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Sample records for ice age moraines

  1. LICHENOMETRIC DATING OF LITTLE ICE AGE GLACIER MORAINES USING EXPLICIT DEMOGRAPHIC MODELS

    E-print Network

    Loso, Michael G.

    LICHENOMETRIC DATING OF LITTLE ICE AGE GLACIER MORAINES USING EXPLICIT DEMOGRAPHIC MODELS OF LICHEN of Little Ice Age glacier moraines using explicit demographic models of lichen colonization, growth terminal moraines of an Alaskan glacier, we used a new lichenometric technique in which surfaces are dated

  2. Be dating of the Narsarsuaq moraine in southernmost Greenland: evidence for a late-Holocene ice advance exceeding the Little Ice Age

    E-print Network

    Carlson, Anders

    10 Be dating of the Narsarsuaq moraine in southernmost Greenland: evidence for a late-Holocene ice t In southernmost Greenland near Narsarsuaq, the terminal Narsarsuaq moraine was deposited well outside of a historical Little Ice Age (LIA) moraine adjacent to the modern ice margin. Using 10 Be surface exposure

  3. Investigating age and origin of ice-cored moraines in Jotunheimen and Breheimen/Southern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Stefan; Matthews, John; Wilson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Ice-cored moraines characteristic for the high-alpine zones in the Jotunheimen and Breheimen mountain regions of southern Norway have been recognised, described, and studied as early as during the 1950s and 1960s. These complex multiple-ridged, ramp-like moraines of up to 50 m in height occurring at comparatively small but high-lying glaciers differ considerably from those typical for the other glaciers at lower altitudes. The existence of their ice-core beneath rather thin debris cover and a spatial concentration in the north-eastern part of the regions with a higher snow line and stronger climatic continentality points towards their link with alpine permafrost. Until today, there is no consensus about either the mechanisms of their formation or their age constraints. Based on few (possibly less reliable) radiocarbon ages retrieved from dust within the ice cores the innermost (proximal) ridges were, for example, interpreted as rather old and the outermost ridges as youngest. Consequently, the innermost ridges need to have survived successive overriding during more extensive glacier advances. Alternatively, these ice-cored moraines have also been interpreted as initial rock glaciers and the younger ages of the outer ridges explained by 'pressing-out' of material from the base of the moraine by its own weight and gravity. Other theories developed include also a mixture of traditional push moraine processes and deformation structures caused by the glacier advancing in a permafrost environment ('push-deformation moraine'). Because reliable age constraints for individual ridges of those complex ice-cored moraine complexes are crucial for any interpretation of their mode of formation, this study aims to provide insights into their age and origin by applying high-precision Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD). Local SHD calibration curves using moraine ridges dating from the last 50 years to the Preboreal (c. 9700 years ago) have been used to give age estimates for individual ridges of three selected ice-core moraine complexes in Jotunheimen and Breheimen. The results ranged from c. 3900 years to modern age at Gråsubreen, c. 400 to 250 years at Vesle Juvbreen and 2250 to 1600 years at Østre Tundradalskyrkjabre. The R-value distributions were often negatively skewed and interpreted as related to weathered boulders from reworked surfaces, hence all moraine ages obtained need to be seen as maximum age estimates. The abovementioned theory that the inner proximal moraine ridges are the oldest and overridden several times can, however, be rejected on basis of the SHD results alongside the theory of these moraines being rock glaciers. Instead, the ice-cored moraine complexes are considered to be glaciotectonic structures produced by the interaction of polythermal glaciers and permafrost during the late Holocene. All the individual ridges were essentially formed over the 'Little Ice Age' glacier advance from material deposited earlier during multiple Neoglacial events. The considerable size of the moraine complexes is attributed to the accumulation of material from these different events over a long period of time and their survival during periods of glacier retreat when the ice cores did not melt and paraglacial activity remained ineffective in the periglacial environment.

  4. Numerical Modeling of the Last Glacial Maximum Yellowstone Ice Cap Captures Asymmetry in Moraine Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, L. S.; Wickert, A. D.; Colgan, W. T.; Anderson, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) Yellowstone Ice Cap was the largest continuous ice body in the US Rocky Mountains. Terminal moraine ages derived from cosmogenic radionuclide dating (e.g., Licciardi and Pierce, 2008) constrain the timing of maximum Ice Cap extent. Importantly, the moraine ages vary by several thousand years around the Ice Cap; ages on the eastern outlet glaciers are significantly younger than their western counterparts. In order to interpret these observations within the context of LGM climate in North America, we perform two numerical glacier modeling experiments: 1) We model the initiation and growth of the Ice Cap to steady state; and 2) We estimate the range of LGM climate states which led to the formation of the Ice Cap. We use an efficient semi-implicit 2-D glacier model coupled to a fully implicit solution for flexural isostasy, allowing for transient links between climatic forcing, ice thickness, and earth surface deflection. Independent of parameter selection, the Ice Cap initiates in the Absaroka and Beartooth mountains and then advances across the Yellowstone plateau to the west. The Ice Cap advances to its maximum extent first to the older eastern moraines and last to the younger western and northwestern moraines. This suggests that the moraine ages may reflect the timescale required for the Ice Cap to advance across the high elevation Yellowstone plateau rather than the timing of local LGM climate. With no change in annual precipitation from the present, a mean summer temperature drop of 8-9° C is required to form the Ice Cap. Further parameter searches provide the full range of LGM paleoclimate states that led to the Yellowstone Ice Cap. Using our preferred parameter set, we find that the timescale for the growth of the complete Ice Cap is roughly 10,000 years. Isostatic subsidence helps explain the long timescale of Ice Cap growth. The Yellowstone Ice Cap caused a maximum surface deflection of 300 m (using a constant effective elastic thickness of 4 km (McQuarrie and Rogers, 1998)). Furthermore, subsidence in the foredeep formed by the weight of the Yellowstone Ice Cap may be responsible for the deep alluviation (30+ m) of the Yellowstone valley and Jackson Hole, with subsequent ice retreat and glacial isostatic adjustment leading to exhumation and incision of these fill packages.

  5. 10Be dating of the Narsarsuaq moraine in southernmost Greenland: evidence for a late-Holocene ice advance exceeding the Little Ice Age maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsor, K.; Carlson, A. E.; Rood, D. H.

    2014-08-01

    In southernmost Greenland near Narsarsuaq, the terminal Narsarsuaq moraine was deposited well outside of a historical Little Ice Age (LIA) moraine adjacent to the modern ice margin. Using 10Be surface exposure dating, we determine Narsarsuaq moraine abandonment at 1.51 ± 0.11 ka. A second set of 10Be ages from a more ice-proximal position shows that ice has been within or at its historical (i.e., LIA) extent since 1.34 ± 0.15 ka. Notably, Narsarsuaq moraine abandonment was coincident with climate amelioration in southern Greenland. Southern Greenland warming at ˜1.5 ka was also concurrent with the end of the Roman Warm Period as climate along the northern North Atlantic sector of Europe cooled into the Dark Ages. The warming of southern Greenland and retreat of ice from the Narsarsuaq moraine is consistent with studies suggesting possible anti-phase centennial-scale climate variability between northwestern Europe and southern Greenland. Other southernmost Greenland ice-margin records do not preclude a pre-LIA ice-margin maximum, potentially concurrent with a Narsarsuaq advance prior to ˜1.51 ka, but also lack sufficient ice-margin control to confirm such a correlation. We conclude that there is a clear need to further determine whether a late-Holocene pre-LIA maximum was a local phenomenon or a regional southern Greenland ice maximum, and if this advance and retreat reflects a regional fluctuation in climate.

  6. Do blue-ice moraines in the Heritage Range show the West Antarctic ice sheet survived the last interglacial?

    E-print Network

    Do blue-ice moraines in the Heritage Range show the West Antarctic ice sheet survived the last in revised form 10 January 2011 Accepted 28 January 2011 Available online xxxx Keywords: Blue-ice moraine cosmogenic isotope data on blue-ice moraines in the Heritage Range, West Antarctica. The age of the moraines

  7. Architecture and structural evolution of an early Little Ice Age terminal moraine at the surge-type glacier Múlajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benediktsson, Ívar &Oum; lrn; Schomacker, Anders; Johnson, Mark D.; Geiger, Alessa J.; Ingólfsson, Ólafur; Gudmundsdóttir, Esther Ruth

    2015-09-01

    The internal architecture and structural evolution of the Arnarfellsmúlar terminal moraine at Múlajökull, a surge-type glacier in central Iceland, is described in order to demonstrate submarginal and proglacial glaciotectonic processes during glacier surging, as well as constraining the age of the maximum extent of the glacier. The moraine is 4-7 m high, 50-100 m wide, and composed of a highly deformed sequence of loess, peat, and tephra that is draped by till up to the crest. The internal architecture is dominated by steep, high-amplitude overturned folds and thrusts in the crest zone but open, low-amplitude folds on the distal slope. Section balancing suggests a basal detachment (décollement) depth of 1.4 m and a total horizontal shortening of around 59%. This implies that the glacier coupled to the foreland about 70 m up glacier from its terminal position to initiate the formation of the moraine. The structural evolution is polyphase in that the formation commenced with low-amplitude open folding of the foreland, followed by overfolding and piggyback thrusting. Radiocarbon dating and analysis of tephra layers, along with historical references, indicate that the most likely time of moraine formation was between A.D. 1717 and 1760, which suggests that Múlajökull had its Little Ice Age maximum and most extensive surge earlier than many other surge-type glaciers in Iceland.

  8. Net ecosystem production in a Little Ice Age moraine: the role of plant functional traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varolo, E.; Zanotelli, D.; Tagliavini, M.; Zerbe, S.; Montagnani, L.

    2015-07-01

    Current glacier retreat allows vast mountain ranges available for vegetation establishment and growth. Little is known about the effective carbon (C) budget of these new ecosystems and how the presence of different vegetation communities, characterized by their specific physiology and life forms influences C fluxes. In this study, using a comparative analysis of the C fluxes of two contrasting vegetation types, we intend to evaluate if the different physiologies of the main species have an effect on Ecosystem Respiration (Reco), Gross Primary Production (GPP), annual cumulated Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), and long-term carbon accumulation in soil. The NEE of two plant communities present on a Little Ice Age moraine in the Matsch glacier forefield (Alps, Italy) was measured over two growing seasons. They are a typical C3 grassland, dominated by Festuca halleri All. and a community dominated by CAM rosettes Sempervivum montanum L. on rocky soils. Using transparent and opaque chambers, we extrapolated the ecophysiological responses to the main environmental drivers and performed the partition of NEE into Reco and GPP. Soil samples were collected from the same site to measure long-term C accumulation in the ecosystem. The two communities showed contrasting GPP but similar Reco patterns and as a result significantly different in NEE. The grassland acted mainly as a carbon sink with a total cumulated value of -46.4 ± 35.5 g C m-2 NEE while the plots dominated by the CAM rosettes acted as a source with 31.9 ± 22.4 g C m-2. In spite of the NEE being different in the two plant communities, soil analysis did not reveal significant differences in carbon accumulation. Grasslands showed 1.76 ± 0.12 kg C m-2, while CAM rosettes showed 2.06 ± 0.23 kg C m-2. This study demonstrates that carbon dynamics of two vegetation communities can be distinct even though the growing environment is similar. The physiological traits of the dominant species determine large differences in the carbon cycle. Therefore, to analyze NEE of any glacier forefield ecosystem, different functional traits of the vegetation communities must be taken into consideration. Moreover, to assess the net ecosystem carbon balance it is necessary to consider the lateral fluxes of carbon via animal consumption, winter respiration, and in a broader temporal perspective, the different stages characterizing the primary succession.

  9. Surface-exposure ages of Front Range moraines that may have formed during the Younger Dryas, 8.2 cal ka, and Little Ice Age events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.; Madole, R.; Kubik, P.; McDonald, R.

    2007-01-01

    Surface-exposure (10Be) ages have been obtained on boulders from three post-Pinedale end-moraine complexes in the Front Range, Colorado. Boulder rounding appears related to the cirque-to-moraine transport distance at each site with subrounded boulders being typical of the 2-km-long Chicago Lakes Glacier, subangular boulders being typical of the 1-km-long Butler Gulch Glacier, and angular boulders being typical of the few-hundred-m-long Isabelle Glacier. Surface-exposure ages of angular boulders from the Isabelle Glacier moraine, which formed during the Little Ice Age (LIA) according to previous lichenometric dating, indicate cosmogenic inheritance values ranging from 0 to ???3.0 10Be ka.11Surface-exposure ages in this paper are labeled 10Be; radiocarbon ages are labeled 14C ka, calendar and calibrated radiocarbon ages are labeled cal ka, and layer-based ice-core ages are labeled ka. 14C ages, calibrated 14C ages, and ice core ages are given relative to AD 1950, whereas 10Be ages are given relative to the sampling date. Radiocarbon ages were calibrated using CALIB 5.01 and the INTCAL04 data base Stuiver et al. (2005). Ages estimated using CALIB 5.01 are shown in terms of their 1-sigma range. Subangular boulders from the Butler Gulch end moraine yielded surface-exposure ages ranging from 5 to 10.2 10Be ka. We suggest that this moraine was deposited during the 8.2 cal ka event, which has been associated with outburst floods from Lake Agassiz and Lake Ojibway, and that the large age range associated with the Butler Gulch end moraine is caused by cosmogenic shielding of and(or) spalling from boulders that have ages in the younger part of the range and by cosmogenic inheritance in boulders that have ages in the older part of the range. The surface-exposure ages of eight of nine subrounded boulders from the Chicago Lakes area fall within the 13.0-11.7 10Be ka age range, and appear to have been deposited during the Younger Dryas interval. The general lack of inheritance in the eight samples probably stems from the fact that only a few thousand years intervened between the retreat of the Pinedale glacier and the advance of the Chicago Lakes glacier; in addition, bedrock in the Chicago Lakes cirque area may have remained covered with snow and ice during that interval, thus partially shielding the bedrock from cosmogenic radiation.

  10. Age of the Fjord Stade moraines in the Disko Bugt region, western Greenland, and the 9.3 and 8.2 ka cooling events

    E-print Network

    Briner, Jason P.

    Age of the Fjord Stade moraines in the Disko Bugt region, western Greenland, and the 9.3 and 8.2 ka 2012 Accepted 17 September 2012 Available online Keywords: Greenland Ice Sheet Moraines 10 Be exposure Holocene was interrupted by deposition of the Fjord Stade moraine system. The Fjord Stade moraine system

  11. Cosmogenic 10 Be ages on the Pomeranian Moraine, Poland

    E-print Network

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Cosmogenic 10 Be ages on the Pomeranian Moraine, Poland VINCENT R. RINTERKNECHT, LESZEK MARKS, JAN (May): Cosmogenic 10 Be ages on the Pomeranian Moraine, Poland. Boreas, Vol. 34, pp. 186­191. Oslo. ISSN 0300-9483. We measured the 10 Be concentrations in boulders collected from the Pomeranian Moraine

  12. Are Late-Pleistocene Climate Reconstructions from Cirque and Valley Moraines Possible in Regions of Decaying Ice Sheets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menounos, B.; Goehring, B. M.; osborn, G.; Clague, J. J.; Davis, P. T.; Lakeman, T.; Schaefer, J. M.; Koch, J.; Clarke, G. K.

    2012-12-01

    The extent of glaciers in the past has commonly been used to infer past climates. Both abrupt climate change and geomorphic factors, however, are required to explain the timing and apparent magnitude of latest Pleistocene advances at high latitudes in western Canada and southernmost Patagonia. At the southern end of the Andes, north and west of Ushuaia, Argentina, 10Be surface exposure ages from glaciated bedrock beyond cirque moraines indicate that alpine areas were deglaciated by ca. 15.5 ka (kilo calendar yr BP). One, and in some cases two, closely spaced moraines extend up to 2 km beyond Little Ice Age moraines within many cirques in this region. The mean of five 10Be ages from two of the moraines is 14.82-13.16 ka, whereas a smaller recessional moraine in one cirque returned a minimum-limiting AMS radiocarbon age of 12.38-12.01 ka. The ages imply that following regional deglaciation, cirque glaciers first advanced during the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR) [14.5-12.9 ka] and then advanced again or remained near their ACR limits during the Younger Dryas Chronozone (YD) [12.9-11.7 ka]. The moraines are restricted to topographic highs that were deglaciated before 15.5 ka. In western Canada, glaciers also advanced during the YD, but the magnitude of this advance differs markedly throughout the region. 10Be and 14C ages on moraines at high elevations in the Canadian Rockies and the southern Coast Mountains indicate that many glaciers built moraines during the YD that were only hundreds of meters beyond those constructed during the later part of the Little Ice Age [0.30-0.15 ka]. In contrast, 10Be ages [13.10-12.00 ka] on three moraines in northwest British Columbia indicate that glaciers up to 10 km beyond LIA glacier limits during the YD. We argue that the different responses of alpine glaciers in western Canada to climate deterioration during the YD is due to the presence of the decaying Cordilleran ice sheet. Top-down melting of the Cordilleran ice sheet allowed many high alpine sites to become ice-free prior to cirque glacier growth during the YD. Conversely, in some valleys Cordilleran ice sheet outlet glaciers advanced in response to the YD to positions far beyond LIA limits. An implication of this study is that late Pleistocene climate reconstructions based on alpine moraines may be problematic in regions with decaying ice sheets. We are currently using numerical ice sheet models, forced with GCM simulations, to further examine the roles played by climatic and geomorphic factors on the spatial distribution of latest Pleistocene glaciers in western Canada and southernmost Patagonia.

  13. How can blue-ice moraines constrain elevation changes of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet in the southern Ellsworth Mountains?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugden, D.; Woodward, J.; Marrero, S.; Hein, A.; Dunning, S.

    2013-12-01

    Observational data in the Weddell Sea sector of the Antarctic Ice Sheet has not yet allowed the dating of elevated glacier trimlines and associated deposits in the Ellsworth Mountains. This uncertainty limits the value of models of changing ice-sheet configuration, volume and, by extension, sea level during glacial cycles and earlier. Here we present the first results of a study into the origin and evolution of blue-ice moraines in the Heritage Range, southern Ellsworth Mountains and begin to unravel the long record of ice-sheet history they hold. Our findings so far are: (a) ground penetrating radar shows boulders and finer debris in the glacier ice and that they are related to ice structures and to basal debris emerging at the glacier surface, (b) exposure ages of surface debris reveals boulders both recently exposed and those pre-dating the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), (c) during the LGM the ice was thicker and the limit is marked by a zone of perched boulders and, in topographic hollows, by buried glacier ice, (d) weathered high elevation deposits with exposure ages in excess of 400 ka have been overridden by glacier ice and thus may represent deposits of much greater age, (e) the relationship between blue-ice moraines and deposits from local wind-drift glaciers makes it possible to constrain the date and duration of Holocene thinning. A forthcoming field season in 2013-2014 to re-measure 90 stakes for horizontal movement and ablation should help quantify the rate of blue-ice moraine formation. We will also obtain rock cores to establish rates of weathering of the older deposits and thus constrain their age more tightly.

  14. A record of late-Holocene fluctuations of Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru, based on glacial moraines and lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroup, J. S.; Kelly, M. A.; Lowell, T. V.; Beal, S. A.; Smith, C.; Baranes, H. E.

    2011-12-01

    The mechanisms which influenced climate variability during the late Holocene, including the Little Ice Age (LIA; ~AD 1300-1850), are still not well understood. The geographic distribution and timing of the climate variability may provide important information about possible mechanisms. Here we present a record of late Holocene climate in the southern tropics. This record is based on past extents of Quelccaya Ice Cap located in southeastern Peru (~14°S, 70°W) defined by surface exposure (10Be) dating of moraines, radiocarbon dating of organic material in stratigraphic sections and sediment cores from a glacially fed lake. These archives complement the existing high-resolution ice core records from Quelccaya Ice Cap, which register climate conditions during the past ~1500 yrs (Thompson et al., 1985, 2006). Our combined moraine and lake sediment records document two significant advances of Quelccaya Ice Cap during late Holocene time. A prominent set of moraines (the Huancane I moraines), located ~1 km from the modern ice margin, marks the most extensive ice advance during the Holocene. We dated the outermost and innermost moraines at 480±60 and 340±10 yr BP, respectively, using both 10Be and radiocarbon dating. These moraines ages indicate that QIC advanced during the LIA. 10Be ages of moraines outboard of the Huancane I moraines are all >11 ka. Based on radiocarbon dating of organic material in stratigraphic sections, another advance of QIC occurred at ~3000 yr BP, but was less extensive than the LIA ice cap extent. The ages of the Huancane I moraines are similar in timing to LIA advances of glaciers in Europe, Scandinavia and the Southern Alps of New Zealand, as well as to an advance in the nearby Cordillera Vilcabamba of Peru. The ages of the Huancane I moraines at QIC are contemporaneous within error with glacier advances in the Swiss Alps between ~570±50 and ~310±50 yr BP). The broad-scale similarity in the timing of the above mentioned glacial advances suggests a globally synchronous LIA.

  15. Cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages for moraines in the Lago San Martin Valley, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasser, Neil F.; Jansson, Krister N.; Goodfellow, Bradley W.; de Angelis, Hernan; Rodnight, Helena; Rood, Dylan H.

    2011-05-01

    At several times during the Quaternary, a major eastward-flowing outlet glacier of the former Patagonian Ice Sheet occupied the Lago San Martin Valley in Argentina (49°S, 72°W). We present a glacial chronology for the valley based on geomorphological mapping and cosmogenic nuclide ( 10Be) exposure ages ( n = 10) of boulders on moraines and lake shorelines. There are five prominent moraine belts in the Lago San Martin Valley, associated with extensive sandar (glaciofluvial outwash plains) and former lake shorelines. Cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages for boulders on these moraines indicate that they formed at 14.3 ± 1.7 ka, 22.4 ± 2.3 ka, 34.4 ± 3.4 ka to 37.6 ± 3.4 ka (and possibly 60 ± 3.5 ka), and 99 ± 11 ka (1 ?). These dated glacier advances differ from published chronologies from the Lago San Martin Valley based on 14C age determinations from organic sediments and molluscs in meltwater channels directly in front of moraines or in kettleholes within end moraine ridges. The moraine boulder ages also point to possible pre-LGM glacial advances during the last glacial cycle and a key observation from our data is that the LGM glaciers were probably less extensive in the Lago San Martin Valley than previously thought.

  16. Evolution of a highly vulnerable ice-cored moraine: Col des Gentianes, Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravanel, L.; Lambiel, C.; Oppikofer, T.; Mazotti, B.; Jaboyedoff, M.

    2012-04-01

    Rock mass movements are dominant in the morphodynamics of high mountain rock slopes and are at the origin of significant risks for people who attend these areas and for infrastructures that are built on (mountain huts, cable cars, etc.). These risks are becoming greater because of permafrost degradation and glacier retreat, two consequences of the global warming. These two commonly associated factors may affect slope stability by changing mechanical properties of the interstitial ice and modifying the mechanical constraints in these rock slopes. Between 1977 and 1979, significant works were carried out on the Little Ice Age moraine of the Tortin glacier at the Col des Gentianes (2894 m), in the Mont Fort area (Verbier, Switzerland), for the construction of a cable car station and a restaurant. Since the early 1980s, the glacier drastically retreated and the moraine became unstable: its inner slope has retreated for several meters. Various observations and geoelectric measurements indicate that significant volume of massive ice mass is still present within the moraine (ice-cored moraine). Its melting could therefore increase the instability of the moraine. Since 2007, the moraine is surveyed by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in order to characterize its evolution: 8 campaigns were conducted between July 2007 and October 2011. The comparison of the high resolution 3D models so obtained allowed the detection and quantification of mass movements that have affected the moraine over this period, essentially by calculating difference maps (shortest oblique distances between two models). Between July 2007 and October 2011, 7 landslides were measured, involving volumes between 87 and 1138 m3. The most important of these occurred during the summers 2009 and 2011. TLS data also allowed identifying: (i) two main areas affected by slower but sometimes substantial movements (displacements of blocks on more than 2 m during a summer period); (ii) significant deposits of anthropogenic materials and their mechanical readjustments; and (iii) a loss of thickness of the glacier approaching 10 m at the foot of the moraine. Except for the morphological changes related to the landscaping of ski-runs, mass movements identified by TLS since 2007 are mainly resulting from glacier retreat and, to a lesser extent, to permafrost creep and degradation.

  17. Glaciotectonic origin of the Massachusetts coastal end moraines and a fluctuating late Wisconsinan ice margin.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oldale, R.N.; O'Hara, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    Late Wisconsinan end moraines on Cape Cod and islands south and west of Cape Cod are believed to be glaciotectonic features formed by advancing ice fronts. Evidence for major ice readvances during general recession includes the moraines themselves, till atop stratified drift, and the numerous basal tills that are inferred to exist beneath Cape Cod Bay. The Thompson Glacier end moraine in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago is considered to be a modern example of how late Wisconsinan end moraines on Cape Cod and the islands were formed. It is overriding its outwash plain, displacing outwash deposits forward and upward beyond the ice front. New sheets are added to the base of the moraine as the ice overrides it. Retreat of the ice from Cape Cod and the islands may have been similar to the retreat of the Lake Michigan lobe, deposits of which contain evidence of at least 12 moraine-building episodes caused by readvancing ice.-from Authors

  18. Cosmogenic Dating of Moraines in the Central Transantarctic Mountains to Evaluate Past Behavior of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieson, C.; Kaplan, M. R.; Winckler, G.; Schaefer, J. M.; Licht, K.; Bader, N.; Dits, T.

    2012-12-01

    One of the most prominent questions as global temperatures rise is how the world's large ice sheets will fare under a warmer climate. Our study aims to understand the past behavior of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) as it flowed through the central Transantarctic Mountains. In particular, we focus on the period prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). We are dating extensive ice-cored moraine sequences around the remote Mt. Howe and Mt. Achernar nunatack sites in connection with provenance study of moraine composition, specifically analyses of detrital zircon geochronology and pebble lithology. Mt. Howe and Mt. Achernar are located near the heads of the Scott and Law Glaciers, respectively. The dated moraines tell us about changes in the former height of the ice surface. We measured 10Be-26Al in quartz-bearing boulders and 3He in pyroxene-bearing boulders. At both sites, the oldest and youngest ages are ~500,000 and < 10,000 years, consistent with relative surface weathering, till thickness, and position of the landforms relative to the active ice margin. In more detail, existing data suggest the innermost moraine ridges formed since the LGM, but the majority of the moraine sequences were deposited well before. Most of the moraine complex at Mt. Howe appears to have formed over the last glacial cycle, whereas at Mt. Achernar the ages for most of the crests span the last two glacial cycles. The chronologic evidence points to relative stability of the EAIS at both interior ice sheet sites, possibly for the past hundred thousand years or more. This finding is consistent with provenance data from the same moraines. Additional 3He dating is underway on the dominant dolerite erratics, which will result in a more comprehensive set of data.

  19. Changes in ice-margin processes and sediment routing during ice-sheet advance across a marginal moraine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knight, P.G.; Jennings, C.E.; Waller, R.I.; Robinson, Z.P.

    2007-01-01

    Advance of part of the margin of the Greenland ice sheet across a proglacial moraine ridge between 1968 and 2002 caused progressive changes in moraine morphology, basal ice formation, debris release, ice-marginal sediment storage, and sediment transfer to the distal proglacial zone. When the ice margin is behind the moraine, most of the sediment released from the glacier is stored close to the ice margin. As the margin advances across the moraine the potential for ice-proximal sediment storage decreases and distal sediment flux is augmented by reactivation of moraine sediment. For six stages of advance associated with distinctive glacial and sedimentary processes we describe the ice margin, the debris-rich basal ice, debris release from the glacier, sediment routing into the proglacial zone, and geomorphic processes on the moraine. The overtopping of a moraine ridge is a significant glaciological, geomorphological and sedimentological threshold in glacier advance, likely to cause a distinctive pulse in distal sediment accumulation rates that should be taken into account when glacial sediments are interpreted to reconstruct glacier fluctuations. ?? 2007 Swedish Society for Anthropology and Geography.

  20. Submarine push moraine formation during the early Fennoscandian Ice Sheet deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laberg, J. S.; Eilertsen, R. S.; Salomonsen, G. R.; Vorren, T. O.

    2009-04-01

    The glacial history in the topographically confined paleo-ice stream drainage route of Vestfjorden, North Norway, was analysed based on multi-beam bathymetric data, high-resolution seismic records and 14C AMS-dated gravity cores. The inner part of the fjord is characterised by axial-parallel megascale lineations. In the central part of the fjord, a succession of transverse ridges form a zigzag like morphology. The ridges become wider and more prominent down-fjord and the largest, up to 40 m high forms the distal part of the Værøy morainal bank system. A second series of similar transverse, zigzag ridges occur in the Røst morainal bank system. They also increase in size down-fjord to terminate by a ~100 m high ridge. A mound, interpreted as a raft of sediment displaced from a similar-sized depression in the Røst morainal bank system, is located ca 8 km beyond the bank, indicating sediment drag and deformation. Seismic records show thrusted and folded sediment blocks within the ridges. The inner ridges of the Røst system terminate at the Værøy system, indicating that the latter is younger than the Røst system. The landforms are inferred to reflect basal processes and the transition from warm-based (inner fjord) to cold-based (outer fjord) conditions, i.e. fast flow followed by basal freeze-on, sediment deformation and morainal bank formation. The moraines formed during the final part of two paleo-ice sheet re-advances. 14C AMS dating indicates a maximum age of 13.7 14C ka BP (16.2 cal ka BP) for the Røst system whereas the Værøy system is inferred to be slightly older than 12.5 14C ka BP (14.5 cal ka BP). This demonstrates that the northern part of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet behaved in a much more dynamic way during the early deglaciation than previously assumed. Acknowledgement This work is a contribution to the SPONCOM and GlaciPet (http://www.ngu.no/glacipet/) projects. Financial support from the Research Council of Norway and StatoilHydro is gratefully acknowledged. Further reading Laberg, J.S., Eilertsen, R.S., Salomonsen, G.R., Vorren, T.O. 2007. Submarine push moraine formation during the early Fennoscandian Ice Sheet deglaciation. Quaternary Research 67, 453-462. Laberg, J.S., Eilertsen, R.S., Vorren, T.O. in press. The paleo-ice stream in Vestfjorden, North Norway over the last 35ka: glacial erosion and sediment yield. Geological Society of America Bulletin. Fløistad, K.R., Laberg, J.S., Vorren, T.O. in press. Morphology of Younger Dryas ice-proximal submarine landforms, inner Vestfjorden, northern Norway. Boreas.

  1. Use of soil catena field data for estimating relative ages of moraines

    SciTech Connect

    Birkeland, P.W.; Berry, M.E. ); Swanson, D.K. )

    1991-03-01

    Soils at the crests of moraines are commonly used to estimate the relative ages of moraines. However, for various pedologic and geomorphic reasons, soil development at crest sites may not truly reflect the time since moraine formation; for example, some crest soils on moraines of greatly different age are similar in morphology and development. Soil catena data for soils at several sites aligned downslope from the crest can greatly improve on the usefulness of soil data for estimating moraine ages. For this purpose, the authors use the weighted mean catena profile development index, which condenses field data for all of the soils in each catena into a single value.

  2. Ice-thrust Wadena drift in the southern St. Croix moraine, Stearns Co. , Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Danelski, T.C.; Moe, S.A.; Weeks, M.R.; Anderson, G.G. . Dept. of Earth Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    A sequence of Wisconsinan drift including loess, outwash and till with Wadena lobe characteristics has been found in structural contact above Cretaceous mudstones at the southern most location of the St. Croix moraine in southeastern Stearns County, Minnesota. This drift has been thrust faulted in a minimum of 3 places along a north-south transect about 300 meters in length. The parallel fault planes strike roughly east-west, dip to the north at about 30 to 45 degrees, and parallel several topographical ridges which were probably formed at the same time by the advancing Superior lobe ice. Fault surfaces are defined by steeply dipping contacts, and till units with high concentrations of large Cretaceous mudstone clasts at the base. The highest elevation of the exposed Cretaceous mudstone outcrop is about 15 meters above the base of the St. Croix moraine, suggesting that the moraine is bedrock cored, and that the moraine may well have located at that position at least partially as a result of the Superior lobe ice not being capable of surmounting the topographical high. A 30 meter thick accumulation of Des Moines lobe outwash just to the east of the moraine end could be interpreted to be a Superior lobe tunnel valley formed by meltwater flowing beneath rapidly melting glacial ice shortly after the ice-thrust ridges were produced. This tunnel valley breeched the moraine, scoured a deep bifurcating channelway, and formed a topographical low through which the northern edge of the later Grantsburg sublobe could more easily pass.

  3. Surface dating of dynamic landforms: young boulders on aging moraines.

    PubMed

    Hallet, B; Putkonen, J

    1994-08-12

    The dating of landforms is crucial to understanding the evolution, history, and stability of landscapes. Cosmogenic isotope analysis has recently been used to determine quantitative exposure ages for previously undatable landform surfaces. A pioneering application of this technique to date moraines illustrated its considerable potential but suggested a chronology partially inconsistent with existing geological data. Consideration of the dynamic nature of landforms and of the ever-present processes of erosion, deposition, and weathering leads to a resolution of this inconsistency and, more generally, offers guidance for realistic interpretation of exposure ages. PMID:17782145

  4. Origin of Periodic, Transverse Moraines of the Des Moines Lobe Ice Stream, Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankerstjerne, S. M.; Iverson, N. R.; Lagroix, F.

    2010-12-01

    The late-glacial (~ 15 kyr B.P.) advance of the soft-bedded Des Moines Lobe, the marginal portion of an ice stream of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, deposited regularly-spaced, transverse moraines. These moraines have relief of 1-5 m and an average spacing of ~ 100 m. Transverse moraines of similar size and spacing have been revealed by high-resolution, sea-floor imagery on continental shelves outboard of modern ice streams in Antarctica and have been used to estimate rates of ice-margin retreat, assuming that the moraines form either annually or by tidal forcing. The internal structure and origin of the more accessible Des Moines Lobe moraines, which have been interpreted as either ice-marginal features or subglacial crevasse fills, may help constrain interpretations of submarine moraine ridges. A 70 m long, 3-5 m high cross-section through a moraine ridge in Story County, Iowa, revealed till with irregular, isolated lenses of silt, sand and gravel that generally dip steeply up-glacier. Preconsolidation pressures, measured from intact till and silt samples, and till densities indicate that these sediments were under the glacier. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of 3200 intact till samples was used to characterize till fabrics using orientations of principal susceptibilities. AMS fabrics were interpreted using ring-shear experiments that allow fabric orientation to be calibrated to the state of strain. AMS fabrics in the moraine are consistent with flow-parallel simple shear, with shear planes inclined up-glacier, together with flow-parallel shortening accompanied by vertical and lateral extension. This strain field is consistent with shearing and extrusion of weak basal till and subglacial fluvial sediments into basal crevasses during slip of the lobe—a conclusion supported by less detailed study of several nearby moraines. Periodicity of the moraines reflects the tendency for crevasses in extending glaciers to be regularly spaced. These results indicate that caution should be exercised in interpreting the periodicity of submarine ridges as necessarily resulting from temporal forcing.

  5. Correlating Ice Cores from Quelccaya Ice Cap with Chronology from Little Ice Age Glacial Extents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroup, J. S.; Kelly, M. A.; Lowell, T. V.

    2010-12-01

    Proxy records indicate Southern Hemisphere climatic changes during the Little Ice Age (LIA; ~1300-1850 AD). In particular, records of change in and around the tropical latitudes require attention because these areas are sensitive to climatic change and record the dynamic interplay between hemispheres (Oerlemans, 2005). Despite this significance, relatively few records exist for the southern tropics. Here we present a reconstruction of glacial fluctuations of Quelccaya Ice Cap (QIC), Peruvian Andes, from pre-LIA up to the present day. In the Qori Kalis valley, extensive sets of moraines exist beginning with the 1963 AD ice margin (Thompson et al., 2006) and getting progressively older down valley. Several of these older moraines can be traced and are continuous with moraines in the Challpa Cocha valley. These moraines have been dated at <1050-1350-AD (Mercer and Palacios, 1977) and interpreted to have been deposited during the Little Ice Age. We present a new suite of surface exposure and radiocarbon dates collected in 2008 and 2009 that constrain the ages of these moraines. Preliminary 10Be ages of boulder surfaces atop the moraines range from ~350-1370 AD. Maximum and minimum-limiting radiocarbon ages bracketing the moraines are ~0-1800 AD. The chronology of past ice cap extents are correlated with ice core records from QIC which show an accumulation increase during ~1500-1700 AD and an accumulation decrease during ~1720-1860 AD (Thompson et al., 1985; 1986; 2006). In addition, other proxy records from Peru and the tropics are correlated with the records at QIC as a means to understand climate conditions during the LIA. This work forms the basis for future modeling of the glacial system during the LIA at QIC and for modeling of past temperature and precipitation regimes at high altitude in the tropics.

  6. Geomorphic Evidence for Compound Moraines, Ice Streaming, and Surging of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in Northern Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, N. R.; Attig, J. W.; Johnson, M. D.; Syverson, K. M.

    2004-12-01

    Reconstructions of late-Wisconsin glacial events in the Lake Superior region have typically assumed broadly-synchronous lobes of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS). End moraines are often thought to have formed by a single cycle of ice advance and retreat under steady-state flow conditions. However, our geologic mapping in northern Wisconsin during about the last decade shows a much more complex history for southern lobes of the LIS in this region (namely the Superior Lobe, Chippewa Lobe, Wisconsin Valley Lobe, and Langlade Lobe). Landform and stratigraphic evidence shows that terminal moraines produced by some of these lobes are composite features resulting from two or more ice-flow events. Associated with these events were large changes in ice-flow direction (sixty degrees or more) and the development of landforms that indicate the former presence of ice-margin offsets and intralobe shear margins, similar to those described on several modern surging glaciers and ice streams. More specifically, although these LIS lobes were broadly synchronous when advancing southward out of the Lake Superior basin, cross-cutting relationships of end moraines show interlobe variability in the timing of ice advances. Especially in the case of the Chippewa and Wisconsin Valley Lobes, ice-surface-slope and ice-flow indicators (i.e. drumlins) show large changes in ice-flow direction (approximately ninety degrees) during at least two distinct flow events of each lobe. Broad, hummocky, compound, terminal moraines indicate two or more flow events of each lobe into their marginal zones. The terminal zones of all the lobes must have carried a substantial volume of englacial and supraglacial sediment to result in such broad, hummocky moraines (which include many ice-walled-lake plains). In summary, the landforms and landscapes produced by southern lobes of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in northern Wisconsin are broadly consistent with criteria recently proposed for recognizing paleo-ice streams and are also consistent with features observed on modern surging glaciers. Additionally, reconstruction of paleo-ice-flow directions shows asynchronous advances of the LIS lobes in northern Wisconsin along with complex intralobe flow. Such ice-sheet behavior was likely in direct response to changes in the Superior Lobe in the Lake Superior basin; however, multiple factors still need to be evaluated.

  7. Groundwater flow beneath ice sheets: Part II — Its impact on glacier tectonic structures and moraine formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulton, G. S.; Caban, P.

    Meltwater flowing as groundwater from beneath the margin of an ice sheet determines the distribution of sub-surface heads and effective pressures. A subglacial groundwater flow model is used, together with an ice sheet loading model, to compute the magnitudes and directions of the principal effective stresses in the subsurface, from which the distribution of different types of sub-surface failure in the subglacial and proglacial zones are deduced. Zones of hydrofracturing, shear fracture and pervasive shear failure are distinguished. Beneath the ice sheet divide area, intact rocks of high tensile strength may fail. Hydrofracturing and liquefaction are two coupled processes which lead to the formation of upward-filled and downward-filled sediment dykes and till wedges. Quicksand conditions are developed where strong vertical seepage pressures occur, producing sediment diapirism. It is suggested that subglacial permeability magnitude may be the product of a self organising process. Certain types of moraine (extrusion moraines) are suggested to be a consequence of upward movement and surface extrusion of sediment driven by rising groundwater. It is suggested that groundwater over pressure associated with narrow proglacial permafrost plates are conductive to the formation of large push moraines, and that many large ancient and modern examples are produced in this setting.

  8. Hydrogeophysical characterisation of ice-marginal moraines, with reference to moraine dam stability, Miage Glacial Lake, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, S. S.; Kulessa, B.

    2010-12-01

    In mountain regions, potentially hazardous glacial lakes are becoming increasingly common as a consequence of climatically driven glacier recession. Lakes can expand rapidly in the space between downwasting or receding glacier fronts and terminal or lateral moraines, and are prone to catastrophic drainage if the moraine dam is breached. Lake drainage can have severe impacts on both fragile mountain ecosystems and local economies. In addition to the moraine-dammed lakes currently in existence, it is likely that many more will form in the coming decades as more glaciers cross the threshold required for rapid lake expansion. A key factor in assessing the stability and future evolution of such systems is a better understanding of the subsurface structure and hydrology of the moraine dams. Here results are presented from electrical geophysical work carried out across the breach moraine complex at the Miage Glacial Lake, Italy. A combination of induced polarisation, normalised induced polarisation and self potentials have been used to characterise the local water table and to identify the subsurface connections between two moraines dammed glacial lakes. The results not only show the depth and distribution of subsurface flow but also the preferential flow pathways, indicating areas of maximum discharge. The results highlight the areas of the moraines where hydrological processes are causing internal degradation and impacting upon the longer term stability of the system. This model therefore, can be employed on much larger systems where the risk of outburst has far greater consequences.

  9. Surface exposure dating of Little Ice Age ice cap advances on Disko Island, West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Timothy; Jomelli, Vincent; Rinterknecht, Vincent; Brunstein, Daniel; Schimmelpfennig, Irene; Swingedouw, Didier; Favier, Vincent; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie

    2015-04-01

    Little Ice Age (LIA: 1200-1920 AD) glacier advances in Greenland often form the most extensive positions of Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) ice cap and margins since the Early Holocene. Across Greenland these advances are commonly represented by un-vegetated moraines, usually within 1-5 km of the present ice margin. However, chronological constraints on glacier advances during this period are sparse, meaning that GrIS and ice cap behavior and advance/retreat chronology remains poorly understood during this period. At present the majority of ages are based on historical accounts, ice core data, and radiocarbon ages from proglacial threshold lakes. However, developments in the accuracy and precision of surface exposure methods allow dating of LIA moraine boulders, permitting an opportunity to better understand of ice dynamics during this period. Geomorphological mapping and surface exposure dating (36Cl) were used to interpret moraine deposits from the Lyngmarksbræen on Disko Island, West Greenland. A Positive Degree Day (PDD) model was used to estimate Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) and mass balance changes for two distinct paleo-glacial extents. Three moraines (M1, M2, and M3) were mapped in the field, and sampled for 36Cl surface exposure dating. The outermost moraine (M1) was of clearly different morphology to the inner moraines, and present only in small fragments. M2 and M3 were distinct arcuate termino-lateral moraines within 50 m of one another, 1.5 km from the present ice margin. The weighted average of four 36Cl ages from M1 returned an early Holocene age of 8.4 ± 0.6 ka. M2 (four samples) returned an age of 0.57 ± 0.04 ka (1441 AD) and M3 (four samples) returned an age of 0.28 ± 0.02 ka (1732 AD). These surface exposure ages represent the first robustly dated Greenlandic ice cap moraine sequence from the LIA. The two periods of ice cap advance and marginal stabilisation are similar to recorded periods of LIA GrIS advance in west Greenland, constrained through radiocarbon dating. Comparison with local and regional proxy and radiative forcing records, suggests that these advances were driven by decreases in summer insolation. Further studies from ice cap margins and the GrIS margin are essential in order to create a full, well-developed understanding of the timing of glacier behavior during the LIA.

  10. Age of the Tahoe moraine at Bloody Canyon, Mono County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Soles, S. . Dept. of Geology); Sarna-Wojcicki, A.M.; Meyer, C.E.; Wan, E. )

    1993-04-01

    The age of the Tahoe moraines on the east side of the Sierra Nevada has been subject of considerable discussion over about the last 60 years. Two schools of thought prevail: that the moraines were formed about 65--75 ka BP, roughly equivalent in age to oxygen isotope stage four; or that they were formed about 135--170 ka BP, roughly equivalent to stage six. A major reason for this uncertainty is that most available dating techniques have large errors or poor reproducibility when applied to moraines, till materials, or stratigraphically related volcanic rocks within this age range. The authors attempted to bracket the age of the Tahow moraine at Bloody Canyon by (1) searching for volcanic shards in the soil formed on the moraine and in the fine fraction of the till below the soil; (2) physically separating the shads and analyzing them by electron microprobe; and (3) comparing the chemical composition of the shards to those in tephra layers of known age. They dug four pits near the crest of the moraine and sampled continuously at intervals of 15 can to depths of 2.5 m. The authors conclude that (1) the soil formed on the Tahoe moraine is at least 75 to 95 ka in age, and thus that the underlying till must be at least as old as stage six; and (2) that translocation or mechanical mixing of fine particles from the surface of the soil must extend down to at least 2.5 m in the Tahoe till.

  11. New Constraints on the Ages of Old Moraines: The Impact of Erosion on Surface Exposure Age Distributions.

    E-print Network

    Zreda, Marek

    New Constraints on the Ages of Old Moraines: The Impact of Erosion on Surface Exposure Age the development of glacial chro- nologies for landforms whose ages are beyond the limit of radiocarbon dating variation in the apparent ages of individual boulders. This variation is attributed to erosion of boulders

  12. Inter-annual surface evolution of an Antarctic blue-ice moraine using multi-temporal DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westoby, M. J.; Dunning, S. A.; Woodward, J.; Hein, A. S.; Marrero, S. M.; Winter, K.; Sugden, D. E.

    2015-11-01

    Multi-temporal and fine resolution topographic data products are being increasingly used to quantify surface elevation change in glacial environments. In this study, we employ 3-D digital elevation model (DEM) differencing to quantify the topographic evolution of a blue-ice moraine complex in front of Patriot Hills, Heritage Range, Antarctica. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) was used to acquire multiple topographic datasets of the moraine surface at the beginning and end of the austral summer season in 2012/2013 and during a resurvey field campaign in 2014. A complementary topographic dataset was acquired at the end of season 1 through the application of Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry to a set of aerial photographs taken from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Three-dimensional cloud-to-cloud differencing was undertaken using the Multiscale Model to Model Cloud Comparison (M3C2) algorithm. DEM differencing revealed net uplift and lateral movement of the moraine crests within season 1 (mean uplift ∼ 0.10 m), with lowering of a similar magnitude in some inter-moraine depressions and close to the current ice margin. Our results indicate net uplift across the site between seasons 1 and 2 (mean 0.07 m). This research demonstrates that it is possible to detect dynamic surface topographical change across glacial moraines over short (annual to intra-annual) timescales through the acquisition and differencing of fine-resolution topographic datasets. Such data offer new opportunities to understand the process linkages between surface ablation, ice flow, and debris supply within moraine ice.

  13. Ribbed moraine formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hättestrand, Clas; Kleman, Johan

    Ribbed (Rogen) moraines are conspicuous landforms found in interior parts of formerly glaciated areas. Two major theories for ribbed moraine formation have been suggested in recent years: (i) the shear and stack theory, which explains ribbed moraine formation by shearing and stacking of till slabs or englacially entrained material during compressive flow, followed by basal melt-out of transverse moraine ridges, and (ii) the fracturing theory, according to which ribbed moraines form by fracturing of frozen pre-existing till sheets, at the transition from cold- to warm-based conditions under deglaciating ice sheets. In this paper, we present new data on the distribution of ribbed moraines and their close association with areas of frozen-bed conditions under ice sheets. In addition, we show examples of ribbed moraine ridges that fit together like a jig-saw puzzle. These observations indicate that fracturing and extension of a pre-existing till sheet may be a predominant process in ribbed moraine formation. In summary, we conclude that all described characteristics of ribbed moraines are compatible with the fracturing theory, while the shear and stack theory is hampered by an inability to explain many conspicuous features in the distribution pattern and detailed morphology of ribbed moraines. One implication of the fracturing theory is that the distribution of ribbed moraines can be used to reconstruct the extent of areas that underwent a change from frozen-bed to thawed-bed conditions under former ice sheets.

  14. Ice age paleotopography

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, W.R. )

    1994-07-08

    A gravitationally self-consistent theory of postglacial relative sea level change is used to infer the variation of surface ice and water cover since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The results show that LGM ice volume was approximately 35 percent lower than suggested by the CLIMAP reconstruction and the maximum heights of the main Laurentian and Fennoscandian ice complexes are inferred to have been commensurately lower with respect to sea level. Use of these Ice Age boundary conditions in atmospheric general circulation models will yield climates that differ significantly from those previously inferred on the basis of the CLIMAP data set.

  15. An Initial AUV Investigation of the Morainal Bank and Ice-Proximal Submarine Processes of the Advancing Hubbard Glacier, Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, D. E.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Goff, J. A.; O'Halloran, W.

    2014-12-01

    The movement of an advancing tidewater glacier occurs in concert with the morainal bank that underlies its terminus. The mechanics of motion and sedimentological processes responsible for this advance of the morainal bank with the calving terminus are not well-defined and based largely on inferences from geophysical analyses of remnant morainal banks on fjord floors. There is a general absence of in situ or direct observation of the submarine margin because it is nearly impossible to access the immediate area of the ice face by boat safely. In order to obtain such data, in June 2014 we tested the ability of a Bluefin 9M AUV (autonomous underwater vehicle) to acquire high resolution swath bathymetry and sidescan backscatter across a ~2 km long section of the ice face of Hubbard Glacier (see also Goff et al., this meeting). Additionally onboard oceanographic measurements were taken that can be compared with surface cast CTD profiles obtained during AUV deployment, including locations with subglacial discharges. The AUV test provides details on the geometry of the morainal bank and nature of the fjord wall surfaces. The decimeter-scale imagery of the seabed reveals numerous erosional and depositional bedforms and gravitational features on the morainal bank's proximal slope. Closer to the ice face, the morainal bank surface appears much coarser, with textural patterns of unknown origin, and gravel lags including boulder fields. Comparing the water depth from the AUV survey with that of NOAA bathymetric data from 2004/2006 shows the morainal bank continued to advance in pace with ice advance into fjord waters over 200m deep, water depths shoaling up to 100m near the present ice margin. The glimpse of the morainal bank afforded by the AUV test clearly demonstrated the value of this technology to ice marginal submarine investigations.

  16. The influence of basement block tectonics on ice thrust Wadena drift in the southern St. Croix moraine, Stearns Co, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, M.A.; Meyer, D.P.; Rogers, M.R.; Thorne, R.E.; Anderson, G.G. )

    1994-04-01

    Cretaceous mudstones containing horizontal bedding are found in the St. Croix moraine in southern Stearns County, Minnesota, These sediments are probably in-situ because they have been drilled to 14.5 m. and have horizontal bedding, based upon the orientation of concretions. The north end of this outcrop is truncated by a fault striking N90[degree]W and dipping north at 35 degrees. The orientation of concretions near the fault suggest normal fault displacement. A single water well log two miles northwest shows similar Cretaceous mudstones 70 m. lower. A significant aeromagnetic lineament striking N70[degree]W is located between the two sites and parallel to the orientation of the St. Croix moraine. Superior lobe ice may have depressed the northern block to produce a topographic barrier which stalled the ice and was at least partially responsible for the ice thrust glacial sediments located in the interior of the moraine. Deformed glacial sediments rest unconformably upon horizontal Cretaceous mudstones and consist of Wadena till, Superior till, perhaps an older pre-Wisconsinian till, glacial lacustrine sediments intercalated with till, wind-blown fine sand and outwash. After the northern basement block was depressed, a small normal fault developed in the Cretaceous sediments moving wind blown fine sand down. Older glacial materials were then ice-thrust onto this topographic high developed by ice loading. Structural features include at least 3 N90[degree]W, north-dipping thrust faults with materials tectonically transported from a depression located more than 3,000 feet to the north.

  17. The Great Ice Age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ray, Louis L.

    1992-01-01

    The Great Ice Age, a recent chapter in the Earth's history, was a period of recurring widespread glaciations. During the Pleistocene Epoch of the geologic time scale, which began about a million or more years ago, mountain glaciers formed on all continents, the icecaps of Antarctica and Greenland were more extensive and thicker than today, and vast glaciers, in places as much as several thousand feet thick, spread across northern North America and Eurasia. So extensive were these glaciers that almost a third of the present land surface of the Earth was intermittently covered by ice. Even today remnants of the great glaciers cover almost a tenth of the land, indicating that conditions somewhat similar to those which produced the Great Ice Age are still operating in polar and subpolar climates.

  18. A more complex deglaciation chronology of Southern Norway than previously thought. New geochronological constraints based on cosmogenic exposure ages of marginal moraines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredin, Ola; Akçar, Naki; Romundset, Anders; Reber, Regina; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Kubik, Peter; Høgaas, Fredrik; Schlüchter, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Glacial landforms from the last deglaciation in southern Norway were mapped by the famous glacial geologist Bjørn Andersen already in the early 1950s, using basic aerial photographs and topographic maps. Andersen reconstructed two distinct glacial sub-stages (the Lista stage and Spangereid stage) that were older than the Younger Dryas (YD), and one main glacial stage of assumed YD age (the Ra stage). This interpretation has remained largely untested and is still used in reconstructions of the Fennoscandian ice sheet. However, absolute chronological control has been lacking and only a handful radiocarbon dates has been used to support the deglaciation chronology. In this study we test the reconstruction of Andersen by remapping the whole area using newly aquired LiDAR data (high resolution laser scanning of terrain), together with in-situ cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages of boulders on marginal moraines. The study comprises mapping of more than 6000 km2 of forested and dissected landscape, 53 10Be ages from boulders/bedrock, one cosmogenic 10Be depth profile in a coarse-grained glaciofluvial deposit, and finally one lake record. Our study shows that the oldest of Andersen's glacial stages, the Lista stage right on the outermost Norwegian south coast, should likely be rejected since it consists of consolidated subglacial till and therefore is not an end moraine system. However, our cosmogenic depth profile indicates that this area might have been ice free already by around 19 ka BP, approximately 4000 years earlier than previously thought. At the same time the ice sheet surface slowly lowered, and the first inland hills of about 450 m. asl. became ice free at around 17 ka BP. Ice retreat continued slowly 10-15 km inland and halted as a calving fjord stage at the Spangereid stage with an approximate age of 15 ka BP. Then the deglaciation appears to have been very rapid and the ice front retreated 30-50 km inland to a position inside of the Ra stage, until a readvance in Older Dryas around 14.5 ka BP. The ice front might have retreated inland again in the Bølling-Allerød interstadial, but readvanced to almost exactly the same position in the early YD and with possible oscillations until late YD. The complexity of the cosmogenic exposure ages from the Ra moraine system is supported by LiDAR mapping that often shows multiple moraine ridges that sometimes onlap each other and sometimes are separated by as much as 5 km. To conclude, our study shows that deglaciation of the south coast of Norway was more complex than previously thought. Ice retreat and readvances were episodic and only largely in concert with climate forcing. The Ra stage, which was previously thought to represent the YD in southern Norway, is in fact a complex moraine system spanning more than 2000 years including readvances both in the Older Dryas and the Younger Dryas stadials.

  19. Glaciotectonic deformation associated with the Orient Point-Fishers Island moraine, westernmost Block Island Sound: further evidence of readvance of the Laurentide ice sheet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, Lawrence J.; Oldale, Robert N.; Foster, David S.; Smith, Shepard M.

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution seismic-reflection profiles collected across pro-glacial outwash deposits adjacent to the circa 18 ka b.p. Orient Point–Fishers Island end moraine segment in westernmost Block Island Sound reveal extensive deformation. A rhythmic seismic facies indicates the host outwash deposits are composed of fine-grained glaciolacustrine sediments. The deformation is variably brittle and ductile, but predominantly compressive in nature. Brittle deformation includes reverse faults and thrust faults that strike parallel to the moraine, and thrust sheets that extend from beneath the moraine. Ductile deformation includes folded sediments that overlie undisturbed deposits, showing that they are not drape features. Other seismic evidence for compression along the ice front consists of undisturbed glaciolacustrine strata that dip back toward and underneath the moraine, and angular unconformities on the sea floor where deformed sediments extend above the surrounding undisturbed correlative strata. Together, these ice-marginal glaciotectonic features indicate that the Orient Point–Fishers Island moraine marks a significant readvance of the Laurentide ice sheet, consistent with existing knowledge for neighboring coeval moraines, and not simply a stillstand as previously reported.

  20. Geomorphology and Ice Content of Glacier - Rock Glacier &ndash; Moraine Complexes in Ak-Shiirak Range (Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolch, Tobias; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Rohrbach, Nico; Fischer, Andrea; Osmonov, Azamat

    2015-04-01

    Meltwater originating from the Tien Shan is of high importance for the runoff to the arid and semi-arid region of Central Asia. Previous studies estimate a glaciers' contribution of about 40% for the Aksu-Tarim Catchment, a transboundary watershed between Kyrgyzstan and China. Large parts of the Ak-Shiirak Range drain into this watershed. Glaciers in Central and Inner Tien Shan are typically polythermal or even cold and surrounded by permafrost. Several glaciers terminate into large moraine complexes which show geomorphological indicators of ice content such as thermo-karst like depressions, and further downvalley signs of creep such as ridges and furrows and a fresh, steep rock front which are typical indicators for permafrost creep ("rock glacier"). Hence, glaciers and permafrost co-exist in this region and their interactions are important to consider, e.g. for the understanding of glacial and periglacial processes. It can also be assumed that the ice stored in these relatively large dead-ice/moraine-complexes is a significant amount of the total ice storage. However, no detailed investigations exist so far. In an initial study, we investigated the structure and ice content of two typical glacier-moraine complexes in the Ak-Shiirak-Range using different ground penetrating radar (GPR) devices. In addition, the geomorphology was mapped using high resolution satellite imagery. The structure of the moraine-rock glacier complex is in general heterogeneous. Several dead ice bodies with different thicknesses and moraine-derived rock glaciers with different stages of activities could be identified. Few parts of these "rock glaciers" contain also massive ice but the largest parts are likely characterised by rock-ice layers of different thickness and ice contents. In one glacier forefield, the thickness of the rock-ice mixture is partly more than 300 m. This is only slightly lower than the maximum thickness of the glacier ice. Our measurements revealed that up to 20% of the total ice of the entire glacier-rock glacier-moraine-complex could be stored in the moraine-rock glacier parts.

  1. Topographic controls on moraine distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Iestyn; Lovell, Harold

    2014-05-01

    Ice-marginal moraines are a foundation of our understanding of the extent and fluctuations of palaeoglaciers, and are often used as indirect proxies for palaeoclimate; this link is based on the assumption that moraine distribution is palaeoclimatically-controlled. Here, we use a dataset of ~8,500 ice-marginal moraines to assess the role played by topography in regulating their distribution, and challenge the assumption that moraines can be readily used as indirect proxies for palaeoclimate. We find evidence that topography plays an important role in moraine formation, preservation and ease of identification. At a global scale, this is reflected by 'erosional feedback', which leads to the gradual reduction in ice extent over successive glacial cycles, and the preservation of detailed moraine records. At a regional scale (e.g. the scale of individual mountain massifs), erosional feedback remains important, but other factors, such as the propensity for moraines to form at topographic 'pinning points', are also significant. At a local scale (e.g. for cirque-type glaciers), erosional feedback is less significant, but factors such as physical barriers to ice flow are important. We conclude by suggesting that: (i) palaeoclimatic significance should not automatically be attached to moraine positions; (ii) chronologically grouping (or correlating) moraines on the basis of their geospatial distribution should be undertaken with caution; (iii) where possible, topographic factors should be taken into consideration when using moraines to reconstruct the dimensions of palaeoglaciers, particularly when making links to palaeoclimate.

  2. A Sediment Wedge and an Instantaneous End-Moraine: a Twofold Ice-marginal Product of the 1890 Glacier Surge of Bruarjokull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benediktsson, I. O.; Ingolfsson, O.; Per, M.; van der Meer, J. J.; Kjær, K. H.; Kruger, J.

    2007-12-01

    Contemporary understanding of the behaviour of surging glaciers and ice streams is hampered by the lack of data on landsystem evolution and sedimentary environments. This study concerns the ice-marginal environment of the surge-type Brúarjökull in Iceland. The sediment distribution in the glacier forefield as well as the morphology, sedimentology and tectonic architecture of the 1890 end moraine is investigated for highlighting the interaction between very dynamic ice and sediment/landform associations. As a result of substrate/bedrock decoupling during the 1890 surge, subglacial sediment was dislocated across the bedrock surface and deformed compressively, leading to gradual substrate thickening and the formation of a sediment wedge in the marginal zone. A drop in subglacial porewater pressure at the very end of the surge led to substrate/bedrock coupling and a stress transfer up into the sediment sequence causing brittle deformation of the substrate. Simultaneously, the glacier toe ploughed into the topmost part of the marginal sediment wedge initiating the moraine-ridge construction. Fine-grained and incompetent sediment deformed in ductile manner, resulting in a narrow rooted-fold-dominated moraine while coarse-grained and competent sediment deformed in brittle fashion, resulting in wide imbricated moraine. A new sequential model of subglacial and ice marginal processes operating during a glacier surge is proposed, illustrating the stepwise formation of a surging-glacier marginal sediment wedge and an instantaneous end moraine - a twofold, inseparable marginal end-product of the 1890 surge. As a result of high ice-flow velocities (100-120 m/day) the sediment wedge is thought to have formed in approximately five days and the end moraine in about one day.

  3. Glacial landforms on German Bank, Scotian Shelf: evidence for Late Wisconsinan ice-sheet dynamics and implications for the formation of De Geer moraines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Brian J.; Valentine, Page C.; Longva, Oddvar; Shaw, John

    2007-01-01

    The extent and behaviour of the southeast margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in Atlantic Canada is of significance in the study of Late Wisconsinan ice sheet-ocean interactions. Multibeam sonar imagery of subglacial, ice-marginal and glaciomarine landforms on German Bank, Scotian Shelf, provides evidence of the pattern of glacial-dynamic events in the eastern Gulf of Maine. Northwest-southeast trending drumlins and megaflutes dominate northern German Bank. On southern German Bank, megaflutes of thin glacial deposits create a distinct northwest-southeast grain. Lobate regional moraines (>10km long) are concave to the northwest, up-ice direction and strike southwest-northeast, normal to the direction of ice flow. Ubiquitous, overlying De Geer moraines (

  4. Mars Ice Age, Simulated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    December 17, 2003

    This simulated view shows Mars as it might have appeared during the height of a possible ice age in geologically recent time.

    Of all Solar System planets, Mars has the climate most like that of Earth. Both are sensitive to small changes in orbit and tilt. During a period about 2.1 million to 400,000 years ago, increased tilt of Mars' rotational axis caused increased solar heating at the poles. A new study using observations from NASA's Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey orbiters concludes that this polar warming caused mobilization of water vapor and dust into the atmosphere, and buildup of a surface deposit of ice and dust down to about 30 degrees latitude in both hemispheres. That is the equivalent of the southern Unites States or Saudi Arabia on Earth. Mars has been in an interglacial period characterized by less axial tilt for about the last 300,000 years. The ice-rich surface deposit has been degrading in the latitude zone of 30 degrees to 60 degrees as water-ice returns to the poles.

    In this illustration prepared for the December 18, 2003, cover of the journal Nature, the simulated surface deposit is superposed on a topography map based on altitude measurements by Global Surveyor and images from NASA's Viking orbiters of the 1970s.

    Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey are managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, for the NASA Office of Space Science, Washington.

  5. Ribbed moraines in northern Manitoba, Canada: characteristics and preservation as part of a subglacial bed mosaic near the core regions of ice sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trommelen, Michelle S.; Ross, Martin; Ismail, Ahmed

    2014-03-01

    Ribbed moraines are enigmatic glacial landforms for which different models, with contrasting paleoglaciologic implications, have been proposed to explain their formation. Despite the great deal of attention this type of landform has received over the last several decades, ribbed moraine fields in northern Manitoba, Canada are among the largest in the world but have been seldom studied. Ribbed moraines in this part of the world overlie the low-relief Canadian Shield, are not constrained by topography, and are part of a spatial subglacial-landform assemblage associated with drumlinoid ridges within palimpsest and relict-type Glacial Terrain Zones. Field observations herein provide new insights into the characteristics of these transverse-to ice-flow ridges at landscape (mapping and spatial analysis) and landform (internal structure using high-resolution shear wave (S-wave) seismic reflection surveys, sedimentological characteristics, clast-fabric analyses) scales. Two main types of ribbed moraine are recognized: 'pristine', high amplitude straight-crested ridges and secondarily-modified subdued 'drumlinized' ridges. Ribbed moraine in northeast Manitoba consist of massive, matrix-supported till at surface, which is similar in matrix texture and composition to the regional till sheet, though pristine moraines show a higher concentration of boulders. A seismic profile reveals subparallel-to surface layered stratigraphy with only minor folding and no major unconformities (stacking or faulting).

  6. Quantification of the ice-cored moraines' short-term dynamics in the high-Arctic glaciers Ebbabreen and Ragnarbreen, Petuniabukta, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewertowski, Marek W.; Tomczyk, Aleksandra M.

    2015-04-01

    Extensive ice-cored moraine complexes are common elements, marking the last advance of many Svalbard glaciers. Sediment gravity flows are among the most dynamic processes, transforming these landforms. The short-term (yearly and weekly) dynamics of mass-wasting processes were studied in a cm-scale using repetitive topographic scanning. We monitored several active sites on the forelands of two glaciers, Ebbabreen and Ragnarbreen, both of which are located near Petuniabukta at the northern end of Billefjorden in Spitsbergen. The surveys indicate high dynamic rates of landforms' transformation. The mean annual volume loss of sediments and dead-ice for the most active parts of the moraines was up to 1.8 m a- 1. However, most of the transformation occurred during summer, with the short-term values of mean elevation changes as high as - 104 mm day- 1. In comparison, the dynamics of the other (i.e. non-active) parts of the ice-cored moraines were much lower, namely, the mean annual lowering (attributed mainly to dead-ice downwasting) was up to 0.3 m a-1, whereas lowering during summer was up to 8 mm day- 1. Our results indicate that in the case of the studied glaciers, backwasting was much more effective than downwasting in terms of landscape transformation in the glacier forelands. However, despite the high activity of localised mass movement processes, the overall short-term dynamics of ice-cored moraines for the studied glaciers were relatively low. We suggest that as long as debris cover is sufficiently thick (thicker than the permafrost's active layer depths), the mass movement activity would occur only under specific topographic conditions and/or due to occurrence of external meltwater sources and slope undercutting. In other areas, ice-cored moraines remain a stable landsystem component in a yearly to decadal time-scale.

  7. Upper Wisconsinan submarine end moraines off Cape Ann, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oldale, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    Seismic profiles across the southwest end of Jeffreys Ledge, a bathymetric high north of Cape Ann, Massachusetts, reveal two end moraines. The moraines overlie upper Wisconsinan glacialmarine silty clay and are composed mostly of subaqueous ice-contact deposits and outwash. They were formed below sea level in water depths of as much as 120 m during fluctuations of a calving ice front. The moraines are late Wisconsinan in age and were formed after the Cambridge readvance, about 14,000 yr B.P., and before the Kennebunk readvance, about 13,000 yr B.P. They represent fluctuations of the ice front during overall retreat of Laurentide ice from the Gulf of Maine and New England. ?? 1985.

  8. Be chronology of south-western Scandinavian Ice Sheet history during the Lateglacial period

    E-print Network

    Briner, Jason P.

    -western Norway. We find that the classical Lysefjorden moraines, earlier thought to be entirely of Younger Dryas age, encompass three adjacent moraines attributed to at least two ice sheet advances of distinctly different ages. The 10 Be age of the outermost moraine (14.0 Æ 0.6 ka; n ¼ 4) suggests that the first

  9. Sanders, J. E.; and Merguerian, Charles, 1995a, Evidence for pre-Woodfordian age of Long Island's terminal moraines, p. 91-106 in Hanson, G. N., chm., Geology of Long Island

    E-print Network

    Merguerian, Charles

    's terminal moraines, p. 91-106 in Hanson, G. N., chm., Geology of Long Island and metropolitan New York, 22 with Abstracts, 135 p. EVIDENCE FOR PRE-WOODFORDIAN AGES OF LONG ISLAND'S TERMINAL MORAINES John E. Sanders Island's prominent terminal moraines (Figure 1), the southern and older Ronkonkoma, and the northern

  10. The probable importance of snow and sediment shielding on cosmogenic ages of north-central Colorado Pinedale and pre-Pinedale moraines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.; Madole, R.; Phillips, W.; Landis, G.; Thomas, T.; Kubik, P.

    2004-01-01

    Eight uncorrected 36Cl ages for Pinedale boulders in north-central Colorado fall in the range 16.5 to 20.9 kyr. 10Be age determinations on four of five boulders are in close agreement (???6% difference) with 36Cl determinations. Hypothetical corrections for snow shielding increased the 36Cl ages of Pinedale boulder surfaces by an average of ???12%. Most ages for pre-Pinedale (Bull Lake) boulders fall within marine-isotope stage (MIS) 5, a time when continental and Sierran ice accumulations were small or nonexistent. Under the assumption that these boulders were deposited on moraines that formed before the end of MIS 6 (???140 kyr BP), calculations indicated that rock-surface erosion rates would have had to range from 5.9 to 10.7 mm kyr-1 to produce the observed 36Cl values. When compared to rates that have been documented for the past 20 kyr, these erosion rates are extremely high. Snow shielding accounts for 0-48% of the additional years needed to shift pre-Pinedale dates to MIS 6. This suggests that some combination of snow shielding, sediment shielding, or 36Cl leakage has greatly decreased the apparent ages of most pre-Pinedale boulders. Inability to account for the effects of these processes seriously hinders the use of cosmogenic ages of pre-Pinedale boulders as estimators of the timing of alpine glaciation.

  11. ice-surface lowering or some regional climate change induced by ice-surface lowering. If attributed solely to a

    E-print Network

    Flint-Garcia, Sherry

    ) identified "outer LGM" and "inner LGM" moraines in any given region, which in western North America with the concept of LLGM, we used the TCN ages of the "outer" moraines to mark the onset of regional deglaciation from the LLGM, whereas we viewed the "inner" moraines as recording a subsequent millennial-scale ice

  12. Glaciology and the Ice Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carozzi, Albert V.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses: (1) the beginning of glaciology; (2) origin of erratic boulders, meteorites, volcanic explosions, floods, and drift; (3) ice age hypothesis in Europe and the United States; (4) development of glacial theory; (5) and a unified explanation of glacial events. A bibliography of classical research on glaciology is included. (BC)

  13. The New ICE Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, Randy; Willis, Mike

    2005-07-01

    Recent advances in the application of pulsed power to the study of dynamic material response have been made on the Sandia Z accelerator. Smoothly increasing multi-megabar pressure loads have been achieved allowing quasi-isentropes for these materials to be inferred. A significant amount of material research does not, however, require such intense pressure loading. In response to this, Sandia National Laboratories is constructing a facility that will house a compact Isentropic Compression Experiment (ICE) pulsed power driver capable of producing currents of ˜ 4 Ma, and subsequent pressure loads on 4 samples up to ˜1 Mbar to provide a more cost effective, easily accessed machine for dynamic material studies. Additionally, a single stage air gun will be available to support the pulser as well as for standard, low velocity EOS experiments. Instrumentation will include conventional VISAR with ultra low VPF capability, spatially resolved VISAR, flash X-rays, and sample temperature control. Discussion of facility capabilities and preliminary data will be presented. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under contract DE-ACO4-94AL85000.

  14. Typology of moraine construction and its significance in the understanding of the cosmogenic ages on glacial evolution of the Iberian mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Andrés, Nuria; Palacios, David; Gómez-Ortiz, Antonio; Salvador, Ferran

    2014-05-01

    The recent information about glacial evolution of different mountains in the Iberian Peninsula (The Pyreenes, Cantabrian Range, NW mountains, Central Range, Sierra Nevada) coming from dating of Surface Cosmogenic Exposition (SCE) of moraine boulders has demonstrated that, during maximum extension of the last glaciation, the glacial fronts left many morainic ridges, that can be of very different ages (from 60 until 18/17 ka) or only one moraine with ages much more limited, mainly younger than 23 ka. The proposed hypothesis of this paper defends that this diversity is due to previous valley topography: the glaciers, in the case of reaching open and flat spaces, leave multiple morainic ridges, attached to each other, during the several pulsations; but in the case that the glaciers finish into deep valleys with steep slopes, leave only one poligenic moraine, which aggregate new material during each pulsation. When a SCE dating method is apply, the results could be very different in both valley types, which could be interpreted of coming from external origin, like different climatic environment. The conclusion is that previous topography and geomorphology dynamic can be considered in the interpretation of SCE ages in the knowledge of Iberian mountain glacial evolution.

  15. Paleotopography of glacial-age ice sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.L.

    1995-01-27

    This is technical comment and response to the subject of paleotophography of glacial age ice sheets. The model presented by Peltier reconstructing the paleotopography of glacial age ice sheets has implications for atmospheric general circulation models of ice age climate. In addition, the model suggests that the glacial-age Antarctic Ice Sheet was significantly larger than today`s. The commentor, Edwards, suggests there is a discrepancy between data from Papua New Guinea and the model results.

  16. AN INTRODUCTION TO THE ICE AGES

    E-print Network

    Aslaksen, Helmer

    ASTRO 101A AN INTRODUCTION TO THE ICE AGES The Authors: Group 77* National University of Singapore courtesy of http://www.magicaweb.com #12;ASTRO 101A AN INTRODUCTION TO THE ICE AGES Notes from the authors This course is designed to introduce students to the basic idea of the astronomical aspects of the ice ages

  17. Little Ice Age glaciers in Britain: Glacier–climate modelling in the Cairngorm Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan Harrison; Ann V. Rowan; Neil F. Glasser; Jasper Knight; Mitchell A. Plummer; Stephanie C. Mills

    2014-02-01

    It is widely believed that the last glaciers in the British Isles disappeared at the end of the Younger Dryas stadial (12.9–11.7 cal. kyr BP). Here, we use a glacier–climate model driven by data from local weather stations to show for the first time that glaciers developed during the Little Ice Age (LIA) in the Cairngorm Mountains. Our model is forced from contemporary conditions by a realistic difference in mean annual air temperature of -1.5 degrees C and an increase in annual precipitation of 10%, and confirmed by sensitivity analyses. These results are supported by the presence of small boulder moraines well within Younger Dryas ice limits, and by a dating programme on a moraine in one cirque. As a result, we argue that the last glaciers in the Cairngorm Mountains (and perhaps elsewhere in upland Britain) existed in the LIA within the last few hundred years, rather than during the Younger Dryas.

  18. Dynamics of Ice Ages Norbert Schorghofer

    E-print Network

    Schörghofer, Norbert

    .4 0.5 equilibrium Ice fraction (%) Depthbelowsurface J dry Vertical Growth Illustration of aDynamics of Ice Ages on Mars Norbert Schorghofer University of Hawaii July 2013 #12;Planet Mars K to 310 K #12;ice-free surface Phoenix on Mars May­November 2008 latitude: 68N ice buried by 5cm

  19. Mass loss of the Greenland Ice Sheet since the Little Ice Age, implications on sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjeldsen, K. K.; Kjaer, K.; Bjork, A. A.; Khan, S. A.; Korsgaard, N. J.; Larsen, N. K.; Long, A. J.; Woodroffe, S.; Milne, G. A.; Wahr, J. M.; Geruo, A.; Bamber, J. L.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) on 20th Century sea level rise (SLR) has long been subject to intense discussions. While globally distributed tide gauges suggest a global mean SLR of 15-20 cm, quantifying the separate components is of great concern - in particular for modeling sea level projections into the 21st Century. Estimates of the past GrIS contribution to SLR have been derived using a number of different approaches, e.g. surface mass balance (SMB) calculations combined with estimates of ice discharge found by in correlating SMB anomalies and calving rates. Here, we adopt a novel geometric approach to determine the post-Little Ice Age (LIA) mass loss of the GrIS. We use high quality aerial stereo photogrammetric imagery recorded between 1978 and 1987 to map morphological features such as trim lines (boundary between freshly eroded and non-eroded bedrock) and end moraines marking the ice extent of the LIA, which thereby enables us to obtain vertical point-based differences associated with changes in ice extent. These point measurements are combined with contemporary ice surface differences derived using NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) from 2002-2010, NASA's Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) from 2003-2009, and NASA's Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor (LVIS) from 2010, to estimate mass loss throughout the 20th and early 21st Century. We present mass balance estimates of the GrIS since retreat commence from the maximum extent of the LIA to 2010 derived for three intervals, LIAmax (1900) - 1978/87, 1978/87 - 2002, and 2002 - 2010. Results suggest that despite highly spatially- and temporally variable post-LIA mass loss, the total mass loss and thus the contribution from the GrIS to global SLR has accelerated significantly during the 20th Century.

  20. A 300 Year Surge History of the Drangajökull Ice Cap, Northwest Iceland: Surge Frequency and Little Ice Age Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brynjolfsson, S.; Schomacker, A.; Ingolfsson, O.; Gudmundsdottir, E. R.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last 300 years, each of the three surge-type outlet glaciers of the Drangajökull ice cap in north-west Iceland has surged 2-4 times. There is valuable historical information available on the surge frequencies since the Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum because of the proximity of the surging outlets, Reykjarfjarðarjökull, Leirufjarðarjökull and Kaldalónsjökull to farms and pastures. We have reconstructed the surge history of the Drangajökull ice cap, based on geomorphological mapping, sedimentary studies and review of historical records. Geomorphological mapping of the glacier forefields revealed twice as many end-moraines than previously recognized. This indicates a higher surge frequency than previously perceived. A clear relationship between the surge frequency and climate cannot be established, however, surges were more frequent during the 19th century and the earliest 20th century compared to the cool 18th century and the warmer late part of the 20th century. We have estimated the magnitude of the LIA maximum surge events by reconstruction of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) that can be compared with modern DEMs. As reference points for the digital elevation modelling we used the recently mapped lateral moraines and historical information on the exposure timing of nunataks. During the LIA maximum surge events the outlet glaciers extended 3-3.5 km further down-valley than at present. Their ice volumes were at least 2-2.5 km3 greater than after their most recent surges in the beginning of the 21st century.

  1. Controlled moraines: origins, characteristics and palaeoglaciological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David J. A.

    2009-02-01

    Controlled moraines are supraglacial debris concentrations that become hummocky moraine upon de-icing and possess clear linearity due to the inheritance of the former pattern of debris-rich folia in the parent ice. Linearity is most striking wherever glacier ice cores still exist but it increasingly deteriorates with progressive melt-out. As a result, moraine linearity has a low preservation potential in deglaciated terrains but hummocky moraine tracts previously interpreted as evidence of areal stagnation may instead record receding polythermal glacier margins in which debris-rich ice was concentrated in frozen toe zones. Recent applications of modern glaciological analogues to palaeoglaciological reconstructions have implied that: (a) controlled moraine development can be ascribed to a specific process (e.g. englacial thrusting or supercooling); and (b) controlled moraine preservation potential is good enough to imply the occurrence of the specific process in former glacier snouts (e.g. ancient polythermal or supercooled snouts). These assumptions are tested using case studies of controlled moraine construction in which a wide range of debris entrainment and debris-rich ice thickening mechanisms are seen to produce the same geomorphic features. Polythermal conditions are crucial to the concentration of supraglacial debris and controlled moraines in glacier snouts via processes that are most effective at the glacier-permafrost interface. End moraines lie on a process-form continuum constrained by basal thermal regime. The morphological expression of englacial structures in controlled moraine ridges is most striking while the moraines retain ice cores, but the final deposits/landforms tend to consist of discontinuous transverse ridges with intervening hummocks, preserving only a weak impression of the former englacial structure. These are arranged in arcuate zones of hummocky moraine up to 2 km wide containing ice-walled lake plains and lying down flow of streamlined landforms produced by warm-based ice. A variety of debris entrainment mechanisms can produce the same geomorphic signature. Spatial and temporal variability in process-form relationships will lead to the sequential development of different types of end moraines during the recession of a glacier or ice sheet margin.

  2. Late Pleistocene piedmont glaciations in the Eastern Mediterranean; insights from cosmogenic 36Cl dating of hummocky moraines in southern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çiner, Attila; Sar?kaya, Mehmet Akif; Y?ld?r?m, Cengiz

    2015-05-01

    We report the presence of Late Pleistocene piedmont glaciers represented by the largest hummocky moraine field observed in the Eastern Mediterranean. The piedmont glaciers originated from the Geyikda? ice cap (?40 km2), situated between 2350 and 2650 m above sea level (a.s.l.) (Central Tauride Mountains of Turkey), and deeply carved the north-facing hillslopes before reaching the Namaras Valley (2000-2050 m a.s.l). The hummocky moraines resulted from in-situ deposition of stagnant glacier ice where debris cover was heterogeneously distributed on the glacier surface. Thirty-four boulders from hummocky, disintegration, lateral and terminal moraines from the Namaras Valley and the tributary Susam Valley (2100-2200 m a.s.l.) were dated by cosmogenic 36Cl surface exposure dating. The moraine ages indicate three phases of deglaciation during the Late Pleistocene. The oldest deglaciation occurred in the Namaras Valley at 18.0 ± 1.1 ka (ka: thousand years ago) towards the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and is recorded entirely by hummocky moraines. We speculate that hummocky moraine forming processes with cycles of relief inversion gave rise to boulder apparent ages up to a few thousand years younger in our study area. Therefore, 18.0 ± 1.1 ka should be regarded as a minimum age with a probable true age much closer to the local-LGM values (?20 ka) as observed in the surrounding mountains. Paleo-piedmont glaciers also deposited several lateral moraines that are ?50 m higher than the hummocky moraines. Although the lateral moraines probably represent the build-up and the hummocky moraines the final phase of the same local-LGM-pulse, both lateral moraines started to retreat from the Late-glacial (14.0 ± 2.7 ka) and gradually disappeared by mid-Holocene (5.2 ± 1.0 ka), encompassing the Younger Dryas (YD) stadial. In the Susam Valley, the Late-glacial is represented by a terminal moraine (13.4 ± 1.5 ka). The glacier retreat was very fast as indicated by an almost instantaneous disappearance of 5 km long Susam Valley glacier, represented by disintegration and hummocky moraines (14.0 ± 1.3 ka). Alternatively, in case the oldest boulder age is taken into account, the Susam Valley glacier can be also attributed to the late LGM (?17 ka) to Late-glacial (?14 ka) transition. Near the exit of the Susam Valley a right lateral moraine was deposited 11.6 ± 1.3 ka ago, confirming the presence of the YD in Geyikda?. Comparable glacial chronologies were obtained from other Turkish and Mediterranean mountains.

  3. Quaternary Science Reviews 27 (2008) 814831 Cosmogenic exposure-age chronologies of Pinedale and Bull Lake

    E-print Network

    Licciardi, Joseph M.

    2008-01-01

    have obtained 69 new cosmogenic 10 Be surface exposure ages from boulders on moraines deposited Range, and with Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6. End moraines marking the maximum Pinedale positions of the various ice-cap source regions. Moreover, all dated Pinedale terminal moraines in the greater Yellowstone

  4. Little Ice Age glacial activity in the Mt. Waddington area, British Columbia Coast

    E-print Network

    Smith, Dan

    techniques were used to provide relative age estimates of moraines formed as glacier termini retreated from the oldest glacial advances date to A.D. 620 and 925­933. Soil-covered and well-vegetated moraines built at Cathedral, Pagoda, and Siva glaciers date to between A.D. 1203 and 1226. Following this event, moraines

  5. Examination of surface exposure age of Antarctic moraines using in situ produced [sup 10]Be and [sup 26]Al

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E.T.; Edmond, J.M. ); Raisbeck, G.M.; Yiou, F. ); Kurz, M.D.; Brook, E.J. )

    1991-08-01

    Concentrations of [sup 10]Be (t[sub 1/2] = 1.5 [times] 10[sup 6]y) and [sup 26]Al (t[sub 1/2] = 0.72 [times] 10[sup 6]y) have been determined by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in a suite of quartz samples taken from sandstone boulders in several moraines in Arena Valley, a dry valley adjacent to the Taylor Glacier in the Quatermain Mountains, Southern Victoria Land, East Antarctica. These isotopes are produced in surficial quartz by cosmic ray spallation of O and Si. The concentrations in these samples ranged from 6.1 [times] 10[sup 5] to 3.0 [times] 10[sup 7] at g[sup [minus]1] for [sup 10]Be and from 9.4 [times] 10[sup 6] to 1.2 [times] 10[sup 8] at g[sup [minus]1] for [sup 26]Al, depending upon the extent of exposure at the surface. Production rates of 17[sub [minus]4][sup +16] at g[sup [minus]1]y[sup [minus]1] for [sup 10]Be and 113[sub [minus]16][sup +54] at g[sup [minus]1]y[sup [minus]1] for [sup 26]Al at 1300 m and 87[degree]S and a [sup 26]Al:[sup 10]Be production ratio of 6.5[sub [minus]1.3][sup +1.3] were calculated from the data. These values correspond to sea-level production rates at high geomagnetic latitude of 6.4 at g[sup [minus]1]y[sup [minus]1] and 41.7 at g[sup [minus]1]y[sup [minus]1] for [sup 10]Be and [sup 26]Al, respectively, consistent with determinations based on [approximately]11 Ky glacially polished surfaces in the Sierra Nevada in California. These production rates imply exposure ages for the various moraines ranging from 50 Ky to 2.5 My, in accordance with other geological evidence. The [sup 10]Be and [sup 26]Al ages of these rocks compare favorably with those found using a similar dating method based on in situ production of [sup 3]He.

  6. Components of the ice age circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, D.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of ice age boundary conditions on atmospheric dynamics and regional climate patterns are investigated using four GCM simulations. Particular consideration is given to sea surface temperature-sea ice distribution, the appearance of land ice, and the increased elevation of land ice. It is observed that the ice-age sea surface temperature stabilizes the atmosphere over the oceans, increases the frequency of storm tracking through central North America, and amplifies transient eddy energy without increasing baroclinic generation. It is detected that low-elevation ice generates low pressure over eastern North America and southern Europe in winter, while increasing cloud cover and cooling the land in summer. Elevation of the ice sheets cools the land in winter, further intensifies storms off northeastern North America, induces subsidence warming downstream of the European ice sheets in summer, and increases the transient and stationary eddy energy through increased baroclinicity.

  7. The Natural Thermoluminescence Survey of Antarctic Meteorites: Ordinary Chondrites at the Grosvenor Mountains, Macalpine Hills, Pecora Escarpment and Queen Alexandra Range, and New Data for the Elephant Moraine, Ice Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1999-01-01

    The natural TL (Thermoluminescence) survey of Antarctic meteorites was started in 1987 at the request of the Antarctic Meteorite Working Group in order to provide an initial description of radiation and thermal histories. It was intended to be a complement to the mineralogical and petrographic surveys performed at the Johnson Space Center and the Smithsonian Institution. All ANSMET (Antarctic Search for Meteorites) samples recovered since then, besides those that were heated throughout by atmospheric passage, have been measured. To date this amounts to about 1200 samples. As the data for each ice field reaches a significant level, we have been conducting a thorough examination of the data for that field with a view to identifying pairing, providing an estimate of terrestrial age and residence time on the ice surface, looking for differences in natural TL between ice fields, looking for variations in natural TL level with location on the ice, looking for meteorites with natural TL levels outside the normal range. Pairing is a necessary first step in ensuring the most productive use of the collection, while geographical variations could perhaps provide clues to concentration mechanisms. Samples with natural TL values outside the normal range are usually inferred to have had either small perihelia or recent changes in orbital elements. In addition, induced TL data have enabled us to look for evidence for secular variation in the nature of the flux of meteorites to Earth, and look for petrologically unusual meteorites, such as particularly primitive ordinary chondrites, heavily shocked meteorites, or otherwise anomalous meteorites. To date we have published studies of the TL properties of 167 ordinary chondrites from Allan Hills, 107 from Elephant Moraine and 302 from Lewis Cliff and we have discussed the TL properties of fifteen H chondrites collected at the Allan Hills by Euromet after a storm during the 1988 season. We now have additional databases for a reasonable number of ordinary chondrites from Grosvenor Mountains (39 meteorites), MacAlpine Hills (70 meteorites), Pecora Escarpment (60 meteorites), and Queen Alexandra Range (173 meteorites) and we have data for a further 101 samples from Elephant Moraine. The results are summarized. We also have fairly minimal databases (10-15 meteorites) for Dominion Range, Graves Nunataks, Reckling Peak and Wisconsin Range that will not be discussed here.

  8. The Natural Thermoluminescence Survey of Antarctic Meteorites: Ordinary Chondrites at the Grosvenor Mountains, MacAlpine Hills, Pecora Escarpment and Queen Alexandra Range, and New Data New Data for the Elephant Moraine, Ice Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    2000-01-01

    The natural TL survey of Antarctic meteorites was started in 1987 at the request of the Antarctic Meteorite Working Group in order to provide an initial description of radiation and thermal histories. It was intended to be a complement to the mineralogical and petrographic surveys performed at the Johnson Space Center and the Smithsonian Institution. All ANSMET samples recovered since then, besides those that were heated throughout by atmospheric passage, have been measured. To date this amounts to about 1200 samples. As the data for each ice field reaches a significant level, we have been conducting a thorough examination of the data for that field with a view to (1) identifying pairing, (2) providing an estimate of terrestrial age and residence time on the ice surface, (3) looking for differences in natural TL between ice fields, (4) looking for variations in natural TL level with location on the ice, (5) looking for meteorites with natural TL levels outside the normal range. Pairing is a necessary first step in ensuring the @ost productive use of the collection, while geographical variations could perhaps provide clues to concentration mechanisms. Samples with natural TL values outside the normal range are usually inferred to have had either small perihelia or recent changes in orbital elements. In addition, induced TL data have enabled us to (5) look for evidence for secular variation in the nature of the flux of meteorites to Earth, and (6) look for petrologically unusual meteorites, such as particularly primitive ordinary chondrites, heavily shocked meteorites, or otherwise anomalous meteorites. To date we have published studies of the TL properties of 167 ordinary chondrites from Allan Hills, 107 from Elephant Moraine and 302 from Lewis Cliff and we have discussed the TL properties of fifteen H chondrites collected at the Allan Hills by Euromet after a storm during the 1988 season. We now have additional databases for a reasonable number of ordinary chondrites from Grosvenor Mountains (39 meteorites), MacAlpine Hills (70 meteorites), Pecora Escarpment (60 meteorites), and Queen Alexandra Range (173 meteorites) and we have data for a further 101 samples from Elephant Moraine. The results are summarized in Table 1. We also have fairly minimal databases (10-15 meteorites) for Dominion Range, Graves Nunataks, Reckling Peak and Wisconsin Range that will not be discussed here.

  9. Mass loss from the southern half of the Greenland Ice Sheet since the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian K.; Kjær, Kurt H.; Bjørk, Anders A.; Khan, Shfaqat A.; Korsgaard, Niels J.; Funder, Svend; Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Vinther, Bo; Andresen, Camilla S.; Long, Antony J.; Woodroffe, Sarah A.; Steen Hansen, Eric; Olsen, Jesper

    2013-04-01

    The impact of mass loss from the Greenland Ice sheet (GrIS) on the 20th Century sea level rise (SLR) has long been subject to immense discussions. While globally distributed tide gauges suggest SLR of 15-20 cm computing the input constituents is of great concern - in particular for modeling sea level projections into the 21st Century. Estimates of the GrIS contribution to SLR have been derived using a number of different approaches, e.g. surface mass balance (SMB) calculations combined with estimates of ice discharge founded in correlating SMB anomalies and calving rates. Here, we show a novel geometric approach to determine the post-Little Ice Age (LIA) mass loss of the southern GrIS. We present mass balance estimates of the GrIS south of 71N since retreat commence from the maximum extent of the LIA to 2010. The mass loss estimates are derived for three intervals, LIAmax (1900) - 1981/85 (1), 1981/85 - 2002 (2), and 2002 - 2010 (3). We use high quality aerial stereo photogrammetric imagery recorded in 1981 and 1985 to map morphological features such as trim lines (boundary between freshly eroded and non-eroded bedrock) and end moraines marking the ice extent of the LIA, which thereby enables us to obtain vertical difference associated with former ice extent. We combine these with contemporary ice surface differences derived using NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) from 2002-2010, NASA's Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) from 2003-2009, and NASA's Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor (LVIS) from 2010, to estimate mass loss throughout the 20th and early 21st Century. Using our novel approach we find mass loss rates for the above periods (1) to (3) of 53 Gt/yr, 46 Gt/yr, and 109 Gt/yr, respectively. In southeast GrIS we find substantial and extensive mass loss reaching the ice divide while in southwestern GrIS mass loss is less and mainly associated with marine outlet glaciers. Furthermore, post-LIA mass loss is found to be highly variable, even within relative close proximity to other outlet glaciers and within comparable terminal environments.

  10. "Little Ice Age" climate of the North Atlantic sector

    E-print Network

    Schrier, Gerard van der

    "Little Ice Age" climate of the North Atlantic sector A perspective from the ocean Ice Age" climate of the North Atlantic sector ­ p.1 #12;`Little Ice Age' climate in Europe "Little Ice? regional and seasonal variations Luterbacher et al. (2004) "Little Ice Age" climate of the North Atlantic

  11. Coherence resonance and ice ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Jon D.

    2003-10-01

    The processes and feedbacks responsible for the 100-kyr cycle of Late Pleistocene global climate change are still being debated. This paper presents a numerical model that integrates (1) long-wavelength outgoing radiation, (2) the ice-albedo feedback, and (3) lithospheric deflection within the simple conceptual framework of coherence resonance. Coherence resonance is a dynamical process that results in the amplification of internally generated variability at particular periods in a system with bistability and delay feedback. In the Late Pleistocene climate system, bistability results from a combination of long-wavelength outgoing radiation and the ice-albedo feedback. These processes are in equilibrium at interglacial and full-glacial conditions. Delay feedback results from the influence of lithospheric deflection on ice sheet advance and retreat. This process has commonly been represented in numerical climate models by complex models of ice sheet dynamics. As an alternative, the present model incorporates ice sheet dynamics implicitly by using the observed relationship between ice coverage and global temperature. The result is a simple, well-constrained model for the Late Pleistocene global climate system with only one free parameter. The model accurately reproduces the climate variability recorded in the Vostok ice core from timescales of several thousand to one million years, including the histograms and power-spectral behavior of the data. The 100-kyr cycle is a free oscillation in the model, present even in the absence of external forcing. The model also reproduces smaller-amplitude periodicities at odd harmonics of 100 kyr, suggesting that a significant portion of the spectral power at the Milankovitch bands of 41 and 29 kyr may be internally generated. Finally, the development of 100-kyr oscillations in the Mid-Pleistocene may be understood within this model framework as the transition from a climate with one stable state to a system with two stable states brought about by the development of large continental ice sheets and the addition of the ice-albedo feedback to the climate system.

  12. Stationary Waves of the Ice Age Climate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Kerry H.; Held, Isaac M.

    1988-08-01

    A linearized, steady state, primitive equation model is used to simulate the climatological zonal asymmetries (stationary eddies) in the wind and temperature fields of the 18 000 YBP climate during winter. We compare these results with the eddies simulated in the ice age experiments of Broccoli and Manabe, who used CLIMAP boundary conditions and reduced atmospheric CO2 in an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) coupled with a static mixed layer ocean model. The agreement between the models is good, indicating that the linear model can be used to evaluate the relative influences of orography, diabatic heating, and transient eddy heat and momentum transports in generating stationary waves. We find that orographic forcing dominates in the ice age climate. The mechanical influence of the continental ice sheets on the atmosphere is responsible for most of the changes between the present day and ice age stationary eddies. This concept of the ice age climate is complicated by the sensitivity of the stationary eddies to the large increase in the magnitude of the zonal mean meridional temperature gradient simulated in the ice age GCM.

  13. The coldness of `Little Ice Age' Bjerknes' hypothesis revisited

    E-print Network

    Schrier, Gerard van der

    Ice Age' climate ­ p.8 #12;SLP reconstruction 1790-1820 I Luterbacher et al. (2002) SLP reconstruction The coldness of `Little Ice Age' climate ­ p.9 #12;SLP reconstruction 1790-1820 I Dr. Edward A. Holyoke (1728-1829) The coldness of `Little Ice Age' climate ­ p.9 #12;SLP reconstruction 1790-1820 The coldness of `Little Ice Age

  14. Short Communication Moraine pebbles and boulders yield indistinguishable 10

    E-print Network

    Briner, Jason P.

    Short Communication Moraine pebbles and boulders yield indistinguishable 10 Be ages: A case study: Cosmogenic exposure dating Glaciation Moraine Pinedale 10 Be a b s t r a c t Cosmogenic exposure dating of moraines during the last two decades has vastly improved knowledge on the timing of glaciation worldwide

  15. Debris flows from failures Neoglacial-age moraine dams in the Three Sisters and Mount Jefferson wilderness areas, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, J. E.; Hardison, J.H.; Costa, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    The highest concentration of lakes dammed by Neoglacial moraines in the conterminous United States is in the Mount Jefferson and Three Sisters Wilderness Areas in central Oregon. Between 1930 and 1980, breakouts of these lakes have resulted in 11 debris flows. The settings and sequences of events leading to breaching and the downstream flow behavior of the resulting debris flows provide guidance on the likelihood and magnitude of future lake breakouts and debris flows.

  16. Mantle viscosity and ice-age ice sheet topography

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, W.R.

    1996-09-06

    Ice-age paleotopography and mantle viscosity can both be inferred from observations of Earth`s response to the most recent deglaciation event of the current ice age. This procedure requires iterative application of a theoretical model of the global process of glacial isostatic adjustment. Results demonstrate that the iterative inversion procedure converges to a paleotopography that is extremely close to that from the ICE-4G model. The accompanying mantle viscosity profile is furthermore shown to reconcile the requirements of aspherical geoid anomalies related to the mantle convection process, thus resolving a fundamental issue concerning mantle rheology. The combined model also explains postglacial sea level histories for the east cost of the United States. 28 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Geomorphology and the Little Ice Age extent of the Drangajökull ice cap, NW Iceland, with focus on its three surge-type outlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brynjólfsson, Skafti; Schomacker, Anders; Ingólfsson, Ólafur

    2014-05-01

    Detailed geomorphological maps from the forefields of three surging outlets of the Drangajökull ice cap, northwest Iceland, are presented. The maps are based on field studies in 2011-2013, high resolution orthorectified aerial photographs recorded in 2005-2006, and airborne LiDAR data from 2011. The maps cover an area of about 40-60 km2 each. Furthermore, we present an overview map that covers the area surrounding the Drangajökull ice cap. Landforms and sediments were manually registered in a geographic information system (ESRI ArcGIS 10). We mapped glacial landforms such as flutes, ice-sculpted bedrock, hummocky moraine, kame terraces, and moraines. Fluvial landforms include outwash plains/sandur, pitted sandur, and eskers. In addition raised beaches were mapped. The Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum extent of Drangajökull and its outlet glaciers are fingerprinted by surficial till deposits and freshly glacially scoured bedrock. Sediments distal to the LIA deposits were recorded and consist mainly of late Weichselian and early Holocene sediments and locally weathered bedrock. Periglacial activity is demonstrated by patterned ground, mainly occurring on the 500-700 m high plateaux, and three rock glaciers. At least 3-4 surge events are described from each of the outlet glaciers, occurring over the last three centuries. In contrast to most other surge-type outlets from Icelandic ice caps, the Drangajökull outlets are confined within valleys, which affect the forefield geomorphology. Glaciofluvial landforms, moraines, and a thin sheet of till with numerous boulders are characteristic for the forefields of the Drangajökull outlets.

  18. Time needed for first lichen colonization of terminal moraines in the Tröllaskagi peninsula (North Iceland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Nuria; Palacios, David; Brynjólfsson, Skafti; Sæmundsson, Þorsteinn

    2015-04-01

    The Tröllaskagi peninsula is located in Central North Iceland. The peninsula belong to the Tertiary basaltic areas in Iceland and is characterised by numerous glacially eroded valleys and fjords. The altitude ranges from sea level to 1500 m. Around 150 glaciers, debris covered glaciers and clean glaciers exist in the cirques of the Tröllaskagi peninsula. Lichenometric techniques were applied to date moraines formed by some of these glaciers, especially from 1970-90, establishing growth rates for some species, e.g. 0.5 mm/year for Rizocarpon geographicum. However there is no information available on how long the lichens take to colonize the boulders in a moraine once it has become detached from the retreating glacier. The aim of this paper is to observe how long it takes for the boulders on the moraines to be colonized by lichens in the Tröllaskagi peninsula, where the separation date of a moraine from the retreating glacier tongue is known. Two case studies were used. The first was the surging glacier Búrfellsjökull, in the Búrfelllsdalur valley, an affluent of the Svarfaðardalur valley. The Búrfellsjökull glacier surged in 2001-2004 and the glacial terminus advanced 150-240 m, overrunnig a moraine formed around 1955 and formed a new moraine. About 2-3 years after the surge termination in 2004 the glacial terminus was already retreating and had left the moraine isolated (Brynjólfsson et al. 2012). The other case is the Gljúlfurárjökull glacier, in the Gljúlfurárdalur valley, an affluent of the Skíðadalur valley. It can be seen from the series of aerial photographs that the glacier terminus advanced during the 1990s until the year 2000. In 2004 the glacial terminus was already retreating and had separated from a small moraine formed during the previous advance. Thus, two different glaciers halted and formed one moraine each which they separated from almost similar time. During the detailed field work carried out in August 2014 on both moraines, lichen thalli were located and their greatest diameters measured, examining the surface, boulder by boulder, along a 100 m stretch of each moraine and counting those with existing lichen thalli and those without them. The results from the two moraines are very similar: a) Only 15 - 18% of the boulders presented some type of thallus. b) There is little variety in the thallus size on one specific boulder, but great variety between different boulders, even when they are very close together. c) The largest thalli of the moraine only appear on isolated boulders, between 3 and 0.7%. d) In the Rizocarpon geographicum thalli, exceptional sizes were found of isolated thalli with max. diameter of up to 2,8 mm. The most frequent size observed on boulders with homogeneous thalli is 1 - 2 mm. e) Some sectors of the two moraines still have ice under the boulders, which may explain the uneven lichen colonization in different parts of the moraine. These observations should be taken into consideration when examining the age of the moraines using lichenometry. 8-10 years after a moraine separated from the glacial terminus, only a minimum number of its boulders are stable enough to allow lichen colonization. As time passes, the blocks gradually become stabilized and allow lichen colonization. This may explain the widely varying thalli sizes found between different blocks in the same moraine. Research funded by Cryocrisis project (CGL2012-35858), Government of Spain, and Nils Mobility projects (EEA GRANTS)

  19. How ice age climate got the shakes

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1993-05-14

    Records in Greenland ice, ocean mud, and ancient corals are revealing abrupt climate shifts during the last ice age. The climate at the end of the last ice age apparently jumped from cold to warmer conditions, jumped back to cold, and then jumped into the present warm weather conditions. The mechanism for this erratic behavior is unknown, but appears to be an interaction of North Atlantic ocean currents and the ice sheets themselves. Warm water from the tropics would evaporate and become more saline and dense as it moved north. The colder, denser water would then sink and flow back to the tropics. The melting of ice caused by the warm water would decrease the salinity of the North Atlantic current, the water would not sink, the return current would be shut down, and the waters surrounding the ice sheets would become colder, slowing melting of the sheets. The cycle could be started again by collapse of the ice sheets from their internal heat. There may be other switches that could cause sudden climate change, as may be evidenced by links between changes in the Pacific and a decade of erratic weather in North America. Researcher would like to identify these switches to prevent them from being activated by human activity.

  20. Volcano-ice age link discounted

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1996-05-10

    Speculation that huge volcanic eruptions may have caused an immediate `volcanic winter` that devastated early humans and accelerated a slide into the Ice Age. However, further information from the Greenland ice sheet about the Toba errumption on the island of Sumatra 70,000 years ago, seems to indicate that such volcanic actions wasn`t a major climatic catalyst. This article discusses the evidence and further possibilities.

  1. Quantifying the character and short-term evolution of blue-ice moraines, Heritage Range, Antarctica: Integration and comparison of repeat UAV, TLS and dGPS-derived datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westoby, M.; Dunning, S.; Woodward, J.; Sugden, D.; Hein, A.; Marrero, S.; Reid, K.

    2014-12-01

    Blue-ice moraines are associated with katabatic winds that enhance ablation and sublimation at the base of nunataks which create surface depressions that are compensated for by ice-flow from an adjacent trunk glacier, and at right-angles to the main flow direction. It is hypothesised that this flow regime transports basal debris which emerges glacier surface at the base of the nunatak, where it resides for long periods of time. Quantifying the long- and short-term evolution and persistence of these features is central to refining estimates of, and constraining the principles drivers of long-term ice-sheet stability. High resolution digital elevation models derived from sUAV photography and Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry, and Terrestrial Laser Scanning have been used to quantify rates and patterns of topographic change across a blue-ice moraine in the Heritage Range, West Antarctica, between the 2012/13 and 2013/14 melt seasons, and within the 2012/13 melt season. We benchmark these SfM-TLS derived change detection data against coincident dGPS ablation and movement stake data, with a view to assessing the utility of the different approaches for resolving small-scale (centimetric to sub-centimetric) surface change in ice-marginal areas over annual and sub-annual timescales.

  2. The natural thermoluminescence of meteorites. 7: Ordinary chondrites from the Elephant Moraine region, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, P. H.; Roth, J.; Sears, H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1994-01-01

    We report natural and induced thermoluminescence (TL) measurements for meteorites from the Elephant Moraine region (76 deg 17 min S, 157 deg 20 min E) of Antarctica. We use our data to identify fragmented meteorites (i.e., 'pairings'); our dataset of 107 samples represents at most 73 separate meteorite falls. Pairing groups are generally confined to single icefields, or to adjacent icefields, but a small proportion cross widely separated icefields in the region, suggesting that the fields can be considered as a single unit. Meteorites from this region have high natural TL levels, which indicates that they have small terrestrial surface exposure ages (less than 12,500 years). There do not appear to be significant differences in natural TL levels (and hence surface exposure ages) between individual blue icefields in the region. The proportion of reheated meteorites from the Elephant Moraine region is similar to that of other Antarctic sites and modern falls, consistent with the uniformity of the meteoritic flux in this regard. An unusual subset of H-chondrites, with high induced TL peak temperatures, is absent among the data for meteorites collected in the Elephant Moraine region, which stresses their similarity to modern falls. We suggest that the Elephant Moraine region, which stresses their similarity to modern falls. We suggest that the Elephant Moraine icefields formed through shallow ablation of the ice. Unlike the Allan Hills sites to the south, lateral transport is probably less important relative to the infall of meteorites in concentrating meteorites on these icefields.

  3. Probability of moraine survival in a succession of glacial advances.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbons, A.B.; Megeath, J.D.; Pierce, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    Emplacement of glacial moraines normally results in obliteration of older moraines deposited by less extensive glacial advances, a process we call 'obliterative overlap'. Assuming randomness and obliterative overlap, after 10 glacial episodes the most likely number of surviving moraines is only three. The record of the Pleistocene is in agreement with the probability analysis: the 10 glaciations during the past 0.9 Myr inferred from the deep-sea record resulted in moraine sequences in which only two or three different-aged moraine belts can generally be distinguished. -from Authors

  4. Evidence for long-lasting landform surface instability on hummocky moraines in the Pamir Mountains (Tajikistan) from 10Be surface exposure dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zech, Roland; Glaser, Bruno; Sosin, Pjotr; Kubik, Peter W.; Zech, Wolfgang

    2005-09-01

    Surface exposure dating is a new, but already widely used tool in geomorphological studies, aiming, e.g. at the establishment of glacial chronologies. Sometimes, however, results from samples taken from one and the same moraine scatter widely and thus interpretation turns out to be difficult. Here we assess sample-specific effects (topographic shielding, sample geometry and erosion) on 17 surface exposure ages obtained by analysis of in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be in boulders from moraines in the Pamir Mountains (Tajikistan). A wide scatter of exposure ages is observed only for hummocky moraines (> 45 to 10 ka BP), but not for distinct lateral moraines (˜ 20 and 60 ka BP, respectively). It is hypothesized that inheritance (prior exposure) and moraine degradation may be responsible for the wide scatter of exposure ages on the hummocky moraines. To proof this hypothesis, a data set of 72 boulders from the Pamir Mountains is used. We conclude that most likely hummocky moraines experienced long-lasting landform surface instability, probably due to buried glacier ice that is protected from melting several ten thousand years by a thick debris cover.

  5. Huge Ice-age lakes in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangerud, Jan; Astakhov, Valery; Jakobsson, Martin; Svendsen, John Inge

    2001-12-01

    During an early phase of the Last Ice Age (Weichselian, Valdaian), about 90 000 yr ago, an ice sheet formed over the shallow Barents and Kara seas. The ice front advanced on to mainland Russia and blocked the north-flowing rivers (Yenissei, Ob, Pechora, Dvina and others) that supply most of the freshwater to the Arctic Ocean. The result was that large ice-dammed lakes were formed between the ice sheet in the north and the continental water divides to the south. Here we present reconstructions and calculations of the areas and volumes of these lakes. The lake on the West Siberian Plain was nearly twice as large as the largest lake on Earth today. The well-mapped Lake Komi in northeast Europe and a postulated lake in the White Sea Basin would also rank before the present-day third largest lake. The lakes overflowed towards the south and thus the drainage of much of the Eurasian continent was reversed. The result was a major change in the water balance on the continent, decreased freshwater supply to the Arctic Ocean, and increased freshwater flow to the Aral, Caspian, Black and Baltic seas. A sudden outburst of the lakes' water to the Arctic Ocean when the ice sheet thinned is postulated.

  6. Engineering geology and ground water considerations for sanitary landfills in Wisconsin-aged morainal deposits of central Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    West, T.R.

    1985-01-01

    In the past five years the author has been engaged as an engineering geology consultant concerning a number of existing and proposed landfills, located in the Wisconsin morainal plains of central Indiana. Work has involved the representation of landfill owners in some cases and opposing citizens in others. For each case except one, municipal waste or conventional waste landfills were involved with the other involving hazardous waste disposal. Several major geologic considerations are involved in proper sitting of landfills in this region. These include: (1) Type, nature and stratigraphy of unconsolidated materials; (2) Thickness of unconsolidated material; (3) Type and nature of bedrock below unconsolidated material: (4) Groundwater supplies in vicinity; (5) Topography of site including flood potential; and (6) Groundwater table and water bearing zones involved. Engineering details of landfill construction and monitoring must also be considered in regard to the site geology. Aspects of leachate generation and containment must be addressed as well.

  7. Age characteristics in a multidecadal Arctic sea ice simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hunke, Elizabeth C; Bitz, Cecllia M

    2008-01-01

    Results from adding a tracer for age of sea ice to a sophisticated sea ice model that is widely used for climate studies are presented. The consistent simulation of ice age, dynamics, and thermodynamics in the model shows explicitly that the loss of Arctic perennial ice has accelerated in the past three decades, as has been seen in satellite-derived observations. Our model shows that the September ice age average across the Northern Hemisphere varies from about 5 to 8 years, and the ice is much younger (about 2--3 years) in late winter because of the expansion of first-year ice. We find seasonal ice on average comprises about 5% of the total ice area in September, but as much as 1.34 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} survives in some years. Our simulated ice age in the late 1980s and early 1990s declined markedly in agreement with other studies. After this period of decline, the ice age began to recover, but in the final years of the simulation very little young ice remains after the melt season, a strong indication that the age of the pack will again decline in the future as older ice classes fail to be replenished. The Arctic ice pack has fluctuated between older and younger ice types over the past 30 years, while ice area, thickness, and volume all declined over the same period, with an apparent acceleration in the last decade.

  8. Olympus Mons Debris-Covered Glaciers: Formation, Evolution and Volcano-Ice Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldt, B.; Head, J. W.; Marchant, D.; Wilson, L.

    2010-03-01

    New data on the structure, accumulation zone, talus contributions, debris cover, terminal and lateral moraines, ages and volcano-ice interactions of the Late Amazonian tropical mountain glaciers along the western scarp of Olympus Mons are reported.

  9. ResearchHighlights The last Ice Age in Australia

    E-print Network

    Chen, Ying

    ResearchHighlights The last Ice Age in Australia Dr Timothy Barrows , Dr Keith Fifield, Accelerator of the last Ice Age, particularly in the Snowy Mountains and Tasmania have led to a complete revision is the greatest in recent geological history. Using the altitude of the ice age landforms we have calculated

  10. Dynamics of ice ages on Mars Norbert Schorghofer1

    E-print Network

    Schörghofer, Norbert

    LETTERS Dynamics of ice ages on Mars Norbert Schorghofer1 Unlike Earth, where astronomical climate loss and recharge reveal forty major ice ages over the past five million years. Today, this gives rise. Such aver- aging methods have been applied to the retreat of an ice table11,16 and can be extended

  11. A review of topographic controls on moraine distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Iestyn D.; Lovell, Harold

    2014-12-01

    Ice-marginal moraines are often used to reconstruct the dimensions of former ice masses, which are then used as proxies for palaeoclimate. This approach relies on the assumption that the distribution of moraines in the modern landscape is an accurate reflection of former ice margin positions during climatically controlled periods of ice margin stability. However, the validity of this assumption is open to question, as a number of additional, nonclimatic factors are known to influence moraine distribution. This review considers the role played by topography in this process, with specific focus on moraine formation, preservation, and ease of identification (topoclimatic controls are not considered). Published literature indicates that the importance of topography in regulating moraine distribution varies spatially, temporally, and as a function of the ice mass type responsible for moraine deposition. In particular, in the case of ice sheets and ice caps (> 1000 km2), one potentially important topographic control on where in a landscape moraines are deposited is erosional feedback, whereby subglacial erosion causes ice masses to become less extensive over successive glacial cycles. For the marine-terminating outlets of such ice masses, fjord geometry also exerts a strong control on where moraines are deposited, promoting their deposition in proximity to valley narrowings, bends, bifurcations, where basins are shallow, and/or in the vicinity of topographic bumps. Moraines formed at the margins of ice sheets and ice caps are likely to be large and readily identifiable in the modern landscape. In the case of icefields and valley glaciers (10-1000 km2), erosional feedback may well play some role in regulating where moraines are deposited, but other factors, including variations in accumulation area topography and the propensity for moraines to form at topographic pinning points, are also likely to be important. This is particularly relevant where land-terminating glaciers extend into piedmont zones (unconfined plains, adjacent to mountain ranges) where large and readily identifiable moraines can be deposited. In the case of cirque glaciers (< 10 km2), erosional feedback is less important, but factors such as topographic controls on the accumulation of redistributed snow and ice and the availability of surface debris, regulate glacier dimensions and thereby determine where moraines are deposited. In such cases, moraines are likely to be small and particularly susceptible to post-depositional modification, sometimes making them difficult to identify in the modern landscape. Based on this review, we suggest that, despite often being difficult to identify, quantify, and mitigate, topographic controls on moraine distribution should be explicitly considered when reconstructing the dimensions of palaeoglaciers and that moraines should be judiciously chosen before being used as indirect proxies for palaeoclimate (i.e., palaeoclimatic inferences should only be drawn from moraines when topographic controls on moraine distribution are considered insignificant).

  12. Why could ice ages be unpredictable?

    E-print Network

    Crucifix, Michel

    2013-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that the variations of Earth's orbit and obliquity control the timing of Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles. Evidence comes from power spectrum analysis of palaeoclimate records and from inspection of the timing of glacial and deglacial transitions. However, we do not know how tight this control is. Is it, for example, conceivable that random climatic fluctuations could cause a delay in deglaciation, bad enough to skip a full precession or obliquity cycle and subsequently modify the sequence of ice ages? To address this question, seven previously published conceptual models of ice ages are analysed by reference to the notion of generalised synchronisation. Insight is being gained by comparing the effects of the astronomical forcing with idealised forcings composed of only one or two periodic components. In general, the richness of the astronomical forcing allows for synchronisation over a wider range of parameters, compared to periodic forcing. Hence, glacial cycles may conceivabl...

  13. Why could ice ages be unpredictable?

    E-print Network

    Michel Crucifix

    2013-02-06

    It is commonly accepted that the variations of Earth's orbit and obliquity control the timing of Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles. Evidence comes from power spectrum analysis of palaeoclimate records and from inspection of the timing of glacial and deglacial transitions. However, we do not know how tight this control is. Is it, for example, conceivable that random climatic fluctuations could cause a delay in deglaciation, bad enough to skip a full precession or obliquity cycle and subsequently modify the sequence of ice ages? To address this question, seven previously published conceptual models of ice ages are analysed by reference to the notion of generalised synchronisation. Insight is being gained by comparing the effects of the astronomical forcing with idealised forcings composed of only one or two periodic components. In general, the richness of the astronomical forcing allows for synchronisation over a wider range of parameters, compared to periodic forcing. Hence, glacial cycles may conceivably have remained paced by the astronomical forcing throughout the Pleistocene. However, all the models examined here also show a range of parameters for which the structural stability of the ice age dynamics is weak. This means that small variations in parameters or random fluctuations may cause significant shifts in the succession of ice ages if the system were effectively in that parameter range. Whether or not the system has strong structural stability depends on the amplitude of the effects associated with the astronomical forcing, which significantly differ across the different models studied here. The possibility of synchronisation on eccentricity is also discussed and it is shown that a high Rayleigh number on eccentricity, as recently found in observations, is no guarantee of reliable synchronisation.

  14. The role of feedbacks between geomorphic and vegetation dynamics for lateral moraine slope configuration and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichel, Jana; Corenblit, Dov; Dikau, Richard

    2015-04-01

    In proglacial areas, lateral moraines represent one of the most important sediment storages and dynamic areas. Glacier retreat since the Little Ice Age is accelerated by climate change and believed to control simultaneous paraglacial adjustment and vegetation succession on lateral moraine slopes. Biogeomorphic research suggests strong feedbacks between geomorphic processes, landforms, vegetation and vegetation dynamics in these environments. However, for lateral moraine slopes, these feedbacks are only partly understood. In our study, we use and develop biogeomorphic concepts in a scale-based approach to understand the role of feedbacks between geomorphic and vegetation dynamics for lateral moraine slope configuration and development. We illustrate our concepts with empirical evidences from on-going research in the Turtmann glacier forefield (Switzerland) and give first answers to the following questions: (i) Which plant species can influence geomorphic dynamics on lateral moraine slopes, and how? (ii) Under which conditions can feedbacks between geomorphic and vegetation dynamics occur? (iii) Which are the main factors influencing lateral moraine slope configuration and development? On a small scale (i), we identify dwarf shrubs (e.g., Dryas octopetala L.) as an engineer species, which can influence geomorphic processes through their specifically adapted plant functional traits, e.g., the trapping of fine sediments in their high-cover mats. On a meso scale (ii), feedbacks between geomorphic and vegetation dynamics can occur in a 'biogeomorphic feedback window' with moderate magnitude and frequency processes, e.g., debris slides, interrill erosion, or between lower frequency processes, e.g., debris flows and snow avalanches. Under these conditions, engineer species with high resistance can establish and change the dominant geomorphic processes from flow and sliding to bound solifluction. Our empirical data shows that on a large scale (iii), vegetation and geomorphic patterns on lateral moraines do not necessarily follow a terrain age gradient. Instead, patch dynamics driven by geomorphic processes and biogeomorphic feedbacks can determine the development and spatial configuration of lateral moraine slopes, which in turn influence sediment flux in space and time (Eichel et al., in rev.). Reference: Eichel, J.; Corenblit, D. and R. Dikau (in rev.): Feedbacks between geomorphic and vegetation dynamics on lateral moraine slopes: a conceptual biogeomorphic approach. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms.

  15. Radiostratigraphy and age structure of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    E-print Network

    MacGregor, Joe

    Radiostratigraphy and age structure of the Greenland Ice Sheet Joseph A. MacGregor1 , Mark A reflections are used to generate a gridded age volume for most of the ice sheet and also to determine at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA, 4 Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets, The University of Kansas, Lawrence

  16. Coherence resonance and ice ages Jon D. Pelletier

    E-print Network

    Rácz, Zoltán

    Coherence resonance and ice ages Jon D. Pelletier Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, stochastic, energy balance Citation: Pelletier, J. D., Coherence resonance and ice ages, J. Geophys. Res-wavelength outgoing radiation, (2) the ice-albedo feedback, and (3) lithospheric deflection within the simple

  17. A glacial chronology for post Little Ice Age glacier changes based on proglacial geomorphology, tree rings, OSL- and 14C-dating at Mt. Pulongu, southeastern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loibl, David; Hochreuther, Philipp; Hülle, Daniela; Zhu, Haifeng; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2014-05-01

    The remote eastern Nyainqêntanglha Range contains numerous temperate monsoonal glaciers which are highly sensitive to climate change. However, there is still a great lack of information on late Holocene glacier fluctuations and the factors driving these changes. We conducted field work at two large debris covered glaciers on the northern and southern slopes of Mt. Pulongu (~6,300 m a.s.l.). Detailed geomorphological mapping of the proglacial settings revealed similar patterns of two major and three minor/recessional glacial advances. At the northern glacier, tree ring dating for the moraines of the two major advances resulted in minimum ages of ~1670 AD and ~1745 AD, respectively. These Little Ice Age (LIA) ages are supported by geochemical measurements on glacial and glacio-fluvial sediments from these settings showing almost no signs of chemical weathering. Further evidence, including 14C-age and depositional characteristics of a buried tree, and moraine topography, suggest that the second advance was stronger but was hampered by a dead ice relict of the previous advance. At the northern glacier, this obstacle led to an ice tailback and subsequently to lateral moraine oversteepening and breaching, resulting in a large lateral glacier lobe. At the southern glacier, the valley is narrower and hence did not allow the formation of a lateral glacier lobe. However, the proglacial setting, i.e. pronounced push moraines, suggests a similar sequence of events. Furthermore, both settings contain two moraine-dammed lakes in similar positions. A combination of OSL-dating, tree ring based reconstruction of the local climate, and constraints from the proglacial geomorphological setting enabled the inclusion of the 3 minor moraine stages into the glacial chronology. This multiproxy-approach resulted in a well-established morphochronology with multiple direct and indirect dates that allow the reconstruction of the glacial fluctuations at Mt. Pulongu since the LIA. A regional remote sensing study revealed that these settings are no special cases, but that many large glaciers in the eastern Nyainqêntanglha range show similar proglacial sequences, including several examples of large lateral glacier lobes. We therefore assume that - despite great heterogeneity in this high-mountain environment - the emerging patterns were caused by climatic changes that affected the whole region.

  18. Refining the pattern and relative timing of Cordilleran Ice Sheet retreat: paleogeography and evolution of late-glacial ice-marginal lakes on the southern Fraser Plateau, British Columbia

    E-print Network

    Brennand, Tracy

    margin in the absence of traditional ice-marginal indicators (e.g. large recessional moraines). Methods ! ! ! ! Grounding line ! ! ! ! Push moraine ! ! ! ! Ribbed moraine Moraines Landforms used in lake stage

  19. About Weichselian Ice-Marginal Positions South of the Baltic Sea - Stratigraphy and Critical Discussion of Age Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boese, Margot; Hardt, Jacob

    2015-04-01

    In the classical research area of glacial morphology south of the Baltic Sea, the supposed main ice-marginal positions of the Weichselian glaciation have been documented on various maps. The lines in the maps suggest a similar timing of the ice margin along these hypothetical lines and represent a traditional morphostratigraphical approach. Nevertheless, more recent research resulting in stratigraphical interpretations of the related sediments give controversial results about the connectivity of ice-marginal features in the landscape. In addition, the development of new dating techniques reveals more diversified ice dynamics of the Scandinavian ice sheet as well as a time transgressiveness of the formation of major end moraine belts. On the other hand, age estimates generated by various methods don't give an unambiguous pattern of ice advances and retreat phases. The interpretation of geochronological data is a highly sensitive challenge in respect to the methods themselves and in respect to landscape processes induced by Late Glacial climatic phases, the relief, and by human impact during the Holocene. The Pomeranian ice margin will be taken as an example for the diverse interpretations of data obtained by Surface Exposure Dating, Optically Stimulated Luminescence, and Radiocarbon data. The dating methods require material of different origin, such as boulders at the surface, fine grained sediment, and organic material. All methods have been applied for dating the same ice marginal position. The remaining question is to which extent the reactions of the ice margins of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet can be brought into accordance with the general climatic record of long term climate archives or whether local weather conditions linked to changes in the atmospheric flow pattern influenced small scale ice advances or retreat along the fringe of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet.

  20. Determination of the age distribution of sea ice from Lagrangian observations of ice motion

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, R.; Cunningham, G.F.; Rothrock, D.A.; Stern, H.L.

    1995-03-01

    A procedure for monitoring the local age distribution of the Arctic sea ice cover is presented. The age distribution specifies the area covered by ice in different age classes. In the authors` approach, a regular array of grid points is defined initially on the first image of a long time series, and an ice tracker finds the positions of those points in all subsequent images of the series. These Lagrangian points mark the corners of a set of cells that move and deform with the ice cover. The area of each cell changes with each new image or time step. A positive change indicates that ice in a new age class was formed in the cell. A negative change is assumed to have ridged the youngest ice in the cell, reducing its area. The ice in each cell ages as it progresses through the time series. The area of multiyear ice in each cell is computed using an ice classification algorithm. Any area that is not accounted for by the young ice or multiyear ice is assigned to a category of older first-year ice. They thus have a fine age resolution in the young end of the age distribution, and coarse resolution for older ice. The age distribution of the young ice can be converted to a thickness distribution using a simple empirical relation between accumulated freezing-degree days and ice thickness, or using a more complicated thermodynamic model. They describe a general scheme for implementing this procedure for the Arctic Ocean from fall freeze-up until the onset of melt in the spring. The concept is illustrated with a time series of five ERS-1 SAR images spanning a period of 12 days. Such a scheme could be implemented with RADARSAT SAR imagery to provide basin-wide ice age and thickness information.

  1. Moraine chronosequence of the Donnelly Dome region, Alaska A. Matmon a,

    E-print Network

    Briner, Jason P.

    Moraine chronosequence of the Donnelly Dome region, Alaska A. Matmon a, , J.P. Briner b , G. Carver November 2009 Available online 26 May 2010 Keywords: Cosmogenic exposure ages Moraines Alaska Delta Donnelly We present 10 Be exposure ages from moraines in the Delta River Valley, a reference locality

  2. Airborne LiDAR detection of postglacial faults and Pulju moraine in Palojärvi, Finnish Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutinen, Raimo; Hyvönen, Eija; Middleton, Maarit; Ruskeeniemi, Timo

    2014-04-01

    Postglacial faults (PGFs) are indicative of young tectonic activity providing crucial information for nuclear repository studies. Airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data revealed three previously unrecognized late- or postglacial faults in northernmost Finnish Lapland. Under the canopies of mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) we also found clusters of the Pulju moraine, typically found on the ice-divide zone of the former Fennoscandian ice sheet (FIS), to be spatially associated with the fault-scarps. Tilt derivative (TDR) filtered LiDAR data revealed the previously unknown Palojärvi fault that, by the NE-SW orientation parallels with the well documented Lainio-Suijavaara PGF in northern Sweden. This suggests that PGFs are more extensive features than previously recognized. Two inclined diamond drill holes verified the fractured system of the Palojärvi fault and revealed clear signs of postglacial reactivation. Two other previously unrecognized PGFs, the W-E trending Paatsikkajoki fault and the SE-NW trending Kultima fault, differ from the Palojärvi faulting in orientation and possibly also with regard to age. The Pulju moraine, a morphological feature showing transitions from shallow (< 2-m-high) circular/arcuate ridges to sinusoidal/anastomosing esker networks was found to be concentrated within 6 km from the Kultima fault-scarp. We advocate that some of the past seismic events took place under the retreating wet-base ice sheet and the increased pore-water pressure triggered the sediment mass flows and formation of the Pulju moraine-esker landscape.

  3. Slip rates of the Karakorum fault, Ladakh, India, determined using cosmic ray exposure dating of debris flows and moraines

    E-print Network

    Kraus, Mary

    of debris flows and moraines E. T. Brown,1 R. Bendick,2 D. L. Bourle`s,3 V. Gaur,4 P. Molnar,2 G. M of 10 Be in boulders on the crest of the most extensive moraine near Leh imply that the most recent continental ice sheets. If features, including lateral moraines, that Liu inferred to have been offset 300

  4. Sedimentology and architecture of De Geer moraines in the western Scottish Highlands, and implications for grounding-line glacier dynamics

    E-print Network

    Sedimentology and architecture of De Geer moraines in the western Scottish Highlands Accepted 6 March 2008 Keywords: De Geer moraine Ice-dammed lake Grounding line Younger Dryas Scotland Sedimentary exposures in moraines in a Scottish Highland valley (Glen Chaorach), reveal stacked sequences

  5. Geophysical Surveys Over a Terminal Moraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, L. R.; Langston, G.; Hayashi, M.

    2007-12-01

    Alpine watersheds represent the headwaters of many major rivers in western Canada. Consequently, understanding the hydrological cycle within these watersheds is critical for modeling the effects of climate change on water resources in western Canada and for developing informed water management strategies. Terminal moraines represent a significant hydrological response unit within many alpine watersheds in western Canada. Recent studies suggest that these features may provide sites for water storage. The preliminary results of a geophysical survey of a terminal moraine exhibiting geomorphological characteristics suggesting an ice-core will be presented. It is hypothesized that bedrock topography and the presence of ice creates barriers and channels groudwater flow. The focus of the survey was to delineate the hydrologically significant features within the moraine using electrical resistivity imaging (ERI), seismic refraction, and ground penetrating radar (GPR). Buried ice was easily detected using ERI due to high resistivity of over 1 MOhm-m. However, it was not as extensive as expected. Seismic refraction proved to be most useful in detecting the underlying bedrock. GPR images showed many reflection fragments but were noisy and difficult to interpret. Regions of relatively high electrical conductivity suggest some degree of channelization of groundwater in the vicinity of a tarn.

  6. Geological Evidence for Recent Ice Ages on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.; Mustard, J. F.; Kreslavsky, M. A.; Milliken, R. E.; Marchant, D. R.

    2003-12-01

    A primary cause of ice ages on Earth is orbital forcing from variations in orbital parameters of the planet. On Mars such variations are known to be much more extreme. Recent exploration of Mars has revealed abundant water ice in the near-surface at high latitudes in both hemispheres. We outline evidence that these near-surface, water-ice rich mantling deposits represent a mixture of ice and dust that is layered, meters thick, and latitude dependent. These units were formed during a geologically recent major martian ice age, and were emplaced in response to the changing stability of water ice and dust on the surface during variations in orbital parameters. Evidence for these units include a smoothing of topography at subkilometer baselines from about 30o north and south latitudes to the poles, a distinctive dissected texture in MOC images in the +/-30o-60o latitude band, latitude-dependent sets of topographic characteristics and morphologic features (e.g., polygons, 'basketball' terrain texture, gullies, viscous flow features), and hydrogen concentrations consistent with the presence of abundant ice at shallow depths above 60o latitude. The most equatorward extent of these ice-rich deposits was emplaced down to latitudes equivalent to Saudi Arabia and the southern United States on Earth during the last major martian ice age, probably about 0.4-2.1 million years ago. Mars is currently in an inter-ice age period and the ice-rich deposits are presently undergoing reworking, degradation and retreat in response to the current stability relations of near-surface ice. Unlike Earth, martian ice ages are characterized by warmer climates in the polar regions and the enhanced role of atmospheric water ice and dust transport and deposition to produce widespread and relatively evenly distributed smooth deposits at mid-latitudes during obliquity maxima.

  7. Gas ageice age differences and the chronology of the Vostok ice core, M. L. Bender,1

    E-print Network

    Chappellaz, Jérôme

    Gas age­ice age differences and the chronology of the Vostok ice core, 0­100 ka M. L. Bender,1 G the ice in which it is embedded. The age difference is not well constrained for slowly accumulating ice chronologies that use different assumptions to calculate gas age­ice age differences. We then evaluate

  8. Carbon-14 ages of Allan Hills meteorites and ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.; Norris, T.

    1982-01-01

    Allan Hills is a blue ice region of approximately 100 sq km area in Antarctica where many meteorites have been found exposed on the ice. The terrestrial ages of the Allan Hills meteorites, which are obtained from their cosmogenic nuclide abundances are important time markers which can reflect the history of ice movement to the site. The principal purpose in studying the terrestrial ages of ALHA meteorites is to locate samples of ancient ice and analyze their trapped gas contents. Attention is given to the C-14 and Ar-39 terrestrial ages of ALHA meteorites, and C-14 ages and trapped gas compositions in ice samples. On the basis of the obtained C-14 terrestrial ages, and Cl-36 and Al-26 results reported by others, it is concluded that most ALHA meteorites fell between 20,000 and 200,000 years ago.

  9. Ice Age terrestrial carbon changes revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, Thomas J.

    1995-09-01

    N. Shackleton (1977) first proposed that changes in the marine ?13C record (??13C) could be used to infer ice age changes in carbon storage on land. The previously published best estimate from the marine record is equivalent to about 490 Gt (0.32 ??13C). However, Adams et al. (1990) utilized a pollen database to estimate a 1350 Gt change in carbon storage, which would cause a ??13C of about 0.90‰. The nearly trillion ton difference in estimates amounts to almost half of the total carbon stored on land. To address the nature of this discrepancy, I have reexamined the terrestrial carbon record based on a new pollen database compiled by R. Webb and the Cooperative Holocene Mapping Project (COHMAP) group. I estimate about 750-1050 Gt glacial-interglacial change in terrestrial carbon storage, with the range reflecting uncertainties in carbon storage values for different biomes. Additional uncertainties apply to rainforest and wetland extent and presence of C4 plants, which have a significantly different isotopic signature than C3 plants. Although some scenarios overlap a new estimate of carbon storage based on the oceanic ??13C record (revised to 0.40‰ and 610 Gt), most estimates seem to fall outside the envelope of uncertainty in the marine record. Several possible explanations for this gap involve: (1) a missing sink may be involved in land-sea carbon exchange (e.g., continental slopes); (2) the geochemistry of the exchange process is not understood; (3) carbon storage by biome may have changed under ice age boundary conditions; or (4) the standard interpretation of whole ocean changes in the marine ?13C record requires reevaluation. This latter conclusion receives some support from comparison of the ?13C records for ?18O Stages 2 and 6. For the Stage 6 glacial, the ?13C changes are 50-60% larger than for the Stage 2 glacial. Yet implications of increased aridity are not supported by longterm trends in atmospheric dust loading. To summarize, the above analysis implies that, despite the uncertainties remaining in estimates of terrestrial carbon storage changes, a case can be made that our understanding of the transfer process is incomplete and that the eventual explanation may require clarification of factors affecting the marine ?13C record.

  10. Radiostratigraphy and age structure of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, Joseph A; Fahnestock, Mark A; Catania, Ginny A; Paden, John D; Prasad Gogineni, S; Young, S Keith; Rybarski, Susan C; Mabrey, Alexandria N; Wagman, Benjamin M; Morlighem, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Several decades of ice-penetrating radar surveys of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have observed numerous widespread internal reflections. Analysis of this radiostratigraphy has produced valuable insights into ice sheet dynamics and motivates additional mapping of these reflections. Here we present a comprehensive deep radiostratigraphy of the Greenland Ice Sheet from airborne deep ice-penetrating radar data collected over Greenland by The University of Kansas between 1993 and 2013. To map this radiostratigraphy efficiently, we developed new techniques for predicting reflection slope from the phase recorded by coherent radars. When integrated along track, these slope fields predict the radiostratigraphy and simplify semiautomatic reflection tracing. Core-intersecting reflections were dated using synchronized depth-age relationships for six deep ice cores. Additional reflections were dated by matching reflections between transects and by extending reflection-inferred depth-age relationships using the local effective vertical strain rate. The oldest reflections, dating to the Eemian period, are found mostly in the northern part of the ice sheet. Within the onset regions of several fast-flowing outlet glaciers and ice streams, reflections typically do not conform to the bed topography. Disrupted radiostratigraphy is also observed in a region north of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream that is not presently flowing rapidly. Dated reflections are used to generate a gridded age volume for most of the ice sheet and also to determine the depths of key climate transitions that were not observed directly. This radiostratigraphy provides a new constraint on the dynamics and history of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Key Points Phase information predicts reflection slope and simplifies reflection tracing Reflections can be dated away from ice cores using a simple ice flow model Radiostratigraphy is often disrupted near the onset of fast ice flow PMID:26213664

  11. ForPeerReview Ice age True Polar wander in a compressible and non

    E-print Network

    ForPeerReview Ice age True Polar wander in a compressible and non hydrostatic Earth Journal Ice age (TPW), have continuously been debated, after the pioneering works of the sixties. We show ice age TPW

  12. Push moraines in the upper valley of Santa Cruz river, southwest Argentina. Structural analysis and relationship with Late Pleistocene paleoclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyanes, Gabriel; Massabie, Armando

    2015-01-01

    The upper cliff of the Santa Cruz River was used to assess the proglacial environments of the Argentino Glacier outlet of Late Pleistocene age. These cliffs show glaciolacustrine, fluvioglacial and till deposits, where only the first one are deformed. Glacial landforms in the area and these structures suggest that the ice mass advanced, topographically controlled, towards the east from the Patagonian Ice Sheet pushing up the proglacial sediments. The spatial arrangement of thrusts and overturned folds, the drumlins-flutes moraine directions and the end moraines shape, allow inferring the dynamic and the Argentino glacier profile. Detailed analyses of the glaciotectonic structures indicate that these have two origins: load in the north with stress transfer to the southeast, and push from the west. Through the analysis of deformed sediments, their thickness and their sedimentary and structural features, three zones of deformations were recognized. Each of these zones was associated to glacial advances because of changes of the regional climate conditions.

  13. Recent ice ages on Mars James W. Head1

    E-print Network

    Head III, James William

    Recent ice ages on Mars James W. Head1 , John F. Mustard1 , Mikhail A. Kreslavsky1,2 , Ralph E-- equivalent to Saudi Arabia and the southern United States on the Earth--in response to the changing stability diffusion in near surface soils predicted that ground-ice stability in the mid- latitudes would vary

  14. Exposure age and ice-sheet model constraints on Pliocene East Antarctic ice sheet dynamics.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Masako; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Obrochta, Stephen; Saito, Fuyuki; Moriwaki, Kiichi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The Late Pliocene epoch is a potential analogue for future climate in a warming world. Here we reconstruct Plio-Pleistocene East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) variability using cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages and model simulations to better understand ice sheet behaviour under such warm conditions. New and previously published exposure ages indicate interior-thickening during the Pliocene. An ice sheet model with mid-Pliocene boundary conditions also results in interior thickening and suggests that both the Wilkes Subglacial and Aurora Basins largely melted, offsetting increased ice volume. Considering contributions from West Antarctica and Greenland, this is consistent with the most recent IPCC AR5 estimate, which indicates that the Pliocene sea level likely did not exceed +20?m on Milankovitch timescales. The inception of colder climate since ?3?Myr has increased the sea ice cover and inhibited active moisture transport to Antarctica, resulting in reduced ice sheet thickness, at least in coastal areas. PMID:25908601

  15. Exposure age and ice-sheet model constraints on Pliocene East Antarctic ice sheet dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Masako; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Obrochta, Stephen; Saito, Fuyuki; Moriwaki, Kiichi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2015-04-01

    The Late Pliocene epoch is a potential analogue for future climate in a warming world. Here we reconstruct Plio-Pleistocene East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) variability using cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages and model simulations to better understand ice sheet behaviour under such warm conditions. New and previously published exposure ages indicate interior-thickening during the Pliocene. An ice sheet model with mid-Pliocene boundary conditions also results in interior thickening and suggests that both the Wilkes Subglacial and Aurora Basins largely melted, offsetting increased ice volume. Considering contributions from West Antarctica and Greenland, this is consistent with the most recent IPCC AR5 estimate, which indicates that the Pliocene sea level likely did not exceed +20 m on Milankovitch timescales. The inception of colder climate since ~3 Myr has increased the sea ice cover and inhibited active moisture transport to Antarctica, resulting in reduced ice sheet thickness, at least in coastal areas.

  16. Exposure age and ice-sheet model constraints on Pliocene East Antarctic ice sheet dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Yamane, Masako; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Obrochta, Stephen; Saito, Fuyuki; Moriwaki, Kiichi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The Late Pliocene epoch is a potential analogue for future climate in a warming world. Here we reconstruct Plio-Pleistocene East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) variability using cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages and model simulations to better understand ice sheet behaviour under such warm conditions. New and previously published exposure ages indicate interior-thickening during the Pliocene. An ice sheet model with mid-Pliocene boundary conditions also results in interior thickening and suggests that both the Wilkes Subglacial and Aurora Basins largely melted, offsetting increased ice volume. Considering contributions from West Antarctica and Greenland, this is consistent with the most recent IPCC AR5 estimate, which indicates that the Pliocene sea level likely did not exceed +20?m on Milankovitch timescales. The inception of colder climate since ?3?Myr has increased the sea ice cover and inhibited active moisture transport to Antarctica, resulting in reduced ice sheet thickness, at least in coastal areas. PMID:25908601

  17. Constraints on ice volume changes of the WAIS and Ross Ice Shelf since the LGM based on cosmogenic exposure ages in the Darwin-Hatherton glacial system of the Transantarctic Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, David; Storey, Bryan; Hood, David; Joy, Kurt; Shulmeister, James

    2010-05-01

    Quantitative assessment of the spatial and temporal scale of ice volume change of the West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) and Ross Ice Shelf since the last glacial maximum (LGM) ~20 ka is essential to accurately predict ice sheet response to current and future climate change. Although global sea level rose by approximately 120 metres since the LGM, the contribution of polar ice sheets is uncertain and the timing of any such contribution is controversial. Mackintosh et al (2007) suggest that sectors of the EAIS, similar to those studied at Framnes Mountains where the ice sheet slowly calves at coastal margins, have made marginal contributions to global sea-level rise between 13 and 7 ka. In contrast, Stone et al (2003) document continuing WAIS decay during the mid-late Holocene, raising the question of what was the response of the WAIS since LGM and into the Holocene. Terrestrial evidence is restricted to sparse coastal oasis and ice free mountains which archive limits of former ice advances. Mountain ranges flanking the Darwin-Hatherton glaciers exhibit well-defined moraines, weathering signatures, boulder rich plateaus and glacial tills, which preserve the evidence of advance and retreat of the ice sheet during previous glacial cycles. Previous studies suggest a WAIS at the LGM in this location to be at least 1,000 meters thicker than today. As part of the New Zealand Latitudinal Gradient Project along the Transantarctic, we collected samples for cosmogenic exposure dating at a) Lake Wellman area bordering the Hatherton Glacier, (b) Roadend Nunatak at the confluence of the Darwin and Hatherton glaciers and (c) Diamond Hill which is positioned at the intersection of the Ross Ice Shelf and Darwin Glacier outlet. While the technique of exposure dating is very successful in mid-latitude alpine glacier systems, it is more challenging in polar ice-sheet regions due to the prevalence of cold-based ice over-riding events and absence of outwash processes which removes glacially transported debris. Our glacial geomorphic survey from ice sheet contact edge (~850 masl) to mountain peak at 1600 masl together with a suite of 10Be and 26Al exposure ages, documents a pre-LGM ice volume at least 800 meters thicker than current ice levels which was established at least 2 million years ago. However a complex history of exposure and re-exposure of the ice free regions in this area is seen in accordance with advance and retreat of the ice sheets that feeds into the Darwin -Hatherton system. A cluster of mid-altitude boulders, located below a prominent moraine feature mapped previously as demarcating the LGM ice advance limits, have exposure ages ranging from 30 to 40 ka. Exposure ages for boulders just above the ice contact range from 1to 19 ka and allow an estimate of inheritance. Hence, we conclude that LGM ice volume was not as large as previously estimated and actually little different from what is observed today. These results raise rather serious questions about the implications of a reduced WAIS at the LGM, its effect on the development of the Ross Ice Shelf, and how the Antarctic ice sheets respond to global warming. J. O. Stone et al., Science v299, 99 (2003). A. Mackintosh, D. White, D. Fink, D. Gore et al, Geology, v 35; 551-554 (2007).

  18. 500,000-year temperature record challenges ice age theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snow, K. Mitchell

    1994-01-01

    Just outside the searing heat of Death Valley lies Devils Hole (fig. 1), a fault-created cave that harbors two remnants of the Earth's great ice ages. The endangered desert pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis) has long made its home in the cave. A 500,000-year record of the planet's climate that challenges a widely accepted theory explaining the ice ages also has been preserved in Devils Hole.

  19. Radiocarbon chronology of the late-glacial Puerto Bandera moraines, Southern Patagonian Icefield, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strelin, J. A.; Denton, G. H.; Vandergoes, M. J.; Ninnemann, U. S.; Putnam, A. E.

    2011-09-01

    We report radiocarbon dates that constrain the timing of the deposition of the late-glacial Puerto Bandera moraine system alongside the western reaches of Lago Argentino adjacent to the Southern Patagonian Icefield. Close maximum-limiting radiocarbon ages ( n = 11) for glacier advance into the outer moraines, with a mean value of 11,100 ± 60 14C yrs BP (12,990 ± 80 cal yrs BP), were obtained from wood in deformation (soft) till exposed beneath flow and lodgment till in Bahía del Quemado on the northeast side of Brazo Norte (North Branch) of western Lago Argentino. Other exposures of this basal deformation till in Bahía del Quemado reveal incorporated clasts of peat, along with larger inclusions of deformed glaciofluvial and lacustrine deposits. Radiocarbon dates of wood included in these reworked peat clasts range from 11,450 ± 45 14C yrs BP to 13,450 ± 150 14C yrs BP (13,315 ± 60 to 16,440 ± 340 cal yrs BP). The implication is that, during this interval, glacier fronts were situated inboard of the Puerto Bandera moraines, with the peat clasts and larger proglacial deposits being eroded and then included in the basal till during the Puerto Bandera advance. Minimum-limiting radiocarbon ages for ice retreat come from basal peat in cores sampled in spillways and depressions generated during abandonment of the Puerto Bandera moraines. Glacier recession and subsequent plant colonization were initiated close behind different frontal sectors of these moraines prior to: 10,750 ± 75 14C yrs BP (12,660 ± 70 cal yrs BP) east of Brazo Rico, 10,550 ± 55 14C yrs BP (12,490 ± 80 cal yrs BP) in Peninsula Avellaneda, and 10,400 ± 50 14C yrs BP (12,280 ± 110 cal yrs BP) in Bahía Catalana. In addition, a radiocarbon date indicates that by 10,350 ± 45 14C yrs BP (12,220 ± 110 cal yrs BP), the Brazo Norte lobe (or former Upsala Glacier) had receded well up the northern branch of Lago Argentino, to a position behind the Herminita moraines. Furthermore, glacier termini had receded to just outboard of the outer Holocene moraines at Lago Frías and Lago Pearson (Anita) prior to 10,400 ± 40 14C yrs BP (12,270 ± 100 cal yrs BP) and 9040 ± 45 14C yrs BP (10,210 ± 50 cal yrs BP), respectively. The most extensive recession registered during the early Holocene was in Agassiz Este Valley, where the Upsala Glacier had pulled back behind the outer Holocene moraine, reaching close to the present-day glacier terminus before 8290 ± 40 14C yrs BP (9300 ± 80 cal yrs BP). The radiocarbon-dated fluctuations of the Lago Argentino glacier in late-glacial time, given here, are in accord with changes in ocean mixed layer properties, predominately temperature, derived from the isotopic record given here of ODP Core 1233, taken a short distance off shore of the Chilean Lake District. It also matches recently published chronologies of late-glacial moraines in the Southern Alps of New Zealand on the opposite side of the Pacific Ocean from Lago Argentino. Finally, the timing of the late-glacial reversal of the Lago Argentino glacier fits the most recent chronology for the culmination of the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR) in the deuterium record of the EPICA Dome C ice core from high on the East Antarctic Plateau. Therefore, we conclude that the climate signature of the ACR was widespread in both the ocean and the atmosphere over at least the southern quarter of the globe.

  20. Siple Dome ice reveals two modes of millennial CO2 change during the last ice age

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jinho; Brook, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Reconstruction of atmospheric CO2 during times of past abrupt climate change may help us better understand climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. Previous ice core studies reveal simultaneous increases in atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature during times when Greenland and the northern hemisphere experienced very long, cold stadial conditions during the last ice age. Whether this relationship extends to all of the numerous stadial events in the Greenland ice core record has not been clear. Here we present a high-resolution record of atmospheric CO2 from the Siple Dome ice core, Antarctica for part of the last ice age. We find that CO2 does not significantly change during the short Greenlandic stadial events, implying that the climate system perturbation that produced the short stadials was not strong enough to substantially alter the carbon cycle. PMID:24781344

  1. A Lateglacial to late Holocene glacial chronology for the Cairngorm Mountains (Scotland): effects of boulder inheritance and snow shielding on age distributions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkbride, Martin; Everest, Jez; Benn, Doug

    2014-05-01

    It is thought that British glaciers disappeared after the Younger Dryas Stadial (YDS, 12.9 - 11.7 k yr). We present cosmogenic 10Be ages of cirque moraines in the Cairngorm Mountains which include two Lateglacial advances, a speculative early Holocene advance, and a late Holocene moraine probably deposited by a Little Ice Age glacier ( 17th - 18th century AD). One cirque (CLE) contains evidence of a YDS advance peaking at c. 12.3 k yr, and a probable Little Ice Age (LIA) advance dated to <0.9 k yr. Another cirque (CLW) has an outer moraine dated to between 15.3 and 12.0 k yr. An inner moraine, conventionally regarded as YDS in age, yields 10Be ages of 11.5 to 8.3 k yr (Lal/Stone time-dependent production model). The putative YDS moraines are well dated in cirque CLE, but appear too "young" in CLW. We consider how snow-shielding and boulder recycling may have affected age distributions. If these ages are minima from a YDS moraine, snow-shielding and delayed deposition from debris-covered ice may explain low 10Be concentrations, but this does not explain why similar adjustments are not needed in the neighbouring cirque. Alternatively, ages may be maxima from an early Holocene moraine which incorporated existing boulders. The LIA moraine in CLE contains a high proportion of inherited boulders, but the YDS moraine here contains few. Therefore the proportion of inherited boulders is estimated to be a function of the ratio of debris production during the glacial period and debris production during the preceding paraglacial period. The ratio describes the likelihood of sampling an inherited boulder if the geomorphological history is understood. By this reasoning, an alternative interpretation of the "YDS" moraine in CLW is that an early Holocene glacier (speculatively, the 8.2 k event?) incorporated post-YDS paraglacial rock fall debris.

  2. Late-Wisconsin End Moraines in Northern Canada.

    PubMed

    Falconer, G; Andrews, J T; Ives, J D

    1965-02-01

    A system of end moraines nearly 2240 kilometers long has been identified by field investigation and aerial photography. It extends through northeastern Keewatin, Melville Peninsula, and Baffin Island and marks the border of a late-Wisconsin ice sheet centered over Foxe Basin and Hudson Bay 8000 or 9000 years ago. PMID:17783266

  3. The deglaciaton of the Pyreenes: from the Oldest Dryas to the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, David; de Andrés, Nuria; López-Moreno, Juan I.; García-Ruiz, José M.

    2014-05-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to study the deglaciation process, including the retreat of the glaciers and the occurrence of short advances with the deposition of new, relatively recent tills in two head valleys of the central-southern Pyrenees: The Upper Gállego Valley, with the main peak Balaitus (42°46'0' N, 0° 15'0'W, 3151 m), and the Marbore Cirque, at the head of the Cinca Valley, on the north face of the Monte Perdido Peak (42º400' N; 0.5º0'W; 3355 m). The deglaciation process was studied through geomorphological mapping and 36Cl cosmogenic exposure ages obtained from morainic and rock glacier boulders and polished bedrocks. Even though the exact position of the front glacier during the global Last Glacial Maximum is not known, there is evidence that the different ice tongues retreated until headwater positions, causing the subdivision of the main glaciers into various individual glaciers. Two clear climate reversals within the general trend to deglaciation have been detected: First of all, the Oldest Dryas, coinciding with the Heinrich Event 1 (ca 17-15 ka) and, secondly, the Younger Dryas (ca 13-11.7 ka). Between both stadials, the Bølling/Allerød Interstadial (ca 15-13 ka) represented an intense glacial retreat up to the cirque headwalls. During the Bølling/Allerød Interstadial the retreat was very rapid, although the occurrence of a short readvance of small glaciers during the Older Dryas must not be ruled out. The Younger Dryas is represented by a new glacial push with the deposition of distinct types of tills. During these late glacier advances, small glaciers and rock glaciers developed close to the cirque headwalls, and coexisted under the same climatic conditions. After the Younger Dryas, new glacial advances has not been detected until the Little Ice Age, except in the Marbore Cirque, where glacial expansion occurred during the Mid and Late Holocene (5.1 ± 0.1 ka), represented by a large push moraine. A melting phase occurred at approximately 3.4 ± 0.2 and 2.5 ± 0.1 ka (Bronze/Iron Ages) after one of the most important glacial advances of the Neoglacial period. A melting period occurred during the Medieval Climate Anomaly following a glacial expansion during the Dark Age Cold Period (1.4-1.2 ka). The Little Ice Age represented a clear stage of glacial expansion within the Marboré Cirque. Two different pulses of glaciation were detected, separated by a short retraction. The first pulse occurred most likely during the late 17th century or early 18th century (Maunder Minimum), whereas the second occurred between 1790 and 1830 AD (Dalton Minimum).

  4. Little Ice Age glaciers in the Mediterranean mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Only a few small glaciers survive today in the Mountains of the Mediterranean. Notable examples are found in the Pyrenees, Maritime Alps, Italian Apennines, the Dinaric and Albanian Alps and the mountains of Turkey. Many glaciers disappeared during the 20th Century. Glaciers were much larger and more numerous during the Little Ice Age (Hughes, 2014). Small glaciers even existed as far south as the High Atlas of Morocco and the Sierra Nevada of southern Spain. In more northerly areas, such as the western Balkans, glaciers and permanent snow patches occupied hundreds of cirques on relatively low-lying mountains. In the High Atlas and the Sierra Nevada no glaciers exist today, whilst in the Balkans only a few modern glaciers have been reported. A similar situation is apparent throughout the mountains of the Mediterranean region. New evidence for glacier change since the Little Ice Age will be published soon in Hughes (2014) and this paper reviews the extent, timing and climatic significance of Little Ice Age glaciation in the Mediterranean region. Reference: Hughes, P.D. (2014) Little Ice Age glaciers in the Mediterranean mountains. In: Carozza, J.-M., Devillers, B., Morhange, C. (eds) Little Ice Age in the Mediterranean, Méditerranée, volume 123.

  5. Did glacially induced TPW end the ice age? A reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Ngai-Ham; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Daradich, Amy

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies of Earth rotation perturbations due to ice-age loading have predicted a slow secular drift of the rotation axis relative to the surface geography (i.e. true polar wander, TPW) of order of several degrees over the Plio-Pleistocene. It has been argued that this drift and the change in the geographic distribution of solar insolation that it implies may have been responsible for important transitions in ice-age climate, including the termination of ice-age cycles.We use a revised rotational stability theory that incorporates a more accurate treatment of the Earth's background ellipticity to reconsider this issue, and demonstrate that the net displacement of the pole predicted in earlier studies disappears. This more muted polar motion is due to two factors: first, the revised theory no longer predicts the permanent shift in the rotation axis, or the so-called `unidirectional TPW', that appears in the traditional stability theory; and, second, the increased background ellipticity incorporated in the revised predictions acts to reduce the normal mode amplitudes governing the motion of the pole. We conclude that ice-age-induced TPW was not responsible for the termination of the ice age. This does not preclude the possibility that TPW induced by mantle convective flow may have played a role in major Plio-Pleistocene climate transitions, including the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation.

  6. Recent Ice Ages on Mars: The Role of Radiatively Active Clouds and Cloud Microphysics

    E-print Network

    Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste

    Recent Ice Ages on Mars: The Role of Radiatively Active Clouds and Cloud Microphysics J Mantle (LDM), a dust-ice mantling deposit that is thought to represent a re- cent "Ice Age", remains. These observations were interpreted to represent ice ages [Head et al., 2003], during which deposition and removal

  7. Ice-age simulations with a caving ice-sheet model

    SciTech Connect

    Pollard, D.

    1982-01-01

    Further extensions and results of a simple northern hemispheric ice-sheet model are described for the Quaternary ice ages. The basic model predicts ice thickness and bedrock deformation in a north-south cross section, with a prescribed snow-budget distribution shifted uniformly in space to represent the orbital perturbations. An ice calving parameterization crudely representing proglacial lakes or marine incursions can attack the ice whenever the tip drops below sea level. As in Pollard (1982a) the basic model produces a large approx. 100,000-yr response and agrees fairly well with the delta/sup 18/O deep-sea core records. Three extensions of the model are described: an alternative treatment of bedrock deformation, a more realistic ice-shelf model of ice calving, and a generalized parameterization for such features as the North Atlantic deglacial meltwater layer. Much the same ice-age simulations and agreement with the delta/sup 18/O records as with the original model are still obtained. The observed phase-correlation between the 100,000-yr cycles and eccentricity is examined. First, the model is shown to give a approx. 100,000-yr response to nearly any kind of higher-frequency forcing. Although over the last two million years the model phase is mainly controlled by the precessional modulation due to eccentricity, over just the last 600,000-yr the observed phase can also be simulated with eccentricity held constant. A definitive conclusion on the phase-control of the Quaternary ice ages is prevented by uncertainty in the deep-sea core time scales before approx. 600,000-yr B.P. In an appendix the model is applied to West Antarctica where unforced internal oscillations occur with periods of about 50,000-yr.

  8. Little ice age as recorded in the stratigraphy of the tropical quelccaya ice cap

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.G.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; Dansgaard, W.; Grootes, P.M.

    1986-10-17

    The analyses of two ice cores from a southern tropical ice cap provide a record of climatic conditions over 1000 years for a region where other proxy records are nearly absent. Annual variations in visible dust layers, oxygen isotopes, microparticle concentrations, conductivity, and identification of the historical (A.D. 1600) Huaynaputina ash permit accurate dating and time-scale verification. The fact that the Little Ice Age (about A.D. 1500 to 1900) stands out as a significant climatic event in the oxygen isotope and electrical condutivity records confirms the worldwide character of this event.

  9. Ice-age rain forest found moist, cooler

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1996-10-04

    Climate researchers have argued for years about whether the tropics cooled a little or a lot during the height of the last ice age 18000 years ago. The answer will offer clues to the sensitivity of the Earth`s climate system to the strengthening greenhouse effect. On a different front, arguments have raged about how the Amazon flora and fauna became so divers. A single study of lake mud from deep in the Amazon rain forest sheds new light on both of these controveries by point toward a cool, but still wet ice age Amazon. This article goes on to discuss the background of the study, other view points, and the implications.

  10. Late Pleistocene ice-shelf, valley-glacier and ice-sheet interactions on Alexander Island, Antarctic Peninsula: implications for climatic and ice-volume changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Bethan; Hambrey, Michael; Glasser, Neil; Smellie, John; Carrivick, Jonathan; Bentley, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Recent rapid warming across the Antarctic Peninsula has resulted in ice-sheet thinning, dramatic ice-shelf collapse, acceleration of ice-flow velocities and widespread glacier recession. Reconstructing past rates, volumes and magnitudes of cryospheric change, particularly with respect to the former configuration of ice sheets and ice shelves, and their response to changing oceanic and climatic regimes, is vital in providing a context for this change, in order to improve predictions of future ice-sheet behaviour, and to provide glacio-isostatic adjustment corrections for gravimetric measurements of contemporary ice loss. This research aimed to investigate valley glacier and ice-shelf interactions during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and Holocene Epoch across George VI Sound and Alexander Island, western Antarctic Peninsula, an area with a well-preserved but poorly dated record. We identify four principal stratigraphic units: (1) a high-elevation drift with Alexander Island erratics only (interpreted as recording older advances of ice from the interior of the island), (2) a lower-elevation drift with exotic Palmer Land erratics (interpreted as ice-shelf moraine, representing incursions of George VI Ice Shelf onto Ablation Point Massif), (3) multiple overlapping sequences of valley glacier moraine and ice-shelf moraine, presumed to be Holocene in age, and (4) more recent processes and units, including frozen epishelf lakes, slope processes and alluvial fans. On-going cosmogenic nuclide dating on these sediments (in progress; 25 10Be exposure ages) has the potential to unlock the complex history and interactions of ice streams, valley glaciers and ice shelves in this area. This work will also provide the first long-term record of sea-level indicators, allowing the first estimates of glacial unloading, rates of uplift and ice-sheet thinning to be calculated. The Holocene record of the ice shelf, preserved in the younger ice-shelf moraines and in the overlapping sequence of ice-shelf and valley-glacier moraines in Erratic Valley, will assist not only in tying together limnological records from the epishelf lakes and the onshore geomorphological record, but will also allow inferences about Holocene ice-shelf collapse to be made. Dating these samples will provide a sensitive record of the geomorphological impact of Holocene climatic variations.

  11. The Medieval Warm/Little Ice Age Transition as Recorded by Ice Caps in East Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowell, T. V.; Kelly, M. A.; Hall, B. L.; Bennike, O.; Honsaker, W. M.; Levy, L.; Lusas, A.

    2011-12-01

    The spatial-temporal distribution of late Holocene temperature changes over the last 2000 yr is still being defined. The high Arctic is often represented by the borehole tem-perature records from GISP and Dye 3. These both show a distinct, but different magni-tude, Medieval warm interval from ~500 to ~1200 AD, with two cold intervals after 1500 AD. However small glaciers in the high Arctic appear reflect a more complex late Holo-cene pattern. On the eastern coast of Greenland two ice caps record a warm interval from 400 AD to 600 AD but cooling after that. These ice caps, Istorvet ,on the coast beside the cold East Greenland Current, and Bregne ice cap, ~ 100 km inland, have yielded organic remains from > 50 sites. A preliminary interpretation is that the organic remains record the last time these ice caps were as small or smaller than the present configuration. Exposure ages show these ice caps reached their post glacial maximum extent within the last 1000 yr. The Istorvet ice cap is thought to show initial cooling at ~AD 884 and an advance to within 500 m of the Little Ice Age extent at AD 1022 and its fullest extent at 1125 AD. Core sediments suggest that extent was maintained until 1750 AD. Results from the inland site indicate a retracted ice cap from AD 1054 to 1393, followed by expansion. Although some of these events appear to have correlative events recorded in SST or sea ice near Iceland. Taken together they appear to have a different signature than lo-cations further south. This may indicate that temperature patterns at high latitudes are only partly coupled with those at lower latitudes.

  12. Cosmogenic 10Be ages from the Meirs and Garwood Valleys, Denton Hills, West Antarctica, suggest an absence in LGM Ice Sheet expansion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, David; Joy, Kurt; Storey, Bryan

    2014-05-01

    It has been hypothesised that during interglacials, thinning of the Ross Ice Shelf allowed a more open water environment with increased local precipitation. This resulted in outlet glaciers, which drain the Transantarctic Mountains and fed by the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, advancing during moist warmer periods, apparently out of phase with colder arid dry periods. Significantly the ice core record during these warm periods also shows increased accumulation continent wide The geomorphology of the Denton Hills in the Royal Society Range, West Antarctica, is a result of Miocene fluvial incision reworked by subsequent glacial advances throughout the Quaternary. The Garwood and Miers glacial valleys drain ice across the Denton Hills into the Shelf, and should thus show maximum extent during interstadials. To understand the chronology of late Quaternary glaciations, 15 granitic boulders from terminal moraines were sampled for 10Be and 26Al cosmogenic dating. Obtaining reliable exposure ages of erratics within moraines that represent timing of deposition (i.e. glacial advances) is problematic in polar regions, where glacial activity is principally controlled by ice sheet dynamics. Recycling of previously exposed debris, uncertainty in provenance of glacially transported boulders and a lack of a post-depositional hydrologic process to remove previously exposed material from a valley system, leads to ambiguities in multiple exposure ages from a single coeval glacial landform. More importantly, cold-based ice advance can leave a landform unmodified resulting in young erratics deposited on bedrock that shows weathering and/or inconsistent age-altitude relationships. Primarily, inheritance becomes a difficulty in qualifying exposure ages from polar regions. Preliminary results from the Garwood and Miers Valleys indicate that glaciers in the Denton Hills had begun to retreat from their last maximum positions no later than 23-37 ka, and thus the local last glacial maximum occurred prior to the Antarctic LGM (18-22 ka). No evidence based on cosmogenic ages for post-LGM or Holocene advances were found. These results support an extensive exposure age data set from the nearby Darwin-Hatherton Glacier system that indicates an absence of EAIS expansion across the Transantarctic Mnts during the global LGM period.

  13. Timing of Expansions of the Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru, and Implications for Cosmogenic Nuclide Production Rate Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowell, T. V.; Kelly, M. A.; Applegate, P. J.; Smith, C. A.; Phillips, F. M.; Hudson, A. M.

    2010-12-01

    We calibrate the production rate of the cosmogenic nuclide beryllium-10 (10Be) at a low-latitude, high-elevation site, using nuclide concentrations measured in moraine boulders and an independent chronology determined with bracketing radiocarbon dates. The measurement of terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) concentrations in earth surface materials has been an important development for understanding a host of earth surface processes. Uncertainty in cosmogenic nuclide production rates has hampered application of this method. Here, we contribute to the estimation of 10Be production rates by reporting both preliminary 10Be concentrations and independent radiocarbon dates from a low latitude, high elevation site. Our study site in the southeastern Peruvian Andes (~13.9°S, 70.9°W, 4850 m asl) is centered on a moraine set, known as the Huancané II moraines, that represents a ~4 km expansion of Quelccaya Ice Cap during late glacial time. At this location, organic material situated both stratigraphically below and above moraines in two adjacent valleys provide material for radiocarbon dating. Based on geomorphic arguments, we correlate results from the two valleys. The timing of ice cap margin advance is bracketed by 13 radiocarbon ages on organic material within the outermost Huancané II moraines that range from 13.6 to 12.5 ka. Two stratigraphic sections upvalley from the moraines yield 6 radiocarbon ages from 11.3 to 12.4 ka, indicating the time of retreat . We computed the probability density function that lies between these two sets of dates, and assign an age of 12.4 ka (+/-???) for the formation of the Huancané II moraines. Calculating beryllium-10 exposure dates from the measured concentrations yield exposure dates that significantly underestimate the independently determined age of the moraine (~8-30%), if existing production rate estimates are used. We suggest that the radiocarbon age for the moraines can be used as a robust independent calibration for 10Be production rates at this site.

  14. Measurements of Past Ice Sheet Elevations in Interior West Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Ackert; Barclay; Borns; Calkin; Kurz; Fastook; Steig

    1999-10-01

    A lateral moraine band on Mount Waesche, a volcanic nunatak in Marie Byrd Land, provides estimates of past ice sheet surface elevations in West Antarctica. Helium-3 and chlorine-36 surface exposure ages indicate that the proximal part of the moraine, up to 45 meters above the present ice surface, was deposited about 10,000 years ago, substantially later than the maximum ice extent in the Ross Embayment. The upper distal part of the moraine may record multiple earlier ice sheet high stands. A nonequilibrium ice sheet model predicts a delay of several thousand years in maximum ice levels at Mount Waesche relative to the maximum ice extent in the Ross Sea. The glacial geologic evidence, coupled with the ice sheet model, indicates that the contribution of the Ross Sea sector of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet to Holocene sea level rise was only about 3 meters. These results eliminate West Antarctic ice as the principle source of the large meltwater pulse during the early Holocene. PMID:10514368

  15. Multiple ice-age refugia in Pacific cod, Gadus macrocephalus

    E-print Network

    Multiple ice-age refugia in Pacific cod, Gadus macrocephalus MICHAEL F. CANINO,* INGRID B. SPIES abundances of Pacific cod, Gadus macrocephalus, in the North Pacific and its marginal seas. We surveyed: Gadus macrocephalus, glacial refugia, Pacific cod, Pleistocene, postglacial colonization, vicariance

  16. Regional significance of an early Holocene moraine in Enchantment Lakes basin, North Cascade Range, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waitt, R.B., Jr.; Yount, J.C.; Davis, P.T.

    1982-01-01

    The upper Enchantment Lakes basin in the North Cascade Range of Washington displays two moraine belts, each recording an episode of glacier advance after the end of the last glaciation. The inner belt, the Brynhild, 0.1 to 0.5 km beyond existing glaciers, postdates Mount St. Helens Wn tephra (???450 yr old), which lies only beyond the moraines. The morainal surface is only slightly weathered, is almost barren of lichens, and is devoid of soil, evidence suggesting that the Brynhild moraines are no more than a century old. The outer moraine, the Brisingamen, 0.3 to 0.7 km beyond existing glaciers, is weathered and is covered with large lichens. On and behind the Brisingamen moraine the Mazama ash (6900 yr old) is present beneath the Mount St. Helens Yn and Wn tephras. Despite more than 7 millennia of weathering, the rock surface behind the Brisingamen moraine is measurably less weathered than the surface beyond, which was last glaciated during the Rat Creek advance about 13,000 yr ago. The age of the Brisingamen moraine therefore is probably early Holocene. The Brisingamen moraine evidently correlates with moraines near Glacier Peak, near Mount Rainier, in northeastern and central Oregon, in the southern Canadian Rockies, and in the northern U.S. Rocky Mountains. These regional effects suggest that a climatic episode of cooling or increased snowfall affected the entire region some time during the early Holocene. ?? 1982.

  17. Late pleistocene ice age scenarios based on observational evidence

    SciTech Connect

    DeBlonde, G. ); Peltier, W.R. )

    1993-04-01

    Ice age scenarios for the last glacial interglacial cycle, based on observations of Boyle and Keigwin concerning the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation and of Barnola et al. concerning atmospheric CO[sub 2] variations derived from the Vostok ice cores, are herein analyzed. Northern Hemisphere continental ice sheets are simulated with an energy balance model (EBM) that is asynchronously coupled to vertically integrated ice sheets models based on the Glen flow law. The EBM includes both a realistic land-sea distribution and temperature-albedo feedback and is driven with orbital variations of effective solar insolation. With the addition of atmospheric CO[sub 2] and ocean heat flux variations, but not in their absence, a complete collapse is obtained for the Eurasian ice sheet but not for the North American ice sheet. We therefore suggest that further feedback mechanisms, perhaps involving more accurate modeling of the dynamics of the mostly marine-based Laurentide complex appears necessary to explain termination I. 96 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Climate-forcing & Feedbacks of the Late Paleozoic Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanez, I. P.; Brand, U.; Poulsen, C. J.; Horton, D. E.

    2011-12-01

    Evaluating climate-forcing and feedbacks during pre-Cenozoic ice ages requires reconstructing marine-terrestrial linkages between atmospheric composition, the regional hydroclimate expression of mean climate change, ice sheets, and sea-level. Here we evaluate the role of different climate parameters and their linkages during the Carboniferous icehouse through integration of a recently developed ID-TIMS U-Pb constrained sea-level history, brachiopod stable isotope time-series from shallow marine regions of paleotropical Pangaea, atmospheric pCO2 inferred from paleosol minerals and fossil leaf stomatal indices, ice sheet variations constrained by the distribution of high-latitude Gondwanan glacial deposits, and paleoclimate simulations. Within chronostratigraphic uncertainty, long-term sea-level lowstands coincide with glacial maxima defined from high-latitude Gondwanan basins, whereas long-term highstands are coeval with glacial minima suggesting a dynamic late Paleozoic icehouse. Superimposed shorter-term sea-level events define a stepwise onset (late Mississippian) and contraction of Carboniferous ice sheets prior to the initiation of Early Permian ice sheets. Sea level fluctuations, at different temporal scales parallel trends defined by brachiopod oxygen and carbon isotope compositions and paleo-atmospheric pCO2 estimates inferred using mineral and biologic proxies. A protracted (~9 my) stepwise sea level rise beginning in the middle Pennsylvanian and culminating in an earliest Gzhelian peak is coincident with overall increasing CO2 levels throughout this interval and substantially decreased effective moisture in paleotropical Pangaea. This possibly CO2-forced period of waning continental ice sheets and sea-level highstand encompassed a large-scale floral turnover across the mid-to-late Pennyslvanian boundary and the onset of the demise of paleotropical rainforests across much of Pangaea. Ocean-atmosphere-ice sheet climate simulations for this period reveal a possible mechanistic link between ice sheet extent and stability in high-latitudes and ocean-atmospheric dynamics in the tropics.

  19. Ice Age Sea Level Change on a Dynamic Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austermann, J.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Latychev, K.; Rovere, A.; Moucha, R.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in global mean sea level (GMSL) are a sensitive indicator of climate variability during the current ice age. Reconstructions are largely based on local sea level records, and the mapping to GMSL is computed from simulations of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) on 1-D Earth models. We argue, using two case studies, that resolving important, outstanding issues in ice age paleoclimate requires a more sophisticated consideration of mantle structure and dynamics. First, we consider the coral record from Barbados, which is widely used to constrain global ice volume changes since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ~21 ka). Analyses of the record using 1-D viscoelastic Earth models have estimated a GMSL change since LGM of ~120 m, a value at odds with analyses of other far field records, which range from 130-135 m. We revisit the Barbados case using a GIA model that includes laterally varying Earth structure (Austermann et al., Nature Geo., 2013) and demonstrate that neglecting this structure, in particular the high-viscosity slab in the mantle linked to the subduction of the South American plate, has biased (low) previous estimates of GMSL change since LGM by ~10 m. Our analysis brings the Barbados estimate into accord with studies from other far-field sites. Second, we revisit estimates of GMSL during the mid-Pliocene warm period (MPWP, ~3 Ma), which was characterized by temperatures 2-3°C higher than present. The ice volume deficit during this period is a source of contention, with estimates ranging from 0-40 m GMSL equivalent. We argue that refining estimates of ice volume during MPWP requires a correction for mantle flow induced dynamic topography (DT; Rowley et al., Science, 2013), a signal neglected in previous studies of ice age sea level change. We present estimates of GIA- and DT-corrected elevations of MPWP shorelines from the U.S. east coast, Australia and South Africa in an attempt to reconcile these records with a single GMSL value.

  20. Challenges for ice age dynamics: a dynamical systems perspective

    E-print Network

    Crucifix, Michel; Mitsui, Takahito

    2015-01-01

    This chapter is dedicated to the slow dynamics of the climate system, at time scales of one~thousand to one million years. We focus specifically on the phenomenon of ice ages that has characterised the slow evolution of climate over the Quaternary. Ice ages are a form of variability featuring interactions between different large-scale components and processes in the climate system, including ice sheet, deep-ocean and carbon cycle dynamics. This variability is also at least partly controlled by changes in the seasonal and latitudinal incoming solar radiation associated with the combined effects of changes in Earth's orbit shape, precession of equinoxes, and changes in obliquity. A number of possible mechanisms are reviewed in this chapter. We stress that the nature of the interactions between these slow dynamics and faster modes of variability, such as millennium and centennial modes of variability, are still poorly understood. For example, whether the time sequence of ice ages is robustly determined or not by...

  1. Laurentide Ice Sheet dynamics in the Bay of Fundy, Canada, revealed through multibeam sonar mapping of glacial landsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Brian J.; Shaw, John

    2012-12-01

    Recent multibeam sonar data collected in the Bay of Fundy, Canada, interpreted in conjunction with geophysical profiling and sediment sampling, reveal in unprecedented detail a suite of glacial landforms associated with the southwest margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. These landforms constitute four glacial landsystems. 1) Subglacial landsystem I: In southwestern Bay of Fundy, the elongated Grand Manan Basin contains ice-contact sediments of possible mid-Wisconsinan age overlain by late-Wisconsinan ice-contact sediments strongly imprinted by iceberg furrows and pits. In places, possible mid-Wisconsinan glaciomarine sediments have been eroded by late-Wisconsinan ice, creating streamlined landforms. Eroded bedrock and megafluted ice-contact sediment on the flanks of Grand Manan Basin indicate the southwest direction of topographically-steered ice. 2) Subglacial landsystem II: Along the southern margin of the Bay of Fundy, an array of drumlins, with superimposed esker complexes, was formed by glacial ice that emanated northwest from the interior of Nova Scotia and was deflected to the southwest by the ice flowing out of the Bay of Fundy to the Gulf of Maine. The esker complexes formed later when the Nova Scotia ice sheet stagnated and meltwater escaped northwest via topographic gaps. 3) Ice-marginal landsystem I: In northern Bay of Fundy, both small De Geer moraines and larger, basin-bounding moraines were created when retreating late-Wisconsinan ice became grounded in relatively shallow water. New radiocarbon ages show that the Owen Basin Moraine in this landsystem was abandoned prior to c. 14,600 14C yr BP (cal BP 17,015-17,270 [0.7], 17,286-17,405 [0.3]). 4) Ice-marginal landsystem II: This distinctive landsystem consists of numerous arcuate moraines, commonly superimposed on one another. This landsystem was formed by thin (170 m), lightly grounded ice that retreated northeast into the Bay of Fundy. The splayed pattern of the ice margin was a response to a large accommodation space and velocity variations within the ice. The Isle Haute Moraine is a large lobate moraine; its age is poorly constrained by shells from glaciomarine sediments (13,750 ± 60 14C yr BP (cal BP 15,970-15,996 [0.03], 16,047-16,665 [0.97])) but the moraine may be coeval with the onset of a terrestrial ice margin established at the head of the Bay of Fundy by c. 14,300 14C yr BP (cal BP 16,824-17,013).

  2. Ribbed moraine stratigraphy and formation in southern Finnish Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarala, Pertti

    2006-05-01

    Characteristics of ribbed moraines, the dominating moraine type in southern Finnish Lapland, have been studied in detail. The ridges are composed of several till units, of which the bottommost units consist of mature basal tills and the surficial parts are enriched with local, short-transport rock fragments and boulders in till and at the surface of ridges. As a result of this re-examination a two-step model of the formation process of ribbed moraines is presented. In the first stage, while cold-based conditions prevailed, both the bottommost part of the ice sheet and the frozen, substrate fractured under compressive ice flow. Following glacial transport of fractured blocks and formation of the transverse ridge morphology, erosion between the ridges continued owing to freeze-thaw process under variable pressure conditions. In the areas with a low pre-existing till sheet, the process caused quarrying of the bedrock surface and subsequent deposition of rock fragments and boulders under high pressure on the next ridge. The most suitable conditions for ribbed moraine formation existed during Late Weichselian deglaciation, after the Younger Dryas when the climate warmed very quickly, leading to an imbalance between a warm glacier surface and a cold base. Copyright

  3. 77 FR 14567 - Draft General Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement for the Ice Age Complex at Cross...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ...Environmental Impact Statement for the Ice Age Complex at Cross Plains, Cross Plains...Environmental Impact Statement for the Ice Age Complex at Cross Plains, Wisconsin...send comments to Superintendent, Ice Age National Scenic Trail, 700...

  4. TREE vol. 6, no. 1, January 1991 Ice-age Ecology

    E-print Network

    Lauder, George V.

    TREE vol. 6, no. 1, January 1991 Ice-age Ecology FrozenFaunaof the Mammoth Steppe: the Story that existed across much of Europe, Northern Asia and North America during the ice ages, supporting an abundant the permafrost of Alaska and North Siberia, providing a unique window onto ice-age life. And `Blue Babe' is one

  5. Iron Fertilization of the Subantarctic Ocean During the Last Ice Age

    E-print Network

    Gilli, Adrian

    Iron Fertilization of the Subantarctic Ocean During the Last Ice Age Alfredo Martínez-García,1 the ice age reduction in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). In a sediment core from the Subantarctic Atlantic, we measured foraminifera-bound nitrogen isotopes to reconstruct ice age nitrate consumption

  6. The ice age ecologist: testing methods for reserve prioritization during the last

    E-print Network

    Vellend, Mark

    SPECIAL ISSUE The ice age ecologist: testing methods for reserve prioritization during the last Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80307, USA ABSTRACT Aim We play the role of an ice age://wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/geb 289 #12;INTRODUCTION Imagine an ice age ecologist (IAE). She lives at the height of the last glacial

  7. Varve and radiocarbon dating support the rapid advance of Jakobshavn Isbr during the Little Ice Age

    E-print Network

    Briner, Jason P.

    Keywords: Jakobshavn Isbræ Varve Radiocarbon dating Lake sediments Little Ice Age a b s t r a c t Large in uenced by the recent advance of Jakobshavn Isbræ, which took place during the Little Ice Age interval. The GIS, like many glaciers across the globe, most recently advanced during the Little Ice Age

  8. Ice-age megafauna in Arctic Alaska: extinction, invasion, survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, Daniel H.; Groves, Pamela; Kunz, Michael L.; Reanier, Richard E.; Gaglioti, Benjamin V.

    2013-01-01

    Radical restructuring of the terrestrial, large mammal fauna living in arctic Alaska occurred between 14,000 and 10,000 years ago at the end of the last ice age. Steppe bison, horse, and woolly mammoth became extinct, moose and humans invaded, while muskox and caribou persisted. The ice age megafauna was more diverse in species and possibly contained 6× more individual animals than live in the region today. Megafaunal biomass during the last ice age may have been 30× greater than present. Horse was the dominant species in terms of number of individuals. Lions, short-faced bears, wolves, and possibly grizzly bears comprised the predator/scavenger guild. The youngest mammoth so far discovered lived ca 13,800 years ago, while horses and bison persisted on the North Slope until at least 12,500 years ago during the Younger Dryas cold interval. The first people arrived on the North Slope ca 13,500 years ago. Bone-isotope measurements and foot-loading characteristics suggest megafaunal niches were segregated along a moisture gradient, with the surviving species (muskox and caribou) utilizing the warmer and moister portions of the vegetation mosaic. As the ice age ended, the moisture gradient shifted and eliminated habitats utilized by the dryland, grazing species (bison, horse, mammoth). The proximate cause for this change was regional paludification, the spread of organic soil horizons and peat. End-Pleistocene extinctions in arctic Alaska represent local, not global extinctions since the megafaunal species lost there persisted to later times elsewhere. Hunting seems unlikely as the cause of these extinctions, but it cannot be ruled out as the final blow to megafaunal populations that were already functionally extinct by the time humans arrived in the region.

  9. Ice-age megafauna in Arctic Alaska: extinction, invasion, survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Daniel H.; Groves, Pamela; Kunz, Michael L.; Reanier, Richard E.; Gaglioti, Benjamin V.

    2013-06-01

    Radical restructuring of the terrestrial, large mammal fauna living in arctic Alaska occurred between 14,000 and 10,000 years ago at the end of the last ice age. Steppe bison, horse, and woolly mammoth became extinct, moose and humans invaded, while muskox and caribou persisted. The ice age megafauna was more diverse in species and possibly contained 6× more individual animals than live in the region today. Megafaunal biomass during the last ice age may have been 30× greater than present. Horse was the dominant species in terms of number of individuals. Lions, short-faced bears, wolves, and possibly grizzly bears comprised the predator/scavenger guild. The youngest mammoth so far discovered lived ca 13,800 years ago, while horses and bison persisted on the North Slope until at least 12,500 years ago during the Younger Dryas cold interval. The first people arrived on the North Slope ca 13,500 years ago. Bone-isotope measurements and foot-loading characteristics suggest megafaunal niches were segregated along a moisture gradient, with the surviving species (muskox and caribou) utilizing the warmer and moister portions of the vegetation mosaic. As the ice age ended, the moisture gradient shifted and eliminated habitats utilized by the dryland, grazing species (bison, horse, mammoth). The proximate cause for this change was regional paludification, the spread of organic soil horizons and peat. End-Pleistocene extinctions in arctic Alaska represent local, not global extinctions since the megafaunal species lost there persisted to later times elsewhere. Hunting seems unlikely as the cause of these extinctions, but it cannot be ruled out as the final blow to megafaunal populations that were already functionally extinct by the time humans arrived in the region.

  10. Title: Oak Ridges Moraine Data Creator /

    E-print Network

    Title: Oak Ridges Moraine Data Creator / Copyright Owner: Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources: NAD83 /UTM Resolution: N/A Coordinates: N/A Index Map: N/A Keywords (Place): Oak Rides Moraine. "Oak Ridges Moraine" [electronic resource: vector]. Peterborough, Ontario. Ministry of Natural

  11. Intermittent Thinning of Jakobshavns Isbrae Since the Little Ice Age, Reconstructed From Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Glacial Geologic Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csatho, B.; van der Veen, C.; Schenk, T.; Thomas, R.

    2005-12-01

    Rapid thinning and velocity increase on major Greenland outlet glaciers (Jakobshavn Isbrae, west Greenland; Kangerlussuaq and Helheim glaciers in southeast Greenland) during the last two decades may indicate that these glaciers became unstable as a consequence of the Jakobshavn effect, with terminus retreat leading to increased discharge from the interior and consequent further thinning and retreat. Potentially, such behavior could have serious implications for global sea level. However, the current thinning may simply be a manifestation of longer-term behavior of the ice sheet as it responds to the general warming following the Little Ice Age (LIA). Although Greenland outlet glaciers have been comprehensively monitored since the 1980s, studies of long-term changes mostly rely on records of the calving front position. Such records can be misleading because the glacier terminus, particularly if it is afloat, can either advance or retreat as ice further upstream thins and accelerates. To address this issue, we compiled a history of surface elevation changes of Jakobshavn Isbrae since the LIA. We first combined data from historical records, ground surveys, airborne laser altimetry, and field mapping of lateral moraines and trimlines. This record shows two periods of rapid thinning by about 70 meters, in the early 1950s and since 1997. Observed changes in glacier behavior during these two events are markedly different. The recent thinning, which involved several episodes of retreat followed by large thinning, resulted in a rapid retreat of the calving front toward grounding line. Thinning in the 1950s occurred during a period when the calving front was stationary with only minor annual fluctuations. Nevertheless, aerial photographs collected in the 1940s and 50s indicate that thinning extended far inland.

  12. Ice Ages and the Asteroid Belt: A Surprising Connection

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, Richard A.

    2001-05-23

    Oxygen isotope records preserved in glacial ice, seafloor cores and lake beds, show that the climate for the past million years has been one of a nearly continuous ice age, with short 10-20 kyr interglacials that occur every 100 kyr. (All of civilization has developed during the current interglacial.) Spectral analysis shows narrow peaks that imply the cycles are astronomically driven, but the spectrum is incompatible with the climate 'standard model' -- otherwise known as Milankovitch theory. An alternative theory attributes the cycles to the Earth's orbital changes, and the resulting variations in the influx of extraterrestrial dust which originates in the asteroid belt. Recent measurements of dust influx verify a prediction of this new model.

  13. Little Ice Age glacial activity in Peter Lougheed and Elk Lakes provincial parks,

    E-print Network

    Smith, Dan

    are represented by moraines deposited prior to the 16th century. A major glacial expansion in the 17th century century, for which there is only sparse morainic evidence. Most moraines in the area date from a glacial advance culminating in the mid-19th century, and moraine formation was complete everywhere by the late

  14. Spatial and temporal characteristics of the Little Ice Age: The Antarctic ice-core record

    SciTech Connect

    Mosley-Thompson, E.; Thompson, L.G.

    1992-03-01

    Recently, ice core records from both hemispheres, in conjunction with other proxy records (e.g., tree rings, speleothems and corals), have shown that the Little Ice Age (LIA) was spatially extensive, extending to the Antarctic. This paper examines the temporal and spatial characteristics of the dust and delta 18O information from Antarctic ice cores. Substantial differences exist in the records. For example, a 550-year record of delta 18O and dust concentrations from Siple Station, Antarctica suggests that, less dusty conditions prevailed from A.D. 1600 to 1830. Alternately, dust and delta 18O data from South Pole Station indicate that opposite conditions (e.g., cooler and more dusty) were prevalent during the LIA. Three additional Antarctic delta 18O records are integrated with the Siple and South Pole histories for a more comprehensive picture of LIA conditions. The records provide additional support for the LIA temperature opposition between the Antarctic Peninsula region and East Antarctica. In addition, periods of strongest LIA cooling are not temporally synchronous over East Antarctica. These strong regional differences demonstrate that a suite of spatially distributed, high resolution ice core records will be necessary to characterize the LIA in Antarctica.

  15. Acting Out History from the Ice Age to the Modern Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattioli, Denee J.; Drake, Frederick

    1999-01-01

    Addresses the teaching methods of Michael Welch, a seventh grade teacher, who incorporates the humanities, such as drama and literature, into his history classroom in order to help students learn to question, think analytically, solve problems, and make decisions. Summarizes a particular unit on the Ice Age. (CMK)

  16. Spatial pattern of mass loss processes across the Greenland Ice Sheet from the Little Ice Age to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjaer, K.; Korsgaard, N. J.; Kjeldsen, K. K.; Bjork, A. A.; Khan, S. A.; Funder, S.; Nuth, C.; Larsen, N. K.; Vinther, B.; Andresen, C. S.; Long, A. J.; Woodroffe, S.; Hansen, E. S.; Odgaard, B. V.; Olsen, J.; Bamber, J. L.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Box, J. E.; Willerslev, E.

    2013-12-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet loses mass through surface meltwater runoff and discharge from marine terminating outlet glaciers. The spatial variability and magnitude of these processes have been studied and described in detail for the past decades. Here, we combine the mass loss between the LIA to 2010 with a SMB model extending back to ~1900 in order to investigate the spatial distribution of mass loss processes. We use high quality aerial stereo photogrammetric imagery recorded between 1978 and 1987 to map morphological features such as trim lines and end moraines marking the maximum ice extent of the LIA, which enables us to obtain vertical point-based differences associated with former ice extent. These point measurements are combined with contemporary ice surface differences derived using NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) from 2003-2010, NASA's Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) from 2003-2009, NASA's Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor (LVIS) from 2010, and ASTER (Silcast AST14DMO) co-registered to ICESat, to estimate mass loss throughout the 20th and early 21st Century. The mass balance estimates of the GrIS since retreat from maximum LIA is combined with a SMB model for the period for three intervals, LIAmax (~1900) - 1978/87, 1978/87 - 2003, and 2003 - 2010. Across the GrIS the total mass loss if found to be spatially- and temporally variable. However, when assessing the mass loss due to SMB and mass loss due to dynamic ice loss, we find that that the ratios between these components are variable between the different sectors of the GrIS, e.g. in the southeast sector of the GrIS we find substantial mass loss, possibly driven by high precipitation rates but also the presence of a large number of marine terminating glaciers. Furthermore many areas currently undergoing changes correspond to those that experienced considerable thinning throughout the 20th century. Consequently, comparing the 20th century thinning pattern to that of the last decade, and assuming a similar warming pattern, we argue that the present sensitivity distribution will hold also for future ice sheet mass loss until marine outlet glaciers become grounded.

  17. Moraine-dammed lake failures in Patagonia and assessment of outburst susceptibility in the Baker Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iribarren Anacona, P.; Norton, K. P.; Mackintosh, A.

    2014-12-01

    Glacier retreat since the Little Ice Age has resulted in the development or expansion of hundreds of glacial lakes in Patagonia. Some of these lakes have produced large (? 106 m3) Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) damaging inhabited areas. GLOF hazard studies in Patagonia have been mainly based on the analysis of short-term series (? 50 years) of flood data and until now no attempt has been made to identify the relative susceptibility of lakes to failure. Power schemes and associated infrastructure are planned for Patagonian basins that have historically been affected by GLOFs, and we now require a thorough understanding of the characteristics of dangerous lakes in order to assist with hazard assessment and planning. In this paper, the conditioning factors of 16 outbursts from moraine-dammed lakes in Patagonia were analysed. These data were used to develop a classification scheme designed to assess outburst susceptibility, based on image classification techniques, flow routine algorithms and the Analytical Hierarchy Process. This scheme was applied to the Baker Basin, Chile, where at least seven moraine-dammed lakes have failed in historic time. We identified 386 moraine-dammed lakes in the Baker Basin of which 28 were classified with high or very high outburst susceptibility. Commonly, lakes with high outburst susceptibility are in contact with glaciers and have moderate (> 8°) to steep (> 15°) dam outlet slopes, akin to failed lakes in Patagonia. The proposed classification scheme is suitable for first-order GLOF hazard assessments in this region. However, rapidly changing glaciers in Patagonia make detailed analysis and monitoring of hazardous lakes and glaciated areas upstream from inhabited areas or critical infrastructure necessary, in order to better prepare for hazards emerging from an evolving cryosphere.

  18. An investigation of the astronomical theory of the ice ages using a simple climate-ice sheet model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollard, D.

    1978-01-01

    The astronomical theory of the Quaternary ice ages is incorporated into a simple climate model for global weather; important features of the model include the albedo feedback, topography and dynamics of the ice sheets. For various parameterizations of the orbital elements, the model yields realistic assessments of the northern ice sheet. Lack of a land-sea heat capacity contrast represents one of the chief difficulties of the model.

  19. The Last Glacial Maximum at 44°S documented by a 10Be moraine chronology at Lake Ohau, Southern Alps of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnam, Aaron E.; Schaefer, Joerg M.; Denton, George H.; Barrell, David J. A.; Birkel, Sean D.; Andersen, Bjørn G.; Kaplan, Michael R.; Finkel, Robert C.; Schwartz, Roseanne; Doughty, Alice M.

    2013-02-01

    Determining whether glaciers registered the classic Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ˜26,500-˜19,000 yrs ago) coevally between the hemispheres can help to discriminate among hypothesized drivers of ice-age climate. Here, we present a record of glacier behavior from the Southern Alps of New Zealand during the 'local LGM' (LLGM). We used 10Be surface-exposure dating methods and detailed glacial geomorphologic mapping to produce a robust chronology of well-preserved terminal moraines deposited during the LLGM near Lake Ohau on central South Island. We then used a glaciological model to estimate a LLGM glacier snowline and atmospheric temperature from the Ohau glacier record. Seventy-three 10Be surface-exposure ages place culminations of terminal moraine construction, and hence completions of glacier advances to positions outboard of present-day Lake Ohau, at 138,600 ± 10,600 yrs, 32,520 ± 970 yrs ago, 27,400 ± 1300 yrs ago, 22,510 ± 660 yrs ago, and 18,220 ± 500 yrs ago. Recessional moraines document glacier recession into the Lake Ohau trough by 17,690 ± 350 yrs ago. Exposure of an ice-molded bedrock bench located inboard of the innermost LLGM moraines by 17,380 ± 510 yrs ago indicates that the ice tongue had receded about 40% of its overall length by that time. Comparing our chronology with distances of retreat suggests that the Ohau glacier terminus receded at a mean net rate of about 77 m yr-1 and its surface lowered by 200 m between 17,690 and 17,380 yrs ago. A long-term continuation of ice retreat in the Ohau glacier catchment is implied by moraine records at the head of Irishman Stream valley, a tributary of the Ohau glacier valley. The Irishman Stream cirque glacier advanced to produce a set of Lateglacial moraines at 13,000 ± 500 yrs ago, implying that the cirque glacier was less extensive prior to that advance. We employed a glaciological model, fit to these mapped and dated LLGM moraines, to derive snowline elevations and temperature parameters from the Ohau glacier record. The modeling experiments indicate that a snowline lowering of 920 ± 50 m and temperature depression of 6.25 ± 0.5 °C below modern values allows for the Ohau glacier to grow to an equilibrium position within the LGM moraine belt. Taken together with a glaciological simulation reported from the Irishman Stream valley, snowlines and temperatures increased by at least ˜520 m and ˜3.6 °C, respectively, between ˜18,000 and ˜13,000 yrs ago. Climate parameters derived from the Ohau glacier reconstruction are similar to those derived from glacier records from Patagonia, to air temperature indicators from Antarctica, as well as to sea-surface temperature and stratification signatures of the Southern Ocean. We think that the best explanation for the observed southern LLGM is that southern winter duration modulated Southern Ocean sea ice, which in turn influenced Southern Ocean stratification and made the surface ocean cooler. Orbitally induced cooling of the Southern Ocean provides an explanation for the LLGM in the Southern Alps having been coincident with the northern LGM. We argue further that the global effect of North Atlantic stadials led to disturbance of Southern Ocean stratification, southward shifts of the subtropical front, and retreat of Southern Alps glaciers. Collapse of Southern Ocean stratification during Heinrich Stadial-1, along with attendant sea-surface warming, triggered the onset of the Last Glacial termination in the Southern Alps of New Zealand.

  20. A high glacier opens a view of the ice age tropics

    SciTech Connect

    Mlot, C.

    1995-07-07

    This article discusses new information about the ice age tropics as cores from a mountain glacier in the Peruvian Andes are analysed. Chemical markers in the ice of the two cores (160 and 166 meters long), covering 20,000 years, are starting to provide detailed support for understanding the ice age in the tropics. they show that climate in the tropics experience sharp oscillations at the end of the ice ages as it did in more northerly regions. Information about El Ninos and how the tropics respond to global climate changes is forthcoming. Comments on the actual expedition to obtain the ice cores are included.

  1. Spatial and temporal variations in the age structure of Arctic sea ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belchansky, G.I.; Douglas, D.C.; Platonov, N.G.

    2005-01-01

    Spatial and temporal variations in the age structure of Arctic sea ice are investigated using a new reverse chronology algorithm that tracks ice-covered pixels to their location and date of origin based on ice motion and concentration data. The Beaufort Gyre tends to harbor the oldest (>10 years old) sea ice in the western Arctic while direct ice advection pathways toward the Transpolar Drift Stream maintain relatively young (10 years old (10+ year age class) were observed during 1989-2003. Since the mid-1990s, losses to the 10+ year age class lacked compensation by recruitment due to a prior depletion of all mature (6-10 year) age classes. Survival of the 1994 and 1996-1998 sea ice generations reestablished most mature age classes, and thereby the potential to increase extent of the 10+ year age class during the mid-2000s.

  2. Exposure-age record of Holocene ice sheet and ice shelf change in the northeast Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LARISSA Group Balco, Greg; Schaefer, Joerg M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes glacial-geologic observations and cosmogenic-nuclide exposure ages from ice-free areas adjacent to the Sjögren, Boydell, and Drygalski Glaciers of the northeast Antarctic Peninsula. These provide a record of Holocene glacier and ice shelf change in this region. Early Holocene ice surface elevation near the present coastline was locally at least 500 m above present sea level, but our observations do not constrain the maximum thickness of Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ice or the time at which it was attained. The boundary between frozen-based and wet-based ice reached a maximum elevation of 100-150 m above present sea level. The ice surface elevation decreased from 300-500 m elevation to near present sea level between 9 ka and ca 4 ka. Below 160 m elevation, we observed a bimodal distribution of apparent exposure ages in which a population of glacially transported clasts with mid-Holocene exposure ages coexists with another that has exposure ages of 100-600 years. We consider the most likely explanation for this to be i) complete deglaciation of currently ice-free areas, which presumably required the absence of ice shelves, at 3.5-4.5 ka, followed by ii) subsequent ice shelf formation and grounding line advance after ca 1.4 ka, and iii) complete re-exposure of the sites after ice shelf breakup and glacier surface lowering in recent decades. This explanation is consistent with marine sedimentary records indicating that ice shelves in the Prince Gustav Channel and Larsen A embayment were absent in the middle to late Holocene and were re-established within the last 2000 years.

  3. Paleoclimatology: Second clock supports orbital pacing of the ice ages

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1997-05-02

    For a while, it looked as if a water-filled crack in the Nevada desert might doom the accepted explanation of the ice ages. Twenty years ago, the so-called astronomical theory had carried the day. Oceanographers had found evidence implying that the march of ice ages over the last million years was paced by the cyclical stretching and squeezing of Earth`s orbit around the sun, which would have altered the way sunlight fell on the planet`s surface. But in 1988, researchers scuba diving in Nevada`s Devils Hole came up with a climate record--captured in carbonate deposits in the crack-that seemed to contradict this chronology. This article discusses the findings and the puzzles that still remain. The records of sea-level change in Barbados coral appear to be right and the astronomical theory is on solid ground using a new clock based on the radioactive decay of uranium-235 to protactinium-231. However, the Devils Hole record also seems to be correct.

  4. Role of Atmospheric CO2 in the Ice Ages (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toggweiler, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    Ice cores from Antarctica provide our most highly resolved records of glacial-interglacial climate change. They feature big transitions every 100,000 years or so in which Antarctica warms by up to 10 deg. C while the level of atmospheric CO2 rises by up to 100 ppm. We have no other records like these from any other location, so the assumption is often made that the Earth's mean temperature varies like the temperatures in Antarctica. The striking co-variation between the two records is taken to mean 1) that there is a causal relationship between the global temperature and atmospheric CO2 and 2) that atmospheric CO2 is a powerful agent of climate change during the ice ages. The problem is that the mechanism most often invoked to explain the CO2 variations operates right next to Antarctica and, as such, provides a fairly direct way to explain the temperature variations in Antarctica as well. If so, Antarctic temperatures go up and down for the same reason that atmospheric CO2 goes up and down, in which case no causation can be inferred. Climate models suggest that the 100-ppm CO2 increases during the big transitions did not increase surface temperatures by more than 2 deg. C. This is not nearly enough to explain the observed variability. A better reason for thinking that atmospheric CO2 is important is that its temporal variations are concentrated in the 100,000-yr band. In my presentation I will argue that atmospheric CO2 is important because it has the longest time scale in the system. We observe empirically that atmospheric CO2 remains low for 50,000 years during the second half of each 100,000-yr cycle. The northern ice sheets become especially large toward the ends of these intervals, and it is large ice sheets that make the Earth especially cold. This leads me to conclude that atmospheric CO2 is important because of its slow and persistent influence on the northern ice sheets over the second half of each 100,000-yr cycle.

  5. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Age Characteristics in a Multidecadal Arctic Sea Ice1

    E-print Network

    Bitz, Cecilia

    T November 3, 2008, 12:14pm D R A F T #12;X - 2 HUNKE AND BITZ: SEA ICE AGE CHARACTERISTICS Abstract. Results from adding a tracer for age of sea ice to a sophisti-6 cated sea ice model that is widely used for climate studies are presented. The7 consistent simulation of ice age, dynamics, and thermodynamics

  6. Low-velocity impact craters in ice and ice-saturated sand with implications for Martian crater count ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, S. K.; Kieffer, S. W.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper reports on a series of low-velocity impact experiments performed in ice and ice-saturated sand. It is found that crater diameters in ice-saturated sand were about 2 times larger than in the same energy and velocity range in competent blocks of granite, basalt and cement, while craters in ice were 3 times larger. It is shown that if this dependence of crater size on strength persists to large hypervelocity impact craters, then surface of geologic units composed of ice or ice-saturated soil would have greater crater count ages than rocky surfaces with identical influx histories. Among the conclusions are that Martian impact crater energy versus diameter scaling may also be a function of latitude.

  7. Geomorphic influences of the Little Ice Age glacial advance on selected hillslope systems in Nordfjord, Western Norway (Erdalen and Bødalen valleys)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laute, Katja; Beylich, Achim A.

    2010-05-01

    Hillslopes in glacially formed landscapes are typically characterized by talus cones developed beneath free rock faces. Studying hillslopes as sedimentary source, storage and transfer zones as well as surface processes acting on hillslopes since the end of the deglaciation is of importance in order to gain a better understanding of the complex sedimentary source-to-sink fluxes in cold climate environments. Hillslopes function as a key component within the geomorphic process response system. Large areas of the Norwegian fjord landscapes are covered by hillslopes and are characterized by the influences of the glacial inheritance. This PhD project is part of the NFR funded SedyMONT-Norway project within the ESF TOPO-EUROPE SedyMONT (Timescales of sediment dynamics, climate and topographic change in mountain landscapes) programme. The focus of this study is on geomorphic influences of the Little Ice Age glacial advance on postglacial hillslope systems in four distinct headwater areas of the Erdalen and Bødalen valleys in the Nordfjord valley-fjord system (inner Nordfjord, Western Norway). Both valleys can be described as steep, U-shaped and glacier-fed, subarctic tributary valleys. Approximately 14% of the 49 km2 large headwater areas of Erdalen are occupied by hillslope deposits and 41% by rock surfaces; in Bødalen hillslope deposits occupy 12% and rock surfaces occupy 38% of the 42 km2 large headwater areas. The main aims of this study are (i) to analyze and compare the morphometric characteristics as well as the composition of hillslope systems inside and outside of the Little Ice Age glacial limit, (ii) to detect possible changes within the mass balances of these hillslope systems, (iii) to identify the type and intensity of currently acting hillslope processes as well as (iv) to determine possible sediment sources and delivery pathways within the headwater areas of the catchments. The process-based approach includes orthophoto- and topographical map interpretation, hillslope profile surveying, photo monitoring, geomorphological mapping as well as GIS and DEM computing. Two appropriate hillslope test sites within each headwater area are selected in order to follow the main aims of this study. The designed monitoring instrumentation of the slope test sites includes nets for collecting freshly accumulated rockfall debris, stone tracer lines for measuring surface movements, wooden sticks for monitoring of slow surface creep movements and peg lines for depth-integrated measurements of slow mass movements. In addition, remote site cameras for monitoring rapid mass movement events (avalanches, slush- and debris flows) and slope wash traps for analyzing slope wash denudation are installed and measurements of solute concentrations at small hillslope drainage creeks for investigating the role of chemical denudation are conducted. Measurements of morphometric characteristics and longitudinal profiles along the main axis of the talus cones are carried out at each test site. The manually obtained longitudinal profile data are combined with data derived from a DEM in order to generate complete longitudinal hillslope profiles reaching from the apex until the slope foot. Preliminary results show a steepening trend of the talus cones located inside the Little Ice Age glacier limit which is due to erosion during the Little Ice Age glacial advance. In addition, some of these talus cones are characterized by a recognizable more complex talus cone morphometry and composition, resulting from implementation of Little Ice Age glacier side moraines. The combination of (i) steepened talus cones and (ii) complex composition seems to increase currently acting hillslope processes which leads to a higher sediment delivery from these slopes as compared to hillslopes outside the Little Ice Age glacier limit. The implementation of moraine material but also the increased intensity of denudative processes has a recognizable influence on the mass balance of the hillslope systems inside the Little Ice Age glacier limit. Research on the complex developmen

  8. The vertical age profile in sea ice: Theory and numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lietaer, Olivier; Deleersnijder, Eric; Fichefet, Thierry; Vancoppenolle, Martin; Comblen, Richard; Bouillon, Sylvain; Legat, Vincent

    The sea ice age is an interesting diagnostic tool because it may provide a proxy for the sea ice thickness and is easier to infer from observations than the sea ice thickness. Remote sensing algorithms and modeling approaches proposed in the literature indicate significant methodological uncertainties, leading to different ice age values and physical interpretations. In this work, we focus on the vertical age distribution in sea ice. Based on the age theory developed for marine modeling, we propose a vertically-variable sea ice age definition which gives a measure of the time elapsed since the accretion of the ice particle under consideration. An analytical solution is derived from Stefan's law for a horizontally homogeneous ice layer with a periodic ice thickness seasonal cycle. Two numerical methods to solve the age equation are proposed. In the first one, the domain is discretized adaptively in space thanks to Lagrangian particles in order to capture the age profile and its discontinuities. The second one focuses on the mean age of the ice using as few degrees of freedom as possible and is based on an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) spatial discretization and the finite element method. We observe an excellent agreement between the Lagrangian particles and the analytical solution. The mean value and the standard deviation of the finite element solution agree with the analytical solution and a linear approximation is found to represent the age profile the better, the older the ice gets. Both methods are finally applied to a stand-alone thermodynamic sea ice model of the Arctic. Computing the vertically-averaged ice age reduces by a factor of about 2 the simulated ice age compared to the oldest particle of the ice columns. A high correlation is found between the ice thickness and the age of the oldest particle. However, whether or not this will remain valid once ice dynamics is included should be investigated. In addition, the present study, based on thermodynamics only, does not support a single age-thickness functional relationship.

  9. Glacier retreat since the Little Ice Age in the eastern Nyainqêntanglha Range, southeastern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loibl, David; Grießinger, Jussi; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2014-05-01

    The remote eastern Nyainqêntanglha Range in southeastern Tibet is situated in a transition zone between warm-wet subtropical and cold-dry plateau climate conditions. In this high mountain environment, intense summer monsoon rainfalls support numerous temperate glaciers despite the latitude of ~29° to ~31°N. Due to the outstanding importance of the monsoonal airmasses for the water cycle of the whole region, it is a key area to study climate and subsequent glacier change in High Asia. Here, we present the results of a study in which 1964 glaciers were mapped by remote sensing from a Landsat ETM+ scene and subsequently parameterized by DEM supported measurements. Geomorphological evidence, such as glacier trimlines and latero-frontal moraines, was used to delineate the Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum glacier advance terminus positions. Statistical analysis of glacier length change revealed an average retreat of ~40 % and a trend towards stronger retreat for smaller glaciers. Calculated ELAs show a southeast-northwest gradient ranging from 4,400 to 5,600 m a.s.l. and an average ELA rise of ~98 m since the LIA. Due to the large amount of measurements the ELA distribution reveals topographic effects down to the catchment scale, i.e. orographic rainfall and leeward shielding. This gives numerous hints on the relief-climate-glacier interactions and allows a simplified reconstruction of the flow patterns of the monsoonal air masses. Contrasting to the expectations for subtropical settings, glaciers on south facing slopes have not retreated strongest and ELAs on south facing slopes did not rise furthest. Instead, highly heterogeneous spatial patterns emerge that show a strong imprint of both, topography and monsoonal dynamics. Our results indicate that the monsoonal temperate glaciers' high sensitivity to climate change is driven by two double forcings due to the coincidence of accumulation and ablation phases. First, monsoon intensity directly controls the amount of precipitation and additionally influences temperature through cloud cover. Second, many glaciers in the study area have steep upper accumulation areas. In these settings, temperature rise rapidly reduces the size of the accumulation areas. Additionally, the larger portion of precipitation that is falling as rain instead of snow results in increased melting through lowered albedos and the effects of liquid water in the glacier system.

  10. Timing of the Little Ice Age in southern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjær, Kurt H.; Kjeldsen, Kristian K.; Bjørk, Anders A.; Khan, Shfaqat A.; Korsgaard, Niels J.; Funder, Svend; Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Vinther, Bo; Andresen, Camilla S.; Long, Antony J.; Woodroffe, Sarah A.; Steen Hansen, Eric; Olsen, Jesper

    2013-04-01

    Northern hemisphere temperatures reached their Holocene minimum and most glaciers reached their maximum during The Little Ice Age (LIA), but the timing of specific cold intervals is site-specific. In southern Greenland, we have compiled data from organic matter incorporated in LIA sediments, used as a signal for ice-free terrain being overridden by LIA glacier advances, and data from threshold lakes showing the onset of glacier-fed lakes, thus revealing the advance-maximum phase initiating the LIA. Finally, we have compiled lichenometry results indicating the onset of bedrock vegetation succeeding ice retreat. Our results show that the advance of glaciers during the LIA occurs early after the Medieval Warm Period terminating soon after 1200 AD and culminates c. 1500-1600 AD. Historical maps also show that many glaciers on the western coast occupy a still-stand near the LIA maximum until 1900 AD before retreat commence. Thus in southern Greenland, we define LIA as the period between the first signs of Late Holocene glacier readvance and the latest onset of retreat - i.e. from ca. 1200 to c. 1900. During this period northern hemisphere annual mean temperatures, although fluctuating, were generally below the 1961-1990 average, with the coldest interval between c. 1600 and 1800. Even though winter temperatures may have dominated the cooling, also the summer temperatures which are most closely correlated with glacier mass balances, dropped, to c. 0.6° below the average in the northern hemisphere including the Arctic. Furthermore, the glacier response seems to be mirrored by a oceanic cooling between 500-1000 AD, followed by onset of the LIA at 1150-1250 AD as seen in the relative strength of warm subsurface water and the influence of the East Greenland Current.

  11. Fan type end moraine related glaciofluvial deposits of Last Glaciation from Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šink?n?, Egl?; Šink?nas, Petras

    2015-04-01

    Several alluvial-fan type end moraine related sites were chosen for detailed sedimentological analyses in ice marginal zone of the last glaciation in Lithuania. Such glaciofluvial ice-marginal fans are formed close to linear ice-sheet front and have semi-conical form or represent simple asymmetric hill forms or more complex ridges with steep proximal and gentler distal slopes. Sedimentary sequences of ice-marginal fans studied consist mainly of waterlain sandy and gravelly deposits with pebbles and boulders. In some sequences a debris-flow deposits are observed as well as beds of sorted material interbedded with dominating high energy sheetflow deposits. Sediment grain size, sorting, structure and bedding characteristics dependent on ice proximity and hydrodynamic conditions were analysed. Highly pulsatory water discharge can be interpreted from depositional architecture of the end moraine related fans. The inferred character of sedimentation suggests that landforms consisting of deposits studied are genetically similar to the alluvial fans. According to the sedimentation features the investigated landforms are an intermediate between the marginal glaciofluvial ridges and sandur fans. Are they a transition zone of sedimentation between the end moraines and proximal outwash plains, or can be the end moraine related fans distinguished as a separate type of glaciofluvial deposits? This question is still open.

  12. Ice Age Epochs and the Sun's Path Through the Galaxy

    E-print Network

    D. R. Gies; J. W. Helsel

    2005-03-14

    We present a calculation of the Sun's motion through the Milky Way Galaxy over the last 500 million years. The integration is based upon estimates of the Sun's current position and speed from measurements with Hipparcos and upon a realistic model for the Galactic gravitational potential. We estimate the times of the Sun's past spiral arm crossings for a range in assumed values of the spiral pattern angular speed. We find that for a difference between the mean solar and pattern speed of Omega_Sun - Omega_p = 11.9 +/- 0.7 km/s/kpc the Sun has traversed four spiral arms at times that appear to correspond well with long duration cold periods on Earth. This supports the idea that extended exposure to the higher cosmic ray flux associated with spiral arms can lead to increased cloud cover and long ice age epochs on Earth.

  13. Simulation of the Northern Hemisphere Ice sheet throughout ice age cycles: Impact of Mass-Balance-related parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe-Ouchi, A.; Saito, F.; Segawa, T.

    2005-12-01

    One of the challenges of earth system modeling is to confirm the theories of ice age cycle by simulating it using physically based models. Here we simulate the glacial cycle known as saw-tooth shape 100ka cycle time sequence using a three dimensional ice sheet model, IcIES (Saito and Abe-Ouchi, 2004), which includes the thermo-mechanical coupling processes (used for simulations of Antarctica and Greenland ice sheet) with the process of delayed isostatic rebound. We also use an atmospheric GCM (CCSR/NIES) to estimate the climate sensitivity to Milankovitch forcing and atmospheric CO2 as well as mass balance related parameters such as lapse rate, albedo feedback and desertification effect, while we do not force the model by any proxy data such as isotopic temperature derived by ice core data in former studies. We show that the ice age cycles with a saw-tooth shape 100 ka cycle and the major NH ice sheet (Laurentide ice sheet and Fenno-Scandian ice sheet) volume and geographical distribution in the past 400,000 years are successfully simulated in which relatively small (around 5K/km) lapse rate parameter is used. This small lapse rate is consistent with the lapse rate of free atmosphere in summer calculated in the present-day data. It is shown that the temperature related processes such as lapse rate and albedo feedback plays a large role in determining the amplitude and nature of 100ka ice age cycle of Northern Hemisphere Ice sheet.

  14. High-precision 10Be chronology of moraines in the Southern Alps indicates synchronous cooling in Antarctica and New Zealand 42,000 years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Samuel E.; Kaplan, Michael R.; Schaefer, Joerg M.; Andersen, Bjørn G.; Barrell, David J. A.; Putnam, Aaron E.; Denton, George H.; Schwartz, Roseanne; Finkel, Robert C.; Doughty, Alice M.

    2014-11-01

    Millennial-scale temperature variations in Antarctica during the period 80,000 to 18,000 years ago are known to anti-correlate broadly with winter-centric cold-warm episodes revealed in Greenland ice cores. However, the extent to which climate fluctuations in the Southern Hemisphere beat in time with Antarctica, rather than with the Northern Hemisphere, has proved a controversial question. In this study we determine the ages of a prominent sequence of glacial moraines in New Zealand and use the results to assess the phasing of millennial climate change. Forty-four 10Be cosmogenic surface-exposure ages of boulders deposited by the Pukaki glacier in the Southern Alps document four moraine-building events from Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3) through to the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (?18,000 years ago; LGM). The earliest moraine-building event is defined by the ages of nine boulders on a belt of moraine that documents the culmination of a glacier advance 42,000 years ago. At the Pukaki locality this advance was of comparable scale to subsequent advances that, from the remaining exposure ages, occurred between 28,000 and 25,000, at 21,000, and at 18,000 years ago. Collectively, all four moraine-building events represent the LGM. The glacier advance 42,000 years ago in the Southern Alps coincides in Antarctica with a cold episode, shown by the isotopic record from the EPICA Dome C ice core, between the prominent A1 and A2 warming events. Therefore, the implication of the Pukaki glacier record is that as early as 42,000 years ago an episode of glacial cold similar to that of the LGM extended in the atmosphere from high on the East Antarctic plateau to at least as far north as the Southern Alps (?44°S). Such a cold episode is thought to reflect the translation through the atmosphere and/or the ocean of the anti-phased effects of Northern Hemisphere interstadial conditions to the southern half of the Southern Hemisphere. Regardless of the mechanism, any explanation for the cold episode at 42,000 years ago must account for its widespread atmospheric footprint not only in Antarctica but also within the westerly wind belt in southern mid-latitudes.

  15. Effects of nonlinear rheology and anisotropy on the relationship between age and depth at ice divides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, C.; Gudmundsson, G. H.

    2011-12-01

    Through numerical modelling using a full-system Stokes thermomechanical model, the effects of nonlinear rheology and strain-induced anisotropy on the age versus depth relation at ice divides are investigated. We compare our numerical results with field examples and analytical approximations commonly employed in age-depth prediction. We show that both the rheological index and strain-induced anisotropy profoundly affect the age distribution with depth, and caution must be exercised when estimating age of ice from ice cores with an isotropic age-depth model. Our main findings are: First, once the ice has developed a significant single maximum or vertical girdle fabric, the analytical approximations tend to underestimate the age of ice. Second, Bedrock topography and divide migration have a strong influence on the orientation of the ice fabric. They can force the development of single maximum and vertical girdle fabrics that are not aligned in the vertical. The orientation of the ice fabric can show sharp horizontal gradients and it has a significant effect on the age-depth relationship. We also study the coupling between anisotropic viscosity and internal heating. It does produce a warm spot and softer ice at the base of the divide when compared with surrounding areas. Finally we study the age-depth distribution in divides that show double-peaked Raymond bump in their radar stratigraphy and concavities in the surface parallel to and at both sides of the ridge. They provide ideal locations fore ice-core drilling as they have been stable for a long time when compared with their characteristic time (ice thickness divide by accumulation). Our model shows that the ice in these areas can be up to one order of magnitude older that ice at the same depth both at the flanks of the divide area or on similar divides that have not been stable for that long.

  16. `Little Ice Age' proxy glacier mass balance records reconstructed from tree rings in

    E-print Network

    Smith, Dan

    `Little Ice Age' proxy glacier mass balance records reconstructed from tree rings in the Mt-term proxy records of `Little Ice Age' glacier mass balance changes in the southern Coast Mountains with historical glacier records to construct models spanning the past 450 years. The approach was to build models

  17. Warmly Debated: The Little Ice Age and the Construction of Historical Climatic Regimes, 1650-1950 

    E-print Network

    Gilson, Christopher R.

    2011-08-08

    . The Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age are the two most commonly referenced and discussed of such regimes. This thesis examines the theories and debates that preceded and surrounded the formal definition of the Little Ice Age as an historic period...

  18. Glimpses of the Ice Age from I-81: Lee Ranger District

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; U.S. Forest Service

    1998-01-01

    Travelers on Interstate Highway 81 can see remnants of the Ice Age on the mountains between Strasburg and Harrisonburg, Virginia. Scattered along the miles of green, forested mountains are many gray patches without any forests. These treeless patches, or openings, in the steep mountain forests are block fields - geologic features that owe their origin to the Ice Age.

  19. ICES/GLOBEC Newsletter Number 10, September 2003 Reaction norms for age and size at

    E-print Network

    Dieckmann, Ulf

    ICES/GLOBEC Newsletter Number 10, September 2003 Reaction norms for age and size at maturation morhua). Reaction norms for age and size at maturation, describing the age and size dependence, however, fully determined by age and size alone. The residual effects not captured by age and size

  20. Estimation of Soil Organic Carbon Stock in the Midtre Lovénbreen Moraine, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, J. Y.; Lee, Y. K.; Kwon, H.; Kim, S. E.; Laffly, D.; Le NIR, Y.; Nilsen, L.; Moreau, M.

    2014-12-01

    As a glacier retreats, land surface beneath the glacier is newly exposed, and changes in soil have initiated as well as microbial and plants species. Numerous studies have been done on soil development along the chronosequence in the glacier moraine, and mostly undisturbed areas were selected as sampling sites to represent soil age well. However, the surface of glacier moraine is remodeled by active flows, and terrain attributes are very diverse, thus soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation is not always a linear function of soil age in the glacier moraine. Therefore, we examined the distribution of SOC in the Midtre Lovénbreen morain with a consideration of soil age, microtopography, and runoff activity in this study. Forty two soil sampling sites were selected among previously observed 300 points of plant species via the systematic random sampling method with a consideration of soil age, runoff activities, slope, aspect, and X, Y coordinates. Three close to the glacier terminus and nine sites outside of moraine were additionally sampled. Four different depths (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) of soil were collected, and soil volume was measured by the excavation method in summer 2014. Currently, we are in a status of acquiring microtopographic information from digital elevation model, calculating bulk density, and preparing soil samples for SOC analysis. Once we gather all data, corresponding analysis and classification will be conducted to characterize sampling sites. Then, SOC distribution over the glacier moraine using microtopographic information will be estimated through modelling.

  1. Investigating groundwater flow paths within proglacial moraine using multiple geophysical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClymont, Alastair F.; Roy, James W.; Hayashi, Masaki; Bentley, Laurence R.; Maurer, Hansruedi; Langston, Greg

    2011-03-01

    SummaryGroundwater that is stored and slowly released from alpine watersheds plays an important role in sustaining mountain rivers. Yet, little is known about how groundwater flows within typical alpine geological deposits like glacial moraine, talus, and bedrock. Within the Lake O'Hara alpine watershed of the Canadian Rockies, seasonal snowmelt and rain infiltrates into a large complex of glacial moraine and talus deposits before discharging from a series of springs within a relatively confined area of a terminal moraine deposit. In order to understand the shallow subsurface processes that govern how groundwater is routed through this area, we have undertaken a geophysical study on glacial moraine and bedrock over and around the springs. From interpretations of several seismic refraction, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) profiles, we delineate the topography of bedrock beneath moraine. Although the bedrock is generally flat under central parts of the terminal moraine, we suggest that an exposed slope of bedrock on its eastern side and a ridge of shallow bedrock imaged by ERT data underneath its western margin serves to channel deep groundwater toward the largest spring. Low-electrical-resistivity anomalies identified on ERT images within shallow parts of the moraine indicate the presence of groundwater flowing over shallow bedrock and/or ice. From coincident seismic refraction, GPR and ERT profiles, we interpret an ca. 5-m-thick deep layer of saturated moraine and fractured bedrock. Despite their relatively small storage volumes, we suggest that groundwater flowing through bedrock cracks may provide an important contribution to stream runoff during low-flow periods. The distinct deep and shallow groundwater flow paths that we interpret from geophysical data reconcile with interpretations from previous analyses of hydrograph and water chemistry data from this same area.

  2. Glacial Chronology of a High Altitude Moraine Series, Tamarack Bench/Francis Canyon, Sierra Nevada, California

    E-print Network

    Kohut, Daryl Lee

    2011-01-01

    erosion by the stream which emerges from beneath the glacial Glacial moraines were defined as  unconsolidated, poorly sorted, sedimentary deposits located at previous ice margins  resulting from the weathering and erosion glacial advances using the Lal  (1991)/Stone (2000) time independent production model.  The effects  of erosion 

  3. Effect of photochemical ageing on the ice nucleation properties of diesel and wood burning particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C.; Kanji, Z. A.; Stetzer, O.; Tritscher, T.; Chirico, R.; Heringa, M. F.; Weingartner, E.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Lohmann, U.

    2013-01-01

    A measurement campaign (IMBALANCE) conducted in 2009 was aimed at characterizing the physical and chemical properties of freshly emitted and photochemically aged combustion particles emitted from a log wood burner and diesel vehicles: a EURO3 Opel Astra with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) but no particle filter and a EURO2 Volkswagen Transporter TDI Syncro without emission aftertreatment. Ice nucleation experiments in the deposition and condensation freezing modes were conducted with the Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber (PINC) at three nominal temperatures, -30 °C, -35 °C and -40 °C. Freshly emitted diesel particles showed ice formation only at -40 °C in the deposition mode at 137% relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi) and 92% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw), and photochemical ageing did not play a role in modifying their ice nucleation behaviour. Only one diesel experiment where ?-pinene was added for the ageing process, showed an ice nucleation enhancement at -35 °C. Wood burning particles also act as ice nuclei (IN) at -40 °C in the deposition mode at the same conditions as for diesel particles and photochemical ageing also did not alter the ice formation properties of the wood burning particles. Unlike diesel particles, wood burning particles form ice via condensation freezing at -35 °C whereas no ice nucleation was observed at -30 °C. Photochemical ageing did not affect the ice nucleation ability of the diesel and wood burning particles at the three different temperatures investigated but a broader range of temperatures below -40 °C need to be investigated in order to draw an overall conclusion on the effect of photochemical ageing on deposition/condensation ice nucleation across the entire temperature range relevant to cold clouds.

  4. The whole world had a case of the ice age shivers

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1993-12-24

    There is now worldwide evidence of short-term increases in the earth's temperature during the last ice ages. This evidence comes from South American glaciers, Antarctic ice cores, and sediment cores from the tropical oceans, as well as Greenland ice cores. Researcher are unsure of the causes of these fluctuations. Some speculate a means for transmitting a climate signal from the North Atlantic to the rest of the world, while others look to some shorter-term version of the orbital variations that pace the cycle of the ice ages.

  5. Spatial and temporal variations in the age structure of Arctic sea ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belchansky, G.I.; Douglas, D.C.; Platonov, N.G.

    2005-01-01

    Spatial and temporal variations in the age structure of Arctic sea ice are investigated using a new reversechronology algorithm that tracks ice-covered pixels to their location and date of origin based on ice motion and concentration data. The Beaufort Gyre tends to harbor the oldest (>10 years old) sea ice in the western Arctic while direct ice advection pathways toward the Transpolar Drift Stream maintain relatively young (???5 years) ice in the eastern Arctic. Persistent net losses (-4.2% yr-1) in extent of ice >10 years old (10+ year age class) were observed during 1989-2003. Since the mid-1990s, losses to the 10+ year age class lacked compensation by recruitment due to a prior depletion of all mature (6-10 year) age classes. Survival of the 1994 and 1996-1998 sea ice generations reestablished most mature age classes, and thereby the potential to increase extent of the 10+ year age class during the mid-2000s. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Cryosphere: Antarctic ice growth and retreat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Jeffrey

    2015-08-01

    Antarctic Ice Sheet change during the last glacial cycle is unclear. The timing of moraine development in the Ross basin suggests that the ice sheet reached maximum thickness under the warming temperatures of the last termination.

  7. Radiocarbon in tropical tree rings during the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Q.; Barbetti, M.; Zoppi, U.; Fink, D.; Watanasak, M.; Jacobsen, G. E.

    2004-08-01

    Cross-dated tree-ring cores (Pinus merkusii) from north-central Thailand, spanning AD 1620-1780, were used to investigate atmospheric 14C for the tropics during the latter part of the Little Ice Age. In addition, a cross-dated section of Huon pine from western Tasmania, covering the same period of time, was investigated. A total of 16 pairs of decadal samples were extracted to alpha-cellulose for AMS 14C analysis using the ANTARES facility at ANSTO. The 14C results from Thailand follow the trend of the southern hemisphere, rather than that of the northern hemisphere. This is a surprising result, and we infer that atmospheric 14C for north-central Thailand, at 17° N, was strongly influenced by the entrainment of southern hemisphere air parcels during the southwest Asian monsoon, when the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone moves to the north of our sampling site. Such atmospheric transport and mixing are therefore considered to be one of the principal mechanisms for regional 14C offsets.

  8. Spatial manifestation of the Little Ice Age in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg, B. F.; Tinner, W.; Henderson, A.; Bigler, C.; Hu, F.

    2005-12-01

    We present here climate reconstructions of the past 1000 years on the basis of multiproxy sediment analyses at six lakes in three regions of Alaska: the northwestern Alaskan Range (Farewell Lake), the southern Brooks Range (Takahula, Malamute, and Omega Lakes), and the Copper River Basin in southeastern Alaska (Grizzly and Moose Lakes). All three regions show a consistent decline in summer temperature of roughly 1.5 to 2 degrees C during Little Ice Age (LIA, 1480 - 1850 AD), in good agreement with previous estimates. However, effective-moisture reconstructions vary greatly among these regions. Oxygen isotopes, carbonate trace elements, and chironomid assemblages suggest that the SW and N portions of the Alaskan interior experienced a considerable effective-moisture increase and elevated lake levels during the LIA. At Takahula Lake, oxygen isotope analysis reveals that the rise in effective moisture occurred predominantly as a result of increased winter precipitation. In contrast, diatom-inferred water depths at Grizzly Lake dropped dramatically during the LIA, suggesting that the Copper River Basin became drier. The heterogeneity of the LIA moisture changes across our sites is consistent with the expected spatial pattern based on recent reconstructions of the position of the Aleutian Low (AL) during the LIA. Thus, variation of the strength/position of the AL appears to have been a major driver of the Alaskan climate over the last millennium.

  9. Age of Allan Hills 82102, a meteorite found inside the ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Jull, A. J. T.; Bonani, G.; Suter, M.; Woelfli, W.

    1989-01-01

    The terrestrial age of a meteorite that was recovered from below the surface of Antarctic ice is reported, and it is argued that this represents a measurement of the age of the ice itself. The cosmogenic radionuclides Be-10, C-14, Al-26, Cl-36, and Mn-53 are measured in the meteorite and Be-10 and Cl-36 in the ice. A terrestrial age of 11,000 yr is obtained for the meteorite, which suggests that the snow accumulation area where it fell was only a few tens of km away.

  10. Several caves in high elevated alpine regions host massive ice fillings and underground glaciers. The age of the ice may exceed several hundred or thousand years and the ice bodies possibly have recorded paleoclimatic information. Despite

    E-print Network

    Brückl, Ewald

    . The age of the ice may exceed several hundred or thousand years and the ice bodies possibly have recordedSeveral caves in high elevated alpine regions host massive ice fillings and underground glaciers paleoclimatic information. Despite their scientific value, the knowledge on ice caves is relatively sparse

  11. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING TRANSFER GUIDE MORAINE VALLEY COMMUNITY COLLEGE

    E-print Network

    Stanier, Charlie

    12/03/2014 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ­ TRANSFER GUIDE MORAINE VALLEY COMMUNITY COLLEGE Course work AND EQUIVALENTS The University of Iowa Course UI Sem Hrs Moraine Valley Equivalent Moraine Valley Sem Hrs RHET-admissions@uiowa.edu Moraine Valley Community College 9000 West College Parkway Palos Hills, IL 60465 708-974-5300 http

  12. Seismic reflection study of recessional moraines beneath Lake Superior and their relationship to regional deglaciation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmesser, C.W.; Johnson, T.C.; Wold, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Approximately 8000 km of continuous seismic reflection profiles throughout Lake Superior were examined for evidence of recessional moraines and other ice-margin deposits associated with the retreat of late Wisconsin ice. These features are correlated with the record of glacial-lake evolution in western Lake Superior. An offlapping sequence of glacial and glacial-lacustrine dediments overlying bedrock is recognized in west-central Lake Superior that is progressively younger to the northeast. The sequence underlies more recent glaical-lacustrine and postglacial sediments. Four facies are recognized on the basis of geomorphologic and acoustic properties and are interpreted to represent a southwest-to-northeast assemblage of: proglacial stratified drift (facies A), drift in major end moraines (facies B), till deposited as glacial retreat resumed, or possibly late-stage ablation till (facies C), and basal till (facies D). The prominent moraines of facies B are unusually thick and are believed to mark the ice-margin shorelines of successive major proglacial lakes that formerly occupied parts of western Lake Superior. The moraines are tentatively correlated with Glacial Lake Duluth (unit 1), Glacial Lake Washburn (unit 2), and Glacial Lake Beaver Bay (unit 3), the most prominent of lakes drained via the progressively lower outlets via the Moose Lake/ Brule-St. Croix Rivers, the Huron Mountains, and the Au Train-Whitefish regions, respectively. ?? 1982.

  13. Global sea-level contribution from the Patagonian Icefields since the Little Ice Age maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasser, N. F.; Harrison, S.; Jansson, K. N.; Anderson, K.; Cowley, A.

    2011-05-01

    The melting of mountain glaciers and ice caps is expected to contribute significantly to sea-level rise in the twenty-first century, although the magnitude of this contribution is not fully constrained. Glaciers in the Patagonian Icefields of South America are thought to have contributed about 10% of the total sea-level rise attributable to mountain glaciers in the past 50 years. However, it is unclear whether recent rates of glacier recession in Patagonia are unusual relative to the past few centuries. Here we reconstruct the recession of these glaciers using remote sensing and field determinations of trimline and terminal moraine location. We estimate that the North Patagonian Icefield has lost 103+/-20.7km3 of ice since its late Holocene peak extent in AD 1870 and that the South Patagonian Icefield has lost 503+/-101.1km3 since its peak in AD 1650. This equates to a sea-level contribution of 0.0018+/-0.0004mmyr-1 since 1870 from the north and 0.0034+/-0.0007mmyr-1 since 1650 from the south. The centennial rates of sea-level contribution we derive are one order of magnitude lower than estimates of melting over the past 50 years, even when we account for possible thinning above the trimline. We conclude that the melt rate and sea-level contribution of the Patagonian Icefields increased markedly in the twentieth century.

  14. Late glacial fluctuations of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in the White Mountains of Maine and New Hampshire, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromley, Gordon R. M.; Hall, Brenda L.; Thompson, Woodrow B.; Kaplan, Michael R.; Garcia, Juan Luis; Schaefer, Joerg M.

    2015-05-01

    Prominent moraines deposited by the Laurentide Ice Sheet in northern New England document readvances, or stillstands, of the ice margin during overall deglaciation. However, until now, the paucity of direct chronologies over much of the region has precluded meaningful assessment of the mechanisms that drove these events, or of the complex relationships between ice-sheet dynamics and climate. As a step towards addressing this problem, we present a cosmogenic 10Be surface-exposure chronology from the Androscoggin moraine complex, located in the White Mountains of western Maine and northern New Hampshire, as well as four recalculated ages from the nearby Littleton-Bethlehem moraine. Seven internally consistent 10Be ages from the Androscoggin terminal moraines indicate that advance culminated ~ 13.2 ± 0.8 ka, in close agreement with the mean age of the neighboring Littleton-Bethlehem complex. Together, these two datasets indicate stabilization or advance of the ice-sheet margin in northern New England, at ~ 14-13 ka, during the Allerød/Greenland Interstadial I.

  15. Little Ice Age cold interval in West Antarctica: Evidence from borehole temperature at the West Antarctic

    E-print Network

    Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.

    Little Ice Age cold interval in West Antarctica: Evidence from borehole temperature at the West, especially in Antarctica. We present temperature data from a 300 m borehole at the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and West Antarctica suggests that the feedbacks amplifying the radiative forcing may not operate

  16. End of the Little Ice Age in the Alps forced by industrial black carbon

    E-print Network

    Marzeion, Ben

    End of the Little Ice Age in the Alps forced by industrial black carbon Thomas H. Paintera,1 , Mark continued to grow until circa 1910. Radiative forcing by increasing deposition of industrial black carbon century. Ice cores indicate that black carbon concentrations increased abruptly in the mid-19th century

  17. Consequences of pacing the Pleistocene 100 kyr ice ages by nonlinear phase locking to Milankovitch forcing

    E-print Network

    Huybers, Peter

    Consequences of pacing the Pleistocene 100 kyr ice ages by nonlinear phase locking to Milankovitch in the presence of noise in the climate system and can be effective at setting glacial termination times even when the precession and obliquity bands account only for a small portion of the total power of an ice volume record

  18. Late Quaternary ice sheet extents in northeastern Germany inferred from surface exposure dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinterknecht, Vincent; Braucher, Régis; Böse, Margot; Bourlès, Didier; Mercier, Jean-Luc

    2010-05-01

    We determined in situ cosmogenic 10Be ages for 11 boulders on the Hoher Fläming ice marginal belt and 5 boulders on the Gerswalder Moraine, a recessional moraine of the Pomeranian Phase in northeastern Germany. Samples were processed and analysed at the Laboratoire National des Nucléides Cosmogéniques, France. Surface exposure ages were calculated using the CRONUS-Earth online 10Be exposure age calculator and a constant production rate model. No corrections were made for erosion or possible snow cover. Previous time estimations for the deposition of these moraines along the southern margin of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet (SIS) are mostly based on geomorphology and stratigraphy, and on few radiocarbon dates and three recently published surface exposure ages (using cosmogenic 10Be) in the case of the Pomeranian Phase. Our new exposure ages range from 21.2 ± 1.6 10Be ka to 136.1 ± 7.4 10Be ka for the Hoher Fläming ice marginal belt. The wide range of exposure ages may reflect episodic ice marginal belt modification due to intensified erosion by meltwater channeled in the Baruther Urstromtal, accompanied by long-lasting denudation processes like solifluction and aeolian deflation. For the Gerswalder Moraine, our exposure ages range from 12.0 ± 0.7 10Be ka to 15.5 ± 1.1 10Be ka. Excluding the youngest sample (BER-97-03), we calculated an error-weighted mean age of 14.9 ± 0.6 10Be ka (n = 4), in good agreement with previously published data. These results further establish the position of the southern margin of the SIS in northeastern Germany during the Gerswalder phase a recessional phase of the Pomeranian Phase.

  19. Instantaneous end moraine and sediment wedge formation during the 1890 glacier surge of Brúarjökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benediktsson, Ívar Örn; Möller, Per; Ingólfsson, Ólafur; van der Meer, Jaap J. M.; Kjær, Kurt H.; Krüger, Johannes

    2008-02-01

    Contemporary understanding of the behaviour of surging glaciers and ice streams is hampered by the lack of data on landsystem evolution and sedimentary environments. This study concerns the ice-marginal environment of the surge-type Brúarjökull in Iceland. The sediment distribution in the glacier forefield as well as the morphology, sedimentology and tectonic architecture of the 1890 end moraine is investigated for highlighting the interaction between very dynamic ice and sediment/landform associations. As a result of substrate/bedrock decoupling during the 1890 surge, subglacial sediment was dislocated across the bedrock surface and deformed compressively, leading to gradual substrate thickening and the formation of a sediment wedge in the marginal zone. A drop in subglacial porewater pressure at the very end of the surge led to substrate/bedrock coupling and a stress transfer up into the sediment sequence causing brittle deformation of the substrate. Simultaneously, the glacier toe ploughed into the topmost part of the marginal sediment wedge initiating the moraine-ridge construction. Fine-grained and incompetent sediment deformed in ductile manner, resulting in a narrow moraine dominated by rooted folds, while coarse-grained and competent sediment deformed in brittle fashion, resulting in a wider moraine dominated by thrust blocks. A new sequential model of subglacial and ice-marginal processes operating during a glacier surge is proposed, illustrating the stepwise formation of a marginal sediment wedge and an end moraine—a twofold, inseparable marginal end-product that formed during the last days of the 1890 surge.

  20. Abrupt onset of the Little Ice Age triggered by volcanism and sustained by sea-ice/ocean feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Gifford H.; Geirsdóttir, Áslaug; Zhong, Yafang; Larsen, Darren J.; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Holland, Marika M.; Bailey, David A.; Refsnider, Kurt A.; Lehman, Scott J.; Southon, John R.; Anderson, Chance; Björnsson, Helgi; Thordarson, Thorvaldur

    2012-01-01

    Northern Hemisphere summer temperatures over the past 8000 years have been paced by the slow decrease in summer insolation resulting from the precession of the equinoxes. However, the causes of superposed century-scale cold summer anomalies, of which the Little Ice Age (LIA) is the most extreme, remain debated, largely because the natural forcings are either weak or, in the case of volcanism, short lived. Here we present precisely dated records of ice-cap growth from Arctic Canada and Iceland showing that LIA summer cold and ice growth began abruptly between 1275 and 1300 AD, followed by a substantial intensification 1430-1455 AD. Intervals of sudden ice growth coincide with two of the most volcanically perturbed half centuries of the past millennium. A transient climate model simulation shows that explosive volcanism produces abrupt summer cooling at these times, and that cold summers can be maintained by sea-ice/ocean feedbacks long after volcanic aerosols are removed. Our results suggest that the onset of the LIA can be linked to an unusual 50-year-long episode with four large sulfur-rich explosive eruptions, each with global sulfate loading >60 Tg. The persistence of cold summers is best explained by consequent sea-ice/ocean feedbacks during a hemispheric summer insolation minimum; large changes in solar irradiance are not required.

  1. Climatic basis for sluggish macroevolution during the late Paleozoic ice age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Matthew G.

    2005-05-01

    Rates of origination and extinction for marine invertebrates fell at the onset of the late Paleozoic ice age in late Mississippian time and remained low until glaciation ended in middle Permian time. Through the use of a database of stratigraphic and geographic occurrences of brachiopod genera, these macroevolutionary changes are traced to the loss of genera with narrow latitudinal ranges, which had intrinsically high turnover rates, at the onset of glaciation in late Viséan time. When glaciation waned in late Sakmarian time, narrowly distributed genera rebounded abruptly and restored the global fauna to its pre ice-age configuration. Because narrowly distributed brachiopod genera had dominated tropical diversity, the major biotic effects of the late Paleozoic ice age were felt at low latitudes. The climatic regime of this ice age thus altered the marine ecosystem to one characterized by broadly adapted, long-lived genera.

  2. Tropical North Atlantic Hydrologic Cycle Variability in the Florida Straits During the Last Ice Age 

    E-print Network

    Them, Theodore

    2012-10-19

    Abrupt, millennial-scale climate oscillations, known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) cycles, characterized the climate system during the last ice age. Proxy evidence suggests these climate oscillations resulted in global-scale reorganizations...

  3. Cultural Implications of Out-of-Phase Weather across northern Alaska after 500 CE: Regional Variability during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, O. K.; Alix, C. M.; Bigelow, N. H.; Hoffecker, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    From a global perspective, a diverse mélange of paleoclimate data reveal that Northwest Alaska is partially out of phase with northwest Europe, witnessing cooler periods during the Medieval Climate Anomaly ca. CE 1000 and warmer conditions in the 16th and 17th centuries. The search for climatic forcers in northern Alaska relies on integration of data drawn from tree-rings, lacustrine varves and moraines, diatoms, beach ridges and dunes. At Cape Espenberg, northern Seward Peninsula, a 1500-year reconstruction of settlement, landscape evolution and climatic variability employs >100 14C ages from accreting dunes with shell-laden storm beds, intercalated driftwood and superimposed soils, archaeological sites and marsh peats within swale ponds. Large storms occurred along the Chukchi Sea from Cape Espenberg and Deering (Kotzebue Sound) to Point Barrow prior to 1000 CE, and at decadal intervals during the Little Ice Age (LIA) from 1300 to 1700. Architecural driftwood logs from several excavated houses capped by sand dunes yield several 14C dated floating chronologies covering intervals from 700 to 1700, suggest the identification of cooler intervals 800 to 1000 and intermittently after 1300. Peat aggradation followed isolation from the sea from 500 onward, and was interrupted by two pulses of fresh water, one ca. 1300 and a second ca. 1800, with diatoms suggesting relative aridity during the LIA. The occupation history of Cape Espenberg generally follows dune growth, and may be inversely related to cooler temperatures.

  4. A multiple dating-method approach applied to the Sanabria Lake moraine complex (NW Iberian Peninsula, SW Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Laura; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; Domínguez-Cuesta, María José; Rinterknecht, Vincent; Pallàs, Raimon; Bourlès, Didier; Valero-Garcés, Blas

    2014-01-01

    New evidence in the NW region of the Iberian Peninsula (˜42°N 6°W) of a glacial advance coeval with the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) of the Marine Isotope Stage 2 has been identified through a dataset of exposure ages based on 23 10Be concentration measurements carried out on boulder samples taken from a set of latero-frontal moraines. Results span the interval 19.2-15.4 10Be ka, matching the last deglaciation period when Iberia experienced the coldest and driest conditions of the last 25 ka, and are consistent with Lateglacial chronologies established in other mountain regions from SW Europe. The extent of the LGM stade identified in this work is similar to the local maximum ice extent stade recorded and dated as prior to 33 ka using radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence. This work showcases how multiple-dating approaches and detailed geomorphological mapping are required to reconstruct realistic palaeoglacier evolution models.

  5. Glacial-interglacial 3D ice sheet modelling of Antarctica; Validation by age-isotope advection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, J.

    2014-12-01

    Constraining and validating large scale ice sheet modeling with respect to the proxy horizon of the last 800 kyrs is limited to sparse model data intercomparison of e.g. grounding line positions, ice sheet elevation and deep ice core records. We employ a state of the art 3D ice sheet model (ISM) (RIMBAY Thoma et.al. 2014, Göller et. al. 2013, Pattyn 2003) equipped with a tracer advection module to simulate the evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet over the last glacial cycles. The ice sheet is forced by surface climatology derived from observations (present day) and GCM climate models (ECHAM time slices LGM, Eemian), 3D ocean temperature and proxy derived global sea level data. The range of potential ice sheet response, is investigated by applying different forcing scenarios and "wiggling" the ISM's parameters space. Modelling the age-isotope distribution at selected deep ice core sites, and subsequent comparison to the ice cores' age-depth relation supports the interpretation of our simulations.

  6. Origin of washboard moraines of the Des Moines Lobe: Spatial analyses with LiDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, Mitchell D.; Iverson, Neal R.; Harding, Chris

    2015-10-01

    The Des Moines Lobe (DML)-the largest lobe along the southern margin of the Laurentide ice sheet-deposited low-relief (1-5 m) transverse moraine ridges, herein called washboard moraines, that are most prominent in central Iowa. Their origin as either subglacial or ice-marginal features bears on the dynamics of the lobe, geomorphic reconstructions of it, and interpretations of similar ridges elsewhere. Data from airborne laser swath mapping provide the first digital elevation models with sufficient spatial resolution to study in detail the geometric attributes of these topographically subtle features. Spectral analysis of profiles perpendicular to ridge crests indicates that most of them are spaced with statistically significant periodicities, with dominant wavelengths of 70-150 m. Normalizing and stacking these profiles indicate that, on average, they display no systematic asymmetry. Locally, washboard moraines are intersected by discontinuous longitudinal ridge segments. Trends of the crests of moraines are scalloped, with cusps that point upglacier and are coincident with outwash trains, which were overridden by the lobe. Our interpretation of these data is that the moraines formed subglacially as crevasse-squeeze ridges. Overridden outwash trains likely supported low basal water pressures and resulted in anomalously slow basal slip, causing upglacier deflection of crevasses that extended to the bed. This crevasse-squeeze interpretation reinforces evidence that the DML surged to its maximum position. Bering Glacier, as a temperate, surge-type glacier that deposited crevasse-squeeze ridges similar to the washboard moraines of the DML, may be a good analog for the lobe.

  7. Morainal bank progradation and sediment accumulation in Disenchantment Bay, Alaska: Response to advancing Hubbard Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, John A.; Lawson, Daniel E.; Willems, Bryce A.; Davis, Marcy; Gulick, Sean P. S.

    2012-06-01

    Morainal banks are primary features at the margins of advancing and stable to quasi-stable temperate tidewater glaciers, yet their roles in glacier dynamics and terminus stability are poorly defined by submarine observations. Analysis of new and archival multibeam data and Landsat images of the advancing Hubbard Glacier, southeast Alaska, reveal that between 1978 and 2010 the ice face and morainal bank advanced together at an average rate of ˜34 m/yr, varying spatially and temporally between 14 and 80 m/yr. Morphological features including gullies and a boulder lag suggest cyclical deposition and gravitational erosion on the proximal slope of the morainal bank (15-18°), and possible ice pushing in an area without recent sedimentation. In contrast, the morainal bank of the nearby, quasi-stable (surging) Turner Glacier advanced steadily since 1978 by proximal sedimentation on the steep fjord wall below its hanging valley. Sedimentation in the deep (>220 m) basin of Disenchantment Bay increased from 0.88 m/yr spanning 1978 to 1999, to 1.22 m/yr thereafter. This change appears to be a combined response to glacier advance and sediment dispersal farther down-fjord, and to an increase in sediment yield from other glacial and non-glacial sources. Analysis of Hubbard Glacier illustrates the direct correlation between movement of the terminus and morainal bank in advancing the grounding line of a marine-terminating glacier, and that morainal banks provide a fundamental stabilizing role for advance into a deep-water fjord, compensating for changes in water depth at the grounding line.

  8. Glacier recession on Cerro Charquini (168 S), Bolivia, since the maximum of the Little Ice Age (17th century)

    E-print Network

    Rabatel, Antoine

    -preserved morainic systems attributed to former centuries. The moraines were dated by lichenometry and show; Francou, 2004). In the Cordillera Real, many moraines attributed to the LIA exist below the present within this period requires other proxies. Moraines are often used to date fluctuations

  9. Little Ice Age evidence from a south-central North American ice core, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, D.L.; Klusman, R.W.; Michel, R.L.; Schuster, P.F.; Ready, M.M.; Taylor, H.E.; Yanosky, T.M.; McConnaughey, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the past, ice-core records from mid-latitude glaciers in alpine areas of the continental United States were considered to be poor candidates for paleoclimate records because of the influence of meltwater on isotopic stratigraphy. To evaluate the existence of reliable paleoclimatic records, a 160-m ice core, containing about 250 yr of record was obtained from Upper Fremont Glacier, at an altitude of 4000 m in the Wind River Range of south-central North America. The ??18O (SMOW) profile from the core shows a -0.95??? shift to lighter values in the interval from 101.8 to 150 m below the surface, corresponding to the latter part of the Little Ice Age (LIA). Numerous high-amplitude oscillations in the section of the core from 101.8 to 150 m cannot be explained by site-specific lateral variability and probably reflect increased seasonality or better preservation of annual signals as a result of prolonged cooler temperatures that existed in this alpine setting. An abrupt decrease in these large amplitude oscillations at the 101.8-m depth suggests a sudden termination of this period of lower temperatures which generally coincides with the termination of the LIA. Three common features in the ??18O profiles between Upper Fremont Glacier and the better dated Quelccaya Ice Cap cores indicate a global paleoclimate linkage, further supporting the first documented occurrence of the LIA in an ice-core record from a temperate glacier in south-central North America.

  10. Veiki-moraine-like landforms in the Nereidum Montes region on Mars: Insights from analogues in northern Sweden.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsson, A.; Reiss, D.; Hauber, E.; Johnson, M. D.; Olvmo, M.; Hiesinger, H.

    2015-10-01

    Mars is a cold hyper-arid planet where liquid water is extremely rare [1]. Most water is instead locked in a number of frozen reservoirs such as the polar caps, latitude-dependent near surface ground ice and as glacier ice. Previously, numerous studies reported on glacier landforms such as viscous flow features and lobate debris aprons where water-ice is believed to be present under insulating debris cover[2].This notion was confirmed by SHARAD measurements [3].However, very little is known about glacial landforms in which water is an important factor. Most studies have focused on moraine- like ridges that are associated to gully systems in crater environments[4], glacier landforms at the equatorial volcanic province [5]and drop-moraines from CO2 glaciers [6]. Here we report on unusual irregular ring-shaped landforms within a mountain complex in Nereidum Montes, Mars. These landforms are well-preserved and may suggest recent ablation of a debris-covered,cold-based glacier. These martian ring-shaped moraine-like landforms show a striking resemblance to the Veiki moraine in northern Sweden. Veiki moraines are believed to have formed at the lobate margins of a stagnant ice- sheet during the first Weich selian glaciation as it sharply ends to the east [7].The Veiki-moraine is characterized by ridged plateaus that are more or less circular and surrounded by a rim ridge. The newly acquired national LiDAR data over Sweden enable us studying these landforms in unprecedented detail. They also enable us exploring geomorphological similarities between Earth and Mars in large spatial contexts. This study aims to increase our understanding of glacial landforms on Mars by comparison to terrestrial analogues. Questions addressed are: (1) how morphological similar are the Martian landforms to the Veiki moraine of Sweden? (2) How does the moraine-like landform relate to other, well-preserved, glacial landforms within the mountain complex? (3) Do the moraine-like land forms indicate the maximum extent? (4) Was any meltwater involved and are the preserved landforms ice -cored.

  11. 10BE Surface-Exposure Chronology of the Left-Lateral Moraines of the Former Pukaki Glacier Lobe in the Mackenzie Region, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, S. E.; Denton, G.; Kaplan, M. R.; Putnam, A. E.; Schaefer, J. M.; Schwartz, R.; Barrell, D.; Andersen, B.

    2010-12-01

    Determining the areal extent and the cause of climate fluctuations during the late Quaternary remains a major issue in quaternary geology. This is especially well elucidated in the Southern Hemisphere, where terrestrial records are rare outside of the high latitudes. The South Island of New Zealand is noteworthy, because of the well-preserved moraine sequences located there. This provides records of climatically driven glacial fluctuations stemming from the ice fields of the high Southern Alps. Here, we present a 10Be surface-exposure chronology for the left-lateral sequence of the former Pukaki lobe, centered at 43.93°S 170.25°E. This chronology consists of sixty-five ages spanning over 50,000 years and including moraine-building events during marine isotope stages 2, 3, and 4. A feature of note recorded in this chronology is the presence of a prolonged cold period beginning in marine isotope stage 3 and culminating in the Last Glacial Maximum; this feature is mirrored in the sea-surface temperature records from near by marine cores of MD97-2120 and SO136-GC3. The pattern of prolonged cold can be seen across the Southern Ocean in marine sea surface temperature records off the coast of South America, as well in Antarctica in the Byrd ice core. This data set represents one of the northern most expressions of this southern ocean climate signal.

  12. Glacial and climatic evolution from the Little Ice Age last Maximum to the present in Tröllaskagi Peninsula (North Iceland): the case of Gljúlfurárjökull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Fernández, Jose; Andres, Nuria; Tanarro, Luis Miguel; Palacios, David

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the evolution of the Gljúlfurárjökull glacier (65°42'48'' N, 18°39'13'' W; 980 m), located at the headwall of the Skiðadalur valley, on the Tröllaskagi peninsula (N. Iceland). This is one of many small glaciers situated on the bottom of the Tröllaskagi valleys. This glacier is one of the few "clean" glaciers, i.e. not covered with boulders, as is the case with most of the glaciers on this peninsula. This makes the glacier especially sensitive to climate change, and it has retreated and advanced many times since its last maximum during the Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum in the mid- 19th century (Caseldine and Stötter, 1993), leaving a large number of moraine ridges. This paper analyses the change in this glacier from the LIA up to the present day, with reference to the variations in the surface, ELA and volume. Lichenometry and geomorphological field analysis were used to establish the exact limits of the glacier during the LIA last maximum. An aerial photo from 1946 and two orthophotos from 2000 and 2013 were also used. Using photointerpretation and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), the aerial photos were georeferenced to delimit the glacier in different years, analyse the surface and volume variations, and calculate the ELA for each date. The ELA analysis was carried out using the method: Accumulation Area Ratio (AAR 0.67). The results obtained with this method are: Little Ice Age Maximum: 945 m a.s.l. (almost the same ELA proposed by Caseldine and Stötter, 1993) 1946: 970 m a.s.l. 2000: 980 m a.s.l. 2013: 990 m a.s.l. The ice volume lost from LIA to 2000 was: 111.68 hm3 Reference Caseldine, C., Stötter, J., 1993. "Little Ice Age" glaciation of Tröllaskagi Peninsula, northern Iceland: Climatic implications for reconstructed equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs). Holocene 3: 357-366. Research funded by Cryocrisis project (CGL2012-35858), Government of Spain, and Nils Mobility projects (EEA GRANTS)

  13. Ice-age Ice-sheet Rheology: Constraints from the Last Glacial Maximum Form of the Laurentide Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peltier, W. Richard; Goldsby, David L.; Kohlstedt, David L.; Tarasov, Lev

    2000-01-01

    State-ot-the-art thermomechanical models of the modern Greenland ice and the ancient Laurenticle ice sheet that covered Canada at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are not able to explain simultaneously the observed forms of these cryospheric structures when the same, anisotropy-enhanced, version of the conventional Glen flow law is employed to describe their rheology. The LGM Laurenticle ice sheet. predicted to develop in response to orbital climate forcing, is such that the ratio of its thickness to its horizontal extent is extremely large compared to the aspect ratio inferred on the basis of surface-geomorphological and solid-earth-geophysical constraints. We show that if the Glen flow law representation of the rheology is replaced with a new rheology based upon very high quality laboratory measurements of the stress-strain-rate relation, then the aspect ratios of both the modern Greenland ice sheet and the Laurenticle ice sheet, that existed at the LGM, are simultaneously explained with little or no retuning of the flow law.

  14. Ice ages and the thermal equilibrium of the earth, II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adam, D.P.

    1975-01-01

    The energy required to sustain midlatitude continental glaciations comes from solar radiation absorbed by the oceans. It is made available through changes in relative amounts of energy lost from the sea surface as net outgoing infrared radiation, sensible heat loss, and latent heat loss. Ice sheets form in response to the initial occurrence of a large perennial snowfield in the subarctic. When such a snowfield forms, it undergoes a drastic reduction in absorbed solar energy because of its high albedo. When the absorbed solar energy cannot supply local infrared radiation losses, the snowfield cools, thus increasing the energy gradient between itself and external, warmer areas that can act as energy sources. Cooling of the snowfield progresses until the energy gradients between the snowfield and external heat sources are sufficient to bring in enough (latent plus sensible) energy to balance the energy budget over the snowfield. Much of the energy is imported as latent heat. The snow that falls and nourishes the ice sheet is a by-product of the process used to satisfy the energy balance requirements of the snowfield. The oceans are the primary energy source for the ice sheet because only the ocean can supply large amounts of latent heat. At first, some of the energy extracted by the ice sheet from the ocean is stored heat, so the ocean cools. As it cools, less energy is lost as net outgoing infrared radiation, and the energy thus saved is then available to augment evaporation. The ratio between sensible and latent heat lost by the ocean is the Bowen ratio; it depends in part on the sea surface temperature. As the sea surface temperature falls during a glaciation, the Bowen ratio increases, until most of the available energy leaves the oceans as sensible, rather than latent heat. The ice sheet starves, and an interglacial period begins. The oscillations between stadial and interstadial intervals within a glaciation are caused by the effects of varying amounts of glacial meltwater entering the oceans as a surface layer that acts to reduce the amount of energy available for glacial nourishment. This causes the ice sheet to melt back, which continues the supply of meltwater until the ice sheet diminishes to a size consistent with the reduced rate of nourishment. The meltwater supply then decreases, the rate of nourishment increases, and a new stadial begins. ?? 1975.

  15. Late Weichselian ice sheet of Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosswald, M. G.

    1980-01-01

    A considerable portion of Northern Eurasia, and particularly its continental shelf, was glaciated by inland ice during late Weichsel time. This was first inferred from such evidence as glacial striae, submarine troughs, sea-bed diamictons, boulder trains on adjacent land, and patterns of glacioisostatic crustal movements. Subsequently, the inference was confirmed by data on the occurrence and geographic position of late Weichselian end moraines and proglacial lacustrine deposits. The south-facing outer moraines in the northeastern Russian Plain, northern West Siberia, and on Taimyr Peninsula are underlain by sediments containing wood and peat, the radiocarbon dating of which yielded ages of 22,000 to 45,000 yr B.P. The youngest late-glacial moraines are of Holocene age: the double Markhida moraine in the lower Pechora River basin, presumably associated with "degradational" surges of the Barents Ice Dome, is underlain by sediments with wood and peat dated at 9000 to 9900 yr B.P.: this suggests that deglaciation of the Arctic continental shelf of Eurasia was not completed until after 9000 yr B.P. The reconstructed ice-front lines lead to the conclusion that the late Weichselian ice sheet of Northern Eurasia (proposed name: the Eurasian Ice Sheet) extended without interruptions from southwestern Ireland to the northeastern end of Taimyr Peninsula, a distance of 6000 km: it covered an area of 8,370,000 km 2, half of which lay on the present-day continental shelves and a quarter on lowlands that were depressed isostatically below sea level. Hence, the ice sheet was predominantly marine-based. A contour map of the ice sheet based both on the dependence of the heights of ice domes upon their radii and on factual data concerning the impact of bedrock topography upon ice relief has been constructed. The major features of the ice sheet were the British, Scandinavian, Barents, and Kara Ice Domes that had altitudes of 1.9 to 3.3 km and were separated from one another by ice saddles about 1.5 km high. At the late Weichselian glacial maximum, all the main ice-dispersion centers were on continental shelves and coastal lowlands, whereas mountain centers, such as the Polar Urals and Byrranga Range, played only a local role. The portions of the ice sheet that were grounded on continental shelves some 700 to 900 m below sea level were inherently unstable and could exist only in conjunction with confined and pinned floating ice shelves that covered the Arctic Ocean and the Greenland and Norwegian Seas. The Eurasian Ice Sheet impounded the Severnaya Dvina, Mezen, Pechora, Ob, Irtysh, and Yneisei Rivers, and caused the formation of ice-dammed lakes on the northern Russian Plain and in West Siberia. Until about 13,500 yr B.P. the proglacial system of lakes and spillways had a radial pattern; it included large West Siberian lakes, the Caspian and Black Seas, and ended in the Mediterranian Sea. Later, the system became marginal and discharged proglacial water mainly into the Norwegian Sea.

  16. THE EXTENT OF PLEISTOCENE ICE CAP, GLACIAL DEPOSITS AND GLACIOKARST IN THE ALADAGLAR

    E-print Network

    Zreda, Marek

    between 1100 m and 3756 m of altitudes. Many of the glacial landforms, such as moraines and ice deposits are above 1800 m; older moraines extend further down to 1400 m. The Hacer valley has the largest number of moraines. Outwash deposits at the mouth of this valley extend down to 1200 m. Apart from

  17. Uranium isotopes and dissolved organic carbon in loess permafrost: Modeling the age of ancient ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, S. A.; Paces, J. B.; O'Donnell, J. A.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Kanevskiy, M. Z.; Aiken, G. R.; Shur, Y.; Harden, J. W.; Striegl, R.

    2015-03-01

    The residence time of ice in permafrost is an indicator of past climate history, and of the resilience and vulnerability of high-latitude ecosystems to global change. Development of geochemical indicators of ground-ice residence times in permafrost will advance understanding of the circumstances and evidence of permafrost formation, preservation, and thaw in response to climate warming and other disturbance. We used uranium isotopes to evaluate the residence time of segregated ground ice from ice-rich loess permafrost cores in central Alaska. Activity ratios of 234U vs. 238U (234U/238U) in water from thawed core sections ranged between 1.163 and 1.904 due to contact of ice and associated liquid water with mineral surfaces over time. Measured (234U/238U) values in ground ice showed an overall increase with depth in a series of five neighboring cores up to 21 m deep. This is consistent with increasing residence time of ice with depth as a result of accumulation of loess over time, as well as characteristic ice morphologies, high segregated ice content, and wedge ice, all of which support an interpretation of syngenetic permafrost formation associated with loess deposition. At the same time, stratigraphic evidence indicates some past sediment redistribution and possibly shallow thaw among cores, with local mixing of aged thaw waters. Using measures of surface area and a leaching experiment to determine U distribution, a geometric model of (234U/238U) evolution suggests mean ages of up to ?200 ky BP in the deepest core, with estimated uncertainties of up to an order of magnitude. Evidence of secondary coatings on loess grains with elevated (234U/238U) values and U concentrations suggests that refinement of the geometric model to account for weathering processes is needed to reduce uncertainty. We suggest that in this area of deep ice-rich loess permafrost, ice bodies have been preserved from the last glacial period (10-100 ky BP), despite subsequent fluctuations in climate, fire disturbance and vegetation. Radiocarbon (14C) analysis of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in thaw waters supports ages greater than ?40 ky BP below 10 m. DOC concentrations in thaw waters increased with depth to maxima of >1000 ppm, despite little change in ice content or cryostructures. These relations suggest time-dependent production of old DOC that will be released upon permafrost thaw at a rate that is mediated by sediment transport, among other factors.

  18. Records of past ice sheet fluctuations in interior East Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Xiaohan; Huang, Feixin; Kong, Ping; Fang, Aimin; Li, Xiaoli

    2007-01-01

    The results of a land-based multi-disciplinary study of the past ice surface elevation in the Grove Mountains of interior East Antarctica support a dynamic evolution of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). Moraine boulders of sedimentary rocks and spore pollen assemblage imply a significant shrinkage of the EAIS, with its margin retreating south of the Grove Mountains (~450 km south of recent coast line) before the middle Pliocene. The exposure ages indicate that the ice sheet subsequently re-advanced, with the ice surface rising locally at least 450 m higher than today. It then went back down constantly from before 2.3 Ma to 1.6 Ma. The glacial topography and existence of soil show that the ice surface fluctuation continued since the early Quaternary, but with highest levels never exceeding ~100 m higher than today.

  19. Little Ice Age Glaciation in Alaska: A record of recent global climatic change

    SciTech Connect

    Calkin, P.E.; Wiles, G.C.

    1992-03-01

    General global cooling and temperature fluctuation accompanied by expansion of mountain glaciers characterized the Little Ice Age of about A.D. 1200 through A.D. 1900. The effects of such temperature changes appear first and are strongest at high latitudes. Therefore the Little Ice Age record of glacial fluctuation in Alaska may provide a good proxy for these events and a test for models of future climatic change. Holocene expansions began here as early as 7000 B.P. and locally show a periodicity of 350 years after about 4500 years B.P. The Little Ice Age followed a late Holocene interval of minor ice advance and a subsequent period of ice margin recession lasting one to seven centuries. The timing of expansions since about A.D. 1200 have often varied between glaciers, but these are the most pervasive glacial events of the Holocene in Alaska and frequently represent ice marginal maxima for this interval. At least two major expansions are, apparent in forefields of both land-terminating and fjord-calving glaciers, but the former display the most reliable and detailed climatic record. Major maxima occurred by the 16th century and into the mid-18th century. Culmination of advances occurred throughout Alaska during the 19th century followed within a few decades by general glacial retreat. Concurrently, equilibrium line altitudes have been raised 100-400 m, representing a rise of 2-3 deg C in mean summer temperature.

  20. Borax in the supraglacial moraine of the Lewis Cliff, Buckley Island quadrangle--first Antarctic occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, J.J.; Muhs, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    During the 1987-1988 austral summer field season, membersof the south party of the antarctic search for meteorites south-ern team* working in the Lewis Cliff/Colbert Hills region dis-covered several areas of unusual mineralization within theLewis Cliff ice tongue and its associated moraine field (figure1). The Lewis Cliff ice tongue (84°15'S 161°25'E) is a meteorite-stranding surface of ablating blue ice, about 2.3 by 7.0 kilo-meters, bounded on the west by the Lewis Cliff, on the northand northeast by a large supraglacial moraine, and on the eastby the Colbert Hills. To the south it opens to the Walcott Névé.Because it is a meteorite-stranding surface, the major component of ice motion in the area is believed to be vertical(Whillans and Cassidy 1983). The presence of Thule-Baffinmoraines at the northern terminus of the blue ice tends tosupport the hypothesis that the area underlying the moraineis essentially stagnant and that ice arriving from the south ispiling up against it. Areas containing mineral deposits werefound within the moraine field to the north and east of theblue ice margin and also along the east margins of the blue iceitself. Subsequent X-ray diffraction analyses of these depositshave shown that they are composed predominantly of nah-colite (NaHCO3), trona [Na3(CO3)(HCO3) · 2H20], borax[Na2B405(OH)4 · 8H20], and a new hexagonal hydrous sulfatespecies. This paper reports the details of the borax occurrence,because it is the first known on the continent.

  1. Iron fertilization of the Subantarctic ocean during the last ice age.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Alfredo; Sigman, Daniel M; Ren, Haojia; Anderson, Robert F; Straub, Marietta; Hodell, David A; Jaccard, Samuel L; Eglinton, Timothy I; Haug, Gerald H

    2014-03-21

    John H. Martin, who discovered widespread iron limitation of ocean productivity, proposed that dust-borne iron fertilization of Southern Ocean phytoplankton caused the ice age reduction in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). In a sediment core from the Subantarctic Atlantic, we measured foraminifera-bound nitrogen isotopes to reconstruct ice age nitrate consumption, burial fluxes of iron, and proxies for productivity. Peak glacial times and millennial cold events are characterized by increases in dust flux, productivity, and the degree of nitrate consumption; this combination is uniquely consistent with Subantarctic iron fertilization. The associated strengthening of the Southern Ocean's biological pump can explain the lowering of CO2 at the transition from mid-climate states to full ice age conditions as well as the millennial-scale CO2 oscillations. PMID:24653031

  2. www.sciencemag.org SCIENCE VOL 302 14 NOVEMBER 2003 1111 Algal Clues to Antarctic Ice Shelf Ages

    E-print Network

    Nori, Franco

    www.sciencemag.org SCIENCE VOL 302 14 NOVEMBER 2003 1111 Algal Clues to Antarctic Ice Shelf Ages The naturally high variability of sea ice extent in Antarctica and the short duration of instrumental records have combined to obscure any clear record of sea ice coverage change. Curran et al. (p. 1203; see

  3. Preliminary results of polarization signatures for glacial moraines in the Mono Basin, Eastern Sierra Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forster, Richard R.; Fox, Andrew N.; Isacks, Bryan

    1992-01-01

    The valleys of the Mono Basin contain several sets of lateral and terminal moraines representing multiple stages of glaciation. The semi-arid climate with slow weathering rates preserved sequences of nested younger moraines within older ones. There is a well established relative chronology and recently exposure dating provided a new set of numerical dates. The moraines span the late Wisconsin (11-25 ka) to the Illinoian (130-190 ka) glaciations. The Mono Basin area was used as a 'calibration site' to establish remote dating techniques for eventual transfer to the more inaccessible but geomorphically and climatically similar moraines of the South American Andes Mountains. Planned polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery acquired by JPL AIRSAR (South American Campaign) and SIR-C (Andes super-site) are analyzed to establish chronologies of previously undated moraine sequences in a study of Pleistocene climatic change in the Southern Hemisphere. The dry climate and sparse vegetation is also favorable for correlation of ground surface roughness with radar polarization signature. The slow weathering processes acting over thousands of years reduce the size, frequency, and angularity of surface boulders while increasing soil development on the moraines. Field observations based on this hypothesis result in relative ages consistent with those inferred from nested position within the valley. Younger moraines, therefore, will appear rougher than the older smoother moraines at scales measurable at AIRSAR wavelengths. Previously documented effects of ground surface roughness on polarization signatures suggest that analysis of moraine polarization signatures can be useful for relative dating. The technique may be extended to predict numerical ages. The data set reported were acquired on 8 Sep. 1989 with the JPL Airborne SAR (AIRSAR) collecting polarimetric imagery at C- (5.6 cm), L- (24 cm), and P-band (68 cm) with a flight-line parallel to the strike of the mountains. Phase calibration was performed on the analyzed scene by setting the co-phase of a smooth lake to zero as described. Absolute amplitude calibration was not possible because corner reflectors were not deployed.

  4. Remedial Reading Students at Moraine Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Elizabeth

    In an effort to assess the effectiveness of their remedial reading courses, Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) in Palos Hills, Illinois, undertook a study of the retention, course completion, and graduation rates of students who completed one of three remedial reading courses: RDG-040, basic skills for students reading below the 7th grade…

  5. Nonlinear and chaotic ice ages: data vs speculations

    E-print Network

    Bershadskii, A

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that, the wavelet regression detrended fluctuations of the reconstructed temperature for the past 400,000 years (Antarctic ice cores data) are completely dominated by one-third subharmonic resonance, presumably related to Earth precession effect on the energy that the intertropical regions receive from the Sun. Effects of Galactic turbulence on the temperature fluctuations are also discussed. Direct evidence of chaotic response of the atmospheric CO_2 dynamics to obliquity periodic forcing has been found in a reconstruction of atmospheric CO_2 data (deep sea proxies), for the past 650,000 years.

  6. Nonlinear and chaotic ice ages: data vs speculations

    E-print Network

    A. Bershadskii

    2010-03-15

    It is shown that, the wavelet regression detrended fluctuations of the reconstructed temperature for the past 400,000 years (Antarctic ice cores data) are completely dominated by one-third subharmonic resonance, presumably related to Earth precession effect on the energy that the intertropical regions receive from the Sun. Effects of Galactic turbulence on the temperature fluctuations are also discussed. Direct evidence of chaotic response of the atmospheric CO_2 dynamics to obliquity periodic forcing has been found in a reconstruction of atmospheric CO_2 data (deep sea proxies), for the past 650,000 years.

  7. Space geodesy constrains ice age terminal deglaciation: The global ICE-6G_C (VM5a) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltier, W. R.; Argus, D. F.; Drummond, R.

    2015-01-01

    A new model of the last deglaciation event of the Late Quaternary ice age is here described and denoted as ICE-6G_C (VM5a). It differs from previously published models in this sequence in that it has been explicitly refined by applying all of the available Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of vertical motion of the crust that may be brought to bear to constrain the thickness of local ice cover as well as the timing of its removal. Additional space geodetic constraints have also been applied to specify the reference frame within which the GPS data are described. The focus of the paper is upon the three main regions of Last Glacial Maximum ice cover, namely, North America, Northwestern Europe/Eurasia, and Antarctica, although Greenland and the British Isles will also be included, if peripherally, in the discussion. In each of the three major regions, the model predictions of the time rate of change of the gravitational field are also compared to that being measured by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellites as an independent means of verifying the improvement of the model achieved by applying the GPS constraints. Several aspects of the global characteristics of this new model are also discussed, including the nature of relative sea level history predictions at far-field locations, in particular the Caribbean island of Barbados, from which especially high-quality records of postglacial sea level change are available but which records were not employed in the development of the model. Although ICE-6G_C (VM5a) is a significant improvement insofar as the most recently available GPS observations are concerned, comparison of model predictions with such far-field relative sea level histories enables us to identify a series of additional improvements that should follow from a further stage of model iteration.

  8. Little ice age evidence from a south-central North American ice core, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect

    Naftz, D.L.; Klusman, R.W.; Michel, R.L.

    1996-02-01

    In the past, ice-core records from mid-latitude glaciers in alpine areas of the continental United States were considered to be poor candidates for paleoclimate records because of the influence of meltwater on isotopic stratigraphy. To evaluate the existence of reliable paleoclimatic records, a 160-m ice core, containing about 250 yr of record was obtained from Upper Fremont Glacier, at an altitude of 4000 m in the Wind River Range of south-central North America. The {gamma}{sup 18}O (SMOW) profile from the core shows a -0.95{per_thousand} shift to lighter values in the interval from 101.8 to 150 m below the surface, corresponding to the latter part of the Little Ice Age (LIA). Numerous high-amplitude oscillations in the section of the core from 101.8 to 150 m cannot be explained by site-specific lateral variability and probably reflect increased seasonality or better preservation of annual signals as a result of prolonged cooler temperatures that existed in this alpine setting. An abrupt decrease in these large amplitude oscillations at the 101.8-m depth suggests a sudden termination of this period of lower temperatures which generally coincides with the termination of the LIA. Three common features in the {gamma}{sup 18}O profiles between Upper Fremont Glacier and the better dated Quelccaya Ice Cap cores indicate a global paleoclimate linkage, further supporting the first documented occurrence of the LIA in an ice-core record from a temperate glacier in south-central North America.

  9. Reconstructing glacier retreat since the Little Ice Age in SE Tibet by glacier mapping and equilibrium line altitude calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loibl, David; Lehmkuhl, Frank; Grießinger, Jussi

    2014-06-01

    Temperate glaciers in the eastern Nyainqêntanglha Range, southeastern Tibet, are highly sensitive to climate change and therefore of particular high interest for research on late Holocene changes of the monsoonal climate in High Asia. However, because of the remoteness of the area, the scarcity of empirical data, and the challenges to remote sensing work posed by cloud and snow cover, knowledge about the glacier dynamics and changes in this region is still very limited. In this study, we applied a remote sensing approach in which 1964 glaciers were mapped from a Landsat ETM+ scene and subsequently parameterized by DEM-supported measurements. Geomorphological evidence, i.e., trimlines and latero-frontal moraines, were used to obtain quantitative data on the glaciers' morphological characteristics and the changes since the Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum glacier advance. Statistical analysis of glacier length change revealed an average retreat of ~ 27% and a trend toward stronger retreat for smaller glaciers. An evaluation of different methods to calculate equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs) indicates that an optimized toe-to-ridge altitude method (TRAM) is more suitable than other methods in settings with complex topography and a lack of mass balance measurements. A large number of glacier measurements are crucial for high quality of TRAM results, and special attention has to be paid to different glacier characteristics. In order to determine the best-fitting TRAM ratio value and to test the quality of the calculated ELAs, a remote sensing approach was applied: for each investigated glacier, the altitudes of transient snowlines visible in the late summer Landsat scene were measured from the DEM and compared to TRAM results. The interpolated ELA results show a SE-NW gradient ranging from 4400 to 5600 m asl and an average ELA rise of ~ 136 m since the LIA. Because of the high spatial resolution of measurements, the ELA distribution reveals topographic effects down to the catchment scale, specifically orographic rainfall and leeward shielding. The interpretation of these patterns reveals that the eastern Nyainqêntanglha Range is influenced by both, the Indian (ISM) and East Asian summer monsoon (EASM). However, the EASM does not reach the western part of the study area. The results indicate that the monsoonal temperate glaciers' high sensitivity to climate change is driven by two double forcings owing to the coincidence of accumulation and ablation phases.

  10. Regional scale trends in the timing and magnitude of Little Ice Age glacial maxima in Europe and the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frew, Craig R.; Rea, Brice R.; Spagnolo, Matteo; Edwards, Kevin J.; Schofield, J. Edward

    2014-05-01

    Reconstructing the configuration of atmospheric/oceanic circulation during past climate perturbations is crucial for understanding how the climate system responds to changing forcing mechanisms. The most recent Holocene climatic perturbation, the Little Ice Age (LIA), covered the period ca AD 1200-1900 and has been widely recorded in a series of documented, early instrumental and palaeo-proxy data. Past research has used such data from the European/North Atlantic regions to elucidate the spatio-temporal distribution of heat and moisture related to possible changes in dominant modes of atmospheric/oceanic circulation such as the North Atlantic Oscillation. Despite this, interpretations of climate dynamics based on such reconstructions are often contradictory, for example in terms of constraining the prevailing position of the North Atlantic storm track. Until recently, glacial variability during the LIA has been considered somewhat separately from the large-scale climate dynamics which are thought to have characterised the period. Several recent studies have suggested that apparent asynchrony in the timing of the LIA glacial maximum between regions in Europe and the North Atlantic was controlled by shifts in large-scale oceanic/atmospheric circulation patterns. However, such interpretations have been based predominantly on single glacier comparisons and no understanding of regional-scale trends has been presented. This research aims to synthesise published data on the timing and maximum extent of glacier advances across Europe and the North Atlantic during the LIA. A standardised approach for estimating the glacier equilibrium line altitude (ELA) associated with the LIA maximum was systematically applied to digitised moraine outlines derived from the published literature. This involved using an equilibrium profile equation to reconstruct palaeo-glacier surface geometry and estimating ELA from appropriate balance ratios. ELA was reconstructed for over 150 glaciers and stored in a database alongside information relating to the timing of the LIA maximum, based on published dates using a variety of methods. An attempt was also made to correct for the lag time between glacier frontal response and the climatic drivers of glacier retreat. Trends in the timing and magnitude of the LIA glacial maximum were then mapped at a regional scale in order to analyse proposed changes to oceanic/atmospheric circulation patterns in the context of a more complete understanding of glacial variability than has been presented hitherto.

  11. Moraine formation during an advance/retreat cycle at a temperate alpine glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, M.; Quincey, D.; Winkler, S.

    2012-04-01

    Mountain glaciers are highly sensitive to variations in temperature and precipitation, and so moraine records from such systems are strong indicators of climate change. Due to the prevailing trend of retreat of the majority of mountain glaciers globally over the last few decades, there are limited opportunities to observe moraine formation, especially at temperate alpine glaciers. In the Southern Alps of New Zealand, while glaciers have all experienced a major retreat since the late 19th century, within this loss of ice mass, there has been a distinct variance in individual glacier response. Indeed, while Tasman Glacier, the longest glacier in the Southern Alps has thinned and entered into the current phase of calving retreat in the early 1990s, the steeper, more responsive glaciers to the west of the Main Divide, such as Franz Josef and Fox Glacier have experienced more elaborate advance/retreat phases. We focus on moraine formation at Fox Glacier, a c. 12.5 km long valley glacier terminating at 300 m above sea level. Fox Glacier retreated substantially since the 1930s, before advancing 800 m between the mid-1980s and 1999. A minor retreat then followed until 2005, succeeded by a 300 m re-advance until 2007-8. Continued retreat and down-wasting has since followed. Superimposed on this alternating advance/retreat cycle, have been minor winter re-advances. Sedimentological and morphological information were combined with detailed observations, historical photos and recent time-lapse photography of the terminus. Characteristics of several modes of moraine formation have been observed: (1) the late 20th century advance culminated in a broad <5 m high terminal moraine, formed by an admixture of "bulldozed" proglacial sediments and dumping of supraglacial material; (2) the 21st century short-lived advances were characterized by 1-2 m high (often multi-crested) ridges with a "saw-tooth" plan-form controlled by longitudinal crevasses outcropping at the terminus; (3) time-lapse imagery identified thrusting and subsequent melt-out of fine-grained englacial material along reverse faults intersecting the terminal face as a significant contributor to the subdued terminal moraines forming during the most recent phase of recent recession; (4) collapse of lateral moraines due to post-2008 down-wasting is now proceeding. Overall, even short-term preservation of glacigenic sediment-landform associations on the Fox Glacier sandur is limited by the glacial meltwater regime, with lateral migration of the proglacial river continually reworking morainic material.

  12. An instability theory for the formation of ribbed moraine, drumlins and mega-scale glacial lineations

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, A. C.; Chapwanya, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a theory for the coupled flow of ice, subglacial water and subglacial sediment, which is designed to represent the processes which occur at the bed of an ice sheet. The ice is assumed to flow as a Newtonian viscous fluid, the water can flow between the till and the ice as a thin film, which may thicken to form streams or cavities, and the till is assumed to be transported, either through shearing by the ice, squeezing by pressure gradients in the till, or by fluvial sediment transport processes in streams or cavities. In previous studies, it was shown that the dependence of ice sliding velocity on effective pressure provided a mechanism for the generation of bedforms resembling ribbed moraine, while the dependence of fluvial sediment transport on water film depth provides a mechanism for the generation of bedforms resembling mega-scale glacial lineations. Here, we combine these two processes in a single model, and show that, depending largely on the granulometry of the till, instability can occur in a range of types which range from ribbed moraine through three-dimensional drumlins to mega-scale glacial lineations. PMID:25383019

  13. An instability theory for the formation of ribbed moraine, drumlins and mega-scale glacial lineations.

    PubMed

    Fowler, A C; Chapwanya, M

    2014-11-01

    We present a theory for the coupled flow of ice, subglacial water and subglacial sediment, which is designed to represent the processes which occur at the bed of an ice sheet. The ice is assumed to flow as a Newtonian viscous fluid, the water can flow between the till and the ice as a thin film, which may thicken to form streams or cavities, and the till is assumed to be transported, either through shearing by the ice, squeezing by pressure gradients in the till, or by fluvial sediment transport processes in streams or cavities. In previous studies, it was shown that the dependence of ice sliding velocity on effective pressure provided a mechanism for the generation of bedforms resembling ribbed moraine, while the dependence of fluvial sediment transport on water film depth provides a mechanism for the generation of bedforms resembling mega-scale glacial lineations. Here, we combine these two processes in a single model, and show that, depending largely on the granulometry of the till, instability can occur in a range of types which range from ribbed moraine through three-dimensional drumlins to mega-scale glacial lineations. PMID:25383019

  14. A rapidly growing moraine-dammed glacial lake on Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Sarah S.; Benn, Douglas I.; Dennis, Kathryn; Luckman, Adrian

    2012-04-01

    Moraine-dammed glacial lakes are becoming increasingly common in the Himalaya as a result of glacier mass loss, causing concern about glacier lake outburst flood risk. In addition to extant lakes, the potential exists for many more to form, as more glaciers ablate down to the level of potential moraine dams. In this paper, we document the recent rapid growth of, a moraine-dammed lake on Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal. Using a combination of ground-based mapping and sonar surveys, aerial photographs (< 1 m resolution), and ASTER imagery (15 m resolution), processes and rates of lake expansion have been determined. The lake first formed between 1984 and 1992 when collapse of an englacial conduit allowed water to accumulate at the level of a gap in the lateral moraine, ~km from the glacier terminus. Lake growth was initially slow, but since 2001 it has undergone exponential growth at an average rate of 10% y-1. In 2009, the lake area was 300,000 m2, and its volume was at least 2.2 million m3. Calving, subaqueous melting, and melting of subaerial ice faces all contribute to the expansion of the lake; but large-scale, full-height slab calving is now the dominant contributor to growth. Comparison with other lakes in the region indicate that lake growth will likely continue unchecked whilst the spillway remains at its current level and may attain a volume of hundreds of millions of cubic metres within the next few decades.

  15. 94 GENE C. CARPENTER Vol. 65 A RADIOCARBON DATE FROM THE HARTWELL MORAINE,

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    94 GENE C. CARPENTER Vol. 65 A RADIOCARBON DATE FROM THE HARTWELL MORAINE, WARREN COUNTY, OHIO on July 15, 1963. The sample was subsequently identified by Dr. George Burns and dated by Dr. J. Gordon age was determined to be 19,621±372 (OWU-102). From this date, it is obvious that "late" Wisconsin

  16. Ingredients for a value-neutral target data set of exposure-age constraints on ice sheet thickness change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balco, G.; Todd, C. E.; Huybers, K. M.; Hegland, M.

    2012-12-01

    A primary purpose, of the effort to collect exposure-age constraints on LGM-to-present ice thickness change from all possible ice-free sites in Antartica, is to provide a data set useful for validating numerical ice sheet models that aim to replicate past ice sheet changes and predict future ones. In this talk, we describe several challenges to using exposure-age data as model validation targets and suggest means of addressing these challenges. First, asking whether or not a cosmogenic-nuclide measurement is consistent with a model ice thickness prediction requires using several assumptions about cosmogenic-nuclide production rates to convert a nuclide abundance measurement to an exposure age. As understanding of production rate systematics is rapidly evolving, data presented as calculated exposure ages alone become rapidly obsolete. This can be addressed by maintaining a data set of raw obervations rather than derived ages. Second, by nature most exposure-age data sets are collected in regions of complex topography where ice thickness varies on a spatial scale much smaller than the grid size of typical ice sheet models. Thus, assessing consistency between an exposure-age observation and a model prediction requires assumptions about sub-grid-scale glaciology. We are addressing this issue by using simple flowline models to explore the relationship between regional ice thickness and local ice margin elevations in mountainous areas. Third, many geologic processes act to cause the apparent exposure age of an ice-marginal deposit to differ from the age it was actually emplaced. Thus, a model-data comparison must include some means of assessing whether a model-data misfit is the result of these processes. This issue can be addressed by collecting additional field data that enables us to exclude or correct spurious observations, or by explicitly including a geologic process model as an intermediate step between a predicted ice thickness history and a predicted distribution of exposure ages.

  17. Dual-band infrared imaging applications: Locating buried minefields, mapping sea ice, and inspecting aging aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgrande, N. K.; Durbin, P. F.; Perkins, D. E.

    1992-09-01

    We discuss the use of dual-band infrared (DBIR) imaging for three quantitative NDE applications: location buried surrogate mines, mapping sea ice thicknesses, and inspecting subsurface flaws in aging aircraft parts. Our system of DBIR imaging offers a unique combination of thermal resolution, detectability, and interpretability. Pioneered at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, it resolves 0.2 C differences in surface temperatures needed to identify buried mine sites and distinguish them from surface features. It produces both surface temperature and emissivity-ratio images of sea ice, needed to accurately map ice thicknesses (e.g., by first removing clutter due to snow and surface roughness effects). The DBIR imaging technique depicts subsurface flaws in composite patches and lap joints of aircraft, thus providing a needed tool for aging aircraft inspections.

  18. Dual-band infrared imaging applications: Locating buried minefields, mapping sea ice, and inspecting aging aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.; Perkins, D.E.

    1992-09-01

    We discuss the use of dual-band infrared (DBIR) imaging for three quantitative NDE applications: location buried surrogate mines, mapping sea ice thicknesses and inspecting subsurface flaws in aging aircraft parts. Our system of DBIR imaging offers a unique combination of thermal resolution, detectability, and interpretability. Pioneered at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, it resolves 0.2 {degrees}C differences in surface temperatures needed to identify buried mine sites and distinguish them from surface features. It produces both surface temperature and emissivity-ratio images of sea ice, needed to accurately map ice thicknesses (e.g., by first removing clutter due to snow and surface roughness effects). The DBIR imaging technique depicts subsurface flaws in composite patches and lap joints of aircraft, thus providing a needed tool for aging aircraft inspections.

  19. Late Pleistocene glacial chronology of the Retezat Mts, Southern Carpathians, using 10Be exposure ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruszkiczay-Rüdiger, Zsófia; Kern, Zoltán; Urdea, Petru; Braucher, Régis; Madarász, Balázs; Schimmelpfennig, Irene

    2015-04-01

    Our knowledge on the timing of glacial advances in the Southern Carpathians is limited. Recently, some attempts have been made to develop an improved temporal framework for the glaciations of the region using cosmogenic 10Be exposure dating. However, glacial chronology of the Romanian Carpathians remains contradictory. E.g. the timing of the maximum ice advance appears to be asynchronous within the area and also with other dated glacial events in Europe. Main objective of our study is to utilize cosmogenic in situ produced 10Be dating to disentangle the contradictions of the Southern Carpathian Late Pleistocene glacial chronology. Firstly, previously published 10Be data are recalculated in accordance with the new half-life, standardization and production rate of 10Be. The recalculated 10Be exposure ages of the second largest (M2) moraines in the Retezat Mts. appear to be ca. 19-24% older than exposure ages calculated by Reuther et al. (2007, Quat. Int. 164-165, 151-169). This contradicts the earlier conclusions suggesting post LGM age of M2 glacial advance and suggests that M2 moraines can be connected to the end of the LGM with final stabilization possibly at the beginning of the Late Glacial. We emphasize that it is ambiguous to correlate directly the exposure-dated glacier chronologies with millennial scale climate changes due to uncertainties in sample collection and in computation of exposure ages from measured nuclide concentrations. New 10Be samples were collected in order to determine the 10Be exposure age of moraines outside the most prominent generation (M2) including the largest and oldest moraine (M1) and the landforms connected to the smallest ice advances (M4), which remained undated so far. The new exposure ages of M2 moraines are well in harmony with the recalculated ages of Reuther at al. (2007). 10Be exposure age of boulders on the smallest moraine suggest that the last glaciers disappeared in the area during the Late Glacial, indicating no glaciation during the Younger Dryas and Holocene. Previous works, based on geomorphologic analogies and pedological properties suggested that the M1 ice advance was older than LGM, and possibly occurred during the MIS4. Our 10Be exposure dating provided LGM ages for boulders on the M1 side moraine. It is question of further research whether these ages show the time when the glacier abandoned the moraine or they only indicate an LGM erosional event affecting an older moraine. If we accept the LGM age of maximum ice extent (M1), our 10Be exposure age data enables the calculation of a mean glacier retreat rate of 1.3 m/a for the period between M1 and M4 (21.4 to 13.6ka). Alternatively, considering only the oldest 10Be exposure age of the M2 moraine, the M2 to M4 (20.2-13.6ka) glacier retreat rate was slightly lower: 1.1 m/a. Our research was supported by the OTKA PD83610, by the MTA-CNRS cooperation (NKM-96/2014), by the Bolyai Scholarship, and by the 'Lendület' program of the HAS (LP2012-27/2012). The 10Be measurements were performed at the ASTER AMS national facility (CEREGE, Aix en Provence, France).

  20. Intermittent thinning of Jakobshavn Isbræ, West Greenland, since the Little Ice Age

    E-print Network

    Csatho, B. M.; Schenk, Toni; van der Veen, Cornelis J.; Krabill, William B.

    2008-05-05

    photographs acquired in 1944, 1953, 1959, 1964 and 1985. These results were combined with data from historical records, aerial photographs, ground surveys, airborne laser altimetry and field mapping of lateral moraines and trimlines, to reconstruct the history...

  1. Tropical marine climate during the late Paleozoic ice age using trace element analyses of brachiopods

    E-print Network

    Schöne, Bernd R.

    and Read, 2000) and persisting into the early Permian Period (290 Ma; Montañez et al., 2007). The modern Paleozoic ice age lasted 37 million years, beginning in the late Mississippian Period (327 Ma; Smith estimated at up to 95 m during the late Mississippian Period (Smith and Read, 2000) and 100 m during

  2. Dynamics of the intertropical convergence zone over the western Pacific during the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hong; Wei, Wei; Soon, Willie; An, Zhisheng; Zhou, Weijian; Liu, Zhonghui; Wang, Yuhong; Carter, Robert M.

    2015-04-01

    Precipitation in low latitudes is primarily controlled by the position of the intertropical convergence zone, which migrates from south to north seasonally. The Little Ice Age (defined as AD 1400-1850) was associated with low solar irradiance and high atmospheric aerosol concentrations as a result of several large volcanic eruptions. The mean position of the intertropical convergence zone over the western Pacific has been proposed to have shifted southwards during this interval, which would lead to relatively dry Little Ice Age conditions in the northern extent of the intertropical convergence zone and wet conditions around its southern limit. However, here we present a synthesis of palaeo-hydrology records from the Asian-Australian monsoon area that documents a rainfall distribution that distinctly violates the expected pattern. Our synthesis instead documents a synchronous retreat of the East Asian Summer Monsoon and the Australian Summer Monsoon into the tropics during the Little Ice Age, a pattern supported by the results of our climate model simulation of tropical precipitation over the past millennium. We suggest that this pattern over the western Pacific is best explained by a contraction in the latitudinal range over which the intertropical convergence zone seasonally migrates during the Little Ice Age. We therefore propose that rather than a strict north-south migration, the intertropical convergence zone in this region may instead expand and contract over decadal to centennial timescales in response to external forcing.

  3. Rearrangement of dislocation structures in the aging of ice single crystals

    E-print Network

    Miguel-Lopez, Carmen

    Rearrangement of dislocation structures in the aging of ice single crystals V. Taupin a , T the tests, acoustic emission was recorded in order to characterize dislocation activity and spatial distribution. Predictions obtained from a field dislocation theory coupling the evolution of statistical

  4. Ice-age endurance: DNA evidence of a white spruce refugium in Alaska

    E-print Network

    Hu, Feng Sheng

    Ice-age endurance: DNA evidence of a white spruce refugium in Alaska Lynn L. Anderson*, Feng Sheng-standing controversy. We sequenced chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) of white spruce (Picea glauca), a dominant boreal tree glaciation. Thus, white spruce apparently survived long glacial episodes under climatic extremes in a heter

  5. Integrating Teaching about the Little Ice Age with History, Art, and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William Harold

    1996-01-01

    Discusses climate change during the Little Ice Age as experienced during several historical events, including the settlement and demise of the Norse Greenland colonies, the landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth, and both the Battle of Trenton and Washington's encampment at Valley Forge during the American Revolution. Associated artistic and literary…

  6. Foraminiferal faunal estimates of paleotemperature: Circumventing the no-analog problem yields cool ice age tropics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mix, A.C.; Morey, A.E.; Pisias, N.G.; Hostetler, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    The sensitivity of the tropics to climate change, particularly the amplitude of glacial-to-interglacial changes in sea surface temperature (SST), is one of the great controversies in paleoclimatology. Here we reassess faunal estimates of ice age SSTs, focusing on the problem of no-analog planktonic foraminiferal assemblages in the equatorial oceans that confounds both classical transfer function and modern analog methods. A new calibration strategy developed here, which uses past variability of species to define robust faunal assemblages, solves the no-analog problem and reveals ice age cooling of 5??to 6??C in the equatorial current systems of the Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans. Classical transfer functions underestimated temperature changes in some areas of the tropical oceans because core-top assemblages misrepresented the ice age faunal assemblages. Our finding is consistent with some geochemical estimates and model predictions of greater ice age cooling in the tropics than was inferred by Climate: Long-Range Investigation, Mapping, and Prediction (CLIMAP) [1981] and thus may help to resolve a long-standing controversy. Our new foraminiferal transfer function suggests that such cooling was limited to the equatorial current systems, however, and supports CLIMAP's inference of stability of the subtropical gyre centers.

  7. NO MORE ICE IN PARADISE: AGES OF PLEISTOCENE GLACIATIONS ON MAUNA KEA, HAWAI'I

    E-print Network

    Zreda, Marek

    NO MORE ICE IN PARADISE: AGES OF PLEISTOCENE GLACIATIONS ON MAUNA KEA, HAWAI'I PIGATI, Jeffrey S.1 Court, Prescott, AZ 86305 Glacial deposits on Mauna Kea, the only location in the interior tropical events on Mauna Kea using in-situ cosmogenic 36 Cl dating of boulders and glacially abraded bedrock

  8. The precession constant of the Earth: Variations through the ice-age

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, W.R.; Jiang, X.

    1994-10-01

    We directly calculate the history of variations in Earth`s precession constant H that are forced by variations in surface mass associated with late Pleistocene ice-age glaciation and deglaciation events. Our analyses show that the magnitude of Delta H/H(sub zero) is lower than that required to cause the recently hypothesized resonant reduction of the precession period.

  9. Gographie physique et Quaternaire, 2000, vol. 54, n 2, p. 135-141, 8 fig., 3 tabl. LITTLE ICE AGE HISTORY OF

    E-print Network

    Smith, Dan

    on the northeast flank of Tzeetsaytsul Peak and terminates in a moraine-dammed lake.A stream draining thelakehas incisedthe moraine dam and flows through nested moraines into a second lake. Two end moraines near the lower lake record separate advances, with numerous morainic ridges found between the two lakes. A locally

  10. Chronological framework for the deglaciation of the Lake Michigan lobe of the Laurentide ice sheet from ice-walled lake deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curry, B.; Petras, J.

    2011-01-01

    A revised chronological framework for the deglaciation of the Lake Michigan lobe of the south-central Laurentide Ice Sheet is presented based on radiocarbon ages of plant macrofossils archived in the sediments of low-relief ice-walled lakes. We analyze the precision and accuracy of 15 AMS 14C ages of plant macrofossils obtained from a single ice-walled lake deposit. The semi-circular basin is about 0.72km wide and formed of a 4- to 16-m-thick succession of loess and lacustrine sediment inset into till. The assayed material was leaves, buds and stems of Salix herbacea (snowbed willow). The pooled mean of three ages from the basal lag facies was 18 270??50 14C a BP (21 810cal. a BP), an age that approximates the switch from active ice to stagnating conditions. The pooled mean of four ages for the youngest fossil-bearing horizon was 17 770??40 14C a BP (21 180cal. a BP). Material yielding the oldest and youngest ages may be obtained from sediment cores located at any place within the landform. Based on the estimated settling times of overlying barren, rhythmically bedded sand and silt, the lacustrine environment persisted for about 50 more years. At a 67% confidence level, the dated part of the ice-walled lake succession persisted for between 210 and 860cal. a (modal value: 610cal. a). The deglacial age of five moraines or morainal complexes formed by the fluctuating margin of the Lake Michigan lobe have been assessed using this method. There is no overlap of time intervals documenting when ice-walled lakes persisted on these landforms. The rapid readvances of the lobe during deglaciation after the last glacial maximum probably occurred at some point between the periods of ice-walled lake sedimentation. ?? 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Medial moraines of glaciers of the Copper River Basin, Alaska: Discrete landslides dominate over other sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Fischer, L.; Furfaro, R.; Huggel, C.; Korup, O.; Leonard, G. J.; Uhlmann, M.; Wessels, R. L.; Wolfe, D. F.

    2009-12-01

    Medial moraines are visually dominant structures of most large valley glaciers in the Copper River Basin (CRB), Alaska. Areally extensive but thin (usually <20 cm) accumulations of debris pose challenges for glacier mapping based on multispectral imagery, as done, for instance, in the GLIMS project. The sources of this material include large discrete landslides from wallrocks and from lateral moraines; diffuse contributions from rock falls and talus creep; rocks delivered via snow and ice avalanches; ingestion of lateral moraines along tributary convergences; and basal erosional debris. Evidence indicates that in CRB glaciers, discrete large avalanches predominate as the major contributors of moraine mass. Subglacial erosional debris is predominantly pulverized to small grain sizes and flushed. Many large, young avalanches exist on CRB glaciers. Evidence from colorimetry indicates that many medial moraines actually are landslides that have been sheared and swept downglacier, thus mimicking the form of other types of medial moraines formed where tributaries coalesce and flow down valley. Landcover classification of ASTER imagery, qualitative observations from air photos, and semiquantitative field-based estimations of rock color types indicate that on Allen Glacier, and other CRB glaciers, landslides are the sources of most medial moraines. On Allen and Root Glacier, for example, we see very few boulders with obvious signs of basal abrasion, whereas nearly all boulders exhibit signs of irregular fracture, for example in landslides. Such landslides have large effects on the thermal and mass balance of CRB glaciers, sometimes opposing or in other cases accentuating the effects of global/regional climate change. Considering the link between landslides and seismicity, and that Magnitude 8-9 earthquakes may occur nearby only about once a century, which is also the characteristic response time of large glaciers to climate shifts, seismicity must be considered along with climate change induced glacier responses in the CRB. Ultimately, climate has the final word, and already this is evident in the glacier record. Glacial flour is probably almost entirely from bed erosion. We will present estimates of the contributions of landslides and subglacially pulverized glacial rock flour to the overall rock mass budget of Allen Glacier. Each of the components of the rock mass budget differs in its probable distribution on the surface and within a typical glacier. We will present some preliminary empirical determinations of the influence of various thicknesses of supraglacial rock debris on the local mass balance of Allen Glacier; the net zero influence is exhibited for debris thicknesses on the order of 1 cm of fine debris or ~50% coverage by cobbles or boulders.

  12. Middle and Late Pennsylvanian cyclothems, American Midcontinent: Ice-age environmental changes and terrestrial biotic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaine Cecil, C.; DiMichele, William A.; Elrick, Scott D.

    2014-07-01

    The Pennsylvanian portion of the Late Paleozoic Ice Age was characterized by stratigraphic repetition of chemical and siliciclastic rocks in the equatorial regions of the Pangean interior. Known as “cyclothems”, these stratigraphic successions are a 105 yr-record of glacial waxing and waning, superimposed on longer term, 106 yr intervals of global warming and cooling and a still longer term trend of increasing equatorial aridity. During periods of maximum ice-minimum sea level, the interior craton was widely exposed. Epicontinental landscapes were initially subjected to dry subhumid climate when first exposed, as sea level fell, but transitioned to humid climates and widespread wetlands during maximum lowstands. During interglacials (ice-minima) seasonally dry vegetation predominated. The wetland and seasonally dry biomes were compositionally distinct and had different ecological and evolutionary dynamics.

  13. Marginal fluctuations of a Svalbard surge-type tidewater glacier, Blomstrandbreen, since the Little Ice Age: a record of three surges

    E-print Network

    Burton, David J.; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Hogan, Kelly A.; Noormets, Riko

    2015-01-01

    and pattern of deglaciation around Blomstrandhalvøya since Blomstrandbreen’s neoglacial maximum. Glacial landforms on the sea floor of Nordvågen comprise overridden moraines, glacial lineations, terminal moraines and annual recessional moraines. Crevasse...

  14. Late Holocene South American and Indian summer monsoon variability: Assessing the regional significance of the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, B. W.; Rudloff, O. M.; Escobar, J.; Polissar, P. J.; Steinman, B. A.; Thompson, L. G.; Yao, T.

    2014-12-01

    The response of Earth's major climate systems to natural forcings during the last 2000 years can provide valuable insight into the affect that ongoing climate change may have on these systems. Understanding the relationship between temperature, monsoonal hydroclimate and radiative forcing is of particular interest because hydrologic responses in these systems have the ability to impact over half of the global population. Here, late Holocene variability in the South American and Indian summer monsoon regions is examined using sedimentological, geochemical and isotopic proxies from high altitude lake sediment archives from the Colombian Andes and the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. New results from Laguna de Ubaque, a small moraine dammed lake at 2060 m ASL in the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes, suggest a reduction in Andean South American summer monsoon (SASM) rainfall during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 900 to 1200 CE) that is consistent with other records from the Andes. During the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1450 to 1900 CE), Ubaque shows wet conditions between 1450 and 1600 CE and drier conditions from1600 to 1900 CE. This pattern is similar to accumulation at the Quelccaya Ice Cap, but differs from ice core, speleothem and lake sediment oxygen isotope records of synoptic-scale monsoonal precipitation, suggesting that Andean rainfall anomalies may have differed from upstream monsoonal trends over the Amazon. In contrast, results from Badi Namco and Paru Co on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau suggest that the MCA and LIA were relatively minor hydroclimate events superimposed on a larger millennial scale variation in Indian summer monsoon precipitation (1200 to 200 cal yr B.P.) that was associated with changes in the position of the ITCZ, surface air temperature over the Tibetan Plateau and sea surface temperatures in the western tropical Pacific. The unique hydroclimate variations in the ISM and SASM regions supports the idea that while spatially extensive, the MCA and LIA had heterogeneous global expressions and that local factors played an important role in the regional expressions of these events. Analysis of Last Millennium simulations from the CMIP5 ensemble support inferences derived from proxy records and provide further insight into variability in global monsoonal systems.

  15. Cosmogenic {sup 36}Cl accumulation in unstable landforms 2. Simulations and measurements on eroding moraines

    SciTech Connect

    Zreda, M.G.; Phillips, F.M.; Elmore, D.

    1994-11-01

    Cosmogenic {sup 36}Cl ages of boulders from late Pleistocene moraines in Bishop Creek, Sierra Nevada, California, provided valuable details about {sup 36}Cl surface exposure dating and the nature of post depositional processes that modify glacial landforms. The natural variability of the apparent {sup 36}Cl ages among morainal boulders is due to soil erosion and gradual exposure of boulders at the surface. Two mechanisms are responsible for the resulting distributions of the apparent {sup 36}Cl ages. Variability of the initial burial depth among boulders and variability in the chemical composition of boulders from the same depth both result in different {sup 36}Cl ages due to the dependence of the depth production profile on the boulder chemistry. The authors measured cosmogenic {sup 36}Cl in boulders from a late Pleistocene moraine. The distribution of the calculated apparent ages allowed them to calculate the true age of 85 kyr and the erosion rate of 570 g cm{sup -2}. These results are in excellent agreement with independently estimated values of 87 kyr and 600 g cm{sup -2} for the age and erosion depth, respectively. These results indicate that the model satisfactorily simulates effects of erosion processes and can thus aid in surface exposure dating of eroding landforms.

  16. Atmospheric CO2 and d13C-CO2 reconstruction of the Little Ice Age from Antarctic ice cores.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubino, Mauro; David, Etheridge; Trudinger, Cathy; Allison, Colin; Rayner, Peter; Mulvaney, Robert; Steele, Paul; Langenfeld, Ray; Sturges, William; Curran, Mark; Smith, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The decrease of atmospheric CO2 concentration recorded in Antarctic ice around 1600 AD is one of the most significant atmospheric changes to have occurred during the last millennia, before the onset of the industrial period. Together with the temperature decrease, the CO2 drop has been used to derive the sensitivity of carbon stores to climate. However, the cause of it is still under debate because models are not yet able to reproduce either its magnitude, or its timing. Here we present new measurements of the CO2 concentration decrease recorded in an ice core from a medium accumulation rate site in Antarctica (DML). We show that the new record is compatible (differences <2 ppm) with the CO2 record from the high accumulation rate DSS site on Law Dome (East Antarctica), when the different age distributions are taken into account. We have also measured the d13C-CO2 change in DML ice, filling a gap around 1600 AD in the DSS d13C record. We use a double deconvolution of the CO2 and d13C records together to provide quantitative evidence that the CO2 decrease was caused by a change in the net flux to the terrestrial biosphere. Finally, we provide a new interpretation of a published record showing increasing atmospheric carbonyl sulphide during the CO2 decrease, suggesting that cooler LIA climate affected terrestrial biospheric fluxes. Altogether our findings support the hypothesis that reduced soil heterotrophic respiration is likely to have given the most significant contribution to the LIA CO2 decrease implying a positive CO2-climate feedback.

  17. Hummocky moraines in the Namaras and Susam Valleys, Central Taurids, SW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciner, Attila; Deynoux, Max; Çörekcio?lu, Erdem

    1999-04-01

    Late Quaternary glacial features have been found in the Central Taurid Mountains, in U-shaped valleys located at an altitude of more than 2000 m and surrounded by mountain ranges reaching 2850 m. No present day active glaciers exist in this area where the snowline elevation lies at about 3500 m. The Namaras Valley and its tributary Susam Valley are characterized by coarse loose material forming chaotic knob-and-kettle topography. Mounds, 1-10 m high and 10-30 m wide, are separated by 5-30 m wide, several meters deep, irregular depressions. The upper surfaces of the mounds are covered by angular to subangular limestone pebbles and blocks and internal sediments show a typical diamicton appearance with pebbles suspended in a muddy to sandy matrix. These chaotic structures are interpreted as hummocky disintegration moraines from former active glaciers. Successive cross-valley morainic ridges, up to 200 m high and several hundreds of meters long, limit the down-valley extension of these hummocks, and are interpreted as ice-marginal moraines. In the tributary Susam Valley, part of the coarse loose material forms a 200-250 m long and 90-120 m wide tongue-shaped structure with successive arcuate ridges and furrows at its down-valley reach. This structure, which is connected upward to a talus slope and perched cirque, ressembles the morphology of a periglacial rockglacier but is interpreted as the disintegration moraine controlled by small periodic retreat and readvance of the last active ice-front in this region.

  18. Life and extinction of megafauna in the ice-age Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Daniel H.; Groves, Pamela; Reanier, Richard E.; Gaglioti, Benjamin V.; Kunz, Michael L.; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the population dynamics of megafauna that inhabited the mammoth steppe provides insights into the causes of extinctions during both the terminal Pleistocene and today. Our study area is Alaska's North Slope, a place where humans were rare when these extinctions occurred. After developing a statistical approach to remove the age artifacts caused by radiocarbon calibration from a large series of dated megafaunal bones, we compare the temporal patterns of bone abundance with climate records. Megafaunal abundance tracked ice age climate, peaking during transitions from cold to warm periods. These results suggest that a defining characteristic of the mammoth steppe was its temporal instability and imply that regional extinctions followed by population reestablishment from distant refugia were characteristic features of ice-age biogeography at high latitudes. It follows that long-distance dispersal was crucial for the long-term persistence of megafaunal species living in the Arctic. Such dispersal was only possible when their rapidly shifting range lands were geographically interconnected. The end of the last ice age was fatally unique because the geographic ranges of arctic megafauna became permanently fragmented after stable, interglacial climate engendered the spread of peatlands at the same time that rising sea level severed former dispersal routes. PMID:26578776

  19. Life and extinction of megafauna in the ice-age Arctic.

    PubMed

    Mann, Daniel H; Groves, Pamela; Reanier, Richard E; Gaglioti, Benjamin V; Kunz, Michael L; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-11-17

    Understanding the population dynamics of megafauna that inhabited the mammoth steppe provides insights into the causes of extinctions during both the terminal Pleistocene and today. Our study area is Alaska's North Slope, a place where humans were rare when these extinctions occurred. After developing a statistical approach to remove the age artifacts caused by radiocarbon calibration from a large series of dated megafaunal bones, we compare the temporal patterns of bone abundance with climate records. Megafaunal abundance tracked ice age climate, peaking during transitions from cold to warm periods. These results suggest that a defining characteristic of the mammoth steppe was its temporal instability and imply that regional extinctions followed by population reestablishment from distant refugia were characteristic features of ice-age biogeography at high latitudes. It follows that long-distance dispersal was crucial for the long-term persistence of megafaunal species living in the Arctic. Such dispersal was only possible when their rapidly shifting range lands were geographically interconnected. The end of the last ice age was fatally unique because the geographic ranges of arctic megafauna became permanently fragmented after stable, interglacial climate engendered the spread of peatlands at the same time that rising sea level severed former dispersal routes. PMID:26578776

  20. The little ice age and medieval warm period in the Sargasso Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Keigwin, L.D.

    1996-11-29

    Sea surface temperature (SST), salinity, and flux of terrigenous material oscillated on millennial time scales in the Pleistocene North Atlantic, but there are few records of Holocene variability. Because of high rates of sediment accumulation, Holocene oscillations are well documented in the northern Sargasso Sea. Results from a radiocarbondated box core show that SST was {approximately} 1{degree}C cooler than today {approximately} 400 years ago (the Little Ice Age) and 1700 years ago, and {approximately} 1{degree}C warmer than today 1000 years ago (the Medieval Warm Period). Thus, at least some of the warming since the Little Ice Age appears to be part of a natural oscillation. 39 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Evidence for a little ice age and recent warming from a borehole temperature data inversion procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Fivez, J.; Thoen, J.

    2004-11-15

    In this article, we apply our analytical theory, published earlier in this journal, to obtain information on the earth surface temperature history from some borehole temperature data. Compared to the results of the five different methods applied to the same temperature data, our method seems to be easier, assumption-free, and yields internally consistent results. The results suggest a cooling a few centuries ago, followed by a continuing warming up to these days, in agreement with a little ice age scenario.

  2. Effects of sudden mixing in the solar core on solar neutrinos and ice ages.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ezer, D.; Cameron, A. G. W.

    1972-01-01

    Some numerical experiments with a solar model have been conducted in connection with the hypothesis regarding the effects of mixing in the solar core. Questions concerning a plausible mechanism by which such a mixing could be produced are explored. The variation of solar luminosity throughout the numerical experiments is shown. In connection with a great change in luminosity after a second mixing, it is suggested that the earth is presently undergoing an ice age.

  3. EA41CH23-Montanez ARI 19 April 2013 14:12 The Late Paleozoic Ice Age

    E-print Network

    Montañez, Isabel Patricia

    , icehouse, greenhouse, Permian, Pennsylvanian, glacioeustasy, CO2 climate forcing Abstract The late for a dynamic ice age characterized by discrete periods of glaciation separated by periods of ice contraction/06/13.Forpersonaluseonly. #12;EA41CH23-Montanez ARI 19 April 2013 14:12 INTRODUCTION Although icehouse periods make up less

  4. Cosmogenic 36Cl exposure ages reveal a 9.3 ka BP glacier advance and the Late Weichselian-Early Holocene glacial history of the Drangajökull region, northwest Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brynjólfsson, Skafti; Schomacker, Anders; Ingólfsson, Ólafur; Keiding, Jakob K.

    2015-10-01

    We present twenty-four new cosmogenic isotope (36Cl) surface exposure ages from erratic boulders, moraine boulders and glacially eroded bedrock that constrain the late Weichselian to Holocene glacial history of the Drangajökull region, northwest Iceland. The results suggest a topographically controlled ice sheet over the Vestfirðir (Westfjords) peninsula during the last glaciation. Cold based non-erosive sectors of the ice sheet covered most of the mountains while fjords and valleys were occupied with erosive, warm-based ice. Old36Cl exposure ages from highlands and mountain plateaux (L8; 76.5 ka and H1; 41.6 ka) in combination with younger erratic boulders (L7; 26.2 and K1-K4; 15.0-13.8 ka) superimposed on such surfaces suggest the presence of non-erosive ice over uplands and plateaux in the Vestfirðir peninsula during the last glaciation. Glacially scoured terrain and erratic boulders yielding younger exposure ages (L1-L6; 11.3-9.1 ka and R1, R6-R7; 10.6-9.4 ka) in the lowland areas indicate that the valleys and fjords of the Vestfirðir peninsula were occupied by warm-based, dynamic ice during the last glaciation. The deglaciation of mountain Leirufjall by 26.2 ka BP suggests that ice thinning and deglaciation of some mountains and plateaux preceded any significant lateral retreat of the ice sheet. Subsequently this initial ice thinning was followed by break-up of the shelf based ice sheet off Vestfirðir about 15 ka BP. Hence, the new exposure ages suggest a stepwise asynchronous deglaciation on land, following the shelf break-up with some valleys and most of the highlands, ice free by 14-15 ka BP. The outermost moraine at the mouth of Leirufjörður is dated to 9.3 ka BP, and we suggest the moraine to be formed by a glacier re-advance in response to a cooler climate forced by the reduced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at around 9.3 ka BP. A system of moraines proximal to the 9.3 ka moraine in Leirufjörður as well as a 9.4 ka deglaciation age in the coastal area of Reykjarfjörður suggest that an extensive ice cap persisted over the eastern Vestfirðir peninsula at least until c. 9 ka BP.

  5. Late Weichselian local ice dome configuration and chronology in Northwestern Svalbard: early thinning, late retreat

    E-print Network

    Briner, Jason P.

    in the mountains. Lack of moraine deposits, but the preservation of beach terraces, suggest that the ice covering. The marine-based SBSIS resembles the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, both being marine based and of similar size

  6. Sedimentology of latero-frontal moraines and fans on the west coast of South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David J. A.; Shulmeister, James; Hyatt, Olivia

    2010-12-01

    Exposures through the LGM latero-frontal moraine loops at sites along the west coast of South Island, New Zealand reveal a depositional environment that was dominated by the progradation of steep fronted, debris flow-fed fans, manifest in crudely stratified to massive diamictons, arranged in sub-horizontal to steeply dipping clinoforms and containing discontinuous bodies of variably sorted, stratified sediment (LFA 1). The fans were constructed by debris-covered glaciers advancing over outwash plains, as recorded by well stratified and horizontally bedded gravels, sands and diamicts (LFA 0). The ice-contact slopes of the fans are offlapped by retreat phase deposits in the form of glacilacustrine depo-centres (LFA 2), which record the existence of moraine-dammed lakes. Interdigitation of lake rhythmites and subaerial to subaqueous sediment gravity flow deposits documents intense debris-flow activity on unstable moraine/fan surfaces. Glacier readvances in all catchments are documented by glacitectonic disturbance and localized hydrofracturing of LFA 2, followed by the emplacement of schist-dominated debris flow-fed fans (LFA 3) inside and over the top of the earlier latero-frontal moraine/fan loops. Contorted and disturbed bedding in LFA 3 reflects its partial deposition in supraglacial positions. Clast lithologies in LFAs 1 and 3 reveal that two distinct transport pathways operated during moraine construction, with an early period of latero-frontal fan construction involving mixed lithologies and a later period of ice-contact/supraglacial fan construction dominated by schist lithologies from the mountains. These two periods of deposition were separated by a period of moraine abandonment and paraglacial reworking of ice-contact slopes to produce LFA 2. The occurrence of LFA 3 at all sites indicates that the glacier readvance phase responsible for its deposition was not localized or glacier-specific, and involved the transfer of large volumes of schist, possibly due to rock slope failures, onto glacier surfaces. The absence of any sediment that could be unequivocally classified as subglacial till reflects the dominance of debris flow and glacifluvial processes in latero-frontal moraine construction in this hyper-humid west coast setting.

  7. Coral's chilling tale: Ancient reefs may resolve an ice-age paradox

    SciTech Connect

    Monastersky, R.

    1994-02-19

    At the end of the Pleistocene epoch, the peak of the last ice age, the land that would become New York City lay hidden beneath a sheet of ice more than twice the height of the Empire State Building. However, researchers have found contradictory evidence about how the low latitudes fared during the ice age. Deep sea sediments seem to indicate that the tropical seas weathered the glacial epoch with remarkable stability while the continental record indicates evidence of marked cooling. This discrepancy is a problem for climate researchers because it raises the possibility that climate models may lack a critical element that will hinder their ability to accurately predict future changes. However, studies of an ancient coral species may help. The coral occasionally incorporates strontium into its shell, a situation which occurs more frequently in cold water. Looking at the ratio of strontium to calcium in coral, researchers have proposed that the surface waters off Barbados were 5[degree]C colder than today. The article discusses the scientific debate set off by this finding.

  8. Buried soils of Late Quaternary moraines of the Wind River Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Dahms, D.E. . Geography Dept.)

    1992-01-01

    Buried soils occur on kettle floors of four Pinedale moraine catenas of the western Wind River Mountains of Wyoming. Radiocarbon ages from bulk samples of Ab horizons indicate the soils were buried during the mid-Holocene. Soils on kettle floors have silty A and Bw horizons that overlie buried A and B horizons that also formed in silt-rich sediments. Crests and backslope soils also have A and Bw horizons of sandy loam formed over 2BCb and 2Cb horizons of stony coarse loamy sand. Recent data show the silty textures of the A and B horizons are due to eolian silt and clay from the Green River Basin just west of the mountains. The buried soils appear to represent alternate periods of erosion and deposition on the moraines during the Holocene. The original soils developed on higher slopes of the moraines were eroded during the mid-Holocene and the 2BC and 2C horizons exposed at the surface. Eroded soil sediments were transported downslope onto the kettle floors. Following erosion, silt-rich eolian sediments accumulated on all surfaces and mixed with the BC and C horizons (the mixed loess of Shroba and Birkeland). The present surface soils developed within this silt-rich material. Stone lines often occur at the Bw-2BCb/2Cb boundary, and mark the depth to which the earlier soils were eroded. Thus, soil profiles at the four localities result from two periods of soil formation, interrupted by an interval of erosion during the mid-Holocene. Moraines of this study are adjacent to the Fremont Lake type area for the Pinedale glaciation of the Rocky Mountains. Buried soils in kettles of the moraines indicates the soil characteristics of the Pinedale type region are not necessarily due to continuous post-Pinedale development, but may result from more than one episode of soil formation.

  9. Past and future ice age initiation: the role of an intrinsic deep-ocean millennial oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. G.

    2014-05-01

    This paper offers three interdependent contributions to studies of climate variation: (1) the recognition and analysis of an intrinsic millennial oceanic oscillation that affects both Northern and Southern high latitude climates, (2) The recognition of an oceanographic switch to ice-free seas west of Greenland that explains the initiation of the Last Ice Age, and (3) an analysis of the effect of increasing salinity in the seas east of Greenland that suggests the possibility of the initiation of an ice age threshold climate in the near future. In the first contribution the millennial oscillation in the flow of the North Atlantic Drift reported by Bond et al. (1997) is proposed to be part of a 1500 yr intrinsic deep ocean oscillation. This oscillation involves the exchange of North Atlantic intermediate-level deep water (NADW) formed in the seas east of Greenland with Antarctic Bottom Water formed in a shallow-water zone at the edge of the Antarctic continent. The concept of NADW formation is already well known, with details of the sinking water flowing out of the Greenland Sea observed by Smethie et al. (2000) using chlorofluorocarbon tracers. The concept of Antarctic Bottom Water formation is also already well established. However, its modulation by the changing fraction of NADW in the Southern Ocean, which I infer from the analysis of Weyl (1968), has not been previously discussed. The modulated lower-salinity Antarctic Bottom Water that reaches the northern North Atlantic then provides negative feedback for the cyclic variation of NADW formation as proposed here. This causes the 1500 yr bipolar oscillation. The feedback suggests the possible sinusoidal character of the proposed oscillation model. The model is consistent with the cooling of the Little Ice Age (Lamb, 1972, 1995), and it also correctly predicts NASA's observation of today's record maximum area of winter sea ice on the Southern Ocean and the present observed record low rate of Antarctic Bottom Water production cited by Broecker (2000). The sinusoidal form of this conceptual model is therefore reinforced by both old and new data, and provides insights into world-wide climate change. The second contribution of this paper is a hypothesis for the initiation of Pleistocene ice ages, typified by the Last Ice Age that began 120 000 yr BP. Instead of the classical Northern high-latitude summer cooling caused by orbital precession and changes in Earth's axis inclination, this hypothesis proposes the sudden onset of year-round ice-free seas west of Greenland, with greatly increased precipitation in the ice sheet nucleation regions of Baffin Island, northern Quebec, and Labrador. Devon Island ice-core studies by Koerner at al. (1988) and deep-sea sediment data reported by Fillon (1985) support the concept of ice-free seas west of Greenland and imply the initial meteorological conditions that are proposed here. These conditions are consistent with the heavy precipitation inferred by Adkins et al. (1997) from deep-sea sediment data. The changes in northeastern Canada were accompanied by quite cold conditions in northern Europe, inferred by Field et al. (1994) from tree pollen data. The European cooling was probably caused by loss of the recurring Iceland low-pressure system due to the dominant effect of a frequent stronger low-pressure system over the Labrador Sea, as postulated in this paper. The key to ice-free seas west of Greenland is the loss of the near-surface stratification that normally enables sea ice to freeze. Using the high-resolution European Space Agency's ENVISAT system, I have monitored the flows through the Nares Strait and found that the dominant southward flow of lower density polar water into Baffin Bay correlated with the growing area of seasonal sea ice forming early in the winter in the Bay near the southern end of the Strait. This implies that low-salinity polar water was the cause of the stratification. A search for the cause of the stratification loss then became a search for the cause of the loss of the southward flow of polar water. The los

  10. Climate Variability in the GODTHÅBSFJORD Area (sw Greenland) Since the Little Ice Age: a Multiproxy Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, S.; Ellegaard, M.; Andersen, T. J.; Kuijpers, A.; Mikkelsen, N.; Pedersen, N. N.; Rysgaard, S.

    2013-12-01

    We will present data from a high-resolution sediment core retrieved from the Godthåbsfjord area, SW Greenland. A network of sedimentological (e.g. grain size distribution), geochemical (XRF) and biological proxies (e.g. dinoflagellate cysts) have been applied to this record in order to reconstruct fjord-ice conditions, sea surface temperature, and changes in ocean-fjord water mass exchange since the Little Ice Age. The results will be compared against extensive data collected within the framework of the Greenland Ecosystem Monitoring (GEM) programme, aimed at obtaining insight into long-term ecosystem changes and climate change effects in the Arctic. Furthermore, phytoplankton resting stages preserved in the sediment core have been germinated in order to test the impact of climate variability on the genetic structure and variability of Arctic primary producers.

  11. Middle to late Holocene fluctuations of the Vindue glacier, an outlet glacier of the Greenland Ice Sheet, central East Greenland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, L.; Hammer, S. K.; Kelly, M. A.; Lowell, T. V.; Hall, B. L.; Howley, J. A.; Wilcox, P.; Medford, A.

    2014-12-01

    The margins of the Greenland Ice Sheet are currently responding to present-day climate changes. Determining how the ice sheet margins have responded to past climate changes provides a means to understand how they may respond in the future. Here we present a multi-proxy record used to reconstruct the Holocene fluctuations of the Vindue glacier, an ice sheet outlet glacier in eastern Greenland. Lake sediment cores from Qiviut lake (informal name), located ~0.75 km from the present-day Vindue glacier margin contain a sharp transition from medium sand/coarse silt to laminated gyttja just prior to 6,340±130 cal yr BP. We interpret this transition to indicate a time when the Vindue glacier retreated sufficiently to cease glacial sedimentation into the lake basin. Above this contact the core contains laminated gyttja with prominent, ~0.5 cm thick, silt layers. 10Be ages of boulders on bedrock located between Qiviut lake and the present-day ice margin date to 6.81 ± 0.67 ka (n = 3), indicating the time of deglaciation. These ages also agree well with the radiocarbon age of the silt-gyttja transition in Qiviut lake cores. 10Be ages on boulders on bedrock located more proximal to the ice margin (~0.5 km) yield ages of 2.67 ± 0.18 ka (n = 2). These ages indicate either the continued recession of the ice margin during the late Holocene or an advance at this time. Boulders on the historical moraines show that ice retreated from the moraine by AD 1620 ± 20 yrs (n = 2). These results are in contrast with some areas of the western margin of the ice sheet where 10Be ages indicate that the ice sheet was behind its Historical limit from the middle Holocene (~6-7 ka) to Historical time. This may indicate that the eastern margin may have responded to late Holocene cooling more sensitively or that the advance associated with the Historical moraines overran any evidence of late Holocene fluctuations along the western margin of the ice sheet.

  12. Glacier dynamics at Helheim and Kangerdlugssuaq glaciers, southeast Greenland, since the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, S. A.; Kjeldsen, K. K.; Kjær, K. H.; Bevan, S.; Luckman, A.; Aschwanden, A.; Bjørk, A. A.; Korsgaard, N. J.; Box, J. E.; van den Broeke, M.; van Dam, T. M.; Fitzner, A.

    2014-08-01

    Observations over the past decade show significant ice loss associated with the speed-up of glaciers in southeast Greenland from 2003, followed by a deceleration from 2006. These short-term, episodic, dynamic perturbations have a major impact on the mass balance on the decadal scale. To improve the projection of future sea level rise, a long-term data record that reveals the mass balance beyond such episodic events is required. Here, we extend the observational record of marginal thinning of Helheim and Kangerdlugssuaq glaciers from 10 to more than 80 years. We show that, although the frontal portion of Helheim Glacier thinned by more than 100 m between 2003 and 2006, it thickened by more than 50 m during the previous two decades. In contrast, Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier underwent minor thinning of 40-50 m from 1981 to 1998 and major thinning of more than 100 m after 2003. Extending the record back to the end of the Little Ice Age (prior to 1930) shows no thinning of Helheim Glacier from its maximum extent during the Little Ice Age to 1981, while Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier underwent substantial thinning of 230 to 265 m. Comparison of sub-surface water temperature anomalies and variations in air temperature to records of thickness and velocity change suggest that both glaciers are highly sensitive to short-term atmospheric and ocean forcing, and respond very quickly to small fluctuations. On century timescales, however, multiple external parameters (e.g. outlet glacier shape) may dominate the mass change. These findings suggest that special care must be taken in the projection of future dynamic ice loss.

  13. Precise interpolar phasing of abrupt climate change during the last ice age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    WAIS Divide Project Members; Buizert, Christo; Adrian, Betty M.; Ahn, Jinho; Albert, Mary; Alley, Richard B.; Baggenstos, Daniel; Bauska, Thomas K.; Bay, Ryan C.; Bencivengo, Brian B.; Bentley, Charles R.; Brook, Edward J.; Chellman, Nathan J.; Clow, Gary D.; Cole-Dai, Jihong; Conway, Howard; Cravens, Eric; Cuffey, Kurt M.; Dunbar, Nelia W.; Edwards, Jon S.; Fegyveresi, John M.; Ferris, Dave G.; Fitzpatrick, Joan J.; Fudge, T. J.; Gibson, Chris J.; Gkinis, Vasileios; Goetz, Joshua J.; Gregory, Stephanie; Hargreaves, Geoffrey Mill; Iverson, Nels; Johnson, Jay A.; Jones, Tyler R.; Kalk, Michael L.; Kippenhan, Matthew J.; Koffman, Bess G.; Kreutz, Karl; Kuhl, Tanner W.; Lebar, Donald A.; Lee, James E.; Marcott, Shaun A.; Markle, Bradley R.; Maselli, Olivia J.; McConnell, Joseph R.; McGwire, Kenneth C.; Mitchell, Logan E.; Mortensen, Nicolai B.; Neff, Peter D.; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Nunn, Richard M.; Orsi, Anais J.; Pasteris, Daniel R.; Pedro, Joel B.; Pettit, Erin C.; Price, P. Buford; Priscu, John C.; Rhodes, Rachael H.; Rosen, Julia L.; Schauer, Andrew J.; Schoenemann, Spruce W.; Sendelbach, Paul J.; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.; Shturmakov, Alexander J.; Sigl, Michael; Slawny, Kristina R.; Souney, Joseph M.; Sowers, Todd A.; Spencer, Matthew K.; Steig, Eric J.; Taylor, Kendrick C.; Twickler, Mark S.; Vaughn, Bruce H.; Voigt, Donald E.; Waddington, Edwin D.; Welten, Kees C.; Wendricks, Anthony W.; White, James W. C.; Winstrup, Mai; Wong, Gifford J.; Woodruff, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    The last glacial period exhibited abrupt Dansgaard–Oeschger climatic oscillations, evidence of which is preserved in a variety of Northern Hemisphere palaeoclimate archives1. Ice cores show that Antarctica cooled during the warm phases of the Greenland Dansgaard–Oeschger cycle and vice versa2, 3, suggesting an interhemispheric redistribution of heat through a mechanism called the bipolar seesaw4, 5, 6. Variations in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) strength are thought to have been important, but much uncertainty remains regarding the dynamics and trigger of these abrupt events7, 8, 9. Key information is contained in the relative phasing of hemispheric climate variations, yet the large, poorly constrained difference between gas age and ice age and the relatively low resolution of methane records from Antarctic ice cores have so far precluded methane-based synchronization at the required sub-centennial precision2, 3,10. Here we use a recently drilled high-accumulation Antarctic ice core to show that, on average, abrupt Greenland warming leads the corresponding Antarctic cooling onset by 218 ± 92 years (2?) for Dansgaard–Oeschger events, including the Bølling event; Greenland cooling leads the corresponding onset of Antarctic warming by 208 ± 96 years. Our results demonstrate a north-to-south directionality of the abrupt climatic signal, which is propagated to the Southern Hemisphere high latitudes by oceanic rather than atmospheric processes. The similar interpolar phasing of warming and cooling transitions suggests that the transfer time of the climatic signal is independent of the AMOC background state. Our findings confirm a central role for ocean circulation in the bipolar seesaw and provide clear criteria for assessing hypotheses and model simulations of Dansgaard–Oeschger dynamics.

  14. Precise interpolar phasing of abrupt climate change during the last ice age.

    PubMed

    2015-04-30

    The last glacial period exhibited abrupt Dansgaard-Oeschger climatic oscillations, evidence of which is preserved in a variety of Northern Hemisphere palaeoclimate archives. Ice cores show that Antarctica cooled during the warm phases of the Greenland Dansgaard-Oeschger cycle and vice versa, suggesting an interhemispheric redistribution of heat through a mechanism called the bipolar seesaw. Variations in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) strength are thought to have been important, but much uncertainty remains regarding the dynamics and trigger of these abrupt events. Key information is contained in the relative phasing of hemispheric climate variations, yet the large, poorly constrained difference between gas age and ice age and the relatively low resolution of methane records from Antarctic ice cores have so far precluded methane-based synchronization at the required sub-centennial precision. Here we use a recently drilled high-accumulation Antarctic ice core to show that, on average, abrupt Greenland warming leads the corresponding Antarctic cooling onset by 218 ± 92 years (2?) for Dansgaard-Oeschger events, including the Bølling event; Greenland cooling leads the corresponding onset of Antarctic warming by 208 ± 96 years. Our results demonstrate a north-to-south directionality of the abrupt climatic signal, which is propagated to the Southern Hemisphere high latitudes by oceanic rather than atmospheric processes. The similar interpolar phasing of warming and cooling transitions suggests that the transfer time of the climatic signal is independent of the AMOC background state. Our findings confirm a central role for ocean circulation in the bipolar seesaw and provide clear criteria for assessing hypotheses and model simulations of Dansgaard-Oeschger dynamics. PMID:25925479

  15. Paired proglacial lake sediment and cosmogenic ages reveal the timing of Late Glacial and Holocene glacier fluctuations in the Huaguruncho Massif of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stansell, Nathan; Rodbell, Donald; Licciardi, Joseph; Schweinsberg, Avriel; Huss, Elizabeth; Finkel, Robert; Zimmerman, Susan

    2015-04-01

    The pairing of cosmogenic ages on moraine boulders and radiocarbon-dated lake sediments provides a powerful tool for reconstructing past climates based on former ice positions. Surface exposure ages (10Be) and clastic sediment records from a proglacial lake at Nevado Huaguruncho, Peru, document the waxing and waning of tropical alpine glaciers in the Eastern Cordillera during the last ca. 15 ka. Moraine ages indicate that glaciers were advanced at ca. 14.1 ± 0.4 ka, a pattern that is consistent with cooling associated with the Antarctic Cold Reversal. Yanacocha is located immediately upvalley from this 14.1 ka moraine, and lake sediments and cosmogenic ages also suggest that glaciers advanced just prior to, or at the start of, the Younger Dryas from 13.1 to 12.5 ka. Lake sediments and cosmogenic ages then indicate that glaciers retreated after ca. 12.5 ka, and again advanced during the early Holocene between ca. 12 and 9 ka. Short-lived increases in clastic lake sediment values suggest that ice margins advanced briefly at times through the middle Holocene from ca. 8 to 4 ka, and the lack of moraine boulders dating to this interval suggest that glaciers were less extensive than during the late Holocene. Lake sediments suggest that glaciers experienced a relatively limited advance at the start of the late Holocene from ca. 4 to 2 ka, followed by retreat until the start of the Medieval Climate Anomaly at ca. 1.1 ka. Clastic sediment values in the lake sediments then suggest that ice began advancing during the MCA, and the most pronounced Holocene advance at Huaguruncho occurred during the Little Ice Age (ca. 0.4 to 0.2 ka) under colder and wetter conditions. The pattern of glacier variability in Huaguruncho during the Late Glacial and Holocene provides further evidence that tropical Atlantic Ocean conditions drove much of the observed temperature and precipitation changes along the Eastern Cordillera.

  16. Burial Ages for Middle Pleistocene Glacial Deposits of the Laurentide Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balco, G.; Stone, J. O.; Patterson, C. J.; Caffee, M.

    2001-12-01

    Subglacial erosion and sediment dynamics influence the size, stability, and climatic sensitivity of large ice sheets as well as the landscape they leave behind. In the regions surrounding the former Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) thick deposits of glacial sediment contain a rich record of a) the extent and dynamics of the ice sheet during many glacial cycles, and b) the rate and timing of Pleistocene glacial erosion of the Canadian Shield. This record is poorly accessible at present due to difficulties in determining the age of glacial deposits older than the limit of radiocarbon dating. In order to better interpret this record of long-term ice sheet erosion, we have attempted to determine the age of a series of glacial and interglacial sediments in Minnesota, USA, using a technique of "burial dating" based on the different rates of decay of the in-situ-produced cosmogenic isotopes 10Be and 26Al in sediments first exposed to cosmic rays at the earth's surface and then buried for an extended time. We measured 10Be and 26Al on eight samples of fluvial or glaciofluvial sediment interbedded between tills previously thought to be middle Pleistocene in age. 26Al/10Be ratios were lower in stratigraphically lower units, and ratios were indistinguishable in units previously correlated based on their position and lithology. Thus, this may be a viable method for determining the age of these othewise hard-to-date sediments and may result in significant progress toward correlating terrestrial and marine records of Pleistocene glaciation. Results for sandy sediments within one set of tills are consistent with 10,000-14,000 years of exposure followed by 0.8 +/- 0.1 Myr burial; those within another group of tills indicate similar exposure times followed by 1.1 +/- 0.1 Myr burial. Subject to several assumptions, these results give the age of overlying till units. If correct, they corroborate other evidence suggesting that the LIS achieved its maximum known extent prior to the large oxygen-isotope excursions of the late Pleistocene.

  17. High resolution dating of moraines on Kodiak Island, Alaska links Atlantic and North Pacific climatic changes during the late glacial

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, D.H. . Alaska Quaternary Center)

    1992-01-01

    Much less is known about the paleoclimate and paleoceanography of the North Pacific than the North Atlantic despite the North Pacific's important role in the global ocean-climate system. Kodiak Island lies in the northwestern Gulf of Alaska astride the eastern end of the Aleutian Low. On southwestern Kodiak Island, coastal bluffs section a series of moraines, kettle ponds, and bogs formed between 15 and 9 ka BP. Distinctive tephras from volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula provide time-lines within the stratigraphy. Deformation events recorded in sediment stacks from basins within glaciotectonic landforms allows precise dating of glacial events. An ice cap occupied the Kodiak archipelago during the last glaciation. Three glacial advances of the southwestern margin of this ice cap occurred after 15 ka BP. At 13.4 ka, piedmont ice lobes formed large push moraines extending into Shelikof Strait during the Low Cape Advance. The less-extensive Tundra Advance culminated between 12 and 11.7 ka BP followed by glacier retreat then readvance to form the prominent Olga Moraine system between 11 and 10 ka BP. The timing of the Tundra and Olga Advances correlates closely with that of the Older and Younger Dryas cold episodes in northwestern Europe suggesting that these climatic oscillations were synchronous throughout the northern hemisphere.

  18. Low-velocity impact craters in ice and ice-saturated sand with implications for Martian crater count ages.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Croft, S.K.; Kieffer, S.W.; Ahrens, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    We produced a series of decimeter-sized impact craters in blocks of ice near 0oC and -70oC and in ice-saturated sand near -70oC as a preliminary investigation of cratering in materials analogous to those found on Mars and the outer solar satellites. Crater diameters in the ice-saturated sand were 2 times larger than craters in the same energy and velocity range in competent blocks of granite, basalt and cement. Craters in ice were c.3 times larger. Martian impact crater energy versus diameter scaling may thus be a function of latitude. -from Authors

  19. Regeneration of Little Ice Age bryophytes emerging from a polar glacier with implications of totipotency in extreme environments

    PubMed Central

    La Farge, Catherine; Williams, Krista H.; England, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Across the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, widespread ice retreat during the 20th century has sharply accelerated since 2004. In Sverdrup Pass, central Ellesmere Island, rapid glacier retreat is exposing intact plant communities whose radiocarbon dates demonstrate entombment during the Little Ice Age (1550–1850 AD). The exhumed bryophyte assemblages have exceptional structural integrity (i.e., setae, stem structures, leaf hair points) and have remarkable species richness (60 of 144 extant taxa in Sverdrup Pass). Although the populations are often discolored (blackened), some have developed green stem apices or lateral branches suggesting in vivo regrowth. To test their biological viability, Little Ice Age populations emerging from the ice margin were collected for in vitro growth experiments. Our results include a unique successful regeneration of subglacial bryophytes following 400 y of ice entombment. This finding demonstrates the totipotent capacity of bryophytes, the ability of a cell to dedifferentiate into a meristematic state (analogous to stem cells) and develop a new plant. In polar ecosystems, regrowth of bryophyte tissue buried by ice for 400 y significantly expands our understanding of their role in recolonization of polar landscapes (past or present). Regeneration of subglacial bryophytes broadens the concept of Ice Age refugia, traditionally confined to survival of land plants to sites above and beyond glacier margins. Our results emphasize the unrecognized resilience of bryophytes, which are commonly overlooked vis-a-vis their contribution to the establishment, colonization, and maintenance of polar terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:23716658

  20. Growth of a post-Little Ice Age submarine fan, Glacier Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, P.R.; Cowan, E.A.; Powell, R.D.; Cai, J.

    1999-01-01

    A small Holocene fan is forming where Queen Inlet, a hanging valley, enters West Arm fjord, Glacier Bay, Alaska. Queen fan formed in the last 80 years following retreat of the Little Ice Age glacier that filled Glacier Bay about 200 yr BP. It was built mainly by a turbidite system originating from Carroll Glacier delta, as the delta formed in the early 1900s at the head of Queen Inlet. The Late Holocene Queen fan is comparable to large Pleistocene fans that formed in the Gulf of Alaska and differs from trough-mouth fans formed by cooler climate glacier systems.

  1. Glacier dynamics at Helheim and Kangerdlugssuaq glaciers, southeast Greenland, since the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, S. A.; Kjeldsen, K. K.; Kjær, K. H.; Bevan, S.; Luckman, A.; Aschwanden, A.; Korsgaard, N. J.; Bjørk, A. A.; Box, J.; van den Broeke, M.; van Dam, T. M.; Fitzner, A.

    2014-02-01

    Observations over the past decade show significant ice loss associated with the speed-up of glaciers in southeast Greenland from 2003, followed by a deceleration from 2006. These short-term, episodic, dynamic perturbations have a major impact on the mass balance at the decadal scale. To improve the projection of future sea level rise, a long-term data record that reveals the mass balance beyond such episodic events is required. Here, we extend the observational record of marginal thinning of Helheim glacier (HG) and Kangerdlugssuaq glacier (KG) from 10 to more than 150 yr. We show that although the frontal portion of HG thinned by more than 100 m between 2003 and 2006, it thickened by more than 50 m during the previous two decades. In contrast, KG was stable from 1981 to 1998 and experienced major thinning only after 2003. Extending the record back to the end of the Little Ice Age (ca. 1850) shows no significant thinning of HG from 1850 to 1981, while KG underwent substantial thinning of ~265 m. Analyses of their sensitivity to sub-surface water temperature anomalies and variations in air temperature suggest that both HG and KG are highly sensitive to short-term atmospheric and ocean forcing, and respond very quickly to small fluctuations. At century time-scales, however, multiple external parameters (e.g. outlet shape) dominate the mass change. These findings undermine attempts to use measurements over the last decade as initial conditions to project future dynamic ice loss.

  2. On the age vs depth and optical clarity of deep ice at South Pole

    E-print Network

    The AMANDA collaboration

    1995-01-23

    The first four strings of phototubes for the AMANDA high-energy neutrino observatory are now frozen in place at a depth of 800 to 1000 m in ice at the South Pole. During the 1995-96 season an additional six strings will be deployed at greater depths. Provided absorption, scattering, and refraction of visible light are sufficiently small, the trajectory of a muon into which a neutrino converts can be determined by using the array of phototubes to measure the arrival times of \\v{C}erenkov light emitted by the muon. To help in deciding on the depth for implantation of the six new strings, we discuss models of age vs depth for South Pole ice, we estimate mean free paths for scattering from bubbles and dust as a function of depth, and we assess distortion of light paths due to refraction at crystal boundaries and interfaces between air-hydrate inclusions and normal ice. We conclude that the depth interval 1600 to 1800 m will be suitably transparent for the next six AMANDA strings and, moreover, that the interval 1600 to 2100 m will be suitably transparent for a future 1-km$^3$ observatory except possibly in a region a few tens of meters thick at a depth corresponding to a peak in the dust concentration at 60 kyr BP.

  3. The complex behavior of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet and mountain glaciers to abrupt climate change during the latest Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menounos, Brian; Goehring, Brent; Osborn, Gerald; Clarke, Garry K. C.; Ward, Brent; Margold, Martin; Bond, Jeff; Clague, John J.; Lakeman, Tom; Schaefer, Joerg; Koch, Joe; Gosse, John; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Seguinot, Julien; Heyman, Jakob; Fulton, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Surficial mapping and more than 70 radiometric ages 10Be, 14C] constrain the evolution of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS) and associated mountain glaciers in western Canada during the latest Pleistocene. Our data suggest that: i) there is widespread evidence for the Younger Dryas (YD) throughout the mountains of western Canada; ii) late Pleistocene climate reconstructions based solely on alpine moraines may be misleading in regions with decaying ice sheets; iii) extensive interfluves in some mountain regions were ice-free between 16 ka and 13 ka (kilo calibrated yrs BP). Initial decay of the CIS from its maximum extent around 16 ka was likely due to a combination of climatic (surface melting) and dynamical factors. Climate amelioration during the Bølling-Allerød Warm Period [14.7-12.9 ka], likely the cause for the major phase of CIS decay, resulted in ice sheet equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs) ranging from 2500 m asl in southern BC to around 2000 m asl along the BC-Yukon border. Hence, before the onset of the Younger Dryas (YD) Cold Period [12.9-11.7 ka], the ice sheet shrank and became a labyrinth of individual and coalescing valley glaciers fed by major accumulation zones centered on the Coast Mountains and other high ranges of NW Canada. The response of remnant ice and cirque glaciers to the YD climate deterioration was highly variable. In some cases, small glaciers (0.5-2 km2) built YD moraines that were only hundreds of meters beyond those constructed during the Little Ice Age (LIA) [0.30-0.15 ka]. Our dating also reveals that much larger glaciers persisted in nearby valleys that lie hundreds of meters below the cirques. Hence, we infer that many cirques were completely deglaciated prior the YD, in contrast to low-lying valleys where ice sheet remnants persisted. Glaciers also advanced in north-central British Columbia during the YD, but here glaciers constructed large terminal and lateral moraines. In the Cassiar and northern Coast mountains, for example, 25 10Be [13.10-12.00 ka] and four minimum-limiting 14C ages from lakes impounded by moraines show that glaciers existed up to 10 km beyond LIA glacier limits during the YD. These glaciers thus had ELAs that were 300-500 m lower than contemporary glaciers. We are currently performing high-resolution (

  4. Depositional environments during the Late Palaeozoic ice age (LPIA) in northern Ethiopia, NE Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussert, Robert

    2014-11-01

    The Late Palaeozoic sediments in northern Ethiopia record a series of depositional environments during and after the Late Paleozoic ice age (LPIA). These sediments are up to 200 m thick and exceptionally heterogeneous in lithofacies composition. A differentiation of numerous types of lithofacies associations forms the basis for the interpretation of a large range of depositional processes. Major glacigenic lithofacies associations include: (1) sheets of diamictite, either overlying glacially eroded basement surfaces or intercalated into the sediment successions, and representing subglacial tillites, (2) thick massive to weakly stratified muddy clast-poor diamictites to lonestone-bearing laminated mudstones originating from a combination of suspension settling of fines and iceberg rainout, (3) lensoidal or thin-bedded diamictites deposited from debris flows, (4) wedges of traction and gravity transported coarse-grained sediments deposited in outwash fans, (5) irregular wedges or sheets of mudstones deformed primarily by extension and incorporating deformed beds or rafts of other lithofacies formed by slumping, and (6) irregular bodies of sandstone, conglomerate and diamictite deformed by glacial pushing. The dominance of laminated or massive clast-bearing mudstones in most successions indicates ice-contact water bodies as the major depositional environment. Into this environment, coarse-grained sediments were transported by various gravity driven transport processes, including dropstone activity of ice-bergs, slumping, cohesive debris flow, hyperconcentrated to concentrated flow, hyperpycnal flow, and by turbidity flow. Close to glacier termini, wedge-shaped bodies of conglomerate, sandstone, diamictite and mudstone were deposited primarily in subaqueous outwash-fans. Soft-sediment deformation of these sediments either records ice push during glacier advance or re-sedimentation by slumping. Apart from an initial glacier advance when thick ice of temperate or polythermal glaciers covered the whole basin, many sections document at least a second major phase of ice advance and retreat, and some sections additional minor advance-retreat cycles. Whether most of the LPIA sediments in northern Ethiopia were deposited in lakes or in fjords is not yet clear. Although univocal evidence of marine conditions is missing, the presence of carbonate-rich beds and the trace fossil assemblage are compatible with a restricted marine environment such as broad palaeofjords affected by strong freshwater discharge during deglaciation. A restricted marine environment for most of the sediments in northern Ethiopia could challenge models of the LPIA sediments in Arabia as primarily glaciolacustrine and glaciofluviatile deposits.

  5. Evolution of Ossoue Glacier (French Pyrenees) since the end of the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, R.; Gascoin, S.; Houet, T.; Ribière, O.; Laffly, D.; Condom, T.; Monnier, S.; Schmutz, M.; Camerlynck, C.; Tihay, J. P.; Soubeyroux, J. M.; René, P.

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the fluctuations of the Pyrenean glaciers. In this study, we reconstructed the evolution of Ossoue Glacier (42°46' N, 0.45 km2), which is located in the central Pyrenees, from the Little Ice Age (LIA) onwards. To do so, length, area, thickness, and mass changes in the glacier were generated from historical data sets, topographical surveys, glaciological measurements (2001-2013), a ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey (2006), and stereoscopic satellite images (2013). The glacier has receded considerably since the end of the LIA, losing 40 % of its length and 60 % of its area. Three periods of marked ice depletion were identified: 1850-1890, 1928-1950, and 1983-2013, as well as two short periods of stabilization: 1890-1894, 1905-1913, and a longer period of slight growth: 1950-1983; these agree with other Pyrenean glacier reconstructions (Maladeta, Coronas, Taillon glaciers). Pyrenean and Alpine glaciers exhibit similar multidecadal variations during the 20th century, with a stable period detected at the end of the 1970s and periods of ice depletion during the 1940s and since the 1980s. Ossoue Glacier fluctuations generally concur with climatic data (air temperature, precipitation, North Atlantic Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation). Geodetic mass balance over 1983-2013 was -1.04 ± 0.06 w.e.a-1 (-31.3 ± 1.9 m w.e.), whereas glaciological mass balance was -1.45 ± 0.85 m w.e. a-1 (-17.3 ± 2.9 m w.e.) over 2001-2013, resulting in a doubling of the ablation rate in the last decade. In 2013 the maximum ice thickness was 59 ± 10.3 m. Assuming that the current ablation rate remains constant, Ossoue Glacier will disappear midway through the 21st century.

  6. Geochronology and paleoclimatic implications of the last deglaciation of the Mauna Kea Ice Cap, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anslow, Faron S.; Clark, P.U.; Kurz, M.D.; Hostetler, S.W.

    2010-01-01

    We present new 3He surface exposure ages on moraines and bedrock near the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, which refine the age of the Mauna Kea Ice Cap during the Local Last Glacial Maximum (LLGM) and identify a subsequent fluctuation of the ice margin. The 3He ages, when combined with those reported previously, indicate that the local ice-cap margin began to retreat from its LLGM extent at 20.5??2.5ka, in agreement with the age of deglaciation determined from LLGM moraines elsewhere in the tropics. The ice-cap margin receded to a position at least 3km upslope for ~4.5-5.0kyr before readvancing nearly to its LLGM extent. The timing of this readvance at ~15.4ka corresponds to a large reduction of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) following Heinrich Event 1. Subsequent ice-margin retreat began at 14.6??1.9ka, corresponding to a rapid resumption of the AMOC and onset of the B??lling warm interval, with the ice cap melting rapidly to complete deglaciation. Additional 3He ages obtained from a flood deposit date the catastrophic outburst of a moraine-dammed lake roughly coeval with the Younger Dryas cold interval, suggesting a more active hydrological cycle on Mauna Kea at this time. A coupled mass balance and ice dynamics model is used to constrain the climate required to generate ice caps of LLGM and readvance sizes. The depression of the LLGM equilibrium line altitude requires atmospheric cooling of 4.5??1??C, whereas the mass balance modeling indicates an accompanying increase in precipitation of as much as three times that of present. We hypothesize (1) that the LLGM temperature depression was associated with global cooling, (2) that the temperature depression that contributed to the readvance occurred in response to an atmospheric teleconnection to the North Atlantic, and (3) that the precipitation enhancement associated with both events occurred in response to a southward shift in the position of the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ). Such a shift in the ITCZ would have allowed midlatitude cyclones to reach Mauna Kea more frequently which would have increased precipitation at high elevations and caused additional cooling. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Reassessment of ice-age cooling of the tropical ocean and atmosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostetler, S.W.; Mix, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    The CLIMAP project's reconstruction of past sea surface temperature inferred limited ice-age cooling in the tropical oceans. This conclusion has been controversial, however, because of the greater cooling indicated by other terrestrial and ocean proxy data. A new faunal sea surface temperature reconstruction, calibrated using the variation of foraminiferal species through time, better represents ice-age faunal assemblages and so reveals greater cooling than CLIMAP in the equatorial current systems of the eastern Pacific and tropical Atlantic oceans. Here we explore the climatic implications of this revised sea surface temperature field for the Last Glacial Maximum using an atmospheric general circulation model. Relative to model results obtained using CLIMAP sea surface temperatures, the cooler equatorial oceans modify seasonal air temperatures by 1-2??C or more across parts of South America, Africa and southeast Asia and cause attendant changes in regional moisture patterns. In our simulation of the Last Glacial Maximum, the Amazon lowlands, for example, are cooler and drier, whereas the Andean highlands are cooler and wetter than the control simulation. Our results may help to resolve some of the apparent disagreements between oceanic and continental proxy climate data. Moreover, they suggest a wind-related mechanism for enhancing the export of water vapour from the Atlantic to the Indo-Pacific oceans, which may link variations in deep-water production and high-latitude climate changes to equatorial sea surface temperatures.

  8. Evolution and outburst risk analysis of moraine-dammed lakes in the central Chinese Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shijin, Wang; Shitai, Jiao

    2015-04-01

    The recent evolution and outburst risk of two typical moraine-dammed lakes, Galong and Gangxi, central Chinese Himalaya, are analyzed using topographic maps from 1974 and Landsat satellite imagery acquired in 1988, 2000 and 2014. The datasets show the areas of Galong and Gangxi lakes increasing at rates of 0.45 and 0.34 km2/year during the period 1974-2014, an expansion of 501% and 107%, respectively, in the past 41 years, while the areas of the parent glaciers, Reqiang and Jipucong decreased by 44.22% and 37.76%, respectively. The accelerating retreat of the glaciers not only reflects their generally negative mass balance but is consistent with the rapid expansion of the moraine-dammed lakes. When acted upon by external forces such as earthquakes, heavy rainfall, rapid melting of glaciers and dead ice, and snow/ice/rock avalanches, these lakes can become extremely dangerous, easily forming outburst mudslides, which can potentially spread to the Poiqu river basin and develop into cross-border (China and Nepal) GLOF disasters. Therefore, there is an urgent need to strengthen integrated risk management of glacial lake outburst disasters with multiple objectives and modes.

  9. The Northern Moraine and Lake Region, in which Pokagon State Park is located, is noted

    E-print Network

    Polly, David

    Lake James The Northern Moraine and Lake Region, in which Pokagon State Park is located, is noted-filled depression. Morainal landscape The steeply rolling hills, bogs, and interconnected lakes of the park bear Erie. The Moraine A moraine is a landform that is made up of glacial debris ranging in size from rock

  10. {franke,thor,wirth}@math.unibonn.de morain@lix.polytechnique.fr polytechnique

    E-print Network

    Bernstein, Daniel

    in Burlington Wednesday 16 June, 2004 J. Franke, T. Kleinjung, F. Morain, T. Wirth {franke,thor,wirth}@math.uni­bonn.de morain@lix.polytechnique.fr Franc â?ºois Morain, â?? Ecole polytechnique (LIX) 1 ANTS­VI, Burlington, june â?ºois Morain, â?? Ecole polytechnique (LIX) 2 ANTS­VI, Burlington, june 2004 I. Introduction Goal: decide

  11. CO2 isotopes as tracers of firn air diffusion and age in an Arctic ice cap with summer melting, Devon Island, Canada

    E-print Network

    Chappellaz, Jérôme

    CO2 isotopes as tracers of firn air diffusion and age in an Arctic ice cap with summer melting zone from 50 to 60 m depth. A firn-ice age profile was produced from density measurements of 54.9 (+6.0/À12.0) years for firn air at 60 m depth in 140-year-old ice. Thus CO2 has a mean age 85

  12. Moraine Valley College: A School With a Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kee, Byron E.

    1974-01-01

    In the architecture and arrangement of the physical plant, in the organization of its programs, and in the activities of its faculty and staff Moraine Valley Community College embodies a distinctive philosophy of education. (Author/RK)

  13. The Media, Planning and the Oak Ridges Moraine

    E-print Network

    ARTICLE The Media, Planning and the Oak Ridges Moraine R. CHRISTOPHER EDEY, MARK SEASONS & GRAHAM-addressed in the existing body of planning literature. This article explores the topic through a case study of the Oak

  14. Reconstruction of mass balance of Nevado Coropuna glaciers (Southern Peru) for Late Pleistocene, Little Ice Age and the present.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubeda, J.; Palacios, D.

    2009-04-01

    The Nevado Coropuna volcanic complex (15th 31'S-72 ° 39 ° W) is the quaternary stratovolcano northernmost of the central volcanic zone (CVZ) in the western flank of the Central Andes (Southern Peru). This consists in four adjacent volcanic buildings that are occupied over 5.100-5.700 masl by a system of glaciers covering an area of 47 Km2 in 2007 (Ubeda et al, 2008). The maximum expansion of glaciers during the Pleistocene affected an area of ~449 Km2, dropping to altitudes around 3.600-4800 m (Ubeda et al, 2007). In this work were mapped several hundreds of moraines which constitute a record of climate change since the last glacial maximum (LGM). Current glacier system is formed by dozen of glaciers descending slope down in all directions. Coropuna complex is an excellent laboratory for to investigate the control that climate change, tectonics and volcanism exert on the dynamics of glaciers, a scale of tens of years (by studying current glaciers) and also of tens of thousands of years (by analyzing the geomorphological evidence of its evolution in the past). Ubeda et al. (2008) analyzed the evolution of eighteen glaciers of Nevado Coropuna using indicators as surfaces and Equilibrium Line Altitudes (ELAs) of ice masses in 2007, 1986, 1955, Little the Ice Age (LIA) and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The glaciers were grouped into two sets: NE group (seven glaciers) and SE group (eleven glaciers). The work included statistical series of ELAs in each phase, estimates by Area x Altitud Balance Ratio (AABR) method, which was proposed by Osmaston (2005), in addition with estimates of timing (~17Cl36 Ka) and magnitude (~ 782-911 m) of ELA depression during LGM. The work included statistical series of ELAs in each phase, estimates by the method Area x Altitud Balance Ratio (AABR) proposed by Osmaston (2005), and in addition estimates of the timing (~17Cl36 Ka) and magnitude (~ 782-911 m) of ELA depression during LGM. The objective of this work is to estimate the current and past mass balance of glaciers in these phases (2007, 1986, 1955, LIA and LGM) in order to assess the current state of glaciers and deduct the regimes of temperature and precipitation for present and for LGM. To achieve this target were installed in 2007 in the gorge of Queñua Ranra (NE quadrant of Coropuna complex) four stations, that are respectively at 4886 m (E1), 5564 m (E2), 5694 (E3) m and 5822 m (E4). The stations consist of a sensor in air and one (E3) or two sensors in ground (E1). The sensors record temperature at intervals of 30 minutes (sensors 12, 13, 22 and 32) or 45 minutes (11, 21, 31 and 41), with precision of tenths of a degree Celsius (° C). The first digit of the name of the sensors referred to the station (arranged in increasing altitude) and the second at his position (eg 11-air, 12-ground and 13-deep ground, in the station E1). The records of Ta and Ts have allowed to define homogeneous data sets of 365 days (12-11-2007/11-11-2008). With these data have been calculated for each day and each sensor the average temperatures, and the minimum and maximum temperature variations and was used to estimate the vertical thermal gradient (^T/^Z) between the stations. In E1, Ta = 3.9 ° C and Ts =6.8°C. At E3, Ta=-2.9°C and Ts=1.3°C. The rain has been extrapolated from the average of the 1965-2003 series (39 years) from the station of Andahua (15 Ë? 29'36 "S-72 Ë? 20'56" W, 3587 m), 20 km to NE of the eastern summit of Coropuna, resulting in the level E1 (4886 m) a value of P = 494 mm. The availability of the temperature series has allowed develop the model of mass balance using an adaptation of the method Klein et al. (1999) developed from an earlier proposal (Kaser 1995). The method is to solve two equations. Equation 1: a=?m/Lm[(Qr+?(Ta-Ts)], where a is the value of the ablation (mm), ?m duration of ablation (days), Lm the latent heat of fusion (3.34x105J/kg), Qr heat available for melting in the form of net radiation (MJ/day/m), ? a coefficient of mass transferred by heat sensitive (0864 MJ/day), and Ta and Ts air a

  15. Implementation of an all-ages mandatory helmet policy for ice skating.

    PubMed

    Thibault-Halman, Ginette; Fenerty, Lynne; Wheadon-Hore, Kathie; Walling, Simon; Cusimano, Michael D; Clarke, David B

    2015-12-01

    Ice skaters sustain a significant number of head injuries each winter. We are the first to implement an all-ages helmet policy at a university-based Canadian arena. We report our experience from a cross-sectional observational study as well as the policy's consequences on helmet use and skating participation. Educational programming was provided prior to policy implementation. Observations of helmet use, falls and skater demographics were conducted prior to education/implementation and after policy implementation. The number of skaters observed was essentially unchanged by the policy; 361 skaters were observed pre-implementation, while 358 were observed post-implementation during the same number of observation-hours. Pre-implementation, helmet use ranged from 97% among children under 12 to 10% among adults; post-implementation use in all skaters was 99%. Falls were observed among all age groups, with preponderance among those aged 4-12. An all-ages helmet policy was successful both in achieving helmet use among all skaters and in maintaining participation rates. PMID:25681515

  16. A sequential Bayesian approach for the estimation of the age-depth relationship of Dome Fuji ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, S.; Suzuki, K.; Kawamura, K.; Parrenin, F.; Higuchi, T.

    2015-06-01

    A technique for estimating the age-depth relationship in an ice core and evaluating its uncertainty is presented. The age-depth relationship is mainly determined by the accumulation of snow at the site of the ice core and the thinning process due to the horizontal stretching and vertical compression of ice layers. However, since neither the accumulation process nor the thinning process are fully understood, it is essential to incorporate observational information into a model that describes the accumulation and thinning processes. In the proposed technique, the age as a function of depth is estimated from age markers and ?18O data. The estimation is achieved using the particle Markov chain Monte Carlo (PMCMC) method, in which the sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) method is combined with the Markov chain Monte Carlo method. In this hybrid method, the posterior distributions for the parameters in the models for the accumulation and thinning processes are computed using the Metropolis method, in which the likelihood is obtained with the SMC method. Meanwhile, the posterior distribution for the age as a function of depth is obtained by collecting the samples generated by the SMC method with Metropolis iterations. The use of this PMCMC method enables us to estimate the age-depth relationship without assuming either linearity or Gaussianity. The performance of the proposed technique is demonstrated by applying it to ice core data from Dome Fuji in Antarctica.

  17. The episodic influx of tin-rich cosmic dust particles during the last ice age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaViolette, Paul A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents evidence of the first detection of interstellar dust in ice age polar ice. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are reported for 15 elements found in dust filtered from eight samples of Camp Century Greenland ice dating from 40 to 78 kyrs BP. High concentrations of Sn, Sb, Au, Ag, Ir, and Ni were found to be present in three out of these eight samples. One compositionally anomalous dust sample from an ice core depth of 1230.5 m (age ?49 kyrs BP, near the beginning of D/O stadial No. 13) was found to contain tin with an average weight percent of 49% as determined by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS). This sample was also found to contain high concentrations of Pb with an average weight abundance of 8.4% and matching the Sn:Pb ratio observed in interstellar spectra. Dust particles in this sample generally have a platy morphology and range from submicron size up to a size as large as 120 ?m, a particle consisting almost entirely of SnO2 and being the largest monomineralic extraterrestrial dust particle so far discovered. One porous aggregate tin-bearing particle was found to contain nanometer sized chondrules indicating an extraterrestrial origin. The extraterrestrial origin for the tin is also indicated by the presence of isotopic anomalies in the 114Sn, 115Sn and 117Sn isotopes. Follow up isotopic measurements of this tin-rich dust need to be performed to improve confidence in the anomalies reported here. High abundances of the low melting point elements Ag, Au, and Sb are also present in this tin-rich sample along with elevated abundances of the siderophiles Ir, Ni, Fe, and Co, the latter being present in chondritic proportions and indicating that about 9% of the dust has a C1 chondrite component. Measurements indicate that about 97% of this dust is of extraterrestrial origin with a 3% residual being composed of terrestrial windblown dust. EDS analysis of another tin-rich Camp Century ice core dust sample dating to ?130 kyrs BP was found to contain tin-rich particles with a similar platy morphology and to have Sn and Pb weight abundances averaging 39% and 7.5% respectively, again approximating the interstellar Sn:Pb ratio. The relative absence of cosmic microspheres and the unmelted appearance of the tin-rich particles in both of these samples suggests that these particles entered the Earth's atmosphere at low velocity, implicating a gradual accumulation of dust from a dispersed state in the near Earth space environment. The unusual enhancement of Sn and Pb could be explained if these dust particles were originally present in the solar system's interstellar environment in a superconducting native metal state and were preferentially concentrated through Meissner effect forces by the passage of cosmic ray driven hydromagnetic shocks which may also have transported them into the solar system. The 49 kyrs BP event is estimated to have lasted over 6 years and to have deposited dust onto the Earth at a rate 104-105 times higher than present rates. This had a significant cooling effect on climate and resulted in a transient 33 fold increase in snow accumulation. Future discovery of these events in ice cores at other locations should void any lingering thoughts that this heavy metal enhancement may be due to sample contamination.

  18. Evolution of Ossoue Glacier (French Pyrenees) since the end of the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, R.; Gascoin, S.; Houet, T.; Ribière, O.; Laffly, D.; Condom, T.; Monnier, S.; Schmutz, M.; Camerlynck, C.; Tihay, J. P.; Soubeyroux, J. M.; René, P.

    2015-04-01

    Long-term climate records are rare at high elevations in Southern Europe. Here, we reconstructed the evolution of Ossoue Glacier (42°46' N, 0.45 km2), located in the Pyrenees (3404 m a.s.l.), since the Little Ice Age (LIA). Glacier length, area, thickness and mass changes indicators were generated from historical datasets, topographic surveys, glaciological measurements (2001-2013), a GPR survey (2006) and stereoscopic satellite images (2013). The glacier has receded considerably since the end of the LIA, losing 40 % of its length and 60% of its area. Three periods of marked ice depletion can be identified: 1850-1890, 1928-1950 and 1983-2013, as well as two periods of stabilization or slightly growth: 1905-1928 and 1950-1983; these agree with climatic datasets (air temperature, precipitation, North Atlantic Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation). In the early 2000s, the area of the glacier dropped below 50% of its area at the end of the LIA. Geodetic mass balance measurements over 1983-2013 indicated -30.1 ± 1.7 m w.e. (-1 m w.e. yr-1) whereas glaciological mass balance measurements show -17.36 ± 2.9 m w.e. (-1.45 m w.e. yr-1) over 2001-2013, resulting in a doubling of the ablation rate in the last decade. In 2013 the maximum ice thickness was 59 ± 10.3 m. Assuming that the current ablation rate stays constant, Ossoue Glacier will disappear midway through the 21st century.

  19. Exposure history of the lunar meteorite, Elephant Moraine 87521

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, S.; Herzog, G. F.; Eugster, O.; Michel, TH.; Niedermann, S.; Kraehenbuhl, U.; Middleton, R.; Dezfouly-Arjomandy, B.; Fink, D.; Klein, J.

    1993-01-01

    We report the noble gas concentrations and the Al-26, Be-10, Cl-36, and Ca-41 activities of the Antarctic lunar meteorite Elephant Moraine 87521. Although the actual exposure history of the meteorite may have been more complex, the following model history accounts satisfactorily for the cosmogenic nuclide data: A first stage of lunar irradiation for about 1 Ma at a depth of 1-5 g/sq cm followed, not necessarily directly, by a second one for 26 Ma at about 565 g/sq cm; launch from the moon less than 0.1 Ma ago; and arrival on earth 15-50 ka ago. The small concentration of trapped gases shows that except for some material that may have been introduced at the moment of launch, EET 87521 spent less than 1 Ma at a lunar depth less than 1 g/sq cm. EET 87521 has a K/Ar age in the range 3.0-3.4 Ga, which is typical for lunar mare basalts.

  20. Age of the crowfoot advance in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. A glacial event coeval with the Younger Dryas oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Reasoner, M.A.; Rutter, N.W. ); Osborn, G. )

    1994-05-01

    A suite of sediment core samples was recovered from two lakes, Crowfoot and Bow lakes, that are adjacent to the Crowfoot moraine type locality, to identify and radiocarbon date sediments related to the Crowfoot advance. The Crowfoot moraine system, widely recognized throughout northwestern North America, represents a glacial advance that is post-Wisconsin and pre-Mazama tephra in age. An interval of inorganic sediments bracketed by accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon ages of ca. 11,330 and 10,100 [sup 14]C yr B.P. is associated with the Crowfoot moraine. The Crowfoot advance is therefore approximately synchronous with the European Younger Dryas cold event (ca. 11,000-10,000 [sup 14]C yr B.P.). Furthermore, the termination of the Crowfoot advance also appears to have been abrupt. These findings illustrate that the climatic change responsible for the European Younger Dryas event extended beyond the northern Atlantic basin and western Europe. Equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) depressions associated with the Crowfoot advance are similar to those determined for the Little Ice Age advance, whereas Younger Dryas ELA depressions in Europe significantly exceed Little Ice Age ELA depressions. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Saponaria pumila (caryophyllaceae) and the ice age in the European alps.

    PubMed

    Tribsch, Andreas; Schönswetter, Peter; Stuessy, Tod F

    2002-12-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique was applied to elucidate the glacial history of the alpine cushion plant Saponaria pumila in the European Alps. Special emphasis was given to a dense sampling of populations. Our data support a survival of S. pumila during the last ice age in at least three refugia, which are characterized by unique marker sets. Patterns of genetic diversity and divergence can be explained by survival in peripheral refugia and additional in situ survival within the ice sheet on peripheral nunataks. A nunatak survival in interior parts of the Alps needs not be postulated to explain our results. The level of genetic diversity is dramatically different between populations (Shannon's diversity index: 0.87-19.86). Some peripheral populations are characterized by a high number of rare fragments indicating long isolation, but not necessarily by a high level of genetic diversity. Parts of the present distributional area were recolonized via recent long-distance dispersal, leading to severely bottlenecked populations lacking private or rare fragments. The combination of our data with palaeogeological and palaeoclimatological evidence allows us to confine Pleistocene refugia to certain regions and to draw a detailed scenario of the glacial and postglacial history of S. pumila. PMID:21665631

  2. Holocene history of North Ice Cap, northwestern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, L. B.; Kelly, M. A.; Osterberg, E. C.; Axford, Y.; Bigl, M.; Roy, E. P.; Thompson, J. T.

    2013-12-01

    Although much research has focused on the past extents of the Greenland Ice Sheet, less is known about the smaller ice caps on Greenland and how they have evolved over time. These small ice caps respond sensitively to summer temperatures and, to a lesser extent, winter precipitation, and provide valuable information about climatic conditions along the Greenland Ice Sheet margins. Here, we investigate the Holocene history of North Ice Cap (76°55'N 68°00'W), located in the Nunatarssuaq region near Thule, northwest Greenland. Our results are based on glacial geomorphic mapping, 10Be dating, and analyses of sediment cores from a glacially fed lake. Fresh, unweathered and unvegetated boulders comprise moraines and drift that mark an extent of North Ice Cap ~25 m outboard of the present ice margin. It is likely that these deposits were formed during late Holocene time and we are currently employing 10Be surface exposure dating to examine this hypothesis. Just outboard of the fresh moraines and drift, boulders and bedrock show significant weathering and are covered with lichen. Based on glacial geomorphic mapping and detailed site investigations, including stone counts, we suggest that the weathered boulders and bedrock were once covered by erosive Greenland Ice Sheet flow from southeast to northwest over the Nunatarssuaq region. Five 10Be ages from the more weathered landscape only 100-200 m outboard of the modern North Ice Cap margin are 52 and 53 ka (bedrock) and 16, 23, and 31 ka (boulders). These ages indicate that recent ice cover has likely been cold-based and non-erosive, failing to remove inherited cosmogenic nuclides from previous periods of exposure, although the youngest boulder may provide a maximum limiting deglaciation age. Sediment cores collected from Delta Sø, a glacially-fed lake ~1.5 km outside of the modern North Ice Cap margin, contain 130 cm of finely laminated sediments overlying coarse sands and glacial till. Radiocarbon ages from just above the sands are 14,940 and 14,560 cal yr BP (medians of two-sigma ranges). Our results thus far suggest that the Nunatarssuaq region preserves a long and complex glacial history, including glaciation by the Greenland Ice Sheet and potentially North Ice Cap, as well as glaciation by both erosive and non-erosive ice. Based on the basal ages from Delta Sø and the youngest boulder 10Be age, recession at the end of the most recent glacial period likely occurred by ~15 ka. This is considerably earlier than most other terrestrial margins of Greenland that did not become ice free until ~10 ka. Our ongoing research is developing proxy and further chronological data from sediment cores from Delta Sø and nearby ice-marginal lakes to constrain the Holocene fluctuations of North Ice Cap.

  3. Chlorine-36 and 14C chronology support a limited last glacial maximum across central Chukotka, northeastern Siberia, and no Beringian ice sheet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brigham-Grette, J.; Gualtieri, L.M.; Glushkova, O.Y.; Hamilton, T.D.; Mostoller, D.; Kotov, A.

    2003-01-01

    The Pekulney Mountains and adjacent Tanyurer River valley are key regions for examining the nature of glaciation across much of northeast Russia. Twelve new cosmogenic isotope ages and 14 new radiocarbon ages in concert with morphometric analyses and terrace stratigraphy constrain the timing of glaciation in this region of central Chukotka. The Sartan Glaciation (Last Glacial Maximum) was limited in extent in the Pekulney Mountains and dates to ???20,000 yr ago. Cosmogenic isotope ages > 30,000 yr as well as non-finite radiocarbon ages imply an estimated age no younger than the Zyryan Glaciation (early Wisconsinan) for large sets of moraines found in the central Tanyurer Valley. Slope angles on these loess-mantled ridges are less than a few degrees and crest widths are an order of magnitude greater than those found on the younger Sartan moraines. The most extensive moraines in the lower Tanyurer Valley are most subdued implying an even older, probable middle Pleistocene age. This research provides direct field evidence against Grosswald's Beringian ice-sheet hypothesis. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  4. Agreement between the Moraine Park Vocational, Technical and Adult Education District and the Moraine Park Federation of Teachers, Local 3338, July 1, 1989--June 30, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraine Park Vocational, Technical and Adult Education District, Fond du Lac, WI.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Moraine Park Vocational, Technical and Adult Educational District Board and the Moraine Park Federation of Teachers is presented. This contract, covering full-time faculty, guidance counselors, and school health nurses at Moraine Park Technical College, applies to the period from July 1, 1989 through…

  5. Increase in penguin populations during the Little Ice Age in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qi-Hou; Sun, Li-Guang; Xie, Zhou-Qing; Emslie, Steven D.; Liu, Xiao-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Penguins are an important seabird species in Antarctica and are sensitive to climate and environmental changes. Previous studies indicated that penguin populations increased when the climate became warmer and decreased when it became colder in the maritime Antarctic. Here we determined organic markers in a sediment profile collected at Cape Bird, Ross Island, high Antarctic, and reconstructed the history of Adélie penguin colonies at this location over the past 700 years. The region transformed from a seal to a penguin habitat when the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1500–1800?AD) began. Penguins then became the dominant species. Penguin populations were the highest during ca. 1490 to 1670?AD, a cold period, which is contrary to previous results in other regions much farther north. Different responses to climate change may occur at low latitudes and high latitudes in the Antarctic, even if for same species. PMID:23969993

  6. Little Ice Age wetting of interior Asian deserts and the rise of the Mongol Empire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnam, Aaron E.; Putnam, David E.; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Cook, Edward R.; Palmer, Jonathan G.; Clark, Elizabeth H.; Wang, Chunzeng; Chen, Feng; Denton, George H.; Boyle, Douglas P.; Bassett, Scott D.; Birkel, Sean D.; Martin-Fernandez, Javier; Hajdas, Irka; Southon, John; Garner, Christopher B.; Cheng, Hai; Broecker, Wallace S.

    2016-01-01

    The degree to which warming of the planet will alter Asia's water resources is an important question for food, energy, and economic security. Here we present geological evidence, underpinned by radiometric dating and dendrochronology, and bolstered by hydrological modeling, indicating that wetter-than-present conditions characterized the core of the inner Asian desert belt during the Little Ice Age, the last major Northern Hemispheric cold spell of the Holocene. These wetter conditions accompanied northern mid-latitude cooling, glacier expansion, a strengthened/southward-shifted boreal jet, and weakened south Asian monsoons. We suggest that southward migration of grasslands in response to these wetter conditions aided the spread of Mongol Empire steppe pastoralists across Asian drylands. Conversely, net drying over the 20th century has led to drought that is unprecedented for the past ?830 years, and that could intensify with further heating of the Asian continent.

  7. Dynamical excitation of the tropical Pacific Ocean and ENSO variability by Little Ice Age cooling.

    PubMed

    Rustic, Gerald T; Koutavas, Athanasios; Marchitto, Thomas M; Linsley, Braddock K

    2015-12-18

    Tropical Pacific Ocean dynamics during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA) are poorly characterized due to a lack of evidence from the eastern equatorial Pacific. We reconstructed sea surface temperature, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) activity, and the tropical Pacific zonal gradient for the past millennium from Galápagos ocean sediments. We document a mid-millennium shift (MMS) in ocean-atmosphere circulation around 1500-1650 CE, from a state with dampened ENSO and strong zonal gradient to one with amplified ENSO and weak gradient. The MMS coincided with the deepest LIA cooling and was probably caused by a southward shift of the intertropical convergence zone. The peak of the MCA (900-1150 CE) was a warm period in the eastern Pacific, contradicting the paradigm of a persistent La Niña pattern. PMID:26634438

  8. Regionally coherent Little Ice Age cooling in the Atlantic Warm Pool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richey, J.N.; Poore, R.Z.; Flower, B.P.; Quinn, T.M.; Hollander, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    We present 2 new decadal-resolution foraminiferal Mg/Ca-SST records covering the past 6-8 centuries from the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM). These records provide evidence for a Little Ice Age (LIA) cooling of 2??C, consistent with a published Mg/Ca record from Pigmy Basin. Comparison of these 3 records with existing SST proxy records from the GOM-Caribbean region show that the magnitude of LIA cooling in the Atlantic Warm Pool (AWP) was significantly larger than the mean hemispheric cooling of <1??C. We propose that a reduction in the intensity and spatial extent of the AWP during the LIA, combined with associated changes in atmospheric circulation may account for the regional SST patterns observed in the GOM-Caribbean region during the LIA. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Evidence for external forcing of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation since termination of the Little Ice Age

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; Jacobsen, Bo Holm; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Olsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) represents a significant driver of Northern Hemisphere climate, but the forcing mechanisms pacing the AMO remain poorly understood. Here we use the available proxy records to investigate the influence of solar and volcanic forcing on the AMO over the last ~450 years. The evidence suggests that external forcing played a dominant role in pacing the AMO after termination of the Little Ice Age (LIA; ca. 1400–1800), with an instantaneous impact on mid-latitude sea-surface temperatures that spread across the North Atlantic over the ensuing ~5 years. In contrast, the role of external forcing was more ambiguous during the LIA. Our study further suggests that the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation is important for linking external forcing with North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures, a conjecture that reconciles two opposing theories concerning the origin of the AMO. PMID:24567051

  10. From morphostratigraphy to geochronology - on the dating of ice marginal positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüthgens, Christopher; Böse, Margot

    2012-06-01

    This study focuses on the glacial landscape of northern Germany as a part of the southwestern sector of the Scandinavian Ice sheet (SIS), as it has a research history reaching back about 130 years. Since the 'glacial theory' replaced the 'drift theory' in the late 19th century it has experienced a number of key changes including the introduction of the concept of polyglaciation or the differentiation of ice advances within one glaciation, which is closely linked to the morphostratigraphical definition of ice marginal positions. With the development of numerical dating methods the rather static, morphostratigraphically based chronologies which are deeply rooted in research history, have been confronted with a growing number of geochronometrical data obtained from glacigenic deposits in order to date ice marginal positions. The two most commonly used dating methods for that purpose are Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and surface exposure dating of erratic boulders. This study highlights the dependency of the significance of results from different dating methods on the sampling position within the geomorphological framework. Results from OSL and surface exposure dating for the same ice marginal position in theory cannot be the same, as the methods date different processes in the development of the glacial landscape. OSL dating of fluvioglacial sandur sediments (dating the process of active sedimentation at the ice front) and surface exposure dating of boulders on end moraines (dating the process of stabilisation of end moraines after the retreat of the ice front) often qualify as the most useful combination of techniques in order to define a time interval for the formation of the landforms at a specific ice marginal position. Methodological drawbacks which might occur unfortunately tend to widen the process-induced offset between OSL and surface exposure ages. Incomplete bleaching of fluvioglacial sediments might cause an offset towards a maximum OSL age for an ice marginal position, whereas delayed stabilisation or post-exposure relocation of boulders might cause a shift towards a minimum age. Of key importance are the influence of periglacial processes and the effects of melting of buried ice on landform stabilisation which remain to be quantified (a possible solution to this problem, combining OSL and surface exposure dating is suggested in this study). Nevertheless, the possibility exists to date different geomorphological processes by applying different dating methods to glacigenic deposits. This allows for a differentiated reflection of morphostratigraphically based chronologies against the background of the modern concept of dynamic ice sheets. In contrast to the traditional morphostratigraphical definition of ice marginal positions, a time based definition is proposed, because it offers the possibility of a more detailed reconstruction of ice sheet dynamics at a certain point in time.

  11. Evolution of Glacier Snowline Since the End of the Last Ice Age in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, M. R.; Putnam, A. E.; Schaefer, J. M.; Denton, G. H.; Chinn, T. J.; Barrell, D.; Doughty, A. M.; Mackintosh, A. N.; Andersen, B. G.

    2012-12-01

    An important problem in paleoclimatology is how Southern Hemisphere climate changed since the end of the last ice age. The terrestrial glacier record reflects past snowline (=equilibrium line altitude) variability and is one of the few direct proxies available, in the middle latitudes, of former atmospheric properties. We reconstruct changes in snowline since ~15 ka on the South Island of New Zealand using geomorphologic mapping, 10Be surface-exposure dating, accumulation-area ratio (AAR) methods and numerical modeling. The snowline data are a proxy for the 0°C atmospheric isotherm, which occurs above 1500 m asl in the central Southern Alps, and trends in temperature since ~15 ka. Our findings show that snowline was depressed during the Antarctic Cold Reversal. Subsequently, snowline rose ~100 m during the Younger Dryas stadial in Europe. These late glacial changes appear coherent across the southern middle latitudes. In the early Holocene, snowline was depressed >200 m relative to modern in the Southern Alps. Between 11 ka and 600 years ago, short-term oscillations punctuated a multi-millennia trend of decreasing glacier extent as snowline rose ~100 m. Since ~600 yrs ago, net snowline has continued progressively to rise. The record implies long-term warming in New Zealand since the Late Glacial period. During the Holocene, the lowest snowlines and most extensive glaciers occurred in the early part of the epoch. Snowline reconstruction and numerical modeling allow us to estimate that temperature depression during the Late Glacial was ~2.1±0.4°C (relative to modern) and increased about 0.6 to 1°C between the early and late Holocene. Our terrestrial glacier and snowline records show coherence and also they are consistent with marine records in the Australian sector, documenting a regional climate pattern. However, the climate of the southwest Pacific region was fundamentally different from that observed in the Northern Hemisphere, where the most extensive Holocene glaciers occurred during the European Little Ice Age period.

  12. The Spiral Structure of the Milky Way, Cosmic Rays, and Ice Age Epochs on Earth

    E-print Network

    Nir J. Shaviv

    2002-09-12

    The short term variability of the Galactic cosmic ray flux (CRF) reaching Earth has been previously associated with variations in the global low altitude cloud cover. This CRF variability arises from changes in the solar wind strength. However, cosmic ray variability also arises intrinsically from variable activity of and motion through the Milky Way. Thus, if indeed the CRF climate connection is real, the increased CRF witnessed while crossing the spiral arms could be responsible for a larger global cloud cover and a reduced temperature, thereby facilitating the occurrences of ice ages. This picture has been recently shown to be supported by various data (Shaviv, 2001). In particular, the variable CRF recorded in Iron meteorites appears to vary synchronously with the appearance ice ages. Here we expand upon the original treatment with a more thorough analysis and more supporting evidence. In particular, we discuss the cosmic ray diffusion model which considers the motion of the Galactic spiral arms. We also elaborate on the structure and dynamics of the Milky Way's spiral arms. In particular, we bring forth new argumentation using HI observations which imply that the galactic spiral arm pattern speed appears to be that which fits the glaciation period and the cosmic-ray flux record extracted from Iron meteorites. In addition, we show that apparent peaks in the star formation rate history, as deduced by several authors, coincides with particularly icy epochs, while the long period of 1 to 2 Gyr before present, during which no glaciations are known to have occurred, coincides with a significant paucity in the past star formation rate.

  13. Lake carbonate-?18 records from the Yukon Territory, Canada: Little Ice Age moisture variability and patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Lesleigh; Finney, Bruce P.; Shapley, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    A 1000-yr history of climate change in the central Yukon Territory, Canada, is inferred from sediment composition and isotope geochemistry from small, groundwater fed, Seven Mile Lake. Recent observations of lake-water ?18O, lake level, river discharge, and climate variations, suggest that changes in regional effective moisture (precipitation minus evaporation) are reflected by the lake’s hydrologic balance. The observations indicate that the lake is currently 18O-enriched by summer evaporation and that during years of increased precipitation, when groundwater inflow rates to the lake increase, lake-water ?18O values decrease. Past lake-water ?18O values are inferred from oxygen isotope ratios of fine-grained sedimentary endogenic carbonate. Variations in carbonate ?18O, supplemented by those in carbonate and organic ?13C, C/N ratios, and organic carbon, carbonate and biogenic silica accumulation rates, document changes in effective moisture at decadal time scales during the early Little Ice Age period to present. Results indicate that between ?AD 1000 and 1600, effective moisture was higher than today. A shift to more arid climate conditions occurred after ?AD 1650. The 19th and 20th centuries have been the driest of the past millennium. Temporal variations correspond with inferred shifts in summer evaporation from Marcella Lake ?18O, a similarly small, stratified, alkaline lake located ?250 km to the southwest, suggesting that the combined reconstructions accurately document the regional paleoclimate of the east-central interior. Comparison with regional glacial activity suggests differing regional moisture patterns during early and late Little Ice Age advances.

  14. Assessing the Response of Alaska's Glaciers to Post-Little Ice Age Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnia, B. F.

    2001-12-01

    A comprehensive survey of the eleven mountain ranges and three island areas in Alaska that presently support glaciers was conducted to determine how glaciers in each area have responded to post-Little Ice Age (LIA) climate change. Today, glaciers cover 5 percent of Alaska, about 75,000 sq. km., range in elevation from 6,000 m to below sea level, and span latitudes from south of 55 degrees N to north of 69 degrees N. During the LIA, Alaskan glaciers expanded significantly, covering 10 percent more area than today. Many different types of data were used to construct baselines and determine glacier change. These include: published descriptions of glaciers (1794 - 2000), historic and modern maps (1794 - 2000), aerial photography (1926 - 2001), ground photography (1884 - 2001), airborne radar (1981 - 1991), satellite radar (1978 - 1998), space photography (1984 - 1994), multi-spectral satellite imagery (1972 - 2001), aerial reconnaissance and field observations by the author (1968 - 2001), and various types of proxy data. Data available varied for each region and glacier. Every mountain range and island group investigated is characterized by significant glacier retreat, thinning, and/or stagnation, especially at lower elevations. At some locations, glaciers have completely disappeared during the twentieth century. In other areas, retreat that started as early as the early eighteenth century, has continued into the twenty-first century. Ironically, in several areas, retreat is resulting in the number of glaciers is actually increasing, but the volume and area of ice is decreasing. The key survey findings are: ALEXANDER ARCHIPELAGO, KODIAK ISLAND, ALEUTIAN ISLANDS: every glacier examined showed evidence of thinning and retreat. Some have disappeared since last being mapped in the mid-twentieth century; COAST MOUNTAINS, ST. ELIAS MOUNTAINS, CHUGACH MOUNTAINS, KENAI MOUNTAINS, WRANGELL MOUNTAINS, ALASKA RANGE, AND THE ALEUTIAN RANGE: more than 95 percent of glaciers ending below an elevation of 1,500 m are retreating, thinning, and/or stagnating. Some advancing glaciers have tidewater termini. The two largest glaciers, Bering and Malaspina Glaciers, are thinning and retreating, losing several cubic kilometers of ice each year to melting and calving; TALKEETNA MOUNTAINS, AHKLUN-WOOD RIVER MOUNTAINS, KIGLUAIK MOUNTAINS, AND THE BROOKS RANGE: every glacier examined is retreating. Some disappeared during the twentieth century. Glaciers at higher elevations show little or no change. Perhaps, at these locations, regional climate change has not resulted in temperatures being elevated to a level where they impact existing glacier ice. Increases in precipitation may also be compensating for increases in melting. Throughout Alaska, in response to post-Little Ice Age climate change, all but a few glaciers that descent below an elevation of 1,500 m have thinned, stagnated, and/or retreated. Of the nearly 700 named Alaskan glaciers, less than a dozen are currently advancing.

  15. Terrestrial Ages of Meteorites MIL 07710 (L4) and MIL 091010 (CV3) Found in the Ice at Miller Range, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jull, A. J. T.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M. W.; Junk, N.; Burr, G. S.

    2014-09-01

    Cosmogenic nuclides were measured in two meteorites (MIL 07710 and 091010) found in the ice at Miller Range, Antarctica. Terrestrial and exposure ages were determined. The terrestrial ages were 16-19kyr.

  16. Constraints on southern hemisphere tropical climate change during the Little Ice Age and Younger Dryas based on glacier modeling of the Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Andrew G. O.; Pierrehumbert, Raymond T.; Lowell, Thomas V.; Kelly, Meredith A.; Stroup, Justin S.

    2015-10-01

    Improving the late Quaternary paleoclimate record through climate interpretations of low-latitude glacier length changes advances our understanding of past climate change events and the mechanisms for past, present, and future climate change. Paleotemperature reconstructions at low-latitude glaciers are uniquely fruitful because they can provide both site-specific information and enhanced understanding of regional-scale variations due to the structure of the tropical atmosphere. We produce Little Ice Age (LIA) and Younger Dryas (YD) paleoclimate reconstructions for the Huancané outlet glacier of the Quelccaya Ice Cap (QIC) and low-latitude southern hemisphere regional sea surface temperatures (SSTs) using a coupled ice-flow and energy balance model. We also model the effects of long-term changes in the summit temperature and precipitiation rate and the effects of interannual climate variability on the Huancané glacier length. We find temperature to be the dominant climate driver of glacier length change. Also, we find that interannual climate variability cannot adequately explain glacier advances inferred from the geomorphic record, necessitating that these features were formed during past colder climates. To constrain our LIA reconstruction, we incorporate the QIC ice core record, finding a LIA air temperature cooling at the ice cap of between ˜0.7 °C and ˜1.1 °C and ˜0.4 °C and regional SSTs cooling of ˜0.6 °C. For the YD paleoclimate reconstructions, we propose two limits on the precipitation rate, since the ice core record does not extend into the Pleistocene: 1) the precipitation rate scales with the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship (upper limit on cooling) and 2) the precipitation rate increases by 40% (lower limit on cooling), which is an increase about twice as great as the regional increases realized in GCM simulations for the period. The first limit requires ˜1.6 °C cooling in ice cap air temperatures and ˜0.9 °C cooling in SSTs, and the second limit requires ˜1.0 °C cooling in ice cap air temperatures and ˜0.5 °C cooling in SSTs. Our temperature reconstructions are in good agreement with the magnitude and trend of GCM simulations that incorporate the forcing mechanisms hypothesized to have caused these climate change events.

  17. Glacier change from the early Little Ice Age to 2005 in the Torngat Mountains, northern Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Way, Robert G.; Bell, Trevor; Barrand, Nicholas E.

    2015-10-01

    The glaciers of the Torngat Mountains of northern Labrador are the southernmost of the Canadian Arctic and the easternmost of continental North America. Currently, 195 small mountain glaciers cover an area in excess of ~ 24 km2, confined mostly to small cirques and upland depressions. Using a combination of field and remote sensing methods this study reconstructs and dates the areal extent of Torngat glaciers at their Neoglacial maximums, enabling the first assessment of regional glacier change over the past several centuries. Mapped glacier paleomargins (n = 165) are compared to current (2005) glaciers and ice masses, showing a 52.5% reduction in glacier area, with at least 11 former glaciers altogether disappearing. Glacier change is spatially homogenous and independent of most geographic and topographic factors; however, glacier elevation and glacier size mitigated total change. Previously established lichen growth stations were revisited, and growth rates recalculated based on ~ 30-year-long records, enabling the construction of locally derived low- and high-altitude lichen growth curves. Using growth rates and in situ lichen measurements, the retreat from maximum Neoglacial moraine extents are suggested to have occurred between A.D. 1581 and 1673. These findings indicate a similar magnitude of post-LIA retreat to mountain glaciers elsewhere, yet a much earlier timing (~ 200 years) of retreat than other glaciers in the eastern Canadian Arctic. Though no definitive answer explaining this discrepancy is presented, evidence suggests that regional climate dynamics and the importance of solar radiation for Torngat glaciers may play an important role in local glacierization.

  18. Medieval Warming, Little Ice Age, and European impact on the environment during the last millennium in the

    E-print Network

    Estuary. The classic Medieval Warm Period is evident through striking increases in charcoal and Pinus. Keywords: Pollen; Charcoal; Climate; Medieval Warming; Little Ice Age; Land use; Hudson Valley; Phragmites and spores, charcoal, loss-on-ignition (LOI), and marsh sediment composition data for the last 1350 calendar

  19. Sturgis and Tekonsha ice advances: Evidence for thin ice sheets in southern Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Straw, W.T.; Kehew, A.E.; Passero, R.N. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Advance of an ice sheet through the Saginaw Lowland to the position of Sturgis, in St. Joseph County, Michigan initially produced the Sturgis Moraine and adjacent outwash apron. As this ice sheet down wasted, meltwater impounded by it overtopped ice divides to form meltwater streams that cut canyons in the ice and underlying glacial sediments. Continued wasting was attended by formation of supraglacial streams that developed waterfalls as they eroded headward. Complete melting of the ice revealed a subglacial topography marked by drumlins, many of which are irregular, attesting to formation near the attenuated margin of the ice sheet. Prior to complete wasting of this stagnant ice mass, ice of the Lake Michigan Lobe advanced from the west-northwest to form the Tekonsha Moraine. Exposed only where this relatively thin ice sheet advanced onto a highland in east-central Kalamazoo County, the southwestern extension of this moraine was buried by outwash from ice that formed the very prominent Kalamazoo Moraine. That the Tekonsha ice sheet stagnated and wasted in place is revealed by two prominent elongate kames, several escarpments, lake and wetland basins produced by melting of ice masses buried by glacial outwash, and sequential filling of the lowland produced by melting of this ice sheet by a series of alluvial fans. The sequence of fan emplacement is indicated by marginal relationships of the fans and the number and size of depressions formed by melting of relic blocks of ice. The first-formed Dry Prairie fan is marked by numerous large depressions while the Prairie Ronde, the last formed fan exhibits only small widely spaced depressions formed by melting of the last vestiges of this ice sheet.

  20. A chronology of the Little Ice Age in the tropical Andes of Bolivia (16S) and its implications for climate reconstruction

    E-print Network

    Rabatel, Antoine

    2007 Available online 9 August 2008 Abstract Dating moraines by lichenometry enabled us to reconstruct studied, we identified a system of ten principal moraines that marks the successive positions of glaciers over the last four centuries. Moraines were dated by performing statistical analysis of lichen

  1. Holocene Southern-Ocean Surface Radiocarbon Ages: Implications for Ocean Circulation and Ice-shelf Flow Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, G. M.; Hall, B. L.; Baroni, C.; Kellogg, T. B.

    2007-12-01

    The Southern Ocean features high surface-water 14C reservoir ages, reflecting substantial upwelling of old deep water and poor air-sea exchange. These high values complicate 14C dating in the circum-Antarctic region, and encode information about past ocean circulation (particularly the rate of deep-water ventilation in the Atlantic). Here we present new results from the Ross Sea that provide a history of Holocene Southern Ocean 14C. Freezing at the base of the McMurdo ice shelf traps sediment (including solitary corals) which is then transported to the ice surface by ice ablation. Forty-five solitary corals from the McMurdo Ice Shelf and from Hells Gate have been dated precisely using U/Th and 14C techniques to provide a detailed reconstruction of surface-water reservoir ages for the past 6,000 years. With the exception of two young samples that show the impact of bomb radiocarbon, other samples indicate a constant 14C reservoir age during this period of 1300±200 years. The constancy of this value is reassuring for studies conducting chronology in the Southern Ocean, or relying on knowledge of deep-water source regions for 14C ventilation ages. It also allows constraints to be placed on changes in the flow of NADW with time, since slower flow leads to older upwelling water in the Southern Ocean. The systematic increase in age of samples with distance from Black Island also allows reconstruction of the flow rate of the McMurdo Ice Shelf. This indicates a constant flow of about 4 m/yr for the last 5000 years, with flow about three times faster before this period. These flow rates compare with short term estimates of flow in the region of about 16 m/yr suggesting that flow may have increased in recent times.

  2. Beacon Hill end moraine, Boston: new explanation of an important urban feature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaye, Clifford A.

    1976-01-01

    The usefulness of geology to engineers is in direct proportion to how well it helps us predict the subsurface; these predictions, in turn, depend on our knowledge of the geomorphic processes that molded the terrain. The uncertainties of interpretation are particularly great in glaciated terrain because our understanding of both glacial processes and history is so incomplete, a fact well illustrated in Beacon Hill. Recent construction activities in the eastern part of the hill, until now classified as a drumlin, have shown that it is better interpreted as an end moraine formed by a Wisconsonian glacial readvance. Instead of the firm till that was anticipated as foundation material, excavations exposed a complex of sand, gravel, and clay, with only minor zones of till. The structure of these deposits strongly suggests that originally they were plates of the glacial bed that froze to the glacier and were transported englacially. Thrust faulting and other deformations are glacial structures formed within the ice in the glacier's terminal zone. In spite of the complex englacial history, these deposits lost little of their original appearance and intergranular relationships. Upon deglaciation, the frozen moraine thawed, and slumping formed complex secondary structures on the ridge's lower flanks.

  3. Growth of the Maritime Continent and its possible contribution to recurring Ice Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, Peter; Cronin, Timothy W.

    2015-03-01

    The areal extent of the Maritime Continent (the islands of Indonesia and surrounding region) has grown larger by ~60% since 5 Ma. We argue that this growth might have altered global climate in two ways that would have contributed to making recurring Ice Ages possible. First, because rainfall over the islands of the Maritime Continent not only is heavier than that over the adjacent ocean but also correlates with the strength of the Walker Circulation, the growth of the Maritime Continent since 5 Ma may have contributed to the cooling of the eastern tropical Pacific since that time. Scaling relationships between the strength of the Walker Circulation and rainfall over the islands of the Maritime Continent and between sea surface temperature (SST) of the eastern tropical Pacific and the strength of easterly wind stress suggest that the increase in areal extent of islands would lead to a drop in that SST of 0.75°C. Although only a fraction of the 3-4°C decrease in SSTs between the eastern and western tropical Pacific, the growth of the Maritime Continent may have strengthened the Walker Circulation, increased the east-west temperature gradient across the Pacific and thereby enabled ice sheets to wax and wane over Canada since 3 Ma. Second, because the weathering of basaltic rock under warm, moist conditions extracts CO2 from the atmosphere more rapidly than weathering of other rock or of basalt under cooler or drier conditions, the increase in weathering due to increasing area of basalt in the Maritime Continent may have drawn down enough CO2 from the atmosphere to affect global temperatures. Simple calculations suggest that increased weathering of basalt might have lowered global temperatures by 0.25°C, possibly important for the overall cooling.

  4. End of the Little Ice Age in the Alps forced by industrial black carbon.

    PubMed

    Painter, Thomas H; Flanner, Mark G; Kaser, Georg; Marzeion, Ben; VanCuren, Richard A; Abdalati, Waleed

    2013-09-17

    Glaciers in the European Alps began to retreat abruptly from their mid-19th century maximum, marking what appeared to be the end of the Little Ice Age. Alpine temperature and precipitation records suggest that glaciers should instead have continued to grow until circa 1910. Radiative forcing by increasing deposition of industrial black carbon to snow may represent the driver of the abrupt glacier retreats in the Alps that began in the mid-19th century. Ice cores indicate that black carbon concentrations increased abruptly in the mid-19th century and largely continued to increase into the 20th century, consistent with known increases in black carbon emissions from the industrialization of Western Europe. Inferred annual surface radiative forcings increased stepwise to 13-17 W?m(-2) between 1850 and 1880, and to 9-22 W?m(-2) in the early 1900s, with snowmelt season (April/May/June) forcings reaching greater than 35 W?m(-2) by the early 1900s. These snowmelt season radiative forcings would have resulted in additional annual snow melting of as much as 0.9 m water equivalent across the melt season. Simulations of glacier mass balances with radiative forcing-equivalent changes in atmospheric temperatures result in conservative estimates of accumulating negative mass balances of magnitude -15 m water equivalent by 1900 and -30 m water equivalent by 1930, magnitudes and timing consistent with the observed retreat. These results suggest a possible physical explanation for the abrupt retreat of glaciers in the Alps in the mid-19th century that is consistent with existing temperature and precipitation records and reconstructions. PMID:24003138

  5. Solar Cycle Variations in Ice Acidity at the End of the Last Ice Age: Possible Marker of a Climatically Significant Interstellar Dust Incursion

    E-print Network

    Paul LaViolette

    2005-02-04

    Hammer et al. [1997] report the presence of regularly spaced acidity peaks (H+, F-, Cl-) in the Byrd Station, Antarctica ice core. The event has a duration of about one century and falls at the beginning of the deglacial warming. Volcanism appears to be an unlikely cause since the total acid deposition of this event was about 18 fold greater than the largest known volcanic eruption, and since volcanic eruptions are not known to recur with such regularity. We show that the recurrence period of these peaks averages to 11.5 +/- 2.4 years, which approximates the solar cycle period, and suggest that this feature may have an extraterrestrial origin. We propose that this material may mark a period of enhanced interstellar dust and gas influx modulated by the solar cycle. The presence of this material could have made the Sun more active and have been responsible for initiating the warming that ended the last ice age.

  6. Lacustrine Basal Ages Constrain the Last Deglaciation in the Uinta Mountains, Utah, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munroe, Jeffrey; Laabs, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Basal radiocarbon ages from 21 high-elevation lakes limit the timing of final Pleistocene deglaciation in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah, USA. The lakes are located in glacial valleys and cirques 5 to 20 km upstream from LGM terminal moraines at elevations from 2830 to 3475 m. Many are impounded behind recessional moraines. Cores were retrieved from a floating platform with a percussion corer driven to the point of refusal. All penetrated inorganic silty clay beneath gyttja. AMS radiocarbon analyses were made on terrestrial macrofossils, daphnia ephippia, pollen concentrates, and bulk sediment retrieved from the base of each core. No radiocarbon reservoir effect was observed when bulk dates were checked against terrestrial material. Radiocarbon results were converted to calendar years using the IntCal09 calibration curve in OxCal 4.1. Given the stratigraphy observed in the cores, these calibrated basal ages are considered close limits on the timing of the local deglaciation and lake formation. The oldest three lakes have basal radiocarbon ages that calibrate to a few centuries after the Bölling/Alleröd warming, indicating that the landscape was becoming ice free at this time. These are followed by an overlapping group of five lakes with basal ages between 13.5 and 13.0 ka BP. Five more cores, from four separate lakes, have basal ages tightly clustered between 13.0 and 12.5 ka BP. Three of these lakes are dammed by moraines, suggesting glacial activity during the early part of the Younger Dryas interval. The lone kettle lake in the study yielded a basal age of 12.3 ka BP, considerably younger than the basal age of 13.9 ka BP from a nearby lake filling a bedrock basin, indicating that buried ice may have been locally stable for more than a millennium after deglaciation. The remaining seven lakes have basal ages between 12.0 and 11.0 ka BP. Four of these lakes are also dammed by moraines. These two non-overlapping clusters of basal ages for moraine-dammed lakes, with maximum probabilities ca. 12.7 and 11.3 ka BP, suggest that active glaciers were present in the Uinta Mountains during the Younger Dryas, and that Younger Dryas glacier activity was concentrated in two separate intervals.

  7. Cosmogenic exposure-age chronologies of Pinedale and Bull Lake glaciations in greater Yellowstone and the Teton Range, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Licciardi, J.M.; Pierce, K.L.

    2008-01-01

    We have obtained 69 new cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure ages from boulders on moraines deposited by glaciers of the greater Yellowstone glacial system and Teton Range during the middle and late Pleistocene. These new data, combined with 43 previously obtained 3He and 10Be ages from deposits of the northern Yellowstone outlet glacier, establish a high-resolution chronology for the Yellowstone-Teton mountain glacier complexes. Boulders deposited at the southern limit of the penultimate ice advance of the Yellowstone glacial system yield a mean age of 136??13 10Be ka and oldest ages of ???151-157 10Be ka. These ages support a correlation with the Bull Lake of West Yellowstone, with the type Bull Lake of the Wind River Range, and with Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6. End moraines marking the maximum Pinedale positions of outlet glaciers around the periphery of the Yellowstone glacial system range in age from 18.8??0.9 to 16.5??1.4 10Be ka, and possibly as young as 14.6??0.7 10Be ka, suggesting differences in response times of the various ice-cap source regions. Moreover, all dated Pinedale terminal moraines in the greater Yellowstone glacial system post-date the Pinedale maximum in the Wind River Range by ???4-6 kyr, indicating a significant phase relationship between glacial maxima in these adjacent ranges. Boulders on the outermost set and an inner set of Pinedale end moraines enclosing Jenny Lake on the eastern Teton front yield mean ages of 14.6??0.7 and 13.5??1.1 10Be ka, respectively. The outer Jenny Lake moraines are partially buried by outwash from ice on the Yellowstone Plateau, hence their age indicates a major standstill of an expanded valley glacier in the Teton Range prior to the Younger Dryas, followed closely by deglaciation of the Yellowstone Plateau. These new glacial chronologies are indicative of spatially variable regional climate forcing and temporally complex patterns of glacier responses in this region of the Rocky Mountains during the Pleistocene. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Possible effects of anthropogenically-increased CO2 on the dynamics of climate - Implications for ice age cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Barry; Maasch, Kirk A.; Verbitsky, Mikhail YA.

    1993-01-01

    A dynamical model, developed to account for the observed major variations of global ice mass and atmospheric CO2 during the late Cenozoic, is used to provide a quantitative demonstration of the possibility that the anthropogenically-forced increase of atmospheric CO2, if maintained over a long period of time (perhaps by tectonic forcing), could displace the climatic system from an unstable regime of oscillating ice ages into a more stable regime representative of the pre-Pleistocene. This stable regime is characterized by orbitally-forced oscillations that are of much weaker amplitude than prevailed during the Pleistocene.

  9. Carbon cycle instability as a cause of the late Pleistocene ice age oscillations - Modeling the asymmetric response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Barry; Maasch, Kirk A.

    1988-01-01

    A dynamical model of the Pleistocene ice ages is presented, which incorporates many of the qualitative ideas advanced recently regarding the possible role of ocean circulation, chemistry, temperature, and productivity in regulating long-term atmospheric carbon dioxide variations. This model involves one additional term (and free parameter) beyond that included in a previous model (Saltzman and Sutera, 1987), providing the capacity for an asymmetric response. It is shown that many of the main features exhibited by the delta(O-18)-derived ice record and the Vostok core/delta(C-13)-derived carbon dioxide record in the late Pleistocene can be deduced as a free oscillatory solution of the model.

  10. Cosmogenic exposure age evidence for rapid Laurentide deglaciation of the Katahdin area, west-central Maine, USA, 16 to 15 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, P. Thompson; Bierman, Paul R.; Corbett, Lee B.; Finkel, Robert C.

    2015-05-01

    Katahdin, the highest peak in Maine and part of the second highest mountain range in New England, provides an opportunity to assess the timing and style of continental ice sheet surface lowering during deglaciation. We collected 14 samples from boulders on the adjacent Basin Ponds moraine, from bedrock and boulders on the upper part of the mountain, and from boulders in the surrounding area to estimate the age at which they were exposed by deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Measurements of in situ produced 10Be, which are consistent with measurements of 26Al, indicate that the Katahdin edifice became exposed from under ice by 15.3 ± 2.1 ka (n = 6), an age indistinguishable from the adjacent Basin Ponds moraine (16.1 ± 1.2 ka, n = 5). A boulder in the lowlands several km south of the moraine dates to 14.5 ± 0.8 ka, and a boulder deposited at Pineo Ridge, about 170 km SE of Katahdin, dates to 17.5 ± 1.1 ka. These data show that samples collected over an elevation range of 1.6 km and a distance of >170 km all have exposure ages that are indistinguishable within uncertainties. Together these data suggest that the Laurentide Ice Sheet surface dropped rapidly and the ice sheet margin retreated quickly across Maine between about 16 and 15 ka, perhaps influenced by calving of the marine-based ice sheet in the St. Lawrence Lowlands to the north and the Penobscot basin to the south.

  11. A method for estimating the age-depth relationship of Dome Fuji Ice Core using a sequential Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Shinya; Suzuki, Kazue; Kawamura, Kenji; Parrenin, Frederic; Higuchi, Tomoyuki

    2015-04-01

    A technique for estimating the age-depth relationship and its uncertainty in ice cores has been developed. The age-depth relationship is mainly determined by the accumulation of snow at the site of the ice core and the thinning process due to the horizontal stretching and vertical compression of an ice layer. However, both the accumulation process and the thinning process are not fully known. In order to appropriately estimate the age as a function of depth, it is crucial to incorporate observational information into a model describing the accumulation and thinning processes. In the proposed technique, the age as a function of depth is estimated from age markers and time series of ?18O data. The estimation is achieved using a method combining a sequential Monte Carlo method and the Markov chain Monte Carlo method as proposed by Andrieu et al. (2010). In this hybrid method, the posterior distributions for the parameters in the models for the accumulation and thinning processes are basically computed using a way of the standard Metropolis-Hastings method. Meanwhile, sampling from the posterior distribution for the age-depth relationship is achieved by using a sequential Monte Carlo approach at each iteration of the Metropolis-Hastings method. A sequential Monte Carlo method normally suffers from the degeneracy problem, especially in cases that the number of steps is large. However, when it is combined with the Metropolis-Hastings method, the degeneracy problem can be overcome by collecting a large number of samples obtained by many iterations of the Metropolis-Hastings method. We will demonstrate the result obtained by applying the proposed technique to the ice core data from Dome Fuji in Antarctica.

  12. Simple energy balance model resolving the seasons and the continents - Application to the astronomical theory of the ice ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. R.; Short, D. A.; Mengel, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis is undertaken of the properties of a one-level seasonal energy balance climate model having explicit, two-dimensional land-sea geography, where land and sea surfaces are strictly distinguished by the local thermal inertia employed and transport is governed by a smooth, latitude-dependent diffusion mechanism. Solutions of the seasonal cycle for the cases of both ice feedback exclusion and inclusion yield good agreements with real data, using minimal turning of the adjustable parameters. Discontinuous icecap growth is noted for both a solar constant that is lower by a few percent and a change of orbital elements to favor cool Northern Hemisphere summers. This discontinuous sensitivity is discussed in the context of the Milankovitch theory of the ice ages, and the associated branch structure is shown to be analogous to the 'small ice cap' instability of simpler models.

  13. Isogeny volcanoes and the SEA algorithm M. Fouquet and F. Morain ?

    E-print Network

    Morain, François

    Isogeny volcanoes and the SEA algorithm M. Fouquet and F. Morain ? Laboratoire d'Informatique (CNRS by Couveignes and Morain in [4], forming a volcano. Then we re- call the relevant theory of modular polynomials

  14. Did ice streams shape the largest channels on Mars? Edwin S. Kite1,2

    E-print Network

    subglacial landscapes. An ice-sheet model shows extensive basal melting in and only in the NSV region] Landforms resembling retreat moraines suggest cold- based Late Amazonian mountain glaciers on the NW flanks

  15. Cosmogenic exposure dating of boulders and bedrock in Denmark: wide range in ages reflect strong dependence of post-depositional stability related to specific glacial landforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houmark-Nielsen, Michael; Linge, Henriette; Fabel, Derek; Xu, Sheng

    2010-05-01

    The timing of ice-sheet fluctuations, as indicated by glacier advances and retreats, is detected from a wide range of geochronological techniques, including varve counting, and radiocarbon and luminescence dating of proglacial and inter till sediments. A robust Late Weichselian chronology of deglacial ice sheet fluctuations in southwestern Scandinavia indicates that the decline of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet from the Last Glacial Maximum position at c. 23-21 kyr (thousands of years) ago in central Denmark occurred through recessional stages and readvances. Active glaciers withdrew from eastern Denmark 17-16 kyr ago and left the southwestern Baltic basin ice free at the beginning of the Bølling interstade c. 14.5 kyr ago. The withdrawal left behind belts of elongate end moraines and streamlined ground moraine as large ice masses were successively isolated causing massive down wasting until c. 12 - 11 kyr ago. In Eastern Denmark and southernmost Sweden this lead to formation of complex superimposed glacial landscapes originally covered with a wealth of erratic boulders. Hitherto untried cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure dating was applied to sites in Eastern Denmark to test the method against independent chronologies. Samples collected from erratics, moraines and ice-sculpted bedrock were prepared at the Cosmogenic Nuclide Laboratory at the University of Glasgow and AMS measurements were carried out at the Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC) AMS facility. Procedural blank corrected 10Be concentrations were converted to in situ 10Be surface exposure ages using the online CRONUS-Earth 10Be-26Al exposure age calculator Version 2.2. Exposure ages from 35 samples range between 11.5 and 20 kyr, 18 of which lie within the expected age envelope. Two samples show overestimated ages apparently due to cosmogenic nuclide inheritance from previous exposure episodes. The remaining 17, two of which have suffered from exhumation, are younger than predicted. Dating of boulders and adjacent bedrock on the island of Bornholm in the western Baltic reveal almost similar ages and fit the independent chronology. This indicates that very little if any inherited nuclides are present in the boulders. Moreover, ages from Bornholm seem to become younger with descending height above sea level, suggesting that the island was progressively exposed as glaciers in the Baltic downwasted. In mainland Denmark ages that fit the age model are situated on top of end moraines or located on streamlined ground moraine. Boulders with underestimated ages were sampled in dead ice moraines and down wasting landscapes. These results are interpreted as providing landform stabilisation ages since these boulders appear to have first melted out of dead ice and came to rest after 15 until about 12 kyr ago. We conclude that cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure dating is very sensitive to landscape stability, and that when used for dating glacier fluctuations surface stability should be thoroughly evaluated before sampling.

  16. Organic Remains from the Istorvet Ice Cap, Liverpool Land, East Greenland: A Record of Late Holocene Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowell, T. V.; Kelly, M. A.; Hall, B.; Smith, C. A.; Garhart, K.; Travis, S.; Denton, G. H.

    2007-12-01

    Radiocarbon dates of emergent organic remains along the western margin of Istorvet ice cap (70.8°N, 22.2°W) indicate a time when the ice cap was smaller than at present. This ice cap, similar to others in east Greenland, exhibits "historic" moraines ~1-2 km in front of the presently retreating ice margins. At Istorvet, ice margin retreat has exposed a thin (~8 cm) organic horizon and in situ plant remains in bedrock cracks lie less than 10 m away from the present ice margin (453 m asl in 2006). Clusters of multi-species vegetation also were found on two nuntaks (to 719 m asl) located ~3 km from the historic drift limit. All organic remains were located in protected bedrock lees. On the west side of the ice-cap, vegetation is sparse but present at elevations near the ice margin. Both the ice cap geometry and the presence of overrun organic remains indicate past temperatures at least as warm as those at present. At Istorvet plant remains yielded 12 number of radiocarbon dates. These ages, when converted to calendar years, range from A.D. 400 to 1014, with the largest concentration from A.D. 800 to 1014. This work hones the conclusion of Funder (1978) who reported general climate deterioration since 800 BC. Moreover, it indicates warm conditons at this latitude at the time of Norse colonization of Greenland.

  17. Quaternary Ice-Age dynamics in the Colombian Andes: developing an understanding of our legacy.

    PubMed Central

    Hooghiemstra, Henry; Van der Hammen, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Pollen records from lacustrine sediments of deep basins in the Colombian Andes provide records of vegetation history, the development of the floristic composition of biomes, and climate variation with increasing temporal resolution. Local differences in the altitudinal distribution of present-day vegetation belts in four Colombian Cordilleras are presented. Operating mechanisms during Quaternary Ice-Age cycles that stimulated speciation are discussed by considering endemism in the asteraceous genera Espeletia, Espeletiopsis and Coespeletia. The floristically diverse lower montane forest belt (1000-2300 m) was compressed by ca. 55% during the last glacial maximum (LGM) (20 ka), and occupied the slopes between 800 m and 1400 m during that period. Under low LGM atmospheric pCO2 values, C4-dominated vegetation, now occurring below 2200 m, expanded up to ca. 3500 m. Present-day C3-dominated paramo vegetation is therefore not an analogue for past C4-dominated vegetation (with abundant Sporobolus lasiophyllus). Quercus immigrated into Colombia 478 ka and formed an extensive zonal forest from 330 ka when former Podocarpus-dominated forest was replaced by zonal forest with Quercus and Weinmannia. During the last glacial cycle the ecological tolerance of Quercus may have increased. In the ecotone forests Quercus was rapidly and massively replaced by Polylepis between 45 and 30 ka illustrating complex forest dynamics in the tropical Andes. PMID:15101574

  18. Ecological changes in Coyotes (Canis latrans) in response to the ice age megafaunal extinctions.

    PubMed

    Meachen, Julie A; Janowicz, Adrianna C; Avery, Jori E; Sadleir, Rudyard W

    2014-01-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans) are an important species in human-inhabited areas. They control pests and are the apex predators in many ecosystems. Because of their importance it is imperative to understand how environmental change will affect this species. The end of the Pleistocene Ice Age brought with it many ecological changes for coyotes and here we statistically determine the changes that occurred in coyotes, when these changes occurred, and what the ecological consequences were of these changes. We examined the mandibles of three coyote populations: Pleistocene Rancho La Brean (13-29 Ka), earliest Holocene Rancho La Brean (8-10 Ka), and Recent from North America, using 2D geometric morphometrics to determine the morphological differences among them. Our results show that these three populations were morphologically distinct. The Pleistocene coyotes had an overall robust mandible with an increased shearing arcade and a decreased grinding arcade, adapted for carnivory and killing larger prey; whereas the modern populations show a gracile morphology with a tendency toward omnivory or grinding. The earliest Holocene populations are intermediate in morphology and smallest in size. These findings indicate that a niche shift occurred in coyotes at the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary - from a hunter of large prey to a small prey/more omnivorous animal. Species interactions between Canis were the most likely cause of this transition. This study shows that the Pleistocene extinction event affected species that did not go extinct as well as those that did. PMID:25551387

  19. Climate change on the Yucatan Peninsula during the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodell, David A.; Brenner, Mark; Curtis, Jason H.; Medina-González, Roger; Ildefonso-Chan Can, Enrique; Albornaz-Pat, Alma; Guilderson, Thomas P.

    2005-03-01

    We studied a 5.1-m sediment core from Aguada X'caamal (20° 36.6'N, 89° 42.9'W), a small sinkhole lake in northwest Yucatan, Mexico. Between 1400 and 1500 A.D., oxygen isotope ratios of ostracod and gastropod carbonate increased by an average of 2.2‰ and the benthic foraminifer Ammonia beccarii parkinsoniana appeared in the sediment profile, indicating a hydrologic change that included increased lake water salinity. Pollen from a core in nearby Cenote San José Chulchacá showed a decrease in mesic forest taxa during the same period. Oxygen isotopes of shell carbonate in sediment cores from Lakes Chichancanab (19° 53.0'N, 88° 46.0'W) and Salpeten (16° 58.6'N, 89° 40.5'W) to the south also increased in the mid-15th century, but less so than in Aguada X'caamal. Climate change in the 15th century is also supported by historical accounts of cold and famine described in Maya and Aztec chronicles. We conclude that climate became drier on the Yucatan Peninsula in the 15th century A.D. near the onset of the Little Ice Age (LIA). Comparison of results from the Yucatan Peninsula with other circum-Caribbean paleoclimate records indicates a coherent climate response for this region at the beginning of the LIA. At that time, sea surface temperatures cooled and aridity in the circum-Caribbean region increased.

  20. From Shakespeare to Defoe: malaria in England in the Little Ice Age.

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, P.

    2000-01-01

    Present global temperatures are in a warming phase that began 200 to 300 years ago. Some climate models suggest that human activities may have exacerbated this phase by raising the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Discussions of the potential effects of the weather include predictions that malaria will emerge from the tropics and become established in Europe and North America. The complex ecology and transmission dynamics of the disease, as well as accounts of its early history, refute such predictions. Until the second half of the 20th century, malaria was endemic and widespread in many temperate regions, with major epidemics as far north as the Arctic Circle. From 1564 to the 1730s the coldest period of the Little Ice Age malaria was an important cause of illness and death in several parts of England. Transmission began to decline only in the 19th century, when the present warming trend was well under way. The history of the disease in England underscores the role of factors other than temperature in malaria transmission. PMID:10653562

  1. Conference Summary: First International Conference on Global Warming and the Next Ice Age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetzel, Peter J.; Chylek, Petr; Lesins, Glen; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The First International Conference on Global Warming and the Next Ice Age was convened in Halifax, Nova Scotia, August 19-24, 2001. The conference program began each day with a 30 minute live classical music performances of truly international quality before the beginning business. Ample time for panel discussions was also scheduled. The general public was invited to attend and participate in a special evening panel session on the last day of the conference. The unusual and somewhat provocative title of the conference was designed to attract diverse views on global climate change. This summary attempts to accurately reflect the tone and flavor of the lively discussions which resulted. Presentations ranged from factors forcing current climate to those in effect across the span of time from the Proterozoic "snowball Earth" epoch to 50,000 years in the future. Although, as should be expected, attendees at the conference arrived with opinions on some of the controversial issues regarding climate change, and no-one openly admitted to a 'conversion' from their initial point of view, the interdisciplinary nature of the formal presentations, poster discussions, panels, and abundant informal discourse helped to place the attendees' personal perspectives into a broader, more diversified context.

  2. Ecological Changes in Coyotes (Canis latrans) in Response to the Ice Age Megafaunal Extinctions

    PubMed Central

    Meachen, Julie A.; Janowicz, Adrianna C.; Avery, Jori E.; Sadleir, Rudyard W.

    2014-01-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans) are an important species in human-inhabited areas. They control pests and are the apex predators in many ecosystems. Because of their importance it is imperative to understand how environmental change will affect this species. The end of the Pleistocene Ice Age brought with it many ecological changes for coyotes and here we statistically determine the changes that occurred in coyotes, when these changes occurred, and what the ecological consequences were of these changes. We examined the mandibles of three coyote populations: Pleistocene Rancho La Brean (13–29 Ka), earliest Holocene Rancho La Brean (8–10 Ka), and Recent from North America, using 2D geometric morphometrics to determine the morphological differences among them. Our results show that these three populations were morphologically distinct. The Pleistocene coyotes had an overall robust mandible with an increased shearing arcade and a decreased grinding arcade, adapted for carnivory and killing larger prey; whereas the modern populations show a gracile morphology with a tendency toward omnivory or grinding. The earliest Holocene populations are intermediate in morphology and smallest in size. These findings indicate that a niche shift occurred in coyotes at the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary – from a hunter of large prey to a small prey/more omnivorous animal. Species interactions between Canis were the most likely cause of this transition. This study shows that the Pleistocene extinction event affected species that did not go extinct as well as those that did. PMID:25551387

  3. Global warming and ice ages: I. prospects for physics based modulation of global change

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E.; Wood, L.; Hyde, R.

    1996-08-15

    It has been suggested that large-scale climate changes, mostly due to atmospheric injection of greenhouse gases connected with fossil-fired energy production, should be forestalled by internationally-agreed reductions in, e.g., electricity generation. The potential economic impacts of such limitations are obviously large: greater than or equal to $10{sup 11}/year. We propose that for far smaller - less than 1% - the mean thermal effects of greenhouse gases may be obviated in any of several distinct ways, some of them novel. These suggestions are all based on scatterers that prevent a small fraction of solar radiation from reaching all or part of the Earth. We propose research directed to quite near-term realization of one or more of these inexpensive approaches to cancel the effects of the greenhouse gas injection. While the magnitude of the climatic impact of greenhouse gases is currently uncertain, the prospect of severe failure of the climate, for instance at the onset of the next Ice Age, is undeniable. The proposals in this paper may lead to quite practical methods to reduce or eliminate all climate failures.

  4. On the choice of ingredients for a theory of the Ice Ages

    E-print Network

    Baltensperger, Walter

    2013-01-01

    "With five parameters one can fit an elephant". This provocative statement expresses the fact that when a theory has several adjustable parameters, an agreement with empirical data can be of modest value. What about a theory which contains unobserved objects? This is the subject of this paper. It is motivated by a model of the Ice Ages of the Pleistocene, which postulates a hot planet in an extremely eccentric orbit. This object has many consequences. It is rather well defined by the requirements, that it must not be in conflict with laws of nature, nor with empirical data. It must have sufficient mass to produce a rapid geographic pole shift on Earth after a close flyby at the end of the Pleistocene, and also be small enough to disintegrate at this occasion and to evaporate during the Holocene. These requirements leave hardly any adaptable parameters. In this situation, the agreement with further data, in particular the reverse Dansgaard-Oeschger events of the Holocene, represents a significant support of th...

  5. Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age and 20th century temperature variability from Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Kamiya, T.; Schwede, S.; Willard, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    We present paleoclimate evidence for rapid (< 100 years) shifts of ??? 2-4??C in Chesapeake Bay (CB) temperature ???2100, 1600, 950, 650, 400 and 150 years before present (years BP) reconstructed from magnesium/calcium (Mg/Ca) paleothermometry. These include large temperature excursions during the Little Ice Age (???1400-1900 AD) and the Medieval Warm Period (???800-1300 AD) possibly related to changes in the strength of North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). Evidence is presented for a long period of sustained regional and North Atlantic-wide warmth with low-amplitude temperature variability between ???450 and 1000 AD. In addition to centennial-scale temperature shifts, the existence of numerous temperature maxima between 2200 and 250 years BP (average ???70 years) suggests that multi-decadal processes typical of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are an inherent feature of late Holocene climate. However, late 19th and 20th century temperature extremes in Chesapeake Bay associated with NAO climate variability exceeded those of the prior 2000 years, including the interval 450-1000 AD, by 2-3??C, suggesting anomalous recent behavior of the climate system. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age in Chesapeake Bay and the North Atlantic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.; Hayo, K.; Thunell, R.C.; Dwyer, G.S.; Saenger, C.; Willard, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    A new 2400-year paleoclimate reconstruction from Chesapeake Bay (CB) (eastern US) was compared to other paleoclimate records in the North Atlantic region to evaluate climate variability during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA). Using Mg/Ca ratios from ostracodes and oxygen isotopes from benthic foraminifera as proxies for temperature and precipitation-driven estuarine hydrography, results show that warmest temperatures in CB reached 16-17. ??C between 600 and 950. CE (Common Era), centuries before the classic European Medieval Warm Period (950-1100. CE) and peak warming in the Nordic Seas (1000-1400. CE). A series of centennial warm/cool cycles began about 1000. CE with temperature minima of ~. 8 to 9. ??C about 1150, 1350, and 1650-1800. CE, and intervening warm periods (14-15. ??C) centered at 1200, 1400, 1500 and 1600. CE. Precipitation variability in the eastern US included multiple dry intervals from 600 to 1200. CE, which contrasts with wet medieval conditions in the Caribbean. The eastern US experienced a wet LIA between 1650 and 1800. CE when the Caribbean was relatively dry. Comparison of the CB record with other records shows that the MCA and LIA were characterized by regionally asynchronous warming and complex spatial patterns of precipitation, possibly related to ocean-atmosphere processes. ?? 2010.

  7. The effects of interannual climate variability on the moraine"! Leif S. Anderson1

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Robert S.

    ! "! The effects of interannual climate variability on the moraine"! record#! Leif S. Anderson1(! ABSTRACT)! Glacial moraines are commonly used to infer mean climate conditions (annual*! precipitation and melt-season temperature) at the time of moraine formation. However, recent"+! research has demonstrated

  8. The genesis of the northern Kettle Moraine, Wisconsin A.E. Carlson*,1

    E-print Network

    Carlson, Anders

    The genesis of the northern Kettle Moraine, Wisconsin A.E. Carlson*,1 , D.M. Mickelson, S been developed and tested in the northern Kettle Moraine (nKM), Wisconsin; a large interlobate deposit of interlobate zones. Many of these have been applied to the Kettle Moraine of eastern Wisconsin, a well

  9. Late Pleistocene earthquake-triggered moraine dam failure and outburst of Lake Zurich, Switzerland

    E-print Network

    Gilli, Adrian

    Late Pleistocene earthquake-triggered moraine dam failure and outburst of Lake Zurich, Switzerland; accepted 24 December 2007; published 9 April 2008. [1] Lakes impounded by moraines may be considered of a Late Pleistocene ($13,760 calibrated years B.P.) moraine breach and subsequent Lake Zurich outburst

  10. A REVIEW OF LICHENOMETRIC DATING OF GLACIAL MORAINES IN ALASKA The authors 2010

    E-print Network

    Barclay, David J.

    A REVIEW OF LICHENOMETRIC DATING OF GLACIAL MORAINES IN ALASKA © The authors 2010 Journal OF GLACIAL MORAINES IN ALASKA BY GREGORY C. WILES1, DAVID J. BARCLAY2 AND NICOLÁS E.YOUNG3 1Department.C., Barclay, D.J. and Young, N.E., 2010: A review of li- chenometric dating of glacial moraines in Alaska

  11. Quaternary Science Reviews 25 (2006) 362389 Rogen moraine: an example of glacial reshaping

    E-print Network

    Möller, Per

    2006-01-01

    Quaternary Science Reviews 25 (2006) 362­389 Rogen moraine: an example of glacial reshaping of pre-22362 Lund, Sweden Received 23 May 2004; accepted 19 January 2005 Abstract Rogen moraine is widely of ridge generation have been contentious. This study proposes a two-stage formation of Rogen moraine

  12. Bibliographic Instruction at Moraine Valley Community College: A Position Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry A.; And Others

    This paper presents a plan for implementing bibliographic instruction at Moraine Valley Community College in Palos Hills, Illinois. The definition and purpose of bibliographic instruction are reviewed, educational strategies in bibliographic instruction are discussed, and an implementation proposal is presented. The proposal describes three phases…

  13. Ice Age Reboot: Thermohaline Circulation Crisis during the Mid-Pleistocene Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena, L.; Goldstein, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    The mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT) marked a fundamental change in glacial-interglacial periodicity, when it increased from ~41- to 100-kyr cycles and developed higher amplitude climate variability. Because it took place without significant changes in the Milankovitch forcing, this fundamental change must reflect either non-linear responses of the climate system to these external forcings, or internal changes in the ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere system that led to longer periodicities and more intense glacial periods. We document using Nd isotopes a major disruption of the ocean thermohaline circulation (THC) system during the MPT between MIS 25-21 at ~950-860 ka, which effectively marks the first 100-kyr cycle, including an exceptional weakening through critical interglacial MIS 23 at ~900 ka. The data are from ODP Sites 1088 (41°8.163'S, 13°33.77'E, 2082m) and 1090 (42°54.82'S, 8°53.98E', 3702m) in the SE Atlantic Subantarctic Zone, near the upper and lower boundaries of NADW and Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Given evidence for nearly stable NADW and North Pacific Water (NPW) ?Nd-values over the last 2 Ma, we interpret the ?Nd variations to reflect changes in the NADW:NPW mixing fractions. During the studied pre-MPT 41-kyr world (MIS 31-25, 1,100-950 ka), at both sites the differences in glacial and interglacial ?Nd-values are small, indicating strong glacial as well as interglacial export of NADW. A major weakening of NADW export occurred during MIS 24-22, including MIS 23, which is unique as the only known interglacial in which the THC did not strengthen, and thus can be considered as a 'trans-glacial' period. The recovery into the post-MPT 100-kyr world is characterized by continued weak glacial THC. We conclude that the MPT ocean circulation crisis 'rebooted' the pacing and intensity of ice ages and facilitated the coeval drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and high latitude ice sheet growth, generating the conditions that stabilized 100-kyr cycles.

  14. Middle to Late Amazonian tropical mountain glaciers on Mars: The ages of the Tharsis Montes fan-shaped deposits

    E-print Network

    Marchant, David R.

    recessional cold-based drop moraines. We develop a conceptual model that illustrates the effect of moving the Middle to Late Amazonian. Additionally, we determined CSFD ages of three adjacent drop moraine units to form one of the approximately 185 drop moraines forming these deposits; we found that a typical drop

  15. A comparison of age-depth scales derived from shallow ice cores and an FMCW radar in West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, L.; Onana, V.; Forster, R. R.; Miege, C.; Rupper, S.; Burgener, L. K.; Patel, A. E.; MacGregor, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Satellite Era Accumulation Traverse (SEAT) collected near-surface firn cores and Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar data across the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) divide in 2010. Five firn cores were collected with average accumulation rates ranging from approximately 200 to 275 mm of water equivalent per year. Age-depth scales for each core were developed using the seasonal signals of the ?18O and ?D records. ECM and density profiles were used to refine sections of the age-depth scale where the isotopic seasonal cycles were noisy or unclear. Age-depth scales were determined from the radar data by picking spatially continuous (approximately 1 km) layers in the radar echograms at the core sites. The continuous radar layers were assumed annual and dated. This study used data from the Ku-band Radar developed by the University of Kansas' Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets operating between the frequencies of 12.5 GHz to 15.132 GHz, giving a vertical resolution of approximately 4.5 cm in the firn. Radar travel time was converted to depth using 2 cm density data from the ice core. A comparison of the core and radar derived age-depth scales shows that at higher accumulation sites the independent age-depth scales agree relatively well with maximum errors of up to +/-3 years in a given year. At lower accumulation sites dating errors from the radar age-depth scale are larger which is attributed to the difficulty in distinguishing annual layers from sub-annual peaks in density in the radar echogram.

  16. Increasing subtropical North Pacific Ocean nitrogen fixation since the Little Ice Age.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Owen A; Guilderson, Thomas P; Batista, Fabian C; Schiff, John T; McCarthy, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    The North Pacific subtropical gyre (NPSG) plays a major part in the export of carbon and other nutrients to the deep ocean. Primary production in the NPSG has increased in recent decades despite a reduction in nutrient supply to surface waters. It is thought that this apparent paradox can be explained by a shift in plankton community structure from mostly eukaryotes to mostly nitrogen-fixing prokaryotes. It remains uncertain, however, whether the plankton community domain shift can be linked to cyclical climate variability or a long-term global warming trend. Here we analyse records of bulk and amino-acid-specific (15)N/(14)N isotopic ratios (?(15)N) preserved in the skeletons of long-lived deep-sea proteinaceous corals collected from the Hawaiian archipelago; these isotopic records serve as a proxy for the source of nitrogen-supported export production through time. We find that the recent increase in nitrogen fixation is the continuation of a much larger, centennial-scale trend. After a millennium of relatively minor fluctuation, ?(15)N decreases between 1850 and the present. The total shift in ?(15)N of -2 per mil over this period is comparable to the total change in global mean sedimentary ?(15)N across the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, but it is happening an order of magnitude faster. We use a steady-state model and find that the isotopic mass balance between nitrate and nitrogen fixation implies a 17 to 27 per cent increase in nitrogen fixation over this time period. A comparison with independent records suggests that the increase in nitrogen fixation might be linked to Northern Hemisphere climate change since the end of the Little Ice Age. PMID:24336216

  17. Increasing subtropical North Pacific Ocean nitrogen fixation since the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Owen A.; Guilderson, Thomas P.; Batista, Fabian C.; Schiff, John T.; McCarthy, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    The North Pacific subtropical gyre (NPSG) plays a major part in the export of carbon and other nutrients to the deep ocean. Primary production in the NPSG has increased in recent decades despite a reduction in nutrient supply to surface waters. It is thought that this apparent paradox can be explained by a shift in plankton community structure from mostly eukaryotes to mostly nitrogen-fixing prokaryotes. It remains uncertain, however, whether the plankton community domain shift can be linked to cyclical climate variability or a long-term global warming trend. Here we analyse records of bulk and amino-acid-specific 15N/14N isotopic ratios (?15N) preserved in the skeletons of long-lived deep-sea proteinaceous corals collected from the Hawaiian archipelago; these isotopic records serve as a proxy for the source of nitrogen-supported export production through time. We find that the recent increase in nitrogen fixation is the continuation of a much larger, centennial-scale trend. After a millennium of relatively minor fluctuation, ?15N decreases between 1850 and the present. The total shift in ?15N of -2 per mil over this period is comparable to the total change in global mean sedimentary ?15N across the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, but it is happening an order of magnitude faster. We use a steady-state model and find that the isotopic mass balance between nitrate and nitrogen fixation implies a 17 to 27 per cent increase in nitrogen fixation over this time period. A comparison with independent records suggests that the increase in nitrogen fixation might be linked to Northern Hemisphere climate change since the end of the Little Ice Age.

  18. Extent of the last ice sheet in northern Scotland tested with cosmogenic 10Be exposure ages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, W.M.; Hall, A.M.; Ballantyne, C.K.; Binnie, S.; Kubik, P.W.; Freeman, S.

    2008-01-01

    The extent of the last British-Irish Ice Sheet (BIIS) in northern Scotland is disputed. A restricted ice sheet model holds that at the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ca. 23-19 ka) the BIIS terminated on land in northern Scotland, leaving Buchan, Caithness and the Orkney Islands ice-free. An alternative model implies that these three areas were ice-covered at the LGM, with the BIIS extending offshore onto the adjacent shelves. We test the two models using cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure dating of erratic boulders and glacially eroded bedrock from the three areas. Our results indicate that the last BIIS covered all of northern Scotland during the LGM, but that widespread deglaciation of Caithness and Orkney occurred prior to rapid warming at ca. 14.5 ka. Copyright ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Terrestrial Kr-81-Kr ages of Antarctic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freundel, M.; Schultz, L.; Reedy, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    The production rate of Ar-38 in meteorites P(38), has been determined, as a function of the sample's chemical composition, from Kr-81-Kr exposure ages of four eucrite falls. The cosmogenic Kr-78/Kr-83 ratio is used to estimate the shielding dependence of P(38). From the 'true' Ar-38 exposure ages and the apparent Kr-81-Kr exposure ages of nine Antarctic eucrite finds, terrestrial ages are calculated. They range from about 300,000 ages (Pecora Escarpment 82502) to very recent falls (Thiel Mountains 82502). Polymict eucrites from the Allan Hills (A78132, A79017, and A81009) have within the limits of error the same exposure age (15.2 x 10 to the 6th ages) and the same terrestrial age (110,000 ages). This is taken as strong evidence that these meteorites are fragments of the same fall. A similar case is the Elephant Moraine polymict eucrites A79005, A79006, and 82600 with an exposure age of 26 x 10 to the 6th ages and a terrestrial age of 180,000 ages. EETA 79004 may be different from this group because its exposure age and terrestrial age are 21 x 10 to the 6th ages and 250,000 ages, respectively. The distribution of terrestrial ages of Allan Hills meteorites is discussed. Meteorites from this blue ice field have two sources: directly deposited falls and meteorites transported to the Allen Hills inside the moving Antarctic ice sheet. During the surface residence time meteorites decompose due to weathering processes. The weathering 'half-life' is about 160,000 ages. From the different age distributions of Allan Hills and Yamato meteorites, it is concluded that meteorite concentrations of different Antarctic ice fields need different explanations.

  20. The glacial sedimentology and geomorphological evolution of an outwash head/moraine-dammed lake, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David J. A.; Rother, Henrik; Hyatt, Olivia M.; Shulmeister, James

    2013-02-01

    Extensive exposures through the glacial landforms around southern Lake Pukaki, New Zealand, comprise seven lithofacies (LFs 1-7). LFs 1-3 are grouped together as LFA 1 (Pukaki Member) and record pulsed subaqueous grounding line fan progradation, cohesionless debris flows, underflow activity and rhythmite deposition by suspension settling, iceberg rafting of dropstones, and pulsed traction current activity. Localized disturbance of these deposits by glacitectonic deformation and multi-generational hydrofracture fills records minor readvances by the glacier snout and the emplacement of a glacitectonite (LF 4) derived from cannibalization of glacilacustrine sediments. LFs 4-6 are grouped together as LFA 2 (Twizel Member) and record direct glacigenic deposition of glacitectonite (LF 4), subglacial traction till (LF 5) and supraglacially dumped boulder rubble (LF 6). Stratigraphic relationships between LFA 1 with LFA 2 record the oscillatory behaviour of the former Tasman Glacier snout when it formed a calving margin in a proglacial and locally supraglacial lake dammed by a glacitectonically disturbed outwash head and lateral moraine ridges. This is entirely consistent with the landform-sediment record of its coeval terrestrial margins, where flutings and push moraines are diagnostic of active temperate glacier recession from a glacially overridden outwash head, the latter being recorded by the vertically stacked sub-horizontally bedded and coarse-grained gravels of LF 7 (Waitaki Member). Previous proposals that late Pleistocene lake damming was initiated by an ice-cored moraine arc appear unfounded, because the glacilacustrine deposits only lie above the altitude of the outwash head/lateral moraine arc in locations where they have been glacitectonically compressed. Alternatively, it is proposed that the overdeepened subglacial topography was produced by the construction of an outwash head, leading to a glacilacustrine sediment sink which operates at times when the expanded Tasman Glacier actively retreats from the outwash head apex. The changing landsystem imprint related to the shrinkage of the Tasman Glacier records spatio-temporal landsystem change, involving evolution from a coupled landsystem to a moraine-dammed to an uncoupled landsystem.

  1. Multiple Nonconformities in Ice-Walled Lake Successions Indicate Periods with Cold Summers (24.4 - 22.5 ka, 21.1 - 19.2 ka, 18.5 - 18.1 ka) during the Last Deglaciation in Northeastern Illinois, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, B. B.

    2014-12-01

    Unprecedented age control on many last glacial stratigraphic units and morainal ice-margin positions are interpreted from AMS radiocarbon ages of tundra plant macrofossils archived in low-relief ice-walled lake plain (IWLP) deposits the Lake Michigan Lobe (south-central Laurentide Ice Sheet). IWLPs are periglacial features that formed on morainal dead-ice permafrost. Lacustrine sediment, and the fossils contained therein, had physical and temporal proximity to the glacier which formed the underlying moraine. In modern ice-walled lakes, as the lake's ice cover begins to melt, moats form which allows access of sloughing tundra-mantled active layer sediment (soil) into the lakes. Multiple AMS ages from two sites with proglacial sediment buried by glacial max LIS diamicton, and IWLPs reveal evidence of episodic plant growth and sedimentation including ca. 24.0 to 24.4 ka (post Shelby Phase), 22.5 to 21.1 ka (post Livingston Phase), 18.1 to 17.4 ka (post Woodstock Phase). Although presently based on negative evidence, the associated nonconformities (listed in title) indicate periods when cold conditions did not promote development of the estival moat. Although the evidence does not preclude tundra growth during the cold summers, there was little landscape modification due to limited thawing of the active layer. At approximately the onset of the 19.2-18.5 "warm" period, at least two large deglacial discharge events flooded the Fox and Kankakee tributary valleys of the Illinois River. The latter, known as the Kankakee Torrent, occurred at 19.05 - 18.85 ka (?1 range) at the Oswego channel complex. The temporal coincidence of the torrents and sedimentation in ice-walled lakes suggests that the post-Livingston Phase nonconformity (21.1 - 19.2 ka) was a period of lessened meltwater discharge through subglacial conduits (tunnel valleys) as the frozen toe promoted formation of subglacial lakes, buildup of pore-water pressures, and the release of subglacial water as "torrents". In the case of the Fox and Kankakee torrents, ice-marginal discharge first flowed into proglacial lakes which ultimately breached moraines, resulting in catastrophic "torrents". Hence, present knowledge does not allow determination of the nature of the subglacial release (catastrophic vs. large, steady discharge).

  2. Early Break-up (~20 ka) of the Norwegian Channel Ice Stream of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendsen, J. I.; Briner, J. P.; Mangerud, J.; Hughes, A. L. C.; Young, N. E.; Vasskog, K.

    2014-12-01

    New time-slice reconstructions of Eurasian Ice Sheet limits during Marine Isotope Stage 2 reveal that the timing of both maximum ice sheet extent and subsequent retreat were spatially variable. Here we present a new reconstruction of the glacial and climate history during the last deglaciation based on 52 cosmogenic nuclide 10Be exposure ages from glacially transported boulders in southern Norway as well as other available data from moraines, lake basins and offshore seafloor sediments. The new ages indicate that the Norwegian Channel Ice Stream (NCIS), active during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM ~21 ka), broke up as early as ~20 ka, leaving the islands Utsira and Karmøy (located 250 km up-flow from the LGM ice-margin position) permanently ice free ever since. We postulate that the ice sheet flowed across the Norwegian Channel to Denmark and onto the North Sea Plateau during an early phase of the last glacial, but when the NCIS started to operate this ice supply to the North Sea diminished. The fast flows of the NCIS led to a lowering of the ice surface on the shelf and presumably also a drawdown of the entire ice sheet. We envision a large open bay across the entire northern North Sea by 20 ka, which facilitated rapid calving at the ice front and ice sheet thinning. There is also evidence to suggest that the Eurasian Ice Sheet complex as a whole was in a state of retreat soon after the collapse of the ice stream suggesting a common causal connection. We think the primary forcing mechanism for the early deglaciation was increasing high-northern-latitude insolation. The adjacent coastal areas of the Norwegian mainland remained ice covered for another 4000 years until ~16 ka when the ice margin along the coast started to retreat eastward. This second stage of ice sheet retreat was interrupted by several re-advances. The largest re-advance culminated at the very end of the Younger Dryas stadial period (11.6 ka).

  3. Radiocarbon ages of terrestrial gastropods extend duration of ice-free conditions at the Two Creeks forest bed, Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rech, Jason A.; Nekola, Jeffrey C.; Pigati, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of terrestrial gastropods that underlie the late Pleistocene Two Creeks forest bed (~ 13,800–13,500 cal yr BP) in eastern Wisconsin, USA provides evidence for a mixed tundra-taiga environment prior to formation of the taiga forest bed. Ten new AMS 14C analyses on terrestrial gastropod shells indicate the mixed tundra-taiga environment persisted from ~ 14,500 to 13,900 cal yr BP. The Twocreekan climatic substage, representing ice-free conditions on the shore of Lake Michigan, therefore began near the onset of peak warming conditions during the Bølling–Allerød interstadial and lasted ~ 1000 yr, nearly 600 yr longer than previously thought. These results provide important data for understanding the response of continental ice sheets to global climate forcing and demonstrate the potential of using terrestrial gastropod fossils for both environmental reconstruction and age control in late Quaternary sediments.

  4. Accurate age scale of the Dome Fuji ice core, Antarctica from O2/N2 ratio of trapped air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Suzuki, K.; Parrenin, F.

    2012-04-01

    Chronology of the first Dome Fuji deep ice core (core length: 2,500 m, ice thickness: 3,035 m) for the age range from 80 kyr to 340 kyr ago was established by orbital tuning of measured O2/N2 ratios in trapped air to local summer insolation, with precision better than about 2,000 years (Kawamura et al., 2007). The O2/N2 ratios found in polar ice cores are slightly lower than the atmospheric ratio because of size-dependent molecular fractionation during bubble close-off. The magnitude of this gas fractionation is believed to be governed by the magnitude of snow metamorphism when the layer was originally at the surface, which in turn is controlled by local summer insolation (Fujita et al., 2009). A strong advantage of the O2/N2 chronology is that there is no need to assume a lag between climatic records in the ice core and orbital forcings, becacuse O2/N2 ratios record local insolation through physical processes. Accuracy of the chronology was validated by comparing the O2/N2 chronology with U-Th radiometric chronology of speleothem records (Cheng et al., 2009) for the ends of Terminations II, III and IV, as well as several large climatic events, for which both ice-core CH4 and speleothem ?18O (a proxy for precipitation) show abrupt shifts as seen in the last glacial period. All ages from O2/N2 and U-Th chronology agreed with each other within ~2,000 yr. The O2/N2 chronology permits comparisons between Antarctic climate, greenhouse gases, astronomically calculated orbital parameters, and radiometrically-dated sea level and monsoon records. Here, we completed the measurements of O2/N2 ratios of the second Dome Fuji ice core, which reached bedrock, for the range from 2,400 to 3,028 m (320 - 700 kyr ago) at approximately 2,000-year time resolution. We made significant improvements in ice core storage practices and mass spectrometry. In particular, the ice core samples were stored at about -50 ° C until the air extraction, except during short periods of transportation, in order to prevent size-dependent fractionation due to gas loss during storage. The precision of the new O2/N2 data set is improved by a factor of 3 over the previous data. Clear imprint of local insolation is recognizable in the O2/N2 data towards the deepest depths, even around 400 kyr ago when summer insolation wiggles are small due to small orbital eccentricity. A new chronology using this O2/N2 data set will be established by applying the inverse method for EDC3 age scale (Parrenin et al., 2007) for the entire 700 kyr, and climatic implications will also be discussed especially on Terminations and interglacial periods.

  5. The Antarctica component of postglacial rebound model ICE-6G_C (VM5a) based on GPS positioning, exposure age dating of ice thicknesses, and relative sea level histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argus, Donald F.; Peltier, W. R.; Drummond, R.; Moore, Angelyn W.

    2014-07-01

    A new model of the deglaciation history of Antarctica over the past 25 kyr has been developed, which we refer to herein as ICE-6G_C (VM5a). This revision of its predecessor ICE-5G (VM2) has been constrained to fit all available geological and geodetic observations, consisting of: (1) the present day uplift rates at 42 sites estimated from GPS measurements, (2) ice thickness change at 62 locations estimated from exposure-age dating, (3) Holocene relative sea level histories from 12 locations estimated on the basis of radiocarbon dating and (4) age of the onset of marine sedimentation at nine locations along the Antarctic shelf also estimated on the basis of 14C dating. Our new model fits the totality of these data well. An additional nine GPS-determined site velocities are also estimated for locations known to be influenced by modern ice loss from the Pine Island Bay and Northern Antarctic Peninsula regions. At the 42 locations not influenced by modern ice loss, the quality of the fit of postglacial rebound model ICE-6G_C (VM5A) is characterized by a weighted root mean square residual of 0.9 mm yr-1. The Southern Antarctic Peninsula is inferred to be rising at 2 mm yr-1, requiring there to be less Holocene ice loss there than in the prior model ICE-5G (VM2). The East Antarctica coast is rising at approximately 1 mm yr-1, requiring ice loss from this region to have been small since Last Glacial Maximum. The Ellsworth Mountains, at the base of the Antarctic Peninsula, are inferred to be rising at 5-8 mm yr-1, indicating large ice loss from this area during deglaciation that is poorly sampled by geological data. Horizontal deformation of the Antarctic Plate is minor with two exceptions. First, O'Higgins, at the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, is moving southeast at a significant 2 mm yr-1 relative to the Antarctic Plate. Secondly, the margins of the Ronne and Ross Ice Shelves are moving horizontally away from the shelf centres at an approximate rate of 0.8 mm yr-1, in viscous response to the early Holocene unloading of ice from the current locations of the ice shelf centers. ICE-6G_C (VM5A) fits the horizontal observations well (wrms residual speed of 0.7 mm yr-1), there being no need to invoke any influence of lateral variation in mantle viscosity. ICE-6G_C (VM5A) differs in several respects from the recently published W12A model of Whitehouse et al. First, the upper-mantle viscosity in VM5a is 5 × 1020 Pa s, half that in W12A. The VM5a profile, which is identical to that inferred on the basis of the Fennoscandian relaxation spectrum, North American relative sea level histories and Earth rotation constraints, when coupled with the revised ICE-6G_C deglaciation history, fits all of the available constraints. Secondly, the net contribution of Antarctica ice loss to global sea level rise is 13.6 m, 2/3 greater than the 8 m in W12A. Thirdly, ice loss occurs quickly from 12 to 5 ka, and the contribution to global sea level rise during Meltwater Pulse 1B (11.5 ka) is large (5 m), consistent with sedimentation constraints from cores from the Antarctica ice shelf. Fourthly, in ICE-6G_C there is no ice gain in the East Antarctica interior, as there is in W12A. Finally, the new model of Antarctic deglaciation reconciles the global constraint upon the global mass loss during deglaciation provided by the Barbados record of relative sea level history when coupled with the Northern Hemisphere counterpart of this new model.

  6. Effect of ageing of K-feldspar on its ice nucleating efficiency in immersion, deposition and contact freezing modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peckhaus, Andreas; Bachmann, Felix; Hoffmann, Nadine; Koch, Michael; Kiselev, Alexei; Leisner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Recently K-feldspar was identified as one of the most active atmospheric ice nucleating particles (INP) of mineral origin [1]. Seeking the explanation to this phenomena we have conducted extensive experimental investigation of the ice nucleating efficiency of K-feldspar in three heterogeneous freezing modes. The immersion freezing of K-feldspar was investigated with the cold stage using arrays of nanoliter-size droplets containing aqueous suspension of polydisperse feldspar particles. For contact freezing, the charged droplets of supercooled water were suspended in the laminar flow of the DMA-selected feldspar-containing particles, allowing for determination of freezing probability on a single particle-droplet contact [2]. The nucleation and growth of ice via vapor deposition on the crystalline surfaces of macroscopic feldspar particles have been investigated in the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) under humidified nitrogen atmosphere. The ice nucleation experiments were supplemented with measurements of effective surface area of feldspar particles and ion chromatography (IC) analysis of the leached framework cations (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+). In this contribution we focus on the role of surface chemistry influencing the IN efficiency of K-feldspar, in particular the connection between the degree of surface hydroxylation and its ability to induce local structural ordering in the interfacial layer in water molecules (as suggested by recent modeling efforts). We mimic the natural process of feldspar ageing by suspending it in water or weak aqueous solution of carbonic acid for different time periods, from minutes to months, and present its freezing efficiency as a function of time. Our immersion freezing experiments show that ageing have a nonlinear effect on the freezing behavior of feldspar within the investigated temperature range (-40°C to -10°C). On the other hand, deposition nucleation of ice observed in the ESEM reveals clear different pattern between freshly cleaved and aged mineral surfaces. This effect is especially pronounced for surfaces having different crystallographic orientations (001 and 010), with 001 being clearly preferential for ice nucleation. The factor two change of the BET effective area of the naturally aged feldspar particles is also indicative for the change in the surface morphology. Based on the IC analysis of framework cations removal from the surface of feldspar, we discuss the possible implications of this process for the interpretation of observed freezing behavior of feldspars. [1] Atkinson, J.D., Murray, B.J., Woodhouse, M.T., Whale, T.F., Baustian, K.J., Carslaw, K.S., Dobbie, S., O'Sullivan, D., and Malkin, T.L.: The importance of feldspar for ice nucleation by mineral dust in mixed-phase clouds. Nature, 498, 355-358, 2013 [2] Hoffmann, N., Kiselev, A., Rzesanke, D., Duft, D., and Leisner, T.: Experimental quantification of contact freezing in an electrodynamic balance. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2373-2382, 2013.

  7. Glacier changes since Local Last Glacial Maximum in the South-West slope of Nevado Hualcán, Cordillera Blanca, Peru, deduced from moraine mapping and GIS-based analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giráldez, Claudia; Palacios, David; Haeberli, Wilfried; Úbeda, Jose; Schauwecker, Simone; Torres, Judith

    2014-05-01

    Anticipating and assessing hazards and risks associated with the shrinking of surface and subsurface ice in cold mountain chains is facilitated by empirical-quantitative data on present and past rates of change, as well as by a general understanding of related landforms and landscape evolution through time. Rock/ice avalanches and devastating outburst floods from glacial lakes indeed constitute a major cause of severe damage in populated mountain areas such as the Cordillera Blanca whose combination of tectonic, topographic and glaciological characteristics make it a threatened region. This study focuses on the Río Chucchún catchment above the city of Carhuaz, which was recently affected by a flood/debris flow from a rock/ice avalanche impacting a recently grown lake (Laguna 513). Traces left by past glaciations strongly affect the current geomorphodinamic behaviour of the catchment. For instance, a prominent sediment-filled glacial overdeepening behind Younger Dryas (YD) moraines (Pampa de Shonquil) with its retention function strongly influenced the chain of processes initiated by the outburst of Laguna 513. The aim of this study is to reconstruct earlier glacial phases in the SW slope of Nevado Hualcán (Río Chucchún catchment), in order to compile quantitative information on surface areas and Equilibrium Line Altitudes (ELAs). To do so, glacier stages were assigned to five different glacial phases, through photointerpretation and moraine cartography: 2003; 1962; Hualcán-I-LIA (15th to 18th centuries); Hualcán-II-YD (~12,5 ka BP); and Hualcán-III-LLGM (~34 to 21 ka BP). Glacial stages Hualcán-I-LIA, Hualcán-II-YD and Hualcán-III-LLGM present relative dating based on previous studies from different authors in the Peruvian Andes. Once glaciers were delimited, their surface areas and Equilibrium Line Altitudes (ELAs) were calculated. For ELA estimation three different methods were used: the mid-range elevation, the Accumulation Area Ratio (AAR), and the Area x Altitude Balance Ratio (AABR). The results show a decrease in surface area with respect to Hualcán-III-LLGM of 16% for Hualcán-II-YD; 50% for Hualcán-I-LIA; and 74% for 2003. With respect to 2003, ELAs shifted ~520 m since the Local Last Glacial Maximum (LLGM), ~470 m since a marked late-glacial stage (YD?), ~130 m since the Little Ice Age (LIA) and about ~100 m since 1962. If the changes are exclusively attributed to temperature effects, warming since LLGM can be estimated at some 3°C and since the maximum glacier extent of LIA at about 0.8°C. Such values are rather close to mean global temperature change during the corresponding intervals. Most of the ELA shift since LIA appears to have taken place during recent decades characterized by very rapid glacier shrinkage, although air temperature does not seem to have risen considerably during the last 30 years. These results along with other environmental and social approaches will contribute to a better understanding of impacts from climate change and glacier shrinkage in order to develop adaptation, mitigation and disaster risk reduction strategies in the Peruvian Andes.

  8. Reconstruction of late Wisconsinan Ice Sheet and sea-level implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John B.

    1993-01-01

    The Ross Sea exhibits north-south oriented troughs associated with modern ice streams and outlet glaciers. Seismic reflection profiles across the troughs show evidence that they were glacially eroded. Seismic records show morphologic features interpreted as till tongues, morainal banks, and possibly glacial deltas formed near the grounding line of the former marine ice sheet. Piston cores from the continental shelf penetrated diamictons whose origin and age is problematic. Detailed petrographic analyses of the minerals and rocks comprising these diamictons were conducted to determine subglacial versus glacial marine origin, and to reconstruct the glacial setting of the Ross Sea during the most recent glacial maximum. The most detailed work, conducted in the western Ross Sea, shows that diamictons do occur in distinct petrologic provinces. This is consistent with deposition from the basal debris zone of either an ice sheet or an ice shelf. Overcompaction, in conjunction with the widespread nature of these deposits, favors deposition from marine ice sheets; ice shelves are believed to deposit their basal debris close to the grounding lines. Other results from the investigation are briefly discussed.

  9. Substantial agreement on the timing and magnitude of Late Holocene ice cap expansion between East Greenland and the Eastern Canadian Arctic: a commentary on Lowell et al., 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Gifford H.; Briner, Jason P.; Refsnider, Kurt A.; Lehman, Scott J.; Geirsdóttir, Áslaug; Larsen, Darren J.; Southon, John R.

    2013-10-01

    Lowell et al. (2013) present a large series of radiocarbon dates on tundra plants preserved beneath ice caps and cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages on moraine boulders and bedrock that document changes in the dimensions of Istorvet, an independent coastal ice cap on East Greenland. They argue that their reconstruction of Istorvet advances during the Late Holocene is inconsistent with the reconstructions of Miller et al. (2012) for Arctic Canada. Here we show that a careful interpretation of their data reveals a remarkable similarity with the compilation of radiocarbon dates on rooted tundra plants long-entombed beneath over 50 different ice masses in a 1000 km transect along Baffin Island, Arctic Canada and with the high-resolution record from an Icelandic ice cap (Miller et al., 2012). Collectively, these results suggest synchronous responses of ice masses across the northwestern sector of the North Atlantic Arctic during recent millennia. We also emphasize that the interpretation of radiocarbon ages of rooted plants exposed by receding ice depends to a large extent on the collection protocols employed. The sampling protocols outlined below maximize the value of these key new datasets to provide unambiguous constraints on past climates and changes in glacier dimensions. Examples of settings that meet these criteria are shown in Figs. 1 and 2.ice caps

  10. A continental shelf sedimentary record of Little Ice Age to modern glacial dynamics: Bering Glacier, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, John M.; Kramer, Branden

    2014-09-01

    The Bering Glacier System is the world's largest surging temperate glacier with seven events occurring over the past century under a range of north Pacific climatic conditions. Onshore records reveal changes in glacial termini positions and evidence of late Holocene glacial advances, but the Little Ice Age (LIA) record of potential glacial surging and associated flooding has not been examined. A 13.6 m-long jumbo core collected on the adjacent continental shelf reveals a 600-yr-long record of sedimentation associated with changing glacifluvial discharge. The chronology is based on 210Pb geochronology and five radiocarbon dates, and the core can be separated into three distinct lithologic units based on the examination of X-radiographs and physical properties: (1) an uppermost unit dating from ?125 cal yr BP to the present characterized by bioturbated mud interbedded with laminated, thick (5-20 cm) low-bulk density clay-rich beds; (2) a middle unit dating from ?120-400 cal yr BP that includes numerous interlaminated-to-interbedded low- and high-bulk density beds with infrequent evidence of bioturbation; thick laminated clay-rich beds are rare; (3) a lowermost unit that predates ?400 cal yr BP and is composed of rare laminated beds grading down into mottled to massive mud. In each of these units, the laminated lithofacies from this mid-shelf location indicates both flood deposition and likely sediment transport in the wave-current bottom-boundary layer. The thick low-density, clay-rich beds in the uppermost unit correlate with historic outburst floods associated with known surge events. Based on previous terrestrial studies, the terminus was at its Holocene Neoglacial maximum extent close to the modern coastline at some point in the middle to late stages of the LIA in southern Alaska (100-350 cal yr BP). During the LIA, preservation of bioturbated intervals is rare while laminated intervals are common. This style of interbedding indicates frequent (<10 yr recurrence interval) event-scale mud deposition, suggesting that frequent summer flooding and redistribution by winter storms were more prevalent during the LIA rather than the outburst flooding typical of the past century. Rare event-scale bedding indicative of outburst flooding and possible surge events is found within the middle unit, and may correspond to periods with similar climatic trends as in the 20th century. The infrequent deposition of event layers in the lowermost unit could be attributed to the less frequent flooding and/or enhanced diversion of glacial drainage to the eastern terminus instead of present day Seal River. The thickness and depositional frequency of event-scale bedding can be related to Gulf of Alaska tree-ring proxy temperature reconstructions, where more numerous event bed formation occurs when there are more frequent, higher-amplitude temperature excursions. These frequent fluctuations may have prevented the decadal-long periods of positive mass balance required to enable numerous surge events during this period.

  11. Sedimentary processes on the NW Iberian Continental Shelf since the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Virgínia; Figueira, Rubens Cesar Lopes; França, Elvis Joacir; Ferreira, Paulo Alves de Lima; Martins, Paula; Santos, José Francisco; Dias, João Alveirinho; Laut, Lazaro L. M.; Monge Soares, António M.; Silva, Eduardo Ferreira da; Rocha, Fernando

    2012-05-01

    The OMEX core CD110 W90, retrieved from the Douro Mud Patch (DMP) off the River Douro in the north of Portugal, records the period since the beginning of Little Ice Age (LIA). The core chronology is based upon the data attributes for 210Pb, 137Cs and a 14C dating from a level near the core base. Geochemical, granulometric, microfaunal (benthic foraminifera) and compositional data suggest the occurrence of precipitation changes which may have been, at least partially, influenced by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), that contributes to the regulation of the ocean-atmosphere dynamics in the North Atlantic. Southwesterly Atlantic storm track is associated with the negative phases of the NAO, when the Azores High is anomalously weak, higher oceanographic hydrodynamism, downwelling events and increased rainfall generally occurs. Prevalence of these characteristics during the LIA left a record that corresponds to phases of major floods. During these phases the DMP received a higher contribution of relatively coarse-grained terrigenous sediments, enriched in quartz particles, which diluted the contribution of other minerals, as indicated by reduced concentrations of several lithogenic chemical elements such as: Al, As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Rb, Sc, Sn, Th, V and Y. The presence of biogenic carbonate particles also underwent dilution, as revealed by the smaller abundance of foraminifera and correlative lower concentrations of Ca and Sr. During this period, the DMP also received an increased contribution of organic matter, indicated by higher values of lignin remains and a benthic foraminifera high productivity index, or BFHP, which gave rise to early diagenetic changes with pyrite formation. Since the beginning of the 20th century this contribution diminished, probably due to several drier periods and the impact of human activities in the river basins, e.g. construction of dams, or, on the littoral areas, construction of hard-engineering structures and sand extraction activities. During the first half of the 20th century mainly positive phases of the NAO prevailed, caused by the above normal strengthening of the subtropical high pressure centre of the Azores and the deepening of the low pressure centre in Iceland. These phases may have contributed to the reduction in the supply of both terrigenous sediments and organic matter from shallow water to the DMP. During the positive phases of the NAO, sedimentation became finer. The development of mining and industrial activities during the 20th century is marked, in this core, by higher concentrations of Pb. Furthermore, the erosion of heaps resulting from wolfram exploitation leaves its signature as a peak of W concentrations recorded in the sediments of the DMP deposited between the 1960s and the 1990s. Wolfram exploitation was an important activity in the middle part of the 20th century, particularly during the period of the Second World War.

  12. Post-Little Ice Age increase in sediment accumulation and carbon burial rates in subpolar fjords of Svalbard, European Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczucinski, W.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic areas, like Svalbard, are particularly sensitive to global climate changes as proved by modern monitoring data and the past records. One of the most spectacular changes is the rapid retreat of tidewater glaciers during the post-Little Ice Age period (after ~1900) observed in many subpolar fjords in Svalbard. The goal of this study is to assess if the observed changes affected sediment accumulation and carbon burial rates. The study reviews the existing data and new results on 210Pb and 137Cs based accumulation rates, as well as organic carbon content from Hornsund, Tempelfjorden and Kongsfjorden - the major fjords of western Spitsbergen. In the central parts of the fjords the sediment accumulation rates are generally in the order of several mm per year and in most cases significantly increased after the Little Ice Age. Consequently, also the carbon burial rates have increased. Moreover, due to the retreat, new bays often with area of several km2 each and characterised by very high sediment accumulation rates (several cm/year) have been formed in the inner parts of the fjords. They may potentially store large amounts of sediment and carbon. The available data suggest that this kind of fjords may serve as significant sediment and carbon sinks. The study was funded by Polish National Science Centre grant No. 2013/10/E/ST10/00166.

  13. Seasonal hydrological cycle control on age, abundance and lability of carbon exported from the Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, M. P.; Das, S. B.; Charette, M. A.; Xu, L.; Kujawinski, E. B.

    2010-12-01

    Glacial environments possess a more dynamic organic carbon system than previously thought. The discovery of abundant, active microbial communities at the base of glaciers and ice sheets provides a mechanism for both (a) extensive subglacial organic carbon metabolism (e.g. respiration, fermentation) on various timescales, and (b) the present-day export of labile carbon to downstream ecosystems. Prior studies are limited but point towards the importance of both of these processes in modulating carbon cycling. In order to develop predictive understanding of these processes, elucidation of the dominant molecular-level and bulk carbon dynamics is critical. Here we build on earlier results that described changes in molecular-level composition of dissolved organic matter associated with the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS), by describing for the first time the bulk-level carbon composition of glacial meltwater from the GrIS. Our study focuses on several outlet glaciers and a large proglacial lake along the western margin of the GrIS. We investigate the organic carbon abundance (dissolved and particulate concentrations), age (dissolved and particulate radiocarbon content), and lability (dissolved organic carbon to nitrogen ratios) in the subglacial discharge throughout the summer melt season. The early season (May) glacier discharge contains significantly higher dissolved organic carbon concentrations (23 - 342 ?M), and exports younger carbon (~ 2 kyr 14C age) compared to the peak season (July) glacier discharge, where the concentrations are lower (11 - 51 ?M) and the age is older (~ 4 kyr 14C age). These results illustrate (1) that chemically-distinct organic carbon pools are accessed by seasonally-evolving hydrological flow-paths and (2) that the GrIS can deliver labile, old carbon to the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans.

  14. Development of lysozyme-combined antibacterial system to reduce sulfur dioxide and to stabilize Italian Riesling ice wine during aging process

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kai; Han, Shun-yu; Zhang, Bo; Li, Min; Sheng, Wen-jun

    2015-01-01

    For the purpose of SO2 reduction and stabilizing ice wine, a new antibacterial technique was developed and verified in order to reduce the content of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and simultaneously maintain protein stability during ice wine aging process. Hazardous bacterial strain (lactic acid bacteria, LAB) and protein stability of Italian Riesling ice wine were evaluated in terms of different amounts of lysozyme, SO2, polyphenols, and wine pH by single-factor experiments. Subsequently, a quadratic rotation-orthogonal composite design with four variables was conducted to establish the multiple linear regression model that demonstrated the influence of different treatments on synthesis score between LAB inhibition and protein stability of ice wine. The results showed that, synthesis score can be influenced by lysozyme and SO2 concentrations on an extremely significant level (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the lysozyme-combined antibacterial system, which is specially designed for ice wine aging, was optimized step by step by response surface methodology and ridge analysis. As a result, the optimal proportion should be control in ice wine as follows: 179.31 mg L?1 lysozyme, 177.14 mg L?1 SO2, 0.60 g L?1 polyphenols, and 4.01 ice wine pH. Based on this system, the normalized synthesis score between LAB inhibition and protein stability can reach the highest point 0.920. Finally, by the experiments of verification and comparison, it was indicated that lysozyme-combined antibacterial system, which was a practical and prospective method to reduce SO2 concentration and effectively prevent contamination from hazardous LAB, can be used to stabilize ice wine during aging process. PMID:26405531

  15. Development of lysozyme-combined antibacterial system to reduce sulfur dioxide and to stabilize Italian Riesling ice wine during aging process.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Han, Shun-Yu; Zhang, Bo; Li, Min; Sheng, Wen-Jun

    2015-09-01

    For the purpose of SO2 reduction and stabilizing ice wine, a new antibacterial technique was developed and verified in order to reduce the content of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and simultaneously maintain protein stability during ice wine aging process. Hazardous bacterial strain (lactic acid bacteria, LAB) and protein stability of Italian Riesling ice wine were evaluated in terms of different amounts of lysozyme, SO2, polyphenols, and wine pH by single-factor experiments. Subsequently, a quadratic rotation-orthogonal composite design with four variables was conducted to establish the multiple linear regression model that demonstrated the influence of different treatments on synthesis score between LAB inhibition and protein stability of ice wine. The results showed that, synthesis score can be influenced by lysozyme and SO2 concentrations on an extremely significant level (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the lysozyme-combined antibacterial system, which is specially designed for ice wine aging, was optimized step by step by response surface methodology and ridge analysis. As a result, the optimal proportion should be control in ice wine as follows: 179.31 mg L(-1) lysozyme, 177.14 mg L(-1) SO2, 0.60 g L(-1) polyphenols, and 4.01 ice wine pH. Based on this system, the normalized synthesis score between LAB inhibition and protein stability can reach the highest point 0.920. Finally, by the experiments of verification and comparison, it was indicated that lysozyme-combined antibacterial system, which was a practical and prospective method to reduce SO2 concentration and effectively prevent contamination from hazardous LAB, can be used to stabilize ice wine during aging process. PMID:26405531

  16. Preservation of ancient ice at Pavonis and Arsia Mons: Tropical mountain glacier deposits on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, James W.; Weiss, David K.

    2014-11-01

    Large tropical mountain glacier (TMG) deposits on the northwest flanks of the Tharsis Montes and Olympus Mons volcanoes are interpreted to be the record of ancient climates characteristic of Mars several hundred million years ago when planetary spin-axis obliquity was ~45°. During this era, polar volatiles (predominantly H2O) were mobilized and transferred equatorward, undergoing adiabatic cooling on the Tharsis volcano flanks, and precipitating snow and ice to form cold-based tropical mountain glaciers up to several kilometers in thickness. Subsequent climate change resulted in retreat, sublimation and collapse of the tropical mountain glaciers, leaving the three typical facies observed today: (1) concentric ridges, the ridged facies, interpreted as drop moraines; (2) knobby facies, interpreted as debris-dominated sublimation residue; and (3) the smooth facies, interpreted as remnant alpine glacial deposits. Ring-mold craters (RMCs) are distinctive features formed by impacts into debris-covered ice. We describe a set of relatively fresh ring-mold craters superposed on the Arsia and Pavonis Mons TMG deposits; we interpret these to indicate that the impact events penetrated a veneer of sublimation lag and excavated buried remnant glacial ice, despite the lack of detection of buried ice by orbital radar instruments. The diameter distribution of the RMCs suggest that the remnant ice lies at a depth of at least 16 m. The TMG deposit ages suggest that these ice deposits date from a period in the range of 125-220 million years before the present; the remnant ice may thus preserve records of the ancient atmospheric gas content and microbiota, as is common in terrestrial glacial ice. Preservation of this ice and the lack of any associated fluvial features suggest that the post-glacial climate has been cold, and related surface temperatures have not been sufficient to bring the buried deposits to the melting point of water.

  17. Volcanic ash layers in blue ice fields (Beardmore Glacier Area, Antarctica): Iridium enrichments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeberl, Christian

    1988-01-01

    Dust bands on blue ice fields in Antarctica have been studied and have been identified to originate from two main sources: bedrock debris scraped up from the ground by the glacial movement (these bands are found predominantly at fractures and shear zones in the ice near moraines), and volcanic debris deposited on and incorporated in the ice by large-scale eruptions of Antarctic (or sub-Antractic) volcanoes. Ice core studies have revealed that most of the dust layers in the ice cores are volcanic (tephra) deposits which may be related to some specific volcanic eruptions. These eruptions have to be related to some specific volcanic eruptions. These eruptions have to be relatively recent (a few thousand years old) since ice cores usually incorporate younger ice. In contrast, dust bands on bare blue ice fields are much older, up to a few hundred thousand years, which may be inferred from the rather high terrestrial age of meteorites found on the ice and from dating the ice using the uranium series method. Also for the volcanic ash layers found on blue ice fields correlations between some specific volcanoes (late Cenozoic) and the volcanic debris have been inferred, mainly using chemical arguments. During a recent field expedition samples of several dust bands found on blue ice fields at the Lewis Cliff Ice Tongue were taken. These dust band samples were divided for age determination using the uranium series method, and chemical investigations to determine the source and origin of the dust bands. The investigations have shown that most of the dust bands found at the Ice Tongue are of volcanic origin and, for chemical and petrological reasons, may be correlated with Cenozoic volcanoes in the Melbourne volcanic province, Northern Victoria Land, which is at least 1500 km away. Major and trace element data have been obtained and have been used for identification and correlation purposes. Recently, some additional trace elements were determined in some of the dust band samples, including Ir. Iridium determinations were made using INAA, with synthetical and natural (meteorite) standards. These findings are discussed.

  18. In situ 10Be ages constraining the glacial, periglacial and sea-level history of Andøya, northern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linge, H.; Dahl, S.; Bakke, J.; Fabel, D.

    2007-12-01

    Northwards transport of Atlantic water by the Norwegian Current warms the Norwegian Arctic coast 5-10°C above the annual mean for latitude 69°N. A reduction in heat transport would cause a shift from anomalously warm and maritime open-ocean climate to a cold and continental regime with continuous/seasonal sea-ice cover. Palaeoclimatic archives from this region thus facilitate testing of key hypotheses on the role of ocean, sea-ice, atmospheric processes, and feedbacks in driving Arctic climate variability during the shift from glacial to peak interglacial climates. Its proximity to the shelf break and diversity of geomorphological features has made the island Andøya (69°N, 15°E) a key area for reconstructing ice-age history and palaeoclimatic investigations for more than a century. Even if lacustrine sediments span the last 20 ka, however, evidence has not yet been conclusive with regard to the ice-sheet extent during the Late Weichselian glacial maximum (~LGM) and the Late Glacial phase. We have measured in-situ cosmogenic 10Be in surface rock samples from selected marginal moraine ridges formed by continental ice sheets and local glaciers, glacial erratics, ice-moulded bedrock, fossil rock glaciers and raised shorelines in order to resolve the Late Weichselian glacial, periglacial and sea level history of northern Andøya. The results so far show that the most comprehensive glacial erosion phase occurred prior to 40 ka with glacial erosion up to at least 100 m asl on both the western and eastern side of the northern part of the island. Small talus-derived rock glaciers on the eastern side were active around 30-25 ka, implying that any ice sheet present at that time must have been thinner than 200 m. Remnants of marginal moraines formed by a local glacier isolated from the continental ice sheet on the western side give >25 10Be ka. Beach ridges on the western side of the island developed at c. 20 m asl suggest a limited ice extent around 20 ka. Younger marginal moraine formed by low-elevation cirque- and valley glaciers show a maximum extent around 18-16 ka. Talus- derived rock glaciers on the western side of the island overrun the c. 20 ka shoreline and became inactive c. 15 ka, constraining the timing of suitable conditions for rock glacier formation close to the present sea level.

  19. PROVING THE PRIMALITY OF VERY LARGE NUMBERS WITH J. FRANKE, T. KLEINJUNG, F. MORAIN, AND T. WIRTH

    E-print Network

    Bernstein, Daniel

    PROVING THE PRIMALITY OF VERY LARGE NUMBERS WITH FASTECPP J. FRANKE, T. KLEINJUNG, F. MORAIN, AND T: December 31, 2003, version 1.8. #3; http://www.ellipsa.net/ 1 #12; 2 J. FRANKE, T. KLEINJUNG, F. MORAIN

  20. Initiation of East Asia monsoon failure at the climate transition from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyung Eun; Park, Wonsun

    2015-05-01

    We have reconstructed decadally-resolved continuous sea surface temperature and seawater ?18O (hence salinity) records over the last 1300 yr from alkenone and planktonic foraminiferal oxygen isotope ratio analyses of the East Sea/Japan Sea marine sediments to investigate East Asia monsoon variability. Comparisons of the records with other paleoclimate records indicate a possible connection between changes in the mid-latitude East Asia monsoon and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) over this period. The results show that during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) when the PDO index was negative, East Asia was characterized by surface warming with a strengthened summer monsoon. Summer monsoon-related precipitation increased and pluvials possibly dominated in the region at that time. Onset of Asia monsoon failure and severe drought occurred at the end of the MCA and extended to the Little Ice Age (LIA) when the PDO became positive.

  1. The northern Uummannaq Ice Stream System, West Greenland: ice dynamics and and controls upon deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Timothy; Roberts, David; Rea, Brice; Cofaigh, Colm Ó.; Vieli, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    At the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the Uummannaq Ice Stream System comprised a series coalescent outlet glaciers which extended along the trough to the shelf edge, draining a large proportion of the West Greenland Ice Sheet. Geomorphological mapping, terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) exposure dating, and radiocarbon dating constrain warm-based ice stream activity in the north of the system to 1400 m a.s.l. during the LGM. Intervening plateaux areas (~ 2000 m a.s.l.) either remained ice free, or were covered by cold-based icefields, preventing diffluent or confluent flow throughout the inner to outer fjord region. Beyond the fjords, a topographic sill north of Ubekendt Ejland prevented the majority of westward ice flow, forcing it south through Igdlorssuit Sund, and into the Uummannaq Trough. Here it coalesced with ice from the south, forming the trunk zone of the UISS. Deglaciation of the UISS began at 14.9 cal. ka BP, rapidly retreating through the overdeepened Uummannaq Trough. Once beyond Ubekendt Ejland, the northern UISS retreated northwards, separating from the south. Retreat continued, and ice reached the present fjord confines in northern Uummannaq by 11.6 kyr. Both geomorphological (termino-lateral moraines) and geochronological (14C and TCN) data provide evidence for an ice marginal stabilisation at within Karrat-Rink Fjord, at Karrat Island, from 11.6-6.9 kyr. The Karrat moraines appear similar in both fjord position and form to 'Fjord Stade' moraines identified throughout West Greenland. Though chronologies constraining moraine formation are overlapping (Fjord Stade moraines - 9.3-8.2 kyr, Karrat moraines - 11.6-6.9 kyr), these moraines have not been correlated. This ice margin stabilisation was able to persist during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (~7.2 - 5 kyr). It overrode climatic and oceanic forcings, remaining on Karrat Island throughout peaks of air temperature and relative sea-level, and during the influx of the warm West Greenland Current into the Uummannaq region. Based upon analysis of fjord bathymetry and width, this ice marginal stabilisation has been shown to have been caused by increases in topographic constriction at Karrat Island. The location of the marginal stillstand is coincident with a dramatic narrowing of fjord width and bed shallowing. These increases in local lateral resistance reduces the ice flux necessary to maintain a stable grounding line, leading to ice margin stabilisation. This acted to negate the effects of the Holocene Thermal Maximum. Following this stabilisation, retreat within Rink-Karrat Fjord continued, driven by calving into the overdeepened Rink Fjord. Rink Isbræ reached its present ice margin or beyond after 5 kyr, during the Neoglacial. In contrast, the southern UISS reached its present margin at 8.7 kyr and Jakobshavn Isbræ reached its margin by 7 kyr. This work therefore provides compelling evidence for topographically forced asynchronous, non-linear ice stream retreat between outlet glaciers in West Greenland. In addition, it has major implications for our understanding and reconstruction of mid-Holocene ice sheet extent, and ice sheet dynamics during the Holocene Thermal Maximum to Neoglacial switch.

  2. Bluefin 9M AUV Survey of the Hubbard Glacier Morainal Bank: Proof-of-Concept Study of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Investigations Proximal to a Tidewater Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, J. A.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Lawson, D. E.; O'Halloran, W.

    2014-12-01

    Hubbard Glacier is one of the few advancing tidewater glaciers in the world, offering a premier opportunity for studying ice/sediment/seawater interactions at a tidewater glacier front that is in contact with the stabilizing submarine morainal bank. However, the seafloor and water column proximal to the ice face of a marine-terminating glacier is one of the most challenging and extreme environments imaginable for marine survey work. Frequently choked with constantly-shifting mélange ice at the sea surface and at risk from calving, surface vessels cannot operate safely proximal to the ice face. AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) technology provides an opportunity to survey in areas where surface vessels cannot. Operating well below the sea surface the AUV can operate without hindrance or danger to human operators. In addition, the AUV can be programmed to operate close to the seafloor at a constant altitude, enabling the finest-detail currently possible for acoustic seafloor mapping and consistent resolution irrespective of water depth. With these considerations in mind, we conducted a proof-of-concept survey of the Hubbard Glacier morainal bank in June, 2014. We utilized the Bluefin 9M, the smallest of their line of AUVs. Its size enabled deployment and recovery from a small charter fishing vessel well-suited to navigating through mélange-choked waters. The AUV's payload included a Klein UUV-3500 interferometric sonar (455/900 kHz), which enables acquisition of sidescan backscatter and swath bathymetry up to ~75 m to each side of the instrument from ~10 m altitude over the seabed, and sensors for measuring conductivity, temperature, depth (CTD) and optical backscatter (OBS). Although our operations were shortened due to an unfortunate failure in the sonar electronics, sufficient data were collected along the morainal bank to clearly prove the viability of AUV operations in this harsh environment. The data provide centimeter-scale seafloor detail close to the glacier in regions that could not be surveyed with surface vessels. We observed a number of intricate geomorphic features in the raw images that are to our knowledge without precedent. Of particular interest are a series of barchan-shaped bedforms that may provide evidence of significant turbidity flows down the face of the morainal bank.

  3. A MULTI-DISCIPLINARY STUDY OF THE ORIGIN AND GLACIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE WOORE MORAINE, SHROPSHIRE, AND

    E-print Network

    Patterson, Timothy

    A MULTI-DISCIPLINARY STUDY OF THE ORIGIN AND GLACIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE WOORE MORAINE-surface exposures at inland landforms. These issues are exemplified by the Woore Moraine in north-west England the key findings of a multi-disciplinary project addressing the moraine's origin and glaciological

  4. Erosion rates of moraine crests from in-situ and atmospheric cosmogenic nuclide accumulation in boulders and matrix

    E-print Network

    Zreda, Marek

    Erosion rates of moraine crests from in-situ and atmospheric cosmogenic nuclide accumulation the application of in-situ and atmospheric cosmogenic nuclides to determining erosion rates of moraines. It builds on our previous approach (Zreda et al., 1994) in which we measured 36 Cl in morainal boulders

  5. Analysis and dynamic modeling of a moraine failure and glacier lake outburst flood at Ventisquero Negro, Patagonian Andes (Argentina)

    E-print Network

    Butler, David R. - Department of Geography, Texas State University

    Analysis and dynamic modeling of a moraine failure and glacier lake outburst flood at Ventisquero. Georgakakos, Editor-in-Chief, with the assistance of Ehab A. Meselhe, Associate Editor Keywords: Moraine Outburst hydrograph s u m m a r y Although moraine dams are inherently prone to failure because

  6. Comparing the Preferences of Black, Asian, Hispanic, and White Fishermen at Moraine Hills State Park, Illinois1

    E-print Network

    Comparing the Preferences of Black, Asian, Hispanic, and White Fishermen at Moraine Hills State at Moraine Hills State Park outside of Chicago, which is one of the few Illinois state parks that gets a high and preferences of Black, Asian, Hispanic, and White fishermen at Moraine Hills State Park, a 1700 acre park 50

  7. Preservation of Late Amazonian Mars ice and water-related deposits in a unique crater environment in Noachis Terra: Age relationships between lobate

    E-print Network

    Marchant, David R.

    , and fan morphologies. The shift from ice-rich viscous-flow formation to gully erosion is best explained in Noachis Terra: Age relationships between lobate debris tongues and gullies Gareth A. Morgan a, , James W tongues (LDT). Superimposed on LDT are a series of fresh-appearing gullies, with typical alcove, channel

  8. VOL. 59, NO. 1 (MARCH 2006) P. 1420 Tree-Ring Dates for the Maximum Little Ice Age Advance of Kaskawulsh Glacier,

    E-print Network

    Smith, Dan

    of Kaskawulsh Glacier, St. Elias Mountains, Canada ALBERTO V. REYES,1,2 BRIAN H. LUCKMAN,3 DAN J. SMITH,4 JOHN J) ABSTRACT. A dendroglaciological study at Kaskawulsh Glacier provides the first calendar dating of a Little Ice Age glacier advance in the northeast St. Elias Mountains of Yukon Territory. Ring series from

  9. Close-range photogrammetric reconstruction of moraine dam failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westoby, M. J.; Brasington, J.; Glasser, N. F.; Hambrey, M. J.; Reynolds, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) from moraine-dammed lakes represent a high magnitude, low frequency catastrophic glacio-fluvial phenomena, with the potential to cause significant damage to property and infrastructure in high-mountain regions. Detailed accounts of GLOF dynamics, in particular the initiation and propagation of dam breaching are extremely rare, owing to their occurrence in often remote, inaccessible areas, as well as the impracticalities associated with attempting to directly instrument such high magnitude, turbulent flows. In addition to the dearth of detailed, first-hand observations of dam failures, reconstruction of breaches and failure mechanisms derived from morphological evidence is hampered by the lack of high-quality, high-resolution DTMs of remote alpine areas. Previous studies have therefore resorted to the use of coarse resolution data products (SRTM, ASTER GDEM) to quantify characteristics of failure events, e.g. pre-flood lake volume, dam height/width, which may give rise to considerable uncertainty in related numerical simulations and assessments of downstream flood hazards. In this paper we employ a novel low-cost, close-range photogrammetric technique, termed 'Structure-from-Motion' (SfM) to provide detailed in-situ reconstructions of dam and valley topography for two moraine dam complexes which have produced historical GLOFs in the Khumbu Himal, Nepal. Requiring little more than a consumer-grade digital camera and suitable ground control for implementation, the resolution of the final data products are comparable to that obtained using ground-based or airborne LiDAR. These data facilitate the extraction of precise estimates of dam (and breach) geometry, volumes of water and sediment removed during the outburst events, and the downstream channel topography. We conclude by directly comparing such key metrics derived from low-resolution topographic datasets, with those acquired in situ using the SfM technique, and discuss the implications for the reconstruction of flood dynamics.

  10. Cosmogenic Ne-21 exposure ages of glacial boulders constrained by local bedrock erosion rates in Ong Valley, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, D. J.; Balco, G.; Putkonen, J.; Bibby, T.; Giusti, C.; Ball, A. E.; Hedberg, C. P.; Diamond, M. S.; Ringger, K. C.

    2013-12-01

    In order to accurately determine the exposure age of glacial boulders with cosmogenic nuclides, we need to know something about the erosion rate of the rock and any previous exposure the boulder may have had. Commonly, the erosion rate is simply assumed, and inheritance is dealt with by both sampling strategy and removing outliers from the data. In this study, we determine the rock erosion rate by measuring the concentration of cosmogenic Ne-21 in granite bedrock samples. This is used to constrain the exposure age of glacial boulders of the same lithology from the same locale. Ong Valley, Antarctica, (157.5 East, 83.25 South) is an ice-free valley in the Miller Range of the Central Transantarctic Mountains. The valley contains three distinct glacial drifts, and the oldest of these is well defined by an end moraine. We collected samples from six boulders on this end moraine, and six additional samples from the surrounding bedrock that is composed of the same lithology, the Hope Granite. The bedrock samples were collected from the ridge bordering the valley, well above the glacial limit. Because the bedrock samples have not been shielded by ice and have been exposed for millions of years, the concentration of cosmogenic Ne-21 in these samples reflects only the erosion rate of the granite. We separated quartz from the granite samples following standard laboratory methods and measured the concentration of cosmogenic Ne-21 in the quartz at the BGC Noble Gas Thermochronometry Lab. The concentration of cosmogenic Ne-21 in the bedrock samples is interpreted as reflecting only the erosion rate. We can then assume that the erosion rate of the bedrock is equal to the erosion rate of the glacial boulders on the end moraine because they have the same lithology and have been subjected to the same climate conditions during their exposure. With this information, we can better constrain the exposure age of the glacial boulders in Ong Valley.

  11. The evolution of fish ectoparasite communities--the role of the ice ages.

    PubMed

    Harris, Philip D

    2008-01-01

    The monogenean ectoparasite genera Dactylogyrus and Gyrodactylus are hyperdiverse, and yet monogenean communities infecting freshwater fish in the northern Holarctic are variable and often impoverished. This is a result of extinctions during periods of glaciation when the host fishes experienced range contraction. Fish species recolonised northern Europe by one of three routes; stenohaline fishes recolonised from the Black Sea basin via Danube-Rhine or Dnieper-Dniester-Vistula connections. These fish retain complex rich monogenean faunas with numerous species of Dactylogyrus and Paradiplozoon. Anadromous fishes, recolonising via marine migrations along the coast, and cold-water fishes surviving in refugia close to the ice sheets, have impoverished monogenean faunas, characterised by gyrodactylid and ancyrocephalid species. However, there may be great complexity, due to the evolution of new host-parasite interactions within specific watersheds before, during and after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). This is demonstrated using examples from the sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and the bullheads (Cottus gobio). Finally, the evolution of Gyrodactylus salaris from a clade of G. thymalli is described, and the role of glaciation in stimulating the evolution of numerous clades of the latter is discussed. This latter example represents a unique opportunity to study speciation by host shift in real time. PMID:19338218

  12. Little Ice Age climate reconstruction from ensemble reanalysis of Alpine glacier fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüthi, M. P.

    2014-04-01

    Mountain glaciers sample a combination of climate fields - temperature, precipitation and radiation - by accumulation and melting of ice. Flow dynamics acts as a transfer function that maps volume changes to a length response of the glacier terminus. Long histories of terminus positions have been assembled for several glaciers in the Alps. Here I analyze terminus position histories from an ensemble of seven glaciers in the Alps with a macroscopic model of glacier dynamics to derive a history of glacier equilibrium line altitude (ELA) for the time span 400-2010 C.E. The resulting climatic reconstruction depends only on records of glacier variations. The reconstructed ELA history is similar to recent reconstructions of Alpine summer temperature and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index, but bears little resemblance to reconstructed precipitation variations. Most reconstructed low-ELA periods coincide with large explosive volcano eruptions, hinting at a direct effect of volcanic radiative cooling on mass balance. The glacier advances during the LIA, and the retreat after 1860, can thus be mainly attributed to temperature and volcanic radiative cooling.

  13. The phylogeography of an alpine leaf beetle: divergence within Oreina elongata spans several ice ages.

    PubMed

    Borer, Matthias; Alvarez, Nadir; Buerki, Sven; Margraf, Nicolas; Rahier, Martine; Naisbit, Russell E

    2010-11-01

    The genetic landscape of the European flora and fauna was shaped by the ebb and flow of populations with the shifting ice during Quaternary climate cycles. While this has been well demonstrated for lowland species, less is known about high altitude taxa. Here we analyze the phylogeography of the leaf beetle Oreina elongata from 20 populations across the Alps and Apennines. Three mitochondrial and one nuclear region were sequenced in 64 individuals. Within an mtDNA phylogeny, three of seven subspecies are monophyletic. The species is chemically defended and aposematic, with green and blue forms showing geographic variation and unexpected within-population polymorphism. These warning colors show pronounced east-west geographical structure in distribution, but the phylogeography suggests repeated origin and loss. Basal clades come from the central Alps. Ancestors of other clades probably survived across northern Italy and the northern Adriatic, before separation of eastern, southern and western populations and rapid spread through the western Alps. After reviewing calibrated gene-specific substitution rates in the literature, we use partitioned Bayesian coalescent analysis to date our phylogeography. The major clades diverged long before the last glacial maximum, suggesting that O. elongata persisted many glacial cycles within or at the edges of the Alps and Apennines. When analyzing additional barcoding pairwise distances, we find strong evidence to consider O. elongata as a species complex rather than a single species. PMID:20807580

  14. Coach Selections and the Relative Age Effect in Male Youth Ice Hockey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, David J.; Ste-Marie, Diane M.; Young, Bradley W.

    2013-01-01

    Relative age effects (RAEs; when relatively older children possess participation and performance advantages over relatively younger children) are frequent in male team sports. One possible explanation is that coaches select players based on physical attributes, which are more likely witnessed in relatively older athletes. Purpose: To determine if…

  15. A first-order global model of Late Cenozoic climatic change: Orbital forcing as a pacemaker of the ice ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Barry

    1992-01-01

    The development of a theory of the evolution of the climate of the earth over millions of years can be subdivided into three fundamental, nested, problems: (1) to establish by equilibrium climate models (e.g., general circulation models) the diagnostic relations, valid at any time, between the fast-response climate variables (i.e., the 'weather statistics') and both the prescribed external radiative forcing and the prescribed distribution of the slow response variables (e.g., the ice sheets and shelves, the deep ocean state, and the atmospheric CO2 concentration); (2) to construct, by an essentially inductive process, a model of the time-dependent evolution of the slow-response climatic variables over time scales longer than the damping times of these variables but shorter than the time scale of tectonic changes in the boundary conditions (e.g., altered geography and elevation of the continents, slow outgassing, and weathering) and ultra-slow astronomical changes such as in the solar radiative output; and (3) to determine the nature of these ultra-slow processes and their effects on the evolution of the equilibrium state of the climatic system about which the above time-dependent variations occur. All three problems are discussed in the context of the theory of the Quaternary climate, which will be incomplete unless it is embedded in a more general theory for the fuller Cenozoic that can accommodate the onset of the ice-age fluctuations. We construct a simple mathematical model for the Late Cenozoic climatic changes based on the hypothesis that forced and free variations of the concentration of atmospheric greenhouse gases (notably CO2), coupled with changes in the deep ocean state and ice mass, under the additional 'pacemaking' influence of earth-orbital forcing, are primary determinants of the climate state over this period. Our goal is to illustrate how a single model governing both very long term variations and higher frequency oscillatory variations in the Pleistocene can be formulated with relatively few adjustable parameters.

  16. A model study of the Little Ice Age and beyond: changes in ocean heat content, hydrography and circulation since 1500

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlá?ek, Jan; Mysak, Lawrence A.

    2009-09-01

    The Earth System Climate Model from the University of Victoria is used to investigate changes in ocean properties such as heat content, temperature, salinity, density and circulation during 1500 to 2000, the time period which includes the Little Ice Age (LIA) (1500-1850) and the industrial era (1850-2000). We force the model with two different wind-stress fields which take into account the North Atlantic Oscillation. Furthermore, temporally varying radiative forcings due to volcanic activity, insolation changes and greenhouse gas changes are also implemented. We find that changes in the upper ocean (0-300 m) heat content are mainly driven by changes in radiative forcing, except in the polar regions where the varying wind-stress induces changes in ocean heat content. In the full ocean (0-3,000 m) the wind-driven effects tend to reduce, prior to 1700, the downward trend in the ocean heat content caused by the radiative forcing. Afterwards no dynamical effect is visible. The colder ocean temperatures in the top 600 m during the LIA are caused by changes in radiative forcing, while the cooling at the bottom is wind-driven. The changes in salinity are small except in the Arctic Ocean. The reduced salinity content in the subsurface Arctic Ocean during the LIA is a result from reduced wind-driven inflow of saline water from the North Atlantic. At the surface of the Arctic Ocean the changes in salinity are caused by changes in sea-ice thickness. The changes in density are a composite picture of the temperature and salinity changes. Furthermore, changes in the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) are caused mainly by a varying wind-stress forcing; the additional buoyancy driven changes due to the radiative forcings are small. The simulated MOC is reduced during the LIA as compared to the industrial era. On the other hand, the ventilation rate in the Southern Ocean is increased during the LIA.

  17. Evaluation of Little Ice Age cooling in Western Central Andes, suggested by paleoELAs, in contrast with global warming since late 19th century deduced from instrumental records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubeda, Jose; Palacios, David; Campos, Néstor; Giraldez, Claudia; García, Eduardo; Quiros, Tatiana

    2015-04-01

    This paper attempts to evaluate climate cooling (°C) during the glacial expansion phases using the product GTV•?ELA, where GTV is the vertical air temperature gradient (°C/m) and ?ELA (m) the difference in level observed between the Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) reconstructions for current and past glaciers. With this aim the Area x Altitude Balance Ratio-(AABR) method was used to produce reconstructions of present ELAs (2002-2010) and paleoELAs corresponding to the last glacier advance phase. The reconstructions were produced in three study areas located along a N-S transect of the western cordillera in the Central Andes: the south-western sector of the Nevado Hualcán (9°S, 77°W; Giráldez 2011); the southern slope of the Cordillera Pariaqaqa (12°S, 76°W; Quirós, 2013) and the NW, NE, SE and SW quadrants of the Nevado Coropuna (16°S, 72°W; García 2013; Úbeda 2011; Campos, 2012). The three mountains exceed 6000 m altitude, their summit areas are covered by glaciers, and on their slopes there are existing well-conserved moraines deposited by the last advances near the present front of the ice masses. Although there are no absolute dates to confirm this hypothesis, it has been assumed that the last glacial advances occurred during the Little Ice Age (LIA), which the oxygen isotopes of the Nevado Huascarán (9°S, 77°W) date to the period 1500-1890. For the Hualcán and Pariaqaqa the mean global value of the Earth's GTV (6.5°C/km) was used, considered valid for the Tropics. On the Coropuna a GTV=8.4°C/km was used, based on high resolution sensors installed in situ since 2007 (Úbeda 2011). This gradient is approaching the upper limit of the dry adiabatic gradient (9.8°C/km), as the Coropuna region is more arid than the other case study areas. The climate cooling estimates deduced from the product GTV•?ELA were compared with the global warming shown by the 1880-2012 series, ?T=0.85°C, and 1850/1900-2003/2012, ?T=0.78°C. The differences are small (averaging 0.05 and 0.12 °C) suggesting that the product GTV•?ELA may be a good indicator of climate cooling during glacial expansion phases. However, the role played by precipitation has not yet been determined, and this will be examined in future research. Campos (2012). Glacier evolution in the South West slope of Nevado Coropuna (Cordillera Ampato, Peru). Master Thesis. Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain), pp. 55. http://eprints.ucm.es/19889/. García, E. (2013). Evolución glaciar del cuadrante noroeste del Nevado Coropuna. Master Thesis. Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain), p. 50. http://eprints.ucm.es/23671/. Giráldez, C. (2011). Glacier evolution in the South West slope of Nevado Hualcán (Cordillera Blanca, Peru). Master Thesis. Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain), p. 125. http://eprints.ucm.es/14013/. IPCC (2013). Climate Change 2013. The Physical Science Basis. Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge (UK) y New York (USA), 1535 pp. Research funded by Cryocrisis (CGL2012-35858) and www.cryoperu.pe.

  18. Southern Laurentide Ice-Sheet Retreat Synchronous with Rising Boreal Summer Insolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, David J.; Carlson, Anders E.; Legrande, Allegra N.; Anslow, Faron S.; Moore, Angus K.; Caffee, Marc; Syverson, Kent M.; Licciardi, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Establishing the precise timing for the onset of ice-sheet retreat at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is critical for delineating mechanisms that drive deglaciations. Uncertainties in the timing of ice-margin retreat and global ice-volume change allow a variety of plausible deglaciation triggers. Using boulder 10Be surface exposure ages, we date initial southern Laurentide ice-sheet (LIS) retreat from LGM moraines in Wisconsin (USA) to 23.0 +/- 0.6 ka, coincident with retreat elsewhere along the southern LIS and synchronous with the initial rise in boreal summer insolation 24-23 ka. We show with climate-surface mass balance simulations that this small increase in boreal summer insolation alone is potentially sufficient to drive enhanced southern LIS surface ablation. We also date increased southern LIS retreat after ca. 20.5 ka likely driven by an acceleration in rising isolation. This near-instantaneous southern LIS response to boreal summer insolation before any rise in atmospheric CO2 supports the Milankovic hypothesis of orbital forcing of deglaciations.

  19. Reconstruction of Wisconsinan-age ice dynamics and compositions of southern Ontario glacial diamictons, glaciofluvial/lacustrine, and deltaic sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Hancock, R. G. V.; Milan, Alison; Pulleyblank, Coren; Costa, Pedro J. M.; Milner, M. W.

    2014-02-01

    Macrofabric analysis of till sections in south-central Ontario confirms that clast orientation yields information related to changing ice dynamics during the Wisconsinan glaciation. Test stations in six sections yield unimodal to multimodal macrofabrics that indicate ice flow direction, ranging from SE-NW vectors when ice was thin and flowing radially to variable NE-SW, NNE-SSW, and N-S vectors when ice thickened. Ice loci appear to range from the Lake Ontario basin and southern Quebec (thin ice), Labrador Ungava (thicker ice), and Hudson Bay (thickest ice). The north-south fabric may identify the intergrowth of Keewatin-Labrador ice, presumably the maximum ice thickness of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The preliminary data support the theory that topography directed ice movement during preliminary and closing stages of glaciation in southern Ontario, while thick ice generated flow vectors largely unaffected by underlying topography; hence, leading to clast azimuthal variations reflecting changing ice loci with glacier growth. The fabrics analyzed suggest that inferring difference between ductile and brittle lodgement tills is possible as well as to identifying possible glacial tectonic action/overburden loading that disturbs the least friction-fit position of clasts in till. The changing dynamics within till sheets are supported, in part, by variations in glacial crushing seen in SEM imagery that depict a range of microtextures from full-scale fractures under brittle conditions to those indicating less viscous transport under ductile regimes. To some degree, changes in flow direction are further supported by geochemical variations that relate to bedrock/regolith up-glacier controlling Ca-dilution and variable concentrations of Rare Earth Elements (REEs).

  20. Extensive mapping of ice marginal landforms in northern Russia (25°E - 112°E); new precise constraints on ice sheet limits of the Eurasian ice sheets in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredin, O.; Rubensdotter, L.; van Welden, A.; Larsen, E.; Lyså, A.; Jensen, M.

    2009-12-01

    Ice sheet extent for the last glaciation(s) are well established in most previously glaciated areas, most notably in North America and Europe. However, in Russia, which have hosted major sectors of the Scandinavian-, Barents sea-, and Kara sea ice sheets, knowledge of exact ice marginal positions is sporadic. Most evidence of ice sheet extent so far, have been from drift distribution, and only limited attempts have been made to use remote sensing data to precisely locate ice marginal zones. This is probably because of difficulties in using optical remote sensing data (typically Landsat ETM+ and ASTER) in low relief, densely forested areas (Taiga), and sheer scale of the mapped areas. Furthermore, no reliable elevation model has existed north of 60°N, aiding interpretation of optical remote sensing data. We have used recently digitized Russian topographic maps (scale 1:100,000) and the new ASTER GDEM 15 m resolution elevation model to map ice marginal moraines in Russia (25°E - 112°E), thereby covering most formerly glaciated areas in Russia. The majority of the mapping was made using shaded relief maps. Critical interpretation was made using the ASTER GDEM elevation model combined with multispectral Landsat ETM+ data to construct a synthetic stereo-model, which was analyzed in 3D using ERDAS Stereo Analyst® software. Several operators have worked independently to insure unbiased interpretation of the landforms. So far we have mapped about 2.1E6 km2. Many of the mapped moraines are distinct at the mapping scale, with a typical relief of 20 - 120 m, and a cross-sectional width of 500 - 1500 m. Moreover, several moraines are hundreds kilometers long! Many mapped ice marginal moraines exhibit a very lobate morphology, reflecting low gradient ice lobes extending into the low relief river valleys. We infer very low basal shear stresses in the valleys, indicating glacier flow on soft sediments and possible flotation of ice tongues on ice dammed lakes. There are relatively little mapped ice marginal deposits on relative highs in the terrain, indicating less ice movement slightly higher up in the topography. We have also mapped large zones of hummocky moraine, tentatively correlated to an early-/mid-Weichselian Barents Sea advance, indicating down-wasting in a stagnant fashion. We regard the mapping as robust, and expect it to reliably depict major ice marginal zones in Russia. The current mapping conforms well with, and, expands upon previous remote sensing efforts in NW Russia. Important results from this study show that the Scandivian LGM ice sheet extended significantly further southeast (~150 km) than previously thought in the Severnaya Dvina and Vychegda river basins. Furthermore many previously unknown ice marginal moraines have been mapped in great detail all the way east into the Taymyr region. We have only tentatively correlated the mapped moraines to known glacial stages, but we are confident that the new mapping effort is a big step forward in understanding the geometry of former ice extent in Russia.

  1. Comparative Study of Probiotic Ice Cream and Probiotic Drink on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Levels in 6-12 Years Age Group Children

    PubMed Central

    Mahantesha, Taranatha; Reddy, K M Parveen; Kumar, N H Praveen; Nara, Asha; Ashwin, Devasya; Buddiga, Vinutna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is one of the most common health problems in the world. Probiotics are one the various preventive methods to reduce dental caries. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of probiotic ice cream and drink on salivary Streptococcus mutans levels in children of 6-12 years age group. Materials and Methods: A three phase study was carried out in children (n = 50) of 6-12 years age with zero decayed missing filled teeth (dmft)/DMFT. They were randomly divided into two equal groups. Saliva samples were collected before the consumptions of probiotic ice cream and probiotic drink. Colony count obtained was recorded as baseline data. For both groups probiotic ice cream and drink was given randomly for 7 days and a washout period of 90 days were given and then the saliva samples were collected and colony counting was done. Results: Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s paired t-test and multiple comparisons by Tukey’s honest significant difference test which showed, there is a significant reduction in salivary S. mutans level in both groups after 7 days period. However, after washout period only probiotic ice cream showed reduction whereas drink did not. Also, there was no significant difference between probiotic ice cream and drink. Conclusion: Probiotic organisms definitely have a role in reducing the salivary S. mutans level and ice cream would be a better choice than drink. However, the prolonged use of the agents and their effects on caries is still to be determined. PMID:26435616

  2. Frozen-bed Fennoscandian and Laurentide ice sheets during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleman, Johan; Hättestrand, Clas

    1999-11-01

    The areal extents of the Laurentide and Fennoscandian ice sheets during the Last Glacial Maximum (about 20,000 years ago) are well known, but thickness estimates range widely, from high-domed to thin, with large implications for our reconstruction of the climate system regarding, for example, Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation and global sea levels. This uncertainty stems from difficulties in determining the basal temperatures of the ice sheets and the shear strength of subglacial materials, a knowledge of which would better constrain reconstructions of ice-sheet thickness. Here we show that, in the absence of direct data, the occurrence of ribbed moraines in modern landscapes can be used to determine the former spatial distribution of frozen- and thawed-bed conditions. We argue that ribbed moraines were formed by brittle fracture of subglacial sediments, induced by the excessive stress at the boundary between frozen- and thawed-bed conditions resulting from the across-boundary difference in basal ice velocity. Maps of glacial landforms from aerial photographs of Canada and Scandinavia reveal a concentration of ribbed moraines around the ice-sheet retreat centres of Quebec, Keewatin, Newfoundland and west-central Fennoscandia. Together with the evidence from relict landscapes that mark glacial areas with frozen-bed conditions, the distribution of ribbed moraines on both continents suggest that a large area of the Laurentide and Fennoscandian ice sheets was frozen-based-and therefore high-domed and stable-during the Last Glacial Maximum.

  3. Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age Impacts on Prehistoric Human Migrations in the Eastern North American Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, M.; Finkelstein, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    The eastern North American Arctic has a complex 5,000-year prehistory, during which many human population movements occurred over large distances. Archaeologists have interpreted these movements as resulting from many factors, however the effects of climate change are often hypothesized as primary drivers that can "push" human groups to leave some regions, or "pull" them to move to others. In this paper, we will examine climate change over the past millennium-and-a-half, and in particular at the two widespread, though variable, climate change events known as the Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age. We synthesize the latest paleoclimatological information on the timing and magnitude of these periods across the eastern Arctic, and assess the degree to which they coincide with current understanding of major population movements. In particular, we assess climate's potential impact on 1) the expansion of Late Dorset Paleo-Inuit to the High Arctic; 2) the migration of Thule Inuit from Alaska to the eastern Arctic; and 3) the abandonment of northern regions and new settlement of southern regions by Inuit in the mid-second millennium AD.

  4. Climate variability and Alpine glaciers evolution in Northwestern Italy from the Little Ice Age to the 2010s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigrelli, Guido; Lucchesi, Stefania; Bertotto, Stefania; Fioraso, Gianfranco; Chiarle, Marta

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we analyze climate variability and glacier evolution for a study area in the Northwestern Italian Alps from the Little Ice Age (LIA) to the 2010s. In this area, glacier retreat has been almost continuous since the end of the LIA, and many glaciers are now extinct. We compared glaciological and climatic data in order to evaluate the sensitivity of glaciers to temperature and precipitation trends. We found that temperatures show significant warming trends, while precipitation shows no clear signal. After the 1980s, the total number of positive trends in temperature increased, particularly minimum temperature. The latter does not seem to be the only cause of glacier shrinkage but rather on acceleration of an ongoing trend documented since the end of the LIA. In some rare cases, the effects of warming trends on glacier dynamics have been accentuated by a concomitant decrease in precipitation. We hope that this study will contribute to increase the knowledge of the relationships between climate variation and glacier evolution in the Greater Alpine Region.

  5. Little Ice Age and recent treeline fluctuations at the Columbia Icefield, Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Kavanagh, T.A.; Luckman, B.H.

    1995-06-01

    Vegetation dynamics at two treeline sites (north- and south-facing) were reconstructed using tree-ring and age-structure studies. Trees, seedlings and snags were mapped in two, 30m x 275m plots running upslope from continuous forest to alpine tundra. The Athabasca Glacier advanced against the base of the south-facing slope ca. 1714 and in the 1840`s. Snags on this slope indicate that treeline was higher than present prior to ca. 1200 A.D. and between 1400-1700 A.D. Many trees died between 1650-1700 A.D. during the advance of the Athabasca Glacier. Tree establishment took place in the late 1700`s and the 1800`s as well as during periods of warmer climate in the 1940`s and 1960`s. Both Picea engelmannii and Abies lasiocarpa form treeline at this site. On the north-facing slope (8 km south) treeline dynamics are different. A. lasiocarpa dominates the vegetation and P. engelmannii is rare. There is no strong evidence of historical fluctuations of treeline at the north-facing site. Tree establishment is primarily due to expansion of tree clumps by layering at the north-facing site, whereas treeline expansion at the south-facing site is due to seedling establishment. At both sites tree establishment by seed appears to be limited to periods of warmer climate, whereas population expansion by layering occurs continuously.

  6. Late Pleistocene and Holocene glaciation of the Fish Lake valley, northeastern Alaska Range,

    E-print Network

    Briner, Jason P.

    in the valley is a moraine immediately in front of Little Ice Age (LIA) moraines and is dated to 3.3­3.0 ka. A subsequent advance culminated at ca. AD 610­900 and several LIA moraine crests date to AD 1290, 1640, 1860 agreement between 10 Be and lichenometric ages reveal that 10 Be ages on late Holocene moraines may

  7. Ice Sheet Deglaciation, Younger Dryas Readvance and Palaeoclimatic Implications in the Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Standell, Matthew; Graham, David; Hodgkins, Richard; Rodés, Ángel

    2013-04-01

    The Cairngorm Mountains contain an outstanding assemblage of glacial landforms from both the deglaciation of the last British-Irish Ice Sheet and the Younger Dryas Readvance; these can provide a wealth of information about palaeoclimate and glacier-climate interaction. Previous interpretations have left doubt over the extent and style of the Younger Dryas readvance. In addition, although the ice sheet deglaciation of the northern margin of the Cairngorms is relatively well understood, the pattern and timing of deglaciation on the southern margin and particularly how local and external ice masses interacted is unclear. New geomorphological mapping from aerial images and fieldwork has been compiled in a GIS for a 600km² area of the Cairngorm Mountains. This systematic mapping covers all previously reconstructed Younger Dryas glaciers and the landform assemblages associated with ice sheet deglaciation. For the first time, Cairngorm-wide patterns of deglaciation have been mapped and comparisons between the northern and southern margins made. Interpretations suggest that during ice sheet deglaciation, outlet glaciers were fed by locally-sourced plateau ice caps. On both the northern and southern margin of the Cairngorms, large ice-dammed lakes formed between locally sourced ice and neighbouring ice masses. The presence of these lakes indicates that ice masses in the Cairngorms began to recede early in deglaciation, most likely as a result of precipitation starvation. Detailed mapping, combined with new surface exposure ages taken from areas of 'hummocky moraine' previously subject to differing interpretation, will assist in determining the extent of Younger Dryas glaciation. The new ages will also guide new modelling of snow delivery to the surface of Younger Dryas glaciers. Preliminary results suggest snow blow factors cannot account for the low ELAs of some previously reconstructed valley glaciers. As a result, either very strong precipitation gradients existed within the Cairngorms during the Younger Dryas or previously reconstructed glaciers did not occur simultaneously. The geomorphological evidence and palaeoclimatic inferences are important alongside a growing number of palaeoglaciological studies in acting as evaluation areas for current numerical models of ice sheet growth and decay.

  8. Geodiversity characterization and assessment of the Morainic Amphitheatre of Rivoli -Avigliana (NW-Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Enrico; Lucchesi, Stefania; Perotti, Luigi; Giardino, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The concept of Geodiversity in its wide sense refers specifically to particular geosystems that are in themselves complex (e.g diverse) assemblages of bedrock, landform, and soil features. Therefore, geodiversity assessment is strictly related to landscape structure, whose studies are in the field of complex Physical Geography. Moreover, Geodiversity studies provide a fundamental base for geoconservation and environmental management in a holistic way. This is particularly true within complex geomorphological environments, where many intrinsic and extrinsic factors are interconnected. Various procedures has been already applied for the creation of geodiversity maps in different geomorphological context, but especially in wide areas with a large geodiversity of landforms. Pleistocene morainic amphitheatres of the Alpine piedmont regions are indeed particular and complex environments: not only for the geological and geomorphological points of view, but also for their relationships with biotic components and human life. The aim of this study is to carry out a geodiversity characterization of the Rivoli-Avigliana Morainic Amphitheatre (AMRA; NW Italy). The AMRA separates the lower Susa Valley from the middle course of the Sangone River; it is a set of low hills and depressions related to glacial pulsations aged between 750,000 and 12,000 years ago. Earth Sciences knowledge of the area has been compared to detailed field geomorphological and territorial data in order to determine qualitative and quantitative landscape parameters and to evaluate their validity for geodiversity assessment. A first qualitative characterization of the AMRA and an estimation of its geodiversity have been performed by means of geomorphological mapping and stratigraphic studies, including geomorphosites assessment for the same area. Then, geodiversity characterization and evaluation have been performed through the definition and application of quantitative parameters (landform energy, slope, land use, roughness, and other geomorphologic, hydrologic and geologic indexes). After acquisition of vector data, satellite and aerial images, GIS procedures allowed to manage and to process images and data: this allowed to interpret morphometric indexes and to obtain thematic maps with 3D views. Finally, results from the calculation of geodiversity and geomorphosites have been compared. Results turned out to be very effective for the study and for the reconstruction of the AMRA evolutionary stages, also for interpreting scenarios of future natural hazards, land occupation and risks posed to geodiversity for natural and anthropogenic causes. Geomatics devices and digital data demonstrated to be really suitable for improved analysis and representation of the observed phenomena. They can be easily integrated within GIS for decision support requirements. In this way, field and remote sensing data, together with indexes of biotic and abiotic aspects can generate synthetic information, to produce effective spatial interpolations and impressive 3D scenarios useful for Earth Science simulations and environmental/territorial advertising.

  9. Modern and Little Ice Age equilibrium-line altitudes on Outlet Valley glaciers from Jostedalsbreen, western Norway: An evaluation of different approaches to their calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Torsnes, I.; Rye, N. ); Nesje, A. )

    1993-05-01

    The modern and Little Ice Age (LIA) equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) of 20 outlet valley glacier from Jostedalsbreen, western Norway, has been calculated using different approaches. Using an accumulation area ratio (AAR) of 0.6 [+-] 0.05 gave a mean little Ice Age ELA depression of 70 m. A method developed by M. Kuhle, taking the influence by topography into account gave a mean ELA depression of 35-255 m, the median elevation of glaciers 115 m, and the toe-to-headwall altitude ration 140 m. Differences in the ELA estimates can be attributed to the differences in topography and morphology of the glaciers. The AAR method appears to provide the most reliable results. This will aid in determining mean global temperatures during the LIA. 34 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Simulations of Western North American Hydroclimate during the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, S. M.; Mann, M. E.; Steinman, B. A.; Feng, S.; Zhang, Y.; Miller, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the immense impact that large, modern North American droughts, such as those of the 1930s and 1950s, have had on economic, social, aquacultural, and agricultural systems, they are smaller in duration and magnitude than the multidecadal megadroughts that affected North America, in particular the western United States, during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, ~ 900-1300 AD) and the Little Age (LIA, ~1450-1850 AD). Although various proxy records have been used to reconstruct the timing of these MCA and LIA megadroughts in the western United States, there still exists great uncertainty in the magnitude and spatial coherence of such droughts in the Pacific Northwest region, especially on decadal to centennial timescales. This uncertainty motivates the following study to establish a causal link between the climate forcing that induced these megadroughts and the spatiotemporal response of regional North American hydroclimates to this forcing. This study seeks to establish a better understanding of the influence of tropical Pacific and North Atlantic SSTs on North American drought during the MCA and LIA. We force NCAR's Community Atmospheric Model version 5.1.1 (CAM 5) with prescribed proxy-reconstructed tropical Pacific and North Atlantic SST anomalies from the MCA and LIA, in order to investigate the influence that these SST anomalies had on the spatiotemporal patterns of drought in North America. To isolate the effects of individual ocean basin SSTs on the North American climate system, the model experiments use a variety of SST permutations in the tropical Pacific and North Atlantic basin as external forcing. In order to quantify the spatiotemporal response of the North American climate system to these SST forcing permutations, temperature and precipitation data derived from the MCA and LIA model experiments are compared to lake sediment isotope and tree ring-based hydroclimate reconstructions from the Pacific Northwest. The spatiotemporal temperature and precipitation patterns from the model experiments indicate that in the Pacific Northwest, the MCA and LIA were anomalously wet and dry periods, respectively, a finding that is largely supported by the lake sediment records. This pattern contrasts with the dry MCA/wet LIA pattern diagnosed in model experiments for the U.S Southwest and indicated by tree ring-based proxy data. Thus, the CAM 5 model experiments confirm the wet/dry dipole pattern suggested by proxy data for the western U.S. during the MCA and LIA and highlights the role that the natural variability of tropical Pacific and North Atlantic SSTs played in driving this spatiotemporal climate pattern and its related teleconnections.

  11. Marine Climate Archives across the Medieval Climate Anomaly-Little Ice Age Transition from Viking and Medieval Age Shells, Orkney, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surge, D. M.; Barrett, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    Proxy records reconstructing marine climatic conditions across the transition between the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; ~900-1350 AD) and Little Ice Age (LIA; ~1350-1850) are strongly biased towards decadal to annual resolution and summer/growing seasons. Here we present new archives of seasonal variability in North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) from shells of the European limpet, Patella vulgata, which accumulated in Viking and medieval shell and fish middens at Quoygrew on Westray, Orkney. SST was reconstructed at submonthly resolution using oxygen isotope ratios preserved in shells from the 12th and mid 15th centuries (MCA and LIA, respectively). MCA shells recorded warmer summers and colder winters by ~2 degrees C relative to the late 20th Century (1961-1990). Therefore, seasonality was higher during the MCA relative to the late 20th century. Without the benefit of seasonal resolution, SST averaged from shell time series would be weighted toward the fast-growing summer season, resulting in the conclusion that the early MCA was warmer than the late 20th century by ~1°C. This conclusion is broadly true for the summer season, but not true for the winter season. Higher seasonality and cooler winters during early medieval times may result from a weakened North Atlantic Oscillation index. In contrast, the LIA shells have a more a variable inter-annual pattern. Some years record cooler summers and winters relative to the MCA shells and late 20th century, whereas other years record warmer summers and cooler winters similar to the MCA shells. Our findings provide a new test for the accuracy of seasonal amplitudes resulting from paleoclimate model experiments.

  12. Glacial recession in the Tropical Andes from the Little Ice Age: the case of Ampato Volcanic Complex (Southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcalá, J.; Palacios, D.; Zamorano, J. J.

    2010-03-01

    Data published over the last decade reveal substantial glacial recession in the tropical Andes since the Little Ice Age (LIA), (Ramirez, et al., 2001; Rabatel, et al., 2005; Rabatel, et al., 2008; Vuille, et al., 2008; Hastenrath, 2009; Jomelli, et al., 2009), and a growing rate of recession since the 1980’s caused by global warming (Ramirez, et al., 2001; Vuille, et al., 2008). Today there is great interest in the evolution of these ice masses due to heightened awareness of climate change and of the strategic importance that glaciers have as a hydrologic resource for communities in arid climate zones in the tropical Andes (Mark, 2008; Vuille et al., 2008). Cordillera Blanca forms part of the Andes Mountains of northern Peru, and is a chosen site for many studies on glacier evolution. Vuille et al. 2008 determined that a considerable area of ice mass was lost at Huascarán-Chopicalqui glacier (18% from 1920-1970) and Astesonraju glacier (20% from 1962-2003). Studies at Coropuna volcano, which has the most extensive glacier field in the western range of southern Peru, also report a strong melting trend that began with only minimal recession from 1955-1986 (4%), but increased to 14% from 1986-2007 (Úbeda et al., 2009). Only a few of the Andes glaciers are consistently monitored, and the most comprehensive data are for Chacaltaya and Zongo glaciers (16º S) in Bolivia. Since the maximum LIA, Chacaltaya has lost 89% of its surface area, particularly in recent years. By 1983, the totaled loss was five times the shrinkage for the period 1940-1963 (Ramirez, et al., 2001). Zongo glacier maintained equilibrium from 1956-1975, but later experienced a period dominated by continuous recession (Soruco, et al., 2009). This study expands current knowledge of glacier evolution since the LIA in the Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ; 14º - 27º S) (Stern, 2004) of the Andes. The study site was chosen in an area that had never been used for preliminary research of this type, concretely the Ampato volcanic complex (15º24´- 15º 51´ S, 71º 51´ - 73º W; 6.288 masl), one of the most important complexes of the northern sector of the CVZ. Photointerpretation of aerial photographs and teledetection through satellite images of Huayuray Valley (15º 41´ 14´´ S - 71º 51´ 53´´ W), located to the north of the complex, aided in accurately reconstructing the area occupied by the ice mass at different times (LIA, 1955, 2000 and 2008). Also the paleo-ELA (Equilibrium Line Altitude) and the ELA were calculated using the Accumulation Area (AA) method (Kaser and Osmaston, 2002; Osmaston, 2005) in a GIS. The ELA shows the relationship between climate and glacier mass balance (González Trueba, 2005). The data from Huayuray Valley show that the glaciers reached a minimum altitude of 5400 masl and covered an area of ~2.81 Km2 during the LIA. The paleo-ELA was located at ~5780 masl, ~120 m below the current ELA (~5900 m). Based on a vertical thermal gradient of 0.65ºC/100 m, the temperature during this event would have been about 0.7º C colder than present temperature in the Ampato volcanic complex. In 1955, Huayuray glacier covered ~2.45 km2, 12.8% less than in the LIA. In the same year, the glaciers in the Huayuray valley reached a minimum elevation of ~5660 masl and the ELA rose ~20 m, to 5800 masl. In only 45 years (1955 - 2000) the surface area of the ice was significantly reduced (~1 km2), i.e. 40.8%. The ELA continued to rise, until it reached 5890 masl in 2000. From 2000 - 2008, the Huayuray glacier was reduced to ~0.78 km2 and the ELA rised ~10 m to reach the 5900 masl These results from the CVZ confirm the dramatic recession of the glaciers in the tropical Andes during recent decades. They also suggest that if the rate of recession associated with the period 2000-2008 continues, glaciers in the Ampato volcanic complex will disappear in 10 years approximately. References González Trueba, J.J. (2005): La Pequeña Edad del Hielo en los Picos de Europa (Cordillera Cantábrica, NO de España). Análisis morfológico y reconstrucción del avance

  13. Ice front configuration and torrential flow features of the Late Wisconsinan interlobate region of southcentral Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, L.D. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1994-04-01

    A large re-entrant, bordered on three sides by ice of the Michigan, Saginaw and Huron-Erie lobes, developed over a five-county area in southcentral Michigan during ice retreat of the Port Bruce Stade of the Woodfordian Substage. At this time, ice occupied positions marked by the Sturgies, Tekonsha, and Kalamazoo Moraines. The presence of numerous boulder beds within outwash deposits attests to frequent episodes of torrential flow. A major source of the discharge was the draining of short-lived proglacial and subglacial lakes identified by lacustrine deposits which occur at different altitudes within moraine belts. Tunnel valleys, meltwater channels, and narrow chutes carried the high discharges of water that were partly responsible for the Kankakee torrent of northeastern Illinois. The configuration of abandoned meltwater channels in eastern Calhoun and western jackson counties, between the Kalamazoo Moraine on the northeast and the Tekonsha Moraine to the southwest, indicates that a large ice-collapsed depression, 30 km long and 8 km to 16 km wide, developed within the Saginaw lobe just behind its margin. For a short period of time it contained intermittent glacial lakes one of which drained through the Kesler Lakes sluiceway. A large outwash plain, the Union City-Mendon sluiceway, heads at the Tekonsha Moraine in southcentral Calhoun County and extends southwest through northeastern Branch County to the Sturgis Moraine. Several abandoned narrow chutes, up to 1.6 km long and 60 m to 300 m wide, are incised in the outwash plain in the vicinity of Union City. Channel geometry indicates that flow exceeded 850 cms (30,000 cfs) during bankfull discharge and came from the overflow of a lake dammed by ice blocks in the ancient St. Joseph River floodplain.

  14. Ice stratigraphy at the Pa^kitsoq ice margin, West Greenland, derived from gas records

    E-print Network

    Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.

    than deep ice-coring projects, but they also pose specific challenges. The first challenge is age control. Similar to ice cores, where age increases with core depth, in an outcropping ice profile age of the sequence with duplication of layers, which complicates dating. Therefore, absolute ages of the ice

  15. Tropical North Atlantic Coral-Based Sea Surface Temperature and Salinity Reconstructions From the Little Ice Age and Early Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saenger, C.; Cohen, A.; Oppo, D.; Hubbard, D.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding the magnitude and spatial extent of tropical sea surface temperature (SST) cooling during the Little Ice Age (~1400-1850 A.D.; LIA) is important for elucidating low-latitude paleoclimate, but present estimates are poorly constrained. We used Sr/Ca and ?18O variability within the aragonitic skeleton of the coral genus Montastrea to reconstruct SST and sea surface salinity (SSS) during the LIA and early Holocene (EH) in the tropical Atlantic. Four seasonally-resolved coral Sr/Ca records from St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, and Bermuda indicate SST is highly correlated (r2 = 0.94) with modern Montastrea Sr/Ca and mean annual coral extension. A Sr/Ca -SST calibration that combines temperature and growth rate effects on coral Sr/Ca was applied to fossil St. Croix corals to reconstruct Caribbean climate during 5-10 year intervals of the LIA (440 ± 30 yBP) and EH (7200 ± 30; EH). Contrary to previous coral-based LIA proxy reconstructions, we find mean SST during the LIA was similar to today, but approximately 1.2°C cooler during the EH. Both periods exhibited higher amplitude seasonal variability indicating other SST estimates may be seasonally biased. Based on residual coral ?18O, we find the LIA and EH were saltier, which suggests previous cooling estimates of 1-3°C relative to today may be exaggerated by changes in seawater ?18O. Our results are consistent with a southerly migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) during the LIA, but their corroboration requires longer, high-resolution proxy reconstructions that place our two brief multi-annual coral records from the LIA and EH, respectively, within the context of multi-decadal variability.

  16. Identifying and Interpreting the Imprint of the Little Ice Age over the Balkan Landscape: A Combined Palynological and Geochemical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, C.; Peteet, D. M.; Boger, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    We examine a multi-centennial Balkan record of vegetation and landscape during the Little Ice Age (LIA) climatic transition that lasted from c. 15th to the 19th century AD. Biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical analysis (X-ray Fluorescence (XRF)), and a robust chronology based on AMS 14C dating are used to reconstruct the vegetation response and human-environmental interactions during the LIA. A sediment core extracted from a sinkhole lake located in western Serbia (44°30'N-19°30'E; elevation 250 m a.s.l.) was sampled at 10-cm intervals for investigating biological proxies. Palynological data include temperate indigenous trees (e.g. Quercus, Betula), herbaceous taxa (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae), and key anthropogenic indicators (e.g. Juglans, cereals) and demonstrate wet and cool conditions as well as seasonal variations during cal. 16th to 19th century AD. The XRF data obtained from the core at 1-cm intervals show changes in the clastic input and surface erosion around the lake probably owing to seasonal variations during the LIA. Moreover, pollen and charcoal data together reveal the changing nature of human interference across the LIA from intense deforestation to reforestation and sustained cultivation with climatic and seasonal variations. Correlating palaeoecological and geochemical data for this region allows us to interpret the long-term dynamics of landscape and humans across one of the important climatic intervals in Europe. The Balkans, as one of Europe's "Biodiversity Hotspots" and a rapidly changing region, provides insights into possible biotic responses to future global climatic change.

  17. Evidence for external forcing of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation since the termination of the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faurschou Knudsen, Mads; Holm Jacobsen, Bo; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Olsen, Jesper

    2014-05-01

    Variations in North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) are particularly prominent on multidecadal timescales. These changes, which exert a strong influence on climate in the North Atlantic region, are dominated by the alternation between warm and cold SST anomalies on a timescale of 60-80 years, a phenomenon known as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The forcing mechanism pacing the AMO remains subject to considerable debate. One school of thought holds that the AMO is driven by internal ocean variability and related to multidecadal fluctuations in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). In contrast, a recent model study concluded that the combined external forcing due to solar variability and volcanic eruptions has dictated the pace and phasing of the AMO over the past 600 years, as the combined solar and volcanic forcing is highly correlated to the AMO in the model with the forcing leading this AMO by ~5 years. Identifying the relative roles of internal ocean variability and external forcing agents in driving multi-decadal SST variability in the North Atlantic is important, in particular because the AMO purportedly influence climate variables of key importance to society, such as precipitation and hurricane activity. In the present study, we examine the relationship between the AMO and potential external forcing agents over the past 450 years based on statistical analyses of available high-resolution proxy data. The evidence suggests that external forcing played a dominant role in pacing the AMO after termination of the Little Ice Age (LIA; ca. 1400-1800), with an instantaneous impact on mid-latitude sea-surface temperatures that spread across the North Atlantic over the ensuing ~5 years. In contrast, the role of external forcing was more ambiguous during the LIA. Our study further suggests that the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is important for linking external forcing with North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures, a conjecture that reconciles the two opposing theories concerning the origin of the AMO.

  18. New exposure ages for the Last Glacial Cycle in the Sanabria Lake region (northwestern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Laura; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; Domínguez-Cuesta, María Jose; Rinterknecht, Vincent; Pallàs, Raimon; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier; Valero-Garcés, Blas

    2013-04-01

    The Sanabria Lake region is located in the Trevinca Massif, a mid-latitude mountain area up to 2128 m asl in the northwest corner of the Iberian Peninsula (42oN 6oW). An ice cap glaciation took place during the Last Glacial Cycle in this massif, with an equilibrium line altitude of 1687 m for the Tera glacial outlet at its local maximum (Cowton et al., 2009). A well preserved glacial sequence occurs on an area of 45 km2 around the present Sanabria Lake (1000 m asl) and is composed by lateral and end moraines in close relationship with glaciolacustrine deposits. This sequence shows the ice snout oscillations of the former Tera glacier during the Last Glacial Cycle and offers a good opportunity to compare radiocarbon and OSL- based chronological models with new cosmogenic isotope dates. The new dataset of 10Be exposure ages presented here for the Sanabria Lake moraines is based on measurements conducted on 23 boulders and is compared with previous radiocarbon and OSL data conducted on ice related deposits (Pérez-Alberti et al., 2011; Rodríguez-Rodríguez et al., 2011). Our results are coherent with the available deglaciation radiocarbon chronology, and support a last deglaciation origin for the whole set of end moraines that are downstream the Sanabria Lake (19.2 - 15.7 10Be ka). Discrepancies between results of the different dating methods concern the timing of the local glacial maximum, with the cosmogenic exposure method always yielding the youngest minimum ages. As proposed to explain similar observations made elsewhere (Palacios et al., 2012), reconciling the ages from different dating methods would imply the occurrence of two glacial advances close enough in extent to generate an overlapping polygenic moraine. Cowton, T., Hughes, P.D., Gibbard, P.L., 2009. Palaeoglaciation of Parque Natural Lago de Sanabria, northwest Spain. Geomorphology 108, 282-291. Rodríguez-Rodríguez, L., Jiménez-Sánchez, M., Domínguez-Cuesta, M.J., Rico, M.T., Valero-Garcés, B., 2011. Last deglaciation in northwestern Spain: New chronological and geomorphologic evidence from the Sanabria region. Geomorphology 135, 48-65. Palacios, D., Andrés, N., Úbeda, J., Alcalá, J., Marcos, J., Vázquez-Selem, L., 2012. The importance of poligenic moraines in the paleoclimatic interpretation from cosmogenic dating. Geophysical Research Abstracts 14, EGU2012-3759-1. Pérez-Alberti, A., Valcárcel-Díaz, M., Martini, I.P., Pascucci, V., Andrucci, S., 2011. Upper Pleistocene glacial valley-junction sediments at Pias, Trevinca Mountains, NW Spain. In: Martini, I.P., French, H.M., Pérez-Alberti, A. (Eds.), Ice-Marginal and Periglacial Processes and Sediments. Geological Society (London) Special Publication 354, pp. 93-110. Research funded by the projects LIMNOCLIBER (REN2003-09130-C02-02), IBERLIMNO (CGL2005-20236-E/CLI), LIMNOCAL (CGL2006-13327-C04-01) and GRACCIE (CSD2007-00067) of the Spanish Inter-Ministry Commission of Science and Technology (CICYT). Additional funding was provided by the Fundación Patrimonio Natural de Castilla y León through the project "La investigacion en el Lago de Sanabria dentro del proyecto CALIBRE: perspectivas y posibilidades", and by the projects Consolider Ingenio 2006 (CSD2006-0041, Topo-Iberia), 2003 PIRA 00256, HF02.4, and RISKNAT (2009SGR520). L. Rodríguez-Rodríguez has developed her research under a Severo Ochoa Programme fellowship (FICYT- Asturias).

  19. Multi-Centennial Record of North Atlantic Freshwater Variability since the Little Ice Age Archived in Coralline Algal Ba/Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, P. T. W.; Halfar, J.; Adey, W.; Zack, T.

    2014-12-01

    Declining Arctic sea-ice cover in recent decades has driven large-scale freshwater transport into the North Atlantic, possibly influencing the strength of the Meridional Overturning Circulation and even global climate. However, due to the lack of long-term oceanographic observations, little is known about the natural freshwater variability of the Northwestern Atlantic. Crustose coralline algae Clathromorphum compactum are extremely long-lived shallow marine calcareous plants that are abundant along the subarctic eastern Canadian coastline. They are particularly well-suited as recorders of paleoclimate signals due to the formation of annual growth increments, allowing for the precise calendar dating and geochemical sampling of hard tissue. Here, we provide the first annually-resolved multi-centennial record of coralline algal Ba/Ca from Labrador, Canada, as a proxy for North Atlantic freshwater variability extending well into the Little Ice Age (LIA) (1665 AD). Barium-to-calcium ratios (Ba/Ca) from coralline algae have previously been used as an indicator of freshwater runoff. This is because barium-rich clay sediments are transported by terrestrial runoff into coastal waters, and barium is released from the clay minerals upon encountering more alkaline elements present in seawater. We observe higher algal barium concentrations during the LIA, followed by a steady decline to recent times. In addition, coralline algal Ba/Ca shows significant positive relationships to Hudson Strait runoff, as well as Canadian Arctic and North Atlantic sea-ice extent. This suggests that more riverine Ba is transported from the Hudson Strait into the Labrador Sea during periods of increased sea-ice cover. Multiyear sea-ice can block incoming solar radiation thereby diminishing the effects of nutrient scavenging by phytoplankton, resulting in a more conservative transport of Ba into northern Labrador. However as sea-ice continues to thin, more sunlight is able to penetrate through the ice pack, thereby promoting near-surface plankton production. Therefore, the recent decline in coralline algal Ba/Ca indicates decreased Hudson Strait runoff (as also shown by instrumental records) amplified by increased biological scavenging of Ba, resulting from the ongoing thinning and loss of Canadian Arctic sea-ice.

  20. Top Sounder Ice Penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, D. L.; Goemmer, S. A.; Sweeney, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Ice draft measurements are made as part of normal operations for all US Navy submarines operating in the Arctic Ocean. The submarine ice draft data are unique in providing high resolution measurements over long transects of the ice covered ocean. The data has been used to document a multidecadal drop in ice thickness, and for validating and improving numerical sea-ice models. A submarine upward-looking sonar draft measurement is made by a sonar transducer mounted in the sail or deck of the submarine. An acoustic beam is transmitted upward through the water column, reflecting off the bottom of the sea ice and returning to the transducer. Ice thickness is estimated as the difference between the ship's depth (measured by pressure) and the acoustic range to the bottom of the ice estimated from the travel time of the sonar pulse. Digital recording systems can provide the return off the water-ice interface as well as returns that have penetrated the ice. Typically, only the first return from the ice hull is analyzed. Information regarding ice flow interstitial layers provides ice age information and may possibly be derived with the entire return signal. The approach being investigated is similar to that used in measuring bottom sediment layers and will involve measuring the echo level from the first interface, solving the reflection loss from that transmission, and employing reflection loss versus impedance mismatch to ascertain ice structure information.

  1. Maximum late Holocene extent of the western Greenland Ice Sheet during the late 20th century

    E-print Network

    Briner, Jason P.

    Keywords: Greenland Ice Sheet Little Ice Age 10 Be exposure dating Ice-dammed lake Lake sediment core a b position during the Little Ice Age, and has since retreated ca 40 km. In addition, we survey ice- margin the 20th century. This suggests a lagged ice-margin response to prior cooling, such as the Little Ice Age

  2. 'Traction ribs' on the palaeo-ice stream tracks of the Interior Plains, North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margold, Martin; Stokes, Chris R.

    2015-04-01

    Spatially distinct pattern of basal shear stress beneath a number of Antarctic and Greenlandic ice streams has recently been discovered by inverse methods using high resolution data of ice velocity, elevation and thickness. Surrounded by regions of near-zero basal shear stress, these areas of high basal shear stress have been termed 'traction ribs' and hold important implications for the force balance of ice streams. The cause of the traction ribs is unknown (i.e. whether they have a topographic expression), but their horizontal dimensions and pattern lie somewhere between typical ribbed (Rogen) moraines and recently described mega-scale ribbed moraines identified on palaeo-ice sheet beds. However, whilst both of these landform types form with their long axis transverse to the ice flow direction, the traction ribs are most commonly oriented oblique to the ice flow at angles of 30-60 degrees. Here, we report new findings from the beds of palaeo-ice streams on the Interior Plains in Alberta and Saskatchewan where landform assemblages, similar to traction ribs, occur at several sites. Individual landforms at the mapped sites have typical lengths (transverse to flow) of 5-10 km, width of ~2 km, and their spacing is ~2-3 km. As such, they appear to represent an intermediate scale of ribbed landform that overlaps with the more extreme (larger) values of classic ribbed moraine and the smaller values of mega-ribs. Unlike mega-ribs and ribbed moraines, we also note that many of the ribbed features we mapped are aligned obliquely to ice flow direction at angles and mimic the arcuate patterns of traction ribs seen under modern ice streams. Profiles across the ridges indicate that they have amplitudes of 10-15 m which is comparable, but slightly lower than the mean value for ribbed moraines. The resemblance of our newly mapped features to the traction ribs of modern ice streams is close not only in the size and shape but also in the overall pattern of the whole landform assemblage. We therefore suggest that traction ribs have a topographic expression that sits on a continuum between ribbed moraine and mega-ribs. However, it is not clear which mechanisms lead to their formation or how widespread they are on other palaeo-ice stream beds. Future work might search for these landforms and their assemblages using higher resolution DEMs and fieldwork would allow sedimentological investigation of till properties and characteristics.

  3. The Little Ice Age climate of New Zealand reconstructed from Southern Alps cirque glaciers: a synoptic type approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorrey, Andrew; Fauchereau, Nicolas; Stanton, Craig; Chappell, Petra; Phipps, Steven; Mackintosh, Andrew; Renwick, James; Goodwin, Ian; Fowler, Anthony

    2014-06-01

    Little Ice Age (LIA) austral summer temperature anomalies were derived from palaeoequilibrium line altitudes at 22 cirque glacier sites across the Southern Alps of New Zealand. Modern analog seasons with temperature anomalies akin to the LIA reconstructions were selected, and then applied in a sampling of high-resolution gridded New Zealand climate data and global reanalysis data to generate LIA climate composites at local, regional and hemispheric scales. The composite anomaly patterns assist in improving our understanding of atmospheric circulation contributions to the LIA climate state, allow an interrogation of synoptic type frequency changes for the LIA relative to present, and provide a hemispheric context of the past conditions in New Zealand. An LIA summer temperature anomaly of -0.56 °C (±0.29 °C) for the Southern Alps based on palaeo-equilibrium lines compares well with local tree-ring reconstructions of austral summer temperature. Reconstructed geopotential height at 1,000 hPa (z1000) suggests enhanced southwesterly flow across New Zealand occurred during the LIA to generate the terrestrial temperature anomalies. The mean atmospheric circulation pattern for summer resulted from a crucial reduction of the `HSE'-blocking synoptic type (highs over and to the west of NZ; largely settled conditions) and increases in both the `T'- and `SW'-trough synoptic types (lows passing over NZ; enhanced southerly and southwesterly flow) relative to normal. Associated land-based temperature and precipitation anomalies suggest both colder- and wetter-than-normal conditions were a pervasive component of the base climate state across New Zealand during the LIA, as were colder-than-normal Tasman Sea surface temperatures. Proxy temperature and circulation evidence were used to corroborate the spatially heterogeneous Southern Hemisphere composite z1000 and sea surface temperature patterns generated in this study. A comparison of the composites to climate mode archetypes suggests LIA summer climate and atmospheric circulation over New Zealand was driven by increased frequency of weak El Niño-Modoki in the tropical Pacific and negative Southern Annular Mode activity.

  4. Hydroclimatic changes in Asia during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age: Basic facts and possible mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Chen, F.; Feng, S.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the hydroclimatic changes during key periods, such as the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, 900~1300 AD) and Little Ice Age (LIA, 1400~1900 AD) is one of the fundamental requirements for quantifying the responses of precipitation to greenhouse gas induced warming on regional and global scales. This study synthesized the most updated and comprehensive proxy moisture (or precipitation) records during the past 1000 years in Asia. The proxy data collected include 21 records from the arid central Asia and 25 records from monsoonal East and South Asia. Our results showed coherent regional moisture variations during the MCA and LIA in the study region. In the mid-latitude Asia (areas north 30N), the North China is generally wetter while the Northwest China and Central Asia are generally dryer during the MT than in the LIA. The boundary between the wetter North China and drier Northwest China is roughly close to the modern summer monsoon boundary. Additionally, the out-of-phase moisture variations during MCA and LIA are also evident between the North and South China with a boundary around the 30N. This pattern of moisture variations is also identified using instrumental data during the past 50 years. To understand the possible mechanisms related to the moisture variations during the MWP and LIA, the major SST and atmospheric modes (e.g. ENSO, AMO, PDO and NAO) that affecting the precipitation/moisture variations in Asia were analyzed. Comparing and contrasting the variations of ENSO and AMO during the past 1000 years suggested that the colder (warmer) SST in the eastern tropical Pacific and warmer (colder) SST in the North Atlantic during the MCA (LIA) have played important roles on the moisture variations in Asia during the MCA (LIA). Our interpretation is further supported by the simulations made by 5 global climate models. When forced by a colder eastern tropical Pacific, a warmer North Atlantic Ocean, or combination of a colder eastern tropical Pacific and a warmer North Atlantic, the ensemble of the 5 models can well reproduce the moisture pattern (wetter Northern China and drier South China and Central Asia) during MCA. The models can also simulate the drier North China and wetter South China and Central Asia when forced by warmer eastern tropical Pacific and colder North Atlantic.

  5. Evaluating glacier volume changes since the Little Ice Age maximum and consequences for stream flow by integrating models of glacier flow and hydrology in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, K. I.; Mark, B. G.; Baraer, M.; Ahn, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Assessing the historical contribution of glacier ice volume loss to stream flow based on reconstructed volume changes through Little Ice Age (LIA) can be directly related to the understanding of glacier-hydrology in the current epoch of rapid glacier ice loss that has disquieting implications for water resources in the Cordillera Blanca of the Peruvian Andes. However, the accurate prediction of the future glacial meltwater availability for the increasing regional Andean society needs more extensive quantitative estimation from long-term glacial meltwater of reconstructed glacial volume. Modeling LIA paleoglaciers using a cellular automata glacier flow model in different catchments of the Cordillera Blanca allows us to reconstruct glacier volume and its change from likely combinations of climatic control variables and time. We compute the rate and magnitude of glacier volume changes for Yanamarey and Queshque glaciers between the LIA and modern defined by 2011 Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model Version 2 (GDEM V2) from the Cordillera Blanca. Also, we employ a recently demonstrated hydrological stream model (Baraer et al., 2012) for integrating the reconstructed glacier volume and its change to calculate glacier contribution to meltwater runoff as a function of glacier loss rate in the Yanamarey and the Queshque catchments, and reconstruct long-term glacier significance to stream flow.

  6. Cryoconite and Ice-bubble Microbial Ecosystems in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    During the Antarctica 2000 Expedition samples of rocks and ice bubbles entrained in ice were collected from the blue ice fields near the Moulton Escarpment of the Thiel Mountains (85S, 94W) and the Morris Moraine of the Patriot Hills (80S, 8 1 W) Ellsworth Mountains of Antarctica. Investigation of the microbiota of these cryoconite and ice bubble ecosystems are now being conducted to help refine chemical and morphological biomarkers of potential significance to Astrobiology. The Antarctica 2000 Expedition will be discussed and the preliminary results of the studies of the ice bubble and cryoconite microbial ecosystems discussed. Recent ESEM images of the Antarctic microbiota will be presented a the relevance of ice ecosystems to Astrobiology will be discussed.

  7. Age and origin of ice-rich Yedoma silts at Duvanny Yar, northeast Siberia: a record of Beringian environmental change since the last interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murton, J.; Edwards, M. E.; Murton, D.; Bateman, M.; Haile, J.

    2010-12-01

    Silty Yedoma deposits at the important Beringian site of Duvanny Yar (68o,37’ N; 159o08’ E) in northeast Siberia, have been interpreted before as both loess and nival deposits. The yedoma deposits form a stratigraphic unit more than 30 m thick that comprises sandy silts which are generally massive and rich in ground ice and organic material. The ground ice includes pore ice, segregated ice and wedge ice (both syngenetic and epigenetic), and much of it accumulated more or less coevally with deposition of the silt and upward growth of permafrost. Organic material includes pervasive rootlets of former steppe-tundra vegetation (e.g. grasses), vertebrate bones (e.g. mammoth, bison, horse), pollen, insect remains, and plant macrofossils. A number of cryoturbated organic horizons within the silts are interpreted as incipient palaeosols. The sedimentary properties of the silts (particle size and magnetic susceptibility) and the palaeocological characteristics of the contained organic material are both consistent with deposition of silts primarily as loess and loess-sand intergrades, sedimentologically similar to known aeolian deposits in northwest Europe (e.g. Pegwell Bay, UK). Deposition primarily by snow meltwater is unlikely because the nearest uplands where snow could have accumulated and hillslopes could have provided runoff sites are many kilometers distant. The remnants of the original landsurface—prior to thermokarst activity during the late-glacial and Holocene—indicate an essentially flat landscape during dust deposition. Radiocarbon dating of mainly in situ rootlets indicates a complete record of dust deposition during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), potentially one of the best terrestrial records of LGM palaeoenvironments. Older radiocarbon dates suggest at least two periods of soil formation between the LGM and about 40,000 radiocarbon years BP (within Marine Isotope Stage 3). Optical dating is currently being undertaken to constrain the ages of older dust deposits and palaeosols. U-series dating of wood contained within thaw-lake deposits at the base of the sequence provides an age from the Last Interglacial. Overall, dating of the yedoma sequence constrains interpretation of ancient soil DNA contained within the silts and provides a basis for reconstructing LGM palaeo-wind conditions associated with the Siberian high-pressure cell.

  8. white paper, 9 March 2009 An ice core to reconstruct Greenland ice sheet mass balance

    E-print Network

    Box, Jason E.

    through the Pleistocene ice age and even reaching the end of the Eemian warmthwhite paper, 9 March 2009 1 An ice core to reconstruct Greenland ice sheet mass balance Recent satellite and GPS observations spanning

  9. Late Noachian and early Hesperian ridge systems in the south circumpolar Dorsa Argentea Formation, Mars: Evidence for two stages of melting of an extensive late Noachian ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Ailish M.; Head, James W.

    2015-05-01

    The Dorsa Argentea Formation (DAF), extending from 270°-100° E and 70°-90° S, is a huge circumpolar deposit surrounding and underlying the Late Amazonian South Polar Layered Deposits (SPLD) of Mars. Currently mapped as Early-Late Hesperian in age, the Dorsa Argentea Formation has been interpreted as volatile-rich, possibly representing the remnants of an ancient polar ice cap. Uncertain are its age (due to the possibility of poor crater retention in ice-related deposits), its mode of origin, the origin of the distinctive sinuous ridges and cavi that characterize the unit, and its significance in the climate history of Mars. In order to assess the age of activity associated with the DAF, we examined the ridge populations within the Dorsa Argentea Formation, mapping and characterizing seven different ridge systems (composed of nearly 4,000 ridges covering a total area of ~300,000 km2, with a cumulative length of ridges of ~51,000 km) and performing crater counts on them using the method of buffered crater counting to determine crater retention ages of the ridge populations. We examined the major characteristics of the ridge systems and found that the majority of them were consistent with an origin as eskers, sediment-filled subglacial drainage channels. Ridge morphologies reflect both distributed and channelized esker systems, and evidence is also seen that some ridges form looping moraine-like termini distal to some distributed systems. The ridge populations fall into two age groups: ridge systems between 270° and 0° E date to the Early Hesperian, but to the east, the Promethei Planum and the Chasmata ridge systems date to the Late Noachian. Thus, these ages, and esker and moraine-like morphologies, support the interpretation that the DAF is a remnant ice sheet deposit, and that the esker systems represent evidence of significant melting and drainage of meltwater from portions of this ice sheet, thus indicating at least some regions and/or periods of wet-based glaciation. The Late Noachian and Early Hesperian ages of the ridge systems closely correspond to the ages of valley network/open basin lake systems, representing runoff, drainage and storage of liquid water in non-polar regions of the surface of Mars. Potential causes of such wet-based conditions in the DAF include: 1) top-down melting due to atmospheric warming, 2) enhanced snow and ice accumulation and raising of the melting isotherm to the base of the ice sheet, or 3) basal melting associated with intrusive volcanism (volcano-ice interactions). The early phase of melting is closely correlated in time with valley network formation and thus may be due to global atmospheric warming, while the later phase of melting may be linked to Early Hesperian global volcanism and specific volcano-ice interactions (table mountains) in the DAF. Crater ages indicate that these wet-based conditions ceased by the Late Hesperian, and that further retreat of the DAF to its present configuration occurred largely through sublimation, not melting, thus preserving the extensive ridge systems. MARSIS radar data suggest that significant areas of layered, potentially ice-rich parts of the Dorsa Argentea Formation remain today.

  10. 2. ISOTOPE SYSTEMS Erosion rates of moraine crests from in-situ and atmospheric cosmogenic nuclide accumulation in boulders and matrix

    E-print Network

    Zreda, Marek

    2. ISOTOPE SYSTEMS Erosion rates of moraine crests from in-situ and atmospheric cosmogenic nuclide. SAMPLES Samples are from a Late Pleistocene (75-150 ky old) moraine complex in Bishop Creek, eastern Sierra Nevada, California. The moraines are outside of glacial valleys, in the piedmont, and were

  11. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, Vol. 35, No. 2, 2003, pp. 129143 Lichenometry as Applied to Moraines in Alaska, U.S.A., and

    E-print Network

    LeTourneau, Peter M.

    to Moraines in Alaska, U.S.A., and Kamchatka, Russia Olga Solomina Institute of Geography, Russian Academy@spot.colorado.edu Abstract A selective review of lichenometry as used to date Holocene moraines in five diverse regions to that of the curves. Chronologies of glaciation based on lichenometry of moraines over the last millennium

  12. Moraine Area Career System (MACS). Technology Preparation Final Report for 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraine Valley Community Coll., Palos Hills, IL.

    The Moraine Area Career System (MACS) Tech Prep Applied Academics Core project was undertaken to develop a written replicable model core of applied academics for selected vocational-technical programs that would emphasize Illinois goals for learning and technical content (including critical and computer literacy). A tech prep advisory council…

  13. The Evolution of Credit-By-Examination at Moraine Valley Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Henry C., Jr.

    Two programs were introduced at Moraine Valley Community College (Illinois) in an effort to assess, evaluate, and assign hour equivalency credit for the non-traditional learning experiences of mature vocational and technical students. Equivalency credit was granted for performance on the College-Level Examination Program (CLEP), military service,…

  14. A Cost/Benefit Analysis of the Moraine Valley Community College Testing Center, Palos Hills, Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jennifer

    In 1969, the Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) Testing Center was established to provide a controlled atmosphere in which students could take tests assigned by their instructors. In 1983, a study of the center was conducted involving: (1) a review of ERIC materials, a survey of area colleges, and site visits to other educational testing…

  15. Storage and transmission of groundwater in alpine moraine and talus deposits (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, M.; Hood, J.; Langston, G.; Muir, D.; McClymont, A. F.; Bentley, L. R.

    2010-12-01

    As the timing and amount of snow accumulation and melt are expected to change, temporary storage and release of snowmelt water in soil and groundwater may play important roles in buffering the effects of these changes in mountain headwaters. In high alpine environments devoid of vegetation, coarse deposits of moraine and talus have been reported in the literature as potential groundwater reservoirs, mainly based on chemical and isotopic evidences. However, relatively little is understood on physical processes of groundwater storage and transmission in alpine moraine and talus. We have conducted detailed investigation of groundwater processes in a glaciated catchment in the Canadian Rockies. Geophysical imaging, hydrological monitoring and analysis, tracer tests, and numerical simulations have shown that groundwater is stored in relatively thin saturated zones at the interface between moraine/talus deposits and the underlying bedrock. Flow and storage of groundwater appears to be controlled by the topography of bedrock surface, and location and connectivity of bedrock channels and depressions. Hydrological response times of moraine/talus systems are in the order of a few days to a few months, suggesting that these systems may buffer the changes in snow conditions over a time scale of one season, but not over multiple years.

  16. Biochemical evidence for minimal vegetation change in peatlands of the West Siberian Lowland during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philben, Michael; Kaiser, Karl; Benner, Ronald

    2014-05-01

    Peatland vegetation is controlled primarily by the depth of the water table, making peat paleovegetation a useful climate archive. We applied a biochemical approach to quantitatively estimate the plant sources of peat carbon based on (1) neutral sugar compositions of Sphagnum, vascular plants, and lichens and (2) lignin phenol compositions of vascular plants. We used these biochemical indices to characterize vegetation change over the last 2000 years in four peat cores from the West Siberian Lowland (Russia) to investigate climate change during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age. The vegetation was dominated by Sphagnum in all four cores, but was punctuated by several rapid but transient transitions to vascular plant dominance in the two cores from the southern West Siberian Lowland (<60°N latitude). Lichen contributions were evident at the end of the Medieval Climate Anomaly and during the Little Ice Age in the two cores from northern West Siberian Lowland (>60°N), possibly indicating permafrost development. However, there was no evidence for sustained vegetation change in response to either climatic event in cores from southern West Siberian Lowland. This suggests that these climatic events were relatively mild in the southern West Siberian Lowland, although the sensitivity of bog plant communities to climate change remains poorly understood.

  17. Ice Core Depth-Age Relation for Vostok delta-D and Dome Fuji delta-18O Records Based on the Devils Hole Paleotemperature Chronology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landwehr, Jurate Maciunas

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the data for the Vostok - Devils Hole chronology, termed V-DH chronology, for the Antarctic Vostok ice core record. This depth - age relation is based on a join between the Vostok deuterium profile (D) and the stable oxygen isotope ratio (18O) record of paleotemperature from a calcitic core at Devils Hole, Nevada, using the algorithm developed by Landwehr and Winograd (2001). Both the control points defining the V-DH chronology and the numeric values for the chronology are given. In addition, a plausible chronology for a deformed bottom portion of the Vostok core developed with this algorithm is presented. Landwehr and Winograd (2001) demonstrated the broader utility of their algorithm by applying it to another appropriate Antarctic paleotemperature record, the Antarctic Dome Fuji ice core 18O record. Control points for this chronology are also presented in this report but deemed preliminary because, to date, investigators have published only the visual trace and not the numeric values for the Dome Fuji 18O record. The total uncertainty that can be associated with the assigned ages is also given.

  18. Rapid last-deglacial thinning and retreat of the marine-terminating southwestern Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsor, Kelsey; Carlson, Anders E.; Caffee, Marc W.; Rood, Dylan H.

    2015-09-01

    Marine-terminating outlet glaciers are a major source of modern ice loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), but their role in GrIS retreat during the last deglaciation is not well constrained. Here, we develop deglacial outlet glacier retreat chronologies for four regions in southwest and south Greenland to improve understanding of spatial variations in centennial- to millennial-scale ice loss under a warming climate. We calculate 10Be surface exposure ages of boulders located in fjords near the towns of Qaqortoq, Paamiut, Nuuk, and Sisimiut. Our northernmost study site, Sisimiut, deglaciated earliest at ?18 ka to ?15 ka with an average thinning rate of 0.1-0.3 m yr-1. Inland retreat from Sisimiut to the modern ice margin took ?7 ka at an average retreat rate of 15-20 m yr-1. A 10Be-dated moraine ?25 km from the modern GrIS margin deposited at ?8 ka suggests a possible ice-margin still-stand, but this does not change overall retreat rates. After retreat from the small coastal Sisimiut fjords, the GrIS margin was mainly land-terminating in this region. In contrast, earliest exposure occurred at ?12 ka near Qaqortoq, and 11-10 ka near Nuuk and Paamiut, with ice thinning at rates of 0.2-0.3 m yr-1 to instantaneous within measurement uncertainty. Ice retreat inland through the extensive Nuuk, Paamiut, and Qaqortoq fjord systems to near modern ice margins occurred in <1 ka, resulting in minimum retreat rates of 25-65 m yr-1 and maximum retreat rates of ?95 m yr-1 to instantaneous within the uncertainty of our measurements. This rapid thinning and retreat of marine-terminating southwest GrIS margins is contemporaneous with an incursion of relatively warm ocean waters into the Labrador Sea and toward the southwest Greenland coast, suggesting that a warming ocean may have contributed to the more rapid retreat of marine GrIS termini in the Nuuk, Paamiut, and Qaqortoq fjord systems relative to the slower ice retreat inland from Sisimiut. Our results highlight past outlet glacier-ocean interaction as a potentially important driver in rapid GrIS retreat.

  19. Accumulation and marine forcing of ice dynamics in the western Ross Sea during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Brenda L.; Denton, George H.; Heath, Stephanie L.; Jackson, Margaret S.; Koffman, Tobias N. B.

    2015-08-01

    The grounding line of the ice sheet in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, retreated between the Last Glacial Maximum and the present. However, the timing of the retreat and the interplay of factors controlling ice stability in this region remain uncertain. Here we use 180 radiocarbon dates to reconstruct the chronology of moraine construction on the headlands adjacent to western McMurdo Sound. On the basis of these dates we then assess the timing of ice expansion and retreat in the Ross drainage system that is fed from both the East and West Antarctic ice sheets. We find that grounded ice in the western Ross Sea achieved its greatest thickness and extent during the last termination, between 12,800 and 18,700 years ago. Maximum ice thickness at our site coincides with a period of high accumulation as recorded by the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide ice core. Recession of the ice sheet from the headland moraines began about 12,800 years ago, despite continued high accumulation and the expansion of land-based glaciers at this time. We therefore suggest that the grounding-line retreat reflects an increased marine influence as sea levels rose and the ocean warmed. We suggest that future instability in the ice sheet grounding line may occur whenever the ocean forcing is stronger than forcing from accumulation.

  20. Sorting Out Mixed Messages from Till Provenance: Bulk Sediment Isotopic Compositions vs. U-Pb Detrital Zircon Ages from Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, G.; Licht, K.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding how basal erosion by ice sheets takes place as a function of time and position is critical to models of sub-ice landscape evolution and to determining whether isotopic and chemical data from subglacial deposits and ice rafted detritus can be expected to fingerprint the activity of specific ice outlets during ice sheet expansion and/or deglaciation. To investigate erosion by an active ice sheet we analyzed the mineralogy, chemical, isotopic and detrital zircon U-Pb ages of till deposited from the head to the mouth of the Byrd and Nimrod Glaciers in the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) in East Antarctica. We then compared the isotopic compositions and detrital zircon ages compositions of Ross sea tills downstream of the Byrd and Nimrod glaciers to assess the sources of those glacial sediments deposited on the Ross Sea shelf and slope. In general, lateral and mid-stream ice cored moraines along the entire lengths of both glaciers largely contain locally derived material in both sand and pebble size fractions. The primary exception is Lonewolf Nunatak at the head of Byrd Glacier, which contains Precambrian igneous and metamorphic erratics, similar to what outcrops and is found in moraines in the Miller Range at Nimrod Glacier. Detrital zircons from all moraines analyzed are dominated by grains 520-600 Ma associated with the Ross/Pan-African Orogeny. Ages of 580-600 Ma are only found in sites at the head of the glaciers. The Nd, Sr and Pb isotopic compositions of <63micron sediments are consistent with their origin as comminution of the coarser sediments found at each sample location, with lowest ?Nd(0) sediments (~-20) restricted to upstream tills. Central and western Ross Sea LGM tills generally match the petrography, detrital zircon, and isotopic compositions expected for detritus delivered by central TAM glaciers. However, detrital zircon populations include a significant 580 Ma-600 Ma age population as well as Precambrian zircon only found in 'upstream' tills, suggesting that crustal material eroded and the heads of the Byrd and Nimrod glaciers, and even detritus derived from the East Antarctic craton, were delivered to the continental margin during expansion of the East Antarctic ice sheet. The <63 micron fraction from the central Ross Sea tills have isotopic compositions that are also similar to some upstream tills in the Byrd and Nimrod glaciers, but can also be interpreted as being principally derived from Cambrian sedimentary and granitic rocks, and late Cenozoic volcanic rocks, found at and near the outlets of the Byrd and Nimrod glaciers. Additional tills and bedrock chemical, isotopic and zircon U-Pb data will be necessary to reconcile the available data and better assess the relative proportions of detritus derived from valleys cut through the Transantarctic Mountains and from locations further inboard.

  1. Valley-fill alluviation during the Little Ice Age (ca. A.D. 1400-1880), Paria River basin and southern Colorado Plateau, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hereford, R.

    2002-01-01

    Valley-fill alluvium deposited from ca. A.D. 1400 to 1880 is widespread in tributaries of the Paria River and is largely coincident with the Little Ice Age epoch of global climate variability. Previous work showed that alluvium of this age is a mappable stratigraphic unit in many of the larger alluvial valleys of the southern Colorado Plateau. The alluvium is bounded by two disconformities resulting from prehistoric and historic arroyo cutting at ca. A.D. 1200-1400 and 1860-1910, respectively. The fill forms a terrace in the axial valleys of major through-flowing streams. This terrace and underlying deposits are continuous and interfinger with sediment in numerous small tributary valleys that head at the base of hillslopes of sparsely vegetated, weakly consolidated bedrock, suggesting that eroded bedrock was an important source of alluvium along with in-channel and other sources. Paleoclimatic and high-resolution paleoflood studies indicate that valley-fill alluviation occured during a long-term decrease in the frequency of large, destructive floods. Aggradation of the valleys ended about A.D. 1880, if not two decades earlier, with the beginning of historic arroyo cutting. This shift from deposition to valley entrenchment near the close of the Little Ice Age generally coincided with the beginning of an episode of the largest floods in the preceding 400-500 yr, which was probably caused by an increased recurrence and intensity of flood-producing El Nin??o events beginning at ca. A.D. 1870.

  2. Controls on Groundwater Flow in an Alpine Talus-Moraine Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muir, D. L.; Hayashi, M.; Bentley, L. R.

    2009-05-01

    Since alpine watersheds are the headwaters of rivers acting as major sources of water, there is growing concern over water shortages in areas dependent on mountain runoff. Talus and moraine complexes, as well as fractured bedrock, are a dominant hydrologic response unit within the Lake O'Hara Research Basin (LORB) in Yoho National Park, British Columbia. In this alpine environment, previous studies have shown that groundwater plays an important hydrological role. Although little is known about groundwater storage in these media, they are likely a significant groundwater reservoir and an important control on groundwater flow. The goals of this study are to develop a conceptual model of the talus and moraine complex and the fractured bedrock. The approximately 0.3km2 Babylon drainage basin within the LORB was chosen as the study site as it contains a talus and moraine complex that drains into one gaugeable stream. The conceptual model of this basin has been developed using geophysical, hydrological and hydrogeological methods. Three Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) surveys were used to characterize the subsurface structure and water distribution within the talus and moraine complex. The bedrock surface is clearly defined in the GPR profiles and its elevation agrees with that in the ERI inversions. Highly resistive talus material is observable in the ERI results, and areas of low resistivity are found within the bedrock. Hydraulic conductivity estimates of the geologic media, calculated using tracer slug injection and baseflow recession analysis methods, fall within the ranges from gravel to fractured rock. Isotopic hydrograph separations indicate that groundwater is a significant contributor to stream discharge. Linear reservoir models show basin response times of up to 16 hours. The geophysical and hydrological evidence points toward two flow systems operating in the Babylon basin, those of flow through the fractured bedrock and flow through the talus and moraine complex. Understanding the hydrologic characteristics of alpine talus and moraine complexes and fractured bedrock is of great importance to increasing our knowledge of alpine hydrology. The results from this study will enable the estimation of hydrologic parameters of these geologic media and provide valuable information for the predictive modelling of mountain streams.

  3. History of late glacial runoff from the southern Laurentide ice sheet in Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, G.S. ); Fleming, A.H. )

    1992-01-01

    The history of late glacial runoff from the southern Laurentide ice sheet in Indiana is one of long periods of normal'' meltwater flow punctuated by extreme flows. Meltwater flow down the Wabash began about 26 ka when ice of the Lake Michigan lobe entered the headwaters of its northern and western tributaries. This flow was augmented by meltwater from the Huron-Erie lobe which entered the basin about 24 ka, and there ensued a period when normal meltwater flow and outwash sedimentation prevailed through successive advances from these two sources. This ended about 17 ka ( ) when two extreme flow events occurred. The first involved a subglacial breakout of stored water in a stagnating sheet of Erie-Huron lobe ice and the second occurred when a proglacial lake stored behind a Huron-Erie Lobe recessional moraine in northeastern Indiana drained catastrophically into the Wabash. A second period of normal flow and sedimentation followed as successive episodes of advance and active backwasting of Huron-Erie lobe ice left a series of recessional moraines in northeastern Indiana. Lake Maumee (of ancestral Lake Erie) formed behind the last of these, and the final extreme flow down the Wabash occurred about 14 ka ( ) when this moraine was breached. During the final stages of glaciation in Indiana, very large volumes of meltwater were supplied to the Illinois river system through the Kankakee sluiceway by both the Lake Michigan lobe and the Saginaw lobe. For the most part, these were not extreme flows, but catastrophic subglacial outburst(s) of water from the Lake Michigan lobe did occur about 13 ka ( ) along the Valparaiso Moraine. Most of this meltwater was directed down the Kankakee sluiceway and into the Illinois River, but some may have flowed around the east end of the iroquois Moraine and into the Wabash River.

  4. The North Atlantic's 1-2 kyr climate rhythm: Relation to Heinrich events, Dansgaard/Oeschger cycles and the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Gerard C.; Showers, William; Elliot, Mary; Evans, Michael; Lotti, Rusty; Hajdas, Irka; Bonani, Georges; Johnson, Sigfus

    New evidence from deep-sea sediment cores in the subpolar North Atlantic demonstrates that a significant component of sub-Milankovitch climate variability occurs in distinct 1-2 kyr cycles. We have traced that cyclicity from the present to within marine isotope stage 5, an interval spanning more than 80 kyrs. The most robust indicators of the cycle are repeated increases in the percentages of two petrologic tracers, Icelandic glass and hematite-stained grains. Both are sensitive measures of ice rafting episodes associated with ocean surface coolings. The petrologic tracers exhibit a consistent relation to Heinrich events, implying that mechanisms forcing Heinrich events were closely linked to those forcing the cyclicity. Our records further suggest that Dansgaard/Oeschger events may be amplifications of the cycle brought about by the impact of iceberg (fresh water) discharges on North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. The tendency of thermohaline circulation to undergo threshold behavior only when fresh water input is relatively large may explain the absence of Dansgaard/Oeschger events in the Holocene and their long pacings (thousands of years) in the early part of the glaciation. Finally, evidence from cores near Newfoundland confirms previous suggestions that the Little Ice Age was the most recent cold phase of the 1-2 kyr cycle and that the North Atlantic tended to oscillate in a muted Dansgaard/Oeschger-like mode during the Holocene.

  5. Prospecting for Martian Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBride, S. A.; Allen, C. C.; Bell, M. S.

    2005-01-01

    During high Martian obliquity, ice is stable to lower latitudes than predicted by models of present conditions and observed by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (approx. 60 deg N). An ice-rich layer deposited at mid-latitudes could persist to the present day; ablation of the top 1 m of ice leaving a thin insulating cover could account for lack of its detection by GRS. The presence of an ice-layer in the mid-latitudes is suggested by a network of polygons, interpreted as ice-wedge cracks. This study focuses on an exceptional concentration of polygons in Western Utopia (section of Casius quadrangle, roughly 40 deg - 50 deg N, 255 deg - 300 deg W). We attempt to determine the thickness and age of this ice layer through crater-polygons relations.

  6. On the origin of the Oak Ridges Moraine1 P.J. Barnett, D.R. Sharpe, H.A.J. Russell, T.A. Brennand, G. Gorrell, F. Kenny,

    E-print Network

    Brennand, Tracy

    On the origin of the Oak Ridges Moraine1 P.J. Barnett, D.R. Sharpe, H.A.J. Russell, T.A. Brennand and event sequences of the Oak Ridges Moraine, southern Ontario. A model for the origin of the Oak Ridges Moraine is based on the recognition that the moraine is built on a high-relief, erosional surface

  7. Surface exposure chronology of the Waimakariri glacial sequence in the Southern Alps of New Zealand: Implications for MIS-2 ice extent and LGM glacial mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rother, Henrik; Shulmeister, James; Fink, David; Alexander, David; Bell, David

    2015-11-01

    During the late Quaternary, the Southern Alps of New Zealand experienced multiple episodes of glaciation with large piedmont glaciers reaching the coastal plains in the west and expanding into the eastern alpine forelands. Here, we present a new 10Be exposure age chronology for a moraine sequence in the Waimakariri Valley (N-Canterbury), which has long been used as a reference record for correlating glacial events across New Zealand and the wider Southern Hemisphere. Our data indicate that the Waimakariri glacier reached its maximum last glaciation extent prior to ?26 ka well before the global last glaciation maximum (LGM). This was followed by a gradual reduction in ice volume and the abandonment of the innermost LGM moraines at about 17.5 ka. Significantly, we find that during its maximum extent, the Waimakariri glacier overflowed the Avoca Plateau, previously believed to represent a mid-Pleistocene glacial surface (i.e. MIS 8). At the same time, the glacier extended to a position downstream of the Waimakariri Gorge, some 15 km beyond the previously mapped LGM ice limit. We use a simple steady-state mass balance model to test the sensitivity of past glacial accumulation to various climatic parameters, and to evaluate possible climate scenarios capable of generating the ice volume required to reach the full local-LGM extent. Model outcomes indicate that under New Zealand's oceanic setting, a cooling of 5 °C, assuming modern precipitation levels, or a cooling of 6.5 °C, assuming a one third reduction in precipitation, would suffice to drive the Waimakariri glacier to the eastern alpine forelands (Canterbury Plains). Our findings demonstrate that the scale of LGM glaciation in the Waimakariri Valley and adjacent major catchments, both in terms of ice volume and downvalley ice extent, has been significantly underestimated. Our observation that high-lying glacial surfaces, so far believed to represent much older glacial episodes, were glaciated during the LGM, challenges the conventional geomorphic model of glaciation in New Zealand where the vertical arrangement of glacial landform-associations is used to assign successively older glaciation ages.

  8. A regime shift in the subpolar gyre strength due to a sudden transition in the North Atlantic climate during the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Chamarro, Eduardo; Zanchettin, Davide; Lohmann, Katja; Jungclaus, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Recent paleoceanographic reconstructions of the subpolar North Atlantic variability during the last millennium describe oceanic conditions associated with a weaker subpolar gyre during the Little Ice Age (~1400-1700) after a relatively strong phase during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (~950-1250). However, mechanism(s) behind such a relatively rapid shift remains unclear. Here, we investigate the dynamics of the subpolar gyre and its role on driving the exchanges of heat and freshwater between the northern North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean over the last millennium in an ensemble of three transient and an unperturbed-climate simulation performed with the Max Planck Institute-Earth system model for paleo-applications. In particular, we focus on the dynamics underlying a decadal-scale transition in the subpolar gyre from an initial strong to a later weak state, which is found in one of the last-millennium transient simulations and shows characteristic features similar to the reconstructed event. Our results indicate that the simulated shift is triggered by a rapid increase in the sea-ice transport from the Arctic toward the subpolar North Atlantic, which causes a broad freshening of the Labrador Sea surface and, thereby, a shut-down in deep oceanic mixing. As a result, the subpolar gyre weakens. This in turn activates a series of long-lasting feedbacks relating oceanic and atmospheric circulation, sea-ice extent, and oceanic deep convection in the Labrador Sea that keep the North Atlantic in an anomalous state for about 250 years. A reorganization of the North Atlantic/Arctic ocean-atmosphere coupled system, sustained by internal feedbacks acting on multicentennial time scales, can therefore result in a new subpolar gyre state. The simulated shift coincides in time with a two-decade-long cluster of relatively small volcanic eruptions which leads to prominent thickening of the Arctic ice cap previous to the shift. Sensitivity experiments will be performed to further investigate the role of the external forcing and of the background state on this climate shift. Preliminary results from an experiment initialized before the climate transition and excluding the volcanic cluster do not show such a rapid change in the subpolar gyre strength and, more generally, in the climate of the North Atlantic/Arctic region. Relatively small but very close volcanic eruptions can thus exert a cooling influence on the North Atlantic/Arctic climate similar to that found for much stronger but indeed rarer eruptions.

  9. Further Investigations of Cosmogenic Ne-21 Exposure Ages of Glacial Boulders Constrained by Local Bedrock Erosion Rates in Ong Valley, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedberg, C. P.; Morgan, D. J.; Cox, J.; Balco, G.; Putkonen, J.; Bibby, T.

    2014-12-01

    A history of glaciation can be tracked by determining the exposure age of boulders found in glacial drifts using the concentration of the cosmogenic nuclide Ne-21. In order to calculate exposure age, the erosion rate and previous exposure must be taken into consideration. In this study, we measured cosmogenic Ne-21 concentrations in quartz from samples of bedrock and samples taken from distinct glacial drifts in Antarctica. We determined the erosion rate using the concentrations of Ne-21 in the bedrock and then used this rate to calculate the exposure ages of the samples taken from the glacial drifts. The samples were collected from the Ong Valley, Antarctica (157.5 East, 83.25 South), an ice-free valley in the Miller Range of the Central Transantarctic Mountains that contains three distinct glacial drifts. We analyzed samples from the oldest and the youngest of these drifts, from moraines from a small alpine glacier to the east of the main valley, and from the surrounding bedrock of the valley walls above the glacial limit. The average erosion rate we calculated was 23 cm/Myrs. The six samples from the oldest glacial drift have an average exposure age of 2.1 Myrs, but have a range of 4.4 Myrs. The exposure age of samples from the middle of the youngest drift on the valley floor average 90.1 kyrs, with a range of 13.4 kyrs. Samples from a lateral moraine of this youngest drift have an average exposure age of 145 kyrs, with a range of 134 kyrs. The 7 samples taken from the alpine glacier east of Ong Valley have an average age of 1.10 Myrs, but a range of 3.87 Myrs. The high variability in ages among samples from the same glacial drift arises from prior exposure and postdepositional movement of the rocks.

  10. Climate variability during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age based on ostracod faunas and shell geochemistry from Biscayne Bay, Florida: Chapter 14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, Thomas M.; Wingard, Georgiana L.; Dwyer, Gary S.; Swart, Peter K.; Willard, Debra A.; Albietz, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    An 800-year-long environmental history of Biscayne Bay, Florida, is reconstructed from ostracod faunal and shell geochemical (oxygen, carbon isotopes, Mg/Ca ratios) studies of sediment cores from three mudbanks in the central and southern parts of the bay. Using calibrations derived from analyses of modern Biscayne and Florida Bay ostracods, palaeosalinity oscillations associated with changes in precipitation were identified. These oscillations reflect multidecadal- and centennial-scale climate variability associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation during the late Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA). Evidence suggests wetter regional climate during the MCA and drier conditions during the LIA. In addition, twentieth century anthropogenic modifications to Everglades hydrology influenced bay circulation and/or processes controlling carbon isotopic composition.

  11. Tracking the provenance of Greenland-sourced, Holocene aged, individual sand-sized ice-rafted debris using the Pb-isotope compositions of feldspars and 40Ar/39Ar ages of hornblendes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Lee F.; Bailey, Ian; Foster, Gavin L.; Allen, Georgina; Kelley, Simon P.; Andrews, John T.; Hogan, Kelly; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Storey, Craig D.

    2016-01-01

    The provenance of sand-sized ice-rafted debris (IRD) sourced from Greenland is currently difficult to determine. Such knowledge, if it could be ascertained with a high degree of certainty, could be applied to the Greenland-proximal marine records to improve both our understanding of modern-day spatial patterns of iceberg rafting and the past history of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS). Recent studies have highlighted the utility of the Pb-isotope composition of individual sand-sized feldspars and the 40Ar/39Ar ages of individual sand-sized hornblendes in this regard. However, before any such provenance toolkit can be applied to the palaeo-record, it is necessary first to determine whether this approach can be used to track the sources of known recent Greenland-proximal IRD deposition. To this end we present new records of the Pb-isotope composition and the 40Ar/39Ar ages of individual sand-sized grains of feldspars and hornblendes, respectively, from modern Greenland glacifluvial and fjord sands and Holocene to modern Greenland-proximal marine sediments. These new data demonstrate that sand-sized feldspars and hornblendes glacially eroded by the GIS exhibit distinct intra- and inter-tectonic terrane differences in their Pb-isotope compositions and ages and that these differences are clearly expressed in the geochemistry and geochronology of sand-sized IRD deposited in marine sediments around Greenland. Although overlap exists between some Greenland-proximal IRD 'source fields' defined by these data, our approach has the potential to both better understand spatial patterns of Greenland-derived IRD in the modern day as well as during past episodes of iceberg calving.

  12. Moraine Molded Plastics, Inc.: Industrial Energy Assessment Finds Opportunities to Save $24,000 in Annual Operating Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-09-01

    Industrial Technologies Program's BestPractices case study based on a comprehensive plant assessment conducted at the Moraine Molded Plastics by ITP's Industrial Assessment Center in conjunction with The Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc.

  13. Quantifying groundwater-surface water interactions in a proglacial moraine using heat and solute tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langston, Gregory; Hayashi, Masaki; Roy, James W.

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies in mountain environments have indicated that groundwater represents a major component of the water balance of alpine streams and lakes. However, the scarcity of information on the hydraulic properties of geological materials in alpine environments presents a major obstacle to understanding the response of these watersheds to hydrological inputs and their future variability. The information is particularly limited for talus and proglacial moraine, where rugged topography prohibits the installation of groundwater monitoring wells. Observation of groundwater-surface water interaction provides a useful tool for studying groundwater in these challenging environments. Here we present a unique experiment using a tarn (i.e., pond on proglacial moraine) in a partially glaciated watershed in the Canadian Rockies as a surrogate for a groundwater monitoring well. A chloride dilution test and detailed energy balance monitoring were simultaneously conducted to quantify the groundwater-surface water interactions. The water balance of the tarn was dominated by groundwater inflow and outflow, ranging between 70 and 720 m3 d-1, while the volume of the water in the tarn fluctuated between 140 and 620 m3. Comparing the observed flow rates with a semianalytical solution of groundwater interactions with a flow-through pond, the hydraulic conductivity of the proglacial moraine is estimated to be in the order of 10-3 m s-1, which provides one of the very few measurements of large-scale hydraulic conductivity of proglacial moraine. The study demonstrates a useful application of mass and energy balance measurements in rugged environments and provides the essential information for advancing our understanding of alpine groundwater hydrology.

  14. Mega-scale transverse subglacial bedforms in the Keewatin sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, Sarah L.; Kleman, Johan

    2010-05-01

    Assemblages of glacial landforms of extreme size - considerably larger than previously reported - are here identified from the bed of the Keewatin sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Large till ‘belts' or ‘ridges' form extensive and coherent patterns throughout the Keewatin region, and lie beneath the classic geomorphology (drumlins, ribbed moraine) of the known regional glacial landform record. Planform and crestline mapping from remotely sensed imagery yields a mapped population of >2500 individual till belts, whose dimensions are on average ~10 km long (up to 50 km) and ~1.5 km wide (up to 5 km). Based on analysis of their morphology and morphometry, their spatial arrangement and pattern, and comparison with analogues and reference populations of glacial landform types, we interpret 3 morphological groups of different genetic origin. Two of these groups can be explained as overprinted and degraded examples of mega-scale glacial lineations, and ice-marginal (terminal) moraines. A significant number of the Keewatin population, however, does not fit any existing category of glacial landforms. These till belts display strong morphological similarity to ribbed moraine fields, and are spatially closely integrated with the Keewatin ribbed moraine population. We interpret these belts as subglacial bedforms, of a mega-scale, transverse to the palaeo-ice flow direction. Transverse bedforms of such scale have not been previously reported from any palaeo- (or contemporary) ice sheet. Here we explore how such landforms may relate to, or be explained by, existing theories for subglacial bedform genesis. The Keewatin landforms indicate that there is a fundamental transverse organisation of till at a scale beyond that which is typically manifest as subglacial bedforms, beyond that which has hitherto been realised, and which must logically have implications for the processes of ice-bed coupling and ice sheet motion.

  15. Glacial landforms of extreme size in the Keewatin sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, Sarah L.; Kleman, Johan

    2010-07-01

    Assemblages of glacial landforms of a 'mega-scale' are here identified in the Keewatin sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Large till 'belts' or 'ridges', apparent only on satellite imagery and lying beneath the drumlins, flutes and ribbed moraine which comprise the known regional glacial landform record, form extensive and coherent patterns throughout the Keewatin region. Planform and crestline mapping from remotely sensed imagery yields a mapped population of >2500 individual landforms, whose dimensions are on average ˜10 km long and ˜1.5 km wide. Based on analysis of their morphology and morphometry, their spatial arrangement and pattern, and comparison with analogues and reference populations of glacial landform types, we interpret three morphological groups of different genetic origin. Two of these are examples of currently known landform types: i) a set of heavily overprinted, i.e. non-pristine, mega-scale glacial lineations, feeding from the heart of the Keewatin region north into Queen Maud Gulf; and ii) a 350 km long moraine zone, overrun by later ice flow paths, and likely associated with the terminal position of an ice sheet prior to the final deglacial episode. A third group, comprising a significant number of the Keewatin population, does not fit any existing category of glacial landforms. Here we report a major new finding: subglacial bedforms, of a mega-scale, transverse to the palaeo-ice flow direction. Mega-scale transverse bedforms have not been previously reported from any palaeo-(or contemporary) ice sheet. Close spatial integration with the ribbed moraine population in Keewatin suggests a similar mode of genesis. The Keewatin landforms indicate there is a fundamental transverse organisation of till at a scale beyond that of conventional transverse bedforms (ribbed moraine), and with as yet unknown implications for our understanding of subglacial processes and ice-bed coupling