical trends that enhanced the harmonious intergroup relations between the Hausa community in Agege and their Yoruba hosts in South - Western Nigeria. The field work conducted which was largely oral interviews as well as secondary sources showed that the Hausa - Yoruba inter- group relations in Agege indicate the fact that intergroup

Abdulwahab Tijani

2008-01-01

394

Awareness and Practice of Professional Ethics amongst Librarians in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is focused on the awareness and practicability of Librarianship ethics amongst librarians. Survey questionnaire was designed to identify the degree of awareness of librarianship ethics amongst librarians in Nigeria, whether the ethics are feasible and being utilized by librarians in their day to day library management, and to find out…

Igbeka, J. U.; Okoroma, F. N.

2013-01-01

395

Polygyny: Women's Views in a Transitional Society, Nigeria 1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines women's attitudes toward polygyny in the context of transitional urban society in western Nigeria, where almost half of all wives live in polygynous unions. Results show that, although there are differences between wives in monogamous and polygynous unions, there are no clear-cut divisions between the two groups. (Author)

Ware, Helen

1979-01-01

396

Computer Usage as Instructional Resources for Vocational Training in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of computers has become the driving force in the delivery of instruction of today's vocational education and training (VET) in Nigeria. Though computers have become an increasingly accessible resource for educators to use in their teaching activities, most teachers are still unable to integrate it in their teaching and learning processes.…

Oguzor, Nkasiobi Silas

2011-01-01

397

The Universal Primary Education Program in Nigeria: Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following a discussion of contrasts between developed and developing countries, this paper describes problems encountered by the Universal Primary Education program, a project in Nigeria designed to promote literacy and eradicate superstititon and ignorance. Specifically, the following problems are described in the light of rural, traditional…

Obiakor, Festus E.

398

Coping Strategies for Living in Student Residential Facilities in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines coping strategies used by students in high-density living. It uses the questionnaire survey method in 20 university halls-of-residence in southwestern Nigeria. The study focused on students' cognitive responses to the bedroom, the coping strategies that they used, gender differences in coping styles, and the influence of…

Amole, Dolapo

2005-01-01

399

Gender Distribution of Dentists in Nigeria, 1981 to 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Nigeria, modern dental practice is relatively recent. The dawn can be traced to 1915 when the first government dentist was employed in Lagos, then the country's capital. There are presently four dental schools in the country; each graduates an average of thirty dentists annually. The present study determined the trends in the gender distribution of dental practitioners over the

Eyitope O. Ogunbodede

2004-01-01

400

Globalization: Its Impact on Scientific Research in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a study which investigated the impact of globalization on scientific research in Nigeria. The research data were collected using a questionnaire survey which was administered to academics in science-based disciplines in four Nigerian universities: University of Calabar, University of Uyo, University of Lagos and University…

Ani, Okon E.; Biao, Esohe Patience

2005-01-01

401

The History of the Soil Science Society of Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Soil Science Society of Nigeria (SSSN) founded in 1968, is a registered member of the African Soil Science Association, International Union of Soil Science and the Global Soil Partnership. The Society aims at promoting and fostering better understanding of basic and applied Soil Science in Nigeria. The society also strives to enhance the dissemination of knowledge in all aspects of Soil science and shares ideas with National and International Societies through conferences, symposium, lectures, seminars and journal publications. The numerical strength of the society is 600 members (student, ordinary ,life and corporate). The soil science society of Nigeria has provided invaluable services in the formulation of agricultural land and fertilizer use strategies and policies of the country. The existing reconnaissance soil map of Nigeria typifies one of the major professional services rendered to the country by the society and its members. Despite the numerous contributions the society has made to the advancement of soil science in the country, the larger society is not aware of the its existence. This is largely because of our limited soil extension activities to land users due to lack of funds. If the society can attract donor funds, this will go a long way in enhancing the capacity and capability of the society.

Okechukwu Chude, Victor

2013-04-01

402

Behavioural Constraints on Practices of Auditing in Nigeria (BCPAN)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research was conducted to determine the behavioural constraints on practices of auditing (BCPAN) in Nigeria and to proffer strategies for making incidence of auditing (internal and external auditors) more effective. Thirty-seven administrators drawn from some public limited liability companies, private companies and tertiary institutions were…

Akpomi, Margaret E.; Amesi, Joy

2009-01-01

403

Natural resource abundance in Nigeria: From dependence to development  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several strategies open to an economy in its attempt to attain sustainable economic development depending on its historical background and resource endowment. One of such is the resource-led strategy. Nigeria is superabundantly rich in crude oil and has reaped billions of petrodollars. However, the country seems to be facing the problem of successfully translating this huge oil wealth

Eric Kehinde Ogunleye

2008-01-01

404

Problems and Prospects of Open and Distance Education in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distance education as a mean of providing access to education, particularly tertiary level education, has gained great prominence in the world. Nigeria has taken giant steps of recent to introduce open and distance education programme. This paper explores the major terms inherent in open and distance education, its potentials, possible factors…

Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere

2006-01-01

405

Household Cooking Fuel Use among Residents of a Sub-Urban Community in Nigeria: Implications for Indoor Air Pollution  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the types of household cooking fuel used by residents of Isiohor community in Edo State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 133 household heads or their representatives in Isiohor Community in Edo State, Nigeria. Data collection was by means of a structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Results: Half (50.3%) of the households studied were made up of 4-6 persons living in them. Sixty-two (46.6%) respondents had tertiary level of education and a third 44 (33.1%) earned between 21,000 and 30,000 naira (150-200 dollars) monthly. Forty six (34.6%) and 27 (20.3%) respondents live in passage houses and flats respectively. Two thirds (68.4%) of the respondents cook their food indoors. The predominant household cooking fuels used by the respondents were cooking gas (51.1%), Kerosene (45.9%), vegetables (25.6%) and firewood (14.3%). Majority 106 (79.7%) had poor knowledge of the health effects of prolonged exposure to smoke arising from indoor cooking. There was a statistically significant association between the occupation of the respondents and the type of household cooking fuel used (p=0.002). Conclusion: The use of unclean indoor cooking fuel was high among the residents of Isiohor community in Edo State, Nigeria. Also, there was poor knowledge of the health effects of prolonged exposure to smoke from unclean cooking fuel among the respondents and this has serious implications for indoor air pollution. There is an urgent need for health/hygiene education on the health effects of use of unclean indoor cooking fuel among these residents. There is also need for use of clean/green cooking stoves and construction of exhaust ventilation pipes in these households. PMID:25610326

Isara, Alphonsus Rukevwe; Aigbokhaode, Adesuwa Queen

2014-01-01

406

Evaluation of the neighborhood environment walkability scale in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The development of reliable and culturally sensitive measures of attributes of the built and social environment is necessary for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in low-income countries, that can inform international evidence-based policies and interventions in the worldwide prevention of physical inactivity epidemics. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for Nigeria and evaluated aspects of reliability and validity of the adapted version among Nigerian adults. Methods The adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by African and international experts, and final items were selected for NEWS-Nigeria after a cross-validation of the confirmatory factor analysis structure of the original NEWS. Participants (N?=?386; female?=?47.2%) from two cities in Nigeria completed the adapted NEWS surveys regarding perceived residential density, land use mix – diversity, land use mix – access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. Self-reported activity for leisure, walking for different purposes, and overall physical activity were assessed with the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long version). Results The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.59 –0.91). Construct validity was good, with residents of high-walkable neighborhoods reporting significantly higher residential density, more land use mix diversity, higher street connectivity, more traffic safety and more safety from crime, but lower infrastructure and safety for walking/cycling and aesthetics than residents of low-walkable neighborhoods. Concurrent validity correlations were low to moderate (r?=?0.10 –0.31) with residential density, land use mix diversity, and traffic safety significantly associated with most physical activity outcomes. Conclusions The NEWS-Nigeria demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Nigerian adults and may be useful for evaluation of the built environment in Nigeria. Further adaptation and evaluation in other African countries is needed to create a version that could be used throughout the African region. PMID:23514561

2013-01-01

407

SOCIOECONOMIC DIFFERENCES IN PREFERENCES AND WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR DIFFERENT PROVIDERS OF MALARIA TREATMENT IN SOUTHEAST NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. This article determined,whether,there are links between,socio-economic,status (SES) and,preferences,of consumers,for different strategies for improving,timely and appropriate,management,of malaria. Ranking of preferences and willingness to pay (WTP) for 5 different strategies for improving the management of malaria in Enugu State, southeast,Nigeria were,elicited from,randomly,selected,respondents. The results showed,that the people,were,also willing to pay for improved management of malaria, though the levels of WTP was

Obinna Onwujekwe; Juliana Ojukwu; Nkoli Ezumah; Benjamin Uzochukwu; Nkem Dike; Eze Soludo

408

How decentralisation influences the retention of primary health care workers in rural Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background In Nigeria, the shortage of health workers is worst at the primary health care (PHC) level, especially in rural communities. And the responsibility for PHC – usually the only form of formal health service available in rural communities – is shared among the three tiers of government (federal, state, and local governments). In addition, the responsibility for community engagement in PHC is delegated to community health committees. Objective This study examines how the decentralisation of health system governance influences retention of health workers in rural communities in Nigeria from the perspective of health managers, health workers, and people living in rural communities. Design The study adopted a qualitative approach, and data were collected using semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. The multi-stakeholder data were analysed for themes related to health system decentralisation. Results The results showed that decentralisation influences the retention of rural health workers in two ways: 1) The salary of PHC workers is often delayed and irregular as a result of delays in transfer of funds from the national to sub-national governments and because one tier of government can blame failure on another tier of government. Further, the primary responsibility for PHC is often left to the weakest tier of government (local governments). And the result is that rural PHC workers are attracted to working at levels of care where salaries are higher and more regular – in secondary care (run by state governments) and tertiary care (run by the federal government), which are also usually in urban areas. 2) Through community health committees, rural communities influence the retention of health workers by working to increase the uptake of PHC services. Community efforts to retain health workers also include providing social, financial, and accommodation support to health workers. To encourage health workers to stay, communities also take the initiative to co-finance and co-manage PHC services in order to ensure that PHC facilities are functional. Conclusions In Nigeria and other low- and middle-income countries with decentralised health systems, intervention to increase the retention of health workers in rural communities should seek to reform and strengthen governance mechanisms, using both top-down and bottom-up strategies to improve the remuneration and support for health workers in rural communities. PMID:25739967

Abimbola, Seye; Olanipekun, Titilope; Igbokwe, Uchenna; Negin, Joel; Jan, Stephen; Martiniuk, Alexandra; Ihebuzor, Nnenna; Aina, Muyi

2015-01-01

409

Radon measurements by nuclear track detectors in secondary schools in Oke-Ogun region, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Radon measurements were performed in secondary schools in the Oke-Ogun area, South-west, Nigeria, by solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). About seventy CR-39 detectors were distributed in 35 high schools of the Oke-Ogun area. The CR-39 detectors were exposed in the schools for 3 months and then etched in NaOH 6 N solution at 90 °C for 3 h. The tracks were counted manually at the microscope and the radon concentration was determined at the Radioactivity Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy. The overall average radon concentration in the surveyed area was 45 ± 27 Bq m(-3). The results indicate no radiological health hazard. The research also focused on parameters affecting radon concentrations such as the age of the building in relation to building materials and floor number of the classrooms. The results show that radon concentrations in ground floors are higher than in upper floors. PMID:21782296

Obed, R I; Ademola, A K; Vascotto, M; Giannini, G

2011-11-01

410

Private Cost of Education: A Comparative Study of Distance and Campus-Based University Students in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the comparative private costs of distance and conventional (classroom-based) university students in Nigeria. A total of 200 subjects comprising students registered for the B.Sc. Computer Science and B.A. English Studies programmes at the University of Lagos, Nigeria and the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) were…

Olakulehin, Felix K.; Panda, Santosh K.

2011-01-01

411

HIV/AIDS stigma and utilization of voluntary counselling and testing in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the recognition of stigma as a hindrance to public health treatment and prevention there are gaps in evidence on the relationship between HIV stigma and VCT services utilization in Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to examine a community’s perceptions, feelings and attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS and how this is associated with access to utilization of voluntary counselling and treatment in Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional random study of Nigerians, using a mixed-method approach was carried out in two distinct ethnic areas of the country. Both quantitative and qualitative methods (mixed-methods) were used to collect data in Osun State (Yoruba ethnic group) in the South-West and Imo State (Igbo ethnic group) in the South East. Multivariate logistic regression was the model used to examine the association of interest. Results It is shown that Nigerian public attitudes to HIV/AIDS and those infected with the disease are negative. The markers for stigma on the overall stigma index are significant predictors of utilization of voluntary counselling and testing. As the sum of negative feelings increases, there is less likelihood to using voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) and vice versa. Conclusions Current national efforts at addressing the AIDS pandemic can only be successful when the issue of AIDS is de-stigmatized and is made a critical part of those efforts. One way to do this is through well-designed messages that should be posted in the media, community halls, health centers and other public places aimed at humanizing the disease and those affected and infected by it. PMID:23668880

2013-01-01

412

Retinopathy of Prematurity in Port Harcourt, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Purpose. With many preterm babies now surviving as a result of improvement in neonatal care in Nigeria, the incidence of visual impairment/blindness as a result of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) may rise. We describe our findings after screening starts for the first time in a 15-year-old special care baby unit so as to establish the incidence and risk factors for developing ROP. Methods. A prospective study carried out at the Special Care Baby Unit (SCBU) and Pediatric Outpatient Clinics of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital between January 1 and October 31, 2012. Fifty-three preterm babies (of 550 neonates admitted within the study period) delivered before 32 completed weeks and weighing less than 1500?g were included in the study following informed consent and the main outcome measure was the development of any stage of ROP. Results. Mean gestational age at birth was 28.98 ± 1.38 weeks. Mean birth weight was 1411 ± 128?g. Out of 550 babies admitted at SCBU, 87 of 100 preterms survived with 53 included in study. Twenty-five (47.2%) had different degrees of ROP with prevalence found to be 47.2%. Prevalence was higher (75%) in babies weighing <1300?g and those delivered before 30-week gestation (58%). Twenty-one (84%) had stage 1 no plus disease and 3 (12%) had stage 2 no plus disease. Only 1 (4%) had threshold disease in Zone 1. None had disease at stage 4 or 5 or AP-ROP. Receiving supplemental oxygen (?2 = 6.17; P = 0.01), presence of sepsis (?2 = 7.47; P = 0.006), multiple blood transfusions (?2 = 5.11; P = 0.02), and delivery by caesarian section (?2 = 4.22; P = 0.04) were significantly associated with development of ROP. There were no significant differences with gender, apneic spells, jaundice, or phototherapy. Conclusions and Relevance. All live infants with ROP were noted to regress spontaneously in this study. Though it may not be cost effective to acquire treatment facilities at the moment (the only child with treatable disease died), facilities for screening preterm infants displaying high risk features may be essential as smaller babies are saved. PMID:24649375

Adio, Adedayo O.; Ugwu, Rosemary O.; Nwokocha, Chidi G.; Eneh, Augusta U.

2014-01-01

413

Retinopathy of prematurity in port harcourt, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Purpose. With many preterm babies now surviving as a result of improvement in neonatal care in Nigeria, the incidence of visual impairment/blindness as a result of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) may rise. We describe our findings after screening starts for the first time in a 15-year-old special care baby unit so as to establish the incidence and risk factors for developing ROP. Methods. A prospective study carried out at the Special Care Baby Unit (SCBU) and Pediatric Outpatient Clinics of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital between January 1 and October 31, 2012. Fifty-three preterm babies (of 550 neonates admitted within the study period) delivered before 32 completed weeks and weighing less than 1500?g were included in the study following informed consent and the main outcome measure was the development of any stage of ROP. Results. Mean gestational age at birth was 28.98 ± 1.38 weeks. Mean birth weight was 1411 ± 128?g. Out of 550 babies admitted at SCBU, 87 of 100 preterms survived with 53 included in study. Twenty-five (47.2%) had different degrees of ROP with prevalence found to be 47.2%. Prevalence was higher (75%) in babies weighing <1300?g and those delivered before 30-week gestation (58%). Twenty-one (84%) had stage 1 no plus disease and 3 (12%) had stage 2 no plus disease. Only 1 (4%) had threshold disease in Zone 1. None had disease at stage 4 or 5 or AP-ROP. Receiving supplemental oxygen (? (2) = 6.17; P = 0.01), presence of sepsis (? (2) = 7.47; P = 0.006), multiple blood transfusions (? (2) = 5.11; P = 0.02), and delivery by caesarian section (? (2) = 4.22; P = 0.04) were significantly associated with development of ROP. There were no significant differences with gender, apneic spells, jaundice, or phototherapy. Conclusions and Relevance. All live infants with ROP were noted to regress spontaneously in this study. Though it may not be cost effective to acquire treatment facilities at the moment (the only child with treatable disease died), facilities for screening preterm infants displaying high risk features may be essential as smaller babies are saved. PMID:24649375

Adio, Adedayo O; Ugwu, Rosemary O; Nwokocha, Chidi G; Eneh, Augusta U

2014-01-01

414

Hematological profile of normal pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Hematological profile is considered one of the factors affecting pregnancy and its outcome. Anemia is the most common hematological problem in pregnancy, followed by thrombocytopenia. Leukocytosis is almost always associated with pregnancy. The study reported here was designed to evaluate the overall mean values of seven major hematological parameters and their mean values at different trimesters of pregnancy. Subjects and methods This examination was a cross-sectional study of 274 pregnant women who registered to attend the Lagos University Teaching Hospital or Lagos State University Teaching Hospital antenatal clinics between their first and third trimester. Blood (4.5 mL) was collected from each participant into a tube containing the anticoagulant ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). A full blood count was performed on each sample and the results were analyzed. Results Overall, the values obtained were (mean ± standard deviation [SD]): hematocrit level, 30.16% ± 5.55%; hemoglobin concentration, 10.94 ± 1.86 g/dL; white blood cells, 7.81 ± 2.34 × 109; platelets, 228.29 ± 65.6 × 109; cell volume 78.30 ± 5.70 fL, corpuscular hemoglobin, 28.57 ± 2.48 pg; and corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, 36.45 ± 1.10 g/dL. When grouped by trimester, the mean ± SD value of packed cell volume at first trimester was 32.07% ± 6.80%; of second trimester, 29.76% ± 5.21%; and of third, 33.04% ± 3.88%. The mean ± SD hemoglobin concentration values were 11.59 ± 2.35 g/dL, 10.81 ± 1.72 g/dL, and 10.38 ± 1.27 g/dL for women in their first, second, and third trimester, respectively. Mean ± SD white blood cell concentration for first, second, and third trimesters were 7.31 ± 2.38 × 109, 7.88 ± 2.33 × 109, and 8.37 ± 2.15 × 109, respectively, while the mean ± SD platelet values for first, second, and third trimesters were 231.50 ± 79.10 × 109, 227.57 ± 63 × 109, and 200.82 ± 94.42 × 109, respectively. A statistically significant relationship was found to exist between packed cell volume and white blood cell count with increase in gestational age (P = 0.010 and 0.001, respectively). However, there was no statistically significant association between platelet count and increase in gestational age (P = 0.296). Conclusion These findings reinforce the need for supplementation and provide additional information on hematological reference values in pregnancy in Nigeria. PMID:23662089

Akinbami, Akinsegun A; Ajibola, Sarah O; Rabiu, Kabiru A; Adewunmi, Adeniyi A; Dosunmu, Adedoyin O; Adediran, Adewumi; Osunkalu, Vincent O; Osikomaiya, Bodunrin I; Ismail, Kamal A

2013-01-01

415

Indoor radon survey in a university campus of Nigeria  

PubMed Central

CR-39 tracketch detectors were used for the measurement of 222Rn concentration in 24 offices in Nigeria’s oldest university campus in order to estimate the effective dose to the occupants from 222Rn and its progeny. The dosimetric measurements were made over a period of 3 months. Questionnaires were distributed and analyzed. The radon concentration ranged from 157 to 495 Bq/m3, with an arithmetic mean and standard deviation of 293.3 and 79.6 Bq/ m3, respectively. The effective dose to the workers was estimated and this varied from 0.99 to 3.12 mSv/ y, with a mean of 1.85 mSv/y. The radon concentrations were found to be within the reference levels of ICRP. PMID:21170190

Obed, R. I.; Lateef, H. T.; Ademola, A. K.

2010-01-01

416

Access and Success: The Role of Distance Education in Girl-Child Education in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education in Nigeria is an instrument par excellence for affecting national development. In spite of the global efforts to broaden opportunities in many schools all over Nigeria, many are not responding adequately to the needs of their students. A large majority of the learners do not acquire even minimal levels of learning due to such factors as…

Nkechinyere Amadi, Martha

2011-01-01

417

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the Service of the National Open University of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses some of the major issues in the operation of the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN). The paper presents a brief development of the concept of distance education in Nigeria and the development of flexible open distance learning through the application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The paper also…

Enuku, Usiwoma Evawoma; Ojogwu, C. N.

2006-01-01

418

Improving the Quality of the Girl-Child Education in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National population commission of Nigeria estimated the population of Nigeria to be 121 million in the year 2001. Out of this population, women constitute 50 percent. Inspite of this massive size, the Annual Abstract of Statistics reveals that 9.6 million female pupils were registered for the primary school as against 11.9 million male pupils…

Arowoshegbe, Amos O.; Anthony, Enoma

2011-01-01

419

Partnership Learning: An Imperative for the Continuing Professional Development of Primary School Teachers in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasis has been on in-service training of primary school teachers in Nigeria with low laid down practises of continued professional development of teachers. This paper submits that there is need for school based professional development programmes for primary school teachers in Nigeria if they are to remain effective.

Ushie, Beshel Cee

2009-01-01

420

Breeding for rust resistance in soybean at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Nigeria  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The largest soybean producer in Africa is Nigeria where 484,000 MT were produced in 680,000 ha in 2003. From 1994 and 1998, Nigeria dramatically increased soybean hectares (up by 225%) and production (up by 250%). Adoption of improved high-yielding cultivars and good management practices coupled wi...

421

Pentecostal Movements, Islam and the Contest for Public Space in Northern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article considers the changing relationship between independent Pentecostal and charismatic groups and radical Islamic movements in Northern Nigeria between the 1970s and the early years of the twenty-first century. All these groups, be they Christian or Muslim, represent a new dimension in religious fundamentalism in contemporary Nigeria. In spite of being internal revivalist groups within their respective religious traditions,

Matthews A. Ojo

2007-01-01

422

Niger Delta Youth Restiveness and Socio-Economic Development of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines youth restiveness in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, and the challenges it posed to Nigeria democracy and foreign investment. Non-parametric statistical and content analyses were essentially used as tools of analysis. The results showed that dissatisfaction of the people of Niger Delta especially the youths on the level of…

Chukwuemeka, Emma E. O.; Aghara, V. N. O.

2010-01-01

423

Prejudice and Change in Librarianship, Okoro's Critique of Library Recruitment in Nigeria: A Rejoinder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responds to a paper by Okechukwu Okoro on library recruitment policies in Nigeria. Background on the origin of the undergraduate degree in library science in Nigeria is provided; problems with degree programs that led to charges of discrimination are addressed; and new definitions of a professional librarian are explained. (three references) (MES)

Ogundipe, O. O.

1992-01-01

424

Islamists claim deadly attack on UN building in Nigeria 26 August 2011  

E-print Network

Islamists claim deadly attack on UN building in Nigeria 26 August 2011 Boko Haram says officers and local officials have primarily bore the brunt of Boko Haram's rage, now everyone seems attack to target foreigners in oil-rich Nigeria, where people already live in fear of the radical Boko

425

Parents' involvement in school administration as a correlate of effectiveness of secondary schools in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined the relationship between parents' involvement in school administration and effectiveness of secondary schools in Nigeria. The descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population consisted of all the teachers, principals and parents of the students in public secondary schools in South-West Nigeria. The sample comprised 1200 teachers, 300 parents and 60 principals from 60 secondary

I. A. Ajayi; T. Ekundayo Haastrup; B. B. Arogundade

2009-01-01

426

A SOCIAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT ON FERTILITY IN URBAN NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on a social structural analysis of women's employment and fertility in Nigeria, by looking at how the structure of the family, ethnicity, and women's position within the household or society impact the employment-fertility relationship. Data come from a 1988 National survey of 8529 currently married women in urban Nigeria, and multinominal logistic regression models were used to

OLADIMEJI R. TOGUNDE

1998-01-01

427

Impediments to Research among Students of Institutions of Higher Learning in Southern Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined impediments to research among students of institutions of higher learning in Nigeria. The study was guided by one research question and three hypotheses. Data were collected from 600 final year students randomly selected from institutions of higher learning in Nigeria. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean to…

Asiyai, Romina Ifeoma

2014-01-01

428

Challenging the Status Quo: Alan Pifer and Higher Education Reform in Colonial Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The historiography of higher education in Nigeria has not fully accounted for Alan Pifer's crucial contributions in reforming the elitist British higher education tradition in colonial Nigeria. Through qualitative analysis of mostly primary sources acquired from the Rare Book and Manuscript Library in Columbia University, this article argues that…

Anyanwu, Ogechi E.

2013-01-01

429

Palaeozoic and Mesozoic age trends for some ring complexes in Niger and Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

OVER 40 individual granitoid ring complexes exhibiting similar petrological and geochemical variations have been recognised in Nigeria1. They range in size from 1,500 km2 to < 2 km2. The ring complexes form part of a more extensive chain along the ninth meridian, extending from the north of the Aïr Massif through southern Niger and northern Nigeria to the northwestern margin

P. Bowden; O. VAN BREEMEN; J. HUTCHINSON; D. C. TURNER

1976-01-01

430

Biofuels adoption in Nigeria : A preliminary review of feedstock and fuel production potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to make a preliminary analysis of the potentials for the adoption of biofuels in Nigeria. This initial analysis aims to capture some of the possibilities in the adoption of biofuel and the promotion of the cultivation of energy crops and processing of biofuels in Nigeria. Taking a step towards biofuel adoption is

Nelson Abila

2010-01-01

431

The impact of ethical climate on job satisfaction, and commitment in Nigeria : Implications for management development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of ethical climate on job satisfaction and organizational commitment in Nigeria, and to discover the extent to which unethical practices among managers have impacted upon managerial practices in Nigeria. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study followed a descriptive research design using survey methods with statistical treatment. Using the business directory

John O. Okpara; Pamela Wynn

2008-01-01

432

Alternative Modes of Financing Higher Education in Nigeria and the Implications for University Governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems of under-funding and over-reliance on government funds remain a clog in the wheel for university governance in Nigeria. The inadequate funding of the universities has had profound effects on teaching and research, while universities in Nigeria have been forced to embark on income generating projects in order to source alternative funds. Using data from a recent study, this

Olabisi I. Aina

433

Indigenous Waste Management Practices among the Ngwa of Southeastern Nigeria: Some Lessons and Policy Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite large investments that have gone into meeting the challenges of effective waste management in urban Nigeria, there is little evidence that such efforts are having their expected impacts. Consequently, much attention has been drawn to the need to evolve more sustainable waste management strategies. Drawing on data from in-depth interviews among the Ngwa of southeastern Nigeria, some useful indigenous

C. Otutubikey Izugbara; J. O. Umoh

2004-01-01

434

Factors influencing the selection of delivery with no one present in Northern Nigeria: implications for policy and programs  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the effects of demographic, socioeconomic, and women’s autonomy factors on the utilization of delivery assistance in Sokoto State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from the Nigeria 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). Bivariate analysis and logistic regression procedures were conducted. The study revealed that delivery with no one present and with unskilled attendance accounted for roughly 95% of all births in Sokoto State. Mothers with existing high risk factors, including higher parity, were more likely to select unsafe/unskilled delivery practices than younger, lower-parity mothers. Evidenced by the high prevalence of delivery with traditional birth attendants, this study demonstrates that expectant mothers are willing to obtain care from a provider, and their odds of using accessible, affordable, skilled delivery is high, should such an option be presented. This conclusion is supported by the high correlation between a mother’s socioeconomic status and the likelihood of using skilled attendance. To improve the access to, and increase the affordability of, skilled health attendants, we recommended two solutions: 1) the use of cash subsidies to augment women’s incomes in order to reduce finance-related barriers in the use of formal health services, thus increasing demand; and 2) a structural improvement that will increase women’s economic security by improving their access to higher education, income, and urban ideation. PMID:24516341

Fapohunda, Bolaji; Orobaton, Nosakhare

2014-01-01

435

Listening to the rumours: What the northern Nigeria polio vaccine boycott can tell us ten years on  

PubMed Central

In 2003 five northern Nigerian states boycotted the oral polio vaccine due to fears that it was unsafe. Though the international responses have been scrutinised in the literature, this paper argues that lessons still need to be learnt from the boycott: that the origins and continuation of the boycott were due to specific local factors. We focus mainly on Kano state, which initiated the boycotts and continued to reject immunisations for the longest period, to provide a focused analysis of the internal dynamics and complex multifaceted causes of the boycott. We argue that the delay in resolving the year-long boycott was largely due to the spread of rumours at local levels, which were intensified by the outspoken involvement of high-profile individuals whose views were misunderstood or underestimated. We use sociological concepts to analyse why these men gained influence amongst northern Nigerian communities. This study has implications on contemporary policy: refusals still challenge the Global Polio Eradication Initiative; and polio remains endemic to Nigeria (Nigeria accounted for over half of global cases in 2012). This paper sheds light on how this problem may be tackled with the ultimate aim of vaccinating more children and eradicating polio. PMID:24294986

Ghinai, Isaac; Willott, Chris; Dadari, Ibrahim; Larson, Heidi J.

2013-01-01

436

A case of paracoccidioidal granuloma in norther Nigeria.  

PubMed

A case of Paracoccidioidal granuloma in Northern Nigeria is presented. The fungus could be cultured and identified as Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Histology revealed a fungal lesion due to a yeast like organism. The patient responded to long acting Sulphormethoxine (Fanasil). A variation from the classic histopathological description and association of pustular psoriasiform lesions on the soles with a possibility of 'Id' reaction to the fungus are discussed. PMID:537129

Lawande, R V; Sturrock, R D; Jacyk, W K; Subbuswamy, S G

1979-08-01

437

Motivations for Gang Membership in Lagos, Nigeria: Challenge and Resilience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study explores the major challenges (in the form of risk factors) that may influence unemployed youths’ involvement in gang and criminal activity in Lagos, Nigeria. A combination of techniques (e.g., oral, in-depth interviews, and questionnaires) were used for the data collection. The computed outcomes establish some of the major conditions (e.g., large families, rural\\/urban migration, poverty, and police

Abeeb Olufemi Salaam

2011-01-01

438

Highlights of some environmental problems of geomedical significance in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to discuss the links between the geochemical composition of rocks and minerals and the geographical distribution\\u000a of diseases in human beings in Nigeria. We know that the natural composition of elements in our environment (in the bedrock,\\u000a soils, water, and vegetation) may be the major cause of enrichment or depletion in these elements and may become a

U. A. Lar; A. B. Tejan

2008-01-01

439

Addressing the Natural Resource CurseAn Illustration from Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some natural resources—oil and minerals in particular—exert a negative and nonlinear impact on growth via their deleterious impact on institutional quality. We show this result to be very robust. The Nigerian experience provides telling confirmation of this aspect of natural resources. Waste and poor institutional quality stemming from oil appear to have been primarily responsible for Nigeria's poor long-run economic

Xavier Sala-i-Martin; Arvind Subramanian

2003-01-01

440

Epidemiology of stroke in a rural community in Southeastern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence and incidence of stroke vary from community to community worldwide. Nonetheless, not much is known about the current epidemiology of stroke in rural Nigeria and indeed Africa. Methods We carried out a two-phase door-to-door survey in a rural, predominantly low-income, community in Anambra, Southeastern Nigeria. We used a modified World Health Organization (WHO) protocol for detecting neurological diseases in the first phase, and a stroke-specific questionnaire and neurological examination in the second phase. An equal number of sex- and age-matched stroke-negative subjects were examined. Results We identified ten stroke subjects in the study. The crude prevalence of stroke in rural Nigeria was 1.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78–3.00) per 1,000 population. The crude prevalence of stroke in males was 1.99 (95% CI 0.73–4.33) per 1,000, while that for females was 1.28 (95% CI 0.35–3.28) per 1,000 population. The peak age-specific prevalence of stroke was 12.08 (95% CI 3.92–28.19) per 1,000, while after adjustment to WHO world population, the peak was 1.0 (95% CI 0.33–2.33) per 1,000. Conclusion The prevalence of stroke was found to be higher than previously documented in rural Nigeria, with a slightly higher prevalence in males than females. This is, however, comparable to data from rural Africa. PMID:25028556

Enwereji, Kelechi O; Nwosu, Maduaburochukwu C; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Nwani, Paul O; Asomugha, Azuoma L; Enwereji, Ezinna E

2014-01-01

441

A Qualitative Study of Intimate Partner Violence Among Women in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Negative health outcomes caused by intimate partner violence (IPV) have been recognized as a public health problem with extensive effects on the society. Cultural and traditional beliefs that reinforce IPV in Nigeria need to be understood to guide public health approaches aimed at preventing IPV. The purpose of this study was to determine women's attitudes and societal norms that support IPV, causes and consequences of IPV, and coping strategies, and to document suggested measures to prevent it. Six focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted among 56 women aged 15 to 49 years purposively selected from rural and urban communities in Akinyele Local Government Area (LGA) of Oyo State, Nigeria. The FGDs were conducted in Yoruba language, translated to English, and analyzed using thematic approach. Findings were grouped into six major themes: triggers, societal norms, attitude, consequences, coping strategies, and preventive measures. Women reported experience of physical, psychological, and sexual violence and controlling behavior. Major causes of IPV reported by the women were having more money than partner, and building a house or having a business without partner's knowledge. Most participants reported that social norms dictate that a woman should have full regard for in-laws, and submit to and agree with all that the partner says and does. Most of the discussants in both the urban and rural areas reported that violence in any form is not justifiable or acceptable. Participants mentioned various ways through which IPV negatively impacted on women's health such as depression, hypertension, and damage to the reproductive system. They were however willing to endure suffering because of their children. Women who experienced IPV reported to close relatives but did not seek legal redress because these were unavailable. Ending IPV requires long-term commitment and strategies involving contributions from the government, community, and the family. PMID:25392394

Balogun, Mary O; John-Akinola, Yetunde O

2014-11-11

442

Reasons for delaying or engaging in early sexual initiation among adolescents in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Annually, over 1 million births in Nigeria are to teenage mothers. Many of these pregnancies are unwanted and these mothers are also exposed to the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Sexual abstinence is a critical preventative health strategy. Several quantitative studies in Nigeria have identified the correlates and determinants of early sex, yet few have explored in depth the underlying reasons for early sex. This paper explores both the key factors that motivate some unmarried young people to engage in early sex and reasons why some delay. Methods This qualitative study was based on data from 30 focus group discussions held with unmarried 14- to 19-year-olds in four geographically and culturally dispersed Nigerian states. Focus groups were stratified by sexual experience to capture variations among different subgroups. Results Several reasons for early premarital sex were identified. The “push” factors included situations where parents exposed young female adolescents to street trading. “Pull” factors, particularly for males, included the pervasive viewing of locally produced movies, peer pressure and, for females, transactional sex (where adolescent girls exchange sex for gifts, cash, or other favors). Also noted were overtly coercive factors, including rape. There were also myths and misconceptions that “justified” early sexual initiation. Reasons cited for delay included religious injunction against premarital sex; disease prevention (especially HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome); fear of pregnancy, and linked to this, the fear of dropping out of school; and, for females, the fear of bringing shame to the family, which could lead to their inability to get a “good” husband in the future. Conclusion The differences observed between sexually active and abstinent adolescents were that the latter were more confident, had greater determination, and, most important, deployed refusal skills to delay first sex. Health promoters need to focus attention on educating adolescents in the skills needed to delay sexual debut. PMID:24600276

Ankomah, Augustine; Mamman-Daura, Fatima; Omoregie, Godpower; Anyanti, Jennifer

2011-01-01

443

Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and sexual practices among adolescents in Benin City, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A cross sectional study to determine the knowledge of HIV/AIDS and sexual practices of adolescents was undertaken in Benin City, Nigeria. Benin City the capital of Edo State, Nigeria, has 40 government owned secondary schools comprising 6 boys, 10 girls, and 24 mixed. Out of these 3 schools were randomly selected for survey viz; Adolor (boys only), Iyoba (girls only), Army Day (mixed). The sample size for the survey was 920 while the total population for selected schools was 1692 giving a sampling ratio of 1:2. Using the systematic sampling method and class register as sampling frame every other child was selected for the study. However, only 852 students consented to participate giving a response rate of 92.6%. An overwhelming majority of the adolescents were aware of HIV/AIDS but only 16.2% knew the cause of the disease. The submission that kissing, living with infected persons and sharing their utensils could lead to infection was an indication of ignorance. Sexual intercourse was the predominant route of transmission mentioned by 60.0% while multiple sexual partners was prevalent among age group 13-15 years. Playing with sharps, frequent clean head shave with unsterilised instruments in the barbing saloon and promiscuity were some of the activities that adolescents were involved in that could lead to HIV/AIDS infection. In conclusion, the knowledge of the study population was poor and correlates with their reckless sexual practices. Prevention is the best option to the disease. Better informed youths on HIV/AIDS will enhance the principle of prevention. PMID:17518133

Wagbatsoma, V A; Okojie, O H

2006-12-01

444

The millennium development goals and household energy requirements in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Access to clean and affordable energy is critical for the realization of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals, or MDGs. In many developing countries, a large proportion of household energy requirements is met by use of non-commercial fuels such as wood, animal dung, crop residues, etc., and the associated health and environmental hazards of these are well documented. In this work, a scenario analysis of energy requirements in Nigeria's households is carried out to compare estimates between 2005 and 2020 under a reference scenario, with estimates under the assumption that Nigeria will meet the millennium goals. Requirements for energy under the MDG scenario are measured by the impacts on energy use, of a reduction by half, in 2015, (a) the number of household without access to electricity for basic services, (b) the number of households without access to modern energy carriers for cooking, and (c) the number of families living in one-room households in Nigeria's overcrowded urban slums. For these to be achieved, household electricity consumption would increase by about 41% over the study period, while the use of modern fuels would more than double. This migration to the use of modern fuels for cooking results in a reduction in the overall fuelwood consumption, from 5 GJ/capita in 2005, to 2.9 GJ/capita in 2015. PMID:24255832

Ibitoye, Francis I

2013-01-01

445

Diabetes mellitus in Nigeria: The past, present and future  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a diverse group of metabolic disorders that is often associated with a high disease burden in developing countries such as Nigeria. In the early nineties, not much was known about DM in Nigeria and traditionally, people related DM to “curses” or “hexes” and diagnosis was made based on blood or urinary tests for glucose. Currently, oral hypoglycaemic agents but not insulin are readily accessible and acceptable to persons with DM. The cost of diabetes care is borne in most instances by individuals and often payment is “out of pocket”-this being a sequel of a poorly functional national health insurance scheme. An insulin requiring individual on a minimum wage would spend 29% of his monthly income on insulin. Complementary and alternative medicines are widely used by persons with DM and form an integral component of DM care. Towards reducing the burden of DM in Nigeria, we suggest that there be concerted efforts by healthcare professionals and stakeholders in the health industry to put in place preventative measures, a better functioning health insurance scheme and a structured DM program. PMID:25512795

Ogbera, Anthonia Okeoghene; Ekpebegh, Chukwuma

2014-01-01

446

Diabetes mellitus in Nigeria: The past, present and future.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a diverse group of metabolic disorders that is often associated with a high disease burden in developing countries such as Nigeria. In the early nineties, not much was known about DM in Nigeria and traditionally, people related DM to "curses" or "hexes" and diagnosis was made based on blood or urinary tests for glucose. Currently, oral hypoglycaemic agents but not insulin are readily accessible and acceptable to persons with DM. The cost of diabetes care is borne in most instances by individuals and often payment is "out of pocket"-this being a sequel of a poorly functional national health insurance scheme. An insulin requiring individual on a minimum wage would spend 29% of his monthly income on insulin. Complementary and alternative medicines are widely used by persons with DM and form an integral component of DM care. Towards reducing the burden of DM in Nigeria, we suggest that there be concerted efforts by healthcare professionals and stakeholders in the health industry to put in place preventative measures, a better functioning health insurance scheme and a structured DM program. PMID:25512795

Ogbera, Anthonia Okeoghene; Ekpebegh, Chukwuma

2014-12-15

447

Local Barriers and Solutions to Improve Care-Seeking for Childhood Pneumonia, Diarrhoea and Malaria in Kenya, Nigeria and Niger: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

We present qualitative research findings on care-seeking and treatment uptake for pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria among children under 5 in Kenya, Nigeria and Niger. The study aimed to determine the barriers caregivers face in accessing treatment for these conditions; to identify local solutions that facilitate more timely access to treatment; and to present these findings as a platform from which to develop context-specific strategies to improve care-seeking for childhood illness. Ke