Sample records for ice age moraines

  1. Numerical Modeling of the Last Glacial Maximum Yellowstone Ice Cap Captures Asymmetry in Moraine Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, L. S.; Wickert, A. D.; Colgan, W. T.; Anderson, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) Yellowstone Ice Cap was the largest continuous ice body in the US Rocky Mountains. Terminal moraine ages derived from cosmogenic radionuclide dating (e.g., Licciardi and Pierce, 2008) constrain the timing of maximum Ice Cap extent. Importantly, the moraine ages vary by several thousand years around the Ice Cap; ages on the eastern outlet glaciers are significantly younger than their western counterparts. In order to interpret these observations within the context of LGM climate in North America, we perform two numerical glacier modeling experiments: 1) We model the initiation and growth of the Ice Cap to steady state; and 2) We estimate the range of LGM climate states which led to the formation of the Ice Cap. We use an efficient semi-implicit 2-D glacier model coupled to a fully implicit solution for flexural isostasy, allowing for transient links between climatic forcing, ice thickness, and earth surface deflection. Independent of parameter selection, the Ice Cap initiates in the Absaroka and Beartooth mountains and then advances across the Yellowstone plateau to the west. The Ice Cap advances to its maximum extent first to the older eastern moraines and last to the younger western and northwestern moraines. This suggests that the moraine ages may reflect the timescale required for the Ice Cap to advance across the high elevation Yellowstone plateau rather than the timing of local LGM climate. With no change in annual precipitation from the present, a mean summer temperature drop of 8-9° C is required to form the Ice Cap. Further parameter searches provide the full range of LGM paleoclimate states that led to the Yellowstone Ice Cap. Using our preferred parameter set, we find that the timescale for the growth of the complete Ice Cap is roughly 10,000 years. Isostatic subsidence helps explain the long timescale of Ice Cap growth. The Yellowstone Ice Cap caused a maximum surface deflection of 300 m (using a constant effective elastic thickness of 4 km (McQuarrie and Rogers, 1998)). Furthermore, subsidence in the foredeep formed by the weight of the Yellowstone Ice Cap may be responsible for the deep alluviation (30+ m) of the Yellowstone valley and Jackson Hole, with subsequent ice retreat and glacial isostatic adjustment leading to exhumation and incision of these fill packages.

  2. Cosmogenic 10 Be ages on the Pomeranian Moraine, Poland

    E-print Network

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Cosmogenic 10 Be ages on the Pomeranian Moraine, Poland VINCENT R. RINTERKNECHT, LESZEK MARKS, JAN (May): Cosmogenic 10 Be ages on the Pomeranian Moraine, Poland. Boreas, Vol. 34, pp. 186­191. Oslo in Poland, providing the first direct dating of the southern margin of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet (SIS

  3. Analysis of plant colonization on an arctic moraine since the end of the Little Ice Age using remotely sensed data and a Bayesian approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myrtille Moreau; Dominique Laffly; Daniel Joly; Thierry Brossard

    2005-01-01

    Young moraines less than 100 years old are considered as key areas for monitoring the effects of climate change since the end of the Little Ice Age. One way of documenting this change is by recognizing and characterizing the different plant colonization stages and trends that occur on these relatively new environments. Previous studies have shown that remotely sensed data

  4. Glacier variations in Breheimen, southern Norway: dating Little Ice Age moraine sequences at seven low-altitude glaciers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Winkler; John A. Matthews; Richard A. Shakesby; P. Quentin Dresser

    2003-01-01

    Moraine sequences in front of seven relatively low-altitude glaciers in the Breheimen region of central southern Norway are described and dated using a multi-proxy approach to moraine stratigraphy. Lichenometric dating, based on the Rhizocarpon subgenus, is used to construct a composite moraine chronology, which indicates eight phases of synchronous moraine formation: AD 1793-1799, 1807-1813, 1845-1852, 1859-1862, 1879-1885, 1897-1898, 1906-1908 and

  5. Constraining the Timing of Neoglaciation: Moraine Exposure Ages from Baffin Island, Arctic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crump, S. E.; Miller, G. H.

    2014-12-01

    A long-term Neoglacial cooling trend, beginning ~6 ka, is well documented across the Arctic and correlates with a monotonic decline in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation. However, paleoclimate proxy records point to decadal- to millennial-scale variability superimposed on overall cooling. This climate variability is reflected in the fluctuations of Arctic glaciers over the course of several millennia. The most recent Neoglacial advance, the Little Ice Age (LIA; ~1275-1850 AD), was generally more extensive than pre-LIA advances and thus destroyed most evidence of previous advances. As such, the timing and extent of earlier Neoglacial advances are not well constrained. However, several extant glaciers on Cumberland Peninsula, Baffin Island, are fronted by nested ice-cored moraine sequences in which multiple pre-LIA moraines are preserved. We have generated absolute ages on moraine sequences for Snow Creek and Throne Glaciers using 10Be in moraine boulders. Nine 10Be ages from the two most distal moraine crests at Snow Creek Glacier range from ~1.8 ka to ~5.7 ka, and twelve ages from the two most distal moraine crests at Throne Glacier range from ~1.1 ka to ~4.6 ka. The wide spread of exposure ages in these settings is likely due to the degradation of moraine ice cores and the disturbance of older moraines by younger readvances. Because these processes result in the exposure of new clasts on the moraine post-emplacement, the oldest ages in these datasets likely provide the best estimates for the earliest Neoglacial advances. These data also indicate that in some settings, early Neoglacial alpine glacier advances reached similar extents as their LIA maxima, possibly due to large ice-cored moraines impeding LIA advances. Glacier modeling efforts and complementary lacustrine sediment records will help to unravel the complex Neoglacial history in this region.

  6. Glacier variations in Breheimen, southern Norway: relative-age dating of Holocene moraine complexes at six high-altitude glaciers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Shakesby; John A. Matthews; Stefan Winkler

    2004-01-01

    Lichenometric evidence and Schmidt hammer R-values are used to date Holocene moraine sequences in front of six high-altitude (> 1500 m) glaciers in Breheimen, central southern Norway. At three glacier forelands with southerly aspects (Høgsetbreen, Vestre Høybre and Østre Høybre), relatively small (?4 m high) discrete boulder moraine ridges are shown to date from the ‘Little Ice Age’. The remaining

  7. Evolution of a highly vulnerable ice-cored moraine: Col des Gentianes, Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravanel, L.; Lambiel, C.; Oppikofer, T.; Mazotti, B.; Jaboyedoff, M.

    2012-04-01

    Rock mass movements are dominant in the morphodynamics of high mountain rock slopes and are at the origin of significant risks for people who attend these areas and for infrastructures that are built on (mountain huts, cable cars, etc.). These risks are becoming greater because of permafrost degradation and glacier retreat, two consequences of the global warming. These two commonly associated factors may affect slope stability by changing mechanical properties of the interstitial ice and modifying the mechanical constraints in these rock slopes. Between 1977 and 1979, significant works were carried out on the Little Ice Age moraine of the Tortin glacier at the Col des Gentianes (2894 m), in the Mont Fort area (Verbier, Switzerland), for the construction of a cable car station and a restaurant. Since the early 1980s, the glacier drastically retreated and the moraine became unstable: its inner slope has retreated for several meters. Various observations and geoelectric measurements indicate that significant volume of massive ice mass is still present within the moraine (ice-cored moraine). Its melting could therefore increase the instability of the moraine. Since 2007, the moraine is surveyed by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in order to characterize its evolution: 8 campaigns were conducted between July 2007 and October 2011. The comparison of the high resolution 3D models so obtained allowed the detection and quantification of mass movements that have affected the moraine over this period, essentially by calculating difference maps (shortest oblique distances between two models). Between July 2007 and October 2011, 7 landslides were measured, involving volumes between 87 and 1138 m3. The most important of these occurred during the summers 2009 and 2011. TLS data also allowed identifying: (i) two main areas affected by slower but sometimes substantial movements (displacements of blocks on more than 2 m during a summer period); (ii) significant deposits of anthropogenic materials and their mechanical readjustments; and (iii) a loss of thickness of the glacier approaching 10 m at the foot of the moraine. Except for the morphological changes related to the landscaping of ski-runs, mass movements identified by TLS since 2007 are mainly resulting from glacier retreat and, to a lesser extent, to permafrost creep and degradation.

  8. Provenance of the ice cored moraine tills at Mt. Achernar, Law Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, N.; Licht, K.; Dits, T.; Kaplan, M. R.; Schaefer, J. M.; Winckler, G.; Flood, T. P.

    2012-12-01

    The study of glacial till from an extensive moraine complex at the head of Law Glacier, Antarctica, provides new information about changes in provenance over time. Zircon geochronology and pebble lithology were analyzed across a 7.5 km transect of the Mt. Achernar ice-cored moraine. This moraine increases in age away from the active ice margin, indicated by increasing surface weathering of rocks, till thickness (<1 cm to >38 cm), and 10Be exposure ages. The cosmogenic ages range from <10,000 years to ~200,000, with most of the moraine complex dating to the last two glacial cycles. Random samples of ~100 pebbles were collected from ~24 moraine crests along the transect. Faceting and/or striations were seen on ~12% of pebbles, which averaged 59% igneous, 12% metamorphic, and 29% sedimentary rock fragments. The abundance of sedimentary and igneous rock fragments varies up to 70% between adjacent crests, supporting field observations of distinct lithologic bands of sandstone and dolerite. The source rocks are interpreted to be primarily the local Beacon and Ferrar Supergroup rocks, with only <2% exotic felsic igneous and metamorphic rocks. Using laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICPMS), the U and Pb isotopes of 684 detrital zircons in the till were analyzed. The U/Pb data from the till show significant populations from the Permian ~250-260 Ma, the Proterozoic ~565-600 Ma, ~950-1270 Ma, and ~2300-2321 Ma, as well as the late Archean ~2700-2770 Ma. These dominant populations show little variation across the moraine and are consistent with a Beacon source. The U/Pb data indicate that the ice flow and erosion of the same source material has been consistent since at least the past ~200 ka, implying a stable ice sheet. However, the distinct lithologic bands across the moraine create an interesting contradiction and is likely a function of source rock erodibility and zircon content, as well as the geometry of upstream subglacial bedrock units.

  9. Do blue-ice moraines in the Heritage Range show the West Antarctic ice sheet survived the last interglacial?

    E-print Network

    glacial cycles and thus those predicting the future of the ice sheet in a warming world. © 2011 Elsevier BDo blue-ice moraines in the Heritage Range show the West Antarctic ice sheet survived the last in revised form 10 January 2011 Accepted 28 January 2011 Available online xxxx Keywords: Blue-ice moraine

  10. Be dating of the Narsarsuaq moraine in southernmost Greenland: evidence for a late-Holocene ice advance exceeding the Little Ice Age

    E-print Network

    : Received 18 January 2014 Received in revised form 25 April 2014 Accepted 28 April 2014 Available online Keywords: Cosmogenic surface exposure dating Greenland ice sheet Glacial geology a b s t r a c in southern Greenland. Southern Greenland warming at w1.5 ka was also concurrent with the end of the Roman

  11. Changes in ice-margin processes and sediment routing during ice-sheet advance across a marginal moraine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knight, P.G.; Jennings, C.E.; Waller, R.I.; Robinson, Z.P.

    2007-01-01

    Advance of part of the margin of the Greenland ice sheet across a proglacial moraine ridge between 1968 and 2002 caused progressive changes in moraine morphology, basal ice formation, debris release, ice-marginal sediment storage, and sediment transfer to the distal proglacial zone. When the ice margin is behind the moraine, most of the sediment released from the glacier is stored close to the ice margin. As the margin advances across the moraine the potential for ice-proximal sediment storage decreases and distal sediment flux is augmented by reactivation of moraine sediment. For six stages of advance associated with distinctive glacial and sedimentary processes we describe the ice margin, the debris-rich basal ice, debris release from the glacier, sediment routing into the proglacial zone, and geomorphic processes on the moraine. The overtopping of a moraine ridge is a significant glaciological, geomorphological and sedimentological threshold in glacier advance, likely to cause a distinctive pulse in distal sediment accumulation rates that should be taken into account when glacial sediments are interpreted to reconstruct glacier fluctuations. ?? 2007 Swedish Society for Anthropology and Geography.

  12. LITTLE ICE AGE HISTORY OF TZEETSAYTSUL GLACIER, TWEEDSMUIR PROVINCIAL PARK, BRITISH COLUMBIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. SMITH; Joseph R. DESLOGES; D. J. SMITH

    This paper describes licheno- metric and dendroglaciological investigations of Little Ice Age (LIA) deposits at Tzeetsaytsul Glacier, Tweedsmuir Provincial Park, British Columbia. The glacier originates from an ice- field on the northeast flank of Tzeetsaytsul Peak and terminates in a moraine-dammed lake. A stream draining the lake has incised the moraine dam and flows through nested moraines into a second

  13. Ice Ages

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    During most of the last one billion years the globe had no permanent ice. However, sometimes large areas of the globe were covered with vast ice sheets. Users can read and view pictures which help explain what ice ages are, when they occurred, and why they occur. This site, sponsored by the Illinois State Museum, has links to web pages on paleontology of the midwestern United States during the last ice age and to an animation showing the advance and retreat of the ice sheet in North America 20,000 years ago.

  14. Bed Ribbing Instability Explanation: Testing a numerical model of ribbed moraine formation arising from coupled flow of ice and subglacial sediment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Dunlop; Chris D. Clark; Richard C. A. Hindmarsh

    2008-01-01

    Ribbed moraines are large (up to 16 km long) ridges of sediment produced transverse to ice flow direction that formed widely beneath palaeo-ice sheets. Since ice sheet stability is sensitive to conditions operating at the bed, an understanding of ribbed moraine genesis will provide critical information on ice sheet dynamics. Currently, there is no consensus on ribbed moraine formation and

  15. Morphology and GPR stratigraphy of a frontal part of an end moraine of the Laurentide Ice Sheet: Paris Moraine near Guelph, ON, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadura, S.; Martini, I. P.; Endres, A. L.; Wolf, K.

    2006-04-01

    During deglaciation, the Laurentide Ice Sheet developed lobate ice termini in the Great Lakes area. Where the lobes remained quasi-stationary for considerable time and sediment was supplied by the glacier, end moraines fronted by outwash plains were formed. One of the best examples in southern Ontario is the Paris Moraine formed by the Lake Ontario lobe. This study is a detailed examination of the morphology (transverse and longitudinal) of part of the Paris Moraine near Guelph, Ontario, and an analysis of the stratigraphy as derived from borehole information and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys. Parts of the northwestern frontal zone of the moraine are characterized by c. 30 m high, semi-isolated hills composed in great part by aprons (fans) of debris-flow and waterlaid sediments. To the southeast, these hills are backed by moat-like depressions similar to those formed by ice-push, generating "hill-hole" morphology. The ice-push effect is corroborated by evidence of folding and dislocation in the GPR profiles. Farther southeastward still, the main body of the end moraine is characterized by hummocky-topography typical of differential melting of sediment-charged stagnant ice.

  16. Submerged Tioga and Tahoe age Moraines at Meeks Bay, Lake Tahoe, Calif. Implications to Late Pleistocene Lake Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howle, J. F.; Schweickert, R. A.; Finkel, R. C.; Kitts, C. A.; Ota, J.

    2005-12-01

    At Meeks Bay, a well-preserved right-lateral morainal complex is constructed of till from the Tioga (>20.4 +/- 0.7 ka B.P.) and Tahoe (>62.0 +/- 1.3 ka B.P.; Howle et al., 2005) glacial advances. High-resolution digital bathymetry merged with the terrestrial DEM reveals that the onshore Tioga and Tahoe moraines extend offshore below the modern lake level of 1,899m. Longitudinal profiles show that the sub-aerial moraine crests grade evenly with the submerged crests and that the slopes of the sub-aqueous crests match the profile of the adjacent submarine canyon. In the digital bathymetry, the Tioga and Tahoe moraines are recognizable to 1,844 and 1,768m respectively. In May of 2004 and 2005 the moraines were imaged with the remotely operated submersible Triton deployed from the UC Davis research vessel, John LeConte. The Tioga moraine goes down to 1,817m, and rests upon Pliocene (?) lacustrine sediments. Above 1,817m the moraine is comprised of unsorted gravel, cobbles, and angular granitic boulders up to 3m across, typical of the Tioga age till on land. The moraine crest is continuous from 1,817m up to the shoreline promontory where the Tioga till on land enters the lake. Between 1,868m and 1,838m, the submerged Tahoe moraine contains well-rounded granitic boulders up to 2m across. The degree of rounding is consistent with the Tahoe boulders on land. The lowest occurrence of the Tahoe moraine was not imaged, but the glacial origin of the crest was confirmed. The submerged Tioga and Tahoe lateral moraines place upper limiting constraints on lake elevation, because lateral moraines do not form in water deeper than the ice thickness. Instead, when the relatively thin terminal ice cliff of an ablating alpine glacier interacts with water the glacier either melts, disintegrates by calving, or detaches along crevasses and floats when submerged to about 0.9 of the ice thickness. Reconstructions of ice thickness at the lower limits of the Tioga and Tahoe moraines here yield estimates of the maximum lake elevations at the glacial maxima. During the Tioga and Tahoe glacial maxima (>20 and >62 ka B.P., respectively) the lake elevation was <1,810m and <1,765m. These data indicate that in the Tahoe basin, late Pleistocene lake low-stands occurred during the glacial maxima. Asynchrony between glacial and lacustrine maxima has also been documented at Pleistocene lakes Russell and Lahonton (Lajoie and Robinson, 1982). Evidence at Meeks Bay for a post-Tahoe and pre-Tioga high-stand between 1,914 and 1,920m is provided by a gently sloping bench cut into the Tahoe moraine. This correlates well with reports of a Tahoe age high-stand at 1,926m. Birkeland (1963) proposed a Tahoe age ice dam at that may have raised lake levels to about 1950m. However, there is no evidence of this at 1950m in the Tahoe moraine at Meeks Bay, and therefore any such high-stand must have predated the Tahoe maximum. Available data suggests that large fluctuations in lake elevation have occurred from a mid Pleistocene (?) high-stand of about 2073m (Birkeland, 1963) to <1,765m at the Tahoe glacial maximum, up to about 1,920m after the Tahoe advance, down to <1,810m at the Tioga glacial maximum, and finally up to elevations between 1876 and 1899m during the Holocene (Schweickert et al., 2000). We thank the IEEE Oceanic Engineering Society for partial funding and commend the engineering students of Santa Clara University for designing, building, and deploying the Triton. Special thanks to Bob Richards and Brant Allen, captains of the LeConte.

  17. LGM Snow-Line Elevations In The Western Tropical Pacific- Exposure Ages On Moraines From Mt. Giluwe, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, M. L.; Kurz, M. D.; Hope, G.; Barrows, T.

    2010-12-01

    Snow-line elevations of former glaciers around the tropical Pacific Ocean during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) provide critical constraints on the state of the lower tropical troposphere. We present new moraine chronological information that pins down LGM snow-line elevations adjacent to the western Pacific warm-pool. We mapped several major sequences of glacier moraines on Mt. Giluwe, an extinct massive stratovolcano in central Papua New Guinea that rises to 4368 m above sea level (asl). We sampled large basalt boulders on the moraine crests and measured cosmogenic 3He in well-preserved olivine phenocrysts from these boulders. Based on fourteen 3He exposure ages, the outermost and lowest moraine sequences date to Marine Isotope Stage 6, rather than the LGM. Five boulders on moraine sequences at relatively high elevations have 3He exposure ages corresponding to the LGM, consistent with radiocarbon dates from the base of tarns and mires at several nearby locations. Contrasting moraine morphologies indicate that glacier regimes varied considerably. We estimate that the altitude of the equilibrium line (ELA) on the Giluwe ice cap during the LGM was 3550 to 3650 m asl. The estimate is based on both the highest elevation of the pertinent moraines and the Area-Altitude-Balance Ratio method. This is marginally higher than estimated by Loffler in 1972. To estimate climate change between the LGM and the present, we used the ELA for Papua, Indonesia, glaciers in 1972, 4650 m asl, as representative of the modern ELA above Mt. Giluwe. Additionally, the ELA during the LGM is considered relative to sea-level during that interval, which puts it at 3700 m asl. Accordingly, our analysis indicates that the ELA at Mt. Giluwe was 950 m lower during the LGM than it is today. To drive that ELA lowering, we estimate that the lower tropical troposphere in the warm-pool region was 4 to 5oC cooler during the LGM than it is today. This estimate is based on an atmospheric lapse rate of 0.0058oC/m derived from an LGM model experiment. It assumes that the ELA is coupled to the altitude of a mean annual atmospheric isotherm and also that the glacier mass balance profile has not changed since the LGM. A more complete mass-balance model that incorporates precipitation and mass-balance profile changes since the LGM yields a cooling of 4oC.

  18. 10Be and 36Cl Surface Exposure age of the Puerto Banderas Moraine, Lago Argentino, Argentina, 50°S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, R. A.; Ackert, R. P.; Singer, B. S.; Douglass, D. C.; Caffee, M.; Kurz, M.; Mickelson, D. M.; Rabassa, J.

    2005-12-01

    The Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR) and Younger Dryas (YD) are prominent late deglacial cool periods expressed in polar ice and high latitude marine sediments between 14.8-12.7 and 12.7-11.5 ka, respectively. Debate centers on the extent to which YD cooling affected the earth`s surface, particularly in the mid- to high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. Resolving the timing of late glacial cooling is critical to determining the degree of inter-hemispheric synchroneity as the climate system evolved after the global Last Glaciation Maximum (LGM) 16 ka. The Puerto Banderas moraine was deposited at 50°S in the rain shadow east of the Andes and between LGM moraines 60 km to the east and the present south Patagonian Ice Cap 40 km to the west. It is a sharp-crested ridge 30 km long and 10-15 m high, topped by numerous erratic boulders >1 m high ideally suited for surface exposure dating. Radiocarbon dating provides only broad age limits. A weighted mean of three 14C ages on peat younger than the moraine of 11.7±0.3 cal. ka (2 ?), along with glacier behavior elsewhere in the Andes, led John Mercer to propose that the Puerto Banderas moraine is late glacial, ca. 15 ka. Recent mapping and two additional 14C ages suggest that the moraine may have been deposited in stages between 15.4 and 11.9 ka. New cosmogenic surface exposure ages from the most prominent part of this moraine, however, indicate a considerably younger age. The weighted mean of 10Be ages from quartz in 8 boulders is 11.3±0.7 ka. Moreover, the weighted mean of 36Cl ages from 8 other boulders is 10.9±0.9 ka. The weighted mean age of all 16 boulders is 11.1±0.5 ka. Uncertainties include analytical and production rate contributions. Our previous work in the region suggests that production rates may be 10% higher than expected owing to reduced air pressure during the late glacial and the early Holocene. Thus, the age of 11.1±0.5 ka is a maximum for the Puerto Banderas moraine and although it is possible that it formed after the YD, it is highly unlikely that it was deposited during the ACR. Lago Cardiel, a closed lake basin 175 km to the NE, was highest at 11.7 ka. Marine sediments cored west of the Andes at 41°S show warm sea surface temperatures and low salinity at 11.0 ka, consistent with increased precipitation and glacial erosion. These paleoclimate proxies imply that the Puerto Banderas records southern Patagonian Ice Cap expansion due to increased precipitation, likely tied to focusing of the moisture-laden southern Westerly storm track at 50°S between 12 and 11 ka.

  19. Airborne SAR determination of relative ages of Walker Valley moraines, eastern Sierra Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, A.; Isacks, B.; Bloom, A.; Fielding, E.; Mcmurry, D.

    1991-01-01

    A regional study of the distribution and elevations of Pleistocene moraines in the Andes requires a method of determining relative age from space. One of our primary objectives is to establish the relative chronology of major climatic events responsible for glaciation in the Andes and other regions that are difficult to access on the ground and where suitable material for absolute age determination is lacking. The sensitivity of radar to surface roughness makes it possible to develop a remotely-based relative dating technique for landforms for which surface age and roughness can be correlated. We are developing such a technique with Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) imagery of the eastern Sierra Nevada where independent evidence is available for the ages and physical characteristics of moraines. The Sierra Nevada moraines are similar in form and environmental setting to Andean moraines that we have targeted for study during the pending Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) mission. SAR imagery is used to differentiate the ages of five moraine sequences of Walker Valley in the eastern Sierra Nevada. Other aspects of this investigation are briefly discussed.

  20. Surface exposure dating of Little Ice Age ice cap advances on Disko Island, West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Timothy; Jomelli, Vincent; Rinterknecht, Vincent; Brunstein, Daniel; Schimmelpfennig, Irene; Swingedouw, Didier; Favier, Vincent; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie

    2015-04-01

    Little Ice Age (LIA: 1200-1920 AD) glacier advances in Greenland often form the most extensive positions of Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) ice cap and margins since the Early Holocene. Across Greenland these advances are commonly represented by un-vegetated moraines, usually within 1-5 km of the present ice margin. However, chronological constraints on glacier advances during this period are sparse, meaning that GrIS and ice cap behavior and advance/retreat chronology remains poorly understood during this period. At present the majority of ages are based on historical accounts, ice core data, and radiocarbon ages from proglacial threshold lakes. However, developments in the accuracy and precision of surface exposure methods allow dating of LIA moraine boulders, permitting an opportunity to better understand of ice dynamics during this period. Geomorphological mapping and surface exposure dating (36Cl) were used to interpret moraine deposits from the Lyngmarksbræen on Disko Island, West Greenland. A Positive Degree Day (PDD) model was used to estimate Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) and mass balance changes for two distinct paleo-glacial extents. Three moraines (M1, M2, and M3) were mapped in the field, and sampled for 36Cl surface exposure dating. The outermost moraine (M1) was of clearly different morphology to the inner moraines, and present only in small fragments. M2 and M3 were distinct arcuate termino-lateral moraines within 50 m of one another, 1.5 km from the present ice margin. The weighted average of four 36Cl ages from M1 returned an early Holocene age of 8.4 ± 0.6 ka. M2 (four samples) returned an age of 0.57 ± 0.04 ka (1441 AD) and M3 (four samples) returned an age of 0.28 ± 0.02 ka (1732 AD). These surface exposure ages represent the first robustly dated Greenlandic ice cap moraine sequence from the LIA. The two periods of ice cap advance and marginal stabilisation are similar to recorded periods of LIA GrIS advance in west Greenland, constrained through radiocarbon dating. Comparison with local and regional proxy and radiative forcing records, suggests that these advances were driven by decreases in summer insolation. Further studies from ice cap margins and the GrIS margin are essential in order to create a full, well-developed understanding of the timing of glacier behavior during the LIA.

  1. Blue Ice Moraines as an Archive of Past EAIS dynamics: Mt. Achernar as a Case Study in the Central Transantarctic Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, M. R.; Licht, K.; Winckler, G.; Schaefer, J. M.; Mathieson, C.; Bader, N.

    2014-12-01

    Observations from the interior of East Antarctica are essential for placing direct constraints on the ice sheet's history over multiple glacial cycles, which also can be used to test numerical modeling of its past dynamics. In particular, laterally extensive, blue ice or ablation moraines are important archives of the former behavior of the EAIS and WAIS during at least the Pleistocene and Holocene. We can now quantify changes in the former ice surfaces using such deposits, which have been studied for decades, but have lacked chronological information. We are carrying out 10Be-26Al-3He dating and provenance initiatives at Mt. Achernar, near the head of the Law Glacier, where there is a well-preserved archive of ice sheet history extending spatially over 5-10 km and temporally over the last few hundred thousand years, during which time the climate swung between full glacial and warm interglacial changes. Here, concentric moraines are continuous and well preserved, and the entire complex is no higher than about ~30 meters above the modern EAIS surface. The cosmogenic ages steadily progress away from the EAIS, over 103 to 105 timescales. In addition, agreement of 10Be and 26Al concentrations indicate that, at least over the long term, blue ice deposits at Mt Achernar do not have a complicated history of burial and re-exposure. This is consistent with the inferred process of blue ice moraine formation that involves debris coming up from below and accumulating on the surface, when ice encounters the Transantarctic Mountains. Based on our findings we conclude that the interior of EAIS has been relatively stable for the last few 100 kyr, with ice surface elevation changes on the order of tens of meters, including 20-30 meters since the LGM. In a net sense, the EAIS has also been getting slightly lower over the last half million years or so. We hypothesize that if the interior of the EAIS had undergone major lowering or more pronounced surface changes over the time represented, we would not observe the well-preserved continuous blue ice moraines and associated overall progression in ages with distance from the EAIS.

  2. Dating of Little Ice Age glacier fluctuations in the tropical Andes: Charquini glaciers, Bolivia, 16°S

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antoine Rabatel; Vincent Jomelli; Philippe Naveau; Bernard Francou; Delphine Grancher

    2005-01-01

    Fluctuations of the Charquini glaciers (Cordillera Real, Bolivia) have been reconstructed for the Little Ice Age (LIA) from a set of 10 moraines extending below the present glacier termini. A lichenometric method using the Rhizocarpon geographicum was used to date the moraines and reconstruct the main glacier fluctuations over the period. The maximum glacier extent occurred in the second half

  3. Geology Fieldnotes: Ice Age National Scientific Preserve

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This National Park Service (NPS) site gives information on the Ice Age National Scientific Preserve in Wisconsin, including geology, park maps, a photo album, and other media (books, videos, CDs). There is also a selection of links to other geologic and conservation organizations, and to information for visitors. This preserve contains a wealth of glacial features associated with the most recent Pleistocene continental glaciation including drumlins, kames, kettles, moraines, erratics, and eskers. It also contains a segment of the Ice Age National Scenic Trail, a 1000-plus mile hiking and backpacking trail that passes through this unique glacial landscape.

  4. 10Be chronology of the Drygalski Moraines, central western Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronauer, S. L.; Briner, J. P.; Kelley, S. E.; Zimmerman, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    Ice sheet margin fluctuations throughout the Holocene are increasingly well documented in Greenland, but fundamental gaps still exist. The Drygalski Moraines on the Nuussuaq Peninsula, central western Greenland, represent one of the few locations on Greenland where potential early Neoglacial (~2-5 ka) moraines have been identified. We used cosmogenic 10Be exposure dating of moraine boulders to test the hypothesis that the Drygalski Moraines are early Neoglacial in age, as was previously estimated using cross-cutting relationships with relative sea level. Alternative hypotheses are that the Drygalski Moraines represent the northern extent of the Ørkendalen Moraine (6.8 × 0.3 ka) or the Fjord Stade Moraines (~9.3 and ~8.2 ka). Results from 10Be dating of perched erratics outboard of the Drygalski Moraines suggest that deglaciation of the area occurred between ~10.4 × 0.3 ka and 9.5 × 0.3 ka. We dated three different crests of the Drygalski Moraine complex, which have mean ages of 8.6 × 0.4 ka (n=2), 8.5 × 0.2 ka (n=3), and 7.6 × 0.1 ka (n=2) from outer to inner. Perched erratics between the younger two moraines average 7.8×0.1 ka (n=2) and are consistent with the nearby moraine ages. These results allow us to reject the early Neoglacial and Ørkendalen hypotheses and generally support the Fjord Stade Moraine hypothesis because the Drygalski and Fjord Stade moraines are both early Holocene in age. However, we propose that the Drygalski and Fjord Stade moraines represent a different ice sheet response to early Holocene climate history. This may be attributed to the fast-flowing, marine-terminating nature of Jakobshavn Isbræ (the outlet glacier that deposited the Fjord Stade Moraines) in contrast with the land-based and slower-flowing lobe that deposited the Drygalski Moraines. Evidence suggests that Jakobshavn Isbræ is extremely sensitive to changes in climate, even on the centennial to decadal scale. As a result, Jakobshavn Isbræ may create discrete moraines in response to short-lived climate events (i.e. the 9.3 and 8.2 ka climate events). In contrast, the Drygalski Moraines may archive the centennial- to millennial-scale climate variability during the early Holocene and do not seem to be associated with specific early Holocene climate events.

  5. An Initial AUV Investigation of the Morainal Bank and Ice-Proximal Submarine Processes of the Advancing Hubbard Glacier, Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, D. E.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Goff, J. A.; O'Halloran, W.

    2014-12-01

    The movement of an advancing tidewater glacier occurs in concert with the morainal bank that underlies its terminus. The mechanics of motion and sedimentological processes responsible for this advance of the morainal bank with the calving terminus are not well-defined and based largely on inferences from geophysical analyses of remnant morainal banks on fjord floors. There is a general absence of in situ or direct observation of the submarine margin because it is nearly impossible to access the immediate area of the ice face by boat safely. In order to obtain such data, in June 2014 we tested the ability of a Bluefin 9M AUV (autonomous underwater vehicle) to acquire high resolution swath bathymetry and sidescan backscatter across a ~2 km long section of the ice face of Hubbard Glacier (see also Goff et al., this meeting). Additionally onboard oceanographic measurements were taken that can be compared with surface cast CTD profiles obtained during AUV deployment, including locations with subglacial discharges. The AUV test provides details on the geometry of the morainal bank and nature of the fjord wall surfaces. The decimeter-scale imagery of the seabed reveals numerous erosional and depositional bedforms and gravitational features on the morainal bank's proximal slope. Closer to the ice face, the morainal bank surface appears much coarser, with textural patterns of unknown origin, and gravel lags including boulder fields. Comparing the water depth from the AUV survey with that of NOAA bathymetric data from 2004/2006 shows the morainal bank continued to advance in pace with ice advance into fjord waters over 200m deep, water depths shoaling up to 100m near the present ice margin. The glimpse of the morainal bank afforded by the AUV test clearly demonstrated the value of this technology to ice marginal submarine investigations.

  6. A more complex deglaciation chronology of Southern Norway than previously thought. New geochronological constraints based on cosmogenic exposure ages of marginal moraines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredin, Ola; Akçar, Naki; Romundset, Anders; Reber, Regina; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Kubik, Peter; Høgaas, Fredrik; Schlüchter, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Glacial landforms from the last deglaciation in southern Norway were mapped by the famous glacial geologist Bjørn Andersen already in the early 1950s, using basic aerial photographs and topographic maps. Andersen reconstructed two distinct glacial sub-stages (the Lista stage and Spangereid stage) that were older than the Younger Dryas (YD), and one main glacial stage of assumed YD age (the Ra stage). This interpretation has remained largely untested and is still used in reconstructions of the Fennoscandian ice sheet. However, absolute chronological control has been lacking and only a handful radiocarbon dates has been used to support the deglaciation chronology. In this study we test the reconstruction of Andersen by remapping the whole area using newly aquired LiDAR data (high resolution laser scanning of terrain), together with in-situ cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages of boulders on marginal moraines. The study comprises mapping of more than 6000 km2 of forested and dissected landscape, 53 10Be ages from boulders/bedrock, one cosmogenic 10Be depth profile in a coarse-grained glaciofluvial deposit, and finally one lake record. Our study shows that the oldest of Andersen's glacial stages, the Lista stage right on the outermost Norwegian south coast, should likely be rejected since it consists of consolidated subglacial till and therefore is not an end moraine system. However, our cosmogenic depth profile indicates that this area might have been ice free already by around 19 ka BP, approximately 4000 years earlier than previously thought. At the same time the ice sheet surface slowly lowered, and the first inland hills of about 450 m. asl. became ice free at around 17 ka BP. Ice retreat continued slowly 10-15 km inland and halted as a calving fjord stage at the Spangereid stage with an approximate age of 15 ka BP. Then the deglaciation appears to have been very rapid and the ice front retreated 30-50 km inland to a position inside of the Ra stage, until a readvance in Older Dryas around 14.5 ka BP. The ice front might have retreated inland again in the Bølling-Allerød interstadial, but readvanced to almost exactly the same position in the early YD and with possible oscillations until late YD. The complexity of the cosmogenic exposure ages from the Ra moraine system is supported by LiDAR mapping that often shows multiple moraine ridges that sometimes onlap each other and sometimes are separated by as much as 5 km. To conclude, our study shows that deglaciation of the south coast of Norway was more complex than previously thought. Ice retreat and readvances were episodic and only largely in concert with climate forcing. The Ra stage, which was previously thought to represent the YD in southern Norway, is in fact a complex moraine system spanning more than 2000 years including readvances both in the Older Dryas and the Younger Dryas stadials.

  7. Geomorphology and Ice Content of Glacier - Rock Glacier &ndash; Moraine Complexes in Ak-Shiirak Range (Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolch, Tobias; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Rohrbach, Nico; Fischer, Andrea; Osmonov, Azamat

    2015-04-01

    Meltwater originating from the Tien Shan is of high importance for the runoff to the arid and semi-arid region of Central Asia. Previous studies estimate a glaciers' contribution of about 40% for the Aksu-Tarim Catchment, a transboundary watershed between Kyrgyzstan and China. Large parts of the Ak-Shiirak Range drain into this watershed. Glaciers in Central and Inner Tien Shan are typically polythermal or even cold and surrounded by permafrost. Several glaciers terminate into large moraine complexes which show geomorphological indicators of ice content such as thermo-karst like depressions, and further downvalley signs of creep such as ridges and furrows and a fresh, steep rock front which are typical indicators for permafrost creep ("rock glacier"). Hence, glaciers and permafrost co-exist in this region and their interactions are important to consider, e.g. for the understanding of glacial and periglacial processes. It can also be assumed that the ice stored in these relatively large dead-ice/moraine-complexes is a significant amount of the total ice storage. However, no detailed investigations exist so far. In an initial study, we investigated the structure and ice content of two typical glacier-moraine complexes in the Ak-Shiirak-Range using different ground penetrating radar (GPR) devices. In addition, the geomorphology was mapped using high resolution satellite imagery. The structure of the moraine-rock glacier complex is in general heterogeneous. Several dead ice bodies with different thicknesses and moraine-derived rock glaciers with different stages of activities could be identified. Few parts of these "rock glaciers" contain also massive ice but the largest parts are likely characterised by rock-ice layers of different thickness and ice contents. In one glacier forefield, the thickness of the rock-ice mixture is partly more than 300 m. This is only slightly lower than the maximum thickness of the glacier ice. Our measurements revealed that up to 20% of the total ice of the entire glacier-rock glacier-moraine-complex could be stored in the moraine-rock glacier parts.

  8. Ice age paleotopography

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, W.R. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1994-07-08

    A gravitationally self-consistent theory of postglacial relative sea level change is used to infer the variation of surface ice and water cover since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The results show that LGM ice volume was approximately 35 percent lower than suggested by the CLIMAP reconstruction and the maximum heights of the main Laurentian and Fennoscandian ice complexes are inferred to have been commensurately lower with respect to sea level. Use of these Ice Age boundary conditions in atmospheric general circulation models will yield climates that differ significantly from those previously inferred on the basis of the CLIMAP data set.

  9. The Great Ice Age

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Louis Ray

    The Great Ice Age, a recent chapter in the Earth's history, was a period of recurring widespread glaciations. Mountain glaciers formed on all continents, the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland were more extensive and thicker than today, and vast glaciers, in places as much as several thousand feet thick, spread across North America and Eurasia. This ice age, the most recent in the history of the Earth, took place from 20 million years to 6 thousand years ago (Quaternary Period). The development of our understanding and the evidence for this worldwide event are covered in this United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication.

  10. A chronology of the Little Ice Age in the tropical Andes of Bolivia (16S) and its implications for climate reconstruction

    E-print Network

    Rabatel, Antoine

    A chronology of the Little Ice Age in the tropical Andes of Bolivia (16°S) and its implications glacier recession in the Bolivian Andes since the Little Ice Age maximum. On the 15 proglacial margins reserved. Keywords: Little ice age; Moraines; Lichenometry; Glacier fluctuations; Climate reconstruction

  11. External Geophysics, Climate and Environment (Glaciology) Dating of Little Ice Age glacier fluctuations in the tropical Andes: Charquini glaciers, Bolivia, 16?S

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antoine Rabatel; Vincent Jomelli; Philippe Naveau; Bernard Francou; Delphine Grancher

    Fluctuations of the Charquini glaciers (Cordillera Real, Bolivia) have been reconstructed for the Little Ice Age (LIA) from a set of 10 moraines extending below the present glacier termini. A lichenometric method using the Rhizocarpon geographicum was used to date the moraines and reconstruct the main glacier fluctuations over the period. The maximum glacier extent occurred in the second half

  12. The Great Ice Age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ray, Louis L.

    1992-01-01

    The Great Ice Age, a recent chapter in the Earth's history, was a period of recurring widespread glaciations. During the Pleistocene Epoch of the geologic time scale, which began about a million or more years ago, mountain glaciers formed on all continents, the icecaps of Antarctica and Greenland were more extensive and thicker than today, and vast glaciers, in places as much as several thousand feet thick, spread across northern North America and Eurasia. So extensive were these glaciers that almost a third of the present land surface of the Earth was intermittently covered by ice. Even today remnants of the great glaciers cover almost a tenth of the land, indicating that conditions somewhat similar to those which produced the Great Ice Age are still operating in polar and subpolar climates.

  13. Age of the Fjord Stade moraines in the Disko Bugt region, western Greenland, and the 9.3 and 8.2 ka cooling events

    E-print Network

    Briner, Jason P.

    warming and cooling, whereas the comparatively low-flux sector of the ice sheet in southeastern Disko Bugt, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 30 June 2012 Received in revised form 12 September 2012 Accepted 17 September 2012 Available online Keywords: Greenland Ice Sheet Moraines 10 Be exposure

  14. The little ice age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Grove

    1988-01-01

    The Little Ice Age, a period of glacier expansion in alpine regions that began sometime between the twelfth and sixteenth centuries and lasted until late in the nineteenth century, was recorded not only in glacial features dated by geologic techniques but also in historical documents such as field sketches, land values, and weather records, especially in the Alps. Indirect evidence

  15. A review of catastrophic drainage of moraine-dammed lakes in British Columbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Clague; Stephen G. Evans

    2000-01-01

    Moraine-dammed lakes are common in the high mountains of British Columbia. Most of these lakes formed when valley and cirque glaciers retreated from advanced positions achieved during the Little Ice Age. Many moraine dams in British Columbia are susceptible to failure because they are steep-sided, have relatively low width-to-height ratios, comprise loose, poorly sorted sediment, and may contain ice cores

  16. Ice Age Floods Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Describes Ice Age glaciers and immense floods of glacial meltwater that swept across the Pacific Northwest (18,000-12,000 years ago and earlier), affecting the landscape from Montana to Washington and Oregon, sculpting the Columbia River Basin, and creating glacial lakes to rival the today's Great Lakes. This non-profit institute promotes scientific education about the floods, their causes and impacts. Proposes an interpretive geologic trail linking significant sites.

  17. Geomorphic change detection using repetitive topographic surveys and DEMs of Differences: Implementation for short-term transformation of the ice-cored moraines in the Petuniabukta, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczyk, Aleksandra; Ewertowski, Marek

    2015-04-01

    The exposed glacial forelands are supposed to be intensively transformed by geomorphological processes due to the paraglacial adjustment of the topography. To recognize how high is the activity of such processes, we monitored the transformation rates of ice-cored moraines on the forelands of two glaciers, Ebbabreen and Ragnarbreen, both of which are located near the Petuniabukta at the northern end of the Billefjorden. The main objectives were to: (1) analyse the spatial and temporal aspects of debris flow activity in cm-scale, (2) quantify the short-term (seasonal and intra-seasonal) rate of volume changes, (3) compare transformations of the ice-cored moraine surfaces due to active geomorphic processes (including dead-ice backwasting and debris mass movements) with transformations caused by dead-ice downwasting only. The short-term (yearly and weekly) dynamics of mass-wasting processes were studied in a cm-scale using repetitive topographic scanning. In total, four different locations were scanned, containing seven active debris flows or other mass wasting processes, and including non-active surfaces. Sites were chosen to ensure representation from different parts of the end moraine, different types of dominant processes (debris flows, debris falls, etc.) as well as different types of morphology (exposed ice cliffs, steep debris slope, gentle debris flows lobes, etc.). Altogether, the total scanned area was about 14,200 m2, of which 5,500 m2 were transformed by the active mass movement processes. Ten measurement sessions were carried out: three in summer of 2012, three in summer of 2013, and four in summer of 2014, which allowed for assessing the seasonal (annual) and intra-seasonal (weekly) variations. The results of the surveys in the form of cloud points were used to generate digital elevation models (DEMs) with cell size 0.05 m. Subtracting DEMs from subsequent time periods created DEMs of Differences - DoDs, which enabled us to investigate the volume of and spatial patterns of transformations. The surveys indicate high dynamic rates of landforms' transformations. The mean annual volume loss of sediments and dead-ice for the most active parts of the moraines was up to 1.8 m a-1. However, most of the transformation occurred during summer, with the short-term values of mean elevation changes as high as -104 mm/day. In comparison, the dynamics of the other (i.e. non-active) parts of the ice-cored moraines were much lower, namely, the mean annual lowering (attributed mainly to dead-ice downwasting) was up to 0.3 m a-1, whereas lowering during summer was up to 8 mm/day. Our results indicate that in the case of the studied glaciers, backwasting was much more effective than downwasting in terms of landscape transformation in the glacier forelands. However, despite the high activity of localised mass movement processes, the overall short-term dynamic of ice-cored moraines for the studied glaciers was relatively low. We suggest that as long as debris cover is sufficiently thick (thicker than the permafrost's active layer depths), the mass movement activity would occur only under specific topographic conditions and/or due to occurrence of external meltwater sources and slope undercutting. In the other areas, ice-cored moraines remain a stable landsystem component in a yearly to decadal time-scale. Our results support the hypothesis of a spatio-temporal switching between stable and active conditions within an ice-marginal environment. The project was funded by the Polish National Science Centre as granted by decision number DEC-2011/01/D/ST10/06494.

  18. Mars Ice Age, Simulated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    December 17, 2003

    This simulated view shows Mars as it might have appeared during the height of a possible ice age in geologically recent time.

    Of all Solar System planets, Mars has the climate most like that of Earth. Both are sensitive to small changes in orbit and tilt. During a period about 2.1 million to 400,000 years ago, increased tilt of Mars' rotational axis caused increased solar heating at the poles. A new study using observations from NASA's Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey orbiters concludes that this polar warming caused mobilization of water vapor and dust into the atmosphere, and buildup of a surface deposit of ice and dust down to about 30 degrees latitude in both hemispheres. That is the equivalent of the southern Unites States or Saudi Arabia on Earth. Mars has been in an interglacial period characterized by less axial tilt for about the last 300,000 years. The ice-rich surface deposit has been degrading in the latitude zone of 30 degrees to 60 degrees as water-ice returns to the poles.

    In this illustration prepared for the December 18, 2003, cover of the journal Nature, the simulated surface deposit is superposed on a topography map based on altitude measurements by Global Surveyor and images from NASA's Viking orbiters of the 1970s.

    Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey are managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, for the NASA Office of Space Science, Washington.

  19. The morphology, structural evolution and significance of push moraines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew R. Bennett

    2001-01-01

    Push moraines (glaciotectonic ice-marginal moraines) have a restricted distribution at modern glacier margins and consequently are of potential value in reconstructing Pleistocene ice sheets, providing data both on former glaciodynamics and on the palaeoenvironment of the glacial foreland. To the wider earth science community, push moraines are of interest as analogues for thin-skin tectonics within orogenic belts. This paper reviews

  20. Little Ice Age glaciers in Britain: Glacier–climate modelling in the Cairngorm Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan Harrison; Ann V. Rowan; Neil F. Glasser; Jasper Knight; Mitchell A. Plummer; Stephanie C. Mills

    2014-02-01

    It is widely believed that the last glaciers in the British Isles disappeared at the end of the Younger Dryas stadial (12.9–11.7 cal. kyr BP). Here, we use a glacier–climate model driven by data from local weather stations to show for the first time that glaciers developed during the Little Ice Age (LIA) in the Cairngorm Mountains. Our model is forced from contemporary conditions by a realistic difference in mean annual air temperature of -1.5 degrees C and an increase in annual precipitation of 10%, and confirmed by sensitivity analyses. These results are supported by the presence of small boulder moraines well within Younger Dryas ice limits, and by a dating programme on a moraine in one cirque. As a result, we argue that the last glaciers in the Cairngorm Mountains (and perhaps elsewhere in upland Britain) existed in the LIA within the last few hundred years, rather than during the Younger Dryas.

  1. A 300 Year Surge History of the Drangajökull Ice Cap, Northwest Iceland: Surge Frequency and Little Ice Age Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brynjolfsson, S.; Schomacker, A.; Ingolfsson, O.; Gudmundsdottir, E. R.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last 300 years, each of the three surge-type outlet glaciers of the Drangajökull ice cap in north-west Iceland has surged 2-4 times. There is valuable historical information available on the surge frequencies since the Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum because of the proximity of the surging outlets, Reykjarfjarðarjökull, Leirufjarðarjökull and Kaldalónsjökull to farms and pastures. We have reconstructed the surge history of the Drangajökull ice cap, based on geomorphological mapping, sedimentary studies and review of historical records. Geomorphological mapping of the glacier forefields revealed twice as many end-moraines than previously recognized. This indicates a higher surge frequency than previously perceived. A clear relationship between the surge frequency and climate cannot be established, however, surges were more frequent during the 19th century and the earliest 20th century compared to the cool 18th century and the warmer late part of the 20th century. We have estimated the magnitude of the LIA maximum surge events by reconstruction of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) that can be compared with modern DEMs. As reference points for the digital elevation modelling we used the recently mapped lateral moraines and historical information on the exposure timing of nunataks. During the LIA maximum surge events the outlet glaciers extended 3-3.5 km further down-valley than at present. Their ice volumes were at least 2-2.5 km3 greater than after their most recent surges in the beginning of the 21st century.

  2. Cosmogenic Be10 ages of Angel Lake and Lamoille moraines and late Pleistocene slip rate of the rangefront normal fault, Ruby Mountains, Basin and Range, Nevada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Briggs; S. G. Wesnousky; F. J. Ryerson; R. C. Finkel; A. Meriaux

    2004-01-01

    We use Be-10 cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) exposure dating to quantify the timing of late Pleistocene glacial advances and to estimate the rangefront normal fault slip rate along the Ruby Mountains in the Basin and Range, Nevada. Ten Be-10 CRN exposure ages from the Angel Lake terminal moraine in Hennen Canyon limit deposition to between 15.4-23.1 ka (average = 18.2 ka;

  3. Time needed for first lichen colonization of terminal moraines in the Tröllaskagi peninsula (North Iceland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Nuria; Palacios, David; Brynjólfsson, Skafti; Sæmundsson, Þorsteinn

    2015-04-01

    The Tröllaskagi peninsula is located in Central North Iceland. The peninsula belong to the Tertiary basaltic areas in Iceland and is characterised by numerous glacially eroded valleys and fjords. The altitude ranges from sea level to 1500 m. Around 150 glaciers, debris covered glaciers and clean glaciers exist in the cirques of the Tröllaskagi peninsula. Lichenometric techniques were applied to date moraines formed by some of these glaciers, especially from 1970-90, establishing growth rates for some species, e.g. 0.5 mm/year for Rizocarpon geographicum. However there is no information available on how long the lichens take to colonize the boulders in a moraine once it has become detached from the retreating glacier. The aim of this paper is to observe how long it takes for the boulders on the moraines to be colonized by lichens in the Tröllaskagi peninsula, where the separation date of a moraine from the retreating glacier tongue is known. Two case studies were used. The first was the surging glacier Búrfellsjökull, in the Búrfelllsdalur valley, an affluent of the Svarfaðardalur valley. The Búrfellsjökull glacier surged in 2001-2004 and the glacial terminus advanced 150-240 m, overrunnig a moraine formed around 1955 and formed a new moraine. About 2-3 years after the surge termination in 2004 the glacial terminus was already retreating and had left the moraine isolated (Brynjólfsson et al. 2012). The other case is the Gljúlfurárjökull glacier, in the Gljúlfurárdalur valley, an affluent of the Skíðadalur valley. It can be seen from the series of aerial photographs that the glacier terminus advanced during the 1990s until the year 2000. In 2004 the glacial terminus was already retreating and had separated from a small moraine formed during the previous advance. Thus, two different glaciers halted and formed one moraine each which they separated from almost similar time. During the detailed field work carried out in August 2014 on both moraines, lichen thalli were located and their greatest diameters measured, examining the surface, boulder by boulder, along a 100 m stretch of each moraine and counting those with existing lichen thalli and those without them. The results from the two moraines are very similar: a) Only 15 - 18% of the boulders presented some type of thallus. b) There is little variety in the thallus size on one specific boulder, but great variety between different boulders, even when they are very close together. c) The largest thalli of the moraine only appear on isolated boulders, between 3 and 0.7%. d) In the Rizocarpon geographicum thalli, exceptional sizes were found of isolated thalli with max. diameter of up to 2,8 mm. The most frequent size observed on boulders with homogeneous thalli is 1 - 2 mm. e) Some sectors of the two moraines still have ice under the boulders, which may explain the uneven lichen colonization in different parts of the moraine. These observations should be taken into consideration when examining the age of the moraines using lichenometry. 8-10 years after a moraine separated from the glacial terminus, only a minimum number of its boulders are stable enough to allow lichen colonization. As time passes, the blocks gradually become stabilized and allow lichen colonization. This may explain the widely varying thalli sizes found between different blocks in the same moraine. Research funded by Cryocrisis project (CGL2012-35858), Government of Spain, and Nils Mobility projects (EEA GRANTS)

  4. Mantle viscosity and ice-age ice sheet topography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. Peltier

    1996-01-01

    Ice-age paleotopography and mantle viscosity can both be inferred from observations of Earth`s response to the most recent deglaciation event of the current ice age. This procedure requires iterative application of a theoretical model of the global process of glacial isostatic adjustment. Results demonstrate that the iterative inversion procedure converges to a paleotopography that is extremely close to that from

  5. Debris flows from failures Neoglacial-age moraine dams in the Three Sisters and Mount Jefferson wilderness areas, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, J. E.; Hardison, J.H.; Costa, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    The highest concentration of lakes dammed by Neoglacial moraines in the conterminous United States is in the Mount Jefferson and Three Sisters Wilderness Areas in central Oregon. Between 1930 and 1980, breakouts of these lakes have resulted in 11 debris flows. The settings and sequences of events leading to breaching and the downstream flow behavior of the resulting debris flows provide guidance on the likelihood and magnitude of future lake breakouts and debris flows.

  6. The natural thermoluminescence of meteorites. 7: Ordinary chondrites from the Elephant Moraine region, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, P. H.; Roth, J.; Sears, H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1994-01-01

    We report natural and induced thermoluminescence (TL) measurements for meteorites from the Elephant Moraine region (76 deg 17 min S, 157 deg 20 min E) of Antarctica. We use our data to identify fragmented meteorites (i.e., 'pairings'); our dataset of 107 samples represents at most 73 separate meteorite falls. Pairing groups are generally confined to single icefields, or to adjacent icefields, but a small proportion cross widely separated icefields in the region, suggesting that the fields can be considered as a single unit. Meteorites from this region have high natural TL levels, which indicates that they have small terrestrial surface exposure ages (less than 12,500 years). There do not appear to be significant differences in natural TL levels (and hence surface exposure ages) between individual blue icefields in the region. The proportion of reheated meteorites from the Elephant Moraine region is similar to that of other Antarctic sites and modern falls, consistent with the uniformity of the meteoritic flux in this regard. An unusual subset of H-chondrites, with high induced TL peak temperatures, is absent among the data for meteorites collected in the Elephant Moraine region, which stresses their similarity to modern falls. We suggest that the Elephant Moraine region, which stresses their similarity to modern falls. We suggest that the Elephant Moraine icefields formed through shallow ablation of the ice. Unlike the Allan Hills sites to the south, lateral transport is probably less important relative to the infall of meteorites in concentrating meteorites on these icefields.

  7. Can a Little Ice Age Signal Be Found in the Southern Alps of New Zealand?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, J. L.; Maasch, K. A.; Halteman, B. A.

    2001-05-01

    The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a late Holocene interval of climate cooling registered in the North Atlantic region by expansion of alpine glaciers and sea ice. Here the LIA includes an early phase from about AD 1280 to AD 1390, along with a main phase from about AD 1550 to AD 1860, followed by warming and ice retreat. It has recently been demonstrated from records of North Atlantic ice-rafted debris that the LIA is the latest cooling episode in a pervasive 1500 yr cycle of the climate system that may lie at the heart of abrupt climate change. This raises the question of whether the LIA climate signal is globally synchronous (implying atmospheric transfer of the climate signal) or out of phase between the polar hemispheres (implying ocean transfer of the climate signal by a bipolar seesaw of thermohaline circulation). New Zealand is ideally situated to address the problem as it is located on the opposite side of the planet from the classic North Atlantic region where the classic LIA signal is so clearly registered. Due to high precipitation and ablative activity gradients, glaciers in the Southern Alps of New Zealand respond to climate change on a decadal timescale. Therefore, moraine sequences deposited during oscillations of these glaciers are ideal for determining the character of the LIA signal in this portion of the Southern Hemisphere. The chronology of the well-developed late Holocene moraines fronting the Hooker and Mueller Glaciers in the Southern Alps is controversial. Initial dating of these moraines from historical records, as well and from lichenometric and tree-ring analyses pointed to a LIA climate signal in the Southern Alps, indicating a globally synchronous event. However, a subsequent chronology based on weathering rinds of surface clasts suggested that most of the late Holocene moraines antedate the LIA, implying the lack of a classic LIA climate signal in this portion of the Southern Hemisphere. To resolve this dilemma, a detailed chronology of the Hooker and Mueller Holocene moraine systems was constructed in this study by using geomorphologic maps, historical records, and the FALL lichenometry technique. A major result of this study is that most of the Holocene moraines fronting the Mueller and Hooker Glaciers were deposited during the main phase of the LIA as defined in the North Atlantic region. The glacier advances recorded by these moraines are about equivalent in age with those in the North Atlantic region. The magnitude and timing of the LIA climate signal is the same in the two regions. The collapse of the Hooker and Mueller Glaciers in the last 140 yrs is also approximately synchronous with that of glaciers in the North Atlantic region. Therefore, the LIA climate signal occurs in the atmosphere as far south as New Zealand, on the other side of the planet from the North Atlantic region.

  8. Evolution of crystal fabric: Ice-Age ice versus Holocene ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, J. H.; Pettit, E. C.

    2009-12-01

    Ice-Age ice has smaller crystals and higher concentrations of impurities than Holocene ice; these properties cause it to develop a more strongly-aligned crystal-orientation fabric. In many regions of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets, the Ice-Age ice is now at depth and its flow properties may dominate the ice flow patterns, particularly where sliding is minimal. We use a fabric evolution model, based on that developed by Thorsteinsson (2002), to explore the evolution of Ice-Age ice fabric along particle paths for ice within Taylor Glacier, a cold-based outlet glacier of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. The bulk of the ice within Taylor Glacier consists of Ice-Age and older ice because the Holocene ice has ablated away (there is no Holocene ice remaining within 25km of the terminus, Aciego, 2007). We initialize the evolving fabric based on fabric measurements from Taylor Dome where available (DiPrinzio, 2003) and other ice core records. We compare model results with thin-section data from shallow cores taken near the terminus. As expected, crystal alignment strengthens along the ice particle path. Due to lateral shearing along valley walls and the ice cliffs (terminal ice cliffs are cold in winter and present a resistance to flow), a tilted single maximum is common near the terminus. The highly-aligned fabric of Ice-Age ice is significantly softer than Holocene ice in simple shear parallel to the bed, this softness not only results in faster flow rates for glaciers and ice sheets such as Taylor, but creates a climate-flow-fabric feedback loop through concentrating ice-sheet flow within the Ice-Age ice. Thorsteinsson, T. (2002), Fabric development with nearest-neighbor interaction and dynamic recrystallization, J. Geophys. Res., 107(B1), 2014, doi:10.1029/2001JB000244. S.M. Aciego, K.M. Cuffey, J.L. Kavanaugh, D.L. Morse, J.P. Severinghaus, Pleistocene ice and paleo-strain rates at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica, Quaternary Research, Volume 68, Issue 3, November 2007, Pages 303-313, ISSN 0033-5894, DOI: 10.1016/j.yqres.2007.07.013. DiPrinzio, Eos Trans. AGU, 84(46), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract C11C-0834, 2003

  9. The role of feedbacks between geomorphic and vegetation dynamics for lateral moraine slope configuration and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichel, Jana; Corenblit, Dov; Dikau, Richard

    2015-04-01

    In proglacial areas, lateral moraines represent one of the most important sediment storages and dynamic areas. Glacier retreat since the Little Ice Age is accelerated by climate change and believed to control simultaneous paraglacial adjustment and vegetation succession on lateral moraine slopes. Biogeomorphic research suggests strong feedbacks between geomorphic processes, landforms, vegetation and vegetation dynamics in these environments. However, for lateral moraine slopes, these feedbacks are only partly understood. In our study, we use and develop biogeomorphic concepts in a scale-based approach to understand the role of feedbacks between geomorphic and vegetation dynamics for lateral moraine slope configuration and development. We illustrate our concepts with empirical evidences from on-going research in the Turtmann glacier forefield (Switzerland) and give first answers to the following questions: (i) Which plant species can influence geomorphic dynamics on lateral moraine slopes, and how? (ii) Under which conditions can feedbacks between geomorphic and vegetation dynamics occur? (iii) Which are the main factors influencing lateral moraine slope configuration and development? On a small scale (i), we identify dwarf shrubs (e.g., Dryas octopetala L.) as an engineer species, which can influence geomorphic processes through their specifically adapted plant functional traits, e.g., the trapping of fine sediments in their high-cover mats. On a meso scale (ii), feedbacks between geomorphic and vegetation dynamics can occur in a 'biogeomorphic feedback window' with moderate magnitude and frequency processes, e.g., debris slides, interrill erosion, or between lower frequency processes, e.g., debris flows and snow avalanches. Under these conditions, engineer species with high resistance can establish and change the dominant geomorphic processes from flow and sliding to bound solifluction. Our empirical data shows that on a large scale (iii), vegetation and geomorphic patterns on lateral moraines do not necessarily follow a terrain age gradient. Instead, patch dynamics driven by geomorphic processes and biogeomorphic feedbacks can determine the development and spatial configuration of lateral moraine slopes, which in turn influence sediment flux in space and time (Eichel et al., in rev.). Reference: Eichel, J.; Corenblit, D. and R. Dikau (in rev.): Feedbacks between geomorphic and vegetation dynamics on lateral moraine slopes: a conceptual biogeomorphic approach. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms.

  10. Mantle viscosity and ice-age ice sheet topography

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, W.R. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-09-06

    Ice-age paleotopography and mantle viscosity can both be inferred from observations of Earth`s response to the most recent deglaciation event of the current ice age. This procedure requires iterative application of a theoretical model of the global process of glacial isostatic adjustment. Results demonstrate that the iterative inversion procedure converges to a paleotopography that is extremely close to that from the ICE-4G model. The accompanying mantle viscosity profile is furthermore shown to reconcile the requirements of aspherical geoid anomalies related to the mantle convection process, thus resolving a fundamental issue concerning mantle rheology. The combined model also explains postglacial sea level histories for the east cost of the United States. 28 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Cosmogenic 10Be Dating of Early and Latest Holocene Moraines on Nevado Salcantay in the Southern Peruvian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licciardi, J. M.; Schaefer, J. M.; Lund, D. C.

    2007-12-01

    A two-fold sequence of nested lateral and end moraines was mapped in a glacial trough emanating from the southwest flank of Nevado Salcantay (6271 m; ~13°S latitude), the highest peak in the Cordillera Vilcabamba of southern Peru. The field area is situated 25 km due south of the archaeological site of Machu Picchu. Outer and inner moraines in the sequence were deposited by valley glaciers that terminated ~5 km and ~3 km, respectively, from their headwall on the Salcantay summit massif. Cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure dating of granitic boulders sampled on the Salcantay moraines is underway and has provided the first numerical ages for these deposits. Initial results indicate ages of 8.1 ± 0.1 10Be ka for the outer moraine and 200 ± 20 10Be years for the sharp-crested inner moraine. These ages are derived using the CRONUS-Earth 10Be exposure age calculator (version 2.0) and expressed with respect to the Lal- Stone production rate scaling scheme using the standard atmosphere. The outer and inner moraine ages correspond to glacial events during the early and latest Holocene, respectively. Further 10Be dating of the mapped moraines and similar deposits observed in adjacent drainages on Nevado Salcantay is anticipated to yield a high-resolution chronology of valley glaciation in this segment of the southern Peruvian Andes. The new results bridge an important gap between existing Andean glacier records to the north and south, and complement available ice core and lacustrine paleoclimate records in the vicinity, thereby expanding spatial and temporal coverage for identifying patterns of Holocene climate change in the tropical Andes. Notably, the inner moraine age correlates with the timing of the Little Ice Age as defined in northern mid- and high latitude glacier records, and suggests considerable expansion of valley glaciers in the southern Peruvian Andes during this climatic minimum. Apart from their paleoclimatic significance, the initial results also demonstrate the utility of 10Be exposure dating for historical surface deposits.

  12. Monday, November 29, 2010 Chapters 12 and 14 "Ice Ages"

    E-print Network

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Monday, November 29, 2010 Chapters 12 and 14 ­ "Ice Ages" #12;Chapter 12 - Earth has had five six the earth cool. #12;The second ice age was ~2500 mya (Huronian) ­ removal of methane from the atmosphere due it is today, CO2 would need to be > 560 ppm to keep Earth ice-free. #12;Fourth and fifth ice ages 440 mya

  13. Airborne LiDAR detection of postglacial faults and Pulju moraine in Palojärvi, Finnish Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutinen, Raimo; Hyvönen, Eija; Middleton, Maarit; Ruskeeniemi, Timo

    2014-04-01

    Postglacial faults (PGFs) are indicative of young tectonic activity providing crucial information for nuclear repository studies. Airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data revealed three previously unrecognized late- or postglacial faults in northernmost Finnish Lapland. Under the canopies of mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) we also found clusters of the Pulju moraine, typically found on the ice-divide zone of the former Fennoscandian ice sheet (FIS), to be spatially associated with the fault-scarps. Tilt derivative (TDR) filtered LiDAR data revealed the previously unknown Palojärvi fault that, by the NE-SW orientation parallels with the well documented Lainio-Suijavaara PGF in northern Sweden. This suggests that PGFs are more extensive features than previously recognized. Two inclined diamond drill holes verified the fractured system of the Palojärvi fault and revealed clear signs of postglacial reactivation. Two other previously unrecognized PGFs, the W-E trending Paatsikkajoki fault and the SE-NW trending Kultima fault, differ from the Palojärvi faulting in orientation and possibly also with regard to age. The Pulju moraine, a morphological feature showing transitions from shallow (< 2-m-high) circular/arcuate ridges to sinusoidal/anastomosing esker networks was found to be concentrated within 6 km from the Kultima fault-scarp. We advocate that some of the past seismic events took place under the retreating wet-base ice sheet and the increased pore-water pressure triggered the sediment mass flows and formation of the Pulju moraine-esker landscape.

  14. Beringia as an Ice Age genetic museum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beth Shapiro; Alan Cooper

    2003-01-01

    Thousands of Late Pleistocene remains are found in sites throughout Beringia. These specimens comprise an Ice Age genetic museum, and the DNA contained within them provide a means to observe evolutionary processes within populations over geologically significant time scales. Phylogenetic analyses can identify the taxonomic positions of extinct species and provide estimates of speciation dates. Geographic and temporal divisions apparent

  15. AN INTRODUCTION TO THE ICE AGES

    E-print Network

    Aslaksen, Helmer

    , The Authors. #12;RECOMMENDED LESSON PLAN AND CONTENTS Page TOPIC 1: THE DISCOVERY OF ICE AGES Lesson 1 to enhance the student's learning. A Sample Lesson Practices for Students is included in this teaching booklet. Each lesson has its unique set of questions that students should attempt to further understand

  16. Dating of Little Ice Age glacier fluctuations in the tropical Andes: Charquini glaciers, Bolivia, 16°S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabatel, Antoine; Jomelli, Vincent; Naveau, Philippe; Francou, Bernard; Grancher, Delphine

    2005-11-01

    Fluctuations of the Charquini glaciers (Cordillera Real, Bolivia) have been reconstructed for the Little Ice Age (LIA) from a set of 10 moraines extending below the present glacier termini. A lichenometric method using the Rhizocarpon geographicum was used to date the moraines and reconstruct the main glacier fluctuations over the period. The maximum glacier extent occurred in the second half of the 17th century, followed by nearly continuous retreat with three interruptions during the 18th and the 19th centuries, marked by stabilisation or minor advances. Results obtained in the Charquini area are first compared with other dating performed in the Peruvian Cordillera Blanca and then with the fluctuations of documented glaciers in the Northern Hemisphere. Glacier fluctuations along the tropical Andes (Bolivia and Peru) were in phase during the LIA and the solar forcing appears to be important during the period of glacier advance. Compared with the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, the major advance observed on these glaciers during the first half of the 19th century is not present in the tropical Andes. This discrepancy may be due to regional scale climate variations. To cite this article: A. Rabatel et al., C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  17. Ice Age Geomorphology of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickert, A. D.; Anderson, R. S.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Picard, K.

    2012-12-01

    The Last Glacial Cycle in North America dramatically modified drainage patterns and geomorphology on a continental scale. As a consequence, the evolution of river systems holds information on the patterns of glaciation and isostatic response. This information can, in principle, be used to reconstruct the volumes of ice sheet sectors and eroded material by connecting the upstream ice sheets with stable isotope and other sedimentary records in offshore basins. Here we integrate this coupled geomorphic-hydrologic-glacial-sedimentary-paleoceanographic system to solve both the forward problem, how rivers evolve in response to Ice Age forcing, as well as the inverse problem, how fluvial systems record Quaternary history. The connections that define this system provide a link between climate and geomorphology that extends beyond the traditionally considered watershed-to-landscape scale by incorporating solid Earth deformations, large-scale shoreline migration, and the high amplitude changes in climate that drive the growth and decay of major ice sheets and water delivery to the bounding river systems. We address this continental scale problem using a valley-resolving drainage reconstruction that incorporates a realistic ice sheet history, a gravitationally self-consistent treatment of ice-age sea-level changes that includes shoreline migration, and precipitation and evapotranspiration retrodicted using general circulation model (GCM) runs. Drainage divides over the flat-lying North American interior migrate hundreds to thousands of kilometers in response to dynamic interactions between ice sheets and solid Earth response, and these changes coupled with post last glacial maximum (LGM) ice sheet melting drive high-amplitude variability in water and sediment discharge to the oceans. The Mackenzie River Delta records a sedimentary record produced by a highly non-eustatic sea level history and massive glacial sediment inputs routed along the axis that divided the Cordilleran and Laurentide Ice sheets. The upper Missouri River was re-routed northward during multiple deglacial periods due to isostatic depression of the Canadian interior; this re-routing is in addition to its known pre-Illinoian bedrock course to the Northeast. The Missouri River and many of its northerly tributaries hug the Laurentide ice margin, a sign that they were trapped between the ice sheet and its forebulge on the eastward-sloping High Plains. In contrast, the Upper Mississippi flows due south and contains a broad bedrock overdeepening along the Illinois border that records where this river must have sliced through one or more forebulges associated with Laurentide Ice Sheets. Offshore, sedimentary records coupled with these drainage reconstructions can be used as an independent geologic constraint on ice sheet volumes. Our drainage reconstructions provide a new paleogeographic backdrop to understand the North America's glacial past and a framework for tackling new problems at the interface of geomorphology, ice age geodynamics, and paleoclimate.

  18. Late-Wisconsinan submarine moraines along the north shore of the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence (Eastern Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajeunesse, Patrick; St-Onge, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    A series of ice-contact submarine fans and morainal banks along the Québec North-Shore of the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence (Eastern Canada), between the Manicouagan River delta and the Mingan Islands, have been revealed with great detail by recent multibeam echosounder and high-resolution subbottom profiler surveys. These grounding-line landforms are observed between 65 and 190 m water depths and were constructed as the marine-based margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) stabilized or readvanced. Radiocarbon ages obtained from shells sampled in sediment cores collected in glaciomarine deposits 6 km south of a grounding line in the Sept-Iles area indicate a stabilisation that took place around 11 000 14C yr BP (12.5 ka cal BP with a ?R=120 ± 40 yr). In the Mingan Islands area, organic matter collected in distal deposits of an ice-contact fan is dated at 10 800 14C yr BP (11.6 ka cal BP). The position of the Sept-Iles and Mingan deposits, 20 km south of the ~9.7-9.5 14C kyr BP North-Shore Moraine, suggests that these ice marginal landforms were constructed during the Younger Dryas (YD) cold episode and that they might be the eastward submarine extent of the early YD St. Narcisse morainic system. Superimposed till sheets and morainal banks observed within grounding line deposits indicate that this stability phase was interrupted by local readvances that were marked in some cases by ice streaming. Segments of this morainic system are also visible along the shoreline in some sectors, where they have been generally washed out of fine fragments by waves. Another series of ice-contact deposits and landforms of similar nature observed farther offshore and at greater depths (100-190 m) were formed during a previous phase of stabilisation of the LIS margin. This older morainic system was probably deposited immediately after the opening of the Estuary and Gulf of the St. Lawrence.

  19. Creswell Heritage Trust - Virtually the Ice Age

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website, produced by the Creswell Heritage Trust, discusses the characteristics of the climate and the environment of the Creswell Crags during the last Ice Age. By taking a survival test, users can discover the difficulties Stone Age people faced during this time period. The site offers a virtual tour of the Creswell Crags, which is one of the most northerly places on earth people visited between 50,000 and 10,000 years ago. Through a series of images, users can discover what Creswell and the Neanderthal's camp may have been like during this time period.

  20. ConcepTest: Ocean Salinity During an Ice Age

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    One million years ago ice sheets covered much of the Earth's land surface during an ice age. How did this affect the salinity of the oceans? a. Oceans were saltier than today. b. Oceans were less salty than ...

  1. Coherence resonance and ice ages Jon D. Pelletier

    E-print Network

    Rácz, Zoltán

    Sluijs et al., 1996] and sea-ice pro- cesses [Tziperman and Gildor, 2003]. For several reasons, no modelCoherence resonance and ice ages Jon D. Pelletier Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona-wavelength outgoing radiation, (2) the ice-albedo feedback, and (3) lithospheric deflection within the simple

  2. Ice Age Paleontology of Southeast Alaska

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Timothy Heaton

    2002-01-01

    In 1990 vertebrate fossils were found in the caves of southeast Alaska, an area of impressive karst topography. Since then, large-scale paleontological and archaeological excavations have been conducted on northern Prince of Wales Island, and the research is now expanding to other islands and coastal mainland areas of southeast Alaska. The goal of this research is to establish a complete chronology of mammals, birds, and fish living in the region before, during, and following the Last Glacial Maximum, and up to the present day. This work is helping to establish the timing and extent of glaciation, the presence of Ice Age coastal refugia for land mammals, and the possibility that humans first entered North America by this coastal route. The results of this research are available at this site.

  3. Geological Evidence for Recent Ice Ages on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.; Mustard, J. F.; Kreslavsky, M. A.; Milliken, R. E.; Marchant, D. R.

    2003-12-01

    A primary cause of ice ages on Earth is orbital forcing from variations in orbital parameters of the planet. On Mars such variations are known to be much more extreme. Recent exploration of Mars has revealed abundant water ice in the near-surface at high latitudes in both hemispheres. We outline evidence that these near-surface, water-ice rich mantling deposits represent a mixture of ice and dust that is layered, meters thick, and latitude dependent. These units were formed during a geologically recent major martian ice age, and were emplaced in response to the changing stability of water ice and dust on the surface during variations in orbital parameters. Evidence for these units include a smoothing of topography at subkilometer baselines from about 30o north and south latitudes to the poles, a distinctive dissected texture in MOC images in the +/-30o-60o latitude band, latitude-dependent sets of topographic characteristics and morphologic features (e.g., polygons, 'basketball' terrain texture, gullies, viscous flow features), and hydrogen concentrations consistent with the presence of abundant ice at shallow depths above 60o latitude. The most equatorward extent of these ice-rich deposits was emplaced down to latitudes equivalent to Saudi Arabia and the southern United States on Earth during the last major martian ice age, probably about 0.4-2.1 million years ago. Mars is currently in an inter-ice age period and the ice-rich deposits are presently undergoing reworking, degradation and retreat in response to the current stability relations of near-surface ice. Unlike Earth, martian ice ages are characterized by warmer climates in the polar regions and the enhanced role of atmospheric water ice and dust transport and deposition to produce widespread and relatively evenly distributed smooth deposits at mid-latitudes during obliquity maxima.

  4. Carbon-14 ages of Allan Hills meteorites and ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.; Norris, T.

    1982-01-01

    Allan Hills is a blue ice region of approximately 100 sq km area in Antarctica where many meteorites have been found exposed on the ice. The terrestrial ages of the Allan Hills meteorites, which are obtained from their cosmogenic nuclide abundances are important time markers which can reflect the history of ice movement to the site. The principal purpose in studying the terrestrial ages of ALHA meteorites is to locate samples of ancient ice and analyze their trapped gas contents. Attention is given to the C-14 and Ar-39 terrestrial ages of ALHA meteorites, and C-14 ages and trapped gas compositions in ice samples. On the basis of the obtained C-14 terrestrial ages, and Cl-36 and Al-26 results reported by others, it is concluded that most ALHA meteorites fell between 20,000 and 200,000 years ago.

  5. The deglaciation of Iztaccíhuatl volcano (Mexico) from the Little Ice Age maximum to the present, determined by photogrametry and lichenometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, D.; García-Sancho, L.; Zamorano, J. J.; Andrés, N.; Pintado, A.

    2012-04-01

    Iztaccíhualt Volcano (19°10'20''N, 98°38'30''W, 5230 m asl) preserves an important moraine complex from the Little Ice Age (LIA), which stretches to 4300 m asl. These moraines are different from former ones because they are not covered by ash fall from the last plinian explosive phases of the nearby Popocatépetl volcano. In fact, the last emission of those pyroclasts took place during the XI century (Vázquez-Selem, 2000). The summit area of the Iztaccíhualt volcano still has glaciers whose terminus are located around 5000 m asl. From the end of the LIA until present the glacier terminus have ascended 700 m. To study the deglaciation process in Iztaccíhualt volcano from the LIA maximum to present, the Ayoloco valley was selected as it is the most important valley of the western slope of the volcano. Taking this valley as a reference, we determined the limits of glaciers in different dates by georeferencing the aerial and panoramic photographs (from 1897 to 2000) and analysing the 1958 field cartography of the glacial limits (Lorenzo, 1964). On the one hand, we carried out a statistical analysis of the size of the Rhizocarpon geographicum thallus and, on the other hand, we undertook a statistical study of the biodiversity of the lichen species through a number of cross-sections from the lowest LIA moraines to the current glacier snouts. This methodology allowed dating the exact moment in which the glacier retreated over certain points of the analysed cross-sections and determining the ecesis and the growth curve of the Rhizocarpon geographicum specie. In the Ayoloco valley the average growth rate is of 0.23 mm per year. From this information, we could deduce the evolution of the glacier from the LIA maximum to present. The results indicate that two main advances took place during the XVII and the XIX centuries. At the beginning of the XX century the glacier terminus were very close to the moraines of the maximum advance. An intense glacial retreat took place during the 40s and 50s, which was however interrupted during the 60s and 70s by a period of stabilization and re-advance. Since the mid-80s, we obreved an accelerated glacial retreat, that increased during the first decade of the XXI century. If this rate of retreat remains, the glaciers from Iztaccíhualt could disappear in 20 years. Research funded by POL2006-08405 & CGL2009-7343 project, Government of Spain.

  6. Exposure age and ice-sheet model constraints on Pliocene East Antarctic ice sheet dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Yamane, Masako; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Obrochta, Stephen; Saito, Fuyuki; Moriwaki, Kiichi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The Late Pliocene epoch is a potential analogue for future climate in a warming world. Here we reconstruct Plio-Pleistocene East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) variability using cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages and model simulations to better understand ice sheet behaviour under such warm conditions. New and previously published exposure ages indicate interior-thickening during the Pliocene. An ice sheet model with mid-Pliocene boundary conditions also results in interior thickening and suggests that both the Wilkes Subglacial and Aurora Basins largely melted, offsetting increased ice volume. Considering contributions from West Antarctica and Greenland, this is consistent with the most recent IPCC AR5 estimate, which indicates that the Pliocene sea level likely did not exceed +20?m on Milankovitch timescales. The inception of colder climate since ?3?Myr has increased the sea ice cover and inhibited active moisture transport to Antarctica, resulting in reduced ice sheet thickness, at least in coastal areas. PMID:25908601

  7. Exposure age and ice-sheet model constraints on Pliocene East Antarctic ice sheet dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Masako; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Obrochta, Stephen; Saito, Fuyuki; Moriwaki, Kiichi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2015-04-01

    The Late Pliocene epoch is a potential analogue for future climate in a warming world. Here we reconstruct Plio-Pleistocene East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) variability using cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages and model simulations to better understand ice sheet behaviour under such warm conditions. New and previously published exposure ages indicate interior-thickening during the Pliocene. An ice sheet model with mid-Pliocene boundary conditions also results in interior thickening and suggests that both the Wilkes Subglacial and Aurora Basins largely melted, offsetting increased ice volume. Considering contributions from West Antarctica and Greenland, this is consistent with the most recent IPCC AR5 estimate, which indicates that the Pliocene sea level likely did not exceed +20 m on Milankovitch timescales. The inception of colder climate since ~3 Myr has increased the sea ice cover and inhibited active moisture transport to Antarctica, resulting in reduced ice sheet thickness, at least in coastal areas.

  8. The deglacial history of the Lake Michigan lobe in Illinois, USA, fleshed out by chronologies associated with ice-walled lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, B.

    2009-12-01

    The onset of deglaciation of the Lake Michigan lobe (LML) in the western Great Lakes region of North America is well-defined by radiocarbon ages from terrestrial plant material that was buried by proglacial lake sediment and till. A small portion of the lobe began its final retreat during the Marengo Phase at about 24,780 C-14 yr BP (29,630 cal yr BP) [CalPal]; most of the lobe began its final retreat during the Shelby Phase starting at about 19,350 C-14 yr BP (23,010 cal yr BP)[Calib 5.02]. New radiocarbon ages from tundra plant fossils encased in the deposits of ice-walled lakes allow estimation periods of ice stagnation vs. margin advance as well as constraining the age of important events during the late Wisconsin Episode. For example, radiocarbon ages from fossils in ice-walled deposits indicate the LML margin began its final retreat from Illinois at the onset of the Mackinaw lake phase by about 13,650 C-14 yr BP (16,250 cal yr BP). Located on the Marseilles Morainic System, the oldest dated ice-walled lake deposit known in Illinois began to form at 18,210 C-14 yr BP (21,680 cal yr BP). From its end moraine located near Peoria to Chicago on the shores of southern Lake Michigan, the LML extended about 230 km. Collectively, the ages indicate that the outer 100 km of the LML margin retreated about three times faster than the inner 130 km (7.5 x 10-2 km/yr vs. 2.4 x 10-2 km/yr). Changes in ice thickness and dynamics, debris concentration, climate, and regional drainage are some of the likely factors that affected the difference in rate. The existing data provide conservative estimates for the formation of two moraines, the lake-border Deerfield Moraine (720 cal yrs) and the Tinley Moraine (850 cal yrs). Periods of stagnations, marked by radiocarbon ages from fossils in the ice-walled lake sediments, include about 320 years (Deerfield Moraine), 520 cal yrs (Tinley Moraine), 500 cal yrs (Woodstock Moraine), and 710 years (Ransom Moraine). These and other ages indicate that ice stagnation occurred during at least 45% of the 5,430 year period when these and intervening moraines formed.

  9. Constraints on ice volume changes of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet and Ross Ice Shelf since the LGM based on cosmogenic exposure ages from Darwin-Hatherton outlet glaciers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, David; Joy, Kurt; Storey, Bryan

    2013-04-01

    At the Last Glacial Maximum and during Termination-1 (~20-10 ka), marine evidence indicates that the grounding line of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) advanced northwards into the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS), blocking drainage of the Darwin and Hatherton outlet glaciers through the Transantarctic Mountains (TM) resulting in significant downstream thickening of glacier profiles. These outlet glaciers provide geological and glaciological records of EAIS expansion through the TMs as well as WAIS fluctuations which together suggest an LGM thickness of ~800 m lager than today at their confluence with the Ross Embayment. About 80 cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al exposure ages of erratics from 3 locations flanking the Hatherton Glacier (Dubris Valley near the EAIS source region, from Lake Wellman at its midpoint and Diamond Hill at its terminus) taken along transects covering 800 m in differential elevation from ice-sheet contact to mountain peaks documents 2.5 Ma of ice volume evolution of the Hatherton allowing a reconstruction of its quaternary paleo-ice surface. Pleistocene ice thickness is some 800 to 400 meters thicker between 2.5 to 0.5 Ma years ago than today . However at all 3 locations, exposure ages of mapped glacial drifts younger than 0.5 Ma at lower elevations down to current ice margin did not show any evidence for a distinct LGM advance. At Lake Wellman a cluster of mid-elevation moraine boulders from the Britannia Drift, previously taken to demarcate the LGM advance, have exposure ages ranging from 30 to 40 ka. At Dubris Valley, the same drift returned ages of 120-125 ka. At Diamond Hill, the confluence of the Darwin Glacier and RIS, two transects were sampled that cover an altitude range of 1100 meters. Cosmogenic dates show a similar trend to that seen further upvalley - the WAIS was approximately 900 meters thicker than the current Rose Ice Shelf configuration at ~1.5Ma and with only minor advances in the last 10ka and an absence of any LGM ages. The absence of a LGM signal is perplexing. We suggest the idea that while WAIS expansion during the early Pleistocene was large, LGM ice volume in the Darwin-Hatherton Glaciers was not as large as previously estimated and perhaps little different from what is observed today (at most 50 m above current ice surface). These results raise serious questions about the implications of a reduced East Antarctic ice Sheet at the LGM, and how the Antarctic ice sheets respond to global warming. Similar conclusions from 10Be exposure ages from coastal sites of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet in the Lambert Glacier-Amery Ice Shelf and at the Framnes Mountains also indicate a far reduced LGM ice volume at ~15ka than previously assumed.

  10. Radiostratigraphy and age structure of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, Joseph A.; Fahnestock, Mark A.; Catania, Ginny A.; Paden, John D.; Prasad Gogineni, S.; Young, S. Keith; Rybarski, Susan C.; Mabrey, Alexandria N.; Wagman, Benjamin M.; Morlighem, Mathieu

    2015-02-01

    Several decades of ice-penetrating radar surveys of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have observed numerous widespread internal reflections. Analysis of this radiostratigraphy has produced valuable insights into ice sheet dynamics and motivates additional mapping of these reflections. Here we present a comprehensive deep radiostratigraphy of the Greenland Ice Sheet from airborne deep ice-penetrating radar data collected over Greenland by The University of Kansas between 1993 and 2013. To map this radiostratigraphy efficiently, we developed new techniques for predicting reflection slope from the phase recorded by coherent radars. When integrated along track, these slope fields predict the radiostratigraphy and simplify semiautomatic reflection tracing. Core-intersecting reflections were dated using synchronized depth-age relationships for six deep ice cores. Additional reflections were dated by matching reflections between transects and by extending reflection-inferred depth-age relationships using the local effective vertical strain rate. The oldest reflections, dating to the Eemian period, are found mostly in the northern part of the ice sheet. Within the onset regions of several fast-flowing outlet glaciers and ice streams, reflections typically do not conform to the bed topography. Disrupted radiostratigraphy is also observed in a region north of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream that is not presently flowing rapidly. Dated reflections are used to generate a gridded age volume for most of the ice sheet and also to determine the depths of key climate transitions that were not observed directly. This radiostratigraphy provides a new constraint on the dynamics and history of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  11. Combination of in situ cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) and Schmidt-hammer dating for the investigation of Late-Holocene lateral moraines in the Southern Alps of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, S.

    2009-04-01

    The investigation of Holocene glacier chronologies in high mountain regions is important for use of glaciers as indicators for climate change. Only detailed Holocene glacier chronologies offer the opportunity to improve our knowledge on the relationship between glaciers and climate factors, and to verify models of the future glacier development. The Southern Alps of New Zealand represent the southern hemispheric study area within the complex comparative current research project "MaMoGla" (Holocene and recent dynamics of maritime mountain glaciers). Among other goals, new methodological attempts to date the dominating lateral moraines in the Southern Alps in order to revise existing glaciers chronologies have been integrated in this project. The need for improvement of the existing Holocene glacier chronology of the Southern Alps/New Zealand is mainly caused by methodological uncertainties and the focus on Tasman Glaciers as unreliable key locality. Previously, radiocarbon (14C) dating of organic material (plant remains, organic-rich soil layers etc.) buried beneath or within the complex lateral moraines was the predominating ‘absolute' dating technique applied. In addition to older studies using the measurement of weathering rind thickness on boulders, the potential of the Schmidt-hammer as relative-age dating technique has clearly been demonstrated by the successful application on several lateral and latero-frontal moraine sequences in the Mt Cook/Aoraki National Park. The relatively homogenous and weathering/erosion-resistant bedrock yielded comparatively small standard errors and, thus, a relatively high time resolution of up to 200 - 300 years. Supported by statistical treatment of the raw field data, the Schmidt-hammer provided sufficient information to group the individual moraine ridges into moraine sequences and relate them to separate Little Ice Age-type events. However, the final ‘absolute' age dating of the moraine sequences remained open. As an ‘absolute' age of the boulder surfaces was needed to allow the construction of a dating curve by reliable fixed points to, radiocarbon (14C) dating could not provide those information because of the lack of organic material indisputable be related to the glacier advance forming the moraine ridges. On base on these considerations, this study comprises the first attempt to combine in situ (terrestrial) cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) surface exposure dating with Schmidt-hammer measurements for the dating of Holocene moraines and the reconstruction of a regional glacier chronology. Cosmogenic 10Be dating has the important advantage of delivering an ‘absolute' age for the exposure of boulder or bedrock surfaces, i.e. the same surface tested with the Schmidt-hammer. One disadvantage of cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating is, however, the limited number of boulders sampled due to high costs. From this background, a combination with the Schmidt-hammer technique seems ideal as the latter could provide measurement of a large number of boulders. The Schmidt-hammer measurements can, on the other hand, help with the selection of representative boulders for cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) surface exposure dating avoiding boulders that have been exposed to post-depositional movement (e.g. rotation). Results from the application of this combined ‘multi-proxy-approach' at Strauchon Glacier in Westland/Tai Poutini National Park and Hooker Glacier in Mt Cook/Aoraki National Park on large lateral moraine complex with several individual moraine ridges proof its potential. Three pre-‘Little Ice Age' moraine sequences each related to an individual Late-Holocene Little Ice Age-type event unambiguously distinguished by Schmidt-hammer measurements provides cosmogenic (10Be) ages of 2,400/2,500 a BP, c. 1,700 a BP, and c. 1,000/1,100 a BP. The preliminary construction of a dating curve based on both Schmidt-hammer and cosmogenic (10Be) dating results shows high significance and confirms the successful application of this attempt. Although subsequent cosmogenic 10Be-dating is necessary

  12. Tropical marine climate during the late Paleozoic ice age using trace element analyses of brachiopods

    E-print Network

    Schöne, Bernd R.

    Tropical marine climate during the late Paleozoic ice age using trace element analyses 5 June 2009 Available online 13 June 2009 Keywords: late Paleozoic ice age brachiopoda trace elements The late Paleozoic ice age can be considered an important analogue to the modern ice age

  13. Siple Dome ice reveals two modes of millennial CO2 change during the last ice age

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jinho; Brook, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Reconstruction of atmospheric CO2 during times of past abrupt climate change may help us better understand climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. Previous ice core studies reveal simultaneous increases in atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature during times when Greenland and the northern hemisphere experienced very long, cold stadial conditions during the last ice age. Whether this relationship extends to all of the numerous stadial events in the Greenland ice core record has not been clear. Here we present a high-resolution record of atmospheric CO2 from the Siple Dome ice core, Antarctica for part of the last ice age. We find that CO2 does not significantly change during the short Greenlandic stadial events, implying that the climate system perturbation that produced the short stadials was not strong enough to substantially alter the carbon cycle. PMID:24781344

  14. Hydrothermal calcite in the Elephant Moraine

    SciTech Connect

    Faure, G.; Taylor, K.S.; Jones, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    In the course of geologic mapping of the Elephant Moraine on the east antarctic ice sheet, Faure and Taylor (1985) collected several specimens of black botryoidal calcite, composed of radiating acicular crystals that resemble stromatolites. Calcite from this and other specimens is significantly enriched in strontium-87 (the strontium-87/strontium-86 ratio equals 0.71417 +/- 0.00002), carbon-12 (delta carbon-13 equals -22.9 parts per thousand, PDB standard) and oxygen-16 (delta oxygen-18 equals -21.1 parts per thousand, standard mean ocean water) compared with calcite of marine origin. The enrichment in carbon-12 is similar to that of calcite associated with coal in the Allan Hills. The enrichment in oxygen-16 indicates that the calcite from the Elephant Moraine could only have precipitated in isotopic equilibrium with glacial melt water. Therefore, the temperature at which the black calcite precipitated from water of that isotope composition was about 85/sup 0/C. A temperature of this magnitude implies that the black calcite formed as a result of volcanic activity under the east antarctic ice sheet. The enrichment of the black calcite in carbon-12 suggests that it formed in part from carbon dioxide derived from the coal seams of the Weller Formation in the Beacon Supergroup. The isotopic composition of strontium in the black calcite is similar to that of carbonate beds and concretions in the Beacon rocks of southern Victoria Land. A volcanic-hydrothermal origin is also consistent with the very low total organic carbon content of 0.15% in the calcite.

  15. Self-consistent ice-sheet properties: ice dynamics, temperature, accumulation, delta-age and chronologies for ice cores and radar isochrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundin, J.; Waddington, E. D.; Conway, H.

    2011-12-01

    Ice sheet behavior has not previously been modeled to force self-consistency, to determine histories of accumulation, temperature, and ice dynamics that incorporate the ice-age/gas-age offset (delta-age) and sparse depth-age measurements from ice cores. An iterative scheme is used to combine several modular components into one self-consistent model. The goal is to determine a suite of histories constrained by the depth-age data from ice cores and ice radar that are part of a physically self-consistent ice sheet. The model is tested using a synthetic data set resembling WAIS divide. Using synthetic data provides proof of concept that histories of accumulation, temperature and ice dynamics can be recovered by the self-consistent model, and that the depth-age from ice cores and ice radar can be matched. Results from synthetic data show we can recover the ice-sheet properties used to generate the data and we can improve the depth-age chronologies by interpolating with an ice-flow model where data are sparse. When this self-consistent model can be applied to field data, results will (1) improve chronologies for ice cores and radar layers, (2) determine histories of accumulation for GCM modelling, and (3) improve estimates of past ice sheet configurations, incorporating data from ice cores and ice radar.

  16. Dynamics of Ice Ages Norbert Schorghofer

    E-print Network

    Schörghofer, Norbert

    ) RetreatRate(m/ka) -90°C -80°C -70°C -60°C -50°C -40°C -30°C -20°C -10°C Loss rate of ice beneath a 0.5 m #12;1 "sol" = 1 solar day never warm enough for melting #12;140 160 180 200 220 240 260 0 0.1 0.2 0

  17. Moraine-dammed lake failures in Patagonia and assessment of outburst susceptibility in the Baker Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iribarren Anacona, P.; Norton, K. P.; Mackintosh, A.

    2014-07-01

    Glacier retreat since the Little Ice Age has resulted in the development or expansion of hundreds of glacial lakes in Patagonia. Some of these lakes have produced large (?106 m3) Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) damaging inhabited areas. GLOF hazard studies in Patagonia have been mainly based on the analysis of short-term series (?50 years) of flood data and until now no attempt has been made to identify the relative susceptibility of lakes to failure. Power schemes and associated infrastructure are planned for Patagonian basins that have historically been affected by GLOFs, and we now require a thorough understanding of the characteristics of dangerous lakes in order to assist with hazard assessment and planning. In this paper, the conditioning factors of 16 outbursts from moraine dammed lakes in Patagonia were analysed. These data were used to develop a classification scheme designed to assess outburst susceptibility, based on image classification techniques, flow routine algorithms and the Analytical Hierarchy Process. This scheme was applied to the Baker Basin, Chile, where at least 7 moraine-dammed lakes have failed in historic time. We identified 386 moraine-dammed lakes in the Baker Basin of which 28 were classified with high or very high outburst susceptibility. Commonly, lakes with high outburst susceptibility are in contact with glaciers and have moderate (>8°) to steep (>15°) dam outlet slopes, akin to failed lakes in Patagonia. The proposed classification scheme is suitable for first-order GLOF hazard assessments in this region. However, rapidly changing glaciers in Patagonia make detailed analysis and monitoring of hazardous lakes and glaciated areas upstream from inhabited areas or critical infrastructure necessary, in order to better prepare for hazards emerging from an evolving cryosphere.

  18. New Geomorphic map of SW Fraser Lowland, NW Washington, Shows Multiple Post-LGM Moraines, Fossil Shorelines, Outburst Flood and Glacial Outwash Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easterbrook, D. J.; Kovanen, D. J.; Haugerud, R. A.

    2008-12-01

    We have interpreted a ~1 pulse/m2 lidar survey (acquired in 2006 in leaf-on conditions under contract to the USGS) to construct a geomorphic map of western Whatcom County. The new lidar data reveal the existence of previously unrecognized landforms. Within this landscape, we see these features that reflect a rich post-LGM history: Glacial: Ice contact deposits interpreted as moraines reveal at least 8 successive moraines associated with the late Pleistocene Fraser Glaciation. At least two of the moraine crests were formed during ice re- advance; others may mark stillstands during ice retreat. All are older than about 10,250 14C yrs BP, based on basal peat from a kettle in outwash associated with the youngest moraine. Marine: Extensive and successive fossil shorelines, wave-cut notches, wave-washed surfaces, down- slope truncation of gullies, and deltas along the fringe of uplands surrounding the SW Fraser Lowland document former relative sea level and probable glacioisostatic tilting. The highest shorelines are at nearly 150 m above sea level. Some shorelines are cut into moraines, while others are truncated by them. Uplifted back-beach surfaces of likely mid-Holocene age at Birch Bay and Neptune Beach (elevations ~1 m and ~3 m higher than modern back-beach surfaces) suggest Holocene uplift. Glaciofluvial: Large, stepped, sediment wave bed-forms, with wavelengths of 430 to 850 m and heights from 1 to 3.5 m, record deposition associated with high discharge and rapid water release. Sub-parallel, narrow scour troughs are up to 4 km in length and 8 m in depth. These high energy geomorphic features record at least three large discharge events. Their apparent associations with former ice margins indicate that they are the result of outburst floods. Multiple outwash surfaces in the lowland are also related to former ice margins. Fluvial: At present the Nooksack River flows west from the town of Everson and reaches Bellingham Bay just south of Ferndale. Relatively low channel gradient, absence of incised valley walls west of Everson, and some archaeologic data suggests that the Nooksack formerly drained north from the town of Everson, via Sumas, into the Fraser River. Human activity: Modified land surfaces include river levees, highways, railways, and sea walls. Confinement of the modern Nooksack River has reduced depositional compensation for ongoing subsidence and led to net loss of surface elevation.

  19. The Mini-ice Age of the XXIth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Herrera, Victor Manuel

    The nature of the climatic change response to solar variability is assessed over a long-time scale. Our preliminary studies of the last 2000 years show close connection between the variation of the global maxima and minima periods of secular solar activity and warming and mini ice age occurred during this period. Such a modulation of the terrestrial temperature may bring unexpected results and consequences to the climatic change in the 21st century that may be translated in a mini-Ice Age which is predicted to occur in the next 20-40 years.

  20. Ice-age rain forest found moist, cooler

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1996-10-04

    Climate researchers have argued for years about whether the tropics cooled a little or a lot during the height of the last ice age 18000 years ago. The answer will offer clues to the sensitivity of the Earth`s climate system to the strengthening greenhouse effect. On a different front, arguments have raged about how the Amazon flora and fauna became so divers. A single study of lake mud from deep in the Amazon rain forest sheds new light on both of these controveries by point toward a cool, but still wet ice age Amazon. This article goes on to discuss the background of the study, other view points, and the implications.

  1. Recent Deglaciation of Darwin Mountains (Tierra de Fuego) after Little Ice Age: monitoring by photogrammetry, lichenometry, dendrochronology and field studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Sancho, L.; Palacios, D.; Zamorano, J. J.; Green, A.; Vivas, M.; Pintado, A.

    2012-04-01

    Glaciers from the Darwin mountain range have been retreating since the Little Ice Age (LIA). However, the amount of retreat varies and is minimal for some glacial snouts and substantial for others. Possible explanations for this different behaviour include climatic and glacial dynamic causes. The aim of this work was to analyse the impact of climate change on these glaciers. The research site was the terminus of glacier Pia, which descends to the south of Mount Darwin (2488 m asl, 54°45'S, 69°29'W) and reaches the coastline at the Beagle Channel. The terminus is situated some hundreds of meters above the LIA moraine but, whereas one sector retreated rapidly and then stabilized, another sector has had several advances and retreats leaving a number of moraine arches. To better understand the origin of this dynamic behaviour, we undertook a study of the evolution of the terminus of glacier Pia over the last 60 years. We used aerial photographs and satellite images to determine the exact location of the glacial terminus in certain years (1943, 1963, 1987, 1990, 2001 and 2006). These results were completed in 2008 and 2009 through field work. We also carried out lichenometric studies of the two most abundant lichen species that rapidly colonize the moraine boulders abandoned by the glacier: Placopsis perrugosa and Rhizocarpon geographicum. By comparing results from field work carried out in 2008 and 2009, we were able to determine the growth rate of these two species (García-Sancho et al. 2011). In addition, we also carried out a dendrochronological study of Nothofagus antarctica and N. betuloides. The use of the four techniques involved in this study (photogrammetry, lichenometry, dendrochronology and multiyear field work) allowed us to establish the ecesis period of each species as well as their growth curves, from which we can deduce the movements of the glacial terminus from the end of the LIA to the present. From this study we can infer that the different behaviour detected at the Pia glacial terminus results from a combination of climatic factors and elements derived from the dynamics of the glacial flow. García-Sancho, L. Palacios, D., Green, T.G.A., Vivas, M., Pintado, A. (2011): Extreme lichen growth rates detected in recent deglaciated areas in Tierra del Fuego. Polar Biology, 34 (6): 813-822. DOI: 10.1007/s00300-010-0935-4. Research funded by POL20060840 & CGL2009-7343 projects, Government of Spain.

  2. Apparent Slip Rates on the Cordillera Blanca Normal Fault, Peruvian Andes, Determined From Offset Moraine Crests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. A.; Zehner, S. P., Jr.; Bowen, D. R.; Rodbell, D. T.; Graber, N. R.

    2011-12-01

    In the glacierized Cordillera Blanca, Peru, where the active, west-dipping Cordillera Blanca Normal Fault (CBNF) vertically offsets the crests of numerous moraines, we are dating faulted moraines as a means of determining apparent slip rates on the CBNF. We profiled CBNF scarps on moraines in six valleys: Jeullesh, Quenua Ragra, and Tuco valleys in the Nevado Jeulla Rajo (NJR) massif (10°00'S, 77°16'W) at the southern end of the Cordillera Blanca; and Llaca, Cojup, and Querococha valleys in the central Cordillera Blanca (9°28'-45'S, 77°28'-21'W). The NJR massif hosts a number of small glaciers within a cirque on its southwest face, and large lateral moraines extend onto the Conococha Plain from west-facing valleys. Fault scarps on moraines and valley floors on the western side of NJR show the trace of the north-south-trending CBNF. Surface-exposure ages (10Be) indicate that the largest lateral moraines from Jeullesh Valley are compound features deposited during both the local last glacial maximum (ca. 27-32 ka) and a late-glacial readvance (ca. 15 ka), whereas the large compound lateral moraines from Quenua Ragra Valley are predominantly late-glacial (ca. 15-18 ka). To the north of NJR in the central Cordillera Blanca, the faulted Rurec moraine in Cojup Valley has a 10Be age of ca. 30 ka (Farber et al., 2005). These surface-exposure ages suggest an apparent slip rate of 1.2-1.4 mm/yr for the CBNF in Quenua Ragra Valley (based on moraine ages of 15-18 ka), and 0.5-0.6 mm/yr for Jeullesh Valley and 2.0-2.7 mm/yr for Cojup Valley (based on moraine ages of 30 ka). Samples for 10Be dating have been collected in the Tuco, Llaca, and Querococha valleys, where moraine crests are displaced vertically ca. 44 m , 46-50 m, and 17-26 m, respectively. Field observations suggest an age of 30 ka for faulted moraines in Tuco, Llaca, and Querococha Valleys, which would yield slip rates of ca. 1.5, 1.5-1.7 mm/yr, and 0.6-0.9 mm/yr, respectively. Our estimates are largely consistent with an apparent slip rate of 0.86-1.36 mm/yr calculated for the CBNF on the valley floor at Querococha Valley (Schwartz, 1988). Differences in slip rates along the length of the seismogenic CBNF are known to exist, with the fastest slip occurring to the north of the study area, coincident with the highest topography.

  3. The Mini-ice Age of the XXIth Century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Manuel Velasco Herrera

    2008-01-01

    The nature of the climatic change response to solar variability is assessed over a long-time scale. Our preliminary studies of the last 2000 years show close connection between the variation of the global maxima and minima periods of secular solar activity and warming and mini ice age occurred during this period. Such a modulation of the terrestrial temperature may bring

  4. ResearchHighlights The last Ice Age in Australia

    E-print Network

    Chen, Ying

    ResearchHighlights The last Ice Age in Australia Dr Timothy Barrows , Dr Keith Fifield, Accelerator of glaciation and climate change in Australia. By directly dating glacial debris and eroded bedrock, the timing of the glacial history of these regions, which were the only areas in Australia where glaciers existed

  5. The rotational stability of a triaxial ice-age Earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Matsuyama; J. X. Mitrovica; A. Daradich; N. Gomez

    2010-01-01

    Mitrovica et al. (2005), following calculations by Nakada (2002), demonstrated that the traditional approach for computing rotation perturbations driven by glacial isostatic adjustment significantly overestimates present-day true polar wander (TPW) speeds by underestimating the background oblateness on which the ice-age loading is superimposed. The underestimation has two contributions: the first originates from the treatment of the hydrostatic form and the

  6. Colour, form, animals and deception in the ice age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simona Petru

    2008-01-01

    Vision is the main sense through which we observe and recognise the outside world. Humans are among the few mammals with trichromatic vision, which is important for food procu- rement and evading predators. For better hunting success, ice age people camouflaged themselves as animals. It is possible that without such an ability for deception, symbolic thought would never have evolved.

  7. Population genetics of Ice Age brown bears

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Jennifer A.; Wayne, Robert K.; Cooper, Alan

    2000-01-01

    The Pleistocene was a dynamic period for Holarctic mammal species, complicated by episodes of glaciation, local extinctions, and intercontinental migration. The genetic consequences of these events are difficult to resolve from the study of present-day populations. To provide a direct view of population genetics in the late Pleistocene, we measured mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in seven permafrost-preserved brown bear (Ursus arctos) specimens, dated from 14,000 to 42,000 years ago. Approximately 36,000 years ago, the Beringian brown bear population had a higher genetic diversity than any extant North American population, but by 15,000 years ago genetic diversity appears similar to the modern day. The older, genetically diverse, Beringian population contained sequences from three clades now restricted to local regions within North America, indicating that current phylogeographic patterns may provide misleading data for evolutionary studies and conservation management. The late Pleistocene phylogeographic data also indicate possible colonization routes to areas south of the Cordilleran ice sheet. PMID:10677513

  8. Evidence of Little Ice Age in an East Antarctica Ice Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole-Dai, J.; Li, Y.; Zhou, L.

    2003-12-01

    An 80 meter ice core was retrieved from an East Antarctica location (76° S, 77° E) by the Chinese Antarctica Research Expedition in 1999. Chemical analysis of the ice core has yielded a record of ionic impurities in snow for the past 800 years (1200-1999 A.D.). The ice core is dated using a combination of annual layer counting and volcanic time stratigraphic horizons, resulting in an accurate chronology with high resolution. The ice core record demonstrates that, during the period of approximately 1300-1850 A.D., the concentrations of several chemical species, including nitrate and methanesulfonate, are sharply lower than the levels both prior to and after this period. This period coincides with the most recent neoglacial climatic episode, the "Little Ice Age (LIA)," that has been found in numerous Northern Hemisphere proxy and historic records. Additional evidence includes the sharply reduced net snow accumulation rates during this period. The significance of this new finding will be discussed in the context of LIA evidence in Antarctica ice cores, its probable regional and spatial variations, and chronological relationships to LIA signals in South America and in the Northern Hemisphere.

  9. Aranuian vegetation history of the Arrowsmith Range, Canterbury II. Revised chronology for moraines of the Cameron Glacier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Burrows; K. W. Duncan; J. R. Spence

    1990-01-01

    The chronology for the younger Marquee and Arrowsmith moraine sets of the Cameron Glacier is revised. This is done by using new lichen growth curves for Rhizocarpon geographicum and R. candidum, developed for moraines of the Mueller Glacier at Mount Cook and calibrated with ages determined from rock weathering rind thicknesses. A new rock weathering rind curve was established for

  10. On the Origins of the Ice Ages: Insolation Forcing, Age Models, and Nonlinear Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Huybers, Peter

    On the Origins of the Ice Ages: Insolation Forcing, Age Models, and Nonlinear Climate Change by Peter Huybers Submitted to the Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences in partial .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences May, 2004 Certified by

  11. The last glacial retreat on the Mauna Kea summit (Hawaii, 20°N) constrained by cosmogenic 3He dating of moraines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lave, J.; Blard, P.; Pik, R.; Bourles, D.

    2005-12-01

    The top of Mauna Kea volcano (Hawaii island) is the only highland area of the central Pacific Ocean that has preserved direct morphological evidences of the last glaciation. In order to constrain the age of the last glacial retreat, 9 cobbles and boulders have been sampled at ca. 3600 m on 3 small recessional moraines posterior to the abandonment of the major lateral moraine of the Makanaka Glacial Stage (MGS). At ca. 3200 m, 3 boulders have also been sampled on an outwash formation anterior to the MGS. All the samples were selected for their rich mafic phenocrysts content (olivines and clinopyroxenes), making them well suited for the precise and accurate method of cosmogenic 3He (3Hec) exposure dating. At ca. 3200 m the low outwash boulders yield concordant 3Hec exposure ages of 18±1 ka BP. On the other hand, the ca. 3600 m lateral moraines are characterized by younger and largely distributed ages between 15 and 9 ka BP. The block sizes are clearly correlated with their exposure ages and suggest that the morainic surfaces have suffered an erosion of several centimetres by soil deflation. Discarding the youngest ages associated to the smallest cobbles (less than 50 cm), the three morainic cordons ages can be interpreted as the proof of a rapid retreat between 15 and 13 ka BP. The major morainic formation of the MGS ranges therefore between 18 and 15 ka BP. These 3Hec ages are compatible but slightly younger than the preliminary exposure 36Clc ages (from 15 to 20 ka BP) measured on boulders of the Makanaka Glacial Members on Mauna Kea [Dorn et al., 1990]. However this glacial retreat timing seems to be in relative agreement with the persistence of low local temperature until 17 ka, and then with a progressive Late Glacial warming, as recorded by the Central Pacific SST [Lee et al, 2001; Kiefer and Kienast, 2005]. These 3Hec data are also concordant with the timing of the final glacial retreat observed in the tropical Andes [Smith et al., 2005], and could indicate a synchronous climatic evolution at the scale of the inter and sub-tropical Pacific regions. In addition, the persistence of an ice cap on the Mauna Kea summit beyond 14 ka implies that the ELA was still depressed by ca. 750 m relative to present time: considering a difference of 2 C of the SST between 14 ka BP and today [Lee et al, 2001], such ELA lowering required either a higher local lapse rate in the Central Pacific (0.5 C/km), or higher snow precipitations on the Mauna Kea summit. Dorn et al., Nat. Geogr. Res. & Explor., 7, 1991 Kiefer and Kienast, QSR, 24, 2005 Lee et al., Paleoceanography, 16, 2001 Smith et al., Science, 308, 2005

  12. Extremely eroded or incredibly young - 10Be depth profile dating of moraines in the Swiss Midlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wüthrich, Lorenz; Zech, Roland; Haghipour, Negar; Gnägi, Christian; Christl, Markus; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Veit, Heinz

    2014-05-01

    During the Pleistocene, glaciers advanced repeatedly from the Alps into the Swiss Midlands. The exact extent and timing are still under debate, even for the last glacial advances. Decalcification depths, for example, increase from west to east in the western Swiss Midlands and have been interpreted to indicate that the Valais (Rhone) glacier may have been less extensive during the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) at 20 ka than assumed so far [1]. In an attempt to provide more quantitative age control, we applied 10Be depth profile dating [2] on moraines at two locations. Steinhof has previously been dated to the global LGM based on exposure ages from four boulders [3], and Niederbuchsiten presumably lies outside the last glacial ice extent [1]. The 10Be concentrations at both sites decrease consistently with depth, but are very similar. Assuming only a few decimeters of erosion since moraine deposition, we obtain apparent exposure ages of ~20 ka. Niederbuchsiten would thus be unexpectedly young, implying a much more extensive extent of the LGM glacier than assumed so far. Alternatively, if the till at Niederbuchsiten was deposited during or before the penultimate glaciation (>130 ka), the surprisingly low 10Be concentrations indicate several meters of erosion during the last glacial cycle and/or the Holocene, which seems to be at odds with the deep and intensive soil formation. References: [1] Bitterli et al. (2011) Geologischer Atlas der Schweiz, Blatt 1108. [2] Hidy et al. (2010) Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 11, doi:10.1029/2010GC003084. [3] Ivy- Ochs et al. (2004) Ecl. Geol. Helv. 97, 47-55.

  13. Can Volcanic Eruptions Produce Ice Ages or Mass Extinctions?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Robock; C. Ammann; L. Oman; D. Shindell; G. Stenchikov

    2006-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions are well known to be important causes of interannual and even interdecadal climate change. But can very large eruptions initiate ice ages, as has been suggested for the Toba eruption ~74,000 years ago? Could flood basalt eruptions, such as the Deccan Traps 65,000,000 years ago or the Siberian Traps 250,000,000 years ago, have produced climate change large enough

  14. Ice-age megafauna in Arctic Alaska: extinction, invasion, survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, Daniel H.; Groves, Pamela; Kunz, Michael L.; Reanier, Richard E.; Gaglioti, Benjamin V.

    2013-01-01

    Radical restructuring of the terrestrial, large mammal fauna living in arctic Alaska occurred between 14,000 and 10,000 years ago at the end of the last ice age. Steppe bison, horse, and woolly mammoth became extinct, moose and humans invaded, while muskox and caribou persisted. The ice age megafauna was more diverse in species and possibly contained 6× more individual animals than live in the region today. Megafaunal biomass during the last ice age may have been 30× greater than present. Horse was the dominant species in terms of number of individuals. Lions, short-faced bears, wolves, and possibly grizzly bears comprised the predator/scavenger guild. The youngest mammoth so far discovered lived ca 13,800 years ago, while horses and bison persisted on the North Slope until at least 12,500 years ago during the Younger Dryas cold interval. The first people arrived on the North Slope ca 13,500 years ago. Bone-isotope measurements and foot-loading characteristics suggest megafaunal niches were segregated along a moisture gradient, with the surviving species (muskox and caribou) utilizing the warmer and moister portions of the vegetation mosaic. As the ice age ended, the moisture gradient shifted and eliminated habitats utilized by the dryland, grazing species (bison, horse, mammoth). The proximate cause for this change was regional paludification, the spread of organic soil horizons and peat. End-Pleistocene extinctions in arctic Alaska represent local, not global extinctions since the megafaunal species lost there persisted to later times elsewhere. Hunting seems unlikely as the cause of these extinctions, but it cannot be ruled out as the final blow to megafaunal populations that were already functionally extinct by the time humans arrived in the region.

  15. Chilly ice-age tropics could signal climate sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1995-02-17

    A classic 1976 study, CLIMAP, indicated that the tropical ocean cooled less than 2C during the worst of the last ice age while the rest of the world experienced a 5C chill. However, this climatic buffering in the tropics has come under attack with new evidence and possible errors in the original study. This article discusses new evidence about climate sensitivity in the tropics and reinterpertation in climate models.

  16. Glimpses of the Ice Age from I-81

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication is part of a series entitled "Geologic Wonders of the George Washington and Jefferson National Forests". The article covers an area from Strasburg to Harrisonburg, Virginia along I-81 that shows evidence of glaciation. A description of the Ice Age, block fields and how they formed, and uses of block fields are discussed. Additional reading resources are also suggested.

  17. Ice Ages on the Earth and their astronomical implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zdenek Kopal

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out that while the long-periodic variations of the elements of the terrestrial orbit around the Sun are probably sufficient to account for the frequency-spectrum of recurrent ice-ages established from the geological record of climatic changes experiences by the Earth in the course of the past half a million years, such kinematic phenomena cannot account naturally for the

  18. Ice-Age Termination I from the northern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraswat, R.; Lea, D. W.; Nigam, R.; Mackensen, A.

    2010-12-01

    High resolution paleoclimatic records of the ice age terminations from monsoon affected regions can help understand role of various climatic parameters in deglaciation. Such records from tropical regions are also important to understand phase relationship of climatic changes in the tropics with that from the high latitudinal regions. Here we have generated first-ever foraminiferal elemental and stable isotopic composition based century scale temperature and salinity records of the last ice-age termination from the northern Indian Ocean. The record indicates that the last ice age termination in the Indian Ocean also was marked by two prominent weak monsoon intervals. The deglacial warming preceded the monsoon weakening by ~4 kyr. A comparison of this century scale northern Indian Ocean record with the Antarctic temperature and CO2 records shows that the initial deglacial warming in the northern Indian Ocean preceded polar warming by ~2.5 kyr and beginning of increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration by ~3.0 kyr suggesting tropical warming as the major driver of deglaciation. However, the mid glacial-interglacial transition decrease in seawater temperature of the northern Indian Ocean coincides with the polar temperature change as well as the change in atmospheric CO2 concentration.

  19. Varve and radiocarbon dating support the rapid advance of Jakobshavn Isbr during the Little Ice Age

    E-print Network

    Briner, Jason P.

    Varve and radiocarbon dating support the rapid advance of Jakobshavn Isbræ during the Little Ice Keywords: Jakobshavn Isbræ Varve Radiocarbon dating Lake sediments Little Ice Age a b s t r a c t Large in uenced by the recent advance of Jakobshavn Isbræ, which took place during the Little Ice Age

  20. Slope stability of moraines, Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimes, J.; Novotny, J.

    2012-12-01

    Landslides originating from inner slopes of moraine dams are often capable of producing glacial lakes outburst floods (GLOFs). Therefore assessing stability conditions of the moraines is important for predicting this potentially damaging phenomenon. Characteristics of the basic mechanical properties of the material and geophysical investigations were applied to collect necessary information for slope stability assessment of the Palcacocha Lake moraine dam, Peru. The lake is situated in the Cordillera Blanca Mts. at the altitude of about 4,500m asl and produced catastrophic GLOF in 1941. Another minor flood originated in 2003 due to landslide impact into the lake. Detailed investigations of this landslide site included geomorphological mapping, geophysical investigations and characterization of basic mechanical properties of the forming material. Geomorphological mapping identified dormant landslide with scarp up to 2m high which developed on the edge of the inner moraine slope. It is conditioned by set of parallel extension trenches which also affected the origin of 2003 landslide. Within its scarp area, significant water bearing layer was noticed around 10 m bellow the moraine surface. Three profiles were investigated using electric resistivity tomography performed on 4poing light instrument with 24 electrodes and with spacing ranging from 1 to 4m. Results helped to verify geometry of the main shear plane of the mapped landslide as well as the spacing and depth of extension trenches. Significant heterogeneity in the moraine resistivity characteristics was found. The high resistivity regions are explained by rock block accumulation whereas the low resistivity may represent wet layers within the moraine body. Grain size distribution of 33 disturbed soil samples originating from moraine material within the Cordillera Blanca Mts., Peru were determined and classified according to the UCSC classification system. The samples were taken from moraine dams and slopes covered by moraine material. 11 samples were also tested for the angle of repose. These results were compared with literature data relating grains size distribution of similar soil types with measured shear strength characteristics to assess peak shear strength ?max of the analyzed samples. Rough estimates of these values indicate that the moraine material gains 35°-38o. These estimates are verified by measured angle of repose. Results of the grain size distribution were also used to estimate average hydraulic conductivity applying Hazen formula. This estimates show that investigated moraine material range from 6x10-6 to 3x10-4 m/s.

  1. Sanders, J. E.; and Merguerian, Charles, 1995a, Evidence for pre-Woodfordian age of Long Island's terminal moraines, p. 91-106 in Hanson, G. N., chm., Geology of Long Island

    E-print Network

    Merguerian, Charles

    's terminal moraines, p. 91-106 in Hanson, G. N., chm., Geology of Long Island and metropolitan New York, 22); Fleming (1935); and MacClintock and Richards (1936). Woodfordian, the youngest subdivision of the Wisconsinan Stage, not shown. (Modified from S. W. Muller, 1965, table 2, p. 104.) On the basis of new

  2. Ice Ages and the Asteroid Belt: A Surprising Connection

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, Richard A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab) [Lawrence Berkeley Lab

    2001-05-23

    Oxygen isotope records preserved in glacial ice, seafloor cores and lake beds, show that the climate for the past million years has been one of a nearly continuous ice age, with short 10-20 kyr interglacials that occur every 100 kyr. (All of civilization has developed during the current interglacial.) Spectral analysis shows narrow peaks that imply the cycles are astronomically driven, but the spectrum is incompatible with the climate 'standard model' -- otherwise known as Milankovitch theory. An alternative theory attributes the cycles to the Earth's orbital changes, and the resulting variations in the influx of extraterrestrial dust which originates in the asteroid belt. Recent measurements of dust influx verify a prediction of this new model.

  3. An investigation of the astronomical theory of the ice ages using a simple climate-ice sheet model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollard, D.

    1978-01-01

    The astronomical theory of the Quaternary ice ages is incorporated into a simple climate model for global weather; important features of the model include the albedo feedback, topography and dynamics of the ice sheets. For various parameterizations of the orbital elements, the model yields realistic assessments of the northern ice sheet. Lack of a land-sea heat capacity contrast represents one of the chief difficulties of the model.

  4. Acting Out History from the Ice Age to the Modern Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattioli, Denee J.; Drake, Frederick

    1999-01-01

    Addresses the teaching methods of Michael Welch, a seventh grade teacher, who incorporates the humanities, such as drama and literature, into his history classroom in order to help students learn to question, think analytically, solve problems, and make decisions. Summarizes a particular unit on the Ice Age. (CMK)

  5. A high glacier opens a view of the ice age tropics

    SciTech Connect

    Mlot, C.

    1995-07-07

    This article discusses new information about the ice age tropics as cores from a mountain glacier in the Peruvian Andes are analysed. Chemical markers in the ice of the two cores (160 and 166 meters long), covering 20,000 years, are starting to provide detailed support for understanding the ice age in the tropics. they show that climate in the tropics experience sharp oscillations at the end of the ice ages as it did in more northerly regions. Information about El Ninos and how the tropics respond to global climate changes is forthcoming. Comments on the actual expedition to obtain the ice cores are included.

  6. Return to the Ice Age: The La Brea Exploration Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chris Peterson

    This study guide explores the tar pits and fossil sites of Rancho La Brea. Located in the heart of Los Angeles, the La Brea Tar Pits have yielded over three million fossils from the last Ice Age. It was here that huge mammoths, fierce sabertoothed cats, and giant ground sloths became trapped and entombed in the asphalt that has been seeping out of the ground for the past 40,000 years. Visitors can discover and explore how these tar pits formed, what types of plants and animals became trapped, and how scientists have used these fossil deposits to open a window into the world of prehistoric Los Angeles.

  7. Milutin Milankovitch: Seeking the Cause of the Ice Ages

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This article, from Earth: Inside and Out, reports on how mathematician Milutin Milankovitch developed a complete astronomical theory of glaciers. It discusses his work charting the ice ages of the Pleistocene, which incorporated new information about how the gravitational tug of other planets causes small variations in the tilt of the Earth's axis. His conclusion was that Earth's orbit alternates between three cycles of different lengths, causing variations of more than 20 percent in the amount of sunshine reaching the northern latitudes. The site also notes that recent technical advances show variations that correlate with his figures.

  8. Spatial and temporal variations in the age structure of Arctic sea ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belchansky, G.I.; Douglas, D.C.; Platonov, N.G.

    2005-01-01

    Spatial and temporal variations in the age structure of Arctic sea ice are investigated using a new reverse chronology algorithm that tracks ice-covered pixels to their location and date of origin based on ice motion and concentration data. The Beaufort Gyre tends to harbor the oldest (>10 years old) sea ice in the western Arctic while direct ice advection pathways toward the Transpolar Drift Stream maintain relatively young (10 years old (10+ year age class) were observed during 1989-2003. Since the mid-1990s, losses to the 10+ year age class lacked compensation by recruitment due to a prior depletion of all mature (6-10 year) age classes. Survival of the 1994 and 1996-1998 sea ice generations reestablished most mature age classes, and thereby the potential to increase extent of the 10+ year age class during the mid-2000s.

  9. Late glacial fluctuations of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in the White Mountains of Maine and New Hampshire, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromley, Gordon R. M.; Hall, Brenda L.; Thompson, Woodrow B.; Kaplan, Michael R.; Garcia, Juan Luis; Schaefer, Joerg M.

    2015-05-01

    Prominent moraines deposited by the Laurentide Ice Sheet in northern New England document readvances, or stillstands, of the ice margin during overall deglaciation. However, until now, the paucity of direct chronologies over much of the region has precluded meaningful assessment of the mechanisms that drove these events, or of the complex relationships between ice-sheet dynamics and climate. As a step towards addressing this problem, we present a cosmogenic 10Be surface-exposure chronology from the Androscoggin moraine complex, located in the White Mountains of western Maine and northern New Hampshire, as well as four recalculated ages from the nearby Littleton-Bethlehem moraine. Seven internally consistent 10Be ages from the Androscoggin terminal moraines indicate that advance culminated ~ 13.2 ± 0.8 ka, in close agreement with the mean age of the neighboring Littleton-Bethlehem complex. Together, these two datasets indicate stabilization or advance of the ice-sheet margin in northern New England, at ~ 14-13 ka, during the Allerød/Greenland Interstadial I.

  10. Paleoclimatology: Second clock supports orbital pacing of the ice ages

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1997-05-02

    For a while, it looked as if a water-filled crack in the Nevada desert might doom the accepted explanation of the ice ages. Twenty years ago, the so-called astronomical theory had carried the day. Oceanographers had found evidence implying that the march of ice ages over the last million years was paced by the cyclical stretching and squeezing of Earth`s orbit around the sun, which would have altered the way sunlight fell on the planet`s surface. But in 1988, researchers scuba diving in Nevada`s Devils Hole came up with a climate record--captured in carbonate deposits in the crack-that seemed to contradict this chronology. This article discusses the findings and the puzzles that still remain. The records of sea-level change in Barbados coral appear to be right and the astronomical theory is on solid ground using a new clock based on the radioactive decay of uranium-235 to protactinium-231. However, the Devils Hole record also seems to be correct.

  11. Low-velocity impact craters in ice and ice-saturated sand with implications for Martian crater count ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, S. K.; Kieffer, S. W.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper reports on a series of low-velocity impact experiments performed in ice and ice-saturated sand. It is found that crater diameters in ice-saturated sand were about 2 times larger than in the same energy and velocity range in competent blocks of granite, basalt and cement, while craters in ice were 3 times larger. It is shown that if this dependence of crater size on strength persists to large hypervelocity impact craters, then surface of geologic units composed of ice or ice-saturated soil would have greater crater count ages than rocky surfaces with identical influx histories. Among the conclusions are that Martian impact crater energy versus diameter scaling may also be a function of latitude.

  12. Ice age climate, evolutionary constraints and diversity patterns of European dung beetles

    E-print Network

    Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel

    LETTER Ice age climate, evolutionary constraints and diversity patterns of European dung beetles patterns of diversity. We assess their associations with the European Scarabaeinae dung beetles, a group

  13. Stratigraphy and Geomorphology of Late Pleistocene Moraine at the Mouth of Taylor Valley, Antarctica: Implications for the Melting History of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet During the Last Deglaciation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Prentice; S. A. Arcone; M. G. Curren; A. J. Delaney; J. Horsman; S. L. Letsinger; E. A. Medley; J. R. Gaynor

    2008-01-01

    The nature of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet margin at its maximum late Pleistocene extent in the McMurdo Dry Valleys region is controversial. The prevailing view sees the WAIS margin abutting deep proglacial lakes which implies anomalously warm climate and significant effect on the ice margin. This is problematic because GPR profiles in and around Taylor Valley reveal mainly fluvial,

  14. AAuuxxiilliiaarryy MMaatteerriiaall Abrupt change in atmospheric CO2 during the last ice age

    E-print Network

    Schmittner, Andreas

    CO2, Ca8 and non-sea-salt (nss) Ca8 from Siple Dome, Antarctic ice core. There are no significant;2 Synchronization of ice core records We synchronized the Byrd and Siple Dome ice core records to highest). The age tie points used are listed in Tables S1. Due to insufficient resolution of the Siple Dome CH4

  15. The rotational stability of a triaxial ice-age Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, I.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Daradich, A.; Gomez, N.

    2010-05-01

    Mitrovica et al. (2005), following calculations by Nakada (2002), demonstrated that the traditional approach for computing rotation perturbations driven by glacial isostatic adjustment significantly overestimates present-day true polar wander (TPW) speeds by underestimating the background oblateness on which the ice-age loading is superimposed. The underestimation has two contributions: the first originates from the treatment of the hydrostatic form and the second from the neglect of the Earth's excess ellipticity supported by mantle convection. In Mitrovica et al. (2005), the second of these two contributions was computed assuming a biaxial nonhydrostatic form (i.e., the principal equatorial moments of inertia were assumed to be equal to their mean value). In this article we outline an extended approach that accounts for a triaxial planetary form. We show that differences in the TPW speed predicted using the Mitrovica et al. (2005) approach and our triaxial theory are relatively minor (˜0.1°/Myr) and are limited to Earth models with lower mantle viscosity less than ˜5 × 1021 Pa s. However, for this same class of Earth models, the angle of TPW predicted for a triaxial Earth is rotated westward (toward the axis of maximum equatorial inertia) by as much as ˜20° relative to the biaxial case. We demonstrate that these effects are a consequence of the geometry of the ice-age forcing, which has a dominant equatorial direction that is intermediate to the axes defining the principal equatorial moments of inertia of the planet. We complete the study by computing updated Frechet kernels for the TPW speed datum, which provide a measure of the detailed depth-dependent sensitivity of the predictions to variations in mantle viscosity. We show, in contrast to earlier efforts to explore this sensitivity based on the traditional rotation theory, that the datum does not generally have a sensitivity to viscosity that peaks near the base of the mantle.

  16. Little Ice Age precipitation in Jotunheimen, southern Norway L.A. Rasmussen1

    E-print Network

    Rasmussen, L.A.

    Little Ice Age precipitation in Jotunheimen, southern Norway L.A. Rasmussen1 , L.M. Andreassen2 , S in glacier geometry since the 'Little Ice Age' (LIA) and estimation of the magnitude of the LIA precipitation to the LIA, ¯Z = 68 m. Glacier mass balance measurements show that the mass balance gradient varied little

  17. Mini-Ice Age: A New Scene Of Climate Change In The XXIth Century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M. Velasco Herrera

    2008-01-01

    Mini-Ice Age: A New Scene Of Climate Change In The XXIth Century The nature of the climatic change response to solar variability is assessed over a long-time scale. Our preliminary studies of the last 2000 years show close connection between the variation of the global maxima and minima periods of secular solar activity with warming and mini Ice Age occurred

  18. ForPeerReview Ice age True Polar wander in a compressible and non

    E-print Network

    ForPeerReview Ice age True Polar wander in a compressible and non hydrostatic Earth Journal approach" to the Earth's rotation developed during the eighties and nineties, both for ice age and mantle of Earth Sciences "A. Desio" Ricard, Yanick; ENS Lyon, Earth's Sciences Keywords: Earth rotation variations

  19. Glimpses of the Ice Age from I-81: Lee Ranger District

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geologic Survey; U.S. Department of Agriculture

    1998-01-01

    Travelers on Interstate Highway 81 can see remnants of the Ice Age on the mountains between Strasburg and Harrisonburg, Virginia. Scattered along the miles of green, forested mountains are many gray patches without any forests. These treeless patches, or openings, in the steep mountain forests are block fields - geologic features that owe their origin to the Ice Age.

  20. Preliminary results of polarization signatures for glacial moraines in the Mono Basin, Eastern Sierra Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forster, Richard R.; Fox, Andrew N.; Isacks, Bryan

    1992-01-01

    The valleys of the Mono Basin contain several sets of lateral and terminal moraines representing multiple stages of glaciation. The semi-arid climate with slow weathering rates preserved sequences of nested younger moraines within older ones. There is a well established relative chronology and recently exposure dating provided a new set of numerical dates. The moraines span the late Wisconsin (11-25 ka) to the Illinoian (130-190 ka) glaciations. The Mono Basin area was used as a 'calibration site' to establish remote dating techniques for eventual transfer to the more inaccessible but geomorphically and climatically similar moraines of the South American Andes Mountains. Planned polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery acquired by JPL AIRSAR (South American Campaign) and SIR-C (Andes super-site) are analyzed to establish chronologies of previously undated moraine sequences in a study of Pleistocene climatic change in the Southern Hemisphere. The dry climate and sparse vegetation is also favorable for correlation of ground surface roughness with radar polarization signature. The slow weathering processes acting over thousands of years reduce the size, frequency, and angularity of surface boulders while increasing soil development on the moraines. Field observations based on this hypothesis result in relative ages consistent with those inferred from nested position within the valley. Younger moraines, therefore, will appear rougher than the older smoother moraines at scales measurable at AIRSAR wavelengths. Previously documented effects of ground surface roughness on polarization signatures suggest that analysis of moraine polarization signatures can be useful for relative dating. The technique may be extended to predict numerical ages. The data set reported were acquired on 8 Sep. 1989 with the JPL Airborne SAR (AIRSAR) collecting polarimetric imagery at C- (5.6 cm), L- (24 cm), and P-band (68 cm) with a flight-line parallel to the strike of the mountains. Phase calibration was performed on the analyzed scene by setting the co-phase of a smooth lake to zero as described. Absolute amplitude calibration was not possible because corner reflectors were not deployed.

  1. Simulation of the Northern Hemisphere Ice sheet throughout ice age cycles: Impact of Mass-Balance-related parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Abe-Ouchi; F. Saito; T. Segawa

    2005-01-01

    One of the challenges of earth system modeling is to confirm the theories of ice age cycle by simulating it using physically based models. Here we simulate the glacial cycle known as saw-tooth shape 100ka cycle time sequence using a three dimensional ice sheet model, IcIES (Saito and Abe-Ouchi, 2004), which includes the thermo-mechanical coupling processes (used for simulations of

  2. A MULTI-DISCIPLINARY STUDY OF THE ORIGIN AND GLACIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE WOORE MORAINE, SHROPSHIRE, AND

    E-print Network

    Patterson, Timothy

    's surface morphology and identified three distinct landform-assemblages: a distal fan, a series of meltwater- tational collapse during ice retreat. The moraine's emplacement highlights the potential importance of 13.5ka for deglaciation of the Cheshire Basin. A model of widespread stagnation of the terrestrial

  3. Can Volcanic Eruptions Produce Ice Ages or Mass Extinctions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, A.; Ammann, C.; Oman, L.; Shindell, D.; Stenchikov, G.

    2006-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are well known to be important causes of interannual and even interdecadal climate change. But can very large eruptions initiate ice ages, as has been suggested for the Toba eruption ~74,000 years ago? Could flood basalt eruptions, such as the Deccan Traps 65,000,000 years ago or the Siberian Traps 250,000,000 years ago, have produced climate change large enough and long-lasting enough, along with other atmospheric pollution, to have caused mass extinctions? Here we conduct climate model simulations of the effects of a volcanic eruption 100 times larger than the 1991 Pinatubo eruption as a test of the climatic effects of Toba. We use two different state-of-the-art climate models, CCSM 3.0 from the National Center for Atmospheric Research and ModelE from the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, to investigate the dependence of the results on the climate model used. We find that although the "Toba" eruption produces very large global cooling for a couple years, of up to 10°C, the volcanic aerosols leave the atmosphere quickly and the climate largely recovers in a decade. We investigated the mechanism of vegetation response to the cold and dark, but this mechanism was not strong enough to prolong the response enough to allow ice sheets to grow. On the other hand, continuous emissions from massive flood basalt eruptions lasting several decades could make it so cold and dark at the Earth's surface that many species would find it hard to survive. On longer time scales, however, continued large greenhouse gas emissions would have a significant warming effect. With good estimates of the amount and timing of gas and particle emissions into the atmosphere, we have the climate modeling tools to calculate their impact on climate.

  4. Moraine formation during an advance/retreat cycle at a temperate alpine glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, M.; Quincey, D.; Winkler, S.

    2012-04-01

    Mountain glaciers are highly sensitive to variations in temperature and precipitation, and so moraine records from such systems are strong indicators of climate change. Due to the prevailing trend of retreat of the majority of mountain glaciers globally over the last few decades, there are limited opportunities to observe moraine formation, especially at temperate alpine glaciers. In the Southern Alps of New Zealand, while glaciers have all experienced a major retreat since the late 19th century, within this loss of ice mass, there has been a distinct variance in individual glacier response. Indeed, while Tasman Glacier, the longest glacier in the Southern Alps has thinned and entered into the current phase of calving retreat in the early 1990s, the steeper, more responsive glaciers to the west of the Main Divide, such as Franz Josef and Fox Glacier have experienced more elaborate advance/retreat phases. We focus on moraine formation at Fox Glacier, a c. 12.5 km long valley glacier terminating at 300 m above sea level. Fox Glacier retreated substantially since the 1930s, before advancing 800 m between the mid-1980s and 1999. A minor retreat then followed until 2005, succeeded by a 300 m re-advance until 2007-8. Continued retreat and down-wasting has since followed. Superimposed on this alternating advance/retreat cycle, have been minor winter re-advances. Sedimentological and morphological information were combined with detailed observations, historical photos and recent time-lapse photography of the terminus. Characteristics of several modes of moraine formation have been observed: (1) the late 20th century advance culminated in a broad <5 m high terminal moraine, formed by an admixture of "bulldozed" proglacial sediments and dumping of supraglacial material; (2) the 21st century short-lived advances were characterized by 1-2 m high (often multi-crested) ridges with a "saw-tooth" plan-form controlled by longitudinal crevasses outcropping at the terminus; (3) time-lapse imagery identified thrusting and subsequent melt-out of fine-grained englacial material along reverse faults intersecting the terminal face as a significant contributor to the subdued terminal moraines forming during the most recent phase of recent recession; (4) collapse of lateral moraines due to post-2008 down-wasting is now proceeding. Overall, even short-term preservation of glacigenic sediment-landform associations on the Fox Glacier sandur is limited by the glacial meltwater regime, with lateral migration of the proglacial river continually reworking morainic material.

  5. The whole world had a case of the ice age shivers

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1993-12-24

    There is now worldwide evidence of short-term increases in the earth's temperature during the last ice ages. This evidence comes from South American glaciers, Antarctic ice cores, and sediment cores from the tropical oceans, as well as Greenland ice cores. Researcher are unsure of the causes of these fluctuations. Some speculate a means for transmitting a climate signal from the North Atlantic to the rest of the world, while others look to some shorter-term version of the orbital variations that pace the cycle of the ice ages.

  6. Cultural Implications of Out-of-Phase Weather across northern Alaska after 500 CE: Regional Variability during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, O. K.; Alix, C. M.; Bigelow, N. H.; Hoffecker, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    From a global perspective, a diverse mélange of paleoclimate data reveal that Northwest Alaska is partially out of phase with northwest Europe, witnessing cooler periods during the Medieval Climate Anomaly ca. CE 1000 and warmer conditions in the 16th and 17th centuries. The search for climatic forcers in northern Alaska relies on integration of data drawn from tree-rings, lacustrine varves and moraines, diatoms, beach ridges and dunes. At Cape Espenberg, northern Seward Peninsula, a 1500-year reconstruction of settlement, landscape evolution and climatic variability employs >100 14C ages from accreting dunes with shell-laden storm beds, intercalated driftwood and superimposed soils, archaeological sites and marsh peats within swale ponds. Large storms occurred along the Chukchi Sea from Cape Espenberg and Deering (Kotzebue Sound) to Point Barrow prior to 1000 CE, and at decadal intervals during the Little Ice Age (LIA) from 1300 to 1700. Architecural driftwood logs from several excavated houses capped by sand dunes yield several 14C dated floating chronologies covering intervals from 700 to 1700, suggest the identification of cooler intervals 800 to 1000 and intermittently after 1300. Peat aggradation followed isolation from the sea from 500 onward, and was interrupted by two pulses of fresh water, one ca. 1300 and a second ca. 1800, with diatoms suggesting relative aridity during the LIA. The occupation history of Cape Espenberg generally follows dune growth, and may be inversely related to cooler temperatures.

  7. Spatial and temporal variations in the age structure of Arctic sea ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belchansky, G.I.; Douglas, D.C.; Platonov, N.G.

    2005-01-01

    Spatial and temporal variations in the age structure of Arctic sea ice are investigated using a new reversechronology algorithm that tracks ice-covered pixels to their location and date of origin based on ice motion and concentration data. The Beaufort Gyre tends to harbor the oldest (>10 years old) sea ice in the western Arctic while direct ice advection pathways toward the Transpolar Drift Stream maintain relatively young (???5 years) ice in the eastern Arctic. Persistent net losses (-4.2% yr-1) in extent of ice >10 years old (10+ year age class) were observed during 1989-2003. Since the mid-1990s, losses to the 10+ year age class lacked compensation by recruitment due to a prior depletion of all mature (6-10 year) age classes. Survival of the 1994 and 1996-1998 sea ice generations reestablished most mature age classes, and thereby the potential to increase extent of the 10+ year age class during the mid-2000s. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Evidence of Little Ice Age in an East Antarctica Ice Core

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Cole-Dai; Y. Li; L. Zhou

    2003-01-01

    An 80 meter ice core was retrieved from an East Antarctica location (76° S, 77° E) by the Chinese Antarctica Research Expedition in 1999. Chemical analysis of the ice core has yielded a record of ionic impurities in snow for the past 800 years (1200-1999 A.D.). The ice core is dated using a combination of annual layer counting and volcanic

  9. First geomorphological record and glacial history of an inter-ice stream ridge on the West Antarctic continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klages, J. P.; Kuhn, G.; Hillenbrand, C.-D.; Graham, A. G. C.; Smith, J. A.; Larter, R. D.; Gohl, K.

    2013-02-01

    Inter-ice stream areas cover significant portions of Antarctica's formerly glaciated shelves, but have been largely neglected in past geological studies because of overprinting by iceberg scours. Here, we present results of the first detailed survey of an inter-ice stream ridge from the West Antarctic continental shelf. Well-preserved sub- and proglacial bedforms on the seafloor of the ridge in the eastern Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE) provide new insights into the flow dynamics of this sector of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) during the Last Glacial cycle. Multibeam swath bathymetry and PARASOUND acoustic sub-bottom profiler data acquired across a mid-shelf bank, between the troughs of the Pine Island-Thwaites (PITPIS) and Cosgrove palaeo-ice streams (COPIS), reveal large-scale ribbed moraines, hill-hole pairs, terminal moraines, and crevasse-squeeze ridges. Together, these features form an assemblage of landforms that is entirely different from that in the adjacent ice-stream troughs, and appears to be unique in the context of previous studies of Antarctic seafloor geomorphology. From this assemblage, the history of ice flow and retreat from the inter-ice stream ridge is reconstructed. The bedforms indicate that ice flow was significantly slower on the inter-ice stream ridge than in the neighbouring troughs. While terminal moraines record at least two re-advances or stillstands of the ice sheet during deglaciation, an extensive field of crevasse-squeeze ridges indicates ice stagnation subsequent to re-advancing ice, which deposited the field of terminal moraines in the NE. The presented data suggest that the ice flow behaviour on the inter-ice stream ridge was substantially different from that in the adjacent troughs. However, newly obtained radiocarbon ages on two sediment cores recovered from the inter-ice stream ridge suggest a similar timing in the deglaciation of both areas. This information closes an important gap in the understanding of past WAIS behaviour in the eastern ASE. Our newly-documented bedforms will also serve as an important diagnostic tool in future studies for interpreting ice-sheet histories in similar inter-ice stream areas.

  10. Mini-Ice Age: A New Scene Of Climate Change In The XXIth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Herrera, V. M.

    2008-05-01

    Mini-Ice Age: A New Scene Of Climate Change In The XXIth Century The nature of the climatic change response to solar variability is assessed over a long-time scale. Our preliminary studies of the last 2000 years show close connection between the variation of the global maxima and minima periods of secular solar activity with warming and mini Ice Age occurred during this period. Such a modulation of the terrestrial temperature may bring unexpected results and consequences to the climatic change in the 21st century that may be translated in a mini-Ice Age which is predicted to occur in the next 20-40 years.

  11. Age of Allan Hills 82102, a meteorite found inside the ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Jull, A. J. T.; Bonani, G.; Suter, M.; Woelfli, W.

    1989-01-01

    The terrestrial age of a meteorite that was recovered from below the surface of Antarctic ice is reported, and it is argued that this represents a measurement of the age of the ice itself. The cosmogenic radionuclides Be-10, C-14, Al-26, Cl-36, and Mn-53 are measured in the meteorite and Be-10 and Cl-36 in the ice. A terrestrial age of 11,000 yr is obtained for the meteorite, which suggests that the snow accumulation area where it fell was only a few tens of km away.

  12. Changes in Attitude on Equatorial Latitudes: Tropical Climate Evolution During the Ice Ages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Lea

    2007-01-01

    Some 50 years ago, Cesare Emiliani published the first oxygen isotope records from marine sediment cores taken in the Caribbean Sea. He interpreted the observed oscillations as a consequence of 6 deg cooler tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) during the Ice Ages. In the following decades, this interpretation was discarded in favor of the dominant role of high latitude ice

  13. Little Ice Age cold interval in West Antarctica: Evidence from borehole temperature at the West Antarctic

    E-print Network

    Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.

    Little Ice Age cold interval in West Antarctica: Evidence from borehole temperature at the West, especially in Antarctica. We present temperature data from a 300 m borehole at the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and West Antarctica suggests that the feedbacks amplifying the radiative forcing may not operate

  14. 'Little Ice Age' summer temperature variations: their nature and relevance to recent global warming trends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond S. Bradley; Philip D. Jonest

    1993-01-01

    Climatic changes resulting from greenhouse gases will be superimposed on natural climatic variations. High-resolution proxy records of past climate can be used to extend our perspective on regional and hemispheric changes of climate back in time by several hundred years. Using historical, tree-ring and ice core data, we examine climatic variations during the period commonly called the 'Little Ice Age'.

  15. Glacial and climatic evolution from the Little Ice Age last Maximum to the present in Tröllaskagi Peninsula (North Iceland): the case of Gljúlfurárjökull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Fernández, Jose; Andres, Nuria; Tanarro, Luis Miguel; Palacios, David

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the evolution of the Gljúlfurárjökull glacier (65°42'48'' N, 18°39'13'' W; 980 m), located at the headwall of the Skiðadalur valley, on the Tröllaskagi peninsula (N. Iceland). This is one of many small glaciers situated on the bottom of the Tröllaskagi valleys. This glacier is one of the few "clean" glaciers, i.e. not covered with boulders, as is the case with most of the glaciers on this peninsula. This makes the glacier especially sensitive to climate change, and it has retreated and advanced many times since its last maximum during the Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum in the mid- 19th century (Caseldine and Stötter, 1993), leaving a large number of moraine ridges. This paper analyses the change in this glacier from the LIA up to the present day, with reference to the variations in the surface, ELA and volume. Lichenometry and geomorphological field analysis were used to establish the exact limits of the glacier during the LIA last maximum. An aerial photo from 1946 and two orthophotos from 2000 and 2013 were also used. Using photointerpretation and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), the aerial photos were georeferenced to delimit the glacier in different years, analyse the surface and volume variations, and calculate the ELA for each date. The ELA analysis was carried out using the method: Accumulation Area Ratio (AAR 0.67). The results obtained with this method are: Little Ice Age Maximum: 945 m a.s.l. (almost the same ELA proposed by Caseldine and Stötter, 1993) 1946: 970 m a.s.l. 2000: 980 m a.s.l. 2013: 990 m a.s.l. The ice volume lost from LIA to 2000 was: 111.68 hm3 Reference Caseldine, C., Stötter, J., 1993. "Little Ice Age" glaciation of Tröllaskagi Peninsula, northern Iceland: Climatic implications for reconstructed equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs). Holocene 3: 357-366. Research funded by Cryocrisis project (CGL2012-35858), Government of Spain, and Nils Mobility projects (EEA GRANTS)

  16. Climatic basis for sluggish macroevolution during the late Paleozoic ice age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Matthew G.

    2005-05-01

    Rates of origination and extinction for marine invertebrates fell at the onset of the late Paleozoic ice age in late Mississippian time and remained low until glaciation ended in middle Permian time. Through the use of a database of stratigraphic and geographic occurrences of brachiopod genera, these macroevolutionary changes are traced to the loss of genera with narrow latitudinal ranges, which had intrinsically high turnover rates, at the onset of glaciation in late Viséan time. When glaciation waned in late Sakmarian time, narrowly distributed genera rebounded abruptly and restored the global fauna to its pre ice-age configuration. Because narrowly distributed brachiopod genera had dominated tropical diversity, the major biotic effects of the late Paleozoic ice age were felt at low latitudes. The climatic regime of this ice age thus altered the marine ecosystem to one characterized by broadly adapted, long-lived genera.

  17. The last forests in Greenland, and the age of the ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funder, Svend; Schmidt, Astrid M. Z.; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Steffensen, Jørgen Peder; Willerslev, Eske

    2014-05-01

    Recently ancient DNA (aDNA) studies of the basal ice in the Camp Century ice core, northern Greenland, have shown that mixed coniferous-deciduous forest grew here before the area was invaded and permanently covered by the ice sheet. The coring site is situated only 100 km from the present ice margin and more than 500 km from the ice divide, indicating that since this last inception the northern part of the ice sheet never receded more than 100 km from its present margin. Dating of the basal ice and obtaining an age for the forest and for the beginning of the ice sheet's permanency has been attempted by analyzing for optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), meteoric 10Be/36Cl cosmogenic nuclides, 234U/238U recoil. These methods all provide only minimum ages and show that the forest at Cap Century is older than 500 ka. Comparison with other Pleistocene "forest sites" in Greenland - the Kap København Formation in northernmost Greenland, the DYE-3 ice core in the south, the ODP boring 646 south of Greenland, as well as results from basal ice in the GRIP ice core - extends the minimum age to c. 1 ma. The maximum age is provided by the Kap København Formation, which must be older - or contemporaneous. The formation has recently been confirmed to date within the interval 2-2.5 ma, with a preferred age of 2.3-2.4 ma. Surprisingly, application of the molecular clock of insect COI sequences on the Camp Century aDNA now seem to push the minimum age just as far back - to 2.4 ma, suggesting that the timberline boreal forest at Kap København is contemporaneous with the mixed forest at Camp Century, 600 km to the south. From this we conclude that the northern ice sheet dome, which today contains 85% of the total ice sheet volume, has remained within 100 km of its present margin for at least 1 ma, and possibly may go back as far as 2.4 ma. The ice sheet has therefore survived both interglacials and "super interglacials" that were both warmer and longer than the present. This may give us some hope for the future.

  18. Neoproterozoic ice ages, boron isotopes, and ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasemann, S. A.; Prave, A. R.; Fallick, A. E.; Hawkesworth, C. J.; Hoffmann, K.

    2010-12-01

    The Neoproterozoic Earth underwent at least two severe glaciations, each extending to low palaeomagnetic latitudes and punctuating warmer climates. In concert with the environmental changes, the rocks display large amplitude fluctuations in their stable isotopic composition. These fluctuations are stratigraphically systematic, occur in many sections worldwide and are interpreted as being globally significant1. Thus, the Neoproterozoic carbonates provide a unique geological and isotopic archive to improve our understanding of major non-anthropogenically influenced changes in Earth System behaviour. The two widespread older and younger Cryogenian glacial deposits (commonly referred to as the Sturtian and Marinoan, respectively) in Namibia are directly overlain by cap carbonates deposited under inferred periods of high atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Oceanic uptake of carbon dioxide decreases ocean pH and here we present a record of Cryogenian inter-glacial ocean pH, based on boron isotopes in marine carbonates. Our data document characteristically different B isotope profiles of the two Cryogenian carbonate transects that are consistent with the presence of two panglacial climate states, but indicate that each had its own distinct environmental conditions. The Marinoan interglacial ?11B profiles are systematic and remarkably consistent, and they vary by up to 11‰. This yields a relative pH variation of up to 1.5 pH units, and implies a pH of 8.5 at the onset of cap carbonate deposition, followed by a decrease in pH to ~7 and then a return to pH ~8 for the upper part of the section. The transient ocean acidification excursion and the alkaline pH condition near the start and termination of the inferred greenhouse state suggests a rapid draw-down of CO2 initiated at the start of the deglaciation and supports inferences of a thick, global sea-ice shield with minimal air-sea gas exchange during glaciation. In contrast, largely constant B isotope values for the Sturtian-aged glacial aftermath do not indicate extreme ocean pH (~8.3) conditions and do not support a contemporaneous major ocean acidification event and associated high pCO2 at the time of the older Cryogenian glaciation and deglaciation. That leads us to speculate that the ocean during the older glaciation was not totally frozen and that the hydrological cycle was functioning2. 1Hoffman, P.F., Kaufman, A.J., Halverson, G.P. and Schrag, D.P. (1998). A Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth. Science, 281, 1342-1346. 2Kasemann, S.A., Prave, A.R., Fallick, A.E., Hawkesworth, C.J. and Hoffmann, K.H. (2010). Neoproterozoic ice ages, boron isotopes, and ocean acidification: Implications for a snowball Earth. Geology, 38, 775-778.

  19. Late Pleistocene glacial chronology of the Retezat Mts, Southern Carpathians, using 10Be exposure ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruszkiczay-Rüdiger, Zsófia; Kern, Zoltán; Urdea, Petru; Braucher, Régis; Madarász, Balázs; Schimmelpfennig, Irene

    2015-04-01

    Our knowledge on the timing of glacial advances in the Southern Carpathians is limited. Recently, some attempts have been made to develop an improved temporal framework for the glaciations of the region using cosmogenic 10Be exposure dating. However, glacial chronology of the Romanian Carpathians remains contradictory. E.g. the timing of the maximum ice advance appears to be asynchronous within the area and also with other dated glacial events in Europe. Main objective of our study is to utilize cosmogenic in situ produced 10Be dating to disentangle the contradictions of the Southern Carpathian Late Pleistocene glacial chronology. Firstly, previously published 10Be data are recalculated in accordance with the new half-life, standardization and production rate of 10Be. The recalculated 10Be exposure ages of the second largest (M2) moraines in the Retezat Mts. appear to be ca. 19-24% older than exposure ages calculated by Reuther et al. (2007, Quat. Int. 164-165, 151-169). This contradicts the earlier conclusions suggesting post LGM age of M2 glacial advance and suggests that M2 moraines can be connected to the end of the LGM with final stabilization possibly at the beginning of the Late Glacial. We emphasize that it is ambiguous to correlate directly the exposure-dated glacier chronologies with millennial scale climate changes due to uncertainties in sample collection and in computation of exposure ages from measured nuclide concentrations. New 10Be samples were collected in order to determine the 10Be exposure age of moraines outside the most prominent generation (M2) including the largest and oldest moraine (M1) and the landforms connected to the smallest ice advances (M4), which remained undated so far. The new exposure ages of M2 moraines are well in harmony with the recalculated ages of Reuther at al. (2007). 10Be exposure age of boulders on the smallest moraine suggest that the last glaciers disappeared in the area during the Late Glacial, indicating no glaciation during the Younger Dryas and Holocene. Previous works, based on geomorphologic analogies and pedological properties suggested that the M1 ice advance was older than LGM, and possibly occurred during the MIS4. Our 10Be exposure dating provided LGM ages for boulders on the M1 side moraine. It is question of further research whether these ages show the time when the glacier abandoned the moraine or they only indicate an LGM erosional event affecting an older moraine. If we accept the LGM age of maximum ice extent (M1), our 10Be exposure age data enables the calculation of a mean glacier retreat rate of 1.3 m/a for the period between M1 and M4 (21.4 to 13.6ka). Alternatively, considering only the oldest 10Be exposure age of the M2 moraine, the M2 to M4 (20.2-13.6ka) glacier retreat rate was slightly lower: 1.1 m/a. Our research was supported by the OTKA PD83610, by the MTA-CNRS cooperation (NKM-96/2014), by the Bolyai Scholarship, and by the 'Lendület' program of the HAS (LP2012-27/2012). The 10Be measurements were performed at the ASTER AMS national facility (CEREGE, Aix en Provence, France).

  20. Glacial-interglacial 3D ice sheet modelling of Antarctica; Validation by age-isotope advection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, J.

    2014-12-01

    Constraining and validating large scale ice sheet modeling with respect to the proxy horizon of the last 800 kyrs is limited to sparse model data intercomparison of e.g. grounding line positions, ice sheet elevation and deep ice core records. We employ a state of the art 3D ice sheet model (ISM) (RIMBAY Thoma et.al. 2014, Göller et. al. 2013, Pattyn 2003) equipped with a tracer advection module to simulate the evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet over the last glacial cycles. The ice sheet is forced by surface climatology derived from observations (present day) and GCM climate models (ECHAM time slices LGM, Eemian), 3D ocean temperature and proxy derived global sea level data. The range of potential ice sheet response, is investigated by applying different forcing scenarios and "wiggling" the ISM's parameters space. Modelling the age-isotope distribution at selected deep ice core sites, and subsequent comparison to the ice cores' age-depth relation supports the interpretation of our simulations.

  1. Medial moraines of glaciers of the Copper River Basin, Alaska: Discrete landslides dominate over other sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Fischer, L.; Furfaro, R.; Huggel, C.; Korup, O.; Leonard, G. J.; Uhlmann, M.; Wessels, R. L.; Wolfe, D. F.

    2009-12-01

    Medial moraines are visually dominant structures of most large valley glaciers in the Copper River Basin (CRB), Alaska. Areally extensive but thin (usually <20 cm) accumulations of debris pose challenges for glacier mapping based on multispectral imagery, as done, for instance, in the GLIMS project. The sources of this material include large discrete landslides from wallrocks and from lateral moraines; diffuse contributions from rock falls and talus creep; rocks delivered via snow and ice avalanches; ingestion of lateral moraines along tributary convergences; and basal erosional debris. Evidence indicates that in CRB glaciers, discrete large avalanches predominate as the major contributors of moraine mass. Subglacial erosional debris is predominantly pulverized to small grain sizes and flushed. Many large, young avalanches exist on CRB glaciers. Evidence from colorimetry indicates that many medial moraines actually are landslides that have been sheared and swept downglacier, thus mimicking the form of other types of medial moraines formed where tributaries coalesce and flow down valley. Landcover classification of ASTER imagery, qualitative observations from air photos, and semiquantitative field-based estimations of rock color types indicate that on Allen Glacier, and other CRB glaciers, landslides are the sources of most medial moraines. On Allen and Root Glacier, for example, we see very few boulders with obvious signs of basal abrasion, whereas nearly all boulders exhibit signs of irregular fracture, for example in landslides. Such landslides have large effects on the thermal and mass balance of CRB glaciers, sometimes opposing or in other cases accentuating the effects of global/regional climate change. Considering the link between landslides and seismicity, and that Magnitude 8-9 earthquakes may occur nearby only about once a century, which is also the characteristic response time of large glaciers to climate shifts, seismicity must be considered along with climate change induced glacier responses in the CRB. Ultimately, climate has the final word, and already this is evident in the glacier record. Glacial flour is probably almost entirely from bed erosion. We will present estimates of the contributions of landslides and subglacially pulverized glacial rock flour to the overall rock mass budget of Allen Glacier. Each of the components of the rock mass budget differs in its probable distribution on the surface and within a typical glacier. We will present some preliminary empirical determinations of the influence of various thicknesses of supraglacial rock debris on the local mass balance of Allen Glacier; the net zero influence is exhibited for debris thicknesses on the order of 1 cm of fine debris or ~50% coverage by cobbles or boulders.

  2. Rearrangement of dislocation structures in the aging of ice single crystals

    E-print Network

    Miguel-Lopez, Carmen

    relaxation during aging are seen as the origin of the acceleration effect. The interplay between dislocation; Strain gradient plasticity 1. Introduction In crystalline materials, aging of the microstructure mayRearrangement of dislocation structures in the aging of ice single crystals V. Taupin a , T

  3. Tropical North Atlantic Hydrologic Cycle Variability in the Florida Straits During the Last Ice Age

    E-print Network

    Them, Theodore

    2012-10-19

    TROPICAL NORTH ATLANTIC HYDROLOGIC CYCLE VARIABILITY IN THE FLORIDA STRAITS DURING THE LAST ICE AGE A Thesis by THEODORE ROLAND THEM, II Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... Copyright 2012 Theodore Roland Them, II TROPICAL NORTH ATLANTIC HYDROLOGIC CYCLE VARIABILITY IN THE FLORIDA STRAITS DURING THE LAST ICE AGE A Thesis by THEODORE ROLAND THEM, II Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A...

  4. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Age Characteristics in a Multidecadal Arctic Sea Ice1

    E-print Network

    Bitz, Cecilia

    in a Multidecadal Arctic Sea Ice1 Simulation2 Elizabeth C. Hunke T-3 Fluid Dynamics and Solid Mechanics Group T November 3, 2008, 12:14pm D R A F T #12;X - 2 HUNKE AND BITZ: SEA ICE AGE CHARACTERISTICS Abstract. Results from adding a tracer for age of sea ice to a sophisti-6 cated sea ice model that is widely used

  5. Little Ice Age evidence from a south-central North American ice core, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, D.L.; Klusman, R.W.; Michel, R.L.; Schuster, P.F.; Ready, M.M.; Taylor, H.E.; Yanosky, T.M.; McConnaughey, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the past, ice-core records from mid-latitude glaciers in alpine areas of the continental United States were considered to be poor candidates for paleoclimate records because of the influence of meltwater on isotopic stratigraphy. To evaluate the existence of reliable paleoclimatic records, a 160-m ice core, containing about 250 yr of record was obtained from Upper Fremont Glacier, at an altitude of 4000 m in the Wind River Range of south-central North America. The ??18O (SMOW) profile from the core shows a -0.95??? shift to lighter values in the interval from 101.8 to 150 m below the surface, corresponding to the latter part of the Little Ice Age (LIA). Numerous high-amplitude oscillations in the section of the core from 101.8 to 150 m cannot be explained by site-specific lateral variability and probably reflect increased seasonality or better preservation of annual signals as a result of prolonged cooler temperatures that existed in this alpine setting. An abrupt decrease in these large amplitude oscillations at the 101.8-m depth suggests a sudden termination of this period of lower temperatures which generally coincides with the termination of the LIA. Three common features in the ??18O profiles between Upper Fremont Glacier and the better dated Quelccaya Ice Cap cores indicate a global paleoclimate linkage, further supporting the first documented occurrence of the LIA in an ice-core record from a temperate glacier in south-central North America.

  6. Sedimentology and architecture of De Geer moraines in the western Scottish Highlands, and implications for grounding-line glacier dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golledge, Nicholas R.; Phillips, Emrys

    2008-07-01

    Sedimentary exposures in moraines in a Scottish Highland valley (Glen Chaorach), reveal stacked sequences of bedded and laminated silt, sand and gravel, interspersed or capped with diamicton units. In four examples, faults and folds indicate deformation by glaciotectonism and syndepositional loading. We propose that these sediments were laid down in an ice-dammed lake, close to the last ice margin to occupy this glen. Individual units within cross-valley De Geer moraine ridges are interpreted by comparison with examples from similar environments elsewhere: stratified diamictons containing laminated or bedded lenses are interpreted as subaqueous ice-marginal debris-flow deposits; massive fine-grained deposits as hyperconcentrated flow deposits, and massive gravel units as high-density debris-flow deposits. Using an allostratigraphic approach we argue that glaciotectonically deformed coarsening-upward sand and gravel sequences that culminate in deposition of subglacial diamicton represent glacier advances into the ice-marginal lake, whereas undisturbed cross-bedded sand and gravel reflects channel or fan deposits laid down during glacier retreat. A flat terrace of bedded sand and gravel at the northern end of Glen Chaorach is interpreted as subaerial glaciofluvial outwash. On the basis of these inferences we propose the following three stage deglacial event chronology for Glen Chaorach. During glacier recession, ice separation and intra-lobe ponding first led to subaquaeous deposition of sorted and unsorted facies. Subsequent glacier stabilisation and ice-marginal oscillation produced glaciotectonic structures in the ice-marginal sediment pile and formed De Geer moraines. Finally, drainage of the ice-dammed lake allowed a subaerial ice-marginal drainage system to become established. Throughout deglaciation, deposition within the lake was characterized by abrupt changes in grain size and in the architecture of individual sediment bodies, reflecting changing delivery paths and sediment supply, and by dynamic margin oscillations typical of water-terminating glaciers.

  7. Variations in the earth's orbit: pacemaker of the ice ages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Hays; J. Imbrie; N. J. Shackleton

    1976-01-01

    Among the explanations for fluctuations in the Pleistocene ice sheets, only the orbital hypothesis has been formulated so as to predict the frequencies of major Pleistocene fluctuations. It is also the only explanation which can be tested geologically by determining what the frequencies are. All versions of the orbital hypothesis predict that the obliquity of the earth's axis and the

  8. Ice ages and the thermal equilibrium of the earth, II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adam, D.P.

    1975-01-01

    The energy required to sustain midlatitude continental glaciations comes from solar radiation absorbed by the oceans. It is made available through changes in relative amounts of energy lost from the sea surface as net outgoing infrared radiation, sensible heat loss, and latent heat loss. Ice sheets form in response to the initial occurrence of a large perennial snowfield in the subarctic. When such a snowfield forms, it undergoes a drastic reduction in absorbed solar energy because of its high albedo. When the absorbed solar energy cannot supply local infrared radiation losses, the snowfield cools, thus increasing the energy gradient between itself and external, warmer areas that can act as energy sources. Cooling of the snowfield progresses until the energy gradients between the snowfield and external heat sources are sufficient to bring in enough (latent plus sensible) energy to balance the energy budget over the snowfield. Much of the energy is imported as latent heat. The snow that falls and nourishes the ice sheet is a by-product of the process used to satisfy the energy balance requirements of the snowfield. The oceans are the primary energy source for the ice sheet because only the ocean can supply large amounts of latent heat. At first, some of the energy extracted by the ice sheet from the ocean is stored heat, so the ocean cools. As it cools, less energy is lost as net outgoing infrared radiation, and the energy thus saved is then available to augment evaporation. The ratio between sensible and latent heat lost by the ocean is the Bowen ratio; it depends in part on the sea surface temperature. As the sea surface temperature falls during a glaciation, the Bowen ratio increases, until most of the available energy leaves the oceans as sensible, rather than latent heat. The ice sheet starves, and an interglacial period begins. The oscillations between stadial and interstadial intervals within a glaciation are caused by the effects of varying amounts of glacial meltwater entering the oceans as a surface layer that acts to reduce the amount of energy available for glacial nourishment. This causes the ice sheet to melt back, which continues the supply of meltwater until the ice sheet diminishes to a size consistent with the reduced rate of nourishment. The meltwater supply then decreases, the rate of nourishment increases, and a new stadial begins. ?? 1975.

  9. Effect of aging and ice structuring proteins on the morphology of frozen hydrated gluten networks.

    PubMed

    Kontogiorgos, Vassilis; Goff, H Douglas; Kasapis, Stefan

    2007-04-01

    The present investigation constitutes an attempt to rationalize the effect of aging and ice structuring proteins (ISPs) on the network morphology of frozen hydrated gluten. In doing so, it employs differential scanning calorimetry, time-domain NMR, dynamic oscillation on shear, creep testing, and electron microscopy. Experimentation and first principles modeling allows identification and description of the processes of ice formation and recrystallization in molecular terms. It is demonstrated that in the absence of a readily discernible glass transition temperature in gluten-ice composites, the approach of considering the melting point and aging at constant or fluctuating temperature conditions in the vicinity of this point can provide a valid index of functional quality. A theoretical framework supporting the concept of capillary confined frozen water in the gluten matrix was advanced, and it was found that ISPs were effective in controlling recrystallization both within these confines and within ice in the bulk. PMID:17341113

  10. The Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 depth-age scale: Methods and results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Meese; A. J. Gow; R. B. Alley; G. A. Zielinski; P. M. Grootes; M. Ram; K. C. Taylor; P. A. Mayewski; J. F. Bolzan

    1997-01-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2) depth-age scale is presented based on a multiparameter continuous count approach, to a depth of 2800 m, using a systematic combination of parameters that have never been used to this extent before. The ice at 2800 m is dated at 110,000 years B.P. with an estimated error ranging from 1 to 10% in

  11. Chronological framework for the deglaciation of the Lake Michigan lobe of the Laurentide ice sheet from ice-walled lake deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curry, B.; Petras, J.

    2011-01-01

    A revised chronological framework for the deglaciation of the Lake Michigan lobe of the south-central Laurentide Ice Sheet is presented based on radiocarbon ages of plant macrofossils archived in the sediments of low-relief ice-walled lakes. We analyze the precision and accuracy of 15 AMS 14C ages of plant macrofossils obtained from a single ice-walled lake deposit. The semi-circular basin is about 0.72km wide and formed of a 4- to 16-m-thick succession of loess and lacustrine sediment inset into till. The assayed material was leaves, buds and stems of Salix herbacea (snowbed willow). The pooled mean of three ages from the basal lag facies was 18 270??50 14C a BP (21 810cal. a BP), an age that approximates the switch from active ice to stagnating conditions. The pooled mean of four ages for the youngest fossil-bearing horizon was 17 770??40 14C a BP (21 180cal. a BP). Material yielding the oldest and youngest ages may be obtained from sediment cores located at any place within the landform. Based on the estimated settling times of overlying barren, rhythmically bedded sand and silt, the lacustrine environment persisted for about 50 more years. At a 67% confidence level, the dated part of the ice-walled lake succession persisted for between 210 and 860cal. a (modal value: 610cal. a). The deglacial age of five moraines or morainal complexes formed by the fluctuating margin of the Lake Michigan lobe have been assessed using this method. There is no overlap of time intervals documenting when ice-walled lakes persisted on these landforms. The rapid readvances of the lobe during deglaciation after the last glacial maximum probably occurred at some point between the periods of ice-walled lake sedimentation. ?? 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Sedimentology of latero-frontal moraines and fans on the west coast of South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David J. A.; Shulmeister, James; Hyatt, Olivia

    2010-12-01

    Exposures through the LGM latero-frontal moraine loops at sites along the west coast of South Island, New Zealand reveal a depositional environment that was dominated by the progradation of steep fronted, debris flow-fed fans, manifest in crudely stratified to massive diamictons, arranged in sub-horizontal to steeply dipping clinoforms and containing discontinuous bodies of variably sorted, stratified sediment (LFA 1). The fans were constructed by debris-covered glaciers advancing over outwash plains, as recorded by well stratified and horizontally bedded gravels, sands and diamicts (LFA 0). The ice-contact slopes of the fans are offlapped by retreat phase deposits in the form of glacilacustrine depo-centres (LFA 2), which record the existence of moraine-dammed lakes. Interdigitation of lake rhythmites and subaerial to subaqueous sediment gravity flow deposits documents intense debris-flow activity on unstable moraine/fan surfaces. Glacier readvances in all catchments are documented by glacitectonic disturbance and localized hydrofracturing of LFA 2, followed by the emplacement of schist-dominated debris flow-fed fans (LFA 3) inside and over the top of the earlier latero-frontal moraine/fan loops. Contorted and disturbed bedding in LFA 3 reflects its partial deposition in supraglacial positions. Clast lithologies in LFAs 1 and 3 reveal that two distinct transport pathways operated during moraine construction, with an early period of latero-frontal fan construction involving mixed lithologies and a later period of ice-contact/supraglacial fan construction dominated by schist lithologies from the mountains. These two periods of deposition were separated by a period of moraine abandonment and paraglacial reworking of ice-contact slopes to produce LFA 2. The occurrence of LFA 3 at all sites indicates that the glacier readvance phase responsible for its deposition was not localized or glacier-specific, and involved the transfer of large volumes of schist, possibly due to rock slope failures, onto glacier surfaces. The absence of any sediment that could be unequivocally classified as subglacial till reflects the dominance of debris flow and glacifluvial processes in latero-frontal moraine construction in this hyper-humid west coast setting.

  13. Buried soils of Late Quaternary moraines of the Wind River Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Dahms, D.E. (Univ. of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Geography Dept.)

    1992-01-01

    Buried soils occur on kettle floors of four Pinedale moraine catenas of the western Wind River Mountains of Wyoming. Radiocarbon ages from bulk samples of Ab horizons indicate the soils were buried during the mid-Holocene. Soils on kettle floors have silty A and Bw horizons that overlie buried A and B horizons that also formed in silt-rich sediments. Crests and backslope soils also have A and Bw horizons of sandy loam formed over 2BCb and 2Cb horizons of stony coarse loamy sand. Recent data show the silty textures of the A and B horizons are due to eolian silt and clay from the Green River Basin just west of the mountains. The buried soils appear to represent alternate periods of erosion and deposition on the moraines during the Holocene. The original soils developed on higher slopes of the moraines were eroded during the mid-Holocene and the 2BC and 2C horizons exposed at the surface. Eroded soil sediments were transported downslope onto the kettle floors. Following erosion, silt-rich eolian sediments accumulated on all surfaces and mixed with the BC and C horizons (the mixed loess of Shroba and Birkeland). The present surface soils developed within this silt-rich material. Stone lines often occur at the Bw-2BCb/2Cb boundary, and mark the depth to which the earlier soils were eroded. Thus, soil profiles at the four localities result from two periods of soil formation, interrupted by an interval of erosion during the mid-Holocene. Moraines of this study are adjacent to the Fremont Lake type area for the Pinedale glaciation of the Rocky Mountains. Buried soils in kettles of the moraines indicates the soil characteristics of the Pinedale type region are not necessarily due to continuous post-Pinedale development, but may result from more than one episode of soil formation.

  14. Numerical Age Computation of the Antarctic Ice Sheet for Dating Deep Ice Cores

    E-print Network

    Calov, Reinhard

    -dependent simulation driven by a 242200 year surface temperature history derived from stable isotope data of the Vostok regions: (i) western Dronning Maud Land (DML), where reconnaissance for a deep ice core within. The attention is hereby focussed on two regions, namely (i) western Dronning Maud Land (DML), where ongoing

  15. 10Be dating of boulders on moraines from the last glacial period in the Nyainqentanglha mountains, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Guocheng; Yi, Chaolu; Caffee, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Chronologies of glacial advances during the last glacial period in the Nyainqentanglha mountain range may provide constraints on the past climate in a transition zone of the Asian monsoon. We present 15 new 10Be exposure ages from two moraines in the Payuwang valley, on the north slope of the range. The inner moraine has exposure ages ranging from 18.0±1.7 to 30.6±2.8 ka (n=10), with a mean age of 23.8±4.0 ka, corresponding to the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The outer moraine yields exposure ages ranging from 18.0±1.6 to 39.9±3.7 ka (n=5). Evidence for weathering leads us to view the oldest age as a minimum age, placing moraine formation during MIS3. Chronologies from the last glacial period from south slope of the Nyainqentanglha support this interpretation. Thus, there appears to have been a local LGM (LLGM) during MIS3 and a more limited glacial advance during the global LGM. Glacial advances during MIS3 in the Nyainqentanglha may correlate with millennial-scale climate change (Heinrich events).

  16. Iron fertilization of the Subantarctic ocean during the last ice age.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Alfredo; Sigman, Daniel M; Ren, Haojia; Anderson, Robert F; Straub, Marietta; Hodell, David A; Jaccard, Samuel L; Eglinton, Timothy I; Haug, Gerald H

    2014-03-21

    John H. Martin, who discovered widespread iron limitation of ocean productivity, proposed that dust-borne iron fertilization of Southern Ocean phytoplankton caused the ice age reduction in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). In a sediment core from the Subantarctic Atlantic, we measured foraminifera-bound nitrogen isotopes to reconstruct ice age nitrate consumption, burial fluxes of iron, and proxies for productivity. Peak glacial times and millennial cold events are characterized by increases in dust flux, productivity, and the degree of nitrate consumption; this combination is uniquely consistent with Subantarctic iron fertilization. The associated strengthening of the Southern Ocean's biological pump can explain the lowering of CO2 at the transition from mid-climate states to full ice age conditions as well as the millennial-scale CO2 oscillations. PMID:24653031

  17. Subdivision of Glacial Deposits in Southeastern Peru Based on Pedogenic Development and Radiometric Ages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Y. Goodman; Donald T. Rodbell; Geoffrey O. Seltzer; Bryan G. Mark

    2001-01-01

    The Cordillera Vilcanota and Quelccaya Ice Cap region of southern Peru (13°30?–14°00?S; 70°40?–71°25?W) contains a detailed record of late Quaternary glaciation in the tropical Andes. Quantification of soil development on 19 moraine crests and radiocarbon ages are used to reconstruct the glacial history. Secondary iron and clay increase linearly in Quelccaya soils and clay accumulates at a linear rate in

  18. Space geodesy constrains ice age terminal deglaciation: The global ICE-6G_C (VM5a) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltier, W. R.; Argus, D. F.; Drummond, R.

    2015-01-01

    A new model of the last deglaciation event of the Late Quaternary ice age is here described and denoted as ICE-6G_C (VM5a). It differs from previously published models in this sequence in that it has been explicitly refined by applying all of the available Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of vertical motion of the crust that may be brought to bear to constrain the thickness of local ice cover as well as the timing of its removal. Additional space geodetic constraints have also been applied to specify the reference frame within which the GPS data are described. The focus of the paper is upon the three main regions of Last Glacial Maximum ice cover, namely, North America, Northwestern Europe/Eurasia, and Antarctica, although Greenland and the British Isles will also be included, if peripherally, in the discussion. In each of the three major regions, the model predictions of the time rate of change of the gravitational field are also compared to that being measured by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellites as an independent means of verifying the improvement of the model achieved by applying the GPS constraints. Several aspects of the global characteristics of this new model are also discussed, including the nature of relative sea level history predictions at far-field locations, in particular the Caribbean island of Barbados, from which especially high-quality records of postglacial sea level change are available but which records were not employed in the development of the model. Although ICE-6G_C (VM5a) is a significant improvement insofar as the most recently available GPS observations are concerned, comparison of model predictions with such far-field relative sea level histories enables us to identify a series of additional improvements that should follow from a further stage of model iteration.

  19. The New Solar Minimun and the Mini-Ice Age of the Xxith Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Herrera, Victor Manuel

    The nature of the climatic change depends on solar variability and terrestrial factors in different time scale. Our preliminary studies of the last 2000 years show close connection between the variation of the global maxima and minima periods of secular solar activity and warming and mini ice age occurred during this period. Such a modulation of the terrestrial temperature may bring unexpected results and consequences to the climatic change in the 21st century that may result in a mini-Ice Age caused by the decrease in solar activity that would begin in 2010 and last about 60 -80 years.

  20. Rapid Grounding Line Retreat Followed by Collapse of the Ross Ice Shelf : Response to Meltwater Pulse 1A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. B.; Stolldorf, T. D.; Jakobsson, M.

    2010-12-01

    Mega-scale glacial lineations within troughs have been used to reconstruct paleodrainage of the expanded ice sheet within Ross Sea during the Last Glacial Maximum. The variable number and distribution of grounding zone wedges from trough to trough indicate that individual ice streams behaved independently during retreat from the shelf. Deep iceberg furrows that extend to ~650 m water depth indicate periodic calving at the grounding line of the ice sheet, suggestive of rapid retreat and ice shelf break-up. Here we present geomorphological evidence for rapid grounding line retreat and associated collapse of the ice shelf in the JOIDES Basin (western Ross Sea) and in the Little America Basin (eastern Ross Sea). Evidence for collapse of the ice shelf exists in the form of regularly spaced ridges, which in JOIDES Basin have an average spacing of 28.6 m and occur in water depths of 626 m to 647 m. We call these features fishbone moraines and interpret them as having formed by tidally driven up and down motion of a collapsed ice shelf at or very near the grounding line as it exited the Ross Sea. The fishbone moraines extend seaward into low-relief wedges that are interpreted as DeGeer moraines, which are annual features. This interpretation is based on sediment flux estimates and the general size of these features compared to DeGeer moraines found elsewhere. They indicate retreat of the grounding line of 20 km in 34 years (.58 km/yr) prior to the ice sheet stabilizing for about two centuries to form a more prominent grounding zone wedge just prior to ice shelf collapse. Iceberg furrows with internal ridges similar in scale to fishbone moraines exist in the outer portion of the trough. These features are interpreted as having been formed by tide-driven up and down motion of icebergs that were part of a coherent mass of floating ice. Seaward, these furrows cross each other at high angles. This marks the location where icebergs began to drift freely out of Ross Sea. We also imaged fishbone moraines in a portion of Little America Basin where the trough floor is relatively flat, as in the JOIDES Basin. The timing of WAIS retreat from eastern Ross Sea is poorly constrained, so it is not possible to determine when the fishbone moraines in Little America Basin were formed. However, radiocarbon ages from glacimarine sediments indicate that the JOIDES Basin was free of grounded ice and an ice shelf by 14,620 to 13,120 ka, which is coincident with Meltwater Pulse 1A (MWP1A). Thus, while debate continues as to the contribution of the WAIS to MWP1A, our results leave little doubt that this rapid sea-level rise contributed to grounding line instability, especially where the ice sheet was grounded in relatively deep and flat troughs, such as in the JOIDES and Little America Basins.

  1. High resolution dating of moraines on Kodiak Island, Alaska links Atlantic and North Pacific climatic changes during the late glacial

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, D.H. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Alaska Quaternary Center)

    1992-01-01

    Much less is known about the paleoclimate and paleoceanography of the North Pacific than the North Atlantic despite the North Pacific's important role in the global ocean-climate system. Kodiak Island lies in the northwestern Gulf of Alaska astride the eastern end of the Aleutian Low. On southwestern Kodiak Island, coastal bluffs section a series of moraines, kettle ponds, and bogs formed between 15 and 9 ka BP. Distinctive tephras from volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula provide time-lines within the stratigraphy. Deformation events recorded in sediment stacks from basins within glaciotectonic landforms allows precise dating of glacial events. An ice cap occupied the Kodiak archipelago during the last glaciation. Three glacial advances of the southwestern margin of this ice cap occurred after 15 ka BP. At 13.4 ka, piedmont ice lobes formed large push moraines extending into Shelikof Strait during the Low Cape Advance. The less-extensive Tundra Advance culminated between 12 and 11.7 ka BP followed by glacier retreat then readvance to form the prominent Olga Moraine system between 11 and 10 ka BP. The timing of the Tundra and Olga Advances correlates closely with that of the Older and Younger Dryas cold episodes in northwestern Europe suggesting that these climatic oscillations were synchronous throughout the northern hemisphere.

  2. Ice age at the Middle-Late Jurassic transition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dromart, G.; Garcia, J.-P.; Picard, S.; Atrops, F.; Lécuyer, C.; Sheppard, S. M. F.

    2003-08-01

    A detailed record of sea surface temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere based on migration of marine invertebrate fauna (ammonites) and isotopic thermometry (?18O values of shark tooth enamel) indicates a severe cooling at the Middle-Late Jurassic transition (MLJT), about 160 Ma ago. The magnitude of refrigeration (1-3°C for lower middle latitudes) and its coincidence in time with an abrupt global-scale fall of sea level documented through sequence stratigraphy are both suggestive of continental ice formation at this time. Ice sheets may have developed over the high-latitude mountainous regions of Far-East Russia. The drastic cooling just post-dated the Middle-Late Callovian widespread deposition of organic-rich marine sediments (e.g. northwestern Europe, Central Atlantic, and Arabian Peninsula). This thermal deterioration can thus be ascribed to a downdraw in atmospheric CO2 via enhanced organic carbon burial which acted as a negative feedback effect (i.e. the inverse greenhouse effect). The glacial episode of the MLJT climaxed in the Late Callovian, lasted about 2.6 Myr, and had a pronounced asymmetrical pattern composed of an abrupt (˜0.8 Myr) temperature fall opposed to a long-term (˜1.8 Myr), stepwise recovery. The glacial conditions at the MLJT reveal that atmospheric CO2 levels could have dropped temporarily to values lower than 500 ppmv during Mesozoic times.

  3. Late Holocene South American and Indian summer monsoon variability: Assessing the regional significance of the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, B. W.; Rudloff, O. M.; Escobar, J.; Polissar, P. J.; Steinman, B. A.; Thompson, L. G.; Yao, T.

    2014-12-01

    The response of Earth's major climate systems to natural forcings during the last 2000 years can provide valuable insight into the affect that ongoing climate change may have on these systems. Understanding the relationship between temperature, monsoonal hydroclimate and radiative forcing is of particular interest because hydrologic responses in these systems have the ability to impact over half of the global population. Here, late Holocene variability in the South American and Indian summer monsoon regions is examined using sedimentological, geochemical and isotopic proxies from high altitude lake sediment archives from the Colombian Andes and the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. New results from Laguna de Ubaque, a small moraine dammed lake at 2060 m ASL in the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes, suggest a reduction in Andean South American summer monsoon (SASM) rainfall during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 900 to 1200 CE) that is consistent with other records from the Andes. During the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1450 to 1900 CE), Ubaque shows wet conditions between 1450 and 1600 CE and drier conditions from1600 to 1900 CE. This pattern is similar to accumulation at the Quelccaya Ice Cap, but differs from ice core, speleothem and lake sediment oxygen isotope records of synoptic-scale monsoonal precipitation, suggesting that Andean rainfall anomalies may have differed from upstream monsoonal trends over the Amazon. In contrast, results from Badi Namco and Paru Co on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau suggest that the MCA and LIA were relatively minor hydroclimate events superimposed on a larger millennial scale variation in Indian summer monsoon precipitation (1200 to 200 cal yr B.P.) that was associated with changes in the position of the ITCZ, surface air temperature over the Tibetan Plateau and sea surface temperatures in the western tropical Pacific. The unique hydroclimate variations in the ISM and SASM regions supports the idea that while spatially extensive, the MCA and LIA had heterogeneous global expressions and that local factors played an important role in the regional expressions of these events. Analysis of Last Millennium simulations from the CMIP5 ensemble support inferences derived from proxy records and provide further insight into variability in global monsoonal systems.

  4. A new interpretation of the date of the ‘Little Ice Age’ glacier maximum at Svartisen and Okstindan, northern Norway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Winkler

    2003-01-01

    New results concerning the dating of ‘Little Ice Age’ glacier variations at Svartisen and Okstindan, northern Norway, are presented. Measurements of lichens of the Rhizocarpon subgenus on gravestones are used to construct several local sets of lichenometric dating curves. These are partly ‘adjusted’ in relation to well-established lichenometric dating curves from southern Norway. The ‘Little Ice Age’ maximum at Svartisen

  5. Paired proglacial lake sediment and cosmogenic ages reveal the timing of Late Glacial and Holocene glacier fluctuations in the Huaguruncho Massif of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stansell, Nathan; Rodbell, Donald; Licciardi, Joseph; Schweinsberg, Avriel; Huss, Elizabeth; Finkel, Robert; Zimmerman, Susan

    2015-04-01

    The pairing of cosmogenic ages on moraine boulders and radiocarbon-dated lake sediments provides a powerful tool for reconstructing past climates based on former ice positions. Surface exposure ages (10Be) and clastic sediment records from a proglacial lake at Nevado Huaguruncho, Peru, document the waxing and waning of tropical alpine glaciers in the Eastern Cordillera during the last ca. 15 ka. Moraine ages indicate that glaciers were advanced at ca. 14.1 ± 0.4 ka, a pattern that is consistent with cooling associated with the Antarctic Cold Reversal. Yanacocha is located immediately upvalley from this 14.1 ka moraine, and lake sediments and cosmogenic ages also suggest that glaciers advanced just prior to, or at the start of, the Younger Dryas from 13.1 to 12.5 ka. Lake sediments and cosmogenic ages then indicate that glaciers retreated after ca. 12.5 ka, and again advanced during the early Holocene between ca. 12 and 9 ka. Short-lived increases in clastic lake sediment values suggest that ice margins advanced briefly at times through the middle Holocene from ca. 8 to 4 ka, and the lack of moraine boulders dating to this interval suggest that glaciers were less extensive than during the late Holocene. Lake sediments suggest that glaciers experienced a relatively limited advance at the start of the late Holocene from ca. 4 to 2 ka, followed by retreat until the start of the Medieval Climate Anomaly at ca. 1.1 ka. Clastic sediment values in the lake sediments then suggest that ice began advancing during the MCA, and the most pronounced Holocene advance at Huaguruncho occurred during the Little Ice Age (ca. 0.4 to 0.2 ka) under colder and wetter conditions. The pattern of glacier variability in Huaguruncho during the Late Glacial and Holocene provides further evidence that tropical Atlantic Ocean conditions drove much of the observed temperature and precipitation changes along the Eastern Cordillera.

  6. Dynamics of the intertropical convergence zone over the western Pacific during the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hong; Wei, Wei; Soon, Willie; An, Zhisheng; Zhou, Weijian; Liu, Zhonghui; Wang, Yuhong; Carter, Robert M.

    2015-04-01

    Precipitation in low latitudes is primarily controlled by the position of the intertropical convergence zone, which migrates from south to north seasonally. The Little Ice Age (defined as AD 1400-1850) was associated with low solar irradiance and high atmospheric aerosol concentrations as a result of several large volcanic eruptions. The mean position of the intertropical convergence zone over the western Pacific has been proposed to have shifted southwards during this interval, which would lead to relatively dry Little Ice Age conditions in the northern extent of the intertropical convergence zone and wet conditions around its southern limit. However, here we present a synthesis of palaeo-hydrology records from the Asian-Australian monsoon area that documents a rainfall distribution that distinctly violates the expected pattern. Our synthesis instead documents a synchronous retreat of the East Asian Summer Monsoon and the Australian Summer Monsoon into the tropics during the Little Ice Age, a pattern supported by the results of our climate model simulation of tropical precipitation over the past millennium. We suggest that this pattern over the western Pacific is best explained by a contraction in the latitudinal range over which the intertropical convergence zone seasonally migrates during the Little Ice Age. We therefore propose that rather than a strict north-south migration, the intertropical convergence zone in this region may instead expand and contract over decadal to centennial timescales in response to external forcing.

  7. Foraminiferal faunal estimates of paleotemperature: Circumventing the no-analog problem yields cool ice age tropics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mix, A.C.; Morey, A.E.; Pisias, N.G.; Hostetler, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    The sensitivity of the tropics to climate change, particularly the amplitude of glacial-to-interglacial changes in sea surface temperature (SST), is one of the great controversies in paleoclimatology. Here we reassess faunal estimates of ice age SSTs, focusing on the problem of no-analog planktonic foraminiferal assemblages in the equatorial oceans that confounds both classical transfer function and modern analog methods. A new calibration strategy developed here, which uses past variability of species to define robust faunal assemblages, solves the no-analog problem and reveals ice age cooling of 5??to 6??C in the equatorial current systems of the Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans. Classical transfer functions underestimated temperature changes in some areas of the tropical oceans because core-top assemblages misrepresented the ice age faunal assemblages. Our finding is consistent with some geochemical estimates and model predictions of greater ice age cooling in the tropics than was inferred by Climate: Long-Range Investigation, Mapping, and Prediction (CLIMAP) [1981] and thus may help to resolve a long-standing controversy. Our new foraminiferal transfer function suggests that such cooling was limited to the equatorial current systems, however, and supports CLIMAP's inference of stability of the subtropical gyre centers.

  8. `Little Ice Age' glaciation and current glaciers in the Iberian Peninsula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. González Trueba; R. Martín Moreno; E. Martínez de Pisón; E. Serrano

    2008-01-01

    `Little Ice Age' (LIA) glacier advance has been registered in three of the main Iberian high mountain areas: Pyrenees, Picos de Europa and Sierra Nevada. During the LIA, three different glacial environments have been differentiated in these three ranges. A high mountain glacial environment exists in the Pyrenees, where the altitude and northern latitude developed the most complex glacial environment

  9. Climatic basis for sluggish macroevolution during the late Paleozoic ice age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew G. Powell

    2005-01-01

    Rates of origination and extinction for marine invertebrates fell at the onset of the late Paleozoic ice age in late Mississippian time and remained low until glaciation ended in middle Permian time. Through the use of a database of stratigraphic and geographic occurrences of brachiopod genera, these macroevolutionary changes are traced to the loss of genera with narrow latitudinal ranges,

  10. Deep water formation in the North Atlantic Ocean during the last ice age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Claude Duplessy; J. Moyes; C. Pujol

    1980-01-01

    Oxygen-18 records of benthic foraminifera from northeastern Atlantic and Southern Ocean cores are significantly different. This difference indicates that the deep water in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean during the last Ice Age was at least 1.3 °C cooler than in modern times. We show here that the occurrence of such a cold deep water mass implies that the North Atlantic

  11. The New Solar Minimun and the Mini-Ice Age of the Xxith Century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Manuel Velasco Herrera

    2010-01-01

    The nature of the climatic change depends on solar variability and terrestrial factors in different time scale. Our preliminary studies of the last 2000 years show close connection between the variation of the global maxima and minima periods of secular solar activity and warming and mini ice age occurred during this period. Such a modulation of the terrestrial temperature may

  12. Iron Fertilization of the Subantarctic Ocean During the Last Ice Age

    E-print Network

    Gilli, Adrian

    Iron Fertilization of the Subantarctic Ocean During the Last Ice Age Alfredo Martínez-García,1 of ocean productivity, proposed that dust-borne iron fertilization of Southern Ocean phytoplankton caused is uniquely consistent with Subantarctic iron fertilization. The associated strengthening of the Southern

  13. The precession constant of the Earth: Variations through the ice-age

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, W.R.; Jiang, X. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1994-10-01

    We directly calculate the history of variations in Earth`s precession constant H that are forced by variations in surface mass associated with late Pleistocene ice-age glaciation and deglaciation events. Our analyses show that the magnitude of Delta H/H(sub zero) is lower than that required to cause the recently hypothesized resonant reduction of the precession period.

  14. Ice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Harris, Kathryn Louise.

    When a chunk of ice "twice the size of Manhattan" broke away from the northernmost part of the Antarctic Peninsula in February, ice was at the forefront of scientific news. Now, with the spectacular discovery of bacteria in Antarctic ice and with new evidence of slush beneath the frozen surface of Jupiter's moon Europa, water in its frozen form is once again in the news. The discovery of living organisms in the Antarctic ecosystem, described in the June 26, 1998 issue of Science, is significant because it presents a model for "how life may have arisen and persisted on other worlds." Scientists speculate that if organisms can thrive in the hard ice of Antarctica, they may possibly have done so on Europa and Mars. Galileo's closest approach to Europa occurred on July 21, 1998, offering new images of ice in space. The nine sites listed offer insights and details of the recent findings and discoveries related to ice.

  15. Evolution and outburst risk analysis of moraine-dammed lakes in the central Chinese Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shijin, Wang; Shitai, Jiao

    2015-04-01

    The recent evolution and outburst risk of two typical moraine-dammed lakes, Galong and Gangxi, central Chinese Himalaya, are analyzed using topographic maps from 1974 and Landsat satellite imagery acquired in 1988, 2000 and 2014. The datasets show the areas of Galong and Gangxi lakes increasing at rates of 0.45 and 0.34 km2/year during the period 1974-2014, an expansion of 501% and 107%, respectively, in the past 41 years, while the areas of the parent glaciers, Reqiang and Jipucong decreased by 44.22% and 37.76%, respectively. The accelerating retreat of the glaciers not only reflects their generally negative mass balance but is consistent with the rapid expansion of the moraine-dammed lakes. When acted upon by external forces such as earthquakes, heavy rainfall, rapid melting of glaciers and dead ice, and snow/ice/rock avalanches, these lakes can become extremely dangerous, easily forming outburst mudslides, which can potentially spread to the Poiqu river basin and develop into cross-border (China and Nepal) GLOF disasters. Therefore, there is an urgent need to strengthen integrated risk management of glacial lake outburst disasters with multiple objectives and modes.

  16. Northern Hemisphere Meltwater Discharge and the Last Ice-Age Termination (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, F.; Liu, Z.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Clark, P. U.; Carlson, A. E.; Brady, E. C.; Brook, E.; Lynch-Stieglitz, J. M.; Kutzbach, J. E.; Rosenbloom, N. A.

    2010-12-01

    The transient climate evolution of last Ice-Age termination (21,000 to 7,000 years ago) provides key observations for constraining climate sensitivity and understanding global carbon cycle. Here we present the first complete simulation of the last Ice-Age termination in a synchronously coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. Our simulation reproduces many major features of the deglacial climate evolution in Greenland, Antarctic, tropical Pacific, Southern and Deep Ocean, suggesting our model exhibits reasonable climate sensitivity in those regions and is capable of simulating abrupt climate change events. In particular, our simulation supports the view that the last deglaciation is triggered by the enhanced spring-summer insolation locally in the Northern Hemisphere. Northern Hemisphere meltwater discharge is able to induce the early deglacial warming of the Southern and Deep Ocean, and accounts for the lead-lag relationship among the Southern Ocean, tropical Pacific and Northern Hemisphere observed during the last Ice-Age termination. Furthermore, by inducing deep ocean warming and Southern Ocean sea ice retreat, Northern Hemisphere meltwater discharge likely plays an active role in deglacial CO2 rise and gives an explanation for the associations between Heinrich events and atmospheric CO2 rise.

  17. Atmospheric CO2 and d13C-CO2 reconstruction of the Little Ice Age from Antarctic ice cores.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubino, Mauro; David, Etheridge; Trudinger, Cathy; Allison, Colin; Rayner, Peter; Mulvaney, Robert; Steele, Paul; Langenfeld, Ray; Sturges, William; Curran, Mark; Smith, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The decrease of atmospheric CO2 concentration recorded in Antarctic ice around 1600 AD is one of the most significant atmospheric changes to have occurred during the last millennia, before the onset of the industrial period. Together with the temperature decrease, the CO2 drop has been used to derive the sensitivity of carbon stores to climate. However, the cause of it is still under debate because models are not yet able to reproduce either its magnitude, or its timing. Here we present new measurements of the CO2 concentration decrease recorded in an ice core from a medium accumulation rate site in Antarctica (DML). We show that the new record is compatible (differences <2 ppm) with the CO2 record from the high accumulation rate DSS site on Law Dome (East Antarctica), when the different age distributions are taken into account. We have also measured the d13C-CO2 change in DML ice, filling a gap around 1600 AD in the DSS d13C record. We use a double deconvolution of the CO2 and d13C records together to provide quantitative evidence that the CO2 decrease was caused by a change in the net flux to the terrestrial biosphere. Finally, we provide a new interpretation of a published record showing increasing atmospheric carbonyl sulphide during the CO2 decrease, suggesting that cooler LIA climate affected terrestrial biospheric fluxes. Altogether our findings support the hypothesis that reduced soil heterotrophic respiration is likely to have given the most significant contribution to the LIA CO2 decrease implying a positive CO2-climate feedback.

  18. Exposure history of the lunar meteorite, Elephant Moraine 87521

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, S.; Herzog, G. F.; Eugster, O.; Michel, TH.; Niedermann, S.; Kraehenbuhl, U.; Middleton, R.; Dezfouly-Arjomandy, B.; Fink, D.; Klein, J.

    1993-01-01

    We report the noble gas concentrations and the Al-26, Be-10, Cl-36, and Ca-41 activities of the Antarctic lunar meteorite Elephant Moraine 87521. Although the actual exposure history of the meteorite may have been more complex, the following model history accounts satisfactorily for the cosmogenic nuclide data: A first stage of lunar irradiation for about 1 Ma at a depth of 1-5 g/sq cm followed, not necessarily directly, by a second one for 26 Ma at about 565 g/sq cm; launch from the moon less than 0.1 Ma ago; and arrival on earth 15-50 ka ago. The small concentration of trapped gases shows that except for some material that may have been introduced at the moment of launch, EET 87521 spent less than 1 Ma at a lunar depth less than 1 g/sq cm. EET 87521 has a K/Ar age in the range 3.0-3.4 Ga, which is typical for lunar mare basalts.

  19. Microphysical characteristics of aging anvils and cirrus sampled during TWP- ICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarquhar, G.; Freer, M.; Um, J.; Mace, G.; Kok, G.; McCoy, R.; Tooman, T.

    2006-12-01

    Observations of anvils at various stages in their life cycle and in generic cirrus were made during the 2006 Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's Uninhabited Aerospace Vehicle's (ARM UAV) payload of in-situ cloud microphysics probes on the Scaled Composites Proteus. The probes, including the Cloud and Aerosol Precipitation Spectrometer (CAPS), the Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP), the Cloud Particle Imager (CPI), the Cloud Spectrometer and Impactor Probe (CSI) and the Cloud Integrating Nephelometer (CIN), give number concentrations as a function of size, bulk parameters such as total water content and extinction, and information on ice crystal habits. Bulk measurements of total water content are also derived from co-located remote sensing measurements which are compared against the in-situ mass contents. In this presentation, data from the composite of probes are examined in an effort to determine the importance of ice crystals with maximum dimensions less than 100 micrometers to the total number, extinction and mass of the cirrus with varying ages. The variation of dominant ice crystal habit, median mass diameter and other bulk microphysical quantities with cirrus age and origin are also investigated. Implications of these results for cloud modeling studies are discussed.

  20. Impact of Ice Ages on the genetic structure of trees and shrubs.

    PubMed

    Lascoux, Martin; Palmé, Anna E; Cheddadi, Rachid; Latta, Robert G

    2004-02-29

    Data on the genetic structure of tree and shrub populations on the continental scale have accumulated dramatically over the past decade. However, our ability to make inferences on the impact of the last ice age still depends crucially on the availability of informative palaeoecological data. This is well illustrated by the results from a recent project, during which new pollen fossil maps were established and the variation in chloroplast DNA was studied in 22 European species of trees and shrubs. Species exhibit very different levels of genetic variation between and within populations, and obviously went through very different histories after Ice Ages. However, when palaeoecological data are non-informative, inferences on past history are difficult to draw from entirely genetic data. On the other hand, as illustrated by a study in ponderosa pine, when we can infer the species' history with some certainty, coalescent simulations can be used and new hypotheses can be tested. PMID:15101576

  1. An additional planet as a model for the Pleistocene Ice Age

    E-print Network

    Wölfli, W; Nufer, R

    2002-01-01

    We propose a model for the Pleistocene Ice Age, assuming the following scenario: Between 3 Myr and 11.5 kyr BP a Mars-sized object existed which moved in a highly eccentric orbit. Originating from this object, gas clouds with a complex dynamics reduced Earth's insolation and caused a drop in the global temperature. In a close encounter, 11.5 kyr ago, tidal forces deformed the Earth. While the shape of the gyroscope Earth relaxed, the North Pole moved geographically from Greenland to its present position. During this close encounter, the object was torn to pieces, each of which subsequently evaporated or plunged into the sun. These events terminated the Ice Age Epoch.

  2. Impact of Ice Ages on the genetic structure of trees and shrubs.

    PubMed Central

    Lascoux, Martin; Palmé, Anna E; Cheddadi, Rachid; Latta, Robert G

    2004-01-01

    Data on the genetic structure of tree and shrub populations on the continental scale have accumulated dramatically over the past decade. However, our ability to make inferences on the impact of the last ice age still depends crucially on the availability of informative palaeoecological data. This is well illustrated by the results from a recent project, during which new pollen fossil maps were established and the variation in chloroplast DNA was studied in 22 European species of trees and shrubs. Species exhibit very different levels of genetic variation between and within populations, and obviously went through very different histories after Ice Ages. However, when palaeoecological data are non-informative, inferences on past history are difficult to draw from entirely genetic data. On the other hand, as illustrated by a study in ponderosa pine, when we can infer the species' history with some certainty, coalescent simulations can be used and new hypotheses can be tested. PMID:15101576

  3. The little ice age and medieval warm period in the Sargasso Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Keigwin, L.D. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    1996-11-29

    Sea surface temperature (SST), salinity, and flux of terrigenous material oscillated on millennial time scales in the Pleistocene North Atlantic, but there are few records of Holocene variability. Because of high rates of sediment accumulation, Holocene oscillations are well documented in the northern Sargasso Sea. Results from a radiocarbondated box core show that SST was {approximately} 1{degree}C cooler than today {approximately} 400 years ago (the Little Ice Age) and 1700 years ago, and {approximately} 1{degree}C warmer than today 1000 years ago (the Medieval Warm Period). Thus, at least some of the warming since the Little Ice Age appears to be part of a natural oscillation. 39 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Marine ice sheets of Pleistocene age on the East Siberian Continental Margin (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niessen, F.; Hong, J.; Hegewald, A.; Matthiessen, J. J.; Stein, R. H.; Kim, H.; Kim, S.; Jensen, L.; Jokat, W.; Nam, S.; Kang, S.

    2013-12-01

    Based on swath bathymetry, sediment echosounding, seismic profiling and sediment coring we present results of the RV "Polarstern' cruise ARK-XIII/3 (2008) and RV "Araon" cruise ARA03B (2012), which investigated an area between the Chukchi Borderland and the East Siberian Sea between 165°W and 170°E. At the southern end of the Mendeleev Ridge, close to the Chukchi and East Siberian shelves, evidence is found for the existence of Pleistocene ice sheets/ice shelves, which have grounded several times in up to 1200 m present water depth. We found mega-scale glacial lineations associated with deposition of glaciogenic wedges and debris-flow deposits indicative of sub-glacial erosion and deposition close to the former grounding lines. Glacially lineated areas are associated with large-scale erosion, accentuated by a conspicuous truncation of pre-glacial strata typically capped with mostly thin layers of diamicton draped by pelagic sediments. Our tentative age model suggests that the youngest and shallowest grounding event of an ice sheet should be within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3. The oldest and deepest event predates MIS 6. According to our results, ice sheets of more than one km in thickness continued onto, and likely centered over, the East Siberian Shelf. They were possibly linked to previously suggested ice sheets on the Chukchi Borderland and the New Siberian Islands. We propose that the ice sheets extended northward as thick ice shelves, which grounded on the Mendeleev Ridge to an area up to 78°N within MIS 5 and/or earlier. These results have important implication for the former distribution of thick ice masses in the Arctic Ocean during the Pleistocene. They are relevant for global sea-level variations, albedo, ocean-atmosphere heat exchange, freshwater export from the Arctic Ocean at glacial terminations and the formation of submarine permafrost. The existence of km-thick Pleistocene ice sheets in the western Arctic Ocean during glacial times predating that of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) also implies significantly different atmospheric circulation patterns, in particular availability and distribution of moisture during pre-LGM glaciations.

  5. Exposure-age constraints on the extent, timing and rate of retreat of the last Irish Sea ice stream

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danny McCarroll; John O. Stone; Colin K. Ballantyne; James D. Scourse; L. Keith Fifield; David J. A. Evans; John F. Hiemstra

    2010-01-01

    We report 23 cosmogenic isotope exposure ages (10Be and 36Cl) relating to the maximum extent and deglaciation chronology of the Irish Sea Ice Stream (ISIS), which drained the SW sector of the last British–Irish Ice Sheet. These show that the ISIS failed to reach the Preseli Hills of North Pembrokeshire yet extended southwards to impinge on northern Isles of Scilly

  6. Little Ice Age glacial activity in Strathcona Provincial Park, Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dave H. Lewis; Dan J. Smith

    2004-01-01

    Dendroglaciological and lichenometric techniques are used to establish the Little Ice Age (LIA) history of two glaciers (Colonel Foster and Septimus) in Strathcona Provincial Park, Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Our lichenometric investigations were preceded by the development of a locally calibrated Rhizocarpon geographicum growth curve (1708-1998 A.D.). Documentation of a 3-4-year ecesis interval for both trees and lichen greatly reduces

  7. Increased transport of antarctic bottom water in the vema channel during the last ice age.

    PubMed

    Ledbetter, M T; Johnson, D A

    1976-11-19

    Particle size analyses of surface sediments in the Vema Channel reveal a spatial variation related to the present hydrography. Similar analyses of sediment deposited during the last ice age (18,000 years before the present) indicate a maximum shallowing of the upper limit of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) of about 100 meters, coupled with an increase in velocity, which resulted in an increase in AABW transport. PMID:17744187

  8. Ice-age survival of Atlantic cod: agreement between palaeoecology models and genetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grant R. Bigg; Clifford W. Cunningham; Geir Ottersen; Grant H. Pogson; Martin R. Wadley; Phillip Williamson

    2007-01-01

    Scant scientific attention has been given to the abundance and distribution of marine biota in the face of the lower sea level, and steeper latitudinal gradient in climate, during the ice-age conditions that have dominated the past million years. Here we examine the glacial persistence of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) populations using two ecological-niche-models (ENM) and the first broad synthesis

  9. Calendar-dated, early 'Little Ice Age' glacier advance at Robson Glacier, British Columbia, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. H. Luckman

    1995-01-01

    Dendrochronological studies at Robson and Bennington Glaciers have provided the first calendar dating of an early 'Little Ice Age' glacier advance in North America. Dates derived from in-situ stumps indicate that Robson Glacier began over-riding forest between c. AD 1142 and 1150 and continued until at least AD 1350. The highest rates of glacier advance (c. 3.8 m yr-1 )

  10. Simulation of the Atmospheric Circulation Using the NCAR Global Circulation Model with Ice Age Boundary Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill Williams; R. G. Barry; W. M. Washington

    1974-01-01

    The NCAR global circulation model has been used to simulate global atmospheric conditions using boundary conditions representing those of the present day and those of the Würm\\/Wisconsin glacial maximum at about 20,000 years ago, for January and July cases.The mean zonal wind strength in the July ice age case in the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere was comparable with

  11. The ‘Little Ice Age’ maximum in the Southern Alps, New Zealand: preliminary results at Mueller Glacier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Winkler

    2000-01-01

    Lichenometric-dating studies using the yellow-green Rhizocarpon subgenus at Mueller Glacier in the region of Mt Cook, Southern Alps, New Zealand, reveal a ‘Little Ice Age’ maximum about ad 1725\\/1730. Differences from previous studies are shown to result from different methods, especially the type of mathematical functions used for calculating the lichenometric dating curves. Previous work also used variable sample sizes,

  12. Ice-age cycles: Earth's rotation instabilities and sea-level changes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Sabadini; L. L. A. Vermeersen

    1997-01-01

    A new class of multilayered, viscoelastic Earth models based on PREM is applied to the modeling of Earths's rotation instabilities and associated sea-level changes, induced by the occurrence of Pleistocene ice-age cycles that match the oxygen isotope records over the last 0.8 Myr. The novelty of our approach stands on the usage, for the first time in post-glacial rebound induced

  13. Evidence for a little ice age and recent warming from a borehole temperature data inversion procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Fivez, J.; Thoen, J. [Laboratorium voor Akoestiek en Thermische Fysica, Department Natuurkunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2004-11-15

    In this article, we apply our analytical theory, published earlier in this journal, to obtain information on the earth surface temperature history from some borehole temperature data. Compared to the results of the five different methods applied to the same temperature data, our method seems to be easier, assumption-free, and yields internally consistent results. The results suggest a cooling a few centuries ago, followed by a continuing warming up to these days, in agreement with a little ice age scenario.

  14. Coral's chilling tale: Ancient reefs may resolve an ice-age paradox

    SciTech Connect

    Monastersky, R.

    1994-02-19

    At the end of the Pleistocene epoch, the peak of the last ice age, the land that would become New York City lay hidden beneath a sheet of ice more than twice the height of the Empire State Building. However, researchers have found contradictory evidence about how the low latitudes fared during the ice age. Deep sea sediments seem to indicate that the tropical seas weathered the glacial epoch with remarkable stability while the continental record indicates evidence of marked cooling. This discrepancy is a problem for climate researchers because it raises the possibility that climate models may lack a critical element that will hinder their ability to accurately predict future changes. However, studies of an ancient coral species may help. The coral occasionally incorporates strontium into its shell, a situation which occurs more frequently in cold water. Looking at the ratio of strontium to calcium in coral, researchers have proposed that the surface waters off Barbados were 5[degree]C colder than today. The article discusses the scientific debate set off by this finding.

  15. Landscape history and man-induced landscape changes in the young morainic area of the North European Plain — a case study from the Bäke Valley, Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böse, Margot; Brande, Arthur

    2010-10-01

    The Bäke creek valley is part of the young morainic area in Berlin. Its origin is related to meltwater flow and dead-ice persistence resulting in a valley with a lake-creek system. During the Late Glacial, the slopes of the valley were affected by solifluction. A Holocene brown soil developed in this material, whereas parts of the lakes were filled with limnic-telmatic sediments. The excavation site at Goerzallee revealed Bronze Age and Iron Age burial places at the upper part of the slope, as well as a fireplace further downslope, but the slope itself remained stable. Only German settlements in the 12th and 13th centuries changed the processes in the creek-lake system: the construction of water mills created a retention system with higher ground water levels in the surrounding areas. On the other hand, deforestation on the till plain and on the slope triggered erosion. Therefore, in medieval time interfingering organic sediments and sand layers were deposited in the lower part of the slope on top of the Holocene soil. The new soil which formed on top of these sediments was transformed by ploughing until the 19th century. In 1905/06 the lower part of the slope was reshaped by the construction of the Teltow Canal, following the valley of the former Bäke creek. Finally, the whole area was levelled by infill after World War II.

  16. Climate Variability in the GODTHÅBSFJORD Area (sw Greenland) Since the Little Ice Age: a Multiproxy Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, S.; Ellegaard, M.; Andersen, T. J.; Kuijpers, A.; Mikkelsen, N.; Pedersen, N. N.; Rysgaard, S.

    2013-12-01

    We will present data from a high-resolution sediment core retrieved from the Godthåbsfjord area, SW Greenland. A network of sedimentological (e.g. grain size distribution), geochemical (XRF) and biological proxies (e.g. dinoflagellate cysts) have been applied to this record in order to reconstruct fjord-ice conditions, sea surface temperature, and changes in ocean-fjord water mass exchange since the Little Ice Age. The results will be compared against extensive data collected within the framework of the Greenland Ecosystem Monitoring (GEM) programme, aimed at obtaining insight into long-term ecosystem changes and climate change effects in the Arctic. Furthermore, phytoplankton resting stages preserved in the sediment core have been germinated in order to test the impact of climate variability on the genetic structure and variability of Arctic primary producers.

  17. Little Ice Age Recorded in Mn/Fe Precipitates by Pb and Nd Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebetrau, V.; Eisenhauer, A.; Frei, R.; Bock, B.; Kronz, A.; Hansen, B. T.; Leipe, T.

    2002-12-01

    Ferromanganese precipitates of the Baltic Sea can be dated by the 226Raexcess/Ba-method (Liebetrau et al., 2002). Recent investigations have shown that these precipitates may represent perfect archives for the postglacial history of the circum Baltic area. In particular, these precipitates offer the possibility to study short term variations of the Scandinavian shield erosion and climate change during the Little Ice Age. The Nd isotope record of a selected Mn/Fe crust from the Mecklenburg Bay of the Baltic Sea shows a significant change of the ? Nd-value from around -13 for ages older than 1100 years AD to approx. -18 around 1600 years AD. This shift can be explained by increased erosion and input of Nd from Archean Scandinavian sources and/or a reduced inflow of North Atlantic water (? Nd = -13) to the Baltic Sea. Comparison with a temperature reconstruction for Fennoscandia (Mann, 2001) documents a close relationship of the ? Nd record with temperature variations during the Little Ice Age because negative ? Nd-value tend to correlate with lower temperature during the last 1000 years. In contrast, the pattern of 207Pb/206Pb record closely correlates with historically known changes of anthropogenic activities during the industrial revolution and times of enhanced Ag and Pb mining. Nd and Pb are correlated before 1100 AD but are decoupled after at about 1100 years AD. We propose that Pb appears to be more sensitive to anthropogenic activities since about 1100 AD. Liebetrau V., Eisenhauer A., Gussone N., W”rner G., Hansen B.T., and Leipe T., 2002, 226Raexcess/Ba growth rates and U-Th-Ra-Ba systematic of Baltic Mn/Fe crusts, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 66, 73-83 Mann M.E., 2001, The Little Ice Age, in: Encyclopedia of Environmental Global Change

  18. {franke,thor,wirth}@math.unibonn.de morain@lix.polytechnique.fr polytechnique

    E-print Network

    Bernstein, Daniel

    ,thor,wirth}@math.uni­bonn.de morain@lix.polytechnique.fr Franc â?ºois Morain, â?? Ecole polytechnique (LIX) 1 ANTS­VI, Burlington, june â?ºois Morain, â?? Ecole polytechnique (LIX) 2 ANTS­VI, Burlington, june 2004 I. Introduction Goal: decide­Kayal­Saxena. . Computational primality proving: Jacobi sums; ECPP; Franc â?ºois Morain, â?? Ecole polytechnique (LIX) 3 ANTS

  19. Regeneration of Little Ice Age bryophytes emerging from a polar glacier with implications of totipotency in extreme environments

    PubMed Central

    La Farge, Catherine; Williams, Krista H.; England, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Across the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, widespread ice retreat during the 20th century has sharply accelerated since 2004. In Sverdrup Pass, central Ellesmere Island, rapid glacier retreat is exposing intact plant communities whose radiocarbon dates demonstrate entombment during the Little Ice Age (1550–1850 AD). The exhumed bryophyte assemblages have exceptional structural integrity (i.e., setae, stem structures, leaf hair points) and have remarkable species richness (60 of 144 extant taxa in Sverdrup Pass). Although the populations are often discolored (blackened), some have developed green stem apices or lateral branches suggesting in vivo regrowth. To test their biological viability, Little Ice Age populations emerging from the ice margin were collected for in vitro growth experiments. Our results include a unique successful regeneration of subglacial bryophytes following 400 y of ice entombment. This finding demonstrates the totipotent capacity of bryophytes, the ability of a cell to dedifferentiate into a meristematic state (analogous to stem cells) and develop a new plant. In polar ecosystems, regrowth of bryophyte tissue buried by ice for 400 y significantly expands our understanding of their role in recolonization of polar landscapes (past or present). Regeneration of subglacial bryophytes broadens the concept of Ice Age refugia, traditionally confined to survival of land plants to sites above and beyond glacier margins. Our results emphasize the unrecognized resilience of bryophytes, which are commonly overlooked vis-a-vis their contribution to the establishment, colonization, and maintenance of polar terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:23716658

  20. Low-velocity impact craters in ice and ice-saturated sand with implications for Martian crater count ages.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Croft, S.K.; Kieffer, S.W.; Ahrens, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    We produced a series of decimeter-sized impact craters in blocks of ice near 0oC and -70oC and in ice-saturated sand near -70oC as a preliminary investigation of cratering in materials analogous to those found on Mars and the outer solar satellites. Crater diameters in the ice-saturated sand were 2 times larger than craters in the same energy and velocity range in competent blocks of granite, basalt and cement. Craters in ice were c.3 times larger. Martian impact crater energy versus diameter scaling may thus be a function of latitude. -from Authors

  1. Cosmogenic exposure-age chronologies of Pinedale and Bull Lake glaciations in greater Yellowstone and the Teton Range, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Licciardi, J.M.; Pierce, K.L.

    2008-01-01

    We have obtained 69 new cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure ages from boulders on moraines deposited by glaciers of the greater Yellowstone glacial system and Teton Range during the middle and late Pleistocene. These new data, combined with 43 previously obtained 3He and 10Be ages from deposits of the northern Yellowstone outlet glacier, establish a high-resolution chronology for the Yellowstone-Teton mountain glacier complexes. Boulders deposited at the southern limit of the penultimate ice advance of the Yellowstone glacial system yield a mean age of 136??13 10Be ka and oldest ages of ???151-157 10Be ka. These ages support a correlation with the Bull Lake of West Yellowstone, with the type Bull Lake of the Wind River Range, and with Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6. End moraines marking the maximum Pinedale positions of outlet glaciers around the periphery of the Yellowstone glacial system range in age from 18.8??0.9 to 16.5??1.4 10Be ka, and possibly as young as 14.6??0.7 10Be ka, suggesting differences in response times of the various ice-cap source regions. Moreover, all dated Pinedale terminal moraines in the greater Yellowstone glacial system post-date the Pinedale maximum in the Wind River Range by ???4-6 kyr, indicating a significant phase relationship between glacial maxima in these adjacent ranges. Boulders on the outermost set and an inner set of Pinedale end moraines enclosing Jenny Lake on the eastern Teton front yield mean ages of 14.6??0.7 and 13.5??1.1 10Be ka, respectively. The outer Jenny Lake moraines are partially buried by outwash from ice on the Yellowstone Plateau, hence their age indicates a major standstill of an expanded valley glacier in the Teton Range prior to the Younger Dryas, followed closely by deglaciation of the Yellowstone Plateau. These new glacial chronologies are indicative of spatially variable regional climate forcing and temporally complex patterns of glacier responses in this region of the Rocky Mountains during the Pleistocene. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. New Geomorphic map of SW Fraser Lowland, NW Washington, Shows Multiple Post-LGM Moraines, Fossil Shorelines, Outburst Flood and Glacial Outwash Features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Easterbrook; D. J. Kovanen; R. A. Haugerud

    2008-01-01

    We have interpreted a ~1 pulse\\/m2 lidar survey (acquired in 2006 in leaf-on conditions under contract to the USGS) to construct a geomorphic map of western Whatcom County. The new lidar data reveal the existence of previously unrecognized landforms. Within this landscape, we see these features that reflect a rich post-LGM history: Glacial: Ice contact deposits interpreted as moraines reveal

  3. Growth of a post-Little Ice Age submarine fan, Glacier Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, P.R.; Cowan, E.A.; Powell, R.D.; Cai, J.

    1999-01-01

    A small Holocene fan is forming where Queen Inlet, a hanging valley, enters West Arm fjord, Glacier Bay, Alaska. Queen fan formed in the last 80 years following retreat of the Little Ice Age glacier that filled Glacier Bay about 200 yr BP. It was built mainly by a turbidite system originating from Carroll Glacier delta, as the delta formed in the early 1900s at the head of Queen Inlet. The Late Holocene Queen fan is comparable to large Pleistocene fans that formed in the Gulf of Alaska and differs from trough-mouth fans formed by cooler climate glacier systems.

  4. Little Ice Age Cold Interval in West Antarctica: Evidence from Borehole Temperature at the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide.

    E-print Network

    Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.

    is the key evolving parameter. Preliminary measurements of the 3400m deep borehole indicate melting Model Description The forward firn and ice model is based on the 1 dimensional heat and ice flow the heat capacity, T the temperature, t the time, z the depth, w the downward velocity of the firn

  5. Deglaciation ages and meltwater routing in the Fort McMurray region, northeastern Alberta and northwestern Saskatchewan, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Timothy G.; Waterson, Nickolas; Lowell, Thomas V.; Hajdas, Irka

    2009-08-01

    A field-based reconstruction of the deglacial paleogeography in the Fort McMurray area permits: 1) constraining the timing of meltwater routing to the Arctic from the present Hudson Bay drainage basin; and 2) minimum-age estimates for ice-margin positions that can be used to constrain ice-sheet modeling results. A downslope recession of the Laurentide Ice Sheet resulted in a series of proglacial lakes forming between the ice margin and higher land to the southwest. The paleogeography of these lakes is poorly constrained in part from the masking effect of boreal forest vegetation and map-scale issues. However, recent space-shuttle based DEMs increase the number and spatial extent of moraines identified within the study area resulting in a coherent pattern of ice margin retreat focused on the Athabasca River valley. An intensive lake-coring program resulted in a minimum ten-fold increase in the radiocarbon database used to limit moraine ages. Results indicate that deglaciation in this region was younger than previously reported, and it is likely that the meltwater could not drain northward to the Arctic Ocean from any source southeast of the Fort McMurray area until approximately 9850-9660 14C BP.

  6. Reassessment of ice-age cooling of the tropical ocean and atmosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostetler, S.W.; Mix, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    The CLIMAP project's reconstruction of past sea surface temperature inferred limited ice-age cooling in the tropical oceans. This conclusion has been controversial, however, because of the greater cooling indicated by other terrestrial and ocean proxy data. A new faunal sea surface temperature reconstruction, calibrated using the variation of foraminiferal species through time, better represents ice-age faunal assemblages and so reveals greater cooling than CLIMAP in the equatorial current systems of the eastern Pacific and tropical Atlantic oceans. Here we explore the climatic implications of this revised sea surface temperature field for the Last Glacial Maximum using an atmospheric general circulation model. Relative to model results obtained using CLIMAP sea surface temperatures, the cooler equatorial oceans modify seasonal air temperatures by 1-2??C or more across parts of South America, Africa and southeast Asia and cause attendant changes in regional moisture patterns. In our simulation of the Last Glacial Maximum, the Amazon lowlands, for example, are cooler and drier, whereas the Andean highlands are cooler and wetter than the control simulation. Our results may help to resolve some of the apparent disagreements between oceanic and continental proxy climate data. Moreover, they suggest a wind-related mechanism for enhancing the export of water vapour from the Atlantic to the Indo-Pacific oceans, which may link variations in deep-water production and high-latitude climate changes to equatorial sea surface temperatures.

  7. Geomorphic relations among glacial Lake Algonquin and the Munising and Grand Marais moraines in eastern Upper Michigan, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewett, William L.; Drzyzga, Scott A.; Sherrod, Laura; Wang, Hong

    2014-08-01

    Data obtained from ground-penetrating radar (GPR), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, and geostatistical reconstructions of Lake Algonquin water planes indicate that high-standing outwash aprons flanking the Munising moraine's southern margin in eastern Upper Michigan terminate as large, coalescing Gilbert-type ice-contact deltas graded to the Main level of Lake Algonquin. Nearly 30 km of GPR imagery provides clear evidence of topset and foreset beds diagnostic of deltaic deposition. Landform assemblages suggest that the deltas likely evolved from subaqueous grounding line fans formed along a retreating ice margin characterized by widespread stagnation. In time, these deltas aggraded to the Main Lake Algonquin level as the ice margin stabilized. An OSL date of 12.5 ± 1.1 ka on a nearby beach ridge associated with the Main Algonquin shoreline is consistent with this interpretation. These new data, coupled with the presence of nested fans at the downstream end of meltwater channels incised into the delta, indicate that Lake Algonquin was falling as delta deposition waned, eventually reaching a level concordant with the Lower Orillia level before final abandonment. Large, regionally extensive heads of outwash marking the crest of the Munising moraine are graded to the upper margins of these deltas and, by inference, must also correlate with Main Lake Algonquin and the associated Two Rivers deglaciation ca. 13-12.5 ka. The deltas, in turn, are conspicuously crosscut by outwash aprons that are graded to levels much lower than any recognized upper group Lake Algonquin shoreline. Because these aforementioned heads of outwash, part of Drexler and others' Grand Marais moraine, correlate with the Marquette moraine farther west, they likely date to the Marquette advance ca. 11.5 ka. Thus, landforms related to Two Rivers and to Marquette glaciations appear to comingle across the study area. In the absence of extensive exposures and datable materials, our work highlights the fact that crosscutting relationships and distinct differences in base level can provide an important first step for untangling the complicated landform relationships in this part of Michigan.

  8. The Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age: testing the NAO hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scourse, James; Trouet, Valerie; Raible, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) terrestrial proxy records (speleothem, NW Scotland; tree rings, Morocco) from close to the centres of action of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) indicate that the MCA was characterized by a pervasive positive phase of the NAO(1). Spatial gradients across Europe in this MCA synoptic climatological interpretation were analyzed using the Proxy Surrogate Reconstruction approach based on general circulation model simulations. Changes in pervasive NAO phase result in synoptic shifts in surface pressure, wind fields and precipitation. It is hypothesized that these NAO changes are associated with oceanic responses/feedbacks including upwelling intensity and heat transport via the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Positive (negative) phases of the NAO are associated with enhanced (reduced) AMOC. We review high quality palaeoceanographic data from the North Atlantic covering the last 1000 years to test this hypothesis. These data include proxies for sea surface temperature, bottom water temperature, sea ice cover, upwelling intensity and reconstructions of ocean hydrographic variability, including Gulf Stream outflow, North Atlantic Deep Water return flow and the position of the oceanic Polar Front. Palaeoceanographic data are consistent with the hypothesis that the MCA (Little Ice Age, LIA) was characterized by more (less) intense AMOC. However, there are multiple datasets, including the Na ion ice core proxy from the Greenland Ice Sheet(2), that indicate enhanced storminess across the North Atlantic during the LIA. These data conflict with the hypothesis in that enhanced winter storminess (cyclone frequency) should correspond to the NAO positive rather than negative phase. A possible explanation of this problem has been provided by ensemble simulations of the cyclone-resolving Climate Community System Model (CCSM) coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model for the Maunder Minimum (LIA)(3). These indicate major mid-latitude blocking anticyclones and reduced cyclone frequency constructions for the LIA consistent with NAO negative phase. But the intensity of cyclones during the LIA is found to be increased when anticyclones break down. The enhanced storminess during the LIA indicated by the ice core and coastal proxies and archival data may therefore be a product of more intense, rather than more frequent, storms during the LIA. (1)Trouet, V.et al. 2009. Persistent positive North Atlantic Oscillation mode dominated the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Science 324, 78-80. (2)Meeker, L.D. & Mayewski, P.A. 2002. A 1400-year high-resolution record of atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic and Asia. The Holocene 12, 257-266. (3)Raible, C.C. et al. 2007. Extreme midlatitide cyclones and their implications for precipitation and wind speed extremes in simulations of the Maunder Minimum versus present day conditions. Climate Dynamics 28, 409-423.

  9. Several million years of stability among insect species because of, or in spite of, Ice Age climatic instability?

    PubMed

    Coope, G R

    2004-02-29

    There is a curious paradox in the evolutionary legacy of Ice Ages. Studies of modern species suggest that they are currently evolving in response to changing environments. If extrapolated into the context of Quaternary Ice Ages, this evidence would suggest that the frequent climatic changes should have stimulated the evolutionary process and thus increased the rates of change within species and the number of speciation events. Extinction rates would, similarly, be high. Quaternary insect studies call into question these interpretations. They indicate that insect species show a remarkable degree of stability throughout the Ice Age climatic oscillations. The paradox arises from the apparent contradiction between abundant evidence of incipient speciation in insect populations at the present day and the evidence that, in the geological past, this apparently did not lead to sustained evolution. PMID:15101577

  10. A sequential Bayesian approach for the estimation of the age-depth relationship of Dome Fuji ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, S.; Suzuki, K.; Kawamura, K.; Parrenin, F.; Higuchi, T.

    2015-06-01

    A technique for estimating the age-depth relationship in an ice core and evaluating its uncertainty is presented. The age-depth relationship is mainly determined by the accumulation of snow at the site of the ice core and the thinning process due to the horizontal stretching and vertical compression of ice layers. However, since neither the accumulation process nor the thinning process are fully understood, it is essential to incorporate observational information into a model that describes the accumulation and thinning processes. In the proposed technique, the age as a function of depth is estimated from age markers and ?18O data. The estimation is achieved using the particle Markov chain Monte Carlo (PMCMC) method, in which the sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) method is combined with the Markov chain Monte Carlo method. In this hybrid method, the posterior distributions for the parameters in the models for the accumulation and thinning processes are computed using the Metropolis method, in which the likelihood is obtained with the SMC method. Meanwhile, the posterior distribution for the age as a function of depth is obtained by collecting the samples generated by the SMC method with Metropolis iterations. The use of this PMCMC method enables us to estimate the age-depth relationship without assuming either linearity or Gaussianity. The performance of the proposed technique is demonstrated by applying it to ice core data from Dome Fuji in Antarctica.

  11. Dust Provenance and Radiometric U-Series Ages as Evidence for an Eemian Ice Sheet in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aciego, S.; Bourdon, B.; Schwander, J.; Stocker, T. F.

    2009-12-01

    The mineralogy and geochemistry of air-transported mineral particles, dust, reflect the prior history of the source material as well as influence the chemistry of the settling locations (rivers, ice sheets and ultimately the oceans). When applied to ice sheets, the atmospheric circulation patterns gleaned from the chemical characteristics of the dust may provide some additional constraints on size and shape of paleo-ice sheets. Furthermore, the ice bound dust grains can be used to determine the age of the ice by using uranium series recoil as a radiometric dating method, provided there is sufficient information about the size and shape of the dust grains and the [U] concentration and isotopic (234U/238U) composition of the ice and dust. The Dye3 ice core is the southern-most deep ice core in Greenland, so should provide a minimum estimate of ice sheet size in the past: the existence of ice is evidence for an ice sheet at any given time. A series of samples from 200 m to 2030 m in depth were analyzed by MC-ICPMS and TIMS for U concentrations and 234U/238U as well as 176Hf/177Hf, 87Sr/86Sr, and 143Nd/144Nd. The radiogenic isotopic compositions of the insoluble dust found in the upper 1800 m falls within the range of previously measured Greenland dust samples: 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7108 - 0.7174, ?Nd = -9.7 - -13.6, and ?Hf = -2 - -5. However, the data trends toward significantly more unradiogenic Nd and Hf and radiogenic Sr values in the lower 100 m: 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7167 - 0.7200, ?Nd = -15.62 - -17.36, and ?Hf = -21 - -25; the deepest sample containing basal sediments having the most extreme values: 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7349 - 0.7785 ?Nd = -37.48 - -41.61, and ?Hf = -24.8 - -39.54. The calculated 234U/238U radiometric age for the deepest ice ranges from 90 to 110 ± 50 ka, in the same range as two possible age models for the Dye3 location, indicating the deepest ice is in the range of 40-60 ka or 85-120 ka. However, based on the radiogenic isotopes, while the dust in the younger ice is primarily coming from Asia, the source material for dust in the oldest ice had to come from a significantly more unradiogenic source, likely from Precambrian Canadian or Greenland rocks. In either case, accessing such material requires lower volumes of ice than presently modeled for 40 - 60 ka. Therefore we hypothesize that the deep ice found at Dye3 is at least 85 - 120 ka old, indicating the presence of an Eemian ice sheet.

  12. The glacial sedimentology and geomorphological evolution of an outwash head/moraine-dammed lake, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David J. A.; Rother, Henrik; Hyatt, Olivia M.; Shulmeister, James

    2013-02-01

    Extensive exposures through the glacial landforms around southern Lake Pukaki, New Zealand, comprise seven lithofacies (LFs 1-7). LFs 1-3 are grouped together as LFA 1 (Pukaki Member) and record pulsed subaqueous grounding line fan progradation, cohesionless debris flows, underflow activity and rhythmite deposition by suspension settling, iceberg rafting of dropstones, and pulsed traction current activity. Localized disturbance of these deposits by glacitectonic deformation and multi-generational hydrofracture fills records minor readvances by the glacier snout and the emplacement of a glacitectonite (LF 4) derived from cannibalization of glacilacustrine sediments. LFs 4-6 are grouped together as LFA 2 (Twizel Member) and record direct glacigenic deposition of glacitectonite (LF 4), subglacial traction till (LF 5) and supraglacially dumped boulder rubble (LF 6). Stratigraphic relationships between LFA 1 with LFA 2 record the oscillatory behaviour of the former Tasman Glacier snout when it formed a calving margin in a proglacial and locally supraglacial lake dammed by a glacitectonically disturbed outwash head and lateral moraine ridges. This is entirely consistent with the landform-sediment record of its coeval terrestrial margins, where flutings and push moraines are diagnostic of active temperate glacier recession from a glacially overridden outwash head, the latter being recorded by the vertically stacked sub-horizontally bedded and coarse-grained gravels of LF 7 (Waitaki Member). Previous proposals that late Pleistocene lake damming was initiated by an ice-cored moraine arc appear unfounded, because the glacilacustrine deposits only lie above the altitude of the outwash head/lateral moraine arc in locations where they have been glacitectonically compressed. Alternatively, it is proposed that the overdeepened subglacial topography was produced by the construction of an outwash head, leading to a glacilacustrine sediment sink which operates at times when the expanded Tasman Glacier actively retreats from the outwash head apex. The changing landsystem imprint related to the shrinkage of the Tasman Glacier records spatio-temporal landsystem change, involving evolution from a coupled landsystem to a moraine-dammed to an uncoupled landsystem.

  13. A new Little Ice Age chronology of the Franz Josef Glacier, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinzey, K. M.; Lawson, W.; Kelly, D.

    2003-04-01

    The Little Ice Age (LIA) chronology of the Franz Josef Glacier (FJG), New Zealand, was reassessed due to previous uncertainty surrounding the timing of its maximum extent, eg. 1450 (Burrows 1990), 1600 (Wardle 1973) or 1750 AD (Lawrence and Lawrence 1965). Tree age-size relationships based on data from 75 ring counts and diameters collected from southern rata (Metrosideros umbellata) and kamahi (Weinmannia racemosa) allowed the ages of 1340 trees measured within fifty, 150 m2 quadrats in the Waiho Valley to be predicted. Ages of the oldest trees were then used to determine the time elapsed since deglaciation, or alternatively, the culmination of the preceding advance. The revised chronology showed that the LIA maximum of the FJG culminated by c. 1470-1530 AD, when the terminus was located approximately 4.5 km down-valley of its position in 2001. Subsequent, but smaller magnitude, re-advances culminated by c. 1580-1610 and c. 1790-1840 AD. Average terminus retreat rates after the LIA maximum varied between 7-9 m a-1 and reached 23 m a-1 by the early to mid-1800's, which suggests that climatic amelioration signalling the end of the LIA occurred in New Zealand by the early 19th Century.

  14. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of sand-dune formed within the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jin-Hua; Wang, Xu-Long

    2014-09-01

    Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating has been intensively used to date the late Quaternary deposits. The Single-Aliquot Regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol was applied to measure coarse quartz grains extracted from Dali sand dunes, central China. It was found that this popular method could not accurately date sand dunes activities that recently happened. This is due to the low OSL sensitivity of quartz grains, leading to a failure in OSL dating that has also been met in other sediments before. To overcome this limitation, quartz grains were heated to 500 °C to increase the OSL output for one magnitude. Sensitivity changes could also be corrected by the following test dose OSL responses and has no influence on OSL ages. Thus it is suggested to carry out the SAR protocol for dim and young quartz OSL samples with additional annealing step (e.g. 500 °C) after the measurements of natural cycle. The resultant OSL ages proved that the last sand-dune activities happened during the Little Ice Age (?400 years ago), which was further supported by independent age control (?1600 AD) from historical documents.

  15. Evolution of Ossoue Glacier (French Pyrenees) since the end of the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, R.; Gascoin, S.; Houet, T.; Ribière, O.; Laffly, D.; Condom, T.; Monnier, S.; Schmutz, M.; Camerlynck, C.; Tihay, J. P.; Soubeyroux, J. M.; René, P.

    2015-04-01

    Long-term climate records are rare at high elevations in Southern Europe. Here, we reconstructed the evolution of Ossoue Glacier (42°46' N, 0.45 km2), located in the Pyrenees (3404 m a.s.l.), since the Little Ice Age (LIA). Glacier length, area, thickness and mass changes indicators were generated from historical datasets, topographic surveys, glaciological measurements (2001-2013), a GPR survey (2006) and stereoscopic satellite images (2013). The glacier has receded considerably since the end of the LIA, losing 40 % of its length and 60% of its area. Three periods of marked ice depletion can be identified: 1850-1890, 1928-1950 and 1983-2013, as well as two periods of stabilization or slightly growth: 1905-1928 and 1950-1983; these agree with climatic datasets (air temperature, precipitation, North Atlantic Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation). In the early 2000s, the area of the glacier dropped below 50% of its area at the end of the LIA. Geodetic mass balance measurements over 1983-2013 indicated -30.1 ± 1.7 m w.e. (-1 m w.e. yr-1) whereas glaciological mass balance measurements show -17.36 ± 2.9 m w.e. (-1.45 m w.e. yr-1) over 2001-2013, resulting in a doubling of the ablation rate in the last decade. In 2013 the maximum ice thickness was 59 ± 10.3 m. Assuming that the current ablation rate stays constant, Ossoue Glacier will disappear midway through the 21st century.

  16. Extreme carbonate super-saturation of the ocean and Neoproterozoic ice ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgwell, A. J.; Kennedy, M.

    2004-05-01

    In the modern ocean, reduction in carbonate deposition on the continental shelves can be compensated for by the increased preservation in deep sea sediments of biogenic carbonate originating from planktic calcifiers living in the open ocean. The result is that ocean carbonate chemistry is strongly buffered and the carbon-climate system relatively stable. However, before the advent of metazoan biomineralization in the Cambrian and proliferation of calcareous plankton during the Mesozoic, carbonate deposition would have been largely restricted to shallow water photic environments. Such a system is highly susceptible to positive feedback between sea level fall, reduced shallow water carbonate deposition, increased carbonate saturation of the ocean, atmospheric CO2 draw-down, and ice-sheet growth. This is consistent with the occurrence of ice ages of near-global extent during the Neoproterozoic. Both the widespread occurrence and observed thickness of `cap' (dolostone) carbonate deposited during postglacial transgression are explicit predictions of this hypothesis. The enigmatic cap facies thus record the rapid removal of accumulated alkalinity from an ocean that has reached an extreme degree of carbonate super-saturation by the end of the glacial period.

  17. Increase in penguin populations during the Little Ice Age in the Ross Sea, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qi-Hou; Sun, Li-Guang; Xie, Zhou-Qing; Emslie, Steven D; Liu, Xiao-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Penguins are an important seabird species in Antarctica and are sensitive to climate and environmental changes. Previous studies indicated that penguin populations increased when the climate became warmer and decreased when it became colder in the maritime Antarctic. Here we determined organic markers in a sediment profile collected at Cape Bird, Ross Island, high Antarctic, and reconstructed the history of Adélie penguin colonies at this location over the past 700 years. The region transformed from a seal to a penguin habitat when the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1500-1800 AD) began. Penguins then became the dominant species. Penguin populations were the highest during ca. 1490 to 1670 AD, a cold period, which is contrary to previous results in other regions much farther north. Different responses to climate change may occur at low latitudes and high latitudes in the Antarctic, even if for same species. PMID:23969993

  18. Increase in penguin populations during the Little Ice Age in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qi-Hou; Sun, Li-Guang; Xie, Zhou-Qing; Emslie, Steven D.; Liu, Xiao-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Penguins are an important seabird species in Antarctica and are sensitive to climate and environmental changes. Previous studies indicated that penguin populations increased when the climate became warmer and decreased when it became colder in the maritime Antarctic. Here we determined organic markers in a sediment profile collected at Cape Bird, Ross Island, high Antarctic, and reconstructed the history of Adélie penguin colonies at this location over the past 700 years. The region transformed from a seal to a penguin habitat when the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1500–1800?AD) began. Penguins then became the dominant species. Penguin populations were the highest during ca. 1490 to 1670?AD, a cold period, which is contrary to previous results in other regions much farther north. Different responses to climate change may occur at low latitudes and high latitudes in the Antarctic, even if for same species. PMID:23969993

  19. Global signatures and dynamical origins of the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly.

    PubMed

    Mann, Michael E; Zhang, Zhihua; Rutherford, Scott; Bradley, Raymond S; Hughes, Malcolm K; Shindell, Drew; Ammann, Caspar; Faluvegi, Greg; Ni, Fenbiao

    2009-11-27

    Global temperatures are known to have varied over the past 1500 years, but the spatial patterns have remained poorly defined. We used a global climate proxy network to reconstruct surface temperature patterns over this interval. The Medieval period is found to display warmth that matches or exceeds that of the past decade in some regions, but which falls well below recent levels globally. This period is marked by a tendency for La Niña-like conditions in the tropical Pacific. The coldest temperatures of the Little Ice Age are observed over the interval 1400 to 1700 C.E., with greatest cooling over the extratropical Northern Hemisphere continents. The patterns of temperature change imply dynamical responses of climate to natural radiative forcing changes involving El Niño and the North Atlantic Oscillation-Arctic Oscillation. PMID:19965474

  20. Evidence for external forcing of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation since termination of the Little Ice Age

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; Jacobsen, Bo Holm; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Olsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) represents a significant driver of Northern Hemisphere climate, but the forcing mechanisms pacing the AMO remain poorly understood. Here we use the available proxy records to investigate the influence of solar and volcanic forcing on the AMO over the last ~450 years. The evidence suggests that external forcing played a dominant role in pacing the AMO after termination of the Little Ice Age (LIA; ca. 1400–1800), with an instantaneous impact on mid-latitude sea-surface temperatures that spread across the North Atlantic over the ensuing ~5 years. In contrast, the role of external forcing was more ambiguous during the LIA. Our study further suggests that the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation is important for linking external forcing with North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures, a conjecture that reconciles two opposing theories concerning the origin of the AMO. PMID:24567051

  1. Lake carbonate-?18 records from the Yukon Territory, Canada: Little Ice Age moisture variability and patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Lesleigh; Finney, Bruce P.; Shapley, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    A 1000-yr history of climate change in the central Yukon Territory, Canada, is inferred from sediment composition and isotope geochemistry from small, groundwater fed, Seven Mile Lake. Recent observations of lake-water ?18O, lake level, river discharge, and climate variations, suggest that changes in regional effective moisture (precipitation minus evaporation) are reflected by the lake’s hydrologic balance. The observations indicate that the lake is currently 18O-enriched by summer evaporation and that during years of increased precipitation, when groundwater inflow rates to the lake increase, lake-water ?18O values decrease. Past lake-water ?18O values are inferred from oxygen isotope ratios of fine-grained sedimentary endogenic carbonate. Variations in carbonate ?18O, supplemented by those in carbonate and organic ?13C, C/N ratios, and organic carbon, carbonate and biogenic silica accumulation rates, document changes in effective moisture at decadal time scales during the early Little Ice Age period to present. Results indicate that between ?AD 1000 and 1600, effective moisture was higher than today. A shift to more arid climate conditions occurred after ?AD 1650. The 19th and 20th centuries have been the driest of the past millennium. Temporal variations correspond with inferred shifts in summer evaporation from Marcella Lake ?18O, a similarly small, stratified, alkaline lake located ?250 km to the southwest, suggesting that the combined reconstructions accurately document the regional paleoclimate of the east-central interior. Comparison with regional glacial activity suggests differing regional moisture patterns during early and late Little Ice Age advances.

  2. The Spiral Structure of the Milky Way, Cosmic Rays, and Ice Age Epochs on Earth

    E-print Network

    Nir J. Shaviv

    2002-09-12

    The short term variability of the Galactic cosmic ray flux (CRF) reaching Earth has been previously associated with variations in the global low altitude cloud cover. This CRF variability arises from changes in the solar wind strength. However, cosmic ray variability also arises intrinsically from variable activity of and motion through the Milky Way. Thus, if indeed the CRF climate connection is real, the increased CRF witnessed while crossing the spiral arms could be responsible for a larger global cloud cover and a reduced temperature, thereby facilitating the occurrences of ice ages. This picture has been recently shown to be supported by various data (Shaviv, 2001). In particular, the variable CRF recorded in Iron meteorites appears to vary synchronously with the appearance ice ages. Here we expand upon the original treatment with a more thorough analysis and more supporting evidence. In particular, we discuss the cosmic ray diffusion model which considers the motion of the Galactic spiral arms. We also elaborate on the structure and dynamics of the Milky Way's spiral arms. In particular, we bring forth new argumentation using HI observations which imply that the galactic spiral arm pattern speed appears to be that which fits the glaciation period and the cosmic-ray flux record extracted from Iron meteorites. In addition, we show that apparent peaks in the star formation rate history, as deduced by several authors, coincides with particularly icy epochs, while the long period of 1 to 2 Gyr before present, during which no glaciations are known to have occurred, coincides with a significant paucity in the past star formation rate.

  3. Sr and Nd isotopes as tracers of clastic sources in Lake Le Bourget sediment (NW Alps, France) during the Little Ice Age

    E-print Network

    Gilli, Adrian

    ) during the Little Ice Age: Palaeohydrology implications Marie Revel-Rolland a,b,*, Fabien Arnaud c. In addition, several individual flood levels have been identified during the Little Ice Age (LIA) on the basis;(deforestation and agriculture) of the lake catchment before the 1800s appears to have had little influence

  4. Decreasing frequency of forest fires in the southern boreal zone of Québec and its relation to global warming since the end of the 'Little Ice Age'

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yves Bergeron; Sylvain Archambault

    1993-01-01

    Although an increasing frequency of forest fires has been suggested as a consequence of global warming, there are no empirical data that have shown a climatically driven change in fire frequency since the warming that has followed the end of the 'Little Ice Age'. We present here evidence from fire and tree-ring chronologies that the post-'Little Ice Age' climate change

  5. 10Be surface exposure ages on the late-Pleistocene and Holocene history of Linnébreen on Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusche, Melissa; Winsor, Kelsey; Carlson, Anders E.; Marcott, Shaun A.; Rood, Dylan H.; Novak, Anthony; Roof, Steven; Retelle, Michael; Werner, Alan; Caffee, Marc; Clark, Peter U.

    2014-04-01

    Arctic glaciers were sensitive to past changes in high-latitude winter precipitation and summer temperature. Here we develop a late-Pleistocene to Holocene history for Linnébreen (Linné Glacier) in western Svalbard using 10Be surface exposure ages on isolated erratic and moraine boulders. We show that Linnébreen had separated from the larger ice sheet over Svalbard and was retreating up valley around the start of the Younger Dryas cold period. We attribute this retreat during a cold period on Svalbard to moisture starvation of Linnébreen from advanced sea ice and/or elevated shortwave boreal summer insolation that overwhelmed any reduction in sensible heat. After an ice-free period during the early to middle Holocene, Linnébreen reformed sometime after 4.6 ± 0.2 ka, and was at a position roughly equivalent to its Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum extent before it began to retreat at 1.6 ± 0.2 ka. Comparison with calibrated 14C dates from three other glaciers could suggest that this period of ice retreat at ˜1.6 ka could be regional in extent. Linnébreen occupied the pre-LIA moraine when there was an increased ratio of cold Arctic-sourced relative to warm Atlantic-sourced waters around Svalbard and advanced sea ice. The retreat of Linnébreen at ˜1.6 ka was concurrent with the increased presence of warm Atlantic waters around Svalbard and attendant sea-ice retreat. These coincident changes in ocean temperatures, sea-ice extent, and Linnébreen moraine age could imply a climatic forcing of the pre-LIA advance and retreat of Linnébreen. Summer temperatures, rather than changes in precipitation, would then be dominant in driving ice retreat, although the possibility of stochastic glacier-margin variability cannot be excluded. Our data therefore suggest that Linnébreen may have responded differently to past changes in sea-ice extent that could depend on the background climate state (deglacial climate vs. late-Holocene climate), which highlights the complexity in climatic controls on Arctic glaciers.

  6. Evidence for more extensive ice shelves along the Western Antarctic Peninsula during the Little Ice Age: observations from the LARISSA project in Barilari Bay, Graham Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirshner, A. E.; Christ, A.; Allinger, T.; Armbruster, G.; Crawford, A.; Elking, N.; Gao, J.; Gunter, M.; Kirievskaya, D.; Jeong, S.; Peers, C.; Povea de Castro, P.; Reardon, D.; Sanchez Cervera, C.; Talaia-Murray, M.; Verreydt, W.; Ward, M.; Larissa Summer School

    2010-12-01

    Barilari Bay, west Antarctic Peninsula, lies 12 nautical miles northwest from ice-core site Beta on the Bruce Plateau, which is an area of regionally high snow accumulation rates and ice velocity. This area has experienced recent rapid regional warming (Vaughan, 2003), and aerially-documented ice shelf disintegration since the 1940’s . A 133cm Kasten core (KC54) was collected aboard the Nathaniel B. Palmer in 2010 (NBP1001), allowing for the investigation of whether the inner fjord of Barilari Bay has experienced fluctuations in glacial dynamics throughout Marine Isotope Stage 2e to present, or if the recent observations are unique to the last century. KC-54 was collected in the tributary region of the Weir and Lawrie glaciers. Multibeam bathymetric mapping delineated that the core was collected landward of a prominent grounding zone wedge, in a zone of paleo-ice streaming, indicated by mega-scale glacial lineations. The glacial stratigraphy has been established based on a multi-proxy data-set, including: grain size; preserved total organic carbon; ?13C; diatom abundance and assemblages; physical properties including magnetic susceptibility and porosity; and geophysical data. The lower-most unit is a homogeneous, poorly-sorted, diamicton with low porosity and no diatoms. Unconformably overlying the basal unit is a laminated mud with low diatom abundance. This unit grades upwards into a zone of abundant ice rafted debris. The top unit is a finely laminated, diatom-rich mud. The facies change from glacial till to sandy-silt to laminated, diatomaceous sediments from the NPB1001 KC54 documents a transition from sub-glacial to sub-ice shelf to open marine conditions in the inner fjord of Barilari Bay. The chronology of this change was determined using radiocarbon and 210Pb radio-isotope dating. The cyclicity of sediment flux to the basin was examined through x-ray analysis of laminations deposited above the diamicton. This helps to constrain the controlling factor in depositional behavior in inner Barilari Bay during the Late Holocene. The general retreat history of the bay may be related to post-Little Ice Age warming, which has been documented from other marine records along the western Antarctic Peninsula. This work stems from a NSF summer program related to the LARISSA (LARsen Ice Shelf System, Antarctica) project, through the International Antarctic Institute and Hamilton College.

  7. Multiple Nonconformities in Ice-Walled Lake Successions Indicate Periods with Cold Summers (24.4 - 22.5 ka, 21.1 - 19.2 ka, 18.5 - 18.1 ka) during the Last Deglaciation in Northeastern Illinois, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, B. B.

    2014-12-01

    Unprecedented age control on many last glacial stratigraphic units and morainal ice-margin positions are interpreted from AMS radiocarbon ages of tundra plant macrofossils archived in low-relief ice-walled lake plain (IWLP) deposits the Lake Michigan Lobe (south-central Laurentide Ice Sheet). IWLPs are periglacial features that formed on morainal dead-ice permafrost. Lacustrine sediment, and the fossils contained therein, had physical and temporal proximity to the glacier which formed the underlying moraine. In modern ice-walled lakes, as the lake's ice cover begins to melt, moats form which allows access of sloughing tundra-mantled active layer sediment (soil) into the lakes. Multiple AMS ages from two sites with proglacial sediment buried by glacial max LIS diamicton, and IWLPs reveal evidence of episodic plant growth and sedimentation including ca. 24.0 to 24.4 ka (post Shelby Phase), 22.5 to 21.1 ka (post Livingston Phase), 18.1 to 17.4 ka (post Woodstock Phase). Although presently based on negative evidence, the associated nonconformities (listed in title) indicate periods when cold conditions did not promote development of the estival moat. Although the evidence does not preclude tundra growth during the cold summers, there was little landscape modification due to limited thawing of the active layer. At approximately the onset of the 19.2-18.5 "warm" period, at least two large deglacial discharge events flooded the Fox and Kankakee tributary valleys of the Illinois River. The latter, known as the Kankakee Torrent, occurred at 19.05 - 18.85 ka (?1 range) at the Oswego channel complex. The temporal coincidence of the torrents and sedimentation in ice-walled lakes suggests that the post-Livingston Phase nonconformity (21.1 - 19.2 ka) was a period of lessened meltwater discharge through subglacial conduits (tunnel valleys) as the frozen toe promoted formation of subglacial lakes, buildup of pore-water pressures, and the release of subglacial water as "torrents". In the case of the Fox and Kankakee torrents, ice-marginal discharge first flowed into proglacial lakes which ultimately breached moraines, resulting in catastrophic "torrents". Hence, present knowledge does not allow determination of the nature of the subglacial release (catastrophic vs. large, steady discharge).

  8. The landslide response of alpine basins to post-Little Ice Age glacial thinning and retreat in southwestern British Columbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kris Holm; Michael Bovis; Matthias Jakob

    2004-01-01

    The role of post-Little Ice Age (LIA) Neoglacial retreat on landslide activity is investigated in 19 alpine basins along the upper Lillooet River Valley, British Columbia. We examine how Neoglacial scouring and glacial recession have modified hillslope form and slope stability, and construct a decision-making flowchart to identify landslide hazards associated with glacial retreat. This work is based on field

  9. Evidence from northwest European bogs shows ‘Little Ice Age’ climatic changes driven by variations in solar activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dmitri Mauquoy; Bas van Geel; Maarten Blaauw; Johannes van der Plicht

    2002-01-01

    Fluctuations in Holocene atmospheric radiocarbon concentrations have been shown to be due to variations in solar activity. Analyses of both 10Be and 14C nuclides con” rm that production-rate changes during the Holocene were largely modulated by solar activity. Analyses of peat samples from two intact European ombrotrophic bogs show that climatic deteriorations during the ‘Little Ice Age’ are associated with

  10. The Arctic Char Salvelinus alpinus (L.) Species Complex in Ireland: A Secretive and Threatened Ice Age Relict

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fran Igoe; Johan Hammar

    2004-01-01

    Members of the Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus (L.) species complex were most likely the first freshwater fish to colonise Ireland after the last Ice Age. Once widespread and anadromous, they now form isolated populations, confined to inland freshwater lakes with suitable habitat (well- oxygenated clean water, gravel shores and adequate depth when in the presence of other fish species). Adapted

  11. Mangrove dynamics in the southwestern Caribbean since the ‘Little Ice Age’: A history of human and natural disturbances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catalina González; Ligia Estela Urrego; José Ignacio Martínez; Jaime Polanía; Yusuke Yokoyama

    2010-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the long-term response of Caribbean mangroves to human and natural disturbances during the ‘Little Ice Age’ (LIA). We present new palynological information on the dynamics of the Bahia Honda mangrove from the eastern coast of San Andres Island in the southwestern Caribbean for the late Holocene. Major changes in the Bahia Honda pollen record show

  12. Horns of the woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blumenbach, 1799) in the Ice Age Museum collection (Moscow, Russia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fedor K. Shidlovskiy; Irina V. Kirillova; John Wood

    The Ice Age Museum (Moscow, Russia) houses the most representative collection of woolly rhinoceros horns in the world. It consists in about 30 complete and fragmentary specimens from the Late Pleistocene deposits of Northern Yakutia and Chukotka. This collection includes five complete sets of nasal and frontal horns of the same individual (two sets with their own proper skull); series

  13. Age estimates of isochronous reflection horizons by combining ice core, survey, and synthetic radar data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olaf Eisen; Uwe Nixdorf; Frank Wilhelms; Heinrich Miller

    2004-01-01

    Ice core records and ice-penetrating radar data contain complementary information on glacial subsurface structure and composition, providing various opportunities for interpreting past and present environmental conditions. To exploit the full range of possible applications, accurate dating of internal radar reflection horizons and knowledge about their constituting features is required. On the basis of three ice core records from Dronning Maud

  14. Middle to Late Amazonian tropical mountain glaciers on Mars: The ages of the Tharsis Montes fan-shaped deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadish, Seth J.; Head, James W.; Fastook, James L.; Marchant, David R.

    2014-02-01

    Fan-shaped deposits (FSDs) extending to the northwest of the Tharsis Montes on Mars are the remnants of Amazonian-aged, cold-based, tropical mountain glaciers. We use high-resolution images to perform new impact crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) analyses on these deposits in an effort to constrain the timing and duration of ice accumulation at tropical latitudes on Mars. This analysis revises the current understanding of the chronology regarding the formation of the glaciers and of the ridged facies in the Arsia Mons deposit, a deposit interpreted to be formed from recessional cold-based drop moraines. We develop a conceptual model that illustrates the effect of moving glacial ice on superposed impact craters of various sizes, including the buffering of underlying geologic units from impacts caused by the presence of the ice for extended periods of time, and the interpretation of crater retention ages of the subsequent glacial deposits following the periods of active glaciation. The new CSFD analyses establish best-fit crater retention ages for each entire Tharsis Montes FSD; these are ~220 Ma for the Ascraeus FSD at 8.35°S, ~125 Ma for the Pavonis FSD at 1.48°N, and ~210 Ma for the Arsia FSD at 11.92°N. Because the age for each deposit represents a combination of the stratigraphically older ridged facies and the younger knobby and smooth facies, the crater retention ages are most likely to represent dates subsequent to the onset of glaciation and prior to its final cessation. Estimates of the time necessary to build the deposits using net accumulation rates from atmospheric general circulation models and emplacement rates from glacial flow models suggest durations of ~45-150 Ma, depending on the specific obliquity history. These surface crater retention ages and related age estimates require that massive volumes of ice (on the order of 105 km3) were emplaced at tropical latitudes on Mars during the Middle to Late Amazonian. Additionally, we determined CSFD ages of three adjacent drop moraine units at Arsia Mons (725 Ma, 475 Ma and 345 Ma) and used these to calculate the average amount of time needed to form one of the approximately 185 drop moraines forming these deposits; we found that a typical drop moraine formation time in the Arsia FSD ridged facies to be on the order of ~106 years. These formation ages are considerably longer than that required for typical moraine systems alongside dynamic, wet-based glaciers on Earth, but are in approximate accord with recent geomorphological and geochemical data that document long-term, ice-margin stability for several cold-based glaciers in interior Antarctica. The difference in the ages of the ridged facies and non-ridged portion of the Arsia FSD suggests that the tropical mountain glaciers may have been emplaced over a period spanning many hundreds of millions of years. CSFD measurements for lava flows predating and postdating the Arsia Mons FSD suggest a maximum possible age of <750 Ma and a minimum age for the late stage, post FSD lava flows of ~105 Ma. Taken together, this evidence supports a scenario in which ice has been present and stable in substantial quantities (~105-106 km3) at tropical latitudes during extended periods of the Middle to Late Amazonian history of Mars. This implies that during this time, Mars sustained periods of spin-axis obliquity in the vicinity of 45°, during which time polar ice deposits were substantially reduced in volume or perhaps even absent.

  15. Little Ice Age to modern climate transition of Meso-American climate derived from speleothems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, A.; Miller, T.; Kushnir, Y.; Black, D. E.; Estrella, J.; Burnett, A.; Haug, G. H.; Breitenbach, S.; Beaufort, L.; Edwards, R.

    2011-12-01

    We present a high-resolution (annual) reconstruction of hydrological variability from a speleothem located in a cave under the Guatemala/Belize (G/B) border. Our age model is highly constrained by annual layering in the speleothem and nine U/Th MC ICPMS dates. Our ?18O record from 1640 to 2005 A.D. shows two large, abrupt decreases in inferred precipitation rates that appear to coincide with historical, large volcanic eruptions, superimposed on a general drying trend. The first abrupt increase in aridity occurred synchronously with the Tambora eruption in 1815, followed by another sharp decrease in Meso-American precipitation coincident with the eruption of Krakatau in 1883. Both drying events extend for thirty to forty years after the initial eruption, in good agreement with the 19th century drying and the "volcanic dust veil index" from Lamb (1970). Preliminary analysis indicates that the Meso-Americas may be highly sensitive to volcanic forcing because they receive considerable climate input from both Atlantic (primary) and Pacific (secondary) influences. Past volcanic aerosol model loading patterns from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption produced global and in particular, North Atlatic cooling. This could have moved the Atlantic ITCZ southwards and caused drying in Meso-America. Wavelet analysis of the speleothem data also shows ENSO scale variability. Our results highlight the need for better understanding of the consequences of volcanic eruptions and their patterns of climate variability, in particular during the transition from the Little Ice Age to the modern industrial era.

  16. Possible effects of anthropogenically-increased CO2 on the dynamics of climate - Implications for ice age cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Barry; Maasch, Kirk A.; Verbitsky, Mikhail YA.

    1993-01-01

    A dynamical model, developed to account for the observed major variations of global ice mass and atmospheric CO2 during the late Cenozoic, is used to provide a quantitative demonstration of the possibility that the anthropogenically-forced increase of atmospheric CO2, if maintained over a long period of time (perhaps by tectonic forcing), could displace the climatic system from an unstable regime of oscillating ice ages into a more stable regime representative of the pre-Pleistocene. This stable regime is characterized by orbitally-forced oscillations that are of much weaker amplitude than prevailed during the Pleistocene.

  17. Ages of rampart craters in equatorial regions on Mars: Implications for the past and present distribution of ground ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, D.; van Gasselt, S.; Hauber, E.; Michael, G.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    2006-10-01

    We are testing the idea of Squyres et al. (1992) that rampart craters on Mars may have formed over a significant time period and therefore the onset diameter (minimum diameter of a rampart crater) only reflects the ground ice depth at a given time. We measured crater size frequencies on the layered ejecta of rampart craters in three equatorial regions to derive absolute model ages and to constrain the regional volatile history. Nearly all rampart craters in the Xanthe Terra region are ˜3.8 Gyr old. This corresponds to the Noachian fluvial activity that region. Rampart crater formation declines in the Hesperian, whereas onset diameters (minimum diameter) increase. No new rampart craters formed after the end of the Hesperian (˜3 Gyr). This indicates a lowering of the ground ice table with time in the Xanthe Terra region. Most rampart craters in the Valles Marineris region are around 3.6 Gyr old. Only one large, probably Amazonian-aged (˜2.5 Gyr), rampart crater exists. These ages indicate a volatile-rich period in the Early Hesperian and a lowering of the ground ice table with time in the Valles Marineris study region. Rampart craters in southern Chryse Planitia, which are partly eroded by fluvial activity, show ages around 3.9 Gyr. Rampart craters superposed on channels have ages between ˜1.5 and ˜0.6 Gyr. The onset diameter (3 km at ˜1.5 Gyr) in this region may indicate a relatively shallow ground ice table. Loss of volatiles due to diffusion and sublimation might have lowered the ground ice table even in the southern Chryse Planitia region afterwards. In general, our study implies a formation of the smallest rampart craters within and/or shortly after periods of fluvial activity and a subsequent lowering of the ground ice table indicated by increasing onset diameter to the present. These results question the method to derive present equatorial ground ice depths from the onset diameter of rampart craters without information about their formation time.

  18. A method for estimating the age-depth relationship of Dome Fuji Ice Core using a sequential Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Shinya; Suzuki, Kazue; Kawamura, Kenji; Parrenin, Frederic; Higuchi, Tomoyuki

    2015-04-01

    A technique for estimating the age-depth relationship and its uncertainty in ice cores has been developed. The age-depth relationship is mainly determined by the accumulation of snow at the site of the ice core and the thinning process due to the horizontal stretching and vertical compression of an ice layer. However, both the accumulation process and the thinning process are not fully known. In order to appropriately estimate the age as a function of depth, it is crucial to incorporate observational information into a model describing the accumulation and thinning processes. In the proposed technique, the age as a function of depth is estimated from age markers and time series of ?18O data. The estimation is achieved using a method combining a sequential Monte Carlo method and the Markov chain Monte Carlo method as proposed by Andrieu et al. (2010). In this hybrid method, the posterior distributions for the parameters in the models for the accumulation and thinning processes are basically computed using a way of the standard Metropolis-Hastings method. Meanwhile, sampling from the posterior distribution for the age-depth relationship is achieved by using a sequential Monte Carlo approach at each iteration of the Metropolis-Hastings method. A sequential Monte Carlo method normally suffers from the degeneracy problem, especially in cases that the number of steps is large. However, when it is combined with the Metropolis-Hastings method, the degeneracy problem can be overcome by collecting a large number of samples obtained by many iterations of the Metropolis-Hastings method. We will demonstrate the result obtained by applying the proposed technique to the ice core data from Dome Fuji in Antarctica.

  19. Simple energy balance model resolving the seasons and the continents - Application to the astronomical theory of the ice ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. R.; Short, D. A.; Mengel, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis is undertaken of the properties of a one-level seasonal energy balance climate model having explicit, two-dimensional land-sea geography, where land and sea surfaces are strictly distinguished by the local thermal inertia employed and transport is governed by a smooth, latitude-dependent diffusion mechanism. Solutions of the seasonal cycle for the cases of both ice feedback exclusion and inclusion yield good agreements with real data, using minimal turning of the adjustable parameters. Discontinuous icecap growth is noted for both a solar constant that is lower by a few percent and a change of orbital elements to favor cool Northern Hemisphere summers. This discontinuous sensitivity is discussed in the context of the Milankovitch theory of the ice ages, and the associated branch structure is shown to be analogous to the 'small ice cap' instability of simpler models.

  20. Comments on Jansson, K.N. and Glasser, N.F. (2008) “Modification of peripheral mountain ranges by former ice sheets: The Brecon Beacons, southern UK,” Geomorphology 97, 178-189

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakesby, Richard A.; Matthews, John A.

    2009-09-01

    Jansson and Glasser (Jansson, K.N., Glasser, N.F., 2008. Modification of peripheral mountain ranges by former ice sheets: the Brecon Beacons, southern UK. Geomorphology 97, 178-189.) have recently provided unconventional interpretations of selected glacial erosional and depositional landforms in the Brecon Beacons, UK, based on remotely sensed imagery. These new interpretations contradict well-established and reliable evidence for the origins and ages of certain glacial landforms of this upland area and elsewhere. They suggest that during a post-Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ice-sheet event ice flowed up supposed, essentially "fluvial" valleys producing "glacial lineations" and depositing marginal moraines at the valley heads and on cirque floors. We argue that their interpretations of some key landforms are incorrect and that they have ignored much of the previous dating and field geomorphological evidence. Sedimentary and morphological evidence (e.g., lack of erratic content; convex planform with respect to the headwall; relatively large height range of moraines; and close association with headwall extent, height, and steepness) all indicate that higher level cirque-floor and valley-head moraines in the Brecon Beacons (> c. 400 m) were formed by cirque glaciers. Available dating evidence indicates a Younger Dryas age. We demonstrate that the supposed "fluvial" valleys, comprising trough heads with steep headwalls, have more nearly parabolic than V-shaped cross profiles indicating substantial glacial modification. Field evidence shows that proposed key exemplar post-LGM glacial lineations are in fact debris flow deposits. We conclude that whilst the adoption of a macroscale approach can shed new light on large-scale, ice-sheet movements, this approach should not be undertaken without consideration of the associated field evidence.

  1. Early Break-up (~20 ka) of the Norwegian Channel Ice Stream of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendsen, J. I.; Briner, J. P.; Mangerud, J.; Hughes, A. L. C.; Young, N. E.; Vasskog, K.

    2014-12-01

    New time-slice reconstructions of Eurasian Ice Sheet limits during Marine Isotope Stage 2 reveal that the timing of both maximum ice sheet extent and subsequent retreat were spatially variable. Here we present a new reconstruction of the glacial and climate history during the last deglaciation based on 52 cosmogenic nuclide 10Be exposure ages from glacially transported boulders in southern Norway as well as other available data from moraines, lake basins and offshore seafloor sediments. The new ages indicate that the Norwegian Channel Ice Stream (NCIS), active during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM ~21 ka), broke up as early as ~20 ka, leaving the islands Utsira and Karmøy (located 250 km up-flow from the LGM ice-margin position) permanently ice free ever since. We postulate that the ice sheet flowed across the Norwegian Channel to Denmark and onto the North Sea Plateau during an early phase of the last glacial, but when the NCIS started to operate this ice supply to the North Sea diminished. The fast flows of the NCIS led to a lowering of the ice surface on the shelf and presumably also a drawdown of the entire ice sheet. We envision a large open bay across the entire northern North Sea by 20 ka, which facilitated rapid calving at the ice front and ice sheet thinning. There is also evidence to suggest that the Eurasian Ice Sheet complex as a whole was in a state of retreat soon after the collapse of the ice stream suggesting a common causal connection. We think the primary forcing mechanism for the early deglaciation was increasing high-northern-latitude insolation. The adjacent coastal areas of the Norwegian mainland remained ice covered for another 4000 years until ~16 ka when the ice margin along the coast started to retreat eastward. This second stage of ice sheet retreat was interrupted by several re-advances. The largest re-advance culminated at the very end of the Younger Dryas stadial period (11.6 ka).

  2. Quaternary Ice-Age dynamics in the Colombian Andes: developing an understanding of our legacy.

    PubMed

    Hooghiemstra, Henry; Van der Hammen, Thomas

    2004-02-29

    Pollen records from lacustrine sediments of deep basins in the Colombian Andes provide records of vegetation history, the development of the floristic composition of biomes, and climate variation with increasing temporal resolution. Local differences in the altitudinal distribution of present-day vegetation belts in four Colombian Cordilleras are presented. Operating mechanisms during Quaternary Ice-Age cycles that stimulated speciation are discussed by considering endemism in the asteraceous genera Espeletia, Espeletiopsis and Coespeletia. The floristically diverse lower montane forest belt (1000-2300 m) was compressed by ca. 55% during the last glacial maximum (LGM) (20 ka), and occupied the slopes between 800 m and 1400 m during that period. Under low LGM atmospheric pCO2 values, C4-dominated vegetation, now occurring below 2200 m, expanded up to ca. 3500 m. Present-day C3-dominated paramo vegetation is therefore not an analogue for past C4-dominated vegetation (with abundant Sporobolus lasiophyllus). Quercus immigrated into Colombia 478 ka and formed an extensive zonal forest from 330 ka when former Podocarpus-dominated forest was replaced by zonal forest with Quercus and Weinmannia. During the last glacial cycle the ecological tolerance of Quercus may have increased. In the ecotone forests Quercus was rapidly and massively replaced by Polylepis between 45 and 30 ka illustrating complex forest dynamics in the tropical Andes. PMID:15101574

  3. The Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age in Chesapeake Bay and the North Atlantic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.; Hayo, K.; Thunell, R.C.; Dwyer, G.S.; Saenger, C.; Willard, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    A new 2400-year paleoclimate reconstruction from Chesapeake Bay (CB) (eastern US) was compared to other paleoclimate records in the North Atlantic region to evaluate climate variability during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA). Using Mg/Ca ratios from ostracodes and oxygen isotopes from benthic foraminifera as proxies for temperature and precipitation-driven estuarine hydrography, results show that warmest temperatures in CB reached 16-17. ??C between 600 and 950. CE (Common Era), centuries before the classic European Medieval Warm Period (950-1100. CE) and peak warming in the Nordic Seas (1000-1400. CE). A series of centennial warm/cool cycles began about 1000. CE with temperature minima of ~. 8 to 9. ??C about 1150, 1350, and 1650-1800. CE, and intervening warm periods (14-15. ??C) centered at 1200, 1400, 1500 and 1600. CE. Precipitation variability in the eastern US included multiple dry intervals from 600 to 1200. CE, which contrasts with wet medieval conditions in the Caribbean. The eastern US experienced a wet LIA between 1650 and 1800. CE when the Caribbean was relatively dry. Comparison of the CB record with other records shows that the MCA and LIA were characterized by regionally asynchronous warming and complex spatial patterns of precipitation, possibly related to ocean-atmosphere processes. ?? 2010.

  4. Conference Summary: First International Conference on Global Warming and the Next Ice Age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetzel, Peter J.; Chylek, Petr; Lesins, Glen; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The First International Conference on Global Warming and the Next Ice Age was convened in Halifax, Nova Scotia, August 19-24, 2001. The conference program began each day with a 30 minute live classical music performances of truly international quality before the beginning business. Ample time for panel discussions was also scheduled. The general public was invited to attend and participate in a special evening panel session on the last day of the conference. The unusual and somewhat provocative title of the conference was designed to attract diverse views on global climate change. This summary attempts to accurately reflect the tone and flavor of the lively discussions which resulted. Presentations ranged from factors forcing current climate to those in effect across the span of time from the Proterozoic "snowball Earth" epoch to 50,000 years in the future. Although, as should be expected, attendees at the conference arrived with opinions on some of the controversial issues regarding climate change, and no-one openly admitted to a 'conversion' from their initial point of view, the interdisciplinary nature of the formal presentations, poster discussions, panels, and abundant informal discourse helped to place the attendees' personal perspectives into a broader, more diversified context.

  5. Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age and 20th century temperature variability from Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Kamiya, T.; Schwede, S.; Willard, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    We present paleoclimate evidence for rapid (< 100 years) shifts of ??? 2-4??C in Chesapeake Bay (CB) temperature ???2100, 1600, 950, 650, 400 and 150 years before present (years BP) reconstructed from magnesium/calcium (Mg/Ca) paleothermometry. These include large temperature excursions during the Little Ice Age (???1400-1900 AD) and the Medieval Warm Period (???800-1300 AD) possibly related to changes in the strength of North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). Evidence is presented for a long period of sustained regional and North Atlantic-wide warmth with low-amplitude temperature variability between ???450 and 1000 AD. In addition to centennial-scale temperature shifts, the existence of numerous temperature maxima between 2200 and 250 years BP (average ???70 years) suggests that multi-decadal processes typical of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are an inherent feature of late Holocene climate. However, late 19th and 20th century temperature extremes in Chesapeake Bay associated with NAO climate variability exceeded those of the prior 2000 years, including the interval 450-1000 AD, by 2-3??C, suggesting anomalous recent behavior of the climate system. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reconstruction of late Wisconsinan Ice Sheet and sea-level implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John B.

    1993-01-01

    The Ross Sea exhibits north-south oriented troughs associated with modern ice streams and outlet glaciers. Seismic reflection profiles across the troughs show evidence that they were glacially eroded. Seismic records show morphologic features interpreted as till tongues, morainal banks, and possibly glacial deltas formed near the grounding line of the former marine ice sheet. Piston cores from the continental shelf penetrated diamictons whose origin and age is problematic. Detailed petrographic analyses of the minerals and rocks comprising these diamictons were conducted to determine subglacial versus glacial marine origin, and to reconstruct the glacial setting of the Ross Sea during the most recent glacial maximum. The most detailed work, conducted in the western Ross Sea, shows that diamictons do occur in distinct petrologic provinces. This is consistent with deposition from the basal debris zone of either an ice sheet or an ice shelf. Overcompaction, in conjunction with the widespread nature of these deposits, favors deposition from marine ice sheets; ice shelves are believed to deposit their basal debris close to the grounding lines. Other results from the investigation are briefly discussed.

  7. Late Holocene vegetation and climate change at Moraine Bog, Tiedemann Glacier, southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Arsenault; John J. Clague; R. W. Mathewes

    2007-01-01

    Moraine Bog lies just outside the outermost lateral moraine of Tiedemann Glacier in the southern Coast Mountains of British Columbia. A sediment core taken from the wetland was analyzed for pollen, magnetic susceptibility, and loss on ignition to reconstruct changes in vegetation and climate during the late Holocene. Vegetation changed little between about 3500 and 2400 14C years BP. A

  8. Plant succession on moraines of the upper Dart Valley, southern South Island, New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Sommerville; A. F. Mark; J. B. Wilson

    1982-01-01

    Development of plant communities is described from a series of low-alpine moraines at 2 sites in the upper Dart Valley, close to the main divide of the Southern Alps, in Mount Aspiring National Park. These moraines probably contain one of the most complete chronosequences of low-alpine vegetation and soil in southern South Island. Results of multivariate analyses of vegetational data

  9. Medial moraines of glaciers of the Copper River Basin, Alaska: Discrete landslides dominate over other sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Kargel; L. Fischer; R. Furfaro; C. Huggel; O. Korup; G. J. Leonard; M. Uhlmann; R. L. Wessels; D. F. Wolfe

    2009-01-01

    Medial moraines are visually dominant structures of most large valley glaciers in the Copper River Basin (CRB), Alaska. Areally extensive but thin (usually <20 cm) accumulations of debris pose challenges for glacier mapping based on multispectral imagery, as done, for instance, in the GLIMS project. The sources of this material include large discrete landslides from wallrocks and from lateral moraines;

  10. Lichenometric dating of the ‘Little Ice Age’ maximum in Mt Cook National Park, Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Winkler

    2004-01-01

    Lichenometric dating studies using the yellow-green Rhizocarpon subgenus at the Eugenie, Hooker, Mueller and Tasman Glaciers in Mt Cook National Park, Southern Alps, New Zealand, reveal a ‘Little Ice Age’ maximum during the mid-eighteenth century (around AD 1725-1740). Lichenometric dating curves, constructed for Mueller Glacier in a preliminary study, were modified using local control points at the other glaciers. Modification

  11. Sedimentary facies and depositional architecture of ice-contact glaciomarine systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ida Lønne

    1995-01-01

    The characteristics of ice-contact glaciomarine systems are reviewed, based on a range of Weichselian and Holocene examples from the fjordal basins in Norway and Svalbard. These depositional systems occur as large morphological ridges, “end-moraines” (including “push-moraines”), which are coarse grained and show large-scale foreset bedding. The paper addresses some of the major problems with regard to the recognition, classification and

  12. Bluefin 9M AUV Survey of the Hubbard Glacier Morainal Bank: Proof-of-Concept Study of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Investigations Proximal to a Tidewater Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, J. A.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Lawson, D. E.; O'Halloran, W.

    2014-12-01

    Hubbard Glacier is one of the few advancing tidewater glaciers in the world, offering a premier opportunity for studying ice/sediment/seawater interactions at a tidewater glacier front that is in contact with the stabilizing submarine morainal bank. However, the seafloor and water column proximal to the ice face of a marine-terminating glacier is one of the most challenging and extreme environments imaginable for marine survey work. Frequently choked with constantly-shifting mélange ice at the sea surface and at risk from calving, surface vessels cannot operate safely proximal to the ice face. AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) technology provides an opportunity to survey in areas where surface vessels cannot. Operating well below the sea surface the AUV can operate without hindrance or danger to human operators. In addition, the AUV can be programmed to operate close to the seafloor at a constant altitude, enabling the finest-detail currently possible for acoustic seafloor mapping and consistent resolution irrespective of water depth. With these considerations in mind, we conducted a proof-of-concept survey of the Hubbard Glacier morainal bank in June, 2014. We utilized the Bluefin 9M, the smallest of their line of AUVs. Its size enabled deployment and recovery from a small charter fishing vessel well-suited to navigating through mélange-choked waters. The AUV's payload included a Klein UUV-3500 interferometric sonar (455/900 kHz), which enables acquisition of sidescan backscatter and swath bathymetry up to ~75 m to each side of the instrument from ~10 m altitude over the seabed, and sensors for measuring conductivity, temperature, depth (CTD) and optical backscatter (OBS). Although our operations were shortened due to an unfortunate failure in the sonar electronics, sufficient data were collected along the morainal bank to clearly prove the viability of AUV operations in this harsh environment. The data provide centimeter-scale seafloor detail close to the glacier in regions that could not be surveyed with surface vessels. We observed a number of intricate geomorphic features in the raw images that are to our knowledge without precedent. Of particular interest are a series of barchan-shaped bedforms that may provide evidence of significant turbidity flows down the face of the morainal bank.

  13. Increasing subtropical North Pacific Ocean nitrogen fixation since the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Owen A.; Guilderson, Thomas P.; Batista, Fabian C.; Schiff, John T.; McCarthy, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    The North Pacific subtropical gyre (NPSG) plays a major part in the export of carbon and other nutrients to the deep ocean. Primary production in the NPSG has increased in recent decades despite a reduction in nutrient supply to surface waters. It is thought that this apparent paradox can be explained by a shift in plankton community structure from mostly eukaryotes to mostly nitrogen-fixing prokaryotes. It remains uncertain, however, whether the plankton community domain shift can be linked to cyclical climate variability or a long-term global warming trend. Here we analyse records of bulk and amino-acid-specific 15N/14N isotopic ratios (?15N) preserved in the skeletons of long-lived deep-sea proteinaceous corals collected from the Hawaiian archipelago; these isotopic records serve as a proxy for the source of nitrogen-supported export production through time. We find that the recent increase in nitrogen fixation is the continuation of a much larger, centennial-scale trend. After a millennium of relatively minor fluctuation, ?15N decreases between 1850 and the present. The total shift in ?15N of -2 per mil over this period is comparable to the total change in global mean sedimentary ?15N across the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, but it is happening an order of magnitude faster. We use a steady-state model and find that the isotopic mass balance between nitrate and nitrogen fixation implies a 17 to 27 per cent increase in nitrogen fixation over this time period. A comparison with independent records suggests that the increase in nitrogen fixation might be linked to Northern Hemisphere climate change since the end of the Little Ice Age.

  14. The Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age in the Eastern Ecuadorian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledru, M.-P.; Jomelli, V.; Samaniego, P.; Vuille, M.; Hidalgo, S.; Herrera, M.; Ceron, C.

    2012-09-01

    To better characterize the climate variability of the last millennium in the high Andes, we analysed the pollen content of a 1100-yr-old sediment core collected in a bog located at 3800 m a.s.l. in the páramo in the Eastern Cordillera in Ecuador. An upslope convective index based on the ratio between cloud transported pollen from the andean forest to the bog (T) and Poaceae pollen frequencies, related to the edaphic moisture of the páramo (P), was defined to distinguish the atmospheric moisture from the soil moisture content of the páramo. Results showed that between 900 AD and 1230 AD, the Medieval Climate Anomaly interval was warm and moist with high T/P index linked to a high ENSO variability and a weak South American Summer Monsoon (SASM) activity. Between 1230 and 1650 AD, a dry climate prevailed characterized by an abrupt decrease in the T/P index related to lower ENSO variability with significant impact on the floristic composition of the páramo. During the Little Ice Age, two phases were observed, first a wet phase between 1650 and 1750 AD linked to low ENSO variability in the Pacific and warm south equatorial Atlantic SSTs favored the return of a wet páramo, and a cold and dry phase between 1750 and 1810 AD associated with low ENSO variability and weak SASM activity resulting in drying of the páramo. The Current Warm Period marks the beginning of a climate characterized by high convective activity, the highest in the last millennium, and weaker SASM activity modifying the water stock of the páramo. Our results show that the páramo is progressively loosing its capacity for water storage and that the variability of both tropical Pacific and Atlantic SSTs matters for Andean climate patterns although many teleconnection mechanisms are still poorly understood.

  15. Area, volume and mass changes of southeast Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, from the Little Ice Age maximum in the late 19th century to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannesdóttir, H.; Björnsson, H.; Pálsson, F.; Aðalgeirsdóttir, G.; Guðmundsson, S.

    2014-09-01

    Area and volume changes and the average geodetic mass balance of the non-surging outlet glaciers of southeast Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, during different time periods between ~1890 and 2010, are derived from a multi-temporal glacier inventory. A series of digital elevation models (DEMs) (∼1890, 1904, 1936, 1945, 1989, 2002, 2010) have been compiled from glacial geomorphological features, historical photographs, maps, aerial images, DGPS measurements and a LiDAR survey. Given the mapped bedrock topography we estimate relative volume changes since the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA) ~1890. The variable dynamic response of the outlets, assumed to have experienced similar climate forcing, is related to their different hypsometry, bedrock topography, and the presence of proglacial lakes. In the post-LIA period the glacierized area decreased by 164 km2 and the glaciers had lost 10-30% of their ~1890 area by 2010. The glacier surface lowered by 150-270 m near the terminus and the outlet glaciers collectively lost 60 ± 8 km3 of ice, which is equivalent to 0.154 ± 0.02 mm of sea level rise. The relative volume loss of individual glaciers was in the range of 15-50%, corresponding to a geodetic mass balance between -0.70 and -0.32 m w.e. a-1. The rate of mass loss was most negative in the period 2002-2010, on average -1.34 ± 0.12 m w.e. a-1, which lists among the most negative mass balance values recorded worldwide in the early 21st century. From the data set of volume and area of the outlets, spanning the 120 years post-LIA period, we evaluate the parameters of a volume-area power law scaling relationship.

  16. Area, Volume and Mass Changes of Southeast Vatnajökull Ice Cap, Iceland, from the Little Ice Age Maximum in the Late 19th Century to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannesdóttir, H.; Bjornsson, H.; Pálsson, F.; Adalgeirsdottir, G.; Gudmundsson, S.

    2014-12-01

    Areal and volume changes and the average geodetic mass balance of the non-surging outlet glaciers of southeast Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, during different time periods between 1890 and 2010, are derived from a multi-temporal glacier inventory. A series of digital elevation models (DEMs) (1890, 1904, 1936, 1945, 1989, 2002, 2010) have been compiled from geomorphological features, historical photographs, maps, aerial images, DGPS measurements and a LiDAR survey. Given the mapped bedrock topography, relative volume changes since the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA) 1890 have been estimated. The variable dynamic response of the outlet glaciers to assumed similar climate forcing, is related to their different hypsometry, bedrock topography, and the presence of proglacial lakes. In the post-LIA period the glacierized area decreased by 164 km2 and the glaciers had lost 10-30% of their 1890 area by 2010. The glacier surface lowered by 150-270 m near the terminus and the outlet glaciers collectively lost 60±8 km3 of ice, which is equivalent to 0.154 mm of sea level rise. The relative volume loss of individual glaciers was in the range of 15-50%, corresponding to a geodetic mass balance between -0.70 and -0.32 m w.e. a-1. The rate of mass loss was most negative in 2002-2010, on average -1.34 m w.e. a-1, which lists among the most negative mass balance values recorded worldwide in the early 21st century. From the data set of volume and area of the outlet glaciers, spanning the whole 120 year post-LIA period, we estimate the parameters of a volume area power-law scaling relationship.

  17. Extent of the last ice sheet in northern Scotland tested with cosmogenic 10Be exposure ages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, W.M.; Hall, A.M.; Ballantyne, C.K.; Binnie, S.; Kubik, P.W.; Freeman, S.

    2008-01-01

    The extent of the last British-Irish Ice Sheet (BIIS) in northern Scotland is disputed. A restricted ice sheet model holds that at the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ca. 23-19 ka) the BIIS terminated on land in northern Scotland, leaving Buchan, Caithness and the Orkney Islands ice-free. An alternative model implies that these three areas were ice-covered at the LGM, with the BIIS extending offshore onto the adjacent shelves. We test the two models using cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure dating of erratic boulders and glacially eroded bedrock from the three areas. Our results indicate that the last BIIS covered all of northern Scotland during the LGM, but that widespread deglaciation of Caithness and Orkney occurred prior to rapid warming at ca. 14.5 ka. Copyright ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Size, age and diet of polar cod, Boreogadus saida (Lepechin 1773), in ice covered waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. J. Lønne; B. Gulliksen

    1989-01-01

    Polar cod (Boreogadus saida) associated with drifting sea-ice were collected in the western Barents sea and north of Svalbard with dip-nets while SCUBA-diving in 1986 and 1987. Length-frequency measurements and otolith-readings suggested that the specimens were either one or two years old. The diet of fish from the western Barents sea (first-year ice) consisted mainly of copepods (Calanus finmarchicus, Calanus

  19. Carbon cycle instability as a cause of the late Pleistocene ice age oscillations - Modeling the asymmetric response

    SciTech Connect

    Saltzman, B.; Maasch, K.A. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (USA))

    1988-06-01

    A dynamical model of the Pleistocene ice ages is presented, which incorporates many of the qualitative ideas advanced recently regarding the possible role of ocean circulation, chemistry, temperature, and productivity in regulating long-term atmospheric carbon dioxide variations. This model involves one additional term (and free parameter) beyond that included in a previous model (Saltzman and Sutera, 1987), providing the capacity for an asymmetric response. It is shown that many of the main features exhibited by the delta(O-18)-derived ice record and the Vostok core/delta(C-13)-derived carbon dioxide record in the late Pleistocene can be deduced as a free oscillatory solution of the model. 35 refs.

  20. Radiocarbon ages of terrestrial gastropods extend duration of ice-free conditions at the Two Creeks forest bed, Wisconsin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rech, Jason A.; Nekola, Jeffrey C.; Pigati, Jeffrey S.

    2012-03-01

    Analysis of terrestrial gastropods that underlie the late Pleistocene Two Creeks forest bed (~ 13,800-13,500 cal yr BP) in eastern Wisconsin, USA provides evidence for a mixed tundra-taiga environment prior to formation of the taiga forest bed. Ten new AMS 14C analyses on terrestrial gastropod shells indicate the mixed tundra-taiga environment persisted from ~ 14,500 to 13,900 cal yr BP. The Twocreekan climatic substage, representing ice-free conditions on the shore of Lake Michigan, therefore began near the onset of peak warming conditions during the Bølling-Allerød interstadial and lasted ~ 1000 yr, nearly 600 yr longer than previously thought. These results provide important data for understanding the response of continental ice sheets to global climate forcing and demonstrate the potential of using terrestrial gastropod fossils for both environmental reconstruction and age control in late Quaternary sediments.

  1. Palaeoclimatic interpretation of moraines: Identifying limitations and future tasks (the case study Southern Alps/New Zealand)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Stefan; Kirkbride, Martin

    2013-04-01

    During the past 20 years, the widespread deployment of terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (TCND) alongside other substantial geochronological advances in laboratory precision and model calibration have seen an impressive increase in both number and claimed resolution of well-dated geomorphological reconstructions of mountain glacier fluctuations. Correlations at local, regional and hemispheric scales have frequently been performed on basis of those studies that partly include sophisticated probability analyses for reducing the statistical uncertainty of moraine ages, and analyses of glacier sensitivity to temperature and precipitation forcing. Although these recent advances especially with dating modern dating techniques are acknowledged, some basic conceptual issues still remain. It seems that in certain cases "technical" progress and improved modelling skills have encouraged us to over-reach our interpretive limits and overstate our optimism regarding "reliability" of glacier chronologies and their correlation. Critical evaluation of the interpretative limitations of chronological studies is not always recognised to the necessary extent. Interdisciplinary approaches - indispensable for the complex subject covering Geochronology, Glaciology, Glacial Geomorphology and Palaeoclimatology - are still not necessarily the norm. Based on a brief theoretical outline of the requirements for "reliable" palaeoclimatic interpretation of moraines (cf. Winkler & Matthews 2010, Kirkbride & Winkler 2012), one of the high-potential key sites for the investigation of Holocene glacier variation, the Southern Alps of New Zealand, are taken as case study to highlight a few of the practical limitations and outline future tasks that need improvement. Those tasks are - among others - identified as: (1) minimise the "geomorphological" uncertainty with the numerical dating of moraines, (2) identify possible non-glacial influence on the formation of moraines and address the potential misleading effect of large-scale mass movements on their subsequent palaeoclimatic interpretation, (3) improve the control on spatial coherence of existing data, and finally (4) include glaciological considerations and critical evaluation of the proposed resolution with any attempts of intra-hemispheric and global correlation. References: Kirkbride, M.P. & Winkler, S. (2012): Correlation of Late Quaternary glacier chronologies: impact of climate variability, glacier response, and chronological resolution. Quaternary Science Reviews 46, 1 - 29. Winkler, S. & Matthews, J.A. (2010): Holocene glacier chronologies: Are 'high-resolution' global and inter-hemispheric comparisons possible? The Holocene 20, 1137 - 1147.

  2. The Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age in the eastern Ecuadorian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledru, M.-P.; Jomelli, V.; Samaniego, P.; Vuille, M.; Hidalgo, S.; Herrera, M.; Ceron, C.

    2013-02-01

    To better characterize the climate variability of the last millennium in the high Andes, we analyzed the pollen content of a 1150-yr-old sediment core collected in a bog located at 3800 m a.s.l. in the páramo in the eastern Cordillera in Ecuador. An upslope convective index based on the ratio between cloud transported pollen from the Andean forest to the bog (T) and Poaceae pollen frequencies, related to the edaphic moisture of the páramo (P), was defined. This index was used to distinguish changes in the atmospheric moisture from the soil moisture content of the páramo and their associated patterns of interdecadal El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability and South American summer monsoon (SASM) activity. Results show that between 850 and 1250 AD, the Medieval Climate Anomaly interval was warm and moist with a high transported pollen/Poaceae pollen (T/P) index linked to high ENSO variability and weak SASM activity. Between 1250 and 1550 AD, a dry climate prevailed, characterized by an abrupt decrease in the T/P index and therefore no upslope cloud convection, related to lower ENSO variability and with significant impact on the floristic composition of the páramo. During the Little Ice Age, two phases were observed: first, a wet phase between 1550 and 1750 AD linked to low ENSO variability in the Pacific and warm south equatorial Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) favored the return of a wet páramo, and then a cold and dry phase between 1750 and 1800 AD associated with low ENSO variability and weak SASM activity resulted in drying of the páramo. The current warm period marks the beginning of a climate characterized by high convective activity - the highest in the last millennium - and weaker SASM activity modifying the water storage of the páramo. Our results show that the páramo is progressively losing its capacity for water storage and that the interdecadal variability of both tropical Pacific and Atlantic SSTs matter for Andean climate patterns, although many teleconnection mechanisms are still poorly understood.

  3. Replicated Stalagmite Records of Rainfall Variability in the Solomon Islands since the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maupin, C. R.; Partin, J. W.; Quinn, T. M.; Shen, C.; Banner, J. L.; lin, K.; Taylor, F. W.; Sinclair, D.

    2011-12-01

    The tropical west Pacific warm pool (WPWP) and south Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ) play integral roles in global climate variability. Convection over the WPWP is a source of latent heat and moisture to extratropical latitudes and, in the region of the SPCZ, forms a center of action for the rising component of the zonal Pacific Walker circulation. The nature of pre-instrumental, and therefore pre-industrial, variability of convection associated with the WPWP since the Little Ice Age (LIA) is known only from sparse and spatially disparate records. As a result, it is difficult to form a robust framework on which to base estimates of future variability of zonal atmospheric circulation within the region, an important prospect given predicted weakening in the Pacific Walker circulation under global warming conditions. Here we present absolutely dated, subannually resolved, partially replicated oxygen isotope records, spanning 1420-2010 CE, from two fast growing (~2 mm yr-1) calcite speleothems from a cave in northern Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands (9.5° S, 160° E). Guadalcanal is located both within the WPWP and under the zonally oriented portion of the SPCZ. A strong degree of reproducibility between the two stalagmite ?18O time series, within dating uncertainties, favors the interpretation that the stalagmite ?18O variability is a reflection of climatic conditions over the cave, however we continue to assess the possibility of influence by any potential non-climatic processes. We assert that speleothem ?18O variability reflects changes in rainfall based on the isotope "amount effect" observed in the tropics. We find rainfall here has varied considerably on decadal to multidecadal timescales since the LIA and hypothesize a relationship between this variability and variability in the strength of shallow Pacific meridional overturning circulation (PMOC). Changes in the PMOC are thought to be responsible for decadal variability in central and eastern equatorial Pacific SST anomalies as well as anomalies in Pacific tradewind strength. Such variability could affect convergence and vertical motion in the zonally oriented portion of the SPCZ. We find no clear long-term trend associated with changes in total solar irradiance since the LIA, in contrast to equatorial and northern hemisphere proxy records of tropical Pacific ocean-atmosphere variability.

  4. Accurate age scale of the Dome Fuji ice core, Antarctica from O2/N2 ratio of trapped air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Suzuki, K.; Parrenin, F.

    2012-04-01

    Chronology of the first Dome Fuji deep ice core (core length: 2,500 m, ice thickness: 3,035 m) for the age range from 80 kyr to 340 kyr ago was established by orbital tuning of measured O2/N2 ratios in trapped air to local summer insolation, with precision better than about 2,000 years (Kawamura et al., 2007). The O2/N2 ratios found in polar ice cores are slightly lower than the atmospheric ratio because of size-dependent molecular fractionation during bubble close-off. The magnitude of this gas fractionation is believed to be governed by the magnitude of snow metamorphism when the layer was originally at the surface, which in turn is controlled by local summer insolation (Fujita et al., 2009). A strong advantage of the O2/N2 chronology is that there is no need to assume a lag between climatic records in the ice core and orbital forcings, becacuse O2/N2 ratios record local insolation through physical processes. Accuracy of the chronology was validated by comparing the O2/N2 chronology with U-Th radiometric chronology of speleothem records (Cheng et al., 2009) for the ends of Terminations II, III and IV, as well as several large climatic events, for which both ice-core CH4 and speleothem ?18O (a proxy for precipitation) show abrupt shifts as seen in the last glacial period. All ages from O2/N2 and U-Th chronology agreed with each other within ~2,000 yr. The O2/N2 chronology permits comparisons between Antarctic climate, greenhouse gases, astronomically calculated orbital parameters, and radiometrically-dated sea level and monsoon records. Here, we completed the measurements of O2/N2 ratios of the second Dome Fuji ice core, which reached bedrock, for the range from 2,400 to 3,028 m (320 - 700 kyr ago) at approximately 2,000-year time resolution. We made significant improvements in ice core storage practices and mass spectrometry. In particular, the ice core samples were stored at about -50 ° C until the air extraction, except during short periods of transportation, in order to prevent size-dependent fractionation due to gas loss during storage. The precision of the new O2/N2 data set is improved by a factor of 3 over the previous data. Clear imprint of local insolation is recognizable in the O2/N2 data towards the deepest depths, even around 400 kyr ago when summer insolation wiggles are small due to small orbital eccentricity. A new chronology using this O2/N2 data set will be established by applying the inverse method for EDC3 age scale (Parrenin et al., 2007) for the entire 700 kyr, and climatic implications will also be discussed especially on Terminations and interglacial periods.

  5. Volcanic ash layers in blue ice fields (Beardmore Glacier Area, Antarctica): Iridium enrichments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeberl, Christian

    1988-01-01

    Dust bands on blue ice fields in Antarctica have been studied and have been identified to originate from two main sources: bedrock debris scraped up from the ground by the glacial movement (these bands are found predominantly at fractures and shear zones in the ice near moraines), and volcanic debris deposited on and incorporated in the ice by large-scale eruptions of Antarctic (or sub-Antractic) volcanoes. Ice core studies have revealed that most of the dust layers in the ice cores are volcanic (tephra) deposits which may be related to some specific volcanic eruptions. These eruptions have to be related to some specific volcanic eruptions. These eruptions have to be relatively recent (a few thousand years old) since ice cores usually incorporate younger ice. In contrast, dust bands on bare blue ice fields are much older, up to a few hundred thousand years, which may be inferred from the rather high terrestrial age of meteorites found on the ice and from dating the ice using the uranium series method. Also for the volcanic ash layers found on blue ice fields correlations between some specific volcanoes (late Cenozoic) and the volcanic debris have been inferred, mainly using chemical arguments. During a recent field expedition samples of several dust bands found on blue ice fields at the Lewis Cliff Ice Tongue were taken. These dust band samples were divided for age determination using the uranium series method, and chemical investigations to determine the source and origin of the dust bands. The investigations have shown that most of the dust bands found at the Ice Tongue are of volcanic origin and, for chemical and petrological reasons, may be correlated with Cenozoic volcanoes in the Melbourne volcanic province, Northern Victoria Land, which is at least 1500 km away. Major and trace element data have been obtained and have been used for identification and correlation purposes. Recently, some additional trace elements were determined in some of the dust band samples, including Ir. Iridium determinations were made using INAA, with synthetical and natural (meteorite) standards. These findings are discussed.

  6. Effect of ageing of K-feldspar on its ice nucleating efficiency in immersion, deposition and contact freezing modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peckhaus, Andreas; Bachmann, Felix; Hoffmann, Nadine; Koch, Michael; Kiselev, Alexei; Leisner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Recently K-feldspar was identified as one of the most active atmospheric ice nucleating particles (INP) of mineral origin [1]. Seeking the explanation to this phenomena we have conducted extensive experimental investigation of the ice nucleating efficiency of K-feldspar in three heterogeneous freezing modes. The immersion freezing of K-feldspar was investigated with the cold stage using arrays of nanoliter-size droplets containing aqueous suspension of polydisperse feldspar particles. For contact freezing, the charged droplets of supercooled water were suspended in the laminar flow of the DMA-selected feldspar-containing particles, allowing for determination of freezing probability on a single particle-droplet contact [2]. The nucleation and growth of ice via vapor deposition on the crystalline surfaces of macroscopic feldspar particles have been investigated in the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) under humidified nitrogen atmosphere. The ice nucleation experiments were supplemented with measurements of effective surface area of feldspar particles and ion chromatography (IC) analysis of the leached framework cations (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+). In this contribution we focus on the role of surface chemistry influencing the IN efficiency of K-feldspar, in particular the connection between the degree of surface hydroxylation and its ability to induce local structural ordering in the interfacial layer in water molecules (as suggested by recent modeling efforts). We mimic the natural process of feldspar ageing by suspending it in water or weak aqueous solution of carbonic acid for different time periods, from minutes to months, and present its freezing efficiency as a function of time. Our immersion freezing experiments show that ageing have a nonlinear effect on the freezing behavior of feldspar within the investigated temperature range (-40°C to -10°C). On the other hand, deposition nucleation of ice observed in the ESEM reveals clear different pattern between freshly cleaved and aged mineral surfaces. This effect is especially pronounced for surfaces having different crystallographic orientations (001 and 010), with 001 being clearly preferential for ice nucleation. The factor two change of the BET effective area of the naturally aged feldspar particles is also indicative for the change in the surface morphology. Based on the IC analysis of framework cations removal from the surface of feldspar, we discuss the possible implications of this process for the interpretation of observed freezing behavior of feldspars. [1] Atkinson, J.D., Murray, B.J., Woodhouse, M.T., Whale, T.F., Baustian, K.J., Carslaw, K.S., Dobbie, S., O'Sullivan, D., and Malkin, T.L.: The importance of feldspar for ice nucleation by mineral dust in mixed-phase clouds. Nature, 498, 355-358, 2013 [2] Hoffmann, N., Kiselev, A., Rzesanke, D., Duft, D., and Leisner, T.: Experimental quantification of contact freezing in an electrodynamic balance. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2373-2382, 2013.

  7. Carbon dioxide effects of Antarctic stratification, North Atlantic Intermediate Water formation, and subantarctic nutrient drawdown during the last ice age: Diagnosis and synthesis in a geochemical box model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hain, Mathis P.; Sigman, Daniel M.; Haug, Gerald H.

    2010-12-01

    In a box model synthesis of Southern Ocean and North Atlantic mechanisms for lowering CO2 during ice ages, the CO2 changes are parsed into their component geochemical causes, including the soft-tissue pump, the carbonate pump, and whole ocean alkalinity. When the mechanisms are applied together, their interactions greatly modify the net CO2 change. Combining the Antarctic mechanisms (stratification, nutrient drawdown, and sea ice cover) within bounds set by observations decreases CO2 by no more than 36 ppm, a drawdown that could be caused by any one of these mechanisms in isolation. However, these Antarctic changes reverse the CO2 effect of the observed ice age shoaling of North Atlantic overturning: in isolation, the shoaling raises CO2 by 16 ppm, but alongside the Antarctic changes, it lowers CO2 by an additional 13 ppm, a 29 ppm synergy. The total CO2 decrease does not reach 80 ppm, partly because Antarctic stratification, Antarctic sea ice cover, and the shoaling of North Atlantic overturning all strengthen the sequestration of alkalinity in the deepest ocean, which increases CO2 both by itself and by decreasing whole ocean alkalinity. Increased nutrient consumption in the sub-Antarctic causes as much as an additional 35 ppm CO2 decrease, interacting minimally with the other changes. With its inclusion, the lowest ice age CO2 levels are within reach. These findings may bear on the two-stepped CO2 decrease of the last ice age.

  8. Basal ice facies and supraglacial melt-out till of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, Tuktoyaktuk Coastlands, western Arctic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murton, J. B.; Whiteman, C. A.; Waller, R. I.; Pollard, W. H.; Clark, I. D.; Dallimore, S. R.

    2005-03-01

    Glacially-deformed massive ice and icy sediments (MI-IS) in the Eskimo Lakes Fingerlands and Summer Island area of the Tuktoyaktuk Coastlands, western Arctic Canada, show, in the same stratigraphic sequences, features characteristic of both basal glacier ice and intrasedimental ice. Basal-ice features comprise (1) ice facies and facies groupings similar to those from the basal ice layers of contemporary glaciers and ice sheets in Alaska, Greenland and Iceland; (2) ice crystal fabrics similar to those from basal ice in Antarctica and ice-cored moraines on Axel Heiberg Island, Canada; and (3) a thaw or erosional unconformity along the top of the MI-IS, buried by glacigenic or aeolian sediments. Intrasedimental ice consists of pore ice and segregated ice formed within Pleistocene sands deposited before glacial overriding. The co-existence of basal and intrasedimental ice within the MI-IS records their occurrence within the basal ice layer of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Stagnation of the ice sheet and melt-out of till from the ice surface allowed burial and preservation of the basal ice layer on a regional scale. The widespread occurrence of supraglacial melt-out till with clast fabrics similar to those in the underlying ice suggests that such till can be well preserved during partial thaw of a continental ice sheet in lowlands underlain by continuous permafrost.

  9. Evidence for early Pleistocene Glaciation(s) in tropical Africa: Stratigraphy, Paleomagnetism, Paleosols and Paleoclimate of the Gorges Moraine System, Mount Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Barendregt, R. W.; Hamilton, T.; Hancock, R.

    2011-12-01

    Moraines marking an Early Pleistocene glaciation on Mt. Kenya are known from several valleys marking the lowermost extent of the Early Pleistocene Gorges Glaciation (2850 m a.s.l.). The lowermost paleosols at these sites formed either in till predating the Gorges Glaciation or in weathered phonolitic bedrock and related lavas, similar to the lithology forming the base of the Mt. Kenya volcanic series of Miocene/Pliocene age. Paleomagnetism and weathering characteristics have been used to refine the age of sediments assigned to the Gorges Glaciation. These deposits are normally magnetized but carry a persistent reversed overprint, suggesting that they were deposited during one of the normal subchrons within the Matuyama Reversed Chron. They are underlain either by a reversely magnetized weathered till (GOR 68), or weathered bedrock (GOR 64 and GOR 69), the latter exhibiting normal magnetization (Gauss?) with reversed overprint (Matuyama?). The sediments are overlain at all three sites by normally magnetized loesses and paleosols of presumable Brunhes age. The normal magnetization and reversed overprint recorded in sediments of the Gorges Glaciation most likely span a considerable portion of the Olduvai subchron (1.78-1.950 Ma.), which persisted for sufficient time to accommodate an extensive montane glaciation and prolonged period of weathering and soil formation. While the somewhat younger Jaramillo subchron cannot be ruled out, the extensive sediment and weathering record is more easily accommodated within the longer-lived Olduvai subchron. The characteristics of the lowermost buried paleosols and weathered bedrock substrate indicate wetter conditions prior to the onset of Pleistocene glaciation, a period that initially may have fostered a higher elevation forest cover of substantial spatial extent. These wetter conditions, punctuated with dry events, depict a progressive transition to alpine grassland at the start of the Quaternary. In light of new paleomagnetic and paleosol evidence, at least two tropical glaciations during the Matuyama Reversed Chron are documented from Mt. Kenya, suggesting this volcanic edifice had attained sufficient relief to form an ice mass and outlet glaciers, despite its equatorial latitude.

  10. Little Ice Age wintertime climate cooling linked to N-Atlantic subpolar gyre warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuijpers, Antoon; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Andresen, Camilla S.; Staines-Urías, Francisca

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, the Little Ice Age (LIA) in the North Atlantic is believed to have been marked by negative Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies. In apparent contrast, we present evidence from sediment core records from the N-Atlantic Subpolar Gyre showing prevalence of warm SST conditions. Our proxy data include both alkenone-based SST reconstructions and results from faunal and geochemical foraminiferal studies. Subpolar Gyre SST warming after the Medieval Climate Anomaly is observed in the Labrador Current close to the Gulf Stream boundary off Newfoundland, which agrees with previously reported increased influence of warmer, Gulf Stream-derived Slope Water off southern Newfoundland(1). Our core records from the West- and East Greenland Current realm off southern Greenland, as well as sites in Faroese waters, correspondingly indicate increased influence of warm, saline North Atlantic / Irminger Current waters. Other recently published studies also report LIA SST warming in the northern subpolar North Atlantic(2) as well as increased heat transport into the Arctic via the West Spitsbergen Current(3). Growing evidence indicates that positive SST anomalies in the North Atlantic Ocean can promote negative NAO conditions, thus be linked with cold wintertime conditions in Northwestern Europe. A published modeling study using ensemble simulations with an atmospheric GCM forced with reconstructed SST data for the period 1871-1999 shows weakening of the westerly winds around 60o N with SST anomalies that have the same sign across the North Atlantic(4). Six other climate models show that with some years of delay, an intensified Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation leads to a weak negative North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phase during winter(5). Furthermore, it was recently found that the stratosphere is a key element of extra-tropical response to ocean variability. Observational analysis and atmospheric model experiments indicate that large-scale Atlantic Ocean warming drives high-latitude precursory stratospheric warming in the first part of the winter, which propagates downward and leads to a negative tropospheric NAO(6). In summary, our results in combination with other proxy records and modelling experiments are consistent with a prevailing NAO negative atmospheric circulation mode and thus relate LIA continental wintertime cooling to a relatively warm N-Atlantic Subpolar Gyre, a scenario which may have implications for ongoing and future ocean warming conditions. (1) Keigwin,LD,Pickart,RS(1999) Science 286,520-523 (2) Miettinen,A et al(2012) J Climate, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00581.1 (3) Spielhagen,R et al (2011) Science 331, 450-453 (4) Sutton,RT,Hodson,DLR (2003) J Climate 16, 3296-3313 (5) Gastineau, G, Frankignoul, C (2011) Climate Dynamics 39, 37-57 (6) Omrani, N.-E. et al (2014) Climate Dynamics 42, 649-663

  11. Designing for effective stationkeeping in ice

    E-print Network

    Nørvåg, Kjetil

    . Sea ice management Sea ice observation and monitoring: · Ice concentration, floe size distribution, etc. · Ice geometry, ice age, density, salinity, etc. · Sea ice tracking (drift speed and directionDesigning for effective stationkeeping in ice CeSOS Highlights and AMOS Visions Conference

  12. www.sciencemag.org SCIENCE VOL 302 14 NOVEMBER 2003 1111 Algal Clues to Antarctic Ice Shelf Ages

    E-print Network

    Nori, Franco

    The naturally high variability of sea ice extent in Antarctica and the short duration of instrumental records have combined to obscure any clear record of sea ice coverage change. Curran et al. (p. 1203; see at the edges of ice shelves, which they show is related to the position of the nearby winter-spring sea ice

  13. Vostok Ice Core: Excel (Mac or PC)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Professor Stephanie Pfirman, Barnard College. Based on data of J. Chapellaz, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l'Environment, Grenoble. Archived at: Lamont-Dohert Earth Observatory (more info) . Starting Point page organized by R.M. MacKay.

    Students use Excel to graph and analyze Vostok ice core data (160,000 years of Ice core data from Vostok Station). Data includes ice age, ice depth, carbon dioxide, methane, dust, and deuterium isotope relative abundance.

  14. Ice front configuration and torrential flow features of the Late Wisconsinan interlobate region of southcentral Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, L.D. (Albion Coll., MI (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1994-04-01

    A large re-entrant, bordered on three sides by ice of the Michigan, Saginaw and Huron-Erie lobes, developed over a five-county area in southcentral Michigan during ice retreat of the Port Bruce Stade of the Woodfordian Substage. At this time, ice occupied positions marked by the Sturgies, Tekonsha, and Kalamazoo Moraines. The presence of numerous boulder beds within outwash deposits attests to frequent episodes of torrential flow. A major source of the discharge was the draining of short-lived proglacial and subglacial lakes identified by lacustrine deposits which occur at different altitudes within moraine belts. Tunnel valleys, meltwater channels, and narrow chutes carried the high discharges of water that were partly responsible for the Kankakee torrent of northeastern Illinois. The configuration of abandoned meltwater channels in eastern Calhoun and western jackson counties, between the Kalamazoo Moraine on the northeast and the Tekonsha Moraine to the southwest, indicates that a large ice-collapsed depression, 30 km long and 8 km to 16 km wide, developed within the Saginaw lobe just behind its margin. For a short period of time it contained intermittent glacial lakes one of which drained through the Kesler Lakes sluiceway. A large outwash plain, the Union City-Mendon sluiceway, heads at the Tekonsha Moraine in southcentral Calhoun County and extends southwest through northeastern Branch County to the Sturgis Moraine. Several abandoned narrow chutes, up to 1.6 km long and 60 m to 300 m wide, are incised in the outwash plain in the vicinity of Union City. Channel geometry indicates that flow exceeded 850 cms (30,000 cfs) during bankfull discharge and came from the overflow of a lake dammed by ice blocks in the ancient St. Joseph River floodplain.

  15. Initiation of East Asia monsoon failure at the climate transition from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyung Eun; Park, Wonsun

    2015-05-01

    We have reconstructed decadally-resolved continuous sea surface temperature and seawater ?18O (hence salinity) records over the last 1300 yr from alkenone and planktonic foraminiferal oxygen isotope ratio analyses of the East Sea/Japan Sea marine sediments to investigate East Asia monsoon variability. Comparisons of the records with other paleoclimate records indicate a possible connection between changes in the mid-latitude East Asia monsoon and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) over this period. The results show that during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) when the PDO index was negative, East Asia was characterized by surface warming with a strengthened summer monsoon. Summer monsoon-related precipitation increased and pluvials possibly dominated in the region at that time. Onset of Asia monsoon failure and severe drought occurred at the end of the MCA and extended to the Little Ice Age (LIA) when the PDO became positive.

  16. Depressed rates of origination and extinction during the late Paleozoic ice age: A new state for the global marine ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Steven M.; Powell, Matthew G.

    2003-10-01

    Rates of origination and extinction for marine animal genera dropped to low levels in latest Mississippian time, immediately after massive glaciers formed in the Southern Hemisphere and a second-order mass extinction occurred. Evolutionary turnover and diversity remained low for ˜50 m.y., shifting markedly upward precisely when extensive glaciation ended in Early Permian time. All diverse taxa with good fossil records experienced low rates of origination and extinction during this major ice age. Such sluggish rates would be predicted for faunas of shallow seas on or adjacent to a heavily glaciated supercontinent such as Pangea, where cool and highly seasonal thermal regimes should dictate that species have broad ecological niches, widespread geographic distributions, and large and relatively stable populations.

  17. Evaluation of Little Ice Age cooling in Western Central Andes, suggested by paleoELAs, in contrast with global warming since late 19th century deduced from instrumental records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubeda, Jose; Palacios, David; Campos, Néstor; Giraldez, Claudia; García, Eduardo; Quiros, Tatiana

    2015-04-01

    This paper attempts to evaluate climate cooling (°C) during the glacial expansion phases using the product GTV•?ELA, where GTV is the vertical air temperature gradient (°C/m) and ?ELA (m) the difference in level observed between the Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) reconstructions for current and past glaciers. With this aim the Area x Altitude Balance Ratio-(AABR) method was used to produce reconstructions of present ELAs (2002-2010) and paleoELAs corresponding to the last glacier advance phase. The reconstructions were produced in three study areas located along a N-S transect of the western cordillera in the Central Andes: the south-western sector of the Nevado Hualcán (9°S, 77°W; Giráldez 2011); the southern slope of the Cordillera Pariaqaqa (12°S, 76°W; Quirós, 2013) and the NW, NE, SE and SW quadrants of the Nevado Coropuna (16°S, 72°W; García 2013; Úbeda 2011; Campos, 2012). The three mountains exceed 6000 m altitude, their summit areas are covered by glaciers, and on their slopes there are existing well-conserved moraines deposited by the last advances near the present front of the ice masses. Although there are no absolute dates to confirm this hypothesis, it has been assumed that the last glacial advances occurred during the Little Ice Age (LIA), which the oxygen isotopes of the Nevado Huascarán (9°S, 77°W) date to the period 1500-1890. For the Hualcán and Pariaqaqa the mean global value of the Earth's GTV (6.5°C/km) was used, considered valid for the Tropics. On the Coropuna a GTV=8.4°C/km was used, based on high resolution sensors installed in situ since 2007 (Úbeda 2011). This gradient is approaching the upper limit of the dry adiabatic gradient (9.8°C/km), as the Coropuna region is more arid than the other case study areas. The climate cooling estimates deduced from the product GTV•?ELA were compared with the global warming shown by the 1880-2012 series, ?T=0.85°C, and 1850/1900-2003/2012, ?T=0.78°C. The differences are small (averaging 0.05 and 0.12 °C) suggesting that the product GTV•?ELA may be a good indicator of climate cooling during glacial expansion phases. However, the role played by precipitation has not yet been determined, and this will be examined in future research. Campos (2012). Glacier evolution in the South West slope of Nevado Coropuna (Cordillera Ampato, Peru). Master Thesis. Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain), pp. 55. http://eprints.ucm.es/19889/. García, E. (2013). Evolución glaciar del cuadrante noroeste del Nevado Coropuna. Master Thesis. Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain), p. 50. http://eprints.ucm.es/23671/. Giráldez, C. (2011). Glacier evolution in the South West slope of Nevado Hualcán (Cordillera Blanca, Peru). Master Thesis. Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain), p. 125. http://eprints.ucm.es/14013/. IPCC (2013). Climate Change 2013. The Physical Science Basis. Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge (UK) y New York (USA), 1535 pp. Research funded by Cryocrisis (CGL2012-35858) and www.cryoperu.pe.

  18. Response of Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean GCM to Ice Age Conditions and CO2 Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanase, W.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Ohgaito, R.; Segawa, T.

    2004-12-01

    Reconstructions of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21ka) climate from paleoclimatic data is expected to provide an opportunity for an extreme test of the possibility of Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean GCM's to simulate climate changes and help us understand the mechanism of climate change. To simulate the LGM and compare it with global warming (cooling) experiments by CO2 increase (decrease), here we use a coupled GCM of CCSR/NIES/FRCGC renewed and frozen for the submission of IPCC/AR4 optimized to be run on a super-computer "Earth Simulator". The model has a resolution of T42 (2.8 deg. for longitude and latitude) layers 20 for the atmospheric part and 1 to 0.5 deg. with 48 levels for the ocean part, which are synchronously coupled without flux adjustment and without any acceleration techniques. To separate the role of greenhouse gases and other components (mainly the ice sheet part), numerical experiments with LGM conditions as well as Glacial CO2 level are performed for 1000 years. The preliminary results show that the total LGM forcings bring about 3.2 deg of global cooling in 250 years, while the glacial CO2 has an impact to cool the climate by 2.2 deg C, and the low latitude climate sensitivity is within the range paleo-data indicate. The sensitivity of east Pacific is larger than the West Pacific whose pattern is quite similar for global warming experiment. The impact of ice sheet upon the ocean temperature is pronounced in the North Atlantic but even in the northwest Pacific region. The NADW is first strengthened from 20 Sv level to 30 Sv level in case of full LGM condition in 250 years and to 25 Sv level in case of Glacial CO2 case, although it is gradually weakening and cross the control level after 600 years. Further investigation for atmospheric circulation and ocean response compared with other GCMs are discussed in the presentation.

  19. New exposure ages for the Last Glacial Cycle in the Sanabria Lake region (northwestern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Laura; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; Domínguez-Cuesta, María Jose; Rinterknecht, Vincent; Pallàs, Raimon; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier; Valero-Garcés, Blas

    2013-04-01

    The Sanabria Lake region is located in the Trevinca Massif, a mid-latitude mountain area up to 2128 m asl in the northwest corner of the Iberian Peninsula (42oN 6oW). An ice cap glaciation took place during the Last Glacial Cycle in this massif, with an equilibrium line altitude of 1687 m for the Tera glacial outlet at its local maximum (Cowton et al., 2009). A well preserved glacial sequence occurs on an area of 45 km2 around the present Sanabria Lake (1000 m asl) and is composed by lateral and end moraines in close relationship with glaciolacustrine deposits. This sequence shows the ice snout oscillations of the former Tera glacier during the Last Glacial Cycle and offers a good opportunity to compare radiocarbon and OSL- based chronological models with new cosmogenic isotope dates. The new dataset of 10Be exposure ages presented here for the Sanabria Lake moraines is based on measurements conducted on 23 boulders and is compared with previous radiocarbon and OSL data conducted on ice related deposits (Pérez-Alberti et al., 2011; Rodríguez-Rodríguez et al., 2011). Our results are coherent with the available deglaciation radiocarbon chronology, and support a last deglaciation origin for the whole set of end moraines that are downstream the Sanabria Lake (19.2 - 15.7 10Be ka). Discrepancies between results of the different dating methods concern the timing of the local glacial maximum, with the cosmogenic exposure method always yielding the youngest minimum ages. As proposed to explain similar observations made elsewhere (Palacios et al., 2012), reconciling the ages from different dating methods would imply the occurrence of two glacial advances close enough in extent to generate an overlapping polygenic moraine. Cowton, T., Hughes, P.D., Gibbard, P.L., 2009. Palaeoglaciation of Parque Natural Lago de Sanabria, northwest Spain. Geomorphology 108, 282-291. Rodríguez-Rodríguez, L., Jiménez-Sánchez, M., Domínguez-Cuesta, M.J., Rico, M.T., Valero-Garcés, B., 2011. Last deglaciation in northwestern Spain: New chronological and geomorphologic evidence from the Sanabria region. Geomorphology 135, 48-65. Palacios, D., Andrés, N., Úbeda, J., Alcalá, J., Marcos, J., Vázquez-Selem, L., 2012. The importance of poligenic moraines in the paleoclimatic interpretation from cosmogenic dating. Geophysical Research Abstracts 14, EGU2012-3759-1. Pérez-Alberti, A., Valcárcel-Díaz, M., Martini, I.P., Pascucci, V., Andrucci, S., 2011. Upper Pleistocene glacial valley-junction sediments at Pias, Trevinca Mountains, NW Spain. In: Martini, I.P., French, H.M., Pérez-Alberti, A. (Eds.), Ice-Marginal and Periglacial Processes and Sediments. Geological Society (London) Special Publication 354, pp. 93-110. Research funded by the projects LIMNOCLIBER (REN2003-09130-C02-02), IBERLIMNO (CGL2005-20236-E/CLI), LIMNOCAL (CGL2006-13327-C04-01) and GRACCIE (CSD2007-00067) of the Spanish Inter-Ministry Commission of Science and Technology (CICYT). Additional funding was provided by the Fundación Patrimonio Natural de Castilla y León through the project "La investigacion en el Lago de Sanabria dentro del proyecto CALIBRE: perspectivas y posibilidades", and by the projects Consolider Ingenio 2006 (CSD2006-0041, Topo-Iberia), 2003 PIRA 00256, HF02.4, and RISKNAT (2009SGR520). L. Rodríguez-Rodríguez has developed her research under a Severo Ochoa Programme fellowship (FICYT- Asturias).

  20. The value of lichenometry and historical archives in assessing the incision of submediterranean rivers from the Little Ice Age in the Ardèche and upper Loire (France)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frédéric Gob; Nicolas Jacob; Jean-Paul Bravard; François Petit

    2008-01-01

    The geomorphologic impact of the Little Ice Age (LIA) was determined on two French Mediterranean rivers, the upper Ardèche and the upper Loire. In order to evaluate the impact of the LIA on the hydrology of these rivers, two historical flood chronicles were made from historical sources. The LIA can be divided in three phases of high activity (1530–1700; 1750–1810;

  1. CO2 isotopes as tracers of firn air diffusion and age in an Arctic ice cap with summer melting, Devon Island, Canada

    E-print Network

    Chappellaz, Jérôme

    CO2 isotopes as tracers of firn air diffusion and age in an Arctic ice cap with summer melting and the effects of summer melting. The 14 CO2 profile from the permeable firn includes the 1963 thermonuclear peak no indication of alteration by summer melting, which is attributed to a high degree of convective and diffusive

  2. The ages of pedestal craters on Mars: Evidence for a late-Amazonian extended period of episodic emplacement of decameters-thick mid-latitude ice deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadish, Seth J.; Head, James W.

    2014-02-01

    There is significant geomorphologic evidence for the past presence of longitudinally widespread, latitudinally zoned deposits composed of ice-rich material at the northern and southern mid latitudes on Mars (lobate debris aprons, lineated valley fill, concentric crater fill, pedestal craters, etc.). Among these features, pedestal craters (Pd) are impact craters interpreted to have produced a protective layer on top of decameters-thick ice deposits now missing in intercrater regions. The time during which these various deposits were present is still highly debated. To address this question we have analyzed the distribution and characteristics of pedestal craters; here, we use a population of 2287 pedestal craters (Pd) to derive a crater retention age for the entire population, obtaining a minimum timescale of formation of ~90 Myr. Given that the ice-rich deposit has not been continuously present for this duration, the timescale of formation is necessarily longer than ~100 Myr. We then compiled impact crater size-frequency distribution dates for 50 individual pedestal craters in both hemispheres to further assess the frequency distribution of individual ages. We calculated pedestal crater ages that ranged from ~1 Myr to ~3.6 Gyr, with a median of ~140 Myr. In addition, 70% of the pedestal ages are less than 250 Myr. During the 150 Myr period between 25 Ma and 175 Ma, we found at least one pedestal age every 15 Myr. This suggests that the ice-rich paleodeposit accumulated frequently during that time period. We then applied these results to the relationship between obliquity and latitudinal ice stability to suggest some constraints on the obliquity history of Mars over the past 200 Myr. Atmospheric general circulation models indicate that ice stability over long periods in the mid latitudes is favored by moderate mean obliquities in the ~35° range. Models of spin-axis/orbital parameter evolution predict that the average obliquity of Mars is ~38°. Our data represent specific observational evidence that ice-rich deposits accumulated frequently during the past 200 Myr, supporting the prediction that Mars was characterized by this obliquity range during an extensive part of that time period. Using these results as a foundation, the dating of other non-polar ice deposits will permit the specific obliquity history to be derived and lead to an assessment of volatile transport paths in the climate history of Mars.

  3. Analysis and dynamic modeling of a moraine failure and glacier lake outburst flood at Ventisquero Negro, Patagonian Andes (Argentina)

    E-print Network

    Stoffel, Markus

    Outburst hydrograph s u m m a r y Although moraine dams are inherently prone to failure because and the application of a dynamic dam break model. Results indicate that the moraine failure was caused most probably erosion and finally to dam failure. The lake volume of ca. 10 Â 106 m3 was released in ca. 3 h, producing

  4. CALCULATION OF DISCHARGE OF DEBRIS FLOWS CAUSED BY MORAINE-DAM FAILURE AT MIDUI GULLY, TIBET, CHINA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Q. CHEN; P. CUI; N. S. CHEN; J. GARDNER

    Debris flows caused by moraine-dam failure are common on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. Peak discharges of debris flows should be predicted to evaluate the risk to people and property in valleys below the moraine dams. On the basis of the critical wave method, we have reduced a new series of formulas about the peak discharge of debris flow, including

  5. Decreased Variability in Shallow Water Ventilation in the North Atlantic during the End of the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodkin, N. F.; Druffel, E. R.; Hughen, K. A.

    2008-12-01

    Previous work examining corals from the North Atlantic employed the ratio of 14C/12C to document that large decadal pulses in North Atlantic ventilation occurred from 1890 to 1950 (Druffel 1997 and 1989). The results of these studies revealed variable reservoir age corrections for the North Atlantic surface ocean and drew connections between deep ocean circulation and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Being able to extend this record further back in time can provide insight into whether this behavior occurred during the end of the Little Ice Age (1800-1850) and the Dalton solar minimum (1800-1830). In this study, we measured radiocarbon from a brain coral (Diploria labyrinthiformis) collected along the south shore of Bermuda. This colony lived from 1780-1999, capturing both recent and historical periods of interest. Biennial Delta 14C measurements from 1893-1921 show approximately 70 percent less variability than results previously reported from the same species collected along the north shore (p=0.01, n=15). Low variability along the south shore is also seen during the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA), implying that pulses of rapid ventilation seen on the north shore of Bermuda are not as clearly defined to the south. The absence of a significant correlation between del18O and Delta14C (r=0.31, p=0.22, n=17), which was previously found in the corals to the north of Bermuda, indicate less of an influence of deep water mixing. These results raise questions about circulation of ocean waters around the island of Bermuda and the Sargasso Sea. Delta 14C values from the south shore, however, do not show a difference in the mean value during the end of the LIA relative to the beginning of the 20th century. Samples measured from 1800-1840 (n=6) have an average of approximately 2 permil higher than samples taken after 1840 (n=21), a difference that is within the range of error (±2.5-4.0 permil). During the Dalton solar minimum we would expect higher Delta 14C values in atmospheric CO2 due to increased stratospheric production of 14C. The lack of a change in surface water 14C may indicate increased vertical mixing at this time, consistent with colder and less saline sea surface water (Goodkin et al. 2008) at this site and an extended positive NAO (Luterbacher et al. 2001).

  6. Dynamic ancient ice caps in the sub-Antarctic suggested by new mapping of submarine ice-formed landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Alastair; Hodgson, Dominic; Cofaigh, Colm Ó.; Hillenbrand, Claus-Dieter; Kuhn, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    Recent bathymetric investigations have provided hints of significant past glaciations on several Southern Ocean sub-polar islands. The extent and behaviour of ice cover in these regions is important because it provides critical limits on the evolution of refugia and marine benthic organisms, as well as unique far-field constraints for improving polar ice-sheet model sensitivity. However, despite improvements in regional mapping, sea-floor acoustic data from key shelf areas have still not been of sufficient quality, or broad enough in their coverage, to resolve the number, form or flow of past glacial episodes. Hence the history and style of sub-Antarctic glaciation remains poorly known. Here we use a compilation of multibeam bathymetry and fisheries echo-sounding data to provide evidence for dynamic, widespread ice caps on sub-Antarctic South Georgia during past glacial periods. We present a hitherto unmapped record of sea-bed glacigenic structures, including end moraines and subglacial landforms, from which the flow and form of at least three major, entirely marine-terminating configurations is resolved. The largest glaciation covered the majority of the continental shelf, and included fast-flowing outlets, possible switching of internal flow, meltwater activity, warm-based ice erosion, and substantial marginal deposition during retreat: all features of dynamic ice-cap behaviour. Existing biological evidence suggests the largest glaciation likely pre-dated the Last Glacial Maximum, which may have been restricted in extent reaching to the island's fjord mouths, while a third mid-shelf limit appears partially recorded. Work on dating the relict landscape of ancient ice cap advance and retreat is ongoing, but our preliminary age model suggests that South Georgia's history is unique from the Antarctic polar glacial record, and may be more similar to that of past ice caps on Patagonia. The glacial configurations revealed by these data will provide the basis of new boundary conditions for polar ice sheet models, and must have been significant for the evolution of Antarctic benthic habitat.

  7. A first-order global model of Late Cenozoic climatic change: Orbital forcing as a pacemaker of the ice ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Barry

    1992-01-01

    The development of a theory of the evolution of the climate of the earth over millions of years can be subdivided into three fundamental, nested, problems: (1) to establish by equilibrium climate models (e.g., general circulation models) the diagnostic relations, valid at any time, between the fast-response climate variables (i.e., the 'weather statistics') and both the prescribed external radiative forcing and the prescribed distribution of the slow response variables (e.g., the ice sheets and shelves, the deep ocean state, and the atmospheric CO2 concentration); (2) to construct, by an essentially inductive process, a model of the time-dependent evolution of the slow-response climatic variables over time scales longer than the damping times of these variables but shorter than the time scale of tectonic changes in the boundary conditions (e.g., altered geography and elevation of the continents, slow outgassing, and weathering) and ultra-slow astronomical changes such as in the solar radiative output; and (3) to determine the nature of these ultra-slow processes and their effects on the evolution of the equilibrium state of the climatic system about which the above time-dependent variations occur. All three problems are discussed in the context of the theory of the Quaternary climate, which will be incomplete unless it is embedded in a more general theory for the fuller Cenozoic that can accommodate the onset of the ice-age fluctuations. We construct a simple mathematical model for the Late Cenozoic climatic changes based on the hypothesis that forced and free variations of the concentration of atmospheric greenhouse gases (notably CO2), coupled with changes in the deep ocean state and ice mass, under the additional 'pacemaking' influence of earth-orbital forcing, are primary determinants of the climate state over this period. Our goal is to illustrate how a single model governing both very long term variations and higher frequency oscillatory variations in the Pleistocene can be formulated with relatively few adjustable parameters.

  8. 'Traction ribs' on the palaeo-ice stream tracks of the Interior Plains, North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margold, Martin; Stokes, Chris R.

    2015-04-01

    Spatially distinct pattern of basal shear stress beneath a number of Antarctic and Greenlandic ice streams has recently been discovered by inverse methods using high resolution data of ice velocity, elevation and thickness. Surrounded by regions of near-zero basal shear stress, these areas of high basal shear stress have been termed 'traction ribs' and hold important implications for the force balance of ice streams. The cause of the traction ribs is unknown (i.e. whether they have a topographic expression), but their horizontal dimensions and pattern lie somewhere between typical ribbed (Rogen) moraines and recently described mega-scale ribbed moraines identified on palaeo-ice sheet beds. However, whilst both of these landform types form with their long axis transverse to the ice flow direction, the traction ribs are most commonly oriented oblique to the ice flow at angles of 30-60 degrees. Here, we report new findings from the beds of palaeo-ice streams on the Interior Plains in Alberta and Saskatchewan where landform assemblages, similar to traction ribs, occur at several sites. Individual landforms at the mapped sites have typical lengths (transverse to flow) of 5-10 km, width of ~2 km, and their spacing is ~2-3 km. As such, they appear to represent an intermediate scale of ribbed landform that overlaps with the more extreme (larger) values of classic ribbed moraine and the smaller values of mega-ribs. Unlike mega-ribs and ribbed moraines, we also note that many of the ribbed features we mapped are aligned obliquely to ice flow direction at angles and mimic the arcuate patterns of traction ribs seen under modern ice streams. Profiles across the ridges indicate that they have amplitudes of 10-15 m which is comparable, but slightly lower than the mean value for ribbed moraines. The resemblance of our newly mapped features to the traction ribs of modern ice streams is close not only in the size and shape but also in the overall pattern of the whole landform assemblage. We therefore suggest that traction ribs have a topographic expression that sits on a continuum between ribbed moraine and mega-ribs. However, it is not clear which mechanisms lead to their formation or how widespread they are on other palaeo-ice stream beds. Future work might search for these landforms and their assemblages using higher resolution DEMs and fieldwork would allow sedimentological investigation of till properties and characteristics.

  9. The Sea of Okhotsk: A Window on the Ice Age Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, James D.; Morley, Joseph J.

    2003-12-01

    The modern Sea of Okhotsk and the high-latitude glacial ocean share similar radiolarian faunas suggesting they also share environmental similarities. This sea favors deep- (>200 m) over shallow-living species as evidenced by collections of sediment traps set at 258 and 1061 m in the central part of the Sea. Of the twelve dominant polycystine radiolarian species, four live above and eight below 258 m. The shallow-living species' productivity maxima coincide with spring and fall phytoplankton blooms while deep-living species' annual production, nearly twice that of the shallow-living species, is concentrated in fall. Previous workers have shown that summer plankton tows collect higher concentrations of polycystine Radiolaria below than above 200 m and that Radiolaria, fish and zooplankton have unusual concentration maxima between 200 and 500 m. The paucity of Radiolaria and other consumers above 200 m coincides with an upper (0-150 m) cold (-1.5°C to 1.5°C), low salinity layer while higher concentrations below 200 m occur within warmer saltier water. This unusual biological structure must produce a lower ratio of shallow (<200 m) to deep carbon remineralization than elsewhere in the world ocean. Deep-living radiolarian species, similar to those of the modern Sea of Okhotsk, dominate glacial high-latitude deep-sea sediments. If the hydrographic and biological structures that produced these glacial faunas were like those of the modern Sea of Okhotsk, then glacial high-latitude oceans would have differed from today's in at least two respects. Surface waters were less saline and more stable enhancing the spread of winter sea ice. This stability, combined with a deepening of nutrient regeneration, reduced surface water nutrients contributing to a reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  10. The Sea of Okhotsk: A Window on the Ice Age Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, James D.; Morley, Joseph J.

    2004-04-01

    The modern Sea of Okhotsk and the high-latitude glacial ocean share similar radiolarian faunas suggesting they also share environmental similarities. This sea favors deep- (>200 m) over shallow-living species as evidenced by collections of sediment traps set at 258 and 1061 m in the central part of the Sea. Of the twelve dominant polycystine radiolarian species, four live above and eight below 258 m. The shallow-living species' productivity maxima coincide with spring and fall phytoplankton blooms while deep-living species' annual production, nearly twice that of the shallow-living species, is concentrated in fall. Previous workers have shown that summer plankton tows collect higher concentrations of polycystine Radiolaria below than above 200 m and that Radiolaria, fish and zooplankton have unusual concentration maxima between 200 and 500 m. The paucity of Radiolaria and other consumers above 200 m coincides with an upper (0-150 m) cold (-1.5°C to 1.5°C), low salinity layer while higher concentrations below 200 m occur within warmer saltier water. This unusual biological structure must produce a lower ratio of shallow (<200 m) to deep carbon remineralization than elsewhere in the world ocean. Deep-living radiolarian species, similar to those of the modern Sea of Okhotsk, dominate glacial high-latitude deep-sea sediments. If the hydrographic and biological structures that produced these glacial faunas were like those of the modern Sea of Okhotsk, then glacial high-latitude oceans would have differed from today's in at least two respects. Surface waters were less saline and more stable enhancing the spread of winter sea ice. This stability, combined with a deepening of nutrient regeneration would have reduced surface water nutrients contributing to a reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  11. Lichenometry as Applied to Moraines in Alaska, U.S.A., and Kamchatka, Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olga Solomina; Parker E. Calkin

    2003-01-01

    A selective review of lichenometry as used to date Holocene moraines in five diverse regions of Alaska and in southeastern Kamchatka suggests that growth curves for this North Pacific area may be improved by attention to several factors. These included lichen identification, control point number and distribution, radiocarbon calibration, alternative curve models, and compatibility of lichen growth rate with climate.

  12. Late Pleistocene earthquake-triggered moraine dam failure and outburst of Lake Zurich, Switzerland

    E-print Network

    Gilli, Adrian

    Late Pleistocene earthquake-triggered moraine dam failure and outburst of Lake Zurich, Switzerland hazardous in glaciated areas throughout the world because dams can fail suddenly producing destructive of $20,600 m3 sÀ1 . We also discuss long-term causes and short-term trigger mechanisms of the dam failure

  13. Isogeny volcanoes and the SEA algorithm M. Fouquet and F. Morain ?

    E-print Network

    Morain, François

    Isogeny volcanoes and the SEA algorithm M. Fouquet and F. Morain ? Laboratoire d'Informatique (CNRS via rational `-degree isogenies, a structure we call a volcano. We explain how we can travel through introduce the complete structure of isogenies that we call a volcano. Kohel's approach starts from g and #12

  14. Late Pleistocene earthquake-triggered moraine dam failure and outburst of Lake Zurich, Switzerland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Strasser; C. Schindler; F. S. Anselmetti

    2008-01-01

    Lakes impounded by moraines may be considered hazardous in glaciated areas throughout the world because dams can fail suddenly producing destructive floods with peak discharges far in excess of normal flows. Here we present a comprehensive case study in the Zurich, Switzerland, area that reveals several independent lines of evidences for the occurrence of a Late Pleistocene (~13,760 calibrated years

  15. Nd isotopes of Fe/Mn precipitates from the Baltic Sea: indicators for climate change during the Little Ice Age?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, B.; Liebetrau, V.; Eisenhauer, A.; Frei, R.; Leipe, T.

    2003-04-01

    We analyzed three Fe/Mn precipitates from the Baltic Sea for their Nd isotope composition, and Sm and Nd concentrations. Two of these precipitates were collected in the shallow waters of the western Baltic Sea (Mecklenburg Bay) and one from the Bothnian Bay. The samples were dated by the Raexcess/Ba method to be 990, 3600 and 6460 years (Liebetrau et al. 2002). The calculated growth rates of the precipitates (about 0.002 to 0.02 mm/y) are much faster than the average growth rates of Fe/Mn crusts of the deep ocean (several mm/Ma). These fast growth rates allow us to investigate short time scales but also result in comparatively low Sm (about 3 ppm) and Nd (14 ppm) concentrations in these precipitates. The sample from the Bothnian Bay has the slowest growth rate and therefore the least time resolution. Its Nd data (mean ?Nd = -21.4; n = 6) indicate the dominance of the Archean source component derived from Scandinavia. The Nd isotope data of the precipitates of the Mecklenburg Bay (Blinkerhügel) show variations over the last 1000 years. The data scatter around a mean value of ?Nd = 14 but both records show a minimum (?Nd = -15.5 to -17) during the time of the Little Ice Age (1350 to 1750 AD). This indicates a less radiogenic seawater composition of the Baltic Sea during the Little Ice Age. Possible explanations are either a larger contribution of Nd from the Archean sources from the Scandinavian continent or a reduced inflow of Atlantic seawater or southern continental sources which are isotopically similar to the Atlantic seawater (?Nd = -13). Pb isotopes of the same prepitates indicate a constant increase of the southern source component with pronounced spikes of anthropogenic contributions. Therefore, the Nd and Pb isotope signals reflect different transport mechanisms to the Baltic Sea. References: Liebetrau, V., Eisenhauer, A., Gussone, N., Wörner, G., Hansen, B. T., and Leipe, T. (2002) GCA 66(1) 73-83.

  16. Variations in the age of Arctic sea-ice and summer sea-ice extent Ignatius G. Rigor1,2

    E-print Network

    Rigor, Ignatius G.

    was in an extreme ``high index'' state, and has remained low since that time. Under these conditions, younger. Wongittilin Sr., Alaska Traditional Knowledge and Native Foods Database, Alaska Native Science Commission. On time scales of days to weeks, wind stresses from storms produce ridges of sea-ice and areas of open

  17. Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age Impacts on Prehistoric Human Migrations in the Eastern North American Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, M.; Finkelstein, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    The eastern North American Arctic has a complex 5,000-year prehistory, during which many human population movements occurred over large distances. Archaeologists have interpreted these movements as resulting from many factors, however the effects of climate change are often hypothesized as primary drivers that can "push" human groups to leave some regions, or "pull" them to move to others. In this paper, we will examine climate change over the past millennium-and-a-half, and in particular at the two widespread, though variable, climate change events known as the Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age. We synthesize the latest paleoclimatological information on the timing and magnitude of these periods across the eastern Arctic, and assess the degree to which they coincide with current understanding of major population movements. In particular, we assess climate's potential impact on 1) the expansion of Late Dorset Paleo-Inuit to the High Arctic; 2) the migration of Thule Inuit from Alaska to the eastern Arctic; and 3) the abandonment of northern regions and new settlement of southern regions by Inuit in the mid-second millennium AD.

  18. Hydrological evidence for a North Atlantic oscillation during the Little Ice Age outside its range observed since 1850

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Puertas, C.; Dorado-Liñán, I.; Brauer, A.; Zorita, E.; Valero-Garcés, B. L.; Gutierrez, E.

    2011-12-01

    An annual-resolved precipitation reconstruction for the last 800 yr in Southern Spain has been performed using stable carbon isotope (?13C) of Pinus nigra tree rings. The reconstruction exhibits high- to low-frequency variability and distinguishes a Little Ice Age (LIA, AD 1350-1850) characterized by lower averaged rainfall than both in the transition from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to the LIA and in the 20th century. The driest conditions are recorded during the Maunder solar Minimum (mid 17th-early 18th centuries), in good agreement with the Spanish documentary archive. Similar linkage between solar activity (maximum/minimum) and precipitation (increase/decrease) is observed throughout the entire LIA. Additionally, the relationship between the hydrological pattern in the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco during the LIA suggests different spatial distribution of precipitation in the south-eastern sector of the North Atlantic region such as it is known currently. Whereas in the instrumental record the precipitation evolves similarly in both regions and opposite to the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) index, the coldest periods of the LIA shows a contrasting pattern with drier conditions in the South of Spain and wetter in Northern Africa. We suggest an extreme negative NAO conditions, accompanied by a southward excursion of the winter rainfall band beyond that observed in the last century, can explain this contrast. The sustained NAO conditions could have been triggered by solar minima and higher volcanic activity during the LIA.

  19. Phylogeographic analysis elucidates the influence of the ice ages on the disjunct distribution of relict dragonflies in Asia.

    PubMed

    Büsse, Sebastian; von Grumbkow, Philipp; Hummel, Susanne; Shah, Deep Narayan; Tachamo Shah, Ram Devi; Li, Jingke; Zhang, Xueping; Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Wedmann, Sonja; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Unusual biogeographic patterns of closely related groups reflect events in the past, and molecular analyses can help to elucidate these events. While ample research on the origin of disjunct distributions of different organism groups in the Western Paleartic has been conducted, such studies are rare for Eastern Palearctic organisms. In this paper we present a phylogeographic analysis of the disjunct distribution pattern of the extant species of the strongly cool-adapted Epiophlebia dragonflies from Asia. We investigated sequences of the usually more conserved 18 S rDNA and 28 S rDNA genes and the more variable sequences of ITS1, ITS2 and CO2 of all three currently recognised Epiophlebia species and of a sample of other odonatan species. In all genes investigated the degrees of similarity between species of Epiophlebia are very high and resemble those otherwise found between different populations of the same species in Odonata. This indicates that substantial gene transfer between these populations occurred in the comparatively recent past. Our analyses imply a wide distribution of the ancestor of extant Epiophlebia in Southeast Asia during the last ice age, when suitable habitats were more common. During the following warming phase, its range contracted, resulting in the current disjunct distribution. Given the strong sensitivity of these species to climatic parameters, the current trend to increasing global temperatures will further reduce acceptable habitats and seriously threaten the existences of these last representatives of an ancient group of Odonata. PMID:22666462

  20. Indications for a North Atlantic ocean circulation regime shift at the onset of the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleussner, C.-F.; Divine, D. V.; Donges, J. F.; Miettinen, A.; Donner, R. V.

    2015-03-01

    A prominent characteristic of the reconstructed Northern Hemisphere temperature signal over the last millennium is the transition from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to the Little Ice Age (LIA). Here we report indications for a non-linear regime shift in the North Atlantic ocean circulation at the onset of the LIA. Specifically, we apply a novel statistical test based on horizontal visibility graphs to two ocean sediment August sea-surface temperature records from the Norwegian Sea and the central subpolar basin and find robust indications of time-irreversibility in both records during the LIA onset. Despite a basin-wide cooling trend, we report an anomalous warming in the central subpolar basin during the LIA that is reproduced in ensemble simulations with the climate model of intermediate complexity CLIMBER-3? as a result of a non-linear regime shift in the subpolar North Atlantic ocean circulation. The identified volcanically triggered non-linear transition in the model simulations provides a plausible explanation for the signatures of time-irreversibility found in the ocean sediment records. Our findings indicate a potential multi-stability of the North Atlantic ocean circulation and its importance for regional climate change on centennial time scales.

  1. Oxygen isotope evidence of Little Ice Age aridity on the Caribbean slope of the Cordillera Central, Dominican Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Chad S.; Horn, Sally P.; Orvis, Kenneth H.; Thomason, John M.

    2011-05-01

    Climate change during the so-called Little Ice Age (LIA) of the 15th to 19th centuries was once thought to be limited to the high northern latitudes, but increasing evidence reflects significant climate change in the tropics. One of the hypothesized features of LIA climate in the low latitudes is a more southerly mean annual position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), which produced more arid conditions through much of the northern tropics. High-resolution stable oxygen isotope data and other sedimentary evidence from Laguna de Felipe, located on the Caribbean slope of the Cordillera Central of the Dominican Republic, support the hypothesis that the mean annual position of the ITCZ was displaced significantly southward during much of the LIA. Placed within the context of regional paleoclimate and paleoceanographic records, and reconstructions of global LIA climate, this shift in mean annual ITCZ position appears to have been induced by lower solar insolation and internal dynamical responses of the global climate system. Our results from Hispaniola further emphasize the global nature of LIA climate change and the sensitivity of circum-Caribbean climate conditions to what are hypothesized to be relatively small variations in global energy budgets.

  2. Boulder cosmogenic exposure ages as constraints for glacial chronologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyman, Jakob; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Harbor, Jon; Caffee, Marc W.

    2010-05-01

    Cosmogenic exposure dating greatly enhances our ability to define glacial chronologies spanning several global cold periods, and glacial boulder exposure ages are now routinely used to constrain deglaciation ages. However, calculating an exposure age from a measured cosmogenic nuclide concentration involves assumptions about the geological history of the sample that are difficult to test and yet have a profound effect on the inferred age. Two principal geological factors yield erroneous inferred ages: pre-depositional exposure (yielding exposure ages that are too old) and post-depositional shielding (yielding exposure ages that are too young). To evaluate the importance of these two problems we have compiled datasets of glacial boulder 10Be exposure ages from the Tibetan Plateau (1099 boulders), the Northern Hemisphere palaeo-ice sheets (613 boulders), and present-day glaciers (141 boulders). All exposure ages have been recalculated with the CRONUS online calculator version 2.2 (http://hess.ess.washington.edu/) using the new 10Be half-life of 1.36 Ma. All boulders from present-day glaciers have exposure ages 10 ka older than the deglacial age of the surface. Boulders from the Tibetan Plateau have mainly been collected from moraine ridges. We have organized them into boulder groups, each of which has one deglacial age. The age spread of the Tibetan Plateau boulder group dataset is significantly higher than the inheritance observed in the palaeo-ice sheet boulders. If this spread is attributed to inheritance we would conclude that on the Tibetan Plateau inheritance plays a much more prominent role than is seen in the palaeo-ice sheet areas. Alternatively, a simple exponential post-glacial landform degradation model produces exposure age distributions remarkably similar to the measured data, indicating that post-depositional shielding is likely the dominant process producing spread among boulder age distributions. Our analysis lends strong support to the argument that post-depositional shielding is the most important geological process leading to potential errors in cosmogenic exposure ages for glacial boulders older than a few thousand years. The strong recommendation emerging from this analysis of global 10Be exposure ages is to interpret sets of dates from glacial settings in terms of post-depositional shielding: i.e., that exposure ages represent minimum ages of deglaciation.

  3. Interpreting ancient ice in a shallow ice core from the South Yamato (Antarctica) blue ice area using flow modeling and compositional matching to deep ice cores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Moore; Fumihiko Nishio; Shuji Fujita; Hideki Narita; Elizabeth Pasteur; Aslak Grinsted; Anna Sinisalo; Norikazu Maeno

    2006-01-01

    We explore methods of dating a 101 m ice core from a bare ice ablation area in the Yamato Mountains, Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica. There are two unknowns, the age of the ice at the surface and the age spanned by the core. The ice crystal growth rate was used to estimate the age span of the core at

  4. Carbon dioxide effects of Antarctic stratification, North Atlantic Intermediate Water formation, and subantarctic nutrient drawdown during the last ice age: Diagnosis and synthesis in a geochemical box model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathis P. Hain; Daniel M. Sigman; Gerald H. Haug

    2010-01-01

    In a box model synthesis of Southern Ocean and North Atlantic mechanisms for lowering CO2 during ice ages, the CO2 changes are parsed into their component geochemical causes, including the soft-tissue pump, the carbonate pump, and whole ocean alkalinity. When the mechanisms are applied together, their interactions greatly modify the net CO2 change. Combining the Antarctic mechanisms (stratification, nutrient drawdown,

  5. Subglacial processes of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet in Fennoscandia inferred from flow-parallel features and lithostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punkari, Mikko

    1997-07-01

    Subglacial processes of the last Scandinavian Ice Sheet in Fennoscandia were investigated on two different scales: a detailed case study in southwestern Finland, and a generalized study in the central parts of the ice sheet. Previously reconstructed time-transgressive glacial flow patterns were correlated with different types of glacial flow-parallel features and lithostratigraphic units. The comparison of orientations of each flow-parallel feature with relative ages of different flow patterns enabled estimations of relative distances of the orientation-generating processes in relation to the receding ice margin. This method was also used to infer sedimentary environments of each lithostratigraphic facies identified. Generalized lithostratigraphic sequences were compiled in Fennoscandia using sections described previously. In areas of ice streams a sandy till showing mature deformation structures forms till sheets, drumlins and some ribbed moraines. The facies is overlain by occasional glaciofluvial deposits and partly washed deformation till both indicating abundant excess water at the ice-bed interface. In interlobate areas, glaciofluvial material is under- and overlain by a silty till showing ductile deformation structures. In places, uppermost thin clayey till, interpreted to be a subglacial melt-out till, mantles underlying till and subglacial glaciofluvial deposits. The characteristics of different units are controlled by ice-flow velocities, subglacial hydrology and deformation type of the substratum. The time-transgressive origin of till beds and intervening washed sediment, as well as divergent ice-flow patterns, is emphasized. Ice flow was concentrated in streams which generated marginal fan-shaped lobes. Interstream areas of low basal velocities and melting rates were left between adjacent ice streams. In areas of ice streams, fast basal ice-flow velocities continuously generated heat and meltwater which flowed at first in the sediment and closer to the margin also in thin discontinuous sheets at the ice-bed interface. Excess water may have subsequently formed a linked cavity system and channelized to a tunnel network initiating esker deposition or incision of tunnel channels. Most processes operated continuously during deglaciation, with spatial and temporal differences in their activity. The mode of subglacial drainage changed periodically during deglaciation, and was probably controlled by the volume of subglacial meltwater available. In some periods, sheet flow of basal water deposited major marginal complexes, and subsequently tunnel networks were re-established. Esker pattern and sedimentation rates of proglacial varved clays indicate that tunnel drainage of subglacial water was partly episodic.

  6. Isotopic evidence of aquifer recharge during the last ice age in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galego Fernandes, P.; Carreira, P. M.

    2008-11-01

    SummaryThe present paper will focus on the research that has been conducted in the palaeowaters in the South of Portugal, Alentejo region. Three flow directions were identified in Sado sedimentary basin aquifer: S-N, SW-NE and SE-NW; the last two result from Palaeozoic substratum irregularities, corresponding to an impermeable tectonic structure (horst). Two aquifers showing different isotopic composition were identified and analysed: the Eocene and the Plio-Miocene. The Plio-Miocene aquifer has an average isotopic composition of -29.6 ± 1.3‰ in deuterium and -4.65 ± 0.28‰ in oxygen-18, and the Eocene has average values of deuterium of -28.7 ± 2.1‰ and -4.81 ± 0.11‰ for oxygen-18. In single cases show that the range of isotopic values overlap for the two aquifers, probably as a result of the exploitation in some wells by a mixture of waters from both aquifers. The spatial distribution of 3H and 14C obtained in the Plio-Miocene waters indicates a flow path from S to N, with recent waters near the southern border of the basin and older waters to the N near the Sado River. The recharge of this aquifer system is diffuse and is dispersed over the entire basin. Groundwater samples from the two aquifers having similar apparent 14C ages have distinct isotopic compositions, with the Eocene aquifer showing an enriched composition relatively to the Plio-Miocene aquifer. This suggests that recharge of the Eocene waters could have occurred under different climatic conditions.

  7. Simulations of Western North American Hydroclimate during the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, S. M.; Mann, M. E.; Steinman, B. A.; Feng, S.; Zhang, Y.; Miller, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the immense impact that large, modern North American droughts, such as those of the 1930s and 1950s, have had on economic, social, aquacultural, and agricultural systems, they are smaller in duration and magnitude than the multidecadal megadroughts that affected North America, in particular the western United States, during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, ~ 900-1300 AD) and the Little Age (LIA, ~1450-1850 AD). Although various proxy records have been used to reconstruct the timing of these MCA and LIA megadroughts in the western United States, there still exists great uncertainty in the magnitude and spatial coherence of such droughts in the Pacific Northwest region, especially on decadal to centennial timescales. This uncertainty motivates the following study to establish a causal link between the climate forcing that induced these megadroughts and the spatiotemporal response of regional North American hydroclimates to this forcing. This study seeks to establish a better understanding of the influence of tropical Pacific and North Atlantic SSTs on North American drought during the MCA and LIA. We force NCAR's Community Atmospheric Model version 5.1.1 (CAM 5) with prescribed proxy-reconstructed tropical Pacific and North Atlantic SST anomalies from the MCA and LIA, in order to investigate the influence that these SST anomalies had on the spatiotemporal patterns of drought in North America. To isolate the effects of individual ocean basin SSTs on the North American climate system, the model experiments use a variety of SST permutations in the tropical Pacific and North Atlantic basin as external forcing. In order to quantify the spatiotemporal response of the North American climate system to these SST forcing permutations, temperature and precipitation data derived from the MCA and LIA model experiments are compared to lake sediment isotope and tree ring-based hydroclimate reconstructions from the Pacific Northwest. The spatiotemporal temperature and precipitation patterns from the model experiments indicate that in the Pacific Northwest, the MCA and LIA were anomalously wet and dry periods, respectively, a finding that is largely supported by the lake sediment records. This pattern contrasts with the dry MCA/wet LIA pattern diagnosed in model experiments for the U.S Southwest and indicated by tree ring-based proxy data. Thus, the CAM 5 model experiments confirm the wet/dry dipole pattern suggested by proxy data for the western U.S. during the MCA and LIA and highlights the role that the natural variability of tropical Pacific and North Atlantic SSTs played in driving this spatiotemporal climate pattern and its related teleconnections.

  8. Cryoconite and Ice-bubble Microbial Ecosystems in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    During the Antarctica 2000 Expedition samples of rocks and ice bubbles entrained in ice were collected from the blue ice fields near the Moulton Escarpment of the Thiel Mountains (85S, 94W) and the Morris Moraine of the Patriot Hills (80S, 8 1 W) Ellsworth Mountains of Antarctica. Investigation of the microbiota of these cryoconite and ice bubble ecosystems are now being conducted to help refine chemical and morphological biomarkers of potential significance to Astrobiology. The Antarctica 2000 Expedition will be discussed and the preliminary results of the studies of the ice bubble and cryoconite microbial ecosystems discussed. Recent ESEM images of the Antarctic microbiota will be presented a the relevance of ice ecosystems to Astrobiology will be discussed.

  9. Glacial recession in the Tropical Andes from the Little Ice Age: the case of Ampato Volcanic Complex (Southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcalá, J.; Palacios, D.; Zamorano, J. J.

    2010-03-01

    Data published over the last decade reveal substantial glacial recession in the tropical Andes since the Little Ice Age (LIA), (Ramirez, et al., 2001; Rabatel, et al., 2005; Rabatel, et al., 2008; Vuille, et al., 2008; Hastenrath, 2009; Jomelli, et al., 2009), and a growing rate of recession since the 1980’s caused by global warming (Ramirez, et al., 2001; Vuille, et al., 2008). Today there is great interest in the evolution of these ice masses due to heightened awareness of climate change and of the strategic importance that glaciers have as a hydrologic resource for communities in arid climate zones in the tropical Andes (Mark, 2008; Vuille et al., 2008). Cordillera Blanca forms part of the Andes Mountains of northern Peru, and is a chosen site for many studies on glacier evolution. Vuille et al. 2008 determined that a considerable area of ice mass was lost at Huascarán-Chopicalqui glacier (18% from 1920-1970) and Astesonraju glacier (20% from 1962-2003). Studies at Coropuna volcano, which has the most extensive glacier field in the western range of southern Peru, also report a strong melting trend that began with only minimal recession from 1955-1986 (4%), but increased to 14% from 1986-2007 (Úbeda et al., 2009). Only a few of the Andes glaciers are consistently monitored, and the most comprehensive data are for Chacaltaya and Zongo glaciers (16º S) in Bolivia. Since the maximum LIA, Chacaltaya has lost 89% of its surface area, particularly in recent years. By 1983, the totaled loss was five times the shrinkage for the period 1940-1963 (Ramirez, et al., 2001). Zongo glacier maintained equilibrium from 1956-1975, but later experienced a period dominated by continuous recession (Soruco, et al., 2009). This study expands current knowledge of glacier evolution since the LIA in the Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ; 14º - 27º S) (Stern, 2004) of the Andes. The study site was chosen in an area that had never been used for preliminary research of this type, concretely the Ampato volcanic complex (15º24´- 15º 51´ S, 71º 51´ - 73º W; 6.288 masl), one of the most important complexes of the northern sector of the CVZ. Photointerpretation of aerial photographs and teledetection through satellite images of Huayuray Valley (15º 41´ 14´´ S - 71º 51´ 53´´ W), located to the north of the complex, aided in accurately reconstructing the area occupied by the ice mass at different times (LIA, 1955, 2000 and 2008). Also the paleo-ELA (Equilibrium Line Altitude) and the ELA were calculated using the Accumulation Area (AA) method (Kaser and Osmaston, 2002; Osmaston, 2005) in a GIS. The ELA shows the relationship between climate and glacier mass balance (González Trueba, 2005). The data from Huayuray Valley show that the glaciers reached a minimum altitude of 5400 masl and covered an area of ~2.81 Km2 during the LIA. The paleo-ELA was located at ~5780 masl, ~120 m below the current ELA (~5900 m). Based on a vertical thermal gradient of 0.65ºC/100 m, the temperature during this event would have been about 0.7º C colder than present temperature in the Ampato volcanic complex. In 1955, Huayuray glacier covered ~2.45 km2, 12.8% less than in the LIA. In the same year, the glaciers in the Huayuray valley reached a minimum elevation of ~5660 masl and the ELA rose ~20 m, to 5800 masl. In only 45 years (1955 - 2000) the surface area of the ice was significantly reduced (~1 km2), i.e. 40.8%. The ELA continued to rise, until it reached 5890 masl in 2000. From 2000 - 2008, the Huayuray glacier was reduced to ~0.78 km2 and the ELA rised ~10 m to reach the 5900 masl These results from the CVZ confirm the dramatic recession of the glaciers in the tropical Andes during recent decades. They also suggest that if the rate of recession associated with the period 2000-2008 continues, glaciers in the Ampato volcanic complex will disappear in 10 years approximately. References González Trueba, J.J. (2005): La Pequeña Edad del Hielo en los Picos de Europa (Cordillera Cantábrica, NO de España). Análisis morfológico y reconstrucción del avance

  10. Late Noachian and early Hesperian ridge systems in the south circumpolar Dorsa Argentea Formation, Mars: Evidence for two stages of melting of an extensive late Noachian ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Ailish M.; Head, James W.

    2015-05-01

    The Dorsa Argentea Formation (DAF), extending from 270°-100° E and 70°-90° S, is a huge circumpolar deposit surrounding and underlying the Late Amazonian South Polar Layered Deposits (SPLD) of Mars. Currently mapped as Early-Late Hesperian in age, the Dorsa Argentea Formation has been interpreted as volatile-rich, possibly representing the remnants of an ancient polar ice cap. Uncertain are its age (due to the possibility of poor crater retention in ice-related deposits), its mode of origin, the origin of the distinctive sinuous ridges and cavi that characterize the unit, and its significance in the climate history of Mars. In order to assess the age of activity associated with the DAF, we examined the ridge populations within the Dorsa Argentea Formation, mapping and characterizing seven different ridge systems (composed of nearly 4,000 ridges covering a total area of ~300,000 km2, with a cumulative length of ridges of ~51,000 km) and performing crater counts on them using the method of buffered crater counting to determine crater retention ages of the ridge populations. We examined the major characteristics of the ridge systems and found that the majority of them were consistent with an origin as eskers, sediment-filled subglacial drainage channels. Ridge morphologies reflect both distributed and channelized esker systems, and evidence is also seen that some ridges form looping moraine-like termini distal to some distributed systems. The ridge populations fall into two age groups: ridge systems between 270° and 0° E date to the Early Hesperian, but to the east, the Promethei Planum and the Chasmata ridge systems date to the Late Noachian. Thus, these ages, and esker and moraine-like morphologies, support the interpretation that the DAF is a remnant ice sheet deposit, and that the esker systems represent evidence of significant melting and drainage of meltwater from portions of this ice sheet, thus indicating at least some regions and/or periods of wet-based glaciation. The Late Noachian and Early Hesperian ages of the ridge systems closely correspond to the ages of valley network/open basin lake systems, representing runoff, drainage and storage of liquid water in non-polar regions of the surface of Mars. Potential causes of such wet-based conditions in the DAF include: 1) top-down melting due to atmospheric warming, 2) enhanced snow and ice accumulation and raising of the melting isotherm to the base of the ice sheet, or 3) basal melting associated with intrusive volcanism (volcano-ice interactions). The early phase of melting is closely correlated in time with valley network formation and thus may be due to global atmospheric warming, while the later phase of melting may be linked to Early Hesperian global volcanism and specific volcano-ice interactions (table mountains) in the DAF. Crater ages indicate that these wet-based conditions ceased by the Late Hesperian, and that further retreat of the DAF to its present configuration occurred largely through sublimation, not melting, thus preserving the extensive ridge systems. MARSIS radar data suggest that significant areas of layered, potentially ice-rich parts of the Dorsa Argentea Formation remain today.

  11. Vegetation and fire dynamics in different geological settings since the last ice age, Klamath Mountains, northwestern, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briles, C.; Whitlock, C.; Bartlein, P.

    2006-12-01

    The Klamath Mountains of northwestern California are a floristic hotspot and their diversity likely results from a combination of geological, ecological and historical factors (e.g., long-term climate change). To evaluate how climate change has influenced past composition, structure, and disturbance regime of the Klamath forests in different geological settings, vegetation and fire histories from four sites, Bolan (1), Sanger (in prog.), Campbell (in prog.), and Bluff (2) lakes are compared. Bolan and Sanger lakes are underline by nutrient-rich diorite soils, Campbell Lake by nutrient-poor and poorly-drained soils derived from mudstone and shales and Bluff Lake by ultramafics which pose severe nutrient limitations to plants. All sites experience the same modern climate and vegetation. The vegetation and fire records from the four sites suggest that substrates have influenced the sensitivity of plant communities and fire regimes to past variations in climate. Cool, dry late-glacial (>11ka cal yr BP) conditions resulted in a subalpine parkland in the Klamath region. P. jeffreyi and Abies were the main tree species at Bluff Lake and fires occurred frequently. Campbell Lake supported more species than Bluff (excluding P. jeffreyi) such as P. monticola, Picea and T. mertensiana and experienced few fires. Bolan and Sanger Lake harbored similar species as Campbell, as well as a small population of Pseudotsuga and experienced few fires. Warm, dry Early Holocene (7-11ka cal yr BP) conditions led to an increase in C. decurrens and a slight decrease in P. jeffreyi at Bluff Lake than before and fires were very frequent. At Campbell Lake, P. monticola increased, C. decurrens became more abundant than before, and Abies, Picea and T. mertensiana were scarce. Similar vegetation occurred at Bolan and Sanger lakes although the sites continued to harbor Pseudotsuga. Campbell, Bolan and Sanger all experienced frequent fires. Cool, wet conditions in the Middle Holocene (3-7ka cal yr BP) allowed P. jeffreyi to increase at the expense of C. decurrens at Bluff Lake. At Campbell, Sanger and Bolan lakes there was a decrease in P. monticola and a significant increase in Abies than before. Bolan and Sanger lakes still maintained a significant population of Pseudotsuga. Fire frequency at all sites was moderate. Modern (3ka cal yr BP to present) climate conditions in the Late Holocene resulted in increases in P. jeffreyi and Abies than before at Bluff Lake. P. monticola and Abies were abundant at Campbell Lake with minor amounts of Pseudotsuga and T. mertensiana. Most tree species occurred at Bolan and Sanger Lake (with the exception of P. jeffreyi at both sites and T. mertensiana at Sanger Lake). Abies and P.monticola were the primary species in the Bolan, Sanger and Campbell lake forests. Fires were frequent at all sites. In conclusion, Bluff Lake was dominated by ultramafic tolerant taxa such as Pinus jeffreyi, Calocedrus decurrens and Abies, while Bolan and Sanger lakes harbored mostly ultramafic intolerant species such as Pinus monticola, Pseudotsuga, Picea, and Tsuga mertensiana since the last ice age. The forest at Campbell Lake was more open, was dominated by Pinus monticola and had less Picea and T. mertensiana than Bolan and Sanger lakes since the last ice age. REFS. 1 Briles, C. et al 2005. Quaternary Research 64. 2 Mohr, J.A. et al 2000. The Holocene 10.

  12. Moraine Molded Plastics, Inc.: Industrial Energy Assessment Finds Opportunities to Save $24,000 in Annual Operating Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-09-01

    Industrial Technologies Program's BestPractices case study based on a comprehensive plant assessment conducted at the Moraine Molded Plastics by ITP's Industrial Assessment Center in conjunction with The Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc.

  13. Identifying and Interpreting the Imprint of the Little Ice Age over the Balkan Landscape: A Combined Palynological and Geochemical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, C.; Peteet, D. M.; Boger, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    We examine a multi-centennial Balkan record of vegetation and landscape during the Little Ice Age (LIA) climatic transition that lasted from c. 15th to the 19th century AD. Biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical analysis (X-ray Fluorescence (XRF)), and a robust chronology based on AMS 14C dating are used to reconstruct the vegetation response and human-environmental interactions during the LIA. A sediment core extracted from a sinkhole lake located in western Serbia (44°30'N-19°30'E; elevation 250 m a.s.l.) was sampled at 10-cm intervals for investigating biological proxies. Palynological data include temperate indigenous trees (e.g. Quercus, Betula), herbaceous taxa (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae), and key anthropogenic indicators (e.g. Juglans, cereals) and demonstrate wet and cool conditions as well as seasonal variations during cal. 16th to 19th century AD. The XRF data obtained from the core at 1-cm intervals show changes in the clastic input and surface erosion around the lake probably owing to seasonal variations during the LIA. Moreover, pollen and charcoal data together reveal the changing nature of human interference across the LIA from intense deforestation to reforestation and sustained cultivation with climatic and seasonal variations. Correlating palaeoecological and geochemical data for this region allows us to interpret the long-term dynamics of landscape and humans across one of the important climatic intervals in Europe. The Balkans, as one of Europe's "Biodiversity Hotspots" and a rapidly changing region, provides insights into possible biotic responses to future global climatic change.

  14. Sorting Out Mixed Messages from Till Provenance: Bulk Sediment Isotopic Compositions vs. U-Pb Detrital Zircon Ages from Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, G.; Licht, K.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding how basal erosion by ice sheets takes place as a function of time and position is critical to models of sub-ice landscape evolution and to determining whether isotopic and chemical data from subglacial deposits and ice rafted detritus can be expected to fingerprint the activity of specific ice outlets during ice sheet expansion and/or deglaciation. To investigate erosion by an active ice sheet we analyzed the mineralogy, chemical, isotopic and detrital zircon U-Pb ages of till deposited from the head to the mouth of the Byrd and Nimrod Glaciers in the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) in East Antarctica. We then compared the isotopic compositions and detrital zircon ages compositions of Ross sea tills downstream of the Byrd and Nimrod glaciers to assess the sources of those glacial sediments deposited on the Ross Sea shelf and slope. In general, lateral and mid-stream ice cored moraines along the entire lengths of both glaciers largely contain locally derived material in both sand and pebble size fractions. The primary exception is Lonewolf Nunatak at the head of Byrd Glacier, which contains Precambrian igneous and metamorphic erratics, similar to what outcrops and is found in moraines in the Miller Range at Nimrod Glacier. Detrital zircons from all moraines analyzed are dominated by grains 520-600 Ma associated with the Ross/Pan-African Orogeny. Ages of 580-600 Ma are only found in sites at the head of the glaciers. The Nd, Sr and Pb isotopic compositions of <63micron sediments are consistent with their origin as comminution of the coarser sediments found at each sample location, with lowest ?Nd(0) sediments (~-20) restricted to upstream tills. Central and western Ross Sea LGM tills generally match the petrography, detrital zircon, and isotopic compositions expected for detritus delivered by central TAM glaciers. However, detrital zircon populations include a significant 580 Ma-600 Ma age population as well as Precambrian zircon only found in 'upstream' tills, suggesting that crustal material eroded and the heads of the Byrd and Nimrod glaciers, and even detritus derived from the East Antarctic craton, were delivered to the continental margin during expansion of the East Antarctic ice sheet. The <63 micron fraction from the central Ross Sea tills have isotopic compositions that are also similar to some upstream tills in the Byrd and Nimrod glaciers, but can also be interpreted as being principally derived from Cambrian sedimentary and granitic rocks, and late Cenozoic volcanic rocks, found at and near the outlets of the Byrd and Nimrod glaciers. Additional tills and bedrock chemical, isotopic and zircon U-Pb data will be necessary to reconcile the available data and better assess the relative proportions of detritus derived from valleys cut through the Transantarctic Mountains and from locations further inboard.

  15. Improving age constraints on Patagonian glaciations using a new luminescence dating method for feldspars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedley, R. K.; Glasser, N. F.; Duller, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Multiple moraine ridges are preserved in the Lago Buenos Aires and Lago Pueyrrédon valleys, east of the Northern Patagonian Icefield and offer a unique perspective on understanding past environmental change in the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. Previous age constraints provided for the moraine ridges relies on cosmogenic isotope dating and constraining radiocarbon and 40Ar/36Ar ages. Providing age constraints using luminescence dating of the glaciofluvial landforms associated with the moraine ridges offers great potential to contribute towards improving the accuracy and precision of age constraints in such challenging glacial settings. This is the first study to use a new luminescence dating method recently developed for feldspars (Thomsen et al. 2008) to constrain the ages of moraine deposition. A range of sediments were sampled from the outwash plains and glaciofluvial channels that are associated with moraine deposition in the Lago Buenos Aires and Lago Pueyrrédon valleys. Elevation measurements and the geomorphological context of the outwash plains and glaciofluvial channels are used to relate the sampled material to the associated moraine ridges, and therefore constrain the ages of moraine deposition in the valleys. Moraine ridges dated using cosmogenic isotope dating to the Last Glacial Maximum are the main focus of this study, but the overall aim is to provide a new dating technique that can be used to understand the temporal and spatial extent of terrestrial environmental change during past glaciations of the mid-latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. Thomsen, K.J., Murray, A.S., Jain, M. and Bøtter-Jensen, L. 2008. Laboratory fading rates of various luminescence signals from feldspar-rich sediment extracts. Radiation Measurements 43, 1474 - 1486.

  16. The Little Ice Age climate of New Zealand reconstructed from Southern Alps cirque glaciers: a synoptic type approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorrey, Andrew; Fauchereau, Nicolas; Stanton, Craig; Chappell, Petra; Phipps, Steven; Mackintosh, Andrew; Renwick, James; Goodwin, Ian; Fowler, Anthony

    2014-06-01

    Little Ice Age (LIA) austral summer temperature anomalies were derived from palaeoequilibrium line altitudes at 22 cirque glacier sites across the Southern Alps of New Zealand. Modern analog seasons with temperature anomalies akin to the LIA reconstructions were selected, and then applied in a sampling of high-resolution gridded New Zealand climate data and global reanalysis data to generate LIA climate composites at local, regional and hemispheric scales. The composite anomaly patterns assist in improving our understanding of atmospheric circulation contributions to the LIA climate state, allow an interrogation of synoptic type frequency changes for the LIA relative to present, and provide a hemispheric context of the past conditions in New Zealand. An LIA summer temperature anomaly of -0.56 °C (±0.29 °C) for the Southern Alps based on palaeo-equilibrium lines compares well with local tree-ring reconstructions of austral summer temperature. Reconstructed geopotential height at 1,000 hPa (z1000) suggests enhanced southwesterly flow across New Zealand occurred during the LIA to generate the terrestrial temperature anomalies. The mean atmospheric circulation pattern for summer resulted from a crucial reduction of the `HSE'-blocking synoptic type (highs over and to the west of NZ; largely settled conditions) and increases in both the `T'- and `SW'-trough synoptic types (lows passing over NZ; enhanced southerly and southwesterly flow) relative to normal. Associated land-based temperature and precipitation anomalies suggest both colder- and wetter-than-normal conditions were a pervasive component of the base climate state across New Zealand during the LIA, as were colder-than-normal Tasman Sea surface temperatures. Proxy temperature and circulation evidence were used to corroborate the spatially heterogeneous Southern Hemisphere composite z1000 and sea surface temperature patterns generated in this study. A comparison of the composites to climate mode archetypes suggests LIA summer climate and atmospheric circulation over New Zealand was driven by increased frequency of weak El Niño-Modoki in the tropical Pacific and negative Southern Annular Mode activity.

  17. Chronology and dynamics of the Amundsen Gulf Ice Stream in Arctic Canada during the last glacial-interglacial transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakeman, T. R.; MacLean, B.; Blasco, S.; Bennett, R.; Hughes Clarke, J. E.

    2012-04-01

    An extensive ice stream of the Laurentide ice sheet occupied Amundsen Gulf during the Last Glacial Maximum. The grounded ice stream extended northwestward to the margin of the inner shelf in the Beaufort Sea and to a depth of 450 metres. This glacier was one of the largest ice streams to emanate into the Arctic Ocean during the last glaciation and, as such, exerted a primary influence on the dynamics of the northwest Laurentide Ice Sheet. Ice stream retreat from its maximum position began prior to 13,000 cal yr BP. The pattern of extensive sole marks or glacial flutings on the seabed and on the adjacent mainland and islands confirms the direction of flow was from southeast to northwest. In the Gulf these features are imprinted primarily on subglacial sediment deposits. The bathymetry of the Gulf and known extent of the ice stream on land indicates the ice was at least 700 m thick. A series of moraines at the mouth of the Gulf mark temporary positions of the retreating ice stream margin. Early stages of ice retreat may have been associated with meltwater discharge under the ice stream as evidenced by current erosion associated with some sole marks or glacial flutings. Melting at the leading edge of the ice stream resulted in calving of icebergs and the generation of keel-scour marks in the seabed. Retreat of the ice stream was relatively rapid as indicated by thin and spatially discontinuous deglacial glaciomarine sediment in the Gulf. Furthermore, an expansive database of deglacial radiocarbon ages from eastern Banks Island, western Victoria Island, and the adjacent Arctic mainland, indicates that the ice stream had retreated fully from the Gulf by 12,500 cal yr BP. The lack of Holocene sediment draping the sole marks or flutings, and outcrops of exposed bedrock and glaciomarine sediment indicate very low sedimentation rates since ice retreat. The thin veneer of recent fine sediment that has been deposited discontinuously on the seabed in the Gulf indicates little influence of the Mackenzie and other fluvial sediment discharge on the seabed over the last 13,000 cal yr BP. The deglacial history of Amundsen Gulf under ameliorating climate conditions of the last ~19,000 cal yr BP provides important constraints on the variables that occasioned the demise of the northwest Laurentide Ice Sheet, such as sea level change, paleoclimate, and regional ice sheet dynamics. Understanding the complex interplay among these variables during the last deglaciation will bear on current model projections of the dynamics of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. In addition, quantifying past iceberg fluxes to the Arctic Ocean has implications for assessing the origin of deep ice scours in the Arctic Ocean Basin and the nature of rapid climate changes at the last glacial-interglacial transition.

  18. Age and origin of ice-rich Yedoma silts at Duvanny Yar, northeast Siberia: a record of Beringian environmental change since the last interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murton, J.; Edwards, M. E.; Murton, D.; Bateman, M.; Haile, J.

    2010-12-01

    Silty Yedoma deposits at the important Beringian site of Duvanny Yar (68o,37’ N; 159o08’ E) in northeast Siberia, have been interpreted before as both loess and nival deposits. The yedoma deposits form a stratigraphic unit more than 30 m thick that comprises sandy silts which are generally massive and rich in ground ice and organic material. The ground ice includes pore ice, segregated ice and wedge ice (both syngenetic and epigenetic), and much of it accumulated more or less coevally with deposition of the silt and upward growth of permafrost. Organic material includes pervasive rootlets of former steppe-tundra vegetation (e.g. grasses), vertebrate bones (e.g. mammoth, bison, horse), pollen, insect remains, and plant macrofossils. A number of cryoturbated organic horizons within the silts are interpreted as incipient palaeosols. The sedimentary properties of the silts (particle size and magnetic susceptibility) and the palaeocological characteristics of the contained organic material are both consistent with deposition of silts primarily as loess and loess-sand intergrades, sedimentologically similar to known aeolian deposits in northwest Europe (e.g. Pegwell Bay, UK). Deposition primarily by snow meltwater is unlikely because the nearest uplands where snow could have accumulated and hillslopes could have provided runoff sites are many kilometers distant. The remnants of the original landsurface—prior to thermokarst activity during the late-glacial and Holocene—indicate an essentially flat landscape during dust deposition. Radiocarbon dating of mainly in situ rootlets indicates a complete record of dust deposition during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), potentially one of the best terrestrial records of LGM palaeoenvironments. Older radiocarbon dates suggest at least two periods of soil formation between the LGM and about 40,000 radiocarbon years BP (within Marine Isotope Stage 3). Optical dating is currently being undertaken to constrain the ages of older dust deposits and palaeosols. U-series dating of wood contained within thaw-lake deposits at the base of the sequence provides an age from the Last Interglacial. Overall, dating of the yedoma sequence constrains interpretation of ancient soil DNA contained within the silts and provides a basis for reconstructing LGM palaeo-wind conditions associated with the Siberian high-pressure cell.

  19. Iceshelf instability and the collapsing NW margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet: core evidence from Viscount Melville Sound, Arctic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furze, Mark; Pienkowski, Anna; England, John; da Silveira Ramos Esteves, Mariana; Bennett, Robbie; Krywko, Jack; Glembiski, Danna; McLean, Brian; Blasco, Steve

    2013-04-01

    Recent work in the western Canadian Arctic Archipelago has seen a dramatic re-evaluation of the timing and extent of Late Wisconsinan glaciation by a primarily cold-based Laurentide Ice sheet. This has included the occupation by ice of formerly-considered ice free terrain and the extension of grounded ice from the main channels of the Northwest Passage, westwards onto the Beaufort Sea continental shelf. Nonetheless, while the pattern of ice extent and initial retreat is now well constrained, significant questions remain regarding the main phase of ice retreat southeastwards onto mainland Canada and the stability of the retreating margin in response to ameliorating climate and sea-level change. Earlier terrestrially-based research along the Victoria, and Melville Island coasts of Viscount Melville Sound have demonstrated the retreat of grounded glacial ice from this >105 000 km2 basin by '13.5 cal ka BP followed by the re-establishment of a floating iceshelf impinging on the coasts of Viscount Melville Sound ~10.9 cal ka BP. Molluscan chronologies suggest the establishment of the iceshelf was extremely rapid, persisting for some 800 years, and subsequently undergoing an equally rapid collapse. This new and ongoing study investigates a series of Geological Survey of Canada / ArcticNet piston cores from the central part of Viscount Melville Sound, considered to have been beneath the short-lived ice shelf, thus permitting a detailed examination of the potential mechanisms and dynamics of iceshelf formation and collapse. Analyses of ice-rafted debris (IRD), coupled with micropalaeontological and chronostratigraphic investigation; data suggest a rapid ice advance into Viscount Melville Sound consistent with terrestrial interpretations. The presence of "rain-out tills" and IRD indicative of a Victoria Island / M'Clintock Channel origin is considered a result of deposition from a debris-rich tongue of floating glacial ice associated with streaming ice exiting M'Clintock Channel, permitting the on-shore rafting of ice and emplacement of coastal till sequences and iceshelf moraines. The rapid transition from sub-iceshelf sediments to ice proximal to distal sediments is also consistent with terrestrial evidence for the rapid retreat of the Viscount Melville Sound Iceshelf. AMS 14C-dated benthic foraminifera from above the iceshelf-marine transition provide a minimum age on iceshelf collapse of ~9.0 cal ka BP. Age-depth model projections bellow the lowermost core date assuming enhance ice-proximal sedimentation rates permit an approximate iceshelf collapse date similar to that indicated by terrestrial sequences. This ongoing study contributes towards an improved understanding of the glaciological constraints placed on the streaming of ice from M'Clintock Channel into the Sound and the resulting draw-down and destabilization of the NW sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Furthermore, emerging foraminiferal, diatom, and biogeochemical data provide valuable insights into the deglacial and postglacial history of the western sector of the Northwest Passage.

  20. Why does FGOALS-gl reproduce a weak Medieval Warm Period but a reasonable Little Ice Age and 20th century warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhun; Zhou, Tianjun

    2013-11-01

    To understand the strengths and limitations of a low-resolution version of Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land-Sea-ice (FGOALS-gl) to simulate the climate of the last millennium, the energy balance, climate sensitivity and absorption feedback of the model are analyzed. Simulation of last-millennium climate was carried out by driving the model with natural (solar radiation and volcanic eruptions) and anthropogenic (greenhouse gases and aerosols) forcing agents. The model feedback factors for (model sensitivity to) different forcings were calculated. The results show that the system feedback factor is about 2.5 (W m-2) K-1 in the pre-industrial period, while 1.9 (W m-2) K-1 in the industrial era. Thus, the model’s sensitivity to natural forcing is weak, which explains why it reproduces a weak Medieval Warm Period. The relatively reasonable simulation of the Little Ice Age is caused by both the specified radiative forcing and unforced linear cold drift. The model sensitivity in the industrial era is higher than that of the pre-industrial period. A negative net cloud radiative feedback operates during whole-millennial simulation and reduces the model’s sensitivity to specified forcing. The negative net cloud radiative forcing feedback under natural forcing in the period prior to 1850 is due to the underestimation (overestimation) of the response of cloudiness (in-cloud water path). In the industrial era, the strong tropospheric temperature response enlarges the effective radius of ice clouds and reduces the fractional ice content within cloud, resulting in a weak negative net cloud feedback in the industrial period. The water vapor feedback in the industrial era is also stronger than that in the pre-industrial period. Both are in favor of higher model sensitivity and thus a reasonable simulation of the 20th century global warming.

  1. Predicting outflow induced by moraine failure in glacial lakes: the Lake Palcacocha case from an uncertainty perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas, D. S.; Somos-Valenzuela, M. A.; Hodges, B. R.; McKinney, D. C.

    2015-06-01

    Moraine dam collapse is one of the causes of glacial lake outburst floods. Available models seek to predict both moraine breach formation and lake outflow. The models depend on hydraulic, erosion, and geotechnical parameters that are mostly unknown or uncertain. This paper estimates the outflow hydrograph caused by a potential erosive collapse of the moraine dam of Lake Palcacocha in Peru and quantifies the uncertainty of the results. The overall aim is to provide a simple yet hydraulically robust approach for calculating the expected outflow hydrographs that is useful for risk assessment studies. To estimate the peak outflow and failure time of the hydrograph, we assessed several available empirical equations based on lake and moraine geometries; each equation has defined confidence intervals for peak flow predictions. Complete outflow hydrographs for each peak flow condition were modeled using a hydraulic simulation model calibrated to match the peak flows estimated with the empirical equations. Failure time and peak flow differences between the simulations, and the corresponding empirical equations were used as error parameters. Along with an expected hydrograph, lower and upper bound hydrographs were calculated for Lake Palcacocha, representing the confidence interval of the results. The approach has several advantages: first, it is simple and robust. Second, it evaluates the capability of empirical equations to reproduce the conditions of the lake and moraine dam. Third, this approach accounts for uncertainty in the hydrographs estimations, which makes it appropriate for risk management studies.

  2. Predicting outflow induced by moraine failure in glacial lakes: the Lake Palcacocha case from an uncertainty perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas, D. S.; Somos-Valenzuela, M. A.; McKinney, D. C.; Hodges, B. R.

    2014-09-01

    Moraine dam collapse is one of the causes of Glacier Lake Outburst Floods. Available models seek to predict both moraine breach formation and lake outflow. The models depend on hydraulic, erosion, and geotechnical parameters that are mostly unknown or uncertain. This paper estimates the outflow hydrograph caused by a potential collapse of the moraine dam of Lake Palcacocha in Peru and quantifies the uncertainty of the results. The overall aim is to provide a simple and robust method of calculation of the expected outflow hydrographs that is useful for risk assessment studies. To estimate the peak outflow and failure time of the hydrograph, we assessed several available empirical equations based on lake and moraine geometries; each equation has defined confidence intervals for peak flow predictions. Complete outflow hydrographs for each peak flow condition were modeled using a~hydraulic simulation model calibrated to meet the peak flows estimated with the empirical equations. Failure time and peak flow differences between the simulations and the corresponding empirical equations were used as error parameters. Along with an expected hydrograph, lower and upper bound hydrographs were calculated for Lake Palcacocha, representing the confidence interval of the results. The method has several advantages: first, it is simple and robust. Second, it evaluates the capability of empirical equations to reproduce the conditions of the lake and moraine dam. Third, this method accounts for uncertainty in the hydrographs estimations, which makes it appropriate for risk management studies.

  3. Elephant Moraine 87521 - The first lunar meteorite composed of predominantly mare material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Paul H.; Kallemeyn, Gregory W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of trace-element analyses and detailed petrography obtained for the Elephant Moraine 87521 meteorite (EET87521) found recently in Antarctica. Its high values found for the Fe/Mn ratio and the bulk-Co content indicate that the EET87521 is not, as was originally classified, a eucrite. Moreover, its low Ga/Al and Na/Ca ratios exclude the possibility that it is an SNC meteorite. These and other characteristics (e.g., a very low Ti content) of the EET87521 suggest its affinity with very-low-Ti high-alumina varieties of lunar mare basalt.

  4. Investigating Ice Worlds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-12-27

    In this activity about the solar system, learners use various light sources to examine ice with different components to understand how NASA studies planets and moons from space. This detailed lesson guide includes background information about distant ice worlds in the outer solar system, literature connections, instructions for a pre-activity demonstration, modified activities by age, tips, discussion questions, and resources.

  5. A Changing Ice Sheet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This animation shows the retreat of glacial ice, changes in the shoreline, and the disappearance of the land bridge across the Bering Sea which occurred at the end of the last ice age, beginning just over 21,000 years ago.

  6. Arctic ice island and sea ice movements and mechanical properties. Second quarterly report, 1 January31 March 1984

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. Sackinger; W. J. Stringer; H. Serson

    1984-01-01

    Research activities for the second quarter are presented for the following tasks: (1) ice island; (2) Chukchi Sea pack ice age; and (3) mechanical properties of sea spray ice bonds structures. The research program on ice islands has four objectives: (1) establish a time history of all of the Arctic ice shelves and an historically-verified source function for ice islands

  7. Physiological and growth responses of C3 and C4 plants to reduced temperature when grown at low CO2 of the last ice age.

    PubMed

    Ward, Joy K; Myers, David A; Thomas, Richard B

    2008-11-01

    During the last ice age, CO2 concentration ([CO2]) was 180-200 micromol/mol compared with the modern value of 380 micromol/mol, and global temperatures were approximately 8 degrees C cooler. Relatively little is known about the responses of C3 and C4 species to long-term exposure to glacial conditions. Here Abutilon theophrasti Medik. (C3) and Amaranthus retroflexus L. (C4) were grown at 200 micromol/mol CO2 with current (30/24 degrees C) and glacial (22/16 degrees C) temperatures for 22 d. Overall, the C4 species exhibited a large growth advantage over the C3 species at low [CO2]. However, this advantage was reduced at low temperature, where the C4 species produced 5 x the total mass of the C3 species versus 14 x at the high temperature. This difference was due to a reduction in C4 growth at low temperature, since the C3 species exhibited similar growth between temperatures. Physiological differences between temperatures were not detected for either species, although photorespiration/net photosynthesis was reduced in the C3 species grown at low temperature, suggesting evidence of improved carbon balance at this treatment. This system suggests that C4 species had a growth advantage over C3 species during low [CO2] of the last ice age, although concurrent reductions in temperatures may have reduced this advantage. PMID:19017126

  8. Ice Core Depth-Age Relation for Vostok delta-D and Dome Fuji delta-18O Records Based on the Devils Hole Paleotemperature Chronology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landwehr, Jurate Maciunas

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the data for the Vostok - Devils Hole chronology, termed V-DH chronology, for the Antarctic Vostok ice core record. This depth - age relation is based on a join between the Vostok deuterium profile (D) and the stable oxygen isotope ratio (18O) record of paleotemperature from a calcitic core at Devils Hole, Nevada, using the algorithm developed by Landwehr and Winograd (2001). Both the control points defining the V-DH chronology and the numeric values for the chronology are given. In addition, a plausible chronology for a deformed bottom portion of the Vostok core developed with this algorithm is presented. Landwehr and Winograd (2001) demonstrated the broader utility of their algorithm by applying it to another appropriate Antarctic paleotemperature record, the Antarctic Dome Fuji ice core 18O record. Control points for this chronology are also presented in this report but deemed preliminary because, to date, investigators have published only the visual trace and not the numeric values for the Dome Fuji 18O record. The total uncertainty that can be associated with the assigned ages is also given.

  9. Sea Ice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this resource, students will discover that there are notable differences between sea ice and fresh-water ice, such as density. In on segment, students learn that the first sign of freezing on the sea is an oily appearance of the water caused by the formation of needle-like crystals. The site explains the relationship between growth and the rate at which heat flows from the water and that the ice pack can alter its shape and dimension due to the movement of winds, currents, thermal expansion, and contraction of the ice. Types of ice described here include new ice, nilas, young ice, first-year ice, and old ice while the forms of ice covered include pancake ice, brash ice, ice cake, floe, and fast ice. The site also explains the meteorological and oceanographic factors that control the amount and movement of ice.

  10. The current evolution of complex high mountain debris-covered glacier systems and its relation with ground ice nature and distribution: the case of Rognes and Pierre Ronde area (Mont-Blanc range, France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosson, Jean-Baptiste; Lambiel, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    The current climate forcing, through negative glacier mass balance and rockfall intensification, is leading to the rapid burring of many small glacier systems. When the debris mantle exceeds some centimeters of thickness, the climate control on ice melt is mitigated and delayed. As well, debris-covered glaciers respond to climate forcing in a complex way. This situation is emphasised in high mountain environments, where topo-climatic conditions, such as cold temperatures, amount of solid precipitation, duration of snow cover, nebulosity or shadow effect of rockwalls, limit the influence of rising air temperatures in the ground. Beside, due to Holocene climate history, glacier-permafrost interactions are not rare within the periglacial belt. Glacier recurrence may have removed and assimilated former ice-cemented sediments, the negative mass balance may have led to the formation of ice-cored rock glaciers and neopermafrost may have formed recently under cold climate conditions. Hence, in addition to sedimentary ice, high mountain debris-covered glacier systems can contain interstitial magmatic ice. Especially because of their position at the top of alpine cascade systems and of the amount of water and (unconsolidated) sediment involved, it is important to understand and anticipate the evolution of these complex landforms. Due to the continuous and thick debris mantle and to the common existence of dead ice in deglaciated areas, the current extent of debris-covered glacier can be difficult to point out. Thus, the whole system, according to Little Ice Age (LIA) extent, has sometimes to be investigated to understand the current response of glacier systems to the climate warming. In this context, two neighbouring sites, Rognes and Pierre Ronde systems (45°51'38''N, 6°48'40''E; 2600-3100m a.s.l), have been studied since 2011. These sites are almost completely debris-covered and only few ice outcrops in the upper slopes still witness the existence of former glaciers. Electrical resistivity tomographies, kinematic data and ground surface temperature show that heterogeneous responses to climate forcing are occurring despites their small areas (> 0.3 km2). This complex situation is related to Holocene climate history and especially to glacier systems evolution since LIA. The current dynamics depend of ground ice nature and distribution. Five main behaviours can be highlighted: - Debris covered glacier areas are the most active. Their responses to climate forcing are relatively fast, especially through massive ice melt-out each summer. - Ice-cored rock glacier areas are quite active. The existence of massive glacier ice under few meters of debris explain the important surface lowering during the snow free period . - Ice-cemented rock glacier areas are characterised by winter and summer subhorizontal downslope creeping. - Moraine areas containing dead ice have heterogeneous activities (directions and values of detected movements) related to the ice vanishing. - Deglaciated moraine areas are almost inactive, except modest superficial paraglacial rebalancing.

  11. Late-glacial environmental changes south of the Wisconsinan terminal moraine in the Eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, E.W.B.; Stanford, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    Palynological analyses of two sediment cores, one 2.4 m long from northern Delaware, dated about 16,300 to 14,700 14C yr B.P., and one 1.8 m long from New Jersey just south of the Wisconsinan terminal moraine and dated about 13,600 to 12,500 14C yr B.P., give the first detailed evidence of vegetation in this area during these periods. The overall assemblages are similar to each other, with Picea and Pinus dominating the arboreal pollen and Poaceae and Cyperaceae the herbaceous flora. Nonarboreal pollen contributes about 30-50% of the total, indicating a very open vegetation or a mix of forest patches and open areas. Especially in Delaware, there is a diversity of other herbaceous pollen, including members of the Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Ranunculaceae. The assemblages do not resemble current North American tundra or boreal forest assemblages; rather, they resemble assemblages characteristic of tundra on recently exposed land surfaces north of the Wisconsinan terminal moraine. The persistence of the assemblages for 1500-2000 years in late-glacial time suggests stable and cold climate during this time of glacier retreat.

  12. An Over-Sea-Ice High Resolution Seismic Reflection Survey to Image Holocene Aged Pelagic Sediment, MacKay Sea Valley , Southern McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, B. P.; Speece, M. A.; Powell, R. D.; Levy, R. H.; Harwood, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    In the austral summer of 2007, 20.5 km of high-resolution over-sea-ice seismic reflection data were collected in the Granite Harbor region of southern McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. The goal of this survey was to image recent pelagic sediment deposited in the MacKay Sea Valley (MSV) after the Mackay glacier receded at the end of the last glacial maximum. Piston cores NBP95-01-PC26 and NBP95-01-PC29 collected 892 and 870 cm of mid-Holocene aged, highly diatomic sediment from the MSV. This suggests that the MSV sediment could contain a detailed, high-resolution Holocene climate record for the Ross Sea. Core from CRP-1 recovered 40 m of Quaternary- aged sediment in the nearby Cape Roberts area; which represents the deepest sediment record above the unconformity. Below the unconformity are gently folded Pleistocene to late Neogene-aged sediment. Nine MSV profile lines were oriented both along the length of MSV as well as perpendicular to it. A generator-injector air gun was used as the source to negate bubble-pulse noise in the data. A snowstreamer consisting of 60, vertically oriented, gimbaled geophones spaced 25 m apart was used for rapid data collection. The shot move-up was 50 m yielding a maximum fold of 15 for the survey. Despite being collected over sea ice and in as much as 900 m of water, these data have approximately 7.5 meter vertical resolution. The unconsolidated sediment reflectors were initially difficult to see in the unprocessed data because of their relatively low reflection coefficients due to the sediment layers having velocities close to that of sea water. Below the pelagic sediment is a high amplitude reflector interpreted as the bedrock. The recognition of and correction for timing errors and statics problems inherent in the over-sea-ice seismic data has significantly improved the quality of these data. The dominant noise in the data is the ice flexure mode. This noise has a linear velocity, a frequency range of 10- 20 Hz, and high amplitude. Deconvolution was applied to remove short-period multiples caused by sea-ice and air-gun bubble pulse effects. Common-midpoint stacks indicate that the thickest sediment along the survey is approximately 40 m. High amplitude reflections that underlie the pelagic sediment are probably from granite basement. However, some underlying glacially deposited diamictite or un-eroded Pleistocene to late Neogene aged sediment could be present. A possible drilling site will be selected based on the interpretation of these seismic data to collect sediment core which will be compared with the Holocene and possibly older Quaternary terrestrial data.

  13. Prospecting for Martian Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBride, S. A.; Allen, C. C.; Bell, M. S.

    2005-01-01

    During high Martian obliquity, ice is stable to lower latitudes than predicted by models of present conditions and observed by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (approx. 60 deg N). An ice-rich layer deposited at mid-latitudes could persist to the present day; ablation of the top 1 m of ice leaving a thin insulating cover could account for lack of its detection by GRS. The presence of an ice-layer in the mid-latitudes is suggested by a network of polygons, interpreted as ice-wedge cracks. This study focuses on an exceptional concentration of polygons in Western Utopia (section of Casius quadrangle, roughly 40 deg - 50 deg N, 255 deg - 300 deg W). We attempt to determine the thickness and age of this ice layer through crater-polygons relations.

  14. The value of lichenometry and historical archives in assessing the incision of submediterranean rivers from the Little Ice Age in the Ardèche and upper Loire (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gob, Frédéric; Jacob, Nicolas; Bravard, Jean-Paul; Petit, François

    2008-02-01

    The geomorphologic impact of the Little Ice Age (LIA) was determined on two French Mediterranean rivers, the upper Ardèche and the upper Loire. In order to evaluate the impact of the LIA on the hydrology of these rivers, two historical flood chronicles were made from historical sources. The LIA can be divided in three phases of high activity (1530-1700; 1750-1810; 1840-1910). A geomorphologic study of the two rivers shows that incision is the principle process at work in the 20th century. In order to date the low terraces and bedforms present in both valleys, lichenometry was used. Rhizocarpon geographicum allowed the main features on the bottom of the valley to be dated using two growth curves made for the two studied areas. In the Ardèche, lichenometric dating showed a progressive evacuation of the inherited alluvial stock. The oldest lichens found on the foodplain and the outcrops indicate that incision began between the second half of the 17th century and the end of the 18th century, in the mid Little Ice Age. Incision stopped on the bedrock in the second half of the 19th century. In the Loire, the narrowness of the gorge did not allow sediment to be stored during the first half of the LIA. Very old lichens (> 1000 yr of age) are present on the bedrock close to the bed. However at a number of locations, the valley slightly widens, allowing sediment that was transiting through the gorge to be stored. The geomorphologic features that characterise these basins clearly show a hydrosedimentary behaviour different before and after the beginning of the 20th century.

  15. Valley-fill alluviation during the Little Ice Age (ca. A.D. 1400-1880), Paria River basin and southern Colorado Plateau, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hereford, R.

    2002-01-01

    Valley-fill alluvium deposited from ca. A.D. 1400 to 1880 is widespread in tributaries of the Paria River and is largely coincident with the Little Ice Age epoch of global climate variability. Previous work showed that alluvium of this age is a mappable stratigraphic unit in many of the larger alluvial valleys of the southern Colorado Plateau. The alluvium is bounded by two disconformities resulting from prehistoric and historic arroyo cutting at ca. A.D. 1200-1400 and 1860-1910, respectively. The fill forms a terrace in the axial valleys of major through-flowing streams. This terrace and underlying deposits are continuous and interfinger with sediment in numerous small tributary valleys that head at the base of hillslopes of sparsely vegetated, weakly consolidated bedrock, suggesting that eroded bedrock was an important source of alluvium along with in-channel and other sources. Paleoclimatic and high-resolution paleoflood studies indicate that valley-fill alluviation occured during a long-term decrease in the frequency of large, destructive floods. Aggradation of the valleys ended about A.D. 1880, if not two decades earlier, with the beginning of historic arroyo cutting. This shift from deposition to valley entrenchment near the close of the Little Ice Age generally coincided with the beginning of an episode of the largest floods in the preceding 400-500 yr, which was probably caused by an increased recurrence and intensity of flood-producing El Nin??o events beginning at ca. A.D. 1870.

  16. A regime shift in the subpolar gyre strength due to a sudden transition in the North Atlantic climate during the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Chamarro, Eduardo; Zanchettin, Davide; Lohmann, Katja; Jungclaus, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Recent paleoceanographic reconstructions of the subpolar North Atlantic variability during the last millennium describe oceanic conditions associated with a weaker subpolar gyre during the Little Ice Age (~1400-1700) after a relatively strong phase during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (~950-1250). However, mechanism(s) behind such a relatively rapid shift remains unclear. Here, we investigate the dynamics of the subpolar gyre and its role on driving the exchanges of heat and freshwater between the northern North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean over the last millennium in an ensemble of three transient and an unperturbed-climate simulation performed with the Max Planck Institute-Earth system model for paleo-applications. In particular, we focus on the dynamics underlying a decadal-scale transition in the subpolar gyre from an initial strong to a later weak state, which is found in one of the last-millennium transient simulations and shows characteristic features similar to the reconstructed event. Our results indicate that the simulated shift is triggered by a rapid increase in the sea-ice transport from the Arctic toward the subpolar North Atlantic, which causes a broad freshening of the Labrador Sea surface and, thereby, a shut-down in deep oceanic mixing. As a result, the subpolar gyre weakens. This in turn activates a series of long-lasting feedbacks relating oceanic and atmospheric circulation, sea-ice extent, and oceanic deep convection in the Labrador Sea that keep the North Atlantic in an anomalous state for about 250 years. A reorganization of the North Atlantic/Arctic ocean-atmosphere coupled system, sustained by internal feedbacks acting on multicentennial time scales, can therefore result in a new subpolar gyre state. The simulated shift coincides in time with a two-decade-long cluster of relatively small volcanic eruptions which leads to prominent thickening of the Arctic ice cap previous to the shift. Sensitivity experiments will be performed to further investigate the role of the external forcing and of the background state on this climate shift. Preliminary results from an experiment initialized before the climate transition and excluding the volcanic cluster do not show such a rapid change in the subpolar gyre strength and, more generally, in the climate of the North Atlantic/Arctic region. Relatively small but very close volcanic eruptions can thus exert a cooling influence on the North Atlantic/Arctic climate similar to that found for much stronger but indeed rarer eruptions.

  17. Characterizing subsurface properties in a young moraine area by combining invasive and non-invasive methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, Henriette; Thoss, Heiko; Güntner, Andreas; Blume, Theresa

    2013-04-01

    Groundwater and lake levels have been decreasing at many locations in northeastern Germany for the last 30 years. However, the reasons for this decline are still unclear. Our investigation aims at a better understanding of this hydrogeological system: its structures, dynamics and control mechanisms. Focus area is the domain of Lake Fürstensee (one of the TERENO field sites of the Helmholtz Association), which is located in a young moraine area in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The investigation area consists of the Pommeranian main terminal moraine in the north and the outwash plain in the south. Currently, no detailed knowledge about subsurface structures, groundwater flow directions and dynamics is available for the lake Fürstensee region. However, as we are looking at a purely groundwater controlled lake system (no surface inflows or outflows), this information is essential for a better understanding of the ongoing processes. First field campaigns were carried out in 2012. The establishment of observation wells, a monitoring system and the investigation of subsurface characteristics with standard methods such as grain size analyses, permeameter tests on disturbed and undisturbed samples as well as pumping tests supplied important first insights. Due to the heterogeneity of the subsurface combined with limited possibilities to identify subsurface structures and boundaries through outcrop characterization, the application of different geophysical approaches seems to be most promising for larger scale surveys. First electric resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys along different transects of up to 800 m length have been performed to detect the boundary between aquifer and aquiclude or the lateral extent of both terminal moraine and outwash plain. In order to obtain extensive information on subsurface characteristics by geophysical methods, the creation of site-specific parameter relationships is necessary. Certain geophysical characteristics such as the specific electrical resistance and the electromagnetic wave propagation velocity are controlled by porosity and water content. Hydraulic conductivity on the other hand, does not only depend on overall porosity but also on pore size distributions and is thus a difficult parameter to infer directly from geophysical measurements. However, it might be possible to deduce hydraulic conductivities by combining GPR, ERT and soil physical data sets for the project area. First results of the determined subsurface structures as well as an attempt for a geophysical interpolation of hydraulic conductivities are presented.

  18. Climate variability during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age based on ostracod faunas and shell geochemistry from Biscayne Bay, Florida: Chapter 14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, Thomas M.; Wingard, Georgiana L.; Dwyer, Gary S.; Swart, Peter K.; Willard, Debra A.; Albietz, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    An 800-year-long environmental history of Biscayne Bay, Florida, is reconstructed from ostracod faunal and shell geochemical (oxygen, carbon isotopes, Mg/Ca ratios) studies of sediment cores from three mudbanks in the central and southern parts of the bay. Using calibrations derived from analyses of modern Biscayne and Florida Bay ostracods, palaeosalinity oscillations associated with changes in precipitation were identified. These oscillations reflect multidecadal- and centennial-scale climate variability associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation during the late Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA). Evidence suggests wetter regional climate during the MCA and drier conditions during the LIA. In addition, twentieth century anthropogenic modifications to Everglades hydrology influenced bay circulation and/or processes controlling carbon isotopic composition.

  19. Characterization of Freshwater-Saltwater Interactions Within the Terminal Moraine Separating Vitus Lake and the Gulf of Alaska

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Andrus; J. Gierke; K. Endsley; S. Espino; W. Pennington

    2008-01-01

    Meltwater from the Bering Glacier flows into Vitus Lake, at its terminus, out of the lake via the Seal River, and then into the Gulf of Alaska. Only a small percentage of the estimated glacial meltwater appears as flow in the Seal River based on continuous monitoring, suggesting that lake water is also discharging through the terminal moraine on the

  20. Profit-Making as Character Education: Social Education in the Moraine Park School and Antioch College, 1916-1933

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watras, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Arthur E. Morgan and other self-made business leaders opened Moraine Park School in 1917 to provide a form of character training that they feared had ended in the United States. These men believed that young people gained the best social education when they had to run their own companies because such opportunities enabled students to acquire the…

  1. Meltwater Behavior in Ice Streams Inferred from Deposits in Shelf-crossing Troughs on the Southeast Canadian Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, E. L.; Cameron, G. D.

    2008-12-01

    Shelf-crossing troughs draining Laurentide and Newfoundland sheets of the southeast Canadian margin are investigated using high and ultrahigh seismic reflection profiles and cores. Paleo-ice streams formed diverse seismostratigraphic facies and geometries which provide evidence for subglacial, grounding zone and ice marginal meltwater behavior. Common to most troughs is a down-ice transition from an overdeepened and erosive inner to mid-shelf situation. This transitions to net deposition, either as trough-flanking tills or broad mid or outer shelf moraines. Distal to the moraines are debris flow and/or mass failure deposits interbedded in various geometries with stratified glacimarine plume-dominated deposition. Finally, late-stage channelization and/or sheet erosion is common, some with an outburst nature. The moraines are broad and thick enough (up to 80 m) that they were constructed in a near-horizontal aggradational nature. Seismic interpretation suggests deposition from a broad grounding zone with constrained (non-channelized) water evolving to a more communicable or channelized system. Successively stacked up-ice-dipping till sheets, with preserved depositional surfaces (stratified sediment over a fluted surface), mimic the proximal moraine flank. They were deposited with progressive retreat and sheet- aggradation from the ice stream sole. The latest sheet has ubiquitous pockets of water-deposited sediment embedded in an otherwise till-like regime. Occasional channels at its top demonstrate an evolution to local free flow. Till tongues and glacigenic debris flows at the distal moraine margin evolve directly from a dilatent ice stream grounding line effluent, into debris flow channels and aprons without appreciable interim deposition. The tongues are interbedded with thin water-lain (plume) deposits, but devoid of associated channels, indicating intermittent switching between dilatant slurry efflux and meltwater plumes. Outburst flooding evidence is best recognized by hyperpycnal slope and rise deposits, a giant moraine breaching, mid-axis marginal meltwater channeling in late glacial sediments, a ubiquitous late glacial unconformity and large sandwave fields. Chronology relating erosion and deposition events places them penecontemporaneously, but more precision is needed. All the trough settings possess a mid-shelf overdeepened basin which is the presumed site of sub-glacial lake from which the outbursts originate. We suggest that the diversity in deposits and erosional events reflects evolution of a continuum from a situation where meltwater is entirely constricted interstitially in a subglacial dilatant slurry to a spatially transitional or periodic alternation from slurry to water-lain plume and finally to a free-flowing, channelized and occasionally periodic outburst process.

  2. Late Glacial Dynamics of the Greenland Ice Sheet on NE-Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, D.; Jokat, W.; Jensen, L.; Schenke, H.-W.

    2012-04-01

    The reconstruction of large ice masses in the past is a crucial element for current climate models as correct input and base line parameter as well as for the implementation of associated ice sheet dynamics. For a long time, the ice sheet extent of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) was reconstructed mainly on the basis of terrestrial work. Accordingly, the outer limit of the GIS during the Late Glacial Maximum (LGM) was placed close to the current coastline. Advances in our understanding on the dynamic behaviour of the GIS,especially offshore NE-Greenland, came from hydro-acoustic surveys which indicated a much larger extent of GIS during the LGM. Here, we present hydro-acoustic data acquired with RV "Polarstern" from fjord systems to the shelf edge of NE-Greenland, including the first hydro-acoustic data of Dijmphna and Hekla Sunds. We found morphological evidence for fast-flowing ice filling the fjords, extending onto the shelf as ice stream and reaching the shelf break. Mega-scale glacial lineation, recessional moraines and grounding line wedges document a highly dynamic behaviour of this Westwind Ice Stream of the GIS on NE-Greenland. The ice advance was followed by a rapid retreat to a mid-shelf position where the ice margin repeatedly deposited sets of recessional moraines. A second rapid retreat, probably accompanied by a lift-off of the ice followed and placed the ice margin at the mouth of Dijphna Sund. A last retreat established the modern ice margin in the area. Post-glacial sedimentation was affected by mud diapirism, neo-tectonic activity and submarine mass-wasting inside Dijphna and Hekla Sunds.

  3. Proglacial lake sediments, cosmogenic ages and stable isotopes reveal Holocene climate changes in the Peruvian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stansell, N.; Rodbell, D. T.; Licciardi, J. M.; Abbott, M. B.; Mark, B. G.; Schweinsberg, A.

    2013-12-01

    Sediment records from lakes and cosmogenic ages on moraine boulders in central Peru document the waxing and waning of alpine glaciers since the end of the late glacial stage. These records from the southern tropical Andes tentatively suggest that a brief re-advance occurred during the early Holocene, even though conditions overall were relatively warm and dry from ~12 to 8 ka. The middle Holocene (between 8 and 4 ka) was marked by a shift to cooler, and possibly wetter conditions in certain regions, leading to glacial advances. Although there were multiple periods of brief ice advances that punctuated the overall late Holocene trend, glaciers in multiple valleys generally retreated from ~4.0 ka through the Medieval Climate Anomaly (1.0 to 0.7 ka). This late Holocene pattern of ice retreat occurred during a period when lake level studies, and both lacustrine and speleothem stable isotopic records indicate wetter conditions, suggesting that higher temperatures contributed to the pattern of ice retreat. Following this period of glacial retreat, multiple proxy records suggest that the start of the Little Ice Age (~0.6 to 0.1 ka) was a colder and wetter time throughout much of the tropical Andes. While there is emerging evidence that the strength of the South American Summer Monsoon increased through the Holocene, these shifting precipitation patterns do not fully explain the record of glaciation in Peru. It is likely that sea surface temperature distributions in the tropical Pacific Ocean also affected atmospheric temperature, precipitation and circulation patterns over the Andes. The combined influences of both Atlantic and Pacific ocean and atmospheric influences thus contributed to the observed pattern of glacial variability during the Holocene.

  4. Soils developed from marine and moraine deposits on the Billefjord coast, West Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereverzev, V. N.

    2012-11-01

    Morphogenetic features of soils developed from noncalcareous and calcareous deposits of the marine and glacial origins on the coasts of Billefjord and Petunia Bay in West Spitsbergen are studied. Grayhumus (soddy) soils develop from noncalcareous deposits; they consist of the AO-AY-C horizons and differ from analogous soils in other locations in a higher bulk content of calcium, a close to neutral reaction, and a relatively high degree of base saturation. Gray-humus residually calcareous soils (AO-AYca-Cca) developed from calcareous deposits have a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction; their exchange complex is almost completely saturated with bases. The soils that developed from both marine and moraine deposits are generally similar in their major genetic features. The profiles of all the soils are not differentiated with respect to the contents of major elements, including oxalate-soluble forms of aluminum and iron. Gley features are also absent in the profiles of these soils.

  5. Holocene Relative Sea-Level History of Novaya Zemlya, Russia, and Implications for Late Weichselian Ice-Sheet Loading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JaapJan Zeeberg; David J. Lubinski; Steven L. Forman

    2001-01-01

    We present six new radiocarbon-dated emergence curves that provide a detailed record of postglacial emergence of northern Novaya Zemlya and ages which constrain the emergence of Vaygach Island in the southern archipelago. Radiocarbon ages on Hiatella sp. from a lateral moraine in Russkaya Gavan' and abundances of foraminifea in a marine core from Nordenskiold Bay, 300 km south of our

  6. Preservation of Late Amazonian Mars ice and water-related deposits in a unique crater environment in Noachis Terra: Age relationships between lobate

    E-print Network

    Marchant, David R.

    (characterized by temperatures and pressures largely below the triple point of H2O; Hecht, 2002) that is thoughtPreservation of Late Amazonian Mars ice and water-related deposits in a unique crater environment in association with ice and liquid water; because near-surface ice in these regions is currently unstable

  7. Remnant buried ice in the equatorial regions of Mars: Morphological indicators associated with the Arsia Mons tropical mountain glacier deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Kathleen E.; Head, James W.; Marchant, David R.

    2015-06-01

    The fan-shaped deposit (FSD) on the western and northwestern flanks of Arsia Mons is the remnant of tropical mountain glaciers, deposited several tens to hundreds of millions of years ago during periods of high spin-axis obliquity. Previous workers have argued that the Smooth Facies in the FSD contains a core of ancient glacial ice. Here, we find evidence that additional glacial ice remains preserved within several other landforms in the Smooth Facies and Ridged Facies. These include landforms that we interpret as kame and kettle topography on the basis of their distribution, size, and morphologies ranging progressively from knobs to degraded knobs to pits. We argue that some moraines in the Ridged Facies are ice-cored on the basis of their interactions with lava flows and the axial troughs at the crests of some moraines. We also argue that dunes with axial troughs, found in and surrounding the FSD, are the remnants of sediment-covered snow dunes formed by reworking of snow or glacial ice, and that the axial troughs form as tension cracks in the sediment and deepen by sublimation of the underlying ice. Long-term preservation of water ice in equatorial environments is assisted by a meters- to decameters-thick debris cover (lag) formed from sublimation of dirty ice, as well as burial beneath volcanic tephra and aeolian deposits. This ancient ice could contain preserved biosignatures, provide information on Martian climate and atmospheric history, and serve as a resource for human exploration.

  8. On the nature of the dirty ice at the bottom of the GISP2 ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Michael L.; Burgess, Edward; Alley, Richard B.; Barnett, Bruce; Clow, Gary D.

    2010-11-01

    We present data on the triple Ar isotope composition in trapped gas from clean, stratigraphically disturbed ice between 2800 and 3040 m depth in the GISP2 ice core, and from basal dirty ice from 3040 to 3053 m depth. We also present data for the abundance and isotopic composition of O 2 and N 2, and abundance of Ar, in the basal dirty ice. The Ar/N 2 ratio of dirty basal ice, the heavy isotope enrichment (reflecting gravitational fractionation), and the total gas content all indicate that the gases in basal dirty ice originate from the assimilation of clean ice of the overlying glacier, which comprises most of the ice in the dirty bottom layer. O 2 is partly to completely depleted in basal ice, reflecting active metabolism. The gravitationally corrected ratio of 40Ar/ 38Ar, which decreases with age in the global atmosphere, is compatible with an age of 100-250 ka for clean disturbed ice. In basal ice, 40Ar is present in excess due to injection of radiogenic 40Ar produced in the underlying continental crust. The weak depth gradient of 40Ar in the dirty basal ice, and the distribution of dirt, indicate mixing within the basal ice, while various published lines of evidence indicate mixing within the overlying clean, disturbed ice. Excess CH 4, which reaches thousands of ppm in basal dirty ice at GRIP, is virtually absent in overlying clean disturbed ice, demonstrating that mixing of dirty basal ice into the overlying clean ice, if it occurs at all, is very slow. Order-of-magnitude estimates indicate that the mixing rate of clean ice into dirty ice is sufficient to maintain a steady thickness of dirty ice against thinning from the mean ice flow. The dirty ice appears to consist of two or more basal components in addition to clean glacial ice. A small amount of soil or permafrost, plus preglacial snow, lake or ground ice could explain the observations.

  9. Ice Sheets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This educational brief describes the nature and properties of the Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets. Topics include the thickness and aereal extent of the ice sheets, volume of water contained in them, mass balance, and the mechanisms by which ice is lost from or accumulated by the ice sheets.

  10. Ice in the northern plains: Relic of a frozen ocean?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchitta, B. K.

    1993-01-01

    Viking images revealed many features in the northern plains and along their boundary that early investigators believed to be formed by ice-related processes. The features are possible pingos, pseudocraters, table mountains and moberg ridges, thermokarst depressions, moraines, patterned ground, and lobate aprons that suggest viscous flow such as that of ice or rock glaciers. More recently, many of these features were reinterpreted as related to sedimentation in hypothetical former polar lakes, oceans, or alluvial plains or as shoreline features of associated water bodies. Some evidence that points toward the existence of former bodies of standing water in the northern plains, but is also consistent with the idea that these bodies were ice covered or completely frozen is reviewed.

  11. Skylab floating ice experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. J. (principal investigator); Ramseier, R. O.; Weaver, R. J.; Weeks, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Coupling of the aircraft data with the ground truth observations proved to be highly successful with interesting results being obtained with IR and SLAR passive microwave techniques, and standard photography. Of particular interest were the results of the PMIS system which operated at 10.69 GHz with both vertical and horizontal polarizations. This was the first time that dual polarized images were obtained from floating ice. In both sea and lake ice, it was possible to distinguish a wide variety of thin ice types because of their large differences in brightness temperatures. It was found that the higher brightness temperature was invariably obtained in the vertically polarized mode, and as the age of the ice increases the brightness temperature increases in both polarizations. Associated with this change in age, the difference in temperature was observed as the different polarizations decreased. It appears that the horizontally polarized data is the most sensitive to variations in ice type for both fresh water and sea ice. The study also showed the great amount of information on ice surface roughness and deformation patterns that can be obtained from X-band SLAR observations.

  12. Rapid marine deglaciation: asynchronous retreat dynamics between the Irish Sea Ice Stream and terrestrial outlet glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, H.; Hubbard, A.; Bradwell, T.; Glasser, N. F.; Hambrey, M. J.; Clark, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the retreat behaviour of past marine-based ice sheets provides vital context for accurate assessments of the present stability and long-term response of contemporary polar ice sheets to climate and oceanic warming. Here new multibeam swath bathymetry data and sedimentological analysis are combined with high resolution ice-sheet modelling to reveal complex landform assemblages and process dynamics associated with deglaciation of the Celtic ice sheet within the Irish Sea Basin. Our reconstruction indicates a non-linear relationship between the rapidly receding Irish Sea Ice Stream and the retreat of outlet glaciers draining the adjacent, terrestrially based ice cap centred over Wales. Retreat of Welsh ice was episodic; superimposed over low-order oscillations of its margin are asynchronous outlet readvances driven by catchment-wide mass balance variations that are amplified through migration of the ice cap's main ice divide. Formation of large, linear ridges which extend at least 12.5 km offshore (locally known as sarns) and which dominate the regional bathymetry are attributed to repeated frontal and medial morainic deposition associated with the readvancing phases of these outlet glaciers. Our study provides new insight into ice-sheet extent, dynamics and non-linear retreat across a major palaeo-ice stream confluence zone, and has ramifications for the interpretation of recent fluctuations observed by satellites over short timescales across marine sectors of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.

  13. Paleoclimatic tracers: An investigation using an atmospheric general circulation model under ice age conditions. 2. Water isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Joussaume, S. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris (France)); Jouzel, J. (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Saclay (France) Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Grenoble (France))

    1993-02-20

    The linear relationship observed between the water isotopic contents of precipitation and surface air temperatures leads to the use of the water isotopes, H[sub 2][sup 18]O and HDO, in paleoclimatology. Applied to the measurements of the isotopic content of paleowaters, like groundwaters and deep ice cores, this relationship is used to infer paleotemperatures. However, this interpretation of paleo-isotopic contents is only valid if the isotope-temperature relationship is not affected by climate change. To address this problem, the authors have developed a water isotope modeling inside an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) and performed simultations of both the present-day and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) climatic conditions. AGCM are indeed the only appropriate tools able to account the whole complexity of the atmospheric circulation. For the present-day climate, preliminary results for January were presented by Joussaume et al. (1984) and are complemented by new simulations performed for both February and August climatic conditions with a higher-resolution version of the model. Model results are well corroborated by observations. They also exhibit some effects of the atmospheric circulation on the isotopic fields. For the simulated LGM climate, the model results compare well with paleoclimatic data of water isotopic contents, except for a higher than observed spatial variability. The overall patterns of the simulated [delta][sup 18]O-temperature relationship for the LGM climate are practically unchanged, which tends to comfort the use of water isotopes in paleoclimatology. However, concerning the deuterium excess, i.e., the relationship between oxyen 18 and deuterium, the model results are not sufficiently valid to allow a discussion of the use of deuterium excess in paleoclimatology. 46 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Shallow seafloor glacial features reveal ice streaming and re-advance of the last British Ice Sheet, offshore eastern Scotland and north-eastern England, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, H. A.; Bradwell, T.

    2013-12-01

    Multibeam echosounder datasets have been combined with high-resolution topographic digital surface models (NEXTMap), 2D seismic reflection profiles and shallow cores to reveal strong evidence for onshore-offshore palaeo-ice streaming in eastern Scotland and north-eastern England, UK. The study area includes the catchments of the previously proposed, but only partly mapped, Strathmore, Forth-Tay, and Tweed palaeo-ice streams. Long suspected to terminate offshore, the full flow path and dimensions of this palaeo-ice stream system can now be reconstructed with some certainty using these new data. The ice sheet glacial landsystem is extremely well preserved on the seabed with four main types of subglacial and ice marginal morphology present: 1) highly elongate flow-parallel ridges and grooves strongly suggestive of ice streaming; 2) shorter-elongation flow aligned drumlins and crag and tails indicative of fast-flowing and persistent ice-sheet flow configurations; 3) large arcuate moraine ridges marking frontal stillstands or readvances of the ice sheet margin; and 4) tunnel valleys and deeply incised meltwater channels probably associated with retreat phases of the British Ice Sheet (BIS) following Last Glacial Maximum. The mapped bedforms indicate that fast-flowing corridors (palaeo-ice streams) existed within the last BIS emanating from the central belt of Scotland and northeast England. This new geomorphological evidence shows that these ice streams extended at least 60km offshore and probably accelerated across the transition from bedrock-dominated onshore terrain to till- dominated North Sea Basin. Of particular note is the observation that the Forth-Tay ice stream diverged, forming two glaciologically separate streams running parallel to the present-day coastline. Evidence shows that the southerly arm of this palaeo-ice stream overprinted the Tweed palaeo-ice stream which is contrary to the previously proposed trajectory. Spatial and morphological relationships between the landforms within this glacial landsystem allow inferences about ice sheet history and behaviour to be reconstructed. Most notably, elongate streamlined bedforms superimposed on conspicuous moraine ridges indicate that an extensive advance of palaeo-ice streams took place into the North Sea Basin during overall ice sheet retreat.

  15. Dynamics of the Zemgale Lobe of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet reconstructed from the subglacial landform record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamsters, Kristaps; Zel?s, Vit?lijs

    2015-04-01

    Deglacial ice dynamics were inferred from the distribution, morphometry and sedimentology of subglacial bedforms such as drumlins, mega-flutes, mega-scale glacial lineations (MSGL), ribbed moraines, from meltwater features such as subglacial channels and eskers, and ice-marginal landforms, which were identified and mapped from the topographical maps and digital elevation models. The Zemgale Lobe operated in the area of the Central Latvian and Lithuanian Lowlands, and it was characterized by the fast ice flow that was sustained by a combination of subglacial deformation and basal sliding. The mosaic ice-bed deformation model is favoured due to observed sediment structures indicating ice/bed coupling and decoupling episodes. The landform record indicates on two major reactivations of the Zemgale Lobe during the overall deglaciation of the Late Weichselian Scandinavian Ice Sheet and may imply surge-type behaviour. The coexistence of subglacial bedform assemblage and overlapping of their morphometry demonstrates subglacial bedform continuum. A significant number of prominent esker chains are distinguished proximally from the marginal ridges of the North Lithuanian deglacial phase with an average spacing of 10 - 15 km. Some of eskers are found within subglacial channels recording change in meltwater discharge. The cores of the many eskers consist of coarse deposits - gravels, cobbles and boulders indicating episodes of high-energy and hyper-concentrated flow conditions. Ribbed moraines are superimposed on streamlined subglacial features, thereby indicating a shift of subglacial conditions, which promoted the shutdown of the SE part of the Zemgale Lobe. The presence of ribbed moraines on the Zemgale Lobe bed proves that they are distributed not only at the central parts of ice sheets but also outside the core areas. The structure or ribbed moraines is glaciotectonically deformed, and comprises multiple units of diamicton and sorted sediments, which formed by repeated subglacial thrusting. These overthrusts formed at the migrating zone or patches of warm/cold based ice. The cores of studied drumlins are composed of sorted sediments capped by subglacial till. Some of the cores are heavily deformed, while the others are deformed only in the topmost part of drumlin. The formation of the drumlins consisting of un-deformed cores probably occurred by the vertical erosion of a deforming till layer into pre-existing sediments. They subsequently acted as an obstacle around which till was deposited and deformed.

  16. Geostatistical mapping of leakance in a regional aquitard, Oak Ridges Moraine area, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbarats, A. J.; Hinton, M. J.; Logan, C. E.; Sharpe, D. R.

    2001-01-01

    The Newmarket Till forms a regionally extensive aquitard separating two major aquifer systems in the Greater Toronto area, Canada. The till is incised, and sometimes eroded entirely, by a network of sand- and gravel-filled channels forming productive aquifers and, locally, high-conductivity windows between aquifer systems. Leakage through the till may also be substantial in places. This study investigates the spatial variability of aquitard leakance in order to assess the relative importance of recharge processes to the lower aquifers. With a large database derived from water-well records and containing both hard and soft information, the Sequential Indicator Simulation method is used to generate maps of aquitard thickness and window probability. These can be used for targeting channel aquifers and for identifying potential areas of recharge to the lower aquifers. Conductivities are modeled from sparse data assuming that their correlation range is much smaller than the grid spacing. Block-scale leakances are obtained by upscaling nodal values based on simulated conductivity and thickness fields. Under the "aquifer-flow'' assumption, upscaling is performed by arithmetic spatial averaging. Histograms and maps of upscaled leakances show that heterogeneities associated with aquitard windows have the largest effect on regional groundwater flow patterns. Résumé. La moraine glaciaire de Newmarket constitue un imperméable d'extension régionale séparant deux systèmes aquifères dans la région du Grand Toronto (Canada). La moraine est entaillée, et parfois entièrement érodée, par un réseau de chenaux comblés de sables et de graviers formant des aquifères productifs et, localement, des «fenêtres», zones à forte conductivité hydraulique reliant les systèmes aquifères. Une drainance au travers de la moraine peut également être significative par endroits. Cette étude s'intéresse à la variabilité spatiale de la drainance au travers de l'imperméable, dans le but d'évaluer l'importance relative des processus d'alimentation des aquifères inférieurs. À partir d'une vaste base de données constituée par les mesures faites dans les puits et contenant des informations à la fois certaines et incertaines, la méthode de simulation par indicateur séquentiel est utilisée pour créer des cartes d'épaisseur de l'imperméable et de probabilité d'existence des fenêtres. Ces cartes peuvent être utilisées pour mettre en évidence les aquifères de chenaux et pour identifier les zones potentielles de recharge des aquifères inférieurs. Les conductivités hydrauliques sont modélisées à partir de données clairsemées en supposant que leur gamme de corrélation est beaucoup plus faible que le pas de la grille. La drainance à l'échelle des blocs est obtenue par accroissement du niveau d'échelle des valeurs nodales basé sur les champs de conductivité simulée et des épaisseurs. À partir de l'hypothèse d'écoulement dans l'aquifère, l'accroissement d'échelle est réalisé en faisant une moyenne arithmétique spatiale. Des histogrammes et des cartes de drainance avec accroissement d'échelle montrent que les hétérogénéités associées aux fenêtres dans l'imperméable constituent l'effet le plus important dans l'organisation des écoulements souterrains régionaux. Resumen. El Till de Newmarket forma un acuitardo de extensión regional que separa dos sistemas acuíferos principales en la zona de Greater Toronto (Canadá). El till está horadado, y a veces completamente erosionado, por una red de canales rellenos de arena y grava. Estos constituyen acuíferos productivos y, localmente, conexiones de alta permeabilidad entre sistemas acuíferos. El goteo a través del till puede ser fundamental en ciertos lugares. Este estudio investiga la variabilidad espacial del goteo desde el acuitardo con el fin de establecer la importancia relativa de los procesos de recarga hacia los acuíferos inferiores. Se ha utilizado el método de la Simulación Indicadora Secuencial, soportado por una gran base de dato

  17. Reconstructing the last Newfoundland Ice Sheet,Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHenry, Maureen; Dunlop, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The Newfoundland Ice Sheet which formed part of the North American Ice Sheet Complex was situated on the margins of the northwest Atlantic Ocean during the Wisconsinan glaciation (~80ka BP to 10ka BP). This complex consisted of the Laurentide, the Cordilleran and Innuitian Ice Sheets, the Canadian Maritime Provinces Ice Cover and the Newfoundland Ice Sheet (NIS). Although all were confluent at the last glacial maximum, the NIS is known to have supported independent ice centres with advances from the Laurentide Ice Sheet being restricted to Newfoundland's northern and western margins. Given its distinctive position, it is likely the evolution of the NIS through the last glacial cycle was influenced by a number of external and internal drivers including configuration changes in the Laurentide Ice Sheet, ice stream initiation and shutdown, changes in oceanic circulation and fluctuating sea levels and climate signals from the wider Amphi-North Atlantic. As such Newfoundland is a key location for investigating ice sheet response to a number of internal and external forcing mechanisms during glacial cycles. An established technique for reconstructing former ice sheet behaviour is the mapping and spatial analysis of glacial landforms. This provides a valuable record of former ice sheet extent and behaviour through time as well as ice sheet retreat during deglaciation. Here we present new mapping based on our interpretation of SPOT satellite imagery and Digital Elevation Models of the entire Island of Newfoundland as well as swath bathymetric imagery from several locations offshore. Our new database consisting of ~150,000 individually mapped subglacial bedforms that includes drumlins, crag and tails, glacially moulded bedrock lineations and ribbed moraines significantly increases the known landform record in this region. The new database shows Newfoundland has a complex palimpsest landscape that records multiple ice sheet events across the island. Here we report our attempt at unravelling this new record using flowset analysis which separates discrete ice flow patterns into snapshots of ice sheet behaviour through time. Our initial flowset analysis shows the NIS was a dynamic ice sheet which was susceptible to configuration changes throughout the last glacial cycle including ice divide migration, regional configuration changes, ice stream activity and enhanced ice flow caused by marine drawdown.

  18. Geochemical heterogeneity in a small, stratigraphically complex moraine aquifer system (Ontario, Canada): interpretation of flow and recharge using multiple geochemical parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randy L. Stotler; Shaun K. Frape; Humam Taha El Mugammar; Craig Johnston; Ian Judd-Henrey; F. Edwin Harvey; Robert Drimmie; Jon Paul Jones

    2011-01-01

    The Waterloo Moraine is a stratigraphically complex system and is the major water supply to the cities of Kitchener and Waterloo\\u000a in Ontario, Canada. Despite over 30 years of investigation, no attempt has been made to unify existing geochemical data into\\u000a a single database. A composite view of the moraine geochemistry has been created using the available geochemical information,\\u000a and a

  19. Meteorites and Microbes: Meteorite Collection and Ice Sampling at Patriot Hills, Thiel Mountains, and South Pole, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipiera, Paul P.; Hoover, Richard B.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    During the Antarctica 2000 Expedition, sponsored by the Planetary Studies Foundation, meteorites and ice microbiota were collected from the Patriot Hills, and Thiel Mountains of Antarctica and snow samples were at the South Pole. Psychrophilic and psychrotrophic microbiota were obtained from blue ice, cryoconite and ice-bubble systems. Twenty frozen meteorites were collected using aseptic techniques from the blue ice fields near the Moulton Escarpment of the Thiel Mountains (85 S, 94 W) and from the Morris Moraine of the Patriot Hills (80 S, 81 W) Ellsworth Mountains. These ice and meteorite samples are of potential significance to Astrobiology. They may help refine chemical and morphological biomarkers and refine characteristics of microbial life in one of the harshest environments on Earth. We discuss the Antarctica 2000 Expedition and provide preliminary results of the investigation of the meteorites and ice microbiota recovered.

  20. Debris flow from 2012 failure of moraine-dammed lake, Three Fingered Jack volcano, Mount Jefferson Wilderness, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, David R.; Wills, Barton B.

    2014-01-01

    The Three Fingered Jack debris flow is one of several that have issued from moraine-dammed lakes in the Oregon Cascade Range. A thorough summary of those lakes and the hazards associated with them was published in 2001, based largely on fieldwork by Jim O’Connor and Jasper Hardison in the early 1990s. Described here are details of the 2012 event, an update to the O’Connor story begun earlier.

  1. Ice-flow pattern and extent of the last Scandinavian Ice Sheet southeast of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalm, Volli

    2012-06-01

    A review of scientific literature, geological maps and available previous digital data on ice-marginal positions, glacial landforms and sediment distribution are utilised to reconstruct ice streams and lobes, and the maximum (LGM) and subsequent recessional ice-marginal positions of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet (SIS) southeast of the Baltic Sea. This paper presents preliminary results of the ongoing research that aims to build a Geographic Information System (GIS) based model on the extent and timing of the last SIS in the area between its maximum extent and the Baltic Sea. Digitized subglacial bedforms, ice marginal and other glacial landforms and features from published sources are compared and validated against digital elevation model (DEM). This has allowed specifying, revising and questioning the location of the LGM, and to interpret and correlate the post-LGM ice streams with marginal positions. Morphological evidence demonstrates that large ice streams of between 100 and 300 km lengths, were in operation ca 2-3 ka after the LGM and formed the Middle and North Lithuanian end moraines. Ice streams from the Onega and White Sea basins had high lateral slopes and clearly channelled flow while the ice streams that drained the ice sheet through the Ladoga-Ilmen depression and in the eastern Baltic usually had a fan-shaped flow pattern and morphologically unclear lateral slopes. In elevated areas and highlands that are located between ice streams a crossing of lineated bedforms is common. One set of the crossing lineations on Zemaitia, Eastern Kursa, Vidzeme, Haanja, Latgale and Sudoma highlands that are 200-350 km inside of the LGM margin, has northwest-southeast orientation that in general conforms to the direction of ice flow during the LGM and Baltija phases. It is expected that the presented compilation will stimulate discussions and scrutiny of earlier published data and generate ideas for future investigations.

  2. CO2 isotopes as tracers of firn air diffusion and age in an Arctic ice cap with summer melting, Devon Island, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian D. Clark; Lori Henderson; Jérôme Chappellaz; David Fisher; Roy Koerner; Douglas E. J. Worthy; Tom Kotzer; Ann-Lise Norman; Jean-Marc Barnola

    2007-01-01

    Firn air and ice have been sampled and analyzed for trace gases (CO2, N2O, CH4, and CO) and isotopes (14C, 13C, and 18O of CO2; 3H of ice) at 3 m intervals from the surface to the depth of closure at 60 m on the Devon Island Ice Cap, a low-elevation permanent glacier in the Canadian Arctic Islands, to investigate

  3. Ice insulation by rock avalanche debris: the Mt. Cook (1991) and Beatrice (2004) rock avalanches, Southern Alps, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznichenko, Natalya V.; Davies, Tim R.; Shulmeister, James; Winkler, Stefan

    2010-05-01

    The formation of terminal moraines mainly results from glacier changes in response to climate variations. But glaciers may also react sensitively to increased debris cover caused by large-scale failure of bedrock slopes. Catastrophic rock avalanches are a major source of sediment in active orogens like e.g. the Southern Alps, New Zealand (Shulmeister et al., 2009). They often occur as a result of earthquakes, and also due to slope failure driven in the longer term by regional uplift. Rock avalanche deposits can drastically alter glacier mass balance through reduced ablation and consequential altered flow rates, and can contribute to glacier moraine formation (see e.g. Hewitt, 2005, 2009; Shulmeister et al., 2009). Consequently, the frequently-assumed linkage between terminal moraine formation and climate forcing may need to be reconsidered. Especially for the investigation of the regional Holocene glacier and climate chronologies it is essential to separate and assess the tectonic/coseismic impact on terminal moraine formation. In order to investigate the role of catastrophic landslide events in moraine formation, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys of rock avalanche deposits on the Tasman and Hooker Glaciers, Southern Alps, New Zealand, were compared with laboratory experiments of the debris cover effect on underlying ice ablation. The 1991 Mt. Cook rock avalanche deposit on the Tasman Glacier is up to 10 m thick and has caused a 25 m high ridge to form at the upvalley edge of the deposit. The smaller 2004 Mt. Beatrice rock avalanche onto Hooker Glacier has formed an elevated plateau with similar raised edges because of reduced ice melting under the rock avalanche deposit. The reduction of ice-surface ablation on the glaciers is compared with laboratory data on ice ablation rates under various thickness of debris-cover, under controlled conditions with replication of diurnal temperature, radiation cycles and rainfall conditions. The latest results are presented, accompanied by some remarks on related future research activities. Hewitt, K. (2005): The Karakoram Anomaly? Glacier expansion and the ‘elevation effect', Karakoram Himalaya. Mountain Research and Development 25, 332 - 340. Hewitt, K. (2009): Rock avalanches that travel onto glaciers and related developments, Karakoram Himalaya, Inner Asia. Geomorphology 103, 66 - 79. Shulmeister, J.; Davies, T.R.; Evans, D.J.A.; Hyatt, O.M. & Tovar, D.S. (2009): Catastrophic landslides, glacier behaviour and moraine formation - a view from an active plate margin. Quaternary Science Reviews 28, 1085 - 1096.

  4. Vertical distribution and source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in southwest of the Caspian Sea: most petrogenic events during the late Little Ice Age.

    PubMed

    Varnosfaderany, Mohammad Nemati; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Gu, Zhaoyan; Chu, Guoqiang

    2014-10-15

    In this study, 75 samples of two (210)Pb-dated cores from the southwest of the Caspian Sea were analysed for 30 compounds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The TPAH29 flux of the last six centuries ranged from 16.3 to 177.3 and 22.3 to 426.2 ng cm(-2)y(-1) in the Rezvanshahr and Anzali core sediments, respectively. Prior to 1840, four distinct maxima in PAH fluxes (61-426.2 ng cm(-2)y(-1)) with a low weathered petrogenic pattern were found in each of the core sediments. Simultaneity of distinct peaks of PAH fluxes before 1840 and Caspian Sea level high-stands during the Little Ice Age (LIA), revealed the high importance of this phenomenon in washing and transport of land-based oil pollution into the Caspian Sea. An overall increase in some diagnostic ratios (Flu/202, IP/276 and BaA/228), especially after 1940, indicated increase of pyrogenic PAHs as a result of industrial development in the catchment area. PMID:25131419

  5. 'Neanderthal bone flutes': simply products of Ice Age spotted hyena scavenging activities on cave bear cubs in European cave bear dens.

    PubMed

    Diedrich, Cajus G

    2015-04-01

    Punctured extinct cave bear femora were misidentified in southeastern Europe (Hungary/Slovenia) as 'Palaeolithic bone flutes' and the 'oldest Neanderthal instruments'. These are not instruments, nor human made, but products of the most important cave bear scavengers of Europe, hyenas. Late Middle to Late Pleistocene (Mousterian to Gravettian) Ice Age spotted hyenas of Europe occupied mainly cave entrances as dens (communal/cub raising den types), but went deeper for scavenging into cave bear dens, or used in a few cases branches/diagonal shafts (i.e. prey storage den type). In most of those dens, about 20% of adult to 80% of bear cub remains have large carnivore damage. Hyenas left bones in repeating similar tooth mark and crush damage stages, demonstrating a butchering/bone cracking strategy. The femora of subadult cave bears are intermediate in damage patterns, compared to the adult ones, which were fully crushed to pieces. Hyenas produced round-oval puncture marks in cub femora only by the bone-crushing premolar teeth of both upper and lower jaw. The punctures/tooth impact marks are often present on both sides of the shaft of cave bear cub femora and are simply a result of non-breakage of the slightly calcified shaft compacta. All stages of femur puncturing to crushing are demonstrated herein, especially on a large cave bear population from a German cave bear den. PMID:26064624

  6. O time series from Palau records dynamics of the West Pacific Warm Pool following the end of the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Michael C.; Dunbar, Robert B.; Mucciarone, David A.; Druffel, Ellen; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert

    2014-09-01

    The West Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) is a critical region of the global climate system that is closely linked with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We have generated two monthly resolved coral ?18O (?18OCRL) records from a key region of the WPWP, the Republic of Palau (7'N, 135'E). The isotopic time series span the years 1793-2008 and 1899-2008. During the period of overlap, the two records are well correlated at interannual and annual periods. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrate a strong ENSO signal in Palau ?18OCRL. Our records are consistent with previous investigations of twentieth-century tropical Pacific climate variability. We identify a regionally coherent bi-decadal cycle in the WPWP following the termination of the Little Ice Age. The Palau ?18OCRL records show long-term trends towards warming/freshening, suggesting a century scale increase in the strength of the hydrologic cycle associated with the WPWP. Our study represents an important addition to the network of tropical paleo-archives.

  7. ‘Neanderthal bone flutes’: simply products of Ice Age spotted hyena scavenging activities on cave bear cubs in European cave bear dens

    PubMed Central

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2015-01-01

    Punctured extinct cave bear femora were misidentified in southeastern Europe (Hungary/Slovenia) as ‘Palaeolithic bone flutes’ and the ‘oldest Neanderthal instruments’. These are not instruments, nor human made, but products of the most important cave bear scavengers of Europe, hyenas. Late Middle to Late Pleistocene (Mousterian to Gravettian) Ice Age spotted hyenas of Europe occupied mainly cave entrances as dens (communal/cub raising den types), but went deeper for scavenging into cave bear dens, or used in a few cases branches/diagonal shafts (i.e. prey storage den type). In most of those dens, about 20% of adult to 80% of bear cub remains have large carnivore damage. Hyenas left bones in repeating similar tooth mark and crush damage stages, demonstrating a butchering/bone cracking strategy. The femora of subadult cave bears are intermediate in damage patterns, compared to the adult ones, which were fully crushed to pieces. Hyenas produced round–oval puncture marks in cub femora only by the bone-crushing premolar teeth of both upper and lower jaw. The punctures/tooth impact marks are often present on both sides of the shaft of cave bear cub femora and are simply a result of non-breakage of the slightly calcified shaft compacta. All stages of femur puncturing to crushing are demonstrated herein, especially on a large cave bear population from a German cave bear den.

  8. Age and origin of ice-rich Yedoma silts at Duvanny Yar, northeast Siberia: a record of Beringian environmental change since the last interglacial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Murton; M. E. Edwards; D. Murton; M. Bateman; J. Haile

    2010-01-01

    Silty Yedoma deposits at the important Beringian site of Duvanny Yar (68o,37' N; 159o08' E) in northeast Siberia, have been interpreted before as both loess and nival deposits. The yedoma deposits form a stratigraphic unit more than 30 m thick that comprises sandy silts which are generally massive and rich in ground ice and organic material. The ground ice includes

  9. Palaeoclimatological and palaeolimnological records from fossil midges and tree-rings: the role of the North Atlantic Oscillation in eastern Finland through the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomi P. Luoto; Samuli Helama

    2010-01-01

    Hydrological changes and air temperature variability are reconstructed from the sediments of Lake Pieni-Kauro, eastern Finland during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA) using transfer functions derived from midge (Insecta: Nematocera)-based calibration models. The reconstructions are compared with a regional tree-ring chronology and sediment physical properties are determined to track depositional changes. An objective of the

  10. Extreme Ice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Margy Kuntz

    This activity students through the ways scientists monitor changes in Earth's glaciers, ice caps, and ice sheets. Students investigate about glacier locations, glacial movement, and impacts of climate change on glaciers depending on the depth of research. It is linked to 2009 PBS Nova program entitled Extreme Ice.

  11. Geo-archaeological investigations of Palaeolithic sites along the Ural Mountains - On the northern presence of humans during the last Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendsen, John Inge; Heggen, Herbjørn Presthus; Hufthammer, Anne Karin; Mangerud, Jan; Pavlov, Pavel; Roebroeks, Wil

    2010-11-01

    We review geo-archaeological results from six Palaeolithic sites along the western flank of the northern Ural Mountains. The oldest traces of human activities, dated to around 36-35 14C ka BP (43-40 cal ka), were found in alluvial strata at Mamontovaya Kurya at the Polar Circle - their connection to cultures further south remains uncertain. Slightly younger artefacts were found at the site Zaozer'e, nearly a thousand km further to the south, where a rich archaeological assemblage, dated to 34-33 14C ka BP (39-37 cal ka), was uncovered from underneath several meters of loess. The assemblage contains some small "Middle Palaeolithic like" bifaces alongside distinct Upper Palaeolithic traits, such as well-defined blades. This site also contains some perforated "pendants" made of freshwater molluscs. At the Byzovaya site, located at 65°N and radiocarbon dated to about 30-29 14C ka BP (34-32 cal ka), more than 300 artefacts and several thousand animal remains, mostly of mammoth, were incorporated in coarse-grained debris-flow deposits, sealed by aeolian sand. Pending the results from a new technological analysis of the whole artefact assemblage we can yet not decide whether Byzovaya should be categorized as a Middle- or Upper Palaeolithic site. The finds from Garchi, located in a loess sequence near Zaozer'e, have a similar or slightly younger age than the material from Byzovaya. Also at this site bifacial tools are present; alongside some characteristic triangle projectile points as well as some other elements which have nearly identical counterparts in the Upper Palaeolithic Kostenki/Streletskaya and Sungirian complexes, unambiguously associated with Modern humans. We conclude that the initial human colonisations along the Ural Mountains took place during a relatively favourable period of Marine Isotope Stage 3, when only small mountain glaciers existed in this region. The finds from the Medvezhia Peshera rock shelter have a completely different age (19-16 14C ka BP, 23-19 cal ka) and character, indicating that humans also were present along the Urals close to the Last Glacial Maximum (26-19 ka BP), the coldest and driest period of the last ice age. The few artefacts that were uncovered at Pymva Shor, the northernmost site investigated by us, are probably a little younger than those at Medveshia Peshera, but the timing of human presence is not precisely constrained at this site. In view of the obtained results it appears that humans were at least temporarily present in these northern landscapes from more than 40,000 years ago and onwards.

  12. Ice Flows

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a lesson about how and why ice flows, especially in a large mass such as a glacier. Learners will experience the qualities of viscoelastic materials and view videos of glacial ice flows. They will observe ice flows and materials other than ice flowing differently under stress, and will investigate landscape changes as a result of large scale glacial movement. Activities include small group miming, speaking, drawing, and/or writing. This is lesson 5 of 12 in the unit, Exploring Ice in the Solar System.

  13. Scrambled Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This complex area on the side of Europa which faces away from Jupiter shows several types of features which are formed by disruptions of Europa's icy crust. North is to the top of the image, taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft, and the Sun illuminates the surface from the left. The prominent wide, dark bands are up to 20 kilometers (12 miles) wide and over 50 kilometers (30 miles) long. They are believed to have formed when Europa's icy crust fractured, separated and filled in with darker, 'dirtier' ice or slush from below. A relatively rare type of feature on Europa is the 15-kilometer-diameter (9.3-mile) impact crater in the lower left corner. The small number of impact craters on Europa's surface is an indication of its relatively young age. A region of chaotic terrain south of this impact crater contains crustal plates which have broken apart and rafted into new positions. Some of these 'ice rafts' are nearly 1 kilometer (about half a mile) across. Other regions of chaotic terrain are visible and indicate heating and disruption of Europa's icy crust from below. The youngest features in this scene are the long, narrow cracks in the ice which cut across all other features. One of these cracks is about 30 kilometers (18 miles) to the right of the impact crater and extends for hundreds of miles from the top to the bottom of the image.

    The image, centered near 23 degrees south latitude and 179 degrees longitude, covers an area about 240 by 215 kilometers (150 by 130 miles) across. The finest details that can be discerned in this picture are about 460 meters (500 yards) across. The image was taken as Galileo flew by Europa on March 29, 1998. The image was taken by the onboard solid state imaging system camera from an altitude of 23,000 kilometers (14,000 miles).

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  14. A new age constraint on the deglaciation of the Ross Sea from an ice core from Roosevelt Island, East Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. E.; Brook, E.; Blunier, T.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Vallelonga, P. T.

    2014-12-01

    A new ice core from Roosevelt Island was drilled for the Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) project to establish the history of deglaciation of the Ross Sea through the Holocene. Evidence of glacial retreat in the Ross Sea Embayment shows that deglaciation happened in several stages of rapid collapse and persisted well after the melting of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets was complete. The ice rise on Roosevelt Island should record the timing of the recession of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) past Roosevelt Island. The transition between ice originating from WAIS and ice originating local to Roosevelt Island could, in principle, be identified in the RICE ice core by the Total Air Content (TAC), which depends on surface air pressure and climate. Because the accumulation zone of WAIS is at a higher altitude than Roosevelt Island, it is expected that TAC will record a sharp drop during the transition. Existing data back to 3.7 ka show a relatively constant air content, probably implying only small elevation changes over that time. New results from deeper sections will be discussed at the meeting.

  15. Ridged sea ice characteristics in the Arctic from a coupled multicategory sea ice model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MâRtensson, S.; Meier, H. E. M.; Pemberton, P.; Haapala, J.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, a multicategory sea ice model with explicit ice classes for ridged and rafted ice was used to examine the evolution of deformed ice during the period 1980-2002. The results show that (1) ridged ice comprises roughly 45-60% of Arctic sea ice volume and 25-45% of the sea ice area, (2) most of the perennial ice consists of ridged ice, and (3) ridged ice exhibits a small seasonal variability. Our results also show an increase in mean ridged ice thickness of 4-6 cm yr-1 during the summer in an area north of the Canadian Archipelago and a corresponding decrease in the East Siberian Sea and Nansen Basin. At the same time, Arctic sea ice age has been observed to decline and ice drift speed to increase during the simulation period. We connect these findings with a modeled regional increase in the production rate of ridged ice. Comparison of the multicategory model and a two category reference model shows a substantially increased ice production rate due to a more frequent occurrence of leads, resulting in an ice thickness increase of up to 0.8 m. Differences in ice physics between the multicategory and reference models also affect the freshwater content. The sum of liquid and solid freshwater content in the entire Arctic Ocean is about 10% lower and net precipitation (P-E) is about 7% lower as compared to the reference model.

  16. Mapped Submarine Landforms in Pine Island Bay, West Antarctica, Indicate Past Ice Shelf Disintegration and Grounding line Retreat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, M.; Anderson, J. B.; Nitsche, F. O.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Gyllencreutz, R.; Kirchner, N.; O'Regan, M. A.; Alley, R. B.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Mohammad, R.; Eriksson, B.; Fernandez-Vasquez, R. A.; Kirshner, A. E.; Minzoni, R. L.; Stolldorf, T. D.; Majewski, W.

    2010-12-01

    Swath bathymetry images from the inner part of Pine Island Bay reveal a well-organized subglacial drainage system carved into bedrock and the termination of a cross-shelf trough has been mapped on the outer shelf. The middle part of Pine Island Bay has, however, only been sparsely mapped due to persistent sea ice cover in the area. During the 2009/2010 austral summer the bay was virtually ice free, allowing detailed swath bathymetry mapping with the Swedish Icebreaker Oden covering 4,140 km2 of the middle part of the trough. When the ice sheet was grounded in Pine Island Trough (PIT), several common glacigenic landforms were produced including mega-scale glacial lineations (MSGL), indicating paleo-ice stream flow direction, and grounding line wedges marking the location where the ice stream's grounding line remained for a longer period. In addition, the multibeam data reveal two other landforms previously not described from this setting. The first of these are ridges oriented transverse the ice flow direction. They are on the order of 1-2 m from trough-to-peak and separated by about 60-200 m. They extend virtually across the entire width of PIT, but individual sets are separated by lineations that are spaced 50 to 500 m apart. The second feature comprises sediment mounds that terminate linear to curvilinear sets of ridges and furrows that are aligned parallel to the axis of the trough, similar to MSGL. These two feature sets are interpreted to indicate the disintegration of a former ice shelf in Pine Island Bay that extended from the paleo-ice stream in the PIT. The ridges mapped in PIT are referred to as “fishbone moraines” and the proposed formation model is that a former ice shelf in Pine Island Bay disintegrated, similarly as happened with Larsen A and B ice shelves, back to the grounding line where it breaks off, tilts landward and begins to drift seaward. With each tidal cycle the ice shelf remnant was lifted, moved seaward and then settling, squeezing sediment out to form a small ridge just behind the grounded edge of the ice shelf. The armada of icebergs from the disintegrated ice shelf moves seaward and ground in the outer trough, where they form sediment mounds, referred to as “plough moraines”. To test the fishbone moraine formation model, we examined the possible influence of spring/neap versus diurnal tides in regulating iceberg movement by comparing a tidal model with ridge spacing and height. Consistent with the tidal model, quasi-periodic fluctuations in ridge heights are observed, assuming fishbone ridges are formed daily, with higher ridges forming roughly every two weeks.

  17. The Mungo Mega-Lake Event, Semi-Arid Australia: Non-Linear Descent into the Last Ice Age, Implications for Human Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimmons, Kathryn E; Stern, Nicola; Murray-Wallace, Colin V; Truscott, William; Pop, Cornel

    2015-01-01

    The Willandra Lakes complex is one of the few locations in semi-arid Australia to preserve both paleoenvironmental and Paleolithic archeological archives at high resolution. The stratigraphy of transverse lunette dunes on the lakes' downwind margins record a late Quaternary sequence of wetting and drying. Within the Willandra system, the Lake Mungo lunette is best known for its preservation of the world's oldest known ritual burials, and high densities of archeological traces documenting human adaptation to changing environmental conditions over the last 45 ka. Here we identify evidence at Lake Mungo for a previously unrecognised short-lived, very high lake filling phase at 24 ka, just prior to the Last Glacial Maximum. Mega-lake Mungo was up to 5 m deeper than preceding or subsequent lake full events and represented a lake volume increase of almost 250%. Lake Mungo was linked with neighboring Lake Leaghur at two overflow points, creating an island from the northern part of the Mungo lunette. This event was most likely caused by a pulse of high catchment rainfall and runoff, combined with neotectonic activity which may have warped the lake basin. It indicates a non-linear transition to more arid ice age conditions. The mega-lake restricted mobility for people living in the area, yet archeological traces indicate that humans rapidly adapted to the new conditions. People repeatedly visited the island, transporting stone tools across water and exploiting food resources stranded there. They either swam or used watercraft to facilitate access to the island and across the lake. Since there is no evidence for watercraft use in Australia between initial colonization of the continent prior to 45 ka and the mid-Holocene, repeated visits to the island may represent a resurrection of waterfaring technologies following a hiatus of at least 20 ky. PMID:26083665

  18. Medieval climate anomaly and little ice age as recorded in speleothem and tree-ring data from the Middle Atlas in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassenburg, J. A.; Immenhauser, A.; Richter, D. K.; Fietzke, J.; Scholz, D.; Jochum, K. P.; Riechelmann, D. F. C.; Schneider, L.; Esper, J.

    2012-04-01

    Progress has recently been made in assessing the spatial extend and timing of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA) on hemispheric and global scales (Graham et al. 2011). Uncertainties still exist, however, since the transition from the MCA into the LIA seems to be diachronous, and in many cases, reconstructions are based on single climate archives (e.g., speleothems, tree-rings, or pollen data). In Morocco, cedar trees from the Middle and High Atlas have been used to reconstruct the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) back to 1049 AD (Esper et al., 2007), a metric integrating the evaporation-precipitation balance and soil properties. According to Graham et al. (2011), the MCA/LIA transition recorded in Moroccan tree rings occurred rather late (around 1400 AD) in comparison to the reconstructed winter temperature in the European Alps (e.g., Mangini et al., 2005), which show substantial changes about 50 years earlier. Here we compare precisely dated speleothem ?13C and trace element records from the Middle Atlas with an updated version of the tree-ring based PDSI reconstruction from Esper et al. (2007). Both stalagmite ?13C and strontium records support the prevalence of exceptionally dry conditions during the MCA and relatively wet conditions during the LIA. These changes have formerly been suggested to be related to persistent positive and negative phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (Trouet et al., 2009). The speleothem based reconstruction extends back to 700 AD and, thus, provides insight on the precise timing of the driest period during the MCA in the Moroccan Middle Atlas.

  19. The Mungo Mega-Lake Event, Semi-Arid Australia: Non-Linear Descent into the Last Ice Age, Implications for Human Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimmons, Kathryn E.; Stern, Nicola; Murray-Wallace, Colin V.; Truscott, William; Pop, Cornel

    2015-01-01

    The Willandra Lakes complex is one of the few locations in semi-arid Australia to preserve both paleoenvironmental and Paleolithic archeological archives at high resolution. The stratigraphy of transverse lunette dunes on the lakes’ downwind margins record a late Quaternary sequence of wetting and drying. Within the Willandra system, the Lake Mungo lunette is best known for its preservation of the world’s oldest known ritual burials, and high densities of archeological traces documenting human adaptation to changing environmental conditions over the last 45 ka. Here we identify evidence at Lake Mungo for a previously unrecognised short-lived, very high lake filling phase at 24 ka, just prior to the Last Glacial Maximum. Mega-lake Mungo was up to 5 m deeper than preceding or subsequent lake full events and represented a lake volume increase of almost 250%. Lake Mungo was linked with neighboring Lake Leaghur at two overflow points, creating an island from the northern part of the Mungo lunette. This event was most likely caused by a pulse of high catchment rainfall and runoff, combined with neotectonic activity which may have warped the lake basin. It indicates a non-linear transition to more arid ice age conditions. The mega-lake restricted mobility for people living in the area, yet archeological traces indicate that humans rapidly adapted to the new conditions. People repeatedly visited the island, transporting stone tools across water and exploiting food resources stranded there. They either swam or used watercraft to facilitate access to the island and across the lake. Since there is no evidence for watercraft use in Australia between initial colonization of the continent prior to 45 ka and the mid-Holocene, repeated visits to the island may represent a resurrection of waterfaring technologies following a hiatus of at least 20 ky. PMID:26083665

  20. Lake Malawi sediment and pore water chemistry: Proposition of a conceptual model for stratification intensification since the end of the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branchu, Philippe; Bergonzini, Laurent; Pons-branchu, Edwige; Violier, Eric; Dittrich, Maria; Massault, Marc; Ghaleb, Bassam

    2010-07-01

    Sedimentary records of salinity indicators are largely used to reconstruct past climatic changes in lacustrine systems where chemistry is sensitive to hydroclimatic conditions. In large fresh lakes of the East African Rift such as Lakes Tanganyika and Malawi, salinity is often considered constant and other paleoclimatological proxy data are used. However, a relation between lake surface chloride concentration and hydroclimatic regime was previously demonstrated at the century scale in Lake Tanganyika. This relation is transposed to Lake Malawi on the base of similarity between hydrochemical budgets of both lakes that are computed for the whole lake and epilimnion. Whereas numerous physico-chemical difficulties make generally debatable use of lake pore water chemistry, as illustrated here by diffusion modelling, the dissolved chloride concentration profile from a core sampled in northern Lake Malawi is considered as a potential indicator of limnological-hydroclimatic condition changes for the last 200 years. A decrease in pore water chloride concentration between 1840 AD and present situation is directly associated to a metalimnetic water salinity decrease. The chronology of this event is synchronous with diatom productivity change demonstrated by Johnson et al. (2001) at the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA). A conceptual model of Lake Malawi, based on salinity, organic carbon and its "dead" watershed contribution, lake-level and productivity changes since the mid 19th century is presented. A new scenario is proposed, based on thermal stratification reinforcement at the end of the LIA. Lake productivity and chemistry depend on stratification strength, water column mixing rate and on climatic variability. During the LIA, nutrient distribution profiles were more homogeneous with depth due to the climatically (colder and drier climatic conditions than today) induced destabilisation of the mixing barrier. The productive system is then auto-supplied and does not require external silicon supply while chloride concentration is higher due to closure of the basin. Stratification has become more stable since the end of the LIA, as in nearby Lake Tanganyika where it is linked to air temperature global increase. Results demonstrated that chloride is a suitable indicator of the present and past hydroclimatic and hydrodynamic regimes. This work shows that in Lake Malawi, assessment of "dead" carbon (or old "refractive watershed carbon") contribution to the TOC is a key parameter to set chronological frame from 14C ages.

  1. Place vs. time and vegetational persistence: A comparison of four tropical mires from the Illinois Basin during the height of the Pennsylvanian Ice Age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiMichele, W.A.; Phillips, T.L.; Nelson, W. John

    2002-01-01

    Coal balls were collected from four coal beds in the southeastern part of the Illinois Basin. Collections were made from the Springfield, Herrin, and Baker coals in western Kentucky, and from the Danville Coal in southwestern Indiana. These four coal beds are among the principal mineable coals of the Illinois Basin and belong to the Carbondale and Shelburn Formations of late Middle Pennsylvanian age. Vegetational composition was analyzed quantitatively. Coal-ball samples from the Springfield, Herrin, and Baker are dominated by the lycopsid tree Lepidophloios, with lesser numbers of Psaronius tree ferns, medullosan pteridosperms, and the lycopsid trees Synchysidendron and Diaphorodendron. This vegetation is similar to that found in the Springfield and Herrin coals elsewhere in the Illinois Basin, as reported in previous studies. The Danville coal sample, which is considerably smaller than the others, is dominated by Psaronius with the lycopsids Sigillaria and Synchysidendron as subdominants. Coal balls from the Springfield coal were collected in zones directly from the coal bed and their zone-by-zone composition indicates three to four distinct plant assemblages. The other coals were analyzed as whole-seam random samples, averaging the landscape composition of the parent mire environments. This analysis indicates that these coals, separated from each other by marine and terrestrial-clastic deposits, have essentially the same floristic composition and, thus, appear to represent a common species pool that persisted throughout the late Middle Pennsylvanian, despite changes in baselevel and climate attendant the glacial interglacial cyclicity of the Pennsylvanian ice age. Patterns of species abundance and diversity are much the same for the Springfield, Herrin, and Baker, although each coal, both in the local area sampled, and regionally, has its own paleobotanical peculiarities. Despite minor differences, these coals indicate a high degree of recurrence of assemblage and landscape organization. The Danville departs dramatically from the dominance-diversity composition of the older coals, presaging patterns of tree-fern and Sigillaria dominance of Late Pennsylvanian coals of the eastern United States, but, nonetheless, built on a species pool shared with the older coals. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrogeology of a young moraine area in NE Germany: Testing hypotheses on subsurface structures with an iterative groundwater modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, Henriette; Tecklenburg, Christina; Güntner, Andreas; Blume, Theresa

    2015-04-01

    Investigating subsurface structures and properties of young moraine areas is a challenging task due to the heterogeneity of the subsurface combined with limited possibilities of outcrop characterization. To overcome this challenge we suggest a multi-method approach that merges a variety of geophysical, hydrochemical and hydrogeological monitoring data with iterative hypothesis-based modeling of groundwater dynamics. The focus area of this study is the region of Lake Fürstenseer See, which is located in a young moraine area in the terminal moraine and outwash plain area of the last glacial maximum (Pomeranian) in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, north-eastern Germany. The assumed main control on groundwater flow paths of the uppermost aquifer in this region is the depth and the "topography" of the first aquiclude. The groundwater flow model Visual MODFLOW Pro was parameterized based on average hydraulic properties determined from core samples taken during observation well drilling. In a first hypothesis the depth of the aquiclude was assumed to be uniform over the entire region. Data from a nearby climate station was used as input, while well water level dynamics in 23 observation wells and lake water level dynamics were used for validation. In a second iteration, the depth of the aquiclude which was identified at 20 of the wells was interpolated over the area. The resulting groundwater flow paths and dynamics were re-evaluated. In a final step, data from ERT investigations along several transects throughout the area was also included in the interpolation of the depth of the aquiclude. While groundwater dynamics can be evaluated directly by comparison with the observed dynamics at the observation wells, groundwater flow paths are evaluated a) based on the observed differences in water chemistry including isotopic composition at the observation wells and b) based on the observed spatial patterns of groundwater inflow into the lake, which were identified both by lake sediment temperature profiles and an extensive network of piezometers along the shore.

  3. Sea ice terminology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    A group of definitions of terms related to sea ice is presented, as well as a graphic representation of late winter ice zonation of the Beaufort Sea Coast. Terms included in the definition list are belt, bergy bit, bight, brash ice, calving, close pack ice, compacting, compact pack ice, concentration, consolidated pack ice, crack, diffuse ice edge, fast ice, fast-ice boundary, fast-ice edge, first-year ice, flaw, flaw lead, floe, flooded ice, fractured, fractured zone, fracturing, glacier, grey ice, grey-white ice, growler, hummock, iceberg, iceberg tongue, ice blink, ice boundary, ice cake, ice edge, ice foot, ice free, ice island, ice shelf, large fracture, lead, medium fracture, multiyear ice, nilas, old ice, open pack ice, open water, pack ice, polar ice, polynya, puddle, rafted ice, rafting, ram, ridge, rotten ice, second-year ice, shearing, shore lead, shore polynya, small fracture, strip, tabular berg, thaw holes, very close pack ice, very open pack ice, water sky, young coastal ice, and young ice.

  4. Ice ages and geomagnetic reversals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    There have been speculations on the relationship between climatic cooling and polarity reversals of the earth's magnetic field during the Pleistocene. Two of the common criticisms on this relationship have been the reality of these short duration geomagnetic events and the accuracy of their dates. Champion et al. (1988) have reviewed recent progress in this area. They identified a total of 10 short-duration polarity events in the last 1 Ma and 6 of these events have been found in volcanic rocks, which also have K-Ar dates. Supposing that the speculated relationship between climatic cooling and geomagnetic reversals actually exist, two mechanisms that assume climatic cooling causes short period magnetic reversals will be investigated. These two methods are core-mantle boundary topography and transfer of the rotational energy to the core.

  5. Oily Ice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mission Science Workshop

    2013-01-01

    In this activity, learners experiment with the density of ice, water, and oil. Learners will discover that the density of a liquid determines whether it will float above or sink below another liquid. Learners will be surprised to find that ice floats and water sinks in oil, even though ice and water are made of the same thing. Learners will also examine the hydrophilic properties of water and the hydrophobic nature of oil.

  6. The genesis of the northern Kettle Moraine, Wisconsin A.E. Carlson*,1

    E-print Network

    Carlson, Anders

    deglaciation. In this paper, we interpret a new genesis for the nKM using sediment analysis and distribution formed channels on the ice surface. As deglaciation proceeded, a substantial thickness of well. Keywords: Glaciofluvial environment; Glaciofluvial sedimentation; Glacial geology; Geomorphology; Meltwater

  7. Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  8. New constraints on the formation of shergottite Elephant Moraine 79001 lithology A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Balta, J. Brian; Goodrich, Cyrena A.; McSween, Harry Y.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2013-05-01

    Previous studies of Elephant Moraine (EET) 79001 disagreed upon the nature of the magnesian olivine and orthopyroxene grains, and generally considered the formation of EET 79001 at low pressure conditions. New observations on mineral associations, and trace-element abundances of olivine-hosted melt inclusions, in lithology A (EET-A) of EET 79001 lead to new constraints on the formation of this meteorite. The abundances and chondrite-normalized REE pattern of the average melt inclusions in olivine of Mg# 75-61 are similar to those of the bulk-rock composition of lithology A, suggesting that the Mg# <77 olivines are phenocrysts. We also report the widespread occurrence of round orthopyroxene (En78.9-77.9Wo2.2-2.5) inclusions in disequilibrium contact with their olivine hosts (Mg# 73-68). Compositions of these inclusions are similar to xenocrystic cores (Mg# ?77; Wo ?4) in pyroxene megacrysts. These observations indicate that orthopyroxene xenocrysts were being resorbed while Mg# 77-73 olivine was crystallizing. Combined, these observations suggest that only small portions of the megacrysts are xenocrystic, namely orthopyroxene of Mg# ?77 and Wo ?4, and possibly also olivine of Mg# ?77. The volume percentages of the xenocrystic materials in the rock are small (?1 vol.% for each mineral). Compositions of the xenocrystic minerals are similar to cores of megacrysts in olivine-phyric shergottite Yamato (Y) 980459 and Northwest Africa (NWA) 5789. Considering the small fraction of xenocrysts and the similarity between REE abundances of the early-trapped melt and those in bulk EET-A, we re-evaluated the possibility that the bulk-rock composition of EET-A is close to that of its parent melt. Results of pMELTS modeling indicate that polybaric crystallization of the EET-A bulk composition (corrected by removal of xenocryst material) can reproduce the crystallization sequence of EET-A, in contrast to the conclusions of previous workers. We estimate that the EET-A parent magma began crystallizing at ?0.7 GPa (?60 km depth), followed a near-isobaric path at 0.5-0.7 GPa during crystallization of most olivine and pyroxene megacrysts, and then crystallized at shallower depth during the formation of megacryst rims and groundmass. Combined with recent reports of high-pressure crystallization for three other olivine-phyric samples, our results strongly support the interpretation that these relatively primitive samples may have begun to crystallize at much greater depths than previously inferred, at the base of martian crust.

  9. Comparison of techniques for dating of subsurface ice from Monlesi ice cave, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luetscher, Marc; Bolius, David; Schwikowski, Margit; Schotterer, Ulrich; Smart, Peter L.

    The presence of cave ice is documented in many karst regions but very little is known about the age range of this potential paleoclimate archive. This case study from the Monlesi ice cave, Swiss Jura Mountains, demonstrates that dating of cave ice is possible using a multi-parameter approach. Ice petrography, debris content and oxygen isotope composition have the potential for identification of annual growth layers, but require a continuous core from the ice deposits, limiting application of this approach. Furthermore, complete melting of ice accumulations from individual years may occur, causing amalgamation of several annual bands. Use of3H content of the ice and14C dating of organic debris present in the ice proved to be of limited utility, providing rather broad bounds for the actual age. Initial estimates based on 210Pb analyses from clear ice samples gave results comparable to those from other methods. The most reliable techniques applied were the determination of ice turnover rates, and the dating of anthropogenic inclusions (a roof tile) in the ice. These suggest, respectively, that the base of the cave ice was a minimum of 120 and a maximum of 158 years old. Therefore, our data support the idea that mid-latitude and low-altitude subsurface ice accumulations result from modern deposition processes rather than from presence of Pleistocene relict ice.

  10. Historical Glacier Variations in Southern South America since the Little Ice Age: Examples from Lago Viedma (Southern Patagonia) and Mendoza (Central Andes), Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, S. U.; Masiokas, M.; Pitte, P.; Berthier, E.; Guerrido, C.; Luckman, B. H.; Villalba, R.

    2013-12-01

    The evaluation of historical information can give valuable insight into past glacier dynamics, especially before the onset of modern measurements. Early photographs and maps depict changes for selected glaciers in southern South America. Within this study, written documents and pictorial historical records (drawings, sketches, engravings, photographs, chronicles, topographic maps) are analysed critically, with a particular focus on two regions: Lago Viedma (El Chaltén, southern Patagonia, 49.5°S, 73.0°W) and the Río Mendoza basin (Mendoza, central Andes, 33.1°S, 69.9°W). For the Lago Viedma area, early historical data for the end of the 19th century stem from the expedition of the Chilean-Argentinean border commission. In addition, the expedition by the German Scientific Society, conducted between 1910 and 1916, and the later photographs by Alberto M. de Agostini give an excellent depiction of the glaciers. Glaciar Viedma is a calving glacier which shows distinct retreat from 1896 until the present (though with a stationary or possibly advancing glacier front between 1930/31 and 1951/52), similar to the neighbouring glaciers. On the contrary, nearby Glaciar Perito Moreno shows an exceptional behaviour: the glacier front has been advancing during the first half of the 20th century, staying in an advanced position until the present. At the beginning of the 20th century, Robert Helbling explored the Argentinean-Chilean Andes together with his friend Friedrich Reichert. In the summer of 1909/10, they started a detailed survey of the highly glacierized Juncal-Tupungato mountains (Río Mendoza basin), leading to the first accurate topographic map of the area published in 1914. Its outstanding quality allows a comparison with contemporary satellite imagery. The area received attention in 1934, when the sudden drainage of a glacier-dammed lake in the upper Río del Plomo valley caused fatalities and considerable damage to constructions and the Transandine Railway. A similar event is reported to have occurred in 1786 according to historical records. Finally we compare the observed glacier fluctuations of the two regions with other available glacier reconstructions to give an overview of glacier evolution in southern South America since the Little Ice Age.

  11. Lipid D/H Ratios from Multiple Sources and Deposits Indicate Drier Little Ice Age at Washington Island (4°43`N, 160°25`W), Central Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muegler, I.; Sachse, D.; Sachs, J. P.

    2010-12-01

    To compare the sensitivity of biomarker D/H ratios from two distinct climate archives, a lake and a peat bog on the Tropical Pacific Island of Terrania, compound-specific hydrogen isotope ratios (expressed as ?D values) were determined on lipid biomarkers from various biological sources deposited in the two climate archives. At present, Terrania or Washington Island (4°43`N, 160°25`W) permanently lies in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and receives an annual precipitation of 2,903 mm. The interior of this lens shaped island contains a freshwater lake and peat bogs. Previous studies on the lake sediments found evidence for a substantially drier climate at times during the Little Ice Age (AD 1400-1850) based on the lithologic transition from modern freshwater sediments to a sequence of pure cyanobacterial mat in concert with ?D values from total lipid extracts (Sachs et al., 2009). Here we report on ?D values from lipids of various sources: dinoflagellate algae (dinosterol and a saturated C30 sterol (4? -methyl-24-ethyl-5? -cholestan-3?-ol), microbial sources (diploptene and nC21 alkane) and higher plants (fern-7-ene, ?-sitosterol and stigmastanol). Mean ?D values from all lipids, measured in both archives, are significantly enriched in deuterium by between 22 and 86‰ during previously inferred drier climate conditions and simultaneously record the transition towards a freshwater lake at around AD1550. Measured ?D values of all lipids cover a wide range from -281‰ to -105‰ during freshwater deposition and from -185‰ to -50‰ when climate was drier. In agreement with the observed isotopic difference between lipids produced via the acetogenic and the mevalonic acid biosynthetic pathway ?D values for algae and higher plant sterols are depleted in deuterium relative to the nC21 alkane by 150‰ on average. The consistent ?D values from dinosterol and 4? -methyl-24-ethyl-5? -cholestan-3?-ol from the lake and peat deposits signify the robustness of these lipid ?D values to indicate hydrologic changes in the sedimentary record. ?D values among lipids of similar and disparate sources and/or biosynthetic origin from Washington Island lake (AD ~ 800-1550) and peat bog (AD~1200-1660) sediments are significantly enriched in deuterium prior to AD 1560/1640 and thus both suggest drier climate conditions resembling today’s environmental and depositional setting at Christmas Island which is located 300km SSE of Washington Island beyond the influence of the ITCZ.

  12. ENSO Variability during the Little Ice Age from the Perspective of a Long Coral Record from the Western Pacific Warm Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hereid, K. A.; Quinn, T. M.; Taylor, F. W.; Shen, C.; Banner, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    The Little Ice Age (LIA, ~1400-1700 CE) is a period of cool temperatures generally best expressed in records from Northern Hemisphere high latitudes, but which is variably expressed in the tropics. In particular, the nature of short-term tropical variability, such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), is obscured by contradictory evidence. Although central Pacific corals and some South American sedimentary records indicate an increase in ENSO activity during the LIA, tree ring records from ENSO teleconnected regions are highly variable, and lake records from the Galápagos Islands and Ecuador show reduced ENSO activity in the LIA. However, the differing resolutions, physical means for recording ENSO events, and dynamical connections to the ENSO system complicate efforts to form a coherent interpretation of these conflicting proxy records. This study addresses the need for additional LIA proxy records that resolve individual ENSO events, record climate parameters directly impacted by ENSO, and are located in core ENSO-affected regions. We investigate the nature of ENSO during the LIA by generating high-resolution climate time series from corals from Misima Island, Papua New Guinea (10.6°S, 152.8°E). Misima Island is located at the southern edge of the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP), an important heat and moisture source for the climate system that is highly sensitive to ENSO events. Our monthly resolved fossil coral record of ?18O and Sr/Ca variations spans the interval from ~1414-1645 CE, which we compare with similar variations in a near modern coral record (~1915-1945 CE) from this location. The fossil Misima coral ?18O record, bandpass filtered to highlight ENSO frequencies, contains multidecadal variations in ENSO amplitude, consistent with what is observed in the modern instrumental record of ENSO variability. However, the standard deviation of the fossil ?18O record is significantly reduced relative to that observed in the modern Misima coral ?18O record, as well as that observed in century-scale records in modern corals from elsewhere in Papua New Guinea, despite a limited change in mean state. We also observe that the magnitude of the 1941/42 El Niño event, as captured in the near modern coal record, is larger than any El Niño event in 230+ years of fossil record. Taken together, our results imply that ENSO variability in the LIA is reduced relative to the twentieth century.

  13. THE LIFETIME OF ICE ON MAIN BELT ASTEROIDS Norbert Schorghofer

    E-print Network

    Schörghofer, Norbert

    introduce the concept of a ``buried snow line,'' where the loss of ice is sufficiently slow over the age for ice to survive over the age of the solar system exist for all of the main asteroid belt pointed out that on extinct comets, ice may be accessible within 10 m of the surface. Later, Fanale

  14. Ice Floats

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This is a lesson about displacement, buoyancy, and density. Learners will understand why ice floats. Includes background information, teacher notes, assessment criteria, and related resources; activities are differentiated for Pre-K-grade 2 and grades 3-5. This is lesson 4 of the unit Exploring Ice in the Solar System.

  15. Lake Sediment Records as an Indicator of Holocene Fluctuations of Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru and Regional Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroup, J. S.; Kelly, M. A.; Lowell, T. V.; Beal, S. A.; Smith, C. A.; Baranes, H. E.

    2012-12-01

    The past fluctuations of Quelccaya Ice Cap, (QIC; 13°S, 70°W, 5200 m asl) located in the southeastern Peruvian Andes, provide a record of tropical climate since the last glacial-interglacial transition. A detailed surficial geomorphic record of past glacial extents developed over the last several decades (e.g. Mercer and Palacios 1977; Buffen et al. 2009; Kelly et al. 2012 accepted) demonstrates that QIC is a dynamic glacial system. These records show that the ice cap was larger than present and retreating by ~11,500 yr BP, and smaller than present between ~7,000 and ~4,600 yr BP. The most recent advance occurred during the late Holocene (Little Ice Age;LIA), dated with 10Be surface exposure ages (510±90 yrs (n = 8)) (Stroup et al. in prep.). This overrode earlier deposits obscuring a complete Holocene record; we aim to address the gaps in glacial chronology using the sedimentary record archived in lakes. We retrieved two sets cores (8 and 5 m-long) from Laguna Challpacocha (13.91°S, 70.86°W, 5040 m asl), a lake that currently receives meltwater from QIC. Four radiocarbon ages from the cores suggest a continuous record dating to at least ~10,500 cal. yr BP. Variations in magnetic susceptibility, percent organic and inorganic carbon, bulk density, grayscale and X-ray fluorescence chemistry indicate changes in the amount of clastic sediment deposition. We interpret clastic sediments to have been deposited from ice cap meltwater, thus indicating more extensive ice. Clastic sediments compose the top of the core from 4 to 30 cm depth, below there is a sharp transition to organic sediments radiocarbon dated to (500±30 and 550±20 cal. yr BP). The radiocarbon ages are similar to the 10Be dated (LIA) glacial position. At least three other clastic units exist in the core; dating to ~2600-4300, ~4800-7300 and older then ~10,500 cal. yr BP based on a linear age model with four radiocarbon dates. We obtained two, ~4 m long, cores from Laguna Yanacocha (13.95°S,70.87°W, 4910 m asl), a lake that has not received glacial meltwater since late glacial time. We used the clastic sediment record to determine the input from non-glacial sources, representing ambient climate. This information tests our hypothesis that increased clastic sediment is from a glacial source in the Challpacocha record. The Yanacocha cores are composed primarily of organic-rich sediment with little clastic sediment. Eight radiocarbon ages in stratigraphic order indicate a continuous sedimentation in the lake since 11,240±90 cal. yr BP. Till at the base of the core indicates likely ice recession from the basin at this time. Variations in magnetic susceptibility, percent organic and inorganic carbon, bulk density, and gray scale suggest only minor changes in sedimentation relative to those in the Challpacocha core. Our new continuous lake sediment record provides complementary data to the discontinuous records of QIC Holocene extents as marked by moraines and exposed sections (e.g. Buffen et al. 2009; Thompson et al. 2006). Our record has some similarities with the nearby lacustrine record from Laguna Pacococha, which also receives meltwater from QIC (Rodbell and Seltzer, 2000; Abbott et al., 2003).

  16. Late-glacial to Early Holocene lake basin and river valley formation within Pomeranian moraine belt near Dobbertin (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, NE Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawiska, Izabela; Lorenz, Sebastian; Börner, Andreas; Niessner, Dominique; S?owi?ski, Micha?; Theuerkauf, Martin; Pieper, Hagen; Lampe, Reinhard

    2014-05-01

    In central Mecklenburg-Vorpommern vast areas between the terminal moraine belts of the Frankfurt (W1F) and Pomeranian Phase (W2) were covered by glaciolacustrine basins which were embedded in the outwash plains. With deglaciation of the Pomeranian Phase around 17-18 ka BP the basins north to the villages Dobbertin and Dobbin were part of a glaciofluvial river system in combination with ice-dammed lake basins. During the late-glacial after ~14 ka cal BP the melting of buried dead ice reshaped the lake basin morphology by new depressions, in- and outlets. We study late-glacial basin and landscape development using cores collected along a pipeline trench crossing the Dobbin-Dobbertin basin. Core analysis includes sedimentological (carbon content, grainsize distribution) and palaeoecological (pollen, plant macrofossils, Cladocera) proxies. Radiocarbon dates indicate that peat formation started soon after the start of the Weichselian late-glacial. High resolution analysis of a basal peat layer indicates that initial organic and lacustrine sedimentation started in shallow ponding mires, evolving from buried dead ice sinks in the glaciofluvial sequence, in which telmatic plants (Carex aquatilis, Schoenoplectus lacustris) dominated. Chydorus sphaericus, the only cladocera species recorded, is ubiquitous and can survive in almost all reservoir types in very harsh conditions. Findings of Characeae than point at the formation of shallow lakes. The expansion of rich fen communities, including Scorpidium scorpoides, and a decline in Cladocera diversity show that these lakes soon again terrestrialised with peat formation. The appearance of Alona costata points at a lowering of pH values in that process. A tree trunk of birch (14.2 ka cal. BP) shows that first trees established during this first telmatic period. At this position in the basin, the basal peat layer is covered by minerogenic sediments, which points at a period of higher water levels and fluvial dynamics, possibly related to a cold period with permafrost formation. At other positions in the basin, the basal peat layer is covered directly by calcareous and silicate gyttias. These parts may (1) either not have been affected by assumed fluvial activity or (2) peat formation as such only started later here. Finally, an extended lake filled the basin from the later parts of the late-glacial on. Its sedimentation history is well recorded in calcareous and silicate gyttjas, whereas sedimentary units derived from organic and inorganic carbon content as well as grain size distribution allows a stratigraphical comparison of different profiles. Several delta cones in lake sediments give evidence of still considerable fluvial influx. High lake levels are indicated by lake terraces at 51 m and 43 m a.s.l., yet the timing of these high stands is still unclear. A third terrace at 41 m a.s.l. represents lower water level in historic times, during which two smaller lakes ('Dobbiner Plage' and 'Klädener Plage') existed in the basin. Both lakes vanished due to drainage after 1798. The uppermost sediment sequence in the basins is represented by a pattern of strongly decomposed peat and lacustrine sand.

  17. The Goldilocks dilemma: big ice, little ice, or ``just-right'' ice in the Eastern Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Gifford H.; Wolfe, Alexander P.; Steig, Eric J.; Sauer, Peter E.; Kaplan, Michael R.; Briner, Jason P.

    2002-01-01

    Our conceptions of the NE sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) have evolved through three major paradigms over the past 50 years. Until the late 1960s the conventional view was that the Eastern Canadian Arctic preserved only a simple deglacial sequence from a LIS margin everywhere at the continental shelf edge (Flint Paradigm). Glacial geologic field studies began in earnest in this region in the early 1960s, and within the first decade field evidence documenting undisturbed deposits predating the LGM led a pendulum swing to a consensus view that large coastal stretches of the Eastern Canadian Arctic remained free of actively eroding glacial ice at the LGM, and that the most extensive ice margins occurred early in the last glacial cycle. This Minimalist Paradigm dominated until the late1980s when an expanded data set from shallow marine studies indicated LGM ice at least locally reached the continental shelf. Within the past decade the marine data, coupled with new evidence from lake sediments and cosmogenic exposure dates on moraines and glaciated terrain in the Eastern Canadian Arctic has led to a new paradigm that better reconciles the terrestrial and marine evidence. Collectively, these lines of evidence indicate that all of southern Baffin Island was glaciated at the LGM, but that some coastal uplands north of Cumberland Sound remained above the limit of actively eroding glacial ice, even though outlet glaciers reached the continental shelf in front of most fiords and sounds. The most plausible explanation for the observed glacial limits is that low-gradient, relatively fast-moving outlet glaciers sliding on deformable sediments occupied marine embayments and fiords, contrasting with slower moving ice frozen to its bed on the intervening crystalline terrain. Slow-moving ice frozen to its bed would have had steeper surface gradients, hence would have terminated inland from the coast. This scenario is consistent with observations indicating high-elevation coastal terrain remained unglaciated even though outlet glaciers reached the continental shelf. LGM summer temperatures were apparently much lower than present, as lakes in the ice-free regions were permanently frozen.

  18. Late Pleistocene leopards across Europe - northernmost European German population, highest elevated records in the Swiss Alps, complete skeletons in the Bosnia Herzegowina Dinarids and comparison to the Ice Age cave art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2013-09-01

    European leopard sites in Europe demonstrate Early/Middle Pleistocene out of Africa lowland, and Late Pleistocene Asian alpine migrations being driven by climatic changes. Four different European Pleistocene subspecies are known. The final European Late Pleistocene “Ice Age leopard” Panthera pardus spelaea (Bächler, 1936) is validated taxonomically. The skull shows heavy signs of sexual dimorphism with closest cranial characters to the Caucasian Panthera pardus ciscaucasica (Persian leopard). Late Pleistocene leopards were distributed northernmost, up to S-England with the youngest stratigraphic records by skeletons and cave art in the MIS 2/3 (about 32,000-26,000 BP). The oldest leopard painting left by Late Palaeolithics (Aurignacians/Gravettians) in the Chauvet Cave (S-France) allows the reconstruction of the Ice Age leopard fur spot pattern being close to the snow or Caucasian leopards. The last Ice Age glacial leopard habitat was the mountain/alpine boreal forest (not mammoth steppe lowland), where those hunted even larger prey such as alpine game (Ibex, Chamois). Into some lairs, those imported their prey by short-term cave dwelling (e.g. Baumann's Cave, Harz Mountains, Germany). Only Eurasian Ice Age leopards specialized, similar as other Late Pleistocene large felids (steppe lions), on cave bear predation/scavenging partly very deep in caves. In Vjetrenica Cave (Dinarid Mountains, Bosnia Herzegovina), four adult leopards (two males/two females) of the MIS 3 were found about two km deep from the entrance in a cave bear den, near to one cave bear skeleton, that remained articulated in its nest. Leopards died there, partly being trapped by raising water levels of an active ponor stream, but seem to have been killed possibly either, similar as for lions known, in battles with cave bears in several cave bear den sites of Europe (e.g. Baumann's Cave, Wildkirchli Cave, Vjetrenica Cave). At other large cave sites, with overlap of hyena, wolf and dhole dens at the cave entrances, leopard bones with bite damages indicate their remains to have been imported and consumed by predators in alpine regions due to reduced prey availability. The best models for the competition/taphonomy of large predators - felids, hyenids, canids - within large cave bear dens of Europe is represented in combination of the Zoolithen Cave and Vjetrenica Cave taphonomy.

  19. Younger Dryas Age advance of Franz Josef Glacier in the Southern Alps of New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H. Denton; C. H. Hendy

    1994-01-01

    A corrected radiocarbon age of 11,050 [+-] 14 years before present for an advance of the Franz Josef Glacier to the Waiho Loop terminal moraine on the western flank of New Zealand's Southern Alps shows that glacier advance on a South Pacific island was synchronous with initiation of the Younger Dryas in the North Atlantic region. Hence, cooling at the

  20. Characterization of Fram Strait Sea Ice Conditions Using the NASA SIERRA Unmanned Aircraft System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Maslanik; R. I. Crocker; K. Wegrzyn; C. Fowler; U. C. Herzfeld; D. Long; R. Kwok; M. M. Fladeland; P. Bui

    2009-01-01

    In addition to record decreases in summer ice extent, the Arctic Ocean has also experienced extensive loss of the oldest, thickest sea ice types. The significance of this loss on overall sea ice mass and on the stability of the ice cover depends on how the thickness and physical properties of these older ice types vary with age, and on

  1. ConcepTest: Ice Sheets and Water Depth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ice sheets covered much of the Northern Hemisphere one million years ago during part of the last ice age. How did this affect the depth of water in the oceans? a. Oceans were shallower than today b. Oceans were ...

  2. Archimedean Ice

    E-print Network

    Kari Eloranta

    2009-09-22

    The striking boundary dependency (the Arctic Circle phenomenon) exhibited in the ice model on the square lattice extends to other planar set-ups. We present these findings for the triangular and the Kagome lattices. Critical connectivity results guarantee that ice configurations can be generated using the simplest and most efficient local actions. Height functions are utilized throughout the analysis. At the end there is a surprise in store: on the remaining Archimedean lattice for which the ice model can be defined, the 3.4.6.4. lattice, the long range behavior is completely different from the other cases.

  3. Creating Arctic Sea Ice Protected Areas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S.; Hoff, K.; Temblay, B.; Fowler, C.

    2008-12-01

    As Arctic sea ice retreats and the Northwest Passage and Northern Sea Route open, the Arctic will experience more extensive human activity than it has ever encountered before. New development will put pressure on a system already struggling to adapt to a changing environment. In this analysis, locations are identified within the Arctic that could be protected from resource extraction, transportation and other development in order to create refuges and protect remnants of sea ice habitat, as the Arctic transitions to ice-free summer conditions. Arctic sea ice forms largely along the Siberian and Alaskan coasts and is advected across the North Pole towards Fram Strait, the Canadian Archipelago and the Barents Sea. In addition to the future loss of ice itself, contaminants entrained in sea ice in one part of the ocean can affect other regions as the ice drifts. Using observations and models of sea ice origins, trajectories and ages, we track sea ice from its origins towards marginal ice zones, mapping pathways and termination locations. Critical sea ice source areas and collection regions are identified with the goal of aiding in the protection of the remaining Arctic sea ice habitat for as long as possible.

  4. Forecasting Aviation Icing: Icing Type and Severity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    1998-03-13

    This module discusses the current theories of atmospheric conditions associated with aircraft icing and applies the theories to the icing diagnosis and forecast process. The contribution of liquid water content, temperature, and droplet size parameters to icing are examined. Identification of icing type, icing severity, and the hazards associated with icing features are presented. Tools to help diagnose atmospheric processes that may be contributing to icing and the special case of supercooled large drop (SLD) icing are examined and applied in short exercises. The use of graphics, animations, and interactive exercises in Forecasting Aviation Icing: Icing Type and Severity helps the forecaster to gain an understanding of icing processes, to identify icing hazards, and to apply diagnosis and forecast tools as aids to evaluate and anticipate potential aircraft icing threats. The subject matter expert for this module is Dr. Marcia Politovich of NCAR/Research Applications Program. This module is also available in French.

  5. The maximum Ice Age (LGM) glaciation of the Central and South Karakorum: an investigation of the heights of its glacier levels and ice thicknesses as well as lowest prehistoric ice margin positions in the Hindukush, Himalaya and in East-Tibet on the Minya Konka-massif

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Kuhle

    2001-01-01

    A continuing prehistoric ice stream network between the Karakorum main crest and the Nanga Parbat massive has been evidenced,\\u000a which, flowing down from the current Baltoro- and Chogolungma glaciers and filling the Shigar valley as well as the Skardu\\u000a Basin, has flowed together with the Gilgit valley glacier to a joint Indus parent glacier through the Indus gorge. The ice

  6. Microbial nitrogen cycling on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telling, J.; Stibal, M.; Anesio, A. M.; Tranter, M.; Nias, I.; Cook, J.; Bellas, C.; Lis, G.; Wadham, J. L.; Sole, A.; Nienow, P.; Hodson, A.

    2012-07-01

    Nitrogen inputs and microbial nitrogen cycling were investigated along a 79 km transect into the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) during the main ablation season in summer 2010. The depletion of dissolved nitrate and production of ammonium (relative to icemelt) in cryoconite holes on Leverett Glacier, within 7.5 km of the ice sheet margin, suggested microbial uptake and ammonification respectively. Positive in situ acetylene assays indicated nitrogen fixation both in a debris-rich 100 m marginal zone and up to 5.7 km upslope on Leverett Glacier (with rates up to 16.3 ?moles C2H4 m-2 day-1). No positive acetylene assays were detected > 5.7 km into the ablation zone of the ice sheet. Potential nitrogen fixation only occurred when concentrations of dissolved and sediment-bound inorganic nitrogen were undetectable. Estimates of nitrogen fluxes onto the transect suggest that nitrogen fixation is likely of minor importance to the overall nitrogen budget of Leverett Glacier and of negligible importance to the nitrogen budget on the main ice sheet itself. Nitrogen fixation is however potentially important as a source of nitrogen to microbial communities in the debris-rich marginal zone close to the terminus of the glacier, where nitrogen fixation may aid the colonization of subglacial and moraine-derived debris.

  7. A Meteoritic Event Layer in Antarctic Ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Harvey; N. W. Dunbar; W. C. McIntosh; R. P. Esser; S. Taylor

    1995-01-01

    Where the East Antarctic ice sheet meets the Transantarctic Mountains, old, deep glacial ice is tilted upward and exposed.Within this visible cross-section of the ice sheet, layers of dark volcanic tephra serve as stratigraphic markers and datable age horizons [1,2]. Systematic sampling of these layers at a well-known meteorite collection site (the Allan Hills Main icefield) has revealed a band

  8. North Polar Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    North polar ice cap of Mars, as seen during mid summer in the northern hemisphere. The reddish areas consist of eolian dust, bright white areas consist of a mixture of water ice and dust, and the dark blue areas consist of sand dunes forming a huge 'collar' around the polar ice cap. (The colors have been enhanced with a decorrelation stretch to better show the color variability.) Shown here is an oblique view of the polar region, as seen with the Viking 1 spacecraft orbiting Mars over latitude 39 degrees north. The spiral bands consist of valleys which form by a combination of the Coriolis forces, wind erosion, and differential sublimation and condensation. In high-resolution images the polar caps are seen to consist of thick sequences of layered deposits, suggesting that cyclical climate changes have occurred on Mars. Cyclical climate changes are readily explained by quasi-periodic changes in the amount and distribution of solar heating resulting from perturbations in orbital and axial elements. Variations in the Earth's orbit have also been linked to the terrestrial climate changes during the ice ages.

  9. Last glacial ice-sheet dynamics and deglaciation on Svalbard inferred from fjord records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forwick, Matthias; Baeten, Nicole J.; Bunin, Elizabeth; Hansen, Trude; Kempf, Philipp; Velle, Julie H.; Sverre Laberg, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Various glacigenic landforms and sedimentary processes identified in the Spitsbergen fjords provide valuable insights into the dynamics of the northwestern parts of the Svalbard Barents Sea Ice Sheet during the last glacial. Glacial linear features oriented parallel to most fjord axes are identified on swath-bathymetry and high-resolution sub-bottom profiler data. They provide evidence of locally fast-flowing grounded ice draining the northwestern parts of the Svalbard Barents Sea Ice Sheet to the shelf breaks off north and west Svalbard. Eskers overlying glacial lineations reveal the existence of englacial or sub-glacial drainage systems that developed after the termination of fast ice flow. Iceberg ploughmarks suggest that parts of the deglaciation occurred by iceberg calving. Multiple transverse ridges, e.g. grounding zone wedges and moraines, indicate that multiple halts and/or readvances interrupted the deglaciations of the fjords. This includes relatively small moraines, probably deposited during halts and/or readvances in consecutive winters, thus, allowing the calculation of annual retreat rates of the ice fronts in certain fjord areas. Their regular spacing may suggest that e.g. parts of Billefjorden, Smeerenburgfjorden and Woodfjorden were deglaciated at relatively constant rates of at least 140 m/year. However, the deglaciation of van Keulenfjorden accelerated from approx. 80 m/year to about 190 m/year. Lithological analyses allow the study of sub-glacial, glacier-proximal and glacier-distal sedimentary processes and environments, as well as the identification of influences from various sediment sources. They reveal, furthermore, that the deglaciations of multiple fjords terminated quasi-synchronously around 11,200 cal. years BP, but that significant local delays of up to several thousand years occurred.

  10. Radiocarbon Age Constraints on Rates of Advance and Retreat of the Puget Lobe of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet during the Last Glaciation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen C. Porter; Terry W. Swanson

    1998-01-01

    Calibrated radiocarbon dates of organic matter below and above till of the last (Fraser) glaciation provide limiting ages that constrain the chronology and duration of the last advance–retreat cycle of the Puget Lobe in the central and southeastern Puget Lowland. Seven dates for wood near the top of a thick proglacial delta have a weighted mean age of 17,420 ±

  11. Theory of amorphous ices.

    PubMed

    Limmer, David T; Chandler, David

    2014-07-01

    We derive a phase diagram for amorphous solids and liquid supercooled water and explain why the amorphous solids of water exist in several different forms. Application of large-deviation theory allows us to prepare such phases in computer simulations. Along with nonequilibrium transitions between the ergodic liquid and two distinct amorphous solids, we establish coexistence between these two amorphous solids. The phase diagram we predict includes a nonequilibrium triple point where two amorphous phases and the liquid coexist. Whereas the amorphous solids are long-lived and slowly aging glasses, their melting can lead quickly to the formation of crystalline ice. Further, melting of the higher density amorphous solid at low pressures takes place in steps, transitioning to the lower-density glass before accessing a nonequilibrium liquid from which ice coarsens. PMID:24858957

  12. Mars, earth, and ice

    SciTech Connect

    Cordell, B.M.

    1986-07-01

    Possible mechanisms to explain the global ice covering of Mars, and previous ice ages on the earth, are considered. Evidence for the Milankovitch effect is found in the close correspondence of earth's past climate with its orbital variations, as recorded principally in ocean sediments, and the role of CO/sub 2/ is discussed. Mars' range of obliquity, 10 times that of the earth, and orbital eccentricity, fluctuating over a range 2 1/2 times that of the earth, could produce an important climate-driving cycle. Mathematical models of the Martian surface and atmosphere based on Viking data suggest that escaped CO/sub 2/ could create a surface pressure of 1-3 bars. Other factors such as the effect of continental drift, the increased brightness of the sun, and planetary reversals of magnetic field polarity are discussed, and the questions of where Martian water and CO/sub 2/ have gone are considered.

  13. Iced Tea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Richard Konicek-Moran

    2009-04-01

    Dissolving things in the universal solvent water is an everyday experience for almost all of us. We don't have a lot of trouble dissolving honey in our hot tea, but when it comes to sweetening cold iced tea, it is quite a task, if not almost impossible. O

  14. Pleistocene ice streaming and marine-margin breakup revealed by multibeam bathymetry data: The Minch, NW Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradwell, Tom; Stoker, Martyn

    2013-04-01

    Extensive dynamically driven breakup and rapid ice loss is currently ongoing at tidewater margins of the Greenland and Antarctica Ice Sheets, yet few good analogues from the palaeo-record exist. Using ca. 55,000 km2 of echosounder bathymetry data from the continental shelf around NW Scotland we have mapped submarine glacial landforms relating to an ice sheet that covered much of the continental shelf during the Late Pleistocene and had extensive tidewater margins. Focusing on new multibeam bathymetry from the inner part of the shelf (The Minch), we present seabed geomorphological evidence showing breakup of a large marine portion of a palaeo-ice stream within the British-Irish Ice Sheet. Clearly defined, well preserved glacial lineations, elongate bedforms and seabed drumlins indicate former fast flow of a grounded palaeo-ice stream in a northerly direction in The Minch. In addition, the absence of moraines and grounding-line features deposited during ice sheet retreat and the abundance of large overprinted iceberg scours collectively indicate rapid marine-margin breakup by flotation and thinning. We suggest that this marine-margin breakup event was probably driven by unstable ice sheet retreat into shoreward deepening water and was inextricably linked with the abrupt demise of The Minch palaeo-ice stream. Importantly, this new evidence indicates that potentially large areas of the ice sheet margin were floating at times during British-Irish Ice Sheet retreat on the continental shelf. Ongoing work is seeking to date the timing of ice sheet breakup and ice stream demise in northern Scotland.

  15. Smart Icing Systems for Aircraft Icing Safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael B. Bragg; Tamer Basar; William R. Perkins; Michael S. Selig

    2002-01-01

    Ice accretion affects the performance and control of an aircraft and in extreme situations can lead to incidents and accidents. However, changes in performance and control are difficult to sense. As a result, the icing sensors currently in use sense primarily ice accretion, not the effect of the ice. No processed aircraft performance degradation information is available to the pilot.

  16. Characterization of Freshwater-Saltwater Interactions Within the Terminal Moraine Separating Vitus Lake and the Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrus, A. B.; Gierke, J.; Endsley, K.; Espino, S.; Pennington, W.

    2008-12-01

    Meltwater from the Bering Glacier flows into Vitus Lake, at its terminus, out of the lake via the Seal River, and then into the Gulf of Alaska. Only a small percentage of the estimated glacial meltwater appears as flow in the Seal River based on continuous monitoring, suggesting that lake water is also discharging through the terminal moraine on the lake boundary and discharging into the Gulf of Alaska. Conductivity profiles in the lake measured during summer show the presence of saltwater at about 40-m depth, further supporting the hypothesis that the lake and the gulf are hydraulically connected in the subsurface. Mapping apparent resistivity values of the subsurface allows for a distinction between layers with differing conductive characteristics. Here, we attempted to map an inferred saltwater-freshwater interface believed to exist in the aquifer between the Gulf of Alaska and Lake Vitus at the base of the Bering Glacier. To map the resistivity contrasts in the subsurface, we used the SuperSting R1/IP multielectrode instrument. Using linear 330-m long Schlumberger and Bipole-Dipole arrays, we were able to map sufficiently deep to find the top of the saltwater table. At various sites between the ocean and the lake, the resistivity surveys were conducted in an attempt to find a correlation between the ocean water and the saltwater found at the bottom of Vitus Lake. From the Schlumberger resistivity surveys conducted near the coast, we determined the freshwater- saltwater interface to be at a depth of 35-40-m. A Bipole-Dipole survey at an intermediate site roughly 6-km from the ocean and east of the lake suggested the depth to this interface to be 65-70-m. By comparing the results at several locations, we were able to deduce how the saltwater intrudes into the terminal moraine of the glacier, mixing with groundwater. The saltwater movement in the ground and into Vitus Lake may be due to tidal effects and to the porous nature of the glacial sediments, which provides an easier path than more consolidated sediments. We hope that understanding this intrusion of saltwater will lead to a better understanding of how the glacial melt in Lake Vitus discharges.

  17. Trapped Air in Glacial Ice from the base of Penny, Agassiz, and Devon Ice Caps, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, A. M.; Fisher, D.

    2013-12-01

    Basal ice from the Canadian Arctic ice caps, Penny, Agassiz, and Devon, has long been suggested to date back into the last interglacial, or Stage 5e. Cores from all three ice caps contain long Holocene sections with heavy ?18Oice values, overlaying condensed glacial sections with light ?18Oice values, which are underlain by ~1-7 m of ice with ?18Oice values similar to that of the Holocene, suggesting accumulation during the last interglacial. However, the origin of the ice, whether the ice is regelation/segregated or pristine glacial ice has been debated, with important implications as to whether or not ice caps in the Canadian arctic persisted through the last interglacial. Here we present analyses of the trapped air from the bottom portions of Penny, Agassiz, and Devon ice caps to provide context about the nature of the basal ice. Geochemical analyses of N2/Ar, O2/Ar, O2/N2, ?15N2, ?18OATM, and total air content (TAC) indicate a spectrum of ice conditions in basal ice. Low N2/Ar ratios and low TAC indicate partial melting in some of the samples from all three ice caps. High ?15N2, high TAC, and N2/Ar ratios close to air indicate that clean glacial ice is also present in the basal section of each ice cap. Low O2/Ar and high ?18OATM indicates microbial respiration in most samples. The lowest ?18OATM values, near 0‰, indicate trapped air ages >80 ka for the Devon and Agassiz ice caps.

  18. The influence of supraglacial debris cover variability on de-icing processes - examples from Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukas, Sven; Benn, Douglas I.; Boston, Clare M.; Hawkins, Jack; Lehane, Niall E.; Lovell, Harold; Rooke, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Extensive supraglacial debris covers are widespread near the margins of many cold-based and polythermal surging and non-surging glaciers in Svalbard. Despite their importance for current glacier dynamics and a detailed understanding of how they will affect the de-icing of ice-marginal areas, little work has been carried out to shed light on the sedimentary processes operating in these debris covers. We here present data from five different forelands in Svalbard. In all five cases, surfaces within the debris cover can be regarded as stable where debris cover thickness exceeds that of the active layer; vegetation development and absence of buried ice exposures at the surface support this conclusion, although test pits and geophysical investigations have revealed the presence of buried ice at greater depths (> 1-3 m). These findings imply that even seemingly stable surfaces at present will be subject to change by de-icing in the future. Factors and processes that contribute towards a switch from temporarily stable to unstable conditions have been identified as: 1. The proximity to englacial or supraglacial meltwater channels. These channels enlarge due to thermo-erosion, which can lead to the eventual collapse of tunnel roofs and the sudden generation of linear instabilities in the system. Along such channels, ablation is enhanced compared to adjacent debris-covered ice, and continued thermo-erosion continuously exposes new areas of buried ice at the surface. This works in conjunction with 2. Debris flows that occur on all sloping ground and transfer material from stable to less stable (sloping) locations within the debris cover and eventually into supraglacial channels, from where material is then removed from the system. Several generations of debris flows have been identified in all five debris covers, strongly suggesting that these processes are episodic and that the loci of these processes switch. This in turn indicates that transfer of material by debris flows downslope can lead to localised thickening of the debris cover, thereby resulting in the creation of new temporarily-stable areas in downslope locations. 3. The renewed and continued re-distribution of material causes de-icing to proceed in a stepwise fashion. While de-icing is ongoing, this results in the formation of debris cones or even larger ridges and mounds that have been termed "moraine-mound complexes" by previous workers (e.g. Graham et al., 2007). These are temporary landforms that will not survive de-icing over longer timescales, and projection of continued reworking into the future shows that perhaps an undulating spread of material will remain (cf. Lukas, 2007). The formation of supraglacial lakes during overall melting can lead to the formation of thick sequences of sorted sediments that in turn insulate the underlying ice after lake drainage. The presence of such sorted sediments in current ridge-top locations in some of the debris covers gives further weight to the interpretation of a mode of stepwise de-icing; crumbling and erosion by snowmelt and wind attests the shortlived nature of such deposits in topographic highs. Our findings strongly support an interpretation of a de-icing mode that takes place in a stepwise fashion that leads to several generations of sediment transfer within the debris covers and repeated relief inversion. References Graham, D.J., Bennett, M.R., Glasser, N.F., Hambrey, M.J., Huddart, D., Midgley, N.G., 2007. 'A test of the englacial thrusting hypothesis of ''hummocky''moraine formation: case studies from the northwest Highlands, Scotland': Comments. Boreas 36, 103-107. Lukas, S., 2007. Englacial thrusting and (hummocky) moraine formation: a reply to comments by Graham et al. (2007). Boreas 36, 108-113.

  19. Root tensile strength assessment of Dryas octopetala L. and implications for its engineering mechanism on lateral moraine slopes (Turtmann Valley, Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibisch, Katharina; Eichel, Jana; Dikau, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Geomorphic processes and properties are influenced by vegetation. It has been shown that vegetation cover intercepts precipitation, enhances surface detention and storage, traps sediment and provides additional surface roughness. Plant roots impact the soil in a mechanical and hydrological manner and affect shear strength, infiltration capacity and moisture content. Simultaneously, geomorphic processes disturb the vegetation development. This strong coupling of the geomorphic and ecologic system is investigated in Biogeomorphology. Lateral moraine slopes are characterized by a variety of geomorphic processes, e. g. sheet wash, solifluction and linear erosion. However, some plant species, termed engineer species, possess specific functional traits which allow them to grow under these conditions and also enable them to influence the frequency, magnitude and even nature of geomorphic processes. For lateral moraine slopes, Dryas octopetala L., an alpine dwarf shrub, was identified as a potential engineer species. The engineering mechanism of D. octopetala, based on its morphological (e.g., growth form) and biomechanical (e.g., root strength) traits, yet remains unclear and only little research has been conducted on alpine plant species. The objectives of this study are to fill this gap by (A) quantifying D. octopetala root tensile strength as an important trait considering anchorage in and stabilization of the slope and (B) linking plant traits to the geomorphic process they influence on lateral moraine slopes. D. octopetala traits were studied on a lateral moraine slope in Turtmann glacier forefield, Switzerland. (A) Root strength of single root threads of Dryas octopetala L. were tested using the spring scale method (Schmidt et al., 2001; Hales et al., 2013). Measurement equipment was modified to enable field measurements of roots shortly after excavation. Tensile strength of individual root threads was calculated and statistically analyzed. First results show that Dryas roots appear to be quite strong compared to other alpine species with a mean tensile strength of 22,63 N mm -². (B) On a micro scale, morphological and biomechanical features of above and below-ground biomass were qualitatively studied through field observations on D. octopetala individuals. Findings indicate that D. octopetala's dense cushions, covering many square meters of the moraines surface, traps fine sediment, stores moisture and significantly reduces erosion through wind and water. Furthermore, Dryas is well adapted to rock fall or burial by forming stabilized patches of ground despite steep slope inclinations and strong, episodic surface runoff and creep processes. Anchorage is provided by its strong root, which in all studied cases grew upslope parallel to the moraines surface. Insights from this study allow to relate root tensile strength and other specific plant traits of Dryas octopetala to an engineering mechanism and effect on geomorphic processes on lateral moraine slopes. Knowledge about Dryas as an engineering species may help to understand its biotic influence on the geomorphic system of a lateral moraine and aid in the selection of species for erosion control or rehabilitation of ecosystems, where Dryas is native.

  20. The Ice: A Journey to Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Arthur B.

    The title is misleading for a non—“OAE” (Old Antarctic Explorer, to whom “The Ice” is Antarctica) because The Ice is about far more than just ice. It does indeed cover just about all you'd want to know (or more) about Antarctic ice, from the vast south polar sheets and glaciers to the great tabular bergs, bergy bits, brash ice, pancake ice, frazil ice, and the pack of the polar seas; but it also explores nearly every aspect of this “Last of Lands” in an unusually comprehensive coverage. From the “Heroic Ages” of early 20th-century explorers Robert Scott, Ernest Shackleton, and Roald Amundsen to the present “Cruise Ship Age,”Antarctica has produced a wealth of literature in the “Journey to…” style — which Pyne's is not. Instead, his product from one short (3-month) visit under a National Endowment for the Humanities fellowship takes all readers o n a webwork journey through time, space, ice, and rocks for an appreciation of “ The Ice” in a way found in no other book. This, his fifth book (another one is Fire in America, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1982), is a significant contribution to the literature of Antarctica. Pyne's prose cannot be paraphrased for a review, as the reader will be able to appreciate from the excerpts to follow.

  1. Exposure dating of Late Glacial and pre-LGM moraines in the Cordon de Doña Rosa, Northern\\/Central Chile (~31° S)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Zech; Ch. Kull; P. W. Kubik; H. Veit

    2007-01-01

    Despite the important role of the Central Andes (15-30° S) for climate reconstruction, knowledge about the Quaternary glaciation is very limited due to the scarcity of organic material for radiocarbon dating. We applied 10Be surface exposure dating (SED) on 22 boulders from moraines in the Cordon de Doña Rosa, Northern\\/Central Chile (~31° S). The results show that several glacial advances

  2. Vostok Ice Core Lab Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences

    This site from Columbia provides a lab activity that introduces students to Vostok ice core data. Students will examine the changes of temperature, carbon dioxide, methane, and dust as a function of depth and age in order to answer questions about conditions during the last glacial maximum and glacial/interglacial changes.

  3. Ice bubbles confirm big chill

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1996-06-14

    Clues buried in Greenland`s icesheet indicate that during the last ice age, the climate repeatedly warmed sharply, only to slide into a renewed chill lasting thousands of years. New indicators derived from trapped bubbles of ancient gases, nitrogen and methane, indicate that these were indeed catastrophic events. This article describes the research and adjunct issues.

  4. A glacial lake outburst flood associated with recent mountain glacier retreat, Patagonian Andes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Harrison; Neil Glasser; Vanessa Winchester; Eleanor Haresign; Charles Warren; Krister Jansson

    2006-01-01

    Geomorphological mapping, sedimentology, lichenometry and dendrochronology were used to assess the nature and timing of glacier recession, moraine development and catastrophic mass movements in a tributary of the Leones valley, east of the Hielo Patagónico Norte, Chile. We show that during the 'Little Ice Age' Glaciar Calafate advanced downvalley to produce a terminal moraine. Recession of the glacier from this

  5. Erosion effects on water and DOC/DIC fluxes in soils from a hummocky ground moraine landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbrich, Marcus; Gerke, Horst H.; Sommer, Michael

    2015-04-01

    In the arable hummocky ground moraine soil landscape, an erosion-induced spatial differentiation of soil types can be observed. Unknown is how the water flow and solute transport is affected by soil-crop interactions depending on properties of differently-developed soil horizons. The objective was to analyze these interactions and by comparing lysimeter-based measured water and solute balances for Luvisol soil monoliths extracted from differently-eroded slope locations. For a 3-years measurement period, differences in cumulative seepage water drainage of more than 76 % were observed between most and least eroded Luvisol. Although the soil types were identical, these data indicated characteristic erosion-induced spatial differentiation in the water balance of the landscape. Because the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were relatively similar for all lysimeters at the bottom (1.4 m soil depth), the DOC/DIC leaching was dominated by differences in water fluxes in this observation period (04/2011-04/2014). Results suggest that water and solute balances are depending on the degree of erosion-induced soil profile modifications. Hence for the landscape scale analysis of the landscape water and solute balances, not only the distributed soil types but also erosion-induced modifications with a single soil type should be considered.

  6. Eolian Signal of the Onset of the Late Paleozoic Ice Age in North America Re-Deposited and Preserved As Paleo-Cave Sediments, Southwestern Colorado, U.S.a.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. E.; Soreghan, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Molas Formation is a loessite consisting of reddish silt of Early Pennsylvanian (Bashkirian) age. U-Pb age spectra of accessory zircons indicate long-distance (>2000 km) transport from the Grenville province in northeastern North America plus sources from the peri-Gondwanan terranes in southeastern North America and local sources in the Ancestral Rocky Mountains uplift. These eolian sediments formed a blanket deposit <30 m thick above a paleokarst landscape in southwestern Colorado, infilling solution valleys and burying karst towers developed on the underlying Mississippian (Tournaisian-Visean) Leadville Limestone. The loessite is an eolian signal for the probable onset of glaciation at multiple locations in tectonically uplifted mountainous areas in North America. However, the loessite is easily eroded and has low preservation potential. Prior to lithification, significant amounts of the loess were remobilized and transported into the underlying karst system. As paleo-cave deposits, encased in limestone and dolostone, the silt-rich deposits have a higher preservation potential, and the eolian signal of the onset of the Late Paleozoic Ice Age in North America is still recognizable. However, the following signal modification processes need to be understood: (1) source area weathering and pedogenesis; (2) land-atmosphere transfer processes; (3) deposition effects of paleotopography, vegetation and moisture conditions, and infiltration into open fractures and/or the matrix of colluvium; (4) remobilization by surface runoff into open fractures and/or groundwater piping/sapping processes in loess soils; (5) transport into vadose and phreatic karst passageways by episodic ("streamflood") hydrologic events, forming event deposits (debrites, inundites, and jointites); (6) breakout dome collapse (forming interbedded cave sediments, karst breccias, and speleothems); (7) lithification and diagenesis; (8) post-lithification modification including pervasive hydrothermal mineralization; and (9) correctly recognizing the age of the signal.

  7. Sea Ice Deformation, Growth, and Thickness From Small-scale Ice Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, R.

    The RADARSAT Geophysical Processor System (RGPS) produces basin-scale es- timates of ice motion, deformation, age, and thickness from repeat surveys of La- grangian ice parcels in high-resolution RADARSAT imagery. These deformations of these polygonal ice areas are defined by the motion of their vertices obtained from tracking common features in time-sequential SAR imagery. These time series of small-scale deformation have provided an unprecedented basin-scale view of the length scale of the lead patterns over the ice cover, the persistence of these linear fea- tures, and the response of these patterns to wind forcing. Seasonal ice thickness within the pack is estimated from the record of openings and closings of the ice elements and a simple parameterization of growth rate. From the ice thickness estimates, we can compute the volume of seasonal ice created and ice volume transferred into ridges. The 3-day mapping of the ice cover by RADARSAT provides an estimate of the sea- sonal ice production over an entire growth season. Three winters and two summers of these products have been produced. Here, this dataset is summarized in terms of the deformation and advection of the ice cover, the lead patterns, and ice production. We compare the behavior of the ice cover over the three winters and discuss these observations in the context of large-scale ice motion and atmospheric pressure pat- tern. There are sources of uncertainty in these calculations, but there are no adequate surface-based or remote-sensing data for comprehensive evaluation of the estimates. We discuss our approach and that taken by others to validate the RGPS products.

  8. The Greenland Ice Sheet in Three Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, J. A.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Catania, G. A.; Paden, J. D.; Gogineni, S.; Morlighem, M.; Colgan, W. T.; Li, J.; Stillman, D. E.; Grimm, R. E.; Clow, G. D.; Young, S. K.; Mabrey, A. N.; Rybarski, S. C.; Wagman, B. M.; Rodriguez, K.

    2014-12-01

    We have produced a dated radiostratigraphy for the whole of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) from two decades of airborne radar-sounding surveys performed by The University of Kansas. This radiostratigraphy reveals a wealth of new information regarding this ice sheet's three-dimensional structure and history. South of Jakobshavn Isbræ, most of the ice sheet is Holocene-aged. Eemian ice is mostly confined to central northern Greenland. Disrupted radiostratigraphy is often located near the onset of the largest outlet glaciers, suggesting a strong coupling between the initiation of faster ice flow and anomalous basal processes in the ice-sheet interior. Ice-flow modeling constrained by this radiostratigraphy reveals that the Holocene-averaged pattern of surface accumulation is similar to the modern pattern, but that Holocene surface-accumulation rates were substantially higher than present rates in the interior. The pattern of predicted basal melt is strongly modulated by surface accumulation, further suggesting that geothermal flux beneath the GrIS is low except in the vicinity of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream. This observation also raises the possibility that the position of the GrIS's central ice divide is coupled to local basal conditions, including spatially varying subglacial geology and geothermal flux. The Holocene-averaged flow of the GrIS was significantly faster than at present, implying that the ice-sheet interior is presently dynamically thickening, likely due to the viscosity contrast between Holocene and Last Glacial Period ice. Englacial dielectric attenuation, inferred from the echo intensity of mapped reflections, is related to borehole-measured temperature and constrains depth-averaged englacial temperature across the GrIS. This ice-sheet-wide radiostratigraphy and its related inferences are new and powerful constraints on the dynamics of the GrIS, and they should be used to evaluate and improve the next generation of ice-sheet models.

  9. Palaeo-ice stream pathways in the easternmost Amundsen Sea Embayment, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klages, Johann P.; Kuhn, Gerhard; Graham, Alastair G. C.; Smith, James A.; Hillenbrand, Claus-Dieter; Nitsche, Frank O.; Larter, Rob D.; Gohl, Karsten

    2015-04-01

    Multibeam swath bathymetry datasets collected over the past two decades have been compiled to identify palaeo-ice stream pathways in the easternmost Amundsen Sea Embayment. We mapped 3010 glacial landforms to reconstruct palaeo-ice flow in the ~250 km-long Abbot Glacial Trough that was occupied by a large palaeo-ice stream, fed by two tributaries (Cosgrove and Abbot) that reached the continental shelf edge during the last maximum ice-sheet advance. The mapping has enabled a clear differentiation between glacial landforms interpreted as indicative of wet- (e.g. mega-scale glacial lineations) and cold-based ice (e.g. hill-hole pairs) during the last glaciation of the continental shelf. Both the regions of fast palaeo-ice flow within the palaeo-ice stream troughs, and the regions of slow palaeo-ice flow on adjacent seafloor highs (referred to as inter-ice stream ridges) additionally record glacial landforms such as grounding-zone wedges and recessional moraines that indicate grounding line stillstands of the ice sheet during the last deglaciation from the shelf. As the palaeo-ice stream flowed along a trough with variable geometry and variable subglacial substrate, it appears that trough sections characterized by constrictions and outcropping hard substrate that changes the bed gradient, led the pace of grounding-line retreat to slow and subsequently pause, resulting in the deposition of grounding-zone wedges. The stepped retreat recorded within the Abbot Glacial Trough corresponds well to post-glacial stepped retreat interpreted for the neighbouring Pine Island-Thwaites Palaeo-Ice Stream trough, thus suggesting a uniform pattern of episodic retreat across the eastern Amundsen Sea Embayment. The correlation of episodic retreat features with geological boundaries further emphasises the significance of subglacial geology in steering ice stream flow. Our new geomorphological map of the easternmost Amundsen Sea Embayment resolves the pathways of palaeo-ice streams that were probably all active during the last maximum extent of the ice sheet on this part of the shelf, and reveals the style of postglacial grounding-line retreat. Both are important input variables in ice sheet models and therefore can be used for validating the reliability of these models.

  10. Recent developments in the optical televiewing of ice boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Bryn

    2014-05-01

    Developed in the past few years, the optical televiewing (OPTV) of ice boreholes has now been successfully applied to temperate and polythermal valley glaciers, to Antarctic ice shelves, to a shallow borehole on the surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet, and recently to the NEEM deep ice borehole. Here, we report on several specific aspects of this work, outlining the capability of OPTV in glaciological analysis. These include: • Revealing the 3D internal structure of valley glaciers, e.g. identifying eight separate structural generations on Midre Lovénbreen, Svalbard; • Characterizing the internal ice facies forming the base of an Antarctic ice shelf rift, e.g. identifying three possible types of 'marine ice'; • Recording annual layering and allowing age-depth scales to be reconstructed for contrasting locations on both the Greenland and the Antarctic ice sheets. • Providing a proxy for snow, firn and ice density, based on calibrating an OPTV record of an Antarctic ice-shelf borehole with densities measured gravimetrically on corresponding core samples. • Reconstructing former surface melting and melt-pond formation on an Antarctic ice shelf, revealing that such melting is not a recent phenomenon. • Revealing aspects of the internal structure of the Greenland ice sheet at the NEEM deep ice drill site, e.g. the presence of ash layers and annual layering at depths of several hundreds of metres in the ice.

  11. Meltback of Hesperian-aged ice-rich deposits near the south pole of Mars: Evidence for drainage channels and lakes

    E-print Network

    Head III, James William

    ) topographic data support the presence of an extensive Hesperian-aged volatile-rich south polar deposit basal heating was a major factor in generating the meltwater that formed the drainage features. INDEX TERMS: 6225 Planetology: Solar System Objects: Mars; 5416 Planetology: Solid Surface Planets: Glaciation

  12. Layer thinning heterogeneities within an ice sheet inferred using a strain-induced anisotropic flow model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Gagliardini; G. Durand; F. Gillet-Chaulet; J. Meyssonnier

    2007-01-01

    Interpretation of climatic records preserved in ice-sheet requires an accurate knowledge of the absolute age and the duration of ice layers as a function of depth. This relation between age, duration and depth depends on the flow history experienced by ice since its deposit on the surface. Usually, for low accumulation site like in Antarctica, this dating relation is inferred

  13. Ice rule correlations in stuffed spin ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldus, R. J.; Fennell, T.; Deen, P. P.; Ressouche, E.; Lau, G. C.; Cava, R. J.; Bramwell, S. T.

    2013-01-01

    Stuffed spin ice is a chemical variation of a spin ice material like Ho2Ti2O7 in which extra magnetic ions are inserted into the crystal structure. Previous studies have shown that the degree of stuffing has very little effect on the residual entropy in the system, which takes a value very close to the spin ice entropy. We argue, however, that the observation of this entropy does not imply long range coherence of the ice rules, that determine the local spin configurations. We have characterized deviations from the ice rules by means of a polarized neutron diffraction study of a single crystal of Ho2+?Ti2-?O7-?/2 with ? = 0.3. Our results demonstrate that the ice rules in stuffed spin ice are strictly valid only over a relatively short range, and that at longer range stuffed spin ice exhibits some characteristics of a ‘cluster glass’, with a tendency to more conventional ferromagnetic correlations.

  14. Ice Zones: Where We Look for Ice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, learners draw conclusions about where on a planetary body scientists might look for ice and why. They use a clay ball, ice cubes, and a heat lamp to model the permanently-shadowed polar regions of planets and moons that may harbor ice. They learn that our Moon, and even Mercury, may have areas with ice. This activity is part of Explore! To the Moon and Beyond! - a resource developed specifically for use in libraries.

  15. Friction of ice on ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulson, Erland M.; Fortt, Andrew L.

    2012-12-01

    New measurements have been made of the friction coefficient of freshwater polycrystalline ice sliding slowly (5 × 10-8 to 1 × 10-3 m s-1) upon itself at temperatures from 98 to 263 K under low normal stresses (?98 kPa). Sliding obeys Coulomb's law: the shear stress is directly proportional to the normal stress across the interface, while cohesion offers little contribution to frictional resistance. The coefficient of kinetic friction of smooth surfaces varies from ?k = 0.15 to 0.76 and, at elevated temperatures (?223 K), exhibits both velocity strengthening at lower velocities (<10-5 to 10-4 m s-1) and velocity weakening at higher velocities. Strengthening and weakening are attributed to creep deformation of asperities and localized melting, respectively. At intermediate temperatures of 173 and 133 K, the kinetic coefficient appears to not exhibit significant dependence upon velocity. However, at the low temperature of 98 K the coefficient of kinetic friction exhibits moderate velocity strengthening at both the lowest and the highest velocities but velocity independence over the range of intermediate velocities. No effect was detected of either grain size or texture. Over the range of roughness 0.4 × 10-6 m ? Ra ? 12 × 10-6 m, a moderate effect was detected, where ?k ? Ra0.08. Slide-hold-slide experiments revealed that the coefficient of static friction increases by an amount that scales logarithmically with holding time. Implications of the results are discussed in relation to shearing across "tiger stripe" faults within the icy crust of Saturn's Enceladus, sliding of the arctic sea ice cover and brittle compressive failure of cold ice.

  16. Response of salt structures to ice-sheet loading: implications for ice-marginal and subglacial processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Jörg; Hampel, Andrea; Brandes, Christian; Winsemann, Jutta

    2014-10-01

    During the past decades the effect of glacioisostatic adjustment has received much attention. However, the response of salt structures to ice-sheet loading and unloading is poorly understood. Our study aims to test conceptual models of the interaction between ice-sheet loading and salt structures by finite-element modelling. The results are discussed with regard to their implications for ice-marginal and subglacial processes. Our models consist of 2D plane-strain cross-sections, which represent simplified geological cross-sections from the Central European Basin System. The model layers represent (i) sedimentary rocks of elastoplastic rheology, (ii) a viscoelastic diapir and layer of salt and (iii) an elastoplastic basement. On top of the model, a temporarily variable pressure simulates the advance and retreat of an ice sheet. The durations of the individual loading phases were defined to resemble the durations of the Pleistocene ice advances in northern central Europe. The geometry and rheology of the model layers and the magnitude, spatial distribution and timing of ice-sheet loading were systematically varied to detect the controlling factors. All simulations indicate that salt structures respond to ice-sheet loading. An ice advance towards the diapir causes salt flow from the source layer below the ice sheet towards the diapir, resulting in an uplift of up to +4 m. The diapir continues to rise as long as the load is applied to the source layer but not to the crest of the diapir. When the diapir is transgressed by the ice sheet the diapir is pushed down (up to -36 m) as long as load is applied to the crest of the diapir. During and after ice unloading large parts of the displacement are compensated by a reversal of the salt flow. Plastic deformation of the overburden is restricted to the area immediately above the salt diapir. The displacements after unloading range between -3.1 and +2.7 m. Larger displacements are observed in models with deep-rooted diapirs, thicker ice sheets, longer duration of the loading phase, thicker salt source layers and lower viscosity of the salt. The rise or fall of diapirs triggered or amplified by ice-sheet loading are likely to affect glacigenic deformation, erosion and deposition above the diapir and within the rim synclines. Ice-load induced uplift in front of an ice sheet will provide favourable conditions for the formation of push moraines, for example by creating a topographic obstacle and inclining potential detachments. Subglacial subsidence of salt structures will enhance erosion by providing a preferential drainage pathway and fracturing of the overburden of the salt structure and thereby contribute to the incision of tunnel valleys. However, the resulting displacements are probably too low to have a marked effect on the advance or retreat pattern of the ice sheets.

  17. New IceTracker Tool Depicts Forward and Backward Arctic Sea Ice Trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Campbell, G.; Tremblay, B.; Newton, R.; Meier, W.

    2013-12-01

    The IceTracker allows researchers, educators and the public to depict the forward drift trajectories of sea ice, as well as back trajectories showing the path the ice took to the specified location. Users enter in the location and date of an ice parcel - or parcels -- of interest, then select a later or earlier date, depending on whether they want to see the forward or the backward trajectory. The database for the IceTracker contains ice motion vectors based upon a pattern recognition algorithm applied to images of sea ice derived from microwave satellite data. Ice motion vector plots are single day motion estimates. The available database starts November 1978 and runs to the present with ca. 1 month delay. IceTracker output includes both an image of the ice motion path as well as a data file that has quasi-daily date, latitude, longitude, estimated sea ice age, ice drift speed, mean air temperature, and water depth. One can overlay different days on the same plot in different colors for comparing different seasons. This presentation highlights research, education, and outreach applications of the tool. Research applications include estimating the origin and melt location of sediment and contaminants sampled on or in sea ice, assessing potential trajectories oil spilled in ice-infested waters, documenting seasonal and interannual variability in ice drift trajectories from specific locations, defining the typical origins of ice that tend to melt in an area of interest, such as a polynya, and assessing the deviation from drift of polar bear foraging. The IceTracker can also be used in the social sciences, for example recreating Nansen's historic 1893-1896 trans-Arctic drift with the Fram under modern conditions and considering the implications of alternative fates. Educational purposes include teaching students about ice dynamics and interannual variability by setting up team competitions to be the first to reach the North Pole or some other location. Applications for the public include considering historical conditions as the context for future adventure expeditions. Depending on user interest, the IceTracker can be modified in the future to include additional output parameters, and we are considering development of an Antarctic version. The tool has been created with funding from the Office of Naval Research and the National Science Foundation. It is currently being hosted by the Polar Learning and Responding Partnership, a stage II Climate Change Education Partnership supported by the National Science Foundation.

  18. From forest to farmland and moraine to meadow: Integrated modeling of Holocene land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, J. O.

    2012-12-01

    Did humans affect global climate over the before the Industrial Era? While this question is hotly debated, the co-evolution of humans and the natural environment over the last 11,700 years had an undisputed role in influencing the development and present state of terrestrial ecosystems, many of which are highly valued today as economic, cultural, and ecological resources. Yet we still have a very incomplete picture of human-environment interactions over the Holocene, both spatially and temporally. In order to address this problem, we combined a global dynamic vegetation model with a new model of preindustrial anthropogenic land cover change. We drive these integrated models with paleoclimate from GCM scenarios, a new synthesis of global demographic, technological, and economic development over preindustrial time, and a global database of historical urbanization covering the last 8000 years. We simulate land cover and land use change, fire, soil erosion, and emissions of CO2 and methane (CH4) from 11,700 years before present to AD 1850. We evaluate our simulations in part with a new set of continental-scale reconstructions of land cover based on records from the Global Pollen Database. Our model results show that climate and tectonic change controlled global land cover in the early Holocene, e.g., shifts in forest biomes in northern continents show an expansion of temperate tree types far to the north of their present day limits, but that by the early Iron Age (1000 BC), humans in Europe, east Asia, and Mesoamerica had a larger influence than natural processes on the landscape. 3000 years before present, anthropogenic deforestation was widespread with most areas of temperate Europe and southwest Asia, east-central China, northern India, and Mesoamerica occupied by a matrix of natural vegetation, cropland and pastures. Burned area and emissions of CO2 and CH4 from wildfires declined slowly over the entire Holocene, as landscape fragmentation and changing agricultural practices led to decreases in burned area. In contrast, soil erosion increased with increasing human pressure over the last 11 ka, except in areas where topsoils became exhausted, e.g., in the Andes and the eastern and southern Mediterranean. While we simulate fluctuations in human impact on the landscape, including periods of widespread land abandonment, e.g., during the Migration Period in Europe that following the end of the Western Roman Empire, approaching the Industrial Revolution nearly all of the landmasses of Europe and south and East Asia are dominated by anthropogenic activities. In contrast, the collapse of the aboriginal populations of the Americas following 15th century European contact leads to a period of ecosystem recovery. Our results highlight the importance of the long histories of both climate change and human demographic, economic, and technological history on the development of continental-scale landscapes. We emphasize the need for improved datasets that use archaeological data synthesis and build on recent theory of preindustrial economic and technological change. A large source of uncertainty in our results comes from assumptions we make about the rates and timing of technologically driven intensification of land use, and the importance of international trade for the subsistence of preindustrial societies.

  19. Global Ice Viewer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website explores the sentinels of climate change with a 3D interactive global ice viewer. View the effects of climate change on glaciers, sea ice, and continental ice sheets worldwide, in Greenland, Arctic and Antarctica through time lapse movies of ice melt and trends, comparison photographs and maps. Links to NASA satellites and their missions are provided.

  20. Make Ice Cream

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-02-03

    Learners add salt to ice to chill it lower than its freezing point. This chilled ice can then be used to freeze milk and sugar into ice cream. Learners can experiment by adding different flavors such as fruit juices and candy to the ice cream mix.

  1. Ice sheet margins and ice shelves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of climate warming on the size of ice sheet margins in polar regions is considered. Particular attention is given to the possibility of a rapid response to warming on the order of tens to hundreds of years. It is found that the early response of the polar regions to climate warming would be an increase in the area of summer melt on the ice sheets and ice shelves. For sufficiently large warming (5-10C) the delayed effects would include the breakup of the ice shelves by an increase in ice drainage rates, particularly from the ice sheets. On the basis of published data for periodic changes in the thickness and melting rates of the marine ice sheets and fjord glaciers in Greenland and Antarctica, it is shown that the rate of retreat (or advance) of an ice sheet is primarily determined by: bedrock topography; the basal conditions of the grounded ice sheet; and the ice shelf condition downstream of the grounding line. A program of satellite and ground measurements to monitor the state of ice sheet equilibrium is recommended.

  2. Icing: Accretion, Detection, Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, John J.

    1994-01-01

    The global aircraft industry and its regulatory agencies are currently involved in three major icing efforts: ground icing; advanced technologies for in-flight icing; and tailplane icing. These three major icing topics correspondingly support the three major segments of any aircraft flight profile: takeoff; cruise and hold; and approach and land. This lecture addressess these three topics in the same sequence as they appear in flight, starting with ground deicing, followed by advanced technologies for in-flight ice protection, and ending with tailplane icing.

  3. Soil carbon storage and respiration potential across a landscape age and climate gradient in western Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley-Cook, J. I.; Virginia, R. A.; Hammond Wagner, C.; Racine, P. E.

    2013-12-01

    The soil formation state factors proposed by Hans Jenny (climate, organisms, relief, parent material, time) explain many soil characteristics, yet geological controls on biological carbon cycling are not well represented in regional carbon models. Landscape age, for instance, can directly affect the quantity and quality of soil organic carbon, which are key determinants of the temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter (SOM) to decomposition. Temperature control of SOM decomposition is of particular importance in Arctic soils, which contain nearly half of global belowground organic carbon and have a permafrost thermal regime that straddles the freeze-thaw threshold. We investigated soil carbon storage and respiration potential across a west Greenland transect, and related the landscape carbon patterns to regional variation in climate and landscape age. The four study sites capture a range in: landscape age from 180 years on the inland Little Ice Age moraine near Kangerlussuaq to ~10,000 years at the coastal sites near Sisimiut and Nuuk, mean annual air temperatures from -5.7 to -1.4 °C, and mean annual precipitation from 149 to 752 mm. At each site, we collected surface and mineral samples from nine soil pits within similar vegetation cover and relief classes. We measured total organic carbon and nitrogen though elemental analysis, and incubated soils at 4 °C and field capacity moisture for 175 day to measure carbon dioxide production from which we derived soil respiration potential. We hypothesized that soil carbon storage and respiration potential would be greatest at the sites with the oldest landscape age. Soil carbon content was more than four times greater at the 10,000 year sites (Nuuk = 24.03%, Sisimiut = 17.34%) than the inland sites (Ørkendalen = 3.49%, LIA = 0.05%). Carbon quality decreased across the age gradient, as measured by a nearly two-fold increase in C:N ratio from the youngest and driest to the oldest and wettest soils (LIA = 12.2, Nuuk = 22.8). While soil respiration rates were significantly highest in the surface soils at the wettest coastal site, we observed high variation in respiration potential indicating that small-scale variation in carbon quality and other soil properties is high. This study informs our understanding of regional variation of carbon storage and turnover in western Greenland and provides important information for the parameterization of landscape scale models of soil carbon dynamics in the Arctic tundra.

  4. Investigation of radar discrimination of sea ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parashar, S. K.; Biggs, A. W.; Fung, A. K.; Moore, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    The ability of radar to discriminate sea ice types and their thickness was studied. Radar backscatter measurements at 400 MHz (multi-polarization) and 13.3 GHz (VV polarization) obtained from NASA Earth Resources Aircraft Program Mission 126 were analyzed in detail. The scatterometer data were separated into seven categories of sea ice according to age and thickness as interpreted from stereo aerial photographs. The variations of radar backscatter cross-section with sea ice thickness at various angles are presented at the two frequencies. There is a reversal of angular character of radar return from sea ice less than 18 cm thick at the two frequencies. Multi-year ice (sea ice greater than 180 cm thick) gives strongest return at 13.3 GHz. First-year ice (30 cm to 90 cm thick) gives strongest return at 400 MHz. Open water can be differentiated at both the frequencies. Four-polarization 16.5 GHz radar imagery was also obtained. Open water and three categories of sea ice can be identified on the images. The results of the imagery analysis are consistent with the radar scatterometer results.

  5. Climate change between the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age: Model-data comparison between CMIP5/PMIP3 last millennium simulations and available temperature proxy records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpentier Ljungqvist, Fredrik; Zhang, Qiong; Sundqvist, Hanna S.; Brattström, Gudrun; Moberg, Anders

    2014-05-01

    We present a model-data comparison between the CMIP5/PMIP3 last millennium simulations and available individual temperature proxy records from across the globe. Our focus is to investigate the agreement in amplitude of the simulated and the reconstructed temperature difference between the Medieval Warm Period (MWP, here defined as AD 950-1250) and the Little Ice Age (LIA, here defined as AD 1400-1700). An emphasis is placed on analysing to what extent the high latitude and continental amplification of the temperature signal is the same in the model simulations as in the proxies. We further discuss to what extent the models have captured the spatial signatures that is shown in the proxy data. We have collected 125 calibrated proxy records - representing either annual mean, winter or summer temperature - extending back to at least AD 950. The proxies include data from a wide range of archives: ice-cores, marine and terrestrial sediments, tree-rings, speleothems and historical records. Only proxies with at least two observations per century were included. We calculated the amplitude of change between the MWP and the LIA in the individual proxy records using the temperature calibrations by the original authors. The last millennium simulations from 8 different models in CMIP5 database are used to compare with the proxy records. This model-data comparison reveals that the ensemble mean and median of the models mostly underestimate the amplitude of temperature difference between the MWP and the LIA as estimated from the proxy records at those locations where proxy records exist. The relative lack of proxy data from the tropics and the Southern Hemisphere, however, precludes a fully comprehensive model-data comparison. We also note large differences between the model simulations both in amplitude of the temperature change and in their spatial patterns. The use of an ensemble mean or median of the model simulations emphasizes the averaged signature within the model ensemble. We observe an average tendency for the models to overestimate the magnitude of the Arctic amplification as compared to the proxies. On the other hand, the models underestimate the coastal-continental temperature gradient compared to the proxies.

  6. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. Snow and ice products from Suomi NPP VIIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, Jeffrey R.; Mahoney, Robert; Liu, Yinghui; Romanov, Peter; Tschudi, Mark; Appel, Igor; Maslanik, James; Baldwin, Dan; Wang, Xuanji; Meade, Paul

    2013-12-01

    Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was launched in October 2011 on the satellite now known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership. VIIRS was designed to improve upon the capabilities of the operational Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and provide observation continuity with NASA's Earth Observing System's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). VIIRS snow and ice products include sea ice surface temperature, sea ice concentration, sea ice characterization, a binary snow map, and fractional snow cover. Validation results with these "provisional" level maturity products show that ice surface temperature has a root-mean-square error of 0.6-1.0 K when compared to aircraft data and a similar MODIS product, the measurement accuracy and precision of ice concentration are approximately 5% and 15% when compared to passive microwave retrievals, and the accuracy of the binary snow cover (snow/no-snow) maps is generally above 90% when compared to station data. The ice surface temperature and snow cover products meet their accuracy requirements with respect to the Joint Polar Satellite System Level 1 Requirements Document. Sea Ice Characterization, which consists of two age categories, has not been observed to meet the 70% accuracy requirements of ice classification. Given their current performance, the ice surface temperature, snow cover, and sea ice concentration products should be useful for both research and operational applications, while improvements to the sea ice characterization product are needed before it can be used for these applications.

  8. Contrail ice particles in aircraft wakes and their climatic importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Ulrich; JeßBerger, Philipp; Voigt, Christiane

    2013-06-01

    Measurements of gaseous (NO, NOy, SO2, HONO) and ice particle concentrations in young contrails in primary and secondary wakes of aircraft of different sizes (B737, A319, A340, A380) are used to investigate ice particle formation behind aircraft. The gas concentrations are largest in the primary wake and decrease with increasing altitude in the secondary wake, as expected for passive trace gases and aircraft-dependent dilution. In contrast, the measured ice particle concentrations were found larger in the secondary wake than in the primary wake. The contrails contain more ice particles than expected for previous black carbon (soot) estimates. The ice concentrations may result from soot-induced ice nucleation for a soot number emission index of 1015 kg-1. For a doubled ice particle concentration in young contrails, a contrail cirrus model computes about 60% increases of global radiative forcing by contrail cirrus because of simultaneous increases in optical depth, age, and cover.

  9. Evidence for an ice sheet/frozen lake in Utopia Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, M. G.

    Previous workers noted evidence for a lacustrine basin in Utopia Planitia, Mars. Geomorphic features within the basin that collectively suggest that water or ice may once have been present include channels within the basin, channels peripheral to the basin, etched basin floor, 'thumbprint' terrain (whorled patterns), polygonal outlines, smooth floors (infilled), shoreline indicators (terraces, platforms, lineaments), and small cratered cones (pseudo craters or pingos). The authors interpret these data to suggest that the basin may have been the locus of a large paleolake in the northern lowlands of Mars. Alternatively, the area was proposed to be part of an ancient circumpolar ocean. The hypothetical paleolake was probably frozen to some depth. In fact, features now present at its boundaries suggest that the edges may have been frozen solid. Plains units at the southwestern boundary of Utopia Planitia show ridges that were compared with those that form at the mouths of Antarctic ice streams, thumbprint terrain, and young, high deposits having lobate margins that suggest mudflows. Thumbprint terrains were interpreted as recessional moraines, ice-pushed ridges, or subglacially eroded tunnel valleys with eroded eskers. At the east boundary of Utopia Planitia, geologic mapping at 1:500,000 scale of the Granicus Valles area (MTM quadrangles 30227, 30222, and 25227) indicates the presence of a basal scarp around the northwest flank of Elysium that formed the east boundary of an ancient ice sheet.

  10. Evidence for an ice sheet/frozen lake in Utopia Planitia, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, M. G.

    1993-01-01

    Previous workers noted evidence for a lacustrine basin in Utopia Planitia, Mars. Geomorphic features within the basin that collectively suggest that water or ice may once have been present include channels within the basin, channels peripheral to the basin, etched basin floor, 'thumbprint' terrain (whorled patterns), polygonal outlines, smooth floors (infilled), shoreline indicators (terraces, platforms, lineaments), and small cratered cones (pseudo craters or pingos). The authors interpret these data to suggest that the basin may have been the locus of a large paleolake in the northern lowlands of Mars. Alternatively, the area was proposed to be part of an ancient circumpolar ocean. The hypothetical paleolake was probably frozen to some depth. In fact, features now present at its boundaries suggest that the edges may have been frozen solid. Plains units at the southwestern boundary of Utopia Planitia show ridges that were compared with those that form at the mouths of Antarctic ice streams, thumbprint terrain, and young, high deposits having lobate margins that suggest mudflows. Thumbprint terrains were interpreted as recessional moraines, ice-pushed ridges, or subglacially eroded tunnel valleys with eroded eskers. At the east boundary of Utopia Planitia, geologic mapping at 1:500,000 scale of the Granicus Valles area (MTM quadrangles 30227, 30222, and 25227) indicates the presence of a basal scarp around the northwest flank of Elysium that formed the east boundary of an ancient ice sheet.

  11. Black carbon concentration in a Greenland Dye-3 ice core

    SciTech Connect

    Chylek, P.; Johnson, B.; Wu, Hong (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax (Canada))

    1992-10-01

    We have determined the black carbon concentration in Greenland Dye-3 ice core samples covering the time period from about 3380 to 100 years before present. The average concentration found is 1.53 microg of black carbon per 1 kg of ice. We have found significantly lower black carbon concentrations during the time period from 750 to 100 years before present connected possibly with the Little Ice Age and corresponding changes in atmospheric general circulation patterns and black carbon sources. 18 refs.

  12. The Retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-12-27

    This page examines the discussion among scientists regarding the retreat or growth of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. It appears that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is retreating more slowly than they thought. In fact, it may have been growing just 8,000 years ago, long after the end of the most recent Ice Age. The article features text, maps, graphs, and links to related topics.

  13. Modern shelf ice, equatorial Aeolis Quadrangle, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brakenridge, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    As part of a detailed study of the geological and geomorphological evolution of Aeolis Quadrangle, I have encountered evidence suggesting that near surface ice exists at low latitudes and was formed by partial or complete freezing of an inland sea. The area of interest is centered at approximately -2 deg, 196 deg. As seen in a suite of Viking Orbiter frames obtained at a range of approximately 600 km, the plains surface at this location is very lightly cratered or uncratered, and it is thus of late Amazonian age. Extant topographic data indicate that the Amazonian plains at this location occupy a trough whose surface lies at least 1000 m below the Mars datum. A reasonable hypothesis is that quite recent surface water releases, perhaps associated with final evolution of large 'outflow chasms' to the south, but possibly from other source areas, filled this trough, that ice floes formed almost immediately, and that either grounded ice or an ice-covered sea still persists. A reasonable hypothesis is that quite recent surface water releases, perhaps associated with final evolution of large 'outflow chasms' to the south, but possibly from other source areas, filled this trough, that ice floes formed almost immediately, and that either grounded ice or an ice-covered sea still persists. In either case, the thin (a few meters at most) high albedo, low thermal inertia cover of aeolian materials was instrumental in allowing ice preservation, and at least the lower portions of this dust cover may be cemented by water ice. Detailed mapping using Viking stereopairs and quantitative comparisons to terrestrial shelf ice geometries are underway.

  14. Sea ice and icing risk for offshore wind turbines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Battisti; R. Fedrizzi; A. Brighenti; T. Laakso

    There are two important issues related to wind turbines performances in offshore sites that locate in cold cli- mates: sea ice (flows, driving ice, land-fast ice) and the presence of atmospheric icing (due to water in the air as in-cloud operation, rainfall and sea sprays) which may potentially lead to ice formation on turbines' struc- tures. Icing of rotor blades

  15. Nares Strait Ice Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, R.

    2005-12-01

    Six years (1996-2002) of Arctic Ocean ice flux through Nares Strait are estimated using ice motion from RADARSAT. Across an ~30 km gate at the entrance to Robeson Channel, the average annual (Sept-Aug) ice area flux is 33x103 km2 and ranges from 16x103 km2 in 2000 to 48x103 km2 in 1999. Uncertainties in the ice displacements from high-resolution synthetic aperture radar imagery, at ~100-300 m, are small. Assuming sea ice that is 3 m thick, the average volume flux amounts to ~100 km3 (~3 mSv); this is ~5% of the mean annual Fram Strait ice flux (1978-2003). Seasonally, ice flux is most active after July, ceases after the formation of an ice arch in mid- to late-winter, and re-commences after breakup in the late spring. The multiyear ice coverage of the area poleward of the gate is high (>80%). South of the gate, the multiyear ice coverage is highly variable and is reduced as individual floes, small enough to fit through the channel, are broken off the Arctic pack. After the formation of an ice arch in winter, the channel may be filled with multiyear or seasonal ice. The details of the ice flux estimates are presented.

  16. NOAA Great Lakes Ice Atlas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website presents the results of the analysis of Great Lakes ice charts dating back to 1960. After learning about the methods used to produce this online atlas, users can view the original ice charts. Researchers can find data on first ice, last ice, ice duration, and other ice related statistics. Students and educators can learn about variations in ice cover through the animations of ice cover time series. The website offers downloads of a few of the references and technical issues.

  17. The Holocene Record of Alpine Glaciation in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briner, J. P.; Young, N. E.; Schweinsberg, A.; Pendleton, S.

    2014-12-01

    In the Arctic, the late Pleistocene mountain glacier record is limited due to expansive occupation of the high latitudes by vast ice sheets. However, certain centers of alpine glaciation, like the Brooks Range, northern Alaska, contain detailed Pleistocene moraine sequences. The Holocene record is more widespread and spans both the western and eastern sectors of the Arctic. Nevertheless, only in a few areas do we have more than a basic understanding of the Holocene moraine sequences and their general ages, usually defined by morphostratigraphy, lichenometry, and the odd indirect constraint by radiocarbon dating. Cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating has recently provided more precise absolute moraine chronologies, but well-dated sites are still few and far between. This presentation will focus on the latest view of the Holocene moraine chronology in the North American Arctic: the Brooks Range, Baffin Island and Greenland. The general pattern reveals: 1) a definitive lack of Younger Dryas moraines, at least in the Brooks Range and Baffin Island; 2) moraines deposited during the 8.2 ka event, at least on Baffin Island; 3) Neoglaciation was underway by ~5-4 ka, based on moraines in the Brooks Range and on lake sediments and ice-killed vegetation on Baffin Island and Greenland; 4) moraines deposited during the Little Ice Age mark the largest extent of glaciers during the late Holocene in most valleys, but pre-Little Ice Age moraines are common in all sectors of the Arctic; 5) moraine sequences on both Baffin Island and western Greenland surprisingly date to Medieval time. Key implications of this pattern of Holocene glaciation in the Arctic will be discussed.

  18. Radiostratigraphy of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, J. A.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Catania, G. A.; Paden, J. D.; Gogineni, P. S.; Rybarski, S. C.; Young, S. K.; Mabrey, A. N.; Wagman, B. M.

    2013-12-01

    Two decades of airborne ice-penetrating radar surveys of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) collected by the University of Kansas have revealed numerous, widespread englacial reflectors. Here we present the first comprehensive radiostratigraphy of the GrIS. We dated reflectors that intersected one or more of the six deep ice cores recovered from the GrIS using their synchronized depth-age scales. Additional reflectors were dated by iteratively extending those depth-age scales across regions of overlap with core-dated reflectors. We evaluate one-dimensional (vertical) steady-state models of ice flow using this dated radiostratigraphy. This modeling reveals that the mean pattern of surface accumulation rate across during the Holocene is similar to its modern pattern. There is also significant spatial variability in the dynamics of the ice-sheet interior, based on model estimates of the local basal melt rate, basal shear layer thickness and the shape factor for horizontal velocity. This dated radiostratigraphy is a new and potentially powerful constraint on ice-flow models attempting to reproduce the past and present dynamics of GrIS.

  19. connecting the dots between Greenland ice sheet surface melting and ice flow dynamics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Box, J. E.; Colgan, W. T.; Fettweis, X.; Phillips, T. P.; Stober, M.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation is of a 'unified theory' in glaciology that first identifies surface albedo as a key factor explaining total ice sheet mass balance and then surveys a mechanistic self-reinforcing interaction between melt water and ice flow dynamics. The theory is applied in a near-real time total Greenland mass balance retrieval based on surface albedo, a powerful integrator of the competing effects of accumulation and ablation. New snowfall reduces sunlight absorption and increases meltwater retention. Melting amplifies absorbed sunlight through thermal metamorphism and bare ice expansion in space and time. By ';following the melt'; we reveal mechanisms linking existing science into a unified theory. Increasing meltwater softens the ice sheet in three ways: 1.) sensible heating given the water temperature exceeds that of the ice sheet interior; 2.) Some infiltrating water refreezes, transferring latent heat to the ice; 3.) Friction from water turbulence heats the ice. It has been shown that for a point on the ice sheet, basal lubrication increases ice flow speed to a time when an efficient sub-glacial drainage network develops that reduces this effect. Yet, with an increasing melt duration the point where the ice sheet glides on a wet bed increases inland to a larger area. This effect draws down the ice surface elevation, contributing to the ';elevation feedback'. In a perpetual warming scenario, the elevation feedback ultimately leads to ice sheet loss reversible only through much slower ice sheet growth in an ice age environment. As the inland ice sheet accelerates, the horizontal extension pulls cracks and crevasses open, trapping more sunlight, amplifying the effect of melt accelerated ice. As the bare ice area increases, the direct sun-exposed crevassed and infiltration area increases further allowing the ice warming process to occur more broadly. Considering hydrofracture [a.k.a. hydrofracking]; surface meltwater fills cracks, attacking the ice integrity. Because water is 'heavier' than ice, water-filled cracks have unlimited capacity to hydraulically ';jack' open fractures, penetrating, fracturing and disaggregating a solid ice body. This process promotes iceberg calving at more than 150, 1km wide marine terminating Greenland glacier fronts. Resulting from a rising trend of surface melting and sea water temperature, meltwater ejection at the underwater front of marine glaciers drives a an increasing turbulent heat exchange between the glacier front and relatively warm sea water melting it faster. Underwater melting promotes an undercutting of the glacier front leading to ice berg calving. Calving through hydrofracture or marine undercutting provide a direct and immediate ice flow speed response mechanism for surface meltwater production. Ice flow speed reacts because calving reduces flow resistance. The above physical processes interact. Cooling shuts these processes down. Negative feedbacks dampen the warming impulse. Live 21 June, 2013 is a new Danish Web site1 that exploits total mass balance rate of decline as a function of albedo to predict GRACE mass rate of change with 80% explained variance. While surface mass balance explains the mass rate of change slightly higher, surface albedo is an observable quantity as is gravity change.