Science.gov

Sample records for ice making system

  1. Making an Ice Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopaska-Merkel, David C.

    1995-01-01

    Explains an activity in which students construct a simulated ice core. Materials required include only a freezer, food coloring, a bottle, and water. This hands-on exercise demonstrates how a glacier is formed, how ice cores are studied, and the nature of precision and accuracy in measurement. Suitable for grades three through eight. (Author/PVD)

  2. Let's Make Metric Ice Cream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Marianna

    1975-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity which involved sixth grade students in a learning situation including making ice cream, safety procedures in a science laboratory, calibrating a thermometer, using metric units of volume and mass. (EB)

  3. 21 CFR 1250.86 - Water for making ice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water for making ice. 1250.86 Section 1250.86 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.86 Water for making ice. Only potable...

  4. 21 CFR 1250.86 - Water for making ice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water for making ice. 1250.86 Section 1250.86 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.86 Water for making ice. Only potable...

  5. 21 CFR 1250.86 - Water for making ice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Water for making ice. 1250.86 Section 1250.86 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.86 Water for making ice. Only potable...

  6. 21 CFR 1250.86 - Water for making ice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water for making ice. 1250.86 Section 1250.86 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.86 Water for making ice. Only potable...

  7. 21 CFR 1250.86 - Water for making ice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water for making ice. 1250.86 Section 1250.86 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.86 Water for making ice. Only potable...

  8. CO2 (dry ice) cleaning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Donald M.

    1995-01-01

    Tomco Equipment Company has participated in the dry ice (solid carbon dioxide, CO2) cleaning industry for over ten years as a pioneer in the manufacturer of high density, dry ice cleaning pellet production equipment. For over four years Tomco high density pelletizers have been available to the dry ice cleaning industry. Approximately one year ago Tomco introduced the DI-250, a new dry ice blast unit making Tomco a single source supplier for sublimable media, particle blast, cleaning systems. This new blast unit is an all pneumatic, single discharge hose device. It meters the insertion of 1/8 inch diameter (or smaller), high density, dry ice pellets into a high pressure, propellant gas stream. The dry ice and propellant streams are controlled and mixed from the blast cabinet. From there the mixture is transported to the nozzle where the pellets are accelerated to an appropriate blasting velocity. When directed to impact upon a target area, these dry ice pellets have sufficient energy to effectively remove most surface coatings through dry, abrasive contact. The meta-stable, dry ice pellets used for CO2 cleaning, while labeled 'high density,' are less dense than alternate, abrasive, particle blast media. In addition, after contacting the target surface, they return to their equilibrium condition: a superheated gas state. Most currently used grit blasting media are silicon dioxide based, which possess a sharp tetrahedral molecular structure. Silicon dioxide crystal structures will always produce smaller sharp-edged replicas of the original crystal upon fracture. Larger, softer dry ice pellets do not share the same sharp-edged crystalline structures as their non-sublimable counterparts when broken. In fact, upon contact with the target surface, dry ice pellets will plastically deform and break apart. As such, dry ice cleaning is less harmful to sensitive substrates, workers and the environment than chemical or abrasive cleaning systems. Dry ice cleaning system

  9. CO2 (dry ice) cleaning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Donald M.

    1995-03-01

    Tomco Equipment Company has participated in the dry ice (solid carbon dioxide, CO2) cleaning industry for over ten years as a pioneer in the manufacturer of high density, dry ice cleaning pellet production equipment. For over four years Tomco high density pelletizers have been available to the dry ice cleaning industry. Approximately one year ago Tomco introduced the DI-250, a new dry ice blast unit making Tomco a single source supplier for sublimable media, particle blast, cleaning systems. This new blast unit is an all pneumatic, single discharge hose device. It meters the insertion of 1/8 inch diameter (or smaller), high density, dry ice pellets into a high pressure, propellant gas stream. The dry ice and propellant streams are controlled and mixed from the blast cabinet. From there the mixture is transported to the nozzle where the pellets are accelerated to an appropriate blasting velocity. When directed to impact upon a target area, these dry ice pellets have sufficient energy to effectively remove most surface coatings through dry, abrasive contact. The meta-stable, dry ice pellets used for CO2 cleaning, while labeled 'high density,' are less dense than alternate, abrasive, particle blast media. In addition, after contacting the target surface, they return to their equilibrium condition: a superheated gas state. Most currently used grit blasting media are silicon dioxide based, which possess a sharp tetrahedral molecular structure. Silicon dioxide crystal structures will always produce smaller sharp-edged replicas of the original crystal upon fracture. Larger, softer dry ice pellets do not share the same sharp-edged crystalline structures as their non-sublimable counterparts when broken. In fact, upon contact with the target surface, dry ice pellets will plastically deform and break apart. As such, dry ice cleaning is less harmful to sensitive substrates, workers and the environment than chemical or abrasive cleaning systems. Dry ice cleaning system

  10. A Terminal Area Icing Remote Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Serke, David J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) have developed an icing remote sensing technology that has demonstrated skill at detecting and classifying icing hazards in a vertical column above an instrumented ground station. This technology is now being extended to provide volumetric coverage surrounding an airport. With volumetric airport terminal area coverage, the resulting icing hazard information will be usable by aircrews, traffic control, and airline dispatch to make strategic and tactical decisions regarding routing when conditions are conducive to airframe icing. Building on the existing vertical pointing system, the new method for providing volumetric coverage will utilize cloud radar, microwave radiometry, and NEXRAD radar. This terminal area icing remote sensing system will use the data streams from these instruments to provide icing hazard classification along the defined approach paths into an airport. Strategies for comparison to in-situ instruments on aircraft and weather balloons for a planned NASA field test are discussed, as are possible future applications into the NextGen airspace system.

  11. Ice thickness measurement system for the icing research tunnel calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Theresa L.; Dearmon, John M.

    1993-01-01

    To measure icing patterns across a test section of the Icing Research Tunnel, an automated rotating bar measurement system was developed at NASA LeRC. In comparison with the previously used manual measurement system, this system provides a number of improvements: increased accuracy and repeatability, increased number of data points, reduced tunnel operating time, and improved documentation. The automated system uses a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) to measure ice accretion. This instrument is driven along the bar by means of an intelligent stepper motor which also controls data recording. This paper describes the rotating bar calibration measurement system.

  12. Ice storage systems spark air conditioning savings

    SciTech Connect

    Kohlenberger, C.R.

    1981-03-01

    Thermal storage systems similar to giant storage batteries are explained by means of storing energy (either hot or cold) during these off-peak times for use at the more convenient time when the actual load is impressed on to the system. This load shifting, of course, does not actually save energy. It merely shifts the load to a time when the electric utility can more conveniently handle that load. In fact, more actual KW hours may be utilized by this shift, but with the resulting cost to the consumer being reduced. System concepts are described and energy cost comparisons are made. Various methods of ice making systems are presented and analyzed.

  13. ISSM: Ice Sheet System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larour, Eric; Schiermeier, John E.; Seroussi, Helene; Morlinghem, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    In order to have the capability to use satellite data from its own missions to inform future sea-level rise projections, JPL needed a full-fledged ice-sheet/iceshelf flow model, capable of modeling the mass balance of Antarctica and Greenland into the near future. ISSM was developed with such a goal in mind, as a massively parallelized, multi-purpose finite-element framework dedicated to ice-sheet modeling. ISSM features unstructured meshes (Tria in 2D, and Penta in 3D) along with corresponding finite elements for both types of meshes. Each finite element can carry out diagnostic, prognostic, transient, thermal 3D, surface, and bed slope simulations. Anisotropic meshing enables adaptation of meshes to a certain metric, and the 2D Shelfy-Stream, 3D Blatter/Pattyn, and 3D Full-Stokes formulations capture the bulk of the ice-flow physics. These elements can be coupled together, based on the Arlequin method, so that on a large scale model such as Antarctica, each type of finite element is used in the most efficient manner. For each finite element referenced above, ISSM implements an adjoint. This adjoint can be used to carry out model inversions of unknown model parameters, typically ice rheology and basal drag at the ice/bedrock interface, using a metric such as the observed InSAR surface velocity. This data assimilation capability is crucial to allow spinning up of ice flow models using available satellite data. ISSM relies on the PETSc library for its vectors, matrices, and solvers. This allows ISSM to run efficiently on any parallel platform, whether shared or distrib- ISSM: Ice Sheet System Model NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California uted. It can run on the largest clusters, and is fully scalable. This allows ISSM to tackle models the size of continents. ISSM is embedded into MATLAB and Python, both open scientific platforms. This improves its outreach within the science community. It is entirely written in C/C++, which gives it flexibility in its

  14. Airborne Tomographic Swath Ice Sounding Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Xiaoqing; Rodriquez, Ernesto; Freeman, Anthony; Jezek, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Glaciers and ice sheets modulate global sea level by storing water deposited as snow on the surface, and discharging water back into the ocean through melting. Their physical state can be characterized in terms of their mass balance and dynamics. To estimate the current ice mass balance, and to predict future changes in the motion of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, it is necessary to know the ice sheet thickness and the physical conditions of the ice sheet surface and bed. This information is required at fine resolution and over extensive portions of the ice sheets. A tomographic algorithm has been developed to take raw data collected by a multiple-channel synthetic aperture sounding radar system over a polar ice sheet and convert those data into two-dimensional (2D) ice thickness measurements. Prior to this work, conventional processing techniques only provided one-dimensional ice thickness measurements along profiles.

  15. Continuous Ice Formation in a Tube by Using Water-Oil Emulsion for Dynamic-type Ice-Making Cold Thermal Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Yoshinari; Nakagawa, Shinji; Okada, Masashi; Matsumoto, Koji; Kawagoe, Tetsuo

    Dynamic-type of ice-making cold thermal energy storage systems using water-silicone oil emulsion with an additive, (C2H50)3SiC3H6NH2, has been proposed. Two kinds of heat exchanger were examined and the performances were compared with each other. One type of heat exchanger was a spiral tube and it was immersed in a low temperature thermostatic bath. The other was coil-shaped double tube heat exchanger using two tubes. The emulsion was circulated to make ice continuously. These systems were operated under various cooling conditions (flow rates of the emulsion and brine temperatures). The effects of the tube materials (fluororesin and non-fluororesin) and thickness were also examined. Slurry ice was formed continuously without adhesion of ice to the cooling wall under certain conditions. Using the fluororesin tube prevented ice from the adhesion and it enlarged the range of the cooling conditions under which slurry ice was formed continuously. Furthermore, by making thickness of the tube thinner and increasing the heat transfer coefficient on the outside of the tube, ice was made continuously without lowering the rate of ice formation at a higher brine temperature.

  16. Microwave System for Detecting Ice on Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, Philip J.; Glynn, Dennis P., Jr.; Joseph, John C.

    2004-01-01

    A microwave-based system has been developed as a means of detecting ice on aircraft surfaces, with enough sensitivity to provide a warning before the ice accretes to a dangerous thickness. The system can measure the thickness of ice from a few mils (1 mil = 0.0254 mm) to about 1/4 in. (.6 mm) and can distinguish among (1) ice, (2) water (or deicing fluid), and (3) a mixture of ice and water (or deicing fluid). Sensors have been ruggedized to withstand the rain erosion environment.

  17. Sea Ice Mapping using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solbø, S.; Storvold, R.

    2011-12-01

    Mapping of sea ice extent and sea ice features is an important task in climate research. Since the arctic coastal and oceanic areas have a high probability of cloud coverage, aerial platforms are superior to satellite measurements for high-resolution optical measurements. However, routine observations of sea ice conditions present a variety of problems using conventional piloted aircrafts. Specially, the availability of suitable aircrafts for lease does not cover the demand in major parts of the arctic. With the recent advances in unmanned aerial systems (UAS), there is a high possibility of establishing routine, cost effective aerial observations of sea ice conditions in the near future. Unmanned aerial systems can carry a wide variety of sensors useful for characterizing sea-ice features. For instance, the CryoWing UAS, a system initially designed for measurements of the cryosphere, can be equipped with digital cameras, surface thermometers and laser altimeters for measuring freeboard of ice flows. In this work we will present results from recent CryoWing sea ice flights on Svalbard, Norway. The emphasis will be on data processing for stitching together images acquired with the non-stabilized camera payload, to form high-resolution mosaics covering large spatial areas. These data are being employed to map ice conditions; including ice and lead features and melt ponds. These high-resolution mosaics are also well suited for sea-ice mechanics, classification studies and for validation of satellite sea-ice products.

  18. Development and Performance Evaluation of an Ozone-Contained Ice Making Machine Employing Pressurized Air Tight Containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Kenji; Akiyama, Tomoaki; Hirofuji, Yushi; Koyama, Shigeru

    Ozone has the capability of sterilization and deodorization due to high oxidation power. It is also effective for the conservation of perishable foods and purification of water. However, ozone has a disadvantage, that is, conservation of ozone is difficult because it reacts to oxygen. Recently, ozone-contained ice is taken attention for the purpose of its conservation. The use of ozone-contained ice seems to keep food fresher when we conserve and transport perishable foods due to the effects of cooling and sterilization of ozone-contained ice. In the present study, we have developed an ozone-contained ice making machine employing pressurized air tight containers with commercially available size. And the performance evaluation of the system is also carried out. Furthermore, we investigated the sterilization effect of ozone-contained ice on conservation of fish. It was seen that ozone-contained ice is effective for sterilization of surface of fish.

  19. Ice Storage System for School Complex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Ross D.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a project at the Manatee Education Center in Naples, Florida, which won an ASHRAE award. Project involved the implementation of ice-storage technology in 19 schools. Compares the performance of ice-storage systems with traditional chiller designs in two other schools. Tables illustrate costs for the campuses. Addresses the maintenance…

  20. Marginal Ice Zone Processes Observed from Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappa, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent years have seen extreme changes in the Arctic. Marginal ice zones (MIZ), or areas where the "ice-albedo feedback" driven by solar warming is highest and ice melt is extensive, may provide insights into the extent of these changes. Furthermore, MIZ play a central role in setting the air-sea CO2 balance making them a critical component of the global carbon cycle. Incomplete understanding of how the sea-ice modulates gas fluxes renders it difficult to estimate the carbon budget in MIZ. Here, we investigate the turbulent mechanisms driving mixing and gas exchange in leads, polynyas and in the presence of ice floes using both field and laboratory measurements. Measurements from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in the marginal ice zone were made during 2 experiments: 1) North of Oliktok Point AK in the Beaufort Sea were made during the Marginal Ice Zone Ocean and Ice Observations and Processes EXperiment (MIZOPEX) in July-August 2013 and 2) Fram Strait and Greenland Sea northwest of Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway during the Air-Sea-Ice Physics and Biogeochemistry Experiment (ASIPBEX) April - May 2015. We developed a number of new payloads that include: i) hyperspectral imaging spectrometers to measure VNIR (400-1000 nm) and NIR (900-1700 nm) spectral radiance; ii) net longwave and net shortwave radiation for ice-ocean albedo studies; iii) air-sea-ice turbulent fluxes as well as wave height, ice freeboard, and surface roughness with a LIDAR; and iv) drone-deployed micro-drifters (DDµD) deployed from the UAS that telemeter temperature, pressure, and RH as it descends through the atmosphere and temperature and salinity of the upper meter of the ocean once it lands on the ocean's surface. Visible and IR imagery of melting ice floes clearly defines the scale of the ice floes. The IR imagery show distinct cooling of the skin sea surface temperature (SST) as well as an intricate circulation and mixing pattern that depends on the surface current, wind speed, and near

  1. A Systems-Level Perspective on Engine Ice Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan David; Guo, Ten-Huei; Simon, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    Talk covers: (1) Problem of Engine Power Loss;(2) Modeling Engine Icing Effects; (3) Simulation of Engine Rollback; (4) Icing/Engine Control System Interaction; (5) Detection of Ice Accretion; (6) Potential Mitigation Strategies.

  2. Laboratory performance of a dynamic ice storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, T.K.; Tomlinson, J.J.

    1991-06-01

    The performance of a commercial 30-ton dynamic ice storage system was measured in a dedicated laboratory test facility and the results analyzed. The ice storage system was tested over a wide range of operating conditions to characterize the ice generating performance as a function of condensing conditions, ice build time, and defrost time. The overall efficiency of ice production was determined and the effect of refrigeration system component performance on the overall system efficiency was evaluated. The ability of the charged system -- a tank of ice slush -- to meet a simulated cooling load over was also evaluated. 18 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Ice matrix in reconfigurable microfluidic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossi, A. M.; Vareijka, M.; Piletska, E. V.; Turner, A. P. F.; Meglinski, I.; Piletsky, S. A.

    2013-07-01

    Microfluidic devices find many applications in biotechnologies. Here, we introduce a flexible and biocompatible microfluidic ice-based platform with tunable parameters and configuration of microfluidic patterns that can be changed multiple times during experiments. Freezing and melting of cavities, channels and complex relief structures created and maintained in the bulk of ice by continuous scanning of an infrared laser beam are used as a valve action in microfluidic systems. We demonstrate that pre-concentration of samples and transport of ions and dyes through the open channels created can be achieved in ice microfluidic patterns by IR laser-assisted zone melting. The proposed approach can be useful for performing separation and sensing processes in flexible reconfigurable microfluidic devices.

  4. Surface ices in the outer solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, Ted L.; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1994-01-01

    Planetary volatile inventories are products of several factors: (1) condensation-accretion of pre-planetary material which determines the bulk volatile inventory; (2) energy history of a planet, including timing, causes, and mechanisms of degassing; (3) the volatile sinks, including temporary, long term, and permanent; and (4) external processes operating on the volatile inventory. Information regarding the current surface compositions provide insight into both internal and surface-atmosphere evolutionary history. Our discussion focuses upon the surface composition of outer solar system planets and satellites as determined by spacecraft and telescopic spectral observations. We provide a review and an update of the recent work by Cruikshank and Brown that includes more recent observations and interpretations. In the context of formation and evolution of solar system bodies, the interesting ices typically considered are simple molecules formed from elements having high cosmic abundances. These mainly include ices of H2O, NH3, SO2, H2S, CH4, CO, CO2, and N2. In the solid state, these ices have vibrational spectral features, analogous to their gaseous counterparts but rotational transitions are quenched, that lie in the near- and mid-infrared. The overtone and combination modes, occurring in the visible and near-IR region, are of particular importance as standard observational techniques used to identify these ices rely upon reflected solar energy. Table I summarizes the ices found on various bodies in the outer solar system. H2O is most abundant surface material in the inner and middle regions while more volatile species appear to dominate surfaces in the outermost edge of the outer solar system.

  5. Wind-electric ice making for villages in the developing world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, H.; Drouilhet, S.; Flowers, L.; Bergey, M.; Brandemuehl, M.

    1994-07-01

    For many villages in the developing world, renewable energy sources are the most economical means of providing power. There is a significant need for ice to preserve fish and produce for shipment to market. Since fishing villages are near coastlines with fairly reliable wind resources, wind-powered ice machines would capitalize on a good match between ice demand and energy supply. To date little work has been done on the use of wind turbines for ice making applications. This paper presents the results of wind-electric ice making research project conducted by the University of Colorado, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Bergey Windpower Co. Several potential problems related to intermittent and variable frequency operation were determined prior to testing. Initial tests were conducted using a dynamometer to evaluate the significance of these potential problems under simulated conditions and to define basic performance expectations for ice makers in the 1.2 tons/day size range. Field testing will be completed soon to determine long-term performance of one ice maker.

  6. 14 CFR 25.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 25.1093... Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction system must have means to prevent and eliminate icing. Unless this is done by other means, it must be...

  7. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181... Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane....

  8. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181... Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane....

  9. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181... Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane....

  10. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181... Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane....

  11. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system icing. Each engine, with all icing protection systems operating, must— (a) Operate throughout its flight power... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system icing. 33.68 Section...

  12. Hybrid system for producing and storing ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, C. E.; Larash, R. C.; Gorski, A. J.

    Refrigeration, cooling and/or chilling methods usually require rather large amounts of energy for operation. This system uses naturally frozen ice in long term storage to provide an economical source of ice for various cooling or chilling purposes. Initial research and computer simulations indicate that in areas where the winter is suffuciently cold and of sufficient duration, this system would be an economical, viable option for uses such as simple refrigeration, summer air conditioning, or simply for effective dehumidification. In a 36 day melting period in June and July 1984, the system ran nearly continuously for 768 hours, recovering a total of 743 tons of cooling with an estimated 5 to 8% of the stored cooling capacity remaining. The seasonal melting loss was approximately 50% of the stored capacity.

  13. Active laser system for sea ice control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evtikhiev, Nickolay N.; Gaponov, Alexandr E.; Kuluba, Yury N.; Matous, Vladislav I.; Radominov, Oleg E.; Tuzikov, Vladimir Z.; Vargaftic, Vasiliy N.

    1997-01-01

    The airborne systems are used for complex investigations of coastline very successfully, for example it can be used to measure the depth of the sea, to discover the reefs and so on. Such information may be used in navigation too. The specific conditions of navigation in the North and Pole seas defines the necessity of exact knowledge about the ice cracks in order to find the possible direction of the ship movement. The active optical system, working in the near IR region, has many advantages before the passive one, especially if it is necessary to work during the polar night and at bad weather conditions. In this article we discuss the demands to the laser active airborne systems, that given the accurate picture of the ice with high resolution in the daytime and nighttime conditions. Such system based on the laser, mechanical scanner and avalanche photodiode is very compact, reliable and informative. The picture of the ice surface can be shown on the TV monitor, can be written to the memory and can be delivered to the processing center by the radiochannel. The experimental results are shown together with results of this system probing in the conditions of the North Pole Ocean.

  14. Advanced ice protection systems test in the NASA Lewis icing research tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Thomas H.; Shin, Jaiwon; Mesander, Geert A.

    1991-01-01

    Tests of eight different deicing systems based on variations of three different technologies were conducted in the NASA Lewis Research Center Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) in June and July 1990. The systems used pneumatic, eddy current repulsive, and electro-expulsive means to shed ice. The tests were conducted on a 1.83 m span, 0.53 m chord NACA 0012 airfoil operated at a 4 degree angle of attack. The models were tested at two temperatures: a glaze condition at minus 3.9 C and a rime condition at minus 17.2 C. The systems were tested through a range of icing spray times and cycling rates. Characterization of the deicers was accomplished by monitoring power consumption, ice shed particle size, and residual ice. High speed video motion analysis was performed to quantify ice particle size.

  15. Advanced ice protection systems test in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Thomas H.; Shin, Jaiwan; Mesander, Geert A.

    1991-01-01

    Tests of eight different deicing systems based on variations of three different technologies were conducted in the NASA Lewis Research Center Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) in June and July 1990. The systems used pneumatic, eddy current repulsive, and electroexpulsive means to shed ice. The tests were conducted on a 1.83 m span, 0.53 m chord NACA 0012 airfoil operated at a 4 degree angle of attack. The models were tested at two temperatures: a glaze condition at minus 3.9 C and a rime condition at minus 17.2 C. The systems were tested through a range of icing spray times and cycling rates. Characterization of the deicers was accomplished by monitoring power consumption, ice shed particle size, and residual ice. High speed video motion analysis was performed to quantify ice particle size.

  16. Ice Sheet System Model as Educational Entertainment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, G.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the importance of polar ice sheets and their role in the evolution of Sea Level Rise (SLR), as well as Climate Change, is of paramount importance for policy makers as well as the public and schools at large. For example, polar ice sheets and glaciers currently account for 1/3 of the SLR signal, a ratio that will increase in the near to long-term future, which has tremendous societal ramifications. Consequently, it is important to increase awareness about our changing planet. In our increasingly digital society, mobile and web applications are burgeoning venues for such outreach. The Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) is a software that was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/CalTech/NASA, in collaboration with University of California Irvine (UCI), with the goal of better understanding the evolution of polar ice sheets. It is a state-of-the-art framework, which relies on higher-end cluster-computing to address some of the aforementioned challenges. In addition, it is a flexible framework that can be deployed on any hardware; in particular, on mobile platforms such as Android or iOS smart phones. Here, we look at how the ISSM development team managed to port their model to these platforms, what the implications are for improving how scientists disseminate their results, and how a broader audience may familiarize themselves with running complex climate models in simplified scenarios which are highly educational and entertaining in content. We also look at the future plans toward a web portal fully integrated with mobile technologies to deliver the best content to the public, and to provide educational plans/lessons that can be used in grades K-12 as well as collegiate under-graduate and graduate programs.

  17. FLYSAFE, nowcasting of in flight icing supporting aircrew decision making process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouin, A.; Le Bot, C.

    2009-09-01

    FLYSAFE is an Integrated Project of the 6th framework of the European Commission with the aim to improve flight safety through the development of a Next Generation Integrated Surveillance System (NGISS). The NGISS provides information to the flight crew on the three major external hazards for aviation: weather, air traffic and terrain. The NGISS has the capability of displaying data about all three hazards on a single display screen, facilitating rapid pilot appreciation of the situation by the flight crew. Weather Information Management Systems (WIMS) were developed to provide the NGISS and the flight crew with weather related information on in-flight icing, thunderstorms, wake-vortex and clear-air turbulence. These products are generated on the ground from observations and model forecasts. WIMS supply relevant information on three different scales: global, regional and local (over airport Terminal Manoeuvring Area). Within the flysafe program, around 120 hours of flight trials were performed during February 2008 and August 2008. Two aircraft were involved each with separate objectives : - to assess FLYSAFE's innovative solutions for the data-link, on-board data fusion, data-display, and data-updates during flight; - to evaluate the new weather information management systems (in flight icing and thunderstorms) using in-situ measurements recorded on board the test aircraft. In this presentation we will focus on the in-flight icing nowcasting system developed at Météo France in the framework of FLYSAFE: the local ICE WIMS. The local ICE WIMS is based on data fusion. The most relevant information for icing detection is extracted from the numerical weather prediction model, the infra-red and visible satellite imagery and the ground weather radar reflectivities. After a presentation of the local ICE WIMS, we detail the evaluation of the local ICE WIMS performed using the winter and summer flight trial data.

  18. Validation Ice Crystal Icing Engine Test in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) is an existing altitude simulation jet engine test facility located at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, OH. It was modified in 2012 with the integration of an ice crystal cloud generation system. This paper documents the inaugural ice crystal cloud test in PSL--the first ever full scale, high altitude ice crystal cloud turbofan engine test to be conducted in a ground based facility. The test article was a Lycoming ALF502-R5 high bypass turbofan engine, serial number LF01. The objectives of the test were to validate the PSL ice crystal cloud calibration and engine testing methodologies by demonstrating the capability to calibrate and duplicate known flight test events that occurred on the same LF01 engine and to generate engine data to support fundamental and computational research to investigate and better understand the physics of ice crystal icing in a turbofan engine environment while duplicating known revenue service events and conducting test points while varying facility and engine parameters. During PSL calibration testing it was discovered than heated probes installed through tunnel sidewalls experienced ice buildup aft of their location due to ice crystals impinging upon them, melting and running back. Filtered city water was used in the cloud generation nozzle system to provide ice crystal nucleation sites. This resulted in mineralization forming on flow path hardware that led to a chronic degradation of performance during the month long test. Lacking internal flow path cameras, the response of thermocouples along the flow path was interpreted as ice building up. Using this interpretation, a strong correlation between total water content (TWC) and a weaker correlation between median volumetric diameter (MVD) of the ice crystal cloud and the rate of ice buildup along the instrumented flow path was identified. For this test article the engine anti-ice system was required to be turned on before ice crystal

  19. Validation Ice Crystal Icing Engine Test in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) is an existing altitude simulation jet engine test facility located at NASA Glenn Research Center in Clevleand, OH. It was modified in 2012 with the integration of an ice crystal cloud generation system. This paper documents the inaugural ice crystal cloud test in PSLthe first ever full scale, high altitude ice crystal cloud turbofan engine test to be conducted in a ground based facility. The test article was a Lycoming ALF502-R5 high bypass turbofan engine, serial number LF01. The objectives of the test were to validate the PSL ice crystal cloud calibration and engine testing methodologies by demonstrating the capability to calibrate and duplicate known flight test events that occurred on the same LF01 engine and to generate engine data to support fundamental and computational research to investigate and better understand the physics of ice crystal icing in a turbofan engine environment while duplicating known revenue service events and conducting test points while varying facility and engine parameters. During PSL calibration testing it was discovered than heated probes installed through tunnel sidewalls experienced ice buildup aft of their location due to ice crystals impinging upon them, melting and running back. Filtered city water was used in the cloud generation nozzle system to provide ice crystal nucleation sites. This resulted in mineralization forming on flow path hardware that led to a chronic degradation of performance during the month long test. Lacking internal flow path cameras, the response of thermocouples along the flow path was interpreted as ice building up. Using this interpretation, a strong correlation between total water content (TWC) and a weaker correlation between median volumetric diameter (MVD) of the ice crystal cloud and the rate of ice buildup along the instrumented flow path was identified. For this test article the engine anti-ice system was required to be turned on before ice crystal icing

  20. Development of the improved helicopter icing spray system (IHISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Andrew A.; Jenks, Mark D.; Gaitskill, William H.

    1989-01-01

    Boeing Helicopters has been awarded a contract by the U.S. Army to design, fabricate and test a replacement for the existing Helicopter Icing Spray System (HISS). The Improved Hiss (IHISS), capable of deployment from any CH-47D helicopter, will include new icing spray nozzles and pneumatic pressure source, and a significantly larger water tank and spray boom. Results are presented for extensive bench and icing tunnel test programs used to select and modify an improved spray nozzle and validate spray boom aerodynamic characteristics. The resulting system will provide a significantly larger icing cloud with droplet characteristics closely matching natural icing conditions.

  1. Ice Crystal Icing Engine Testing in the NASA Glenn Research Center's Propulsion Systems Laboratory: Altitude Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a full scale ice crystal icing turbofan engine test using an obsolete Allied Signal ALF502-R5 engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) at NASA Glenn Research Center. The test article used was the exact engine that experienced a loss of power event after the ingestion of ice crystals while operating at high altitude during a 1997 Honeywell flight test campaign investigating the turbofan engine ice crystal icing phenomena. The test plan included test points conducted at the known flight test campaign field event pressure altitude and at various pressure altitudes ranging from low to high throughout the engine operating envelope. The test article experienced a loss of power event at each of the altitudes tested. For each pressure altitude test point conducted the ambient static temperature was predicted using a NASA engine icing risk computer model for the given ambient static pressure while maintaining the engine speed.

  2. ICE stereocamera system - photogrammetric setup for retrieval and analysis of small scale sea ice topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divine, Dmitry; Pedersen, Christina; Karlsen, Tor Ivan; Aas, Harald; Granskog, Mats; Renner, Angelika; Spreen, Gunnar; Gerland, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    A new thin-ice Arctic paradigm requires reconsideration of the set of parameterizations of mass and energy exchange within the ocean-sea-ice-atmosphere system used in modern CGCMs. Such a reassessment would require a comprehensive collection of measurements made specifically on first-year pack ice with a focus on summer melt season when the difference from typical conditions for the earlier multi-year Arctic sea ice cover becomes most pronounced. Previous in situ studies have demonstrated a crucial importance of smaller (i.e. less than 10 m) scale surface topography features for the seasonal evolution of pack ice. During 2011-2012 NPI developed a helicopter borne ICE stereocamera system intended for mapping the sea ice surface topography and aerial photography. The hardware component of the system comprises two Canon 5D Mark II cameras, combined GPS/INS unit by "Novatel" and a laser altimeter mounted in a single enclosure outside the helicopter. The unit is controlled by a PXI chassis mounted inside the helicopter cabin. The ICE stereocamera system was deployed for the first time during the 2012 summer field season. The hardware setup has proven to be highly reliable and was used in about 30 helicopter flights over Arctic sea-ice during July-September. Being highly automated it required a minimal human supervision during in-flight operation. The deployment of the camera system was mostly done in combination with the EM-bird, which measures sea-ice thickness, and this combination provides an integrated view of sea ice cover along the flight track. During the flight the cameras shot sequentially with a time interval of 1 second each to ensure sufficient overlap between subsequent images. Some 35000 images of sea ice/water surface captured per camera sums into 6 Tb of data collected during its first field season. The reconstruction of the digital elevation model of sea ice surface will be done using SOCET SET commercial software. Refraction at water/air interface can

  3. New Icing Cloud Simulation System at the NASA Glenn Research Center Icing Research Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, Thomas B.; Oldenburg, John R.; Sheldon, David W.

    1999-01-01

    A new spray bar system was designed, fabricated, and installed in the NASA Glenn Research Center's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). This system is key to the IRT's ability to do aircraft in-flight icing cloud simulation. The performance goals and requirements levied on the design of the new spray bar system included increased size of the uniform icing cloud in the IRT test section, faster system response time, and increased coverage of icing conditions as defined in Appendix C of the Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR), Part 25 and Part 29. Through significant changes to the mechanical and electrical designs of the previous-generation spray bar system, the performance goals and requirements were realized. Postinstallation aerodynamic and icing cloud calibrations were performed to quantify the changes and improvements made to the IRT test section flow quality and icing cloud characteristics. The new and improved capability to simulate aircraft encounters with in-flight icing clouds ensures that the 1RT will continue to provide a satisfactory icing ground-test simulation method to the aeronautics community.

  4. Sea Ice in the NCEP Climate Forecast System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Grumbine, R. W.

    2015-12-01

    Sea ice is known to play a significant role in the global climate system. For a weather or climate forecast system (CFS), it is important that the realistic distribution of sea ice is represented. Sea ice prediction is challenging; sea ice can form or melt, it can move with wind and/or ocean current; sea ice interacts with both the air above and ocean underneath, it influences by, and has impact on the air and ocean conditions. NCEP has developed coupled CFS (version 2, CFSv2) and carried out CFS reanalysis (CFSR), which includes a coupled model with the NCEP global forecast system, a land model, an ocean model (GFDL MOM4), and a sea ice model. In this work, we present the NCEP coupled model, the CFSv2 sea ice component that includes a dynamic thermodynamic sea ice model and a simple "assimilation" scheme, how sea ice has been assimilated in CFSR, the characteristics of the sea ice from CFSR and CFSv2, and the improvements of sea ice needed for future CFS (version 3) and the CFSR.

  5. Sea Ice Topography Profiling using Laser Altimetry from Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocker, Roger Ian

    Arctic sea ice is undergoing a dramatic transition from a perennial ice pack with a high prevalence of old multiyear ice, to a predominantly seasonal ice pack comprised primarily of young first-year and second-year ice. This transition has brought about changes in the sea ice thickness and topography characteristics, which will further affect the evolution and survivability of the ice pack. The varying ice conditions have substantial implications for commercial operations, international affairs, regional and global climate, our ability to model climate dynamics, and the livelihood of Arctic inhabitants. A number of satellite and airborne missions are dedicated to monitoring sea ice, but they are limited by their spatial and temporal resolution and coverage. Given the fast rate of sea ice change and its pervasive implications, enhanced observational capabilities are needed to augment the current strategies. The CU Laser Profilometer and Imaging System (CULPIS) is designed specifically for collecting fine-resolution elevation data and imagery from small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), and has a great potential to compliment ongoing missions. This altimeter system has been integrated into four different UAS, and has been deployed during Arctic and Antarctic science campaigns. The CULPIS elevation measurement accuracy is shown to be 95±25 cm, and is limited primarily by GPS positioning error (<25 cm), aircraft attitude determination error (<20 cm), and sensor misalignment error (<20 cm). The relative error is considerably smaller over short flight distances, and the measurement precision is shown to be <10 cm over a distance of 200 m. Given its fine precision, the CULPIS is well suited for measuring sea ice topography, and observed ridge height and ridge separation distributions are found to agree with theoretical distributions to within 5%. Simulations demonstrate the inability of course-resolution measurements to accurately represent the theoretical distributions

  6. IceVal DatAssistant: An Interactive, Automated Icing Data Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinson, Laurie H.; Wright, William B.

    2008-01-01

    As with any scientific endeavor, the foundation of icing research at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is the data acquired during experimental testing. In the case of the GRC Icing Branch, an important part of this data consists of ice tracings taken following tests carried out in the GRC Icing Research Tunnel (IRT), as well as the associated operational and environmental conditions during those tests. Over the years, the large number of experimental runs completed has served to emphasize the need for a consistent strategy to manage the resulting data. To address this situation, the Icing Branch has recently elected to implement the IceVal DatAssistant automated data management system. With the release of this system, all publicly available IRT-generated experimental ice shapes with complete and verifiable conditions have now been compiled into one electronically-searchable database; and simulation software results for the equivalent conditions, generated using the latest version of the LEWICE ice shape prediction code, are likewise included and linked to the corresponding experimental runs. In addition to this comprehensive database, the IceVal system also includes a graphically-oriented database access utility, which provides reliable and easy access to all data contained in the database. In this paper, the issues surrounding historical icing data management practices are discussed, as well as the anticipated benefits to be achieved as a result of migrating to the new system. A detailed description of the software system features and database content is also provided; and, finally, known issues and plans for future work are presented.

  7. IceVal DatAssistant: An Interactive, Automated Icing Data Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinson, Laurie H.; Wright, William B.

    2008-01-01

    As with any scientific endeavor, the foundation of icing research at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is the data acquired during experimental testing. In the case of the GRC Icing Branch, an important part of this data consists of ice tracings taken following tests carried out in the GRC Icing Research Tunnel (IRT), as well as the associated operational and environmental conditions documented during these tests. Over the years, the large number of experimental runs completed has served to emphasize the need for a consistent strategy for managing this data. To address the situation, the Icing Branch has recently elected to implement the IceVal DatAssistant automated data management system. With the release of this system, all publicly available IRT-generated experimental ice shapes with complete and verifiable conditions have now been compiled into one electronically-searchable database. Simulation software results for the equivalent conditions, generated using the latest version of the LEWICE ice shape prediction code, are likewise included and are linked to the corresponding experimental runs. In addition to this comprehensive database, the IceVal system also includes a graphically-oriented database access utility, which provides reliable and easy access to all data contained in the database. In this paper, the issues surrounding historical icing data management practices are discussed, as well as the anticipated benefits to be achieved as a result of migrating to the new system. A detailed description of the software system features and database content is also provided; and, finally, known issues and plans for future work are presented.

  8. Structure of Water Ice in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, David; Jenniskens, Peter; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Nearly all of the properties of solar system ices (chemical reaction rates, volatile retention and release, vaporization behavior, thermal conductivity, infrared spectral characteristics and the like) are a direct consequence of ice structure. However, the characterization of astrophysical ices and their laboratory analogs has typically utilized indirect measurements which yield phenomenological interpretations. When water ice is vapor-deposited at 14 K and warmed until it volatilizes in moderate vacuum, the ice undergoes a series of amorphous to amorphous and amorphous to crystalline structural transitions which we have characterized by diffraction methods. These structural transitions correlate with and underlie many phenomena observed in laboratory infrared and gas release experiments. The elucidation of the dynamic structural changes which occur in vapor-deposited water ice as a function of time, temperature and radiation history allows for the more complete interpretation of remote observations of astrophysical ices and their laboratory analogs.

  9. 14 CFR 25.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 25.1093... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction...

  10. Interferometric System for Measuring Thickness of Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussein, Ziad; Jordan, Rolando; McDonald, Kyle; Holt, Benjamin; Huang, John; Kugo, Yasuo; Ishimaru, Akira; Jaruwatanadilok, Semsak; Akins, Torry; Gogineni, Prasad

    2006-01-01

    The cryospheric advanced sensor (CAS) is a developmental airborne (and, potentially, spaceborne) radar-based instrumentation system for measuring and mapping the thickness of sea ice. A planned future version of the system would also provide data on the thickness of snow covering sea ice. Frequent measurements of the thickness of polar ocean sea ice and its snow cover on a synoptic scale are critical to understanding global climate change and ocean circulation.

  11. Energy-Efficient Systems Eliminate Icing Danger for UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Ames Research Center engineer Leonard Haslim invented an anti-icing t echnology called an electroexpulsive separation system, which uses m echanical force to shatter potentially dangerous ice buildup on an ai rcraft surface. Temecula, California-based Ice Management Systems (no w known as IMS-ESS) licensed the technology from Ames and has discov ered a niche market for the lightweight, energy-efficient technology: unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). IMS-ESS systems now prevent damagi ng ice accumulation on military UAVs, allowing the vehicles to carry out crucial missions year round.

  12. Practical Use Study of the Direct Conveyance and Cooling System for Iced Water by the Propylene Glycol Solutio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Mitsuo; Ninomiya, Tohru; Matsubara, Kazuo; Aikawa, Keisuke; Ikoma, Kenji

    In a cold storage warehouse, by developing the thermal energy storage technique using cheap electric powerin the night, it is necessary to construct a high-efficient and energy-saving-type refrigeration system in which air conditioning is possible at 0 degrees c. We created a brine iced water (ice slurry) cooled under 0 degreesc by a closed supercooling ice making method. For a practical application, the brine iced water was directly sent to the load side, and it was utilized as the secondary refrigerant for the heat exchange. As a result, by replacing the pure water with a marketed propylene glycol solution, it was proven that the conventional closed supercooling ice making method could be similarly utilized for the ice making. However, it is necessary to control the evaporation temperature in the refrigerator, because the freezing temperature changes with the brine concentration. In the refrigerator entrance, it is necessary to heat at a constant temperature so that the inflow brine may not freeze. In case of the brine iced water, the fluidity of the brine iced water is high, and the ice particle is carried away by the flow. Therefore, it is necessary to prevent runoff of the ice particle from an intake of the thermal storage tank in case of thebrine water. This proposal system was confirmed that there was practically no problem by an operation of a 15kW refrigerator system.

  13. Multiscale Observation System for Sea Ice Drift and Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lensu, M.; Haapala, J. J.; Heiler, I.; Karvonen, J.; Suominen, M.

    2011-12-01

    The drift and deformation of sea ice cover is most commonly followed from successive SAR images. The time interval between the images is seldom less than one day which provides rather crude approximation of the motion fields as ice can move tens of kilometers per day. This is particulary so from the viewpoint of operative services, seeking to provide real time information for ice navigating ships and other end users, as leads are closed and opened or ridge fields created in time scales of one hour or less. The ice forecast models are in a need of better temporal resolution for ice motion data as well. We present experiences from a multiscale monitoring system set up to the Bay of Bothnia, the northernmost basin of the Baltic Sea. The basin generates difficult ice conditions every winter while the ports are kept open with the help of an icebreaker fleet. The key addition to SAR imagery is the use of coastal radars for the monitoring of coastal ice fields. An independent server is used to tap the radar signal and process it to suit ice monitoring purposes. This is done without interfering the basic use of the radars, the ship traffic monitoring. About 20 images per minute are captured and sent to the headquarters for motion field extraction, website animation and distribution. This provides very detailed real time picture of the ice movement and deformation within 20 km range. The real time movements are followed in addition with ice drifter arrays, and using AIS ship identification data, from which the translation of ship cannels due to ice drift can be found out. To the operative setup is associated an extensive research effort that uses the data for ice drift model enhancement. The Baltic ice models seek to forecast conditions relevant to ship traffic, especilly hazardous ones like severe ice compression. The main missing link here is downscaling, or the relation of local scale ice dynamics and kinematics to the ice model scale behaviour. The data flow when

  14. An Analysis on Ice Storing CharacterIstics in Dynamic-type Ice Storage System using Supercooled Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizawa, Naoki; Tanino, Masayuki; Kozawa, Yoshiyuki

    For an application of the Dynamic-type Ice Storage System to the District Cooling and Heating System, the effects of ice content (IPF) and mass flow rate of supplying ice-slurry on the ice storing characteristics in a tank were investigated by experiments and analyses. In the analytical model, we considered that the ice-rich layer would be ununiform by raising of IPF and the water permeability in the ice-rich layer increases. By raising of IPF and reducing of mass flow rate of supplying ice-slurry, ice-rich layer could not spread in a tank. The porosity of ice-rich layer was contracting to the value of 0.8-0.9 in the ice storing process. The stored ice quantity depends on distribution and porosity of ice-rich layer in a tank decreased to 10% by raising IPF from 2.5wt% to 10wt% and reducing mass flow rate as constant ice flow rate. The analytical results could express the experimental results about stored ice quantity. Our analytical model is considered to be applicable to prediction of the ice storing characteristics and to design of an ice storage tank.

  15. Spectral properties of water ice and contaminants. [of importance to remote sensing of ice in solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, P. G.; Clark, R. N.

    1985-01-01

    For remote sensing studies of ices in the solar system, it is important to understand the optical properties of water ice, and mixtures of ice and particulate materials. The present paper has the objective to review the current understanding of the spectral properties of ice, and mixtures of ice and particulates. The review is to provide a basis for the understanding of the remote sensing of ice. It is found that reflectance spectra of ice-soil intimate mixtures are complex, nonlinear functions of the optical and physical properties of the components which comprise the surface.

  16. Investigation of Icing Characteristics of Typical Light Airplane Engine Induction Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, W. D.

    1949-01-01

    The icing characteristics of two typical light-airplane engine induction systems were investigated using the carburetors and manifolds of engines in the horsepower ranges from 65 to 85 and 165 to 185. The smaller system consisted of a float-type carburetor with an unheated manifold and the larger system consisted of a single-barrel pressure-type carburetor with an oil-jacketed manifold. Carburetor-air temperature and humidity limits of visible and serious Icing were determined for various engine power conditions. Several.methods of achieving ice-free induction systems are discussed along with estimates of surface heating requirements of the various induct ion-system components. A study was also made of the icing characteristics of a typical light-airplane air scoop with an exposed filter and a modified system that provided a normal ram inlet with the filter located in a position to Induce inertia separation of the free water from the charge air. The principle of operation of float-type carburetors is proved to make them inherently more susceptible to icing at the throttle plate than pressure-type carburetors.. The results indicated that proper jacketing and heating of all parts exposed to the fuel spray can satisfactorily reduce or eliminate icing in the float-type carburetor and the manifold. Pressure-type carburetors can be protected from serious Icing by proper location of the fuel-discharge nozzle combined with suitable application of heat to critical parts.

  17. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181 Section 125.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of...

  18. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283 Section 121.283 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to...

  19. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283 Section 121.283 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to...

  20. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283 Section 121.283 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to...

  1. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283 Section 121.283 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to...

  2. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283 Section 121.283 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to...

  3. Radiative transfer in atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Z.; Stamnes, K.; Weeks, W.F.; Tsay, S.C.

    1996-04-01

    Radiative energy is critical in controlling the heat and mass balance of sea ice, which significantly affects the polar climate. In the polar oceans, light transmission through the atmosphere and sea ice is essential to the growth of plankton and algae and, consequently, to the microbial community both in the ice and in the ocean. Therefore, the study of radiative transfer in the polar atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean system is of particular importance. Lacking a properly coupled radiative transfer model for the atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system, a consistent study of the radiative transfer in the polar atmosphere, snow, sea ice, and ocean system has not been undertaken before. The radiative transfer processes in the atmosphere and in the ice and ocean have been treated separately. Because the radiation processes in the atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean depend on each other, this separate treatment is inconsistent. To study the radiative interaction between the atmosphere, clouds, snow, sea ice, and ocean, a radiative transfer model with consistent treatment of radiation in the coupled system is needed and is under development.

  4. Icing tunnel tests of a glycol-exuding porous leading edge ice protection system on a general aviation airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlman, D. L.; Schweikhard, W. G.; Albright, A. E.; Evanich, P.

    1981-01-01

    A glycol-exuding porous leading edge ice protection system was tested. Results show that the system is very effective in preventing ice accretion (anti-ice mode) or removing ice from an airfoil. Minimum glycol flow rates required for anti-icing are a function of velocity, liquid water content in the air, ambient temperature, and droplet size. Large ice caps were removed in only a few minutes using anti-ice flow rates. It was found that the shed time is a function of the type of ice, size of the ice cap, angle of attack, and glycol flow rate. Wake survey measurements show that there is no significant drag penalty for the installation or operation of the system tested.

  5. Radiation Transport in the Atmosphere - Sea Ice - Ocean System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Zhonghai

    1995-01-01

    A comprehensive radiative transfer model for the coupled atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system has been developed. The theoretical work required for constructing such a coupled model is described first. This work extends the discrete ordinate method, which has been proven to be effective in studies of radiative transfer in the atmosphere, to solve the radiative transfer problem pertaining to a system consisting of two strata with different indices of refraction, such as the atmosphere-ocean system and the atmosphere -sea ice-ocean system. The relevant changes (as compared to the standard problem with constant index of refraction throughout the medium) in formulation and solution of the radiative transfer equation, including the proper application of interface and boundary conditions, are presented. This solution is then applied to the atmosphere -sea ice-ocean system to study the solar energy balance in this coupled system. The input parameters required by the model are observable physical properties (e.g., the profiles of temperature and gas concentrations in the atmosphere, and the profiles of temperature, density, and salinity in the ice). The atmosphere, sea ice and ocean are each divided into a sufficient number of layers in the vertical to adequately resolve changes in their optical properties. This model rigorously accounts for the multiple scattering and absorption by atmospheric molecules, clouds, snow and sea water, as well as inclusions in the sea ice, such as brine pockets and air bubbles. The effects of various factors on the solar energy distribution in the entire system have been studied quantitatively. These factors include the ice salinity and density variations, cloud microphysics as well as variations in melt ponds and snow cover on the ice surface. Finally, the coupled radiative transfer model is used to study the impacts of clouds, snow and ice algae on the light transport in sea ice and in the ocean, as well as to simulate spectral irradiance and

  6. Field demonstration of the ICE 250{trademark} Cleaning System

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, J.L.; Jackson, L.M.

    1999-10-05

    The ICE 250{trademark} Cleaning System was engineered to convert water into small ice particles for use in cleaning and decontamination applications. Ice crystals are produced in a special icemaker and pressured through a hose-nozzle onto the surface to be cleaned. The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center and Ice Cleaning Systems, Inc., conducted a test of this system at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 to evaluate the system's cleaning capabilities in an oil field environment. Equipment cleaned included an oil storage tank, a rod pumping unit, a road grader, and a wellhead. Contaminants were unrefined sour crude oil, hydraulic fluid, paraffin, and dirt, occurring separately and as mixtures. In all four demonstration cleaning tasks, the ICE 250 System effectively removed surface contaminant mixtures in a timely manner and left no oily residue. A minimal amount of waste moisture was generated, thereby reducing cleanup and disposal costs.

  7. Icing-Protection Requirements for Reciprocating-Engine Induction System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, Willard D; Rollin, Vern G; Mulholland, Donald R

    1950-01-01

    Despite the development of relatively ice-free fuel-metering systems, the widespread use of alternate and heated-air intakes, and the use of alcohol for emergency de-icing, icing of aircraft-engine induction systems is a serious problem. Investigations have been made to study and to combat all phases of this icing problem. From these investigations, criterions for safe operation and for design of new induction systems have been established. The results were obtained from laboratory investigations of carburetor-supercharger combinations, wind-tunnel investigations of air scoops, multicylinder-engine studies, and flight investigations. Characteristics of three forms of ice, impact, throttling, and fuel evaporation were studied. The effects of several factors on the icing characteristics were also studied and included: (1) atmospheric conditions, (2) engine and air-scoop configurations, including light-airplane system, (3) type fuel used, and (4) operating variables, such as power condition, use of a manifold pressure regulator, mixture setting, carburetor heat, and water-alcohol injection. In addition, ice-detection methods were investigated and methods of preventing and removing induction-system ice were studied. Recommendations are given for design and operation with regard to induction-system design.

  8. Icing research tunnel rotating bar calibration measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Theresa L.; Dearmon, John M.

    1993-01-01

    In order to measure icing patterns across a test section of the Icing Research Tunnel, an automated rotating bar measurement system was developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. In comparison with the previously used manual measurement system, this system provides a number of improvements: increased accuracy and repeatability, increased number of data points, reduced tunnel operating time, and improved documentation. The automated system uses a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) to measure ice accretion. This instrument is driven along the bar by means of an intelligent stepper motor which also controls data recording. This paper describes the rotating bar calibration measurement system.

  9. Parameterizations for ice nucleation in biological and atmospheric systems.

    PubMed

    Koop, Thomas; Zobrist, Bernhard

    2009-12-14

    Ice nucleation is an important process in numerous environmental systems such as atmospheric aerosol droplets or biological tissues. Here we analyze two widely used approaches for describing homogeneous ice nucleation in aqueous solutions with respect to their applicability to heterogeneous ice nucleation processes: the lambda approach and the water-activity-based approach. We study experimentally the heterogeneous ice nucleation behaviour of mineral dust particles and biological ice nuclei (Snomax; Pseudomonas syringae) in aqueous solutions as a function of solute concentration for various solutes (sulfuric acid, ammonium sulfate, glucose, and poly(ethylene glycol) with two different molar masses of 400 and 6000 g mol(-1)). We show that the ice nucleation temperature and the corresponding lambda values depend on both the type of ice nucleus and the type of solute, while the water-activity-based approach depends only on the type of ice nucleus when the solution water activity is known. Finally, we employ both approaches to the study of ice nucleation in biological systems such as the supercooling point of living larvae and insects. We show that the behaviour of freeze tolerant and freeze avoiding species can be described using the two approaches and we discuss how the analysis can be used to interpret experimental results of the freezing behaviour of living species. PMID:19924318

  10. Data assimilation of surface altimetry on the North-Easter Ice Stream using the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larour, Eric; Utke, Jean; Morlighem, Mathieu; Seroussi, Helene; Csatho, Beata; Schenk, Anton; Rignot, Eric; Khazendar, Ala

    2014-05-01

    Extensive surface altimetry data has been collected on polar ice sheets over the past decades, following missions such as Envisat and IceSat. This data record will further increase in size with the new CryoSat mission, the ongoing Operation IceBridge Mission and the soon to launch IceSat-2 mission. In order to make the best use of these dataset, ice flow models need to improve on the way they ingest surface altimetry to infer: 1) parameterizations of poorly known physical processes such as basal friction; 2) boundary conditions such as Surface Mass Balance (SMB). Ad-hoc sensitivity studies and adjoint-based inversions have so far been the way ice sheet models have attempted to resolve the impact of 1) on their results. As for boundary conditions or the lack thereof, most studies assume that they are a fixed quantity, which, though prone to large errors from the measurement itself, is not varied according to the simulated results. Here, we propose a method based on automatic differentiation to improve boundary conditions at the base and surface of the ice sheet during a short-term transient run for which surface altimetry observations are available. The method relies on minimizing a cost-function, the best fit between modeled surface evolution and surface altimetry observations, using gradients that are computed for each time step from automatic differentiation of the ISSM (Ice Sheet System Model) code. The approach relies on overloaded operators using the ADOLC (Automatic Differentiation by OverLoading in C++) package. It is applied to the 79 North Glacier, Greenland, for a short term transient spanning a couple of decades before the start of the retreat of the Zachariae Isstrom outlet glacier. Our results show adjustments required on the basal friction and the SMB of the whole basin to best fit surface altimetry observations, along with sensitivities each one of these parameters has on the overall cost function. Our approach presents a pathway towards assimilating

  11. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    DOEpatents

    Weng, Kuo-Lianq; Weng, Kuo-Liang

    1998-01-01

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

  12. Methods and systems for detection of ice formation on surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfano, Robert R. (Inventor); Wang, Wubao (Inventor); Sztul, Henry (Inventor); Budansky, Yury (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A system for detecting ice formation on metal, painted metal and other material surfaces can include a transparent window having an exterior surface upon which ice can form; a light source and optics configured and arranged to illuminate the exterior surface of the window from behind the exterior surface; and a detector and optics configured and arranged to receive light backscattered by the exterior surface and any ice disposed on the exterior surface and determine the thickness of the ice layer. For example, the system can be used with aircraft by placing one or more windows in the wings of the aircraft. The system is used for a novel optical method for real-time on-board detection and warning of ice formation on surfaces of airplanes, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and other vehicles and stationary structures to improve their safety and operation.

  13. Systems Engineering Techniques for ALS Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Luis F.; Drysdale, Alan E.; Jones, Harry; Levri, Julie A.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) Metric is the predominant tool for predicting the cost of ALS systems. Metric goals for the ALS Program are daunting, requiring a threefold increase in the ALS Metric by 2010. Confounding the problem, the rate new ALS technologies reach the maturity required for consideration in the ALS Metric and the rate at which new configurations are developed is slow, limiting the search space and potentially giving the perspective of a ALS technology, the ALS Metric may remain elusive. This paper is a sequel to a paper published in the proceedings of the 2003 ICES conference entitled, "Managing to the metric: an approach to optimizing life support costs." The conclusions of that paper state that the largest contributors to the ALS Metric should be targeted by ALS researchers and management for maximum metric reductions. Certainly, these areas potentially offer large potential benefits to future ALS missions; however, the ALS Metric is not the only decision-making tool available to the community. To facilitate decision-making within the ALS community a combination of metrics should be utilized, such as the Equivalent System Mass (ESM)-based ALS metric, but also those available through techniques such as life cycle costing and faithful consideration of the sensitivity of the assumed models and data. Often a lack of data is cited as the reason why these techniques are not considered for utilization. An existing database development effort within the ALS community, known as OPIS, may provide the opportunity to collect the necessary information to enable the proposed systems analyses. A review of these additional analysis techniques is provided, focusing on the data necessary to enable these. The discussion is concluded by proposing how the data may be utilized by analysts in the future.

  14. Short-term sea ice forecasting: An assessment of ice concentration and ice drift forecasts using the U.S. Navy's Arctic Cap Nowcast/Forecast System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, David A.; Allard, Richard A.; Metzger, E. Joseph; Posey, Pamela G.; Preller, Ruth H.; Wallcraft, Alan J.; Phelps, Michael W.; Smedstad, Ole Martin

    2015-12-01

    In this study the forecast skill of the U.S. Navy operational Arctic sea ice forecast system, the Arctic Cap Nowcast/Forecast System (ACNFS), is presented for the period February 2014 to June 2015. ACNFS is designed to provide short term, 1-7 day forecasts of Arctic sea ice and ocean conditions. Many quantities are forecast by ACNFS; the most commonly used include ice concentration, ice thickness, ice velocity, sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, and sea surface velocities. Ice concentration forecast skill is compared to a persistent ice state and historical sea ice climatology. Skill scores are focused on areas where ice concentration changes by ±5% or more, and are therefore limited to primarily the marginal ice zone. We demonstrate that ACNFS forecasts are skilful compared to assuming a persistent ice state, especially beyond 24 h. ACNFS is also shown to be particularly skilful compared to a climatologic state for forecasts up to 102 h. Modeled ice drift velocity is compared to observed buoy data from the International Arctic Buoy Programme. A seasonal bias is shown where ACNFS is slower than IABP velocity in the summer months and faster in the winter months. In February 2015, ACNFS began to assimilate a blended ice concentration derived from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) and the Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS). Preliminary results show that assimilating AMSR2 blended with IMS improves the short-term forecast skill and ice edge location compared to the independently derived National Ice Center Ice Edge product.

  15. Global ice-sheet system interlocked by sea level

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, G.H.; Hughes, T.J.; Karlen, W.

    1986-01-01

    Denton and Hughes postulated that sea level linked a global ice-sheet system with both terrestrial and grounded marine components during later Quaternary ice ages. Summer temperature changes near Northern Hemisphere melting margins initiated sea-level fluctuations that controlled marine components in both polar hemispheres. It was further proposed that variations of this ice-sheet system amplified and transmitted Milankovitch summer half-year insolation changes between 45 and 75/sup 0/N into global climatic changes. New tests of this hypothesis implicate sea level as a major control of the areal extent of grounded portions of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. But factors other than areal changes of the grounded Antarctic Ice Sheet may have strongly influenced Southern Hemisphere climate and terminated the last ice age simultaneously in both polar hemispheres. Atmospheric carbon dioxide linked to high-latitude oceans is the most likely candidate, but another potential influence was high-frequency climatic oscillations. It is postulated that variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide acted through an Antarctic ice shelf linked to the grounded ice sheet to produce and terminate Southern Hemisphere ice-age climate. It is further postulated that Milankovitch summer insolation combined with a warm-high frequency oscillation caused marked recession of Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet melting margins and the North Atlantic polar front about 14,000 /sup 14/C yr B.P. This permitted renewed formation of North Atlantic Deep Water, which could well have controlled atmospheric carbon dioxide. Combined melting and consequent sea-level rise from the three warming factors initiated irreversible collapse of the interlocked global ice-sheet system, which was at its largest but most vulnerable configuration.

  16. Aircraft Icing Weather Data Reporting and Dissemination System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, Ellen J.; Minsk, Brian; Lindholm, Tenny; Politovich, Marcia; Reehorst, Andrew (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The long-term operational concept of this research is to develop an onboard aircraft system that assesses and reports atmospheric icing conditions automatically and in a timely manner in order to improve aviation safety and the efficiency of aircraft operations via improved real-time and forecast weather products. The idea is to use current measurement capabilities on aircraft equipped with icing sensors and in-flight data communication technologies as a reporting source. Without requiring expensive avionics upgrades, aircraft data must be processed and available for downlink. Ideally, the data from multiple aircraft can then be integrated (along with other real-time and modeled data) on the ground such that aviation-centered icing hazard metrics for volumes of airspace can be assessed. As the effect of icing on different aircraft types can vary, the information should be displayed in meaningful ways such that multiple types of users can understand the information. That is, information must be presented in a manner to allow users to understand the icing conditions with respect to individual concerns and aircraft capabilities. This research provides progress toward this operational concept by: identifying an aircraft platform capable of digitally capturing, processing, and downlinking icing data; identifying the required in situ icing data processing; investigating the requirements for routing the icing data for use by weather products; developing an icing case study in order to gain insight into major air carrier needs; developing and prototyping icing display concepts based on the National Center for Atmospheric Research's existing diagnostic and forecast experimental icing products; and conducting a usability study for the prototyped icing display concepts.

  17. ICE System: Interruptible control expert system. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vezina, James M.

    1990-01-01

    The Interruptible Control Expert (ICE) System is based on an architecture designed to provide a strong foundation for real-time production rule expert systems. Three principles are adopted to guide the development of ICE. A practical delivery platform must be provided, no specialized hardware can be used to solve deficiencies in the software design. Knowledge of the environment and the rule-base is exploited to improve the performance of a delivered system. The third principle of ICE is to respond to the most critical event, at the expense of the more trivial tasks. Minimal time is spent on classifying the potential importance of environmental events with the majority of the time used for finding the responses. A feature of the system, derived from all three principles, is the lack of working memory. By using a priori information, a fixed amount of memory can be specified for the hardware platform. The absence of working memory removes the dangers of garbage collection during the continuous operation of the controller.

  18. All Systems Go for Engine Icing Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    All the pieces came together to recently produce a successful first run of a ground test investigating how ice can accumulate inside a hot jet engine. A full-size engine, spray bars to create the i...

  19. An operational all-weather Great Lakes ice information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedney, R. T.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of the NASA developed all-weather ice information system for the Great Lakes winter navigation program. The system utilizes an X-band side looking airborne radar (SLAR) for determining type, location, and areal distribution of the ice cover in the Great Lakes and an airborne, S band, down looking short pulse radar for obtaining ice thickness. Digitized SLAR data are relayed in real time via the NOAA-GOES satellite in geosynchronous orbit. The SLAR images along with hand drawn interpretative ice charts for various Great Lakes winter shipping areas are broadcast to facsimile recorders aboard vessles is the area via the MARAD marine VHF-FM radio network. These data assist such vessels in navigating both through and around the ice.

  20. Antarctic sea ice carbon dioxide system and controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fransson, Agneta; Chierici, Melissa; Yager, Patricia L.; Smith, Walker O., Jr.

    2011-12-01

    In austral summer, from December 2008 to January 2009, we investigated the sea-ice carbon dioxide (CO2) system and CO2 controls in the Amundsen and Ross Seas, Antarctica. We sampled seawater, brine and sea ice for the measurements of total alkalinity (AT), total inorganic carbon (DIC), pH, inorganic nutrients, particulate organic carbon (POC) and nitrogen (PON), chlorophyll a, pigments, salinity and temperature. Large variability in all measured parameters was observed in time and space due to the complex sea-ice dynamics. We discuss the controls of the sea-ice CO2 system, such as brine rejection, biological processes, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation/dissolution and CO2 exchange. Most (80 to 90%) of the DIC loss was due to brine rejection, which suggests that the sea ice acted as an efficient DIC sink from 0.8 and 2.6 mol m-2 yr-1 (9.6-31 g C m-2 yr-1). The remaining change in DIC was to a large extent explained by net biological production. The AT:DIC ratio in the sea ice was higher than in the under-ice water (UIW), with ratios reaching 1.7, which indicated CaCO3 precipitation and concomitant DIC loss in the sea ice. Elevated AT:DIC ratios and carbonate concentrations were also observed in the UIW, which reflect the solid CaCO3 rejected from the ice during melt. The potential for uptake of atmospheric CO2 in the mixed layer increased by approximately 56 μatm due to the combined effect of CaCO3 precipitation during ice formation, and ice melt in summer.

  1. Monstrous Ice Cloud System in Titan's Present South Polar Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, Robert; McLain, Jason; Achterberg, Richard; Flasar, F. Michael; Milam, Stefanie

    2015-11-01

    During southern autumn when sunlight was still available, Cassini's Imaging Science Subsystem discovered a cloud around 300 km near Titan's south pole (West, R. A. et al., AAS/DPS Abstracts, 45, #305.03, 2013); the cloud was later determined by Cassini's Visible and InfraRed Mapping Spectrometer to contain HCN ice (de Kok et al., Nature, 514, pp 65-67, 2014). This cloud has proven to be only the tip of an extensive ice cloud system contained in Titan's south polar stratosphere, as seen through the night-vision goggles of Cassini's Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS). As the sun sets and the gloom of southern winter approaches, evidence is beginning to accumulate from CIRS far-IR spectra that a massive system of nitrile ice clouds is developing in Titan's south polar stratosphere. Even during the depths of northern winter, nothing like the strength of this southern system was evident in corresponding north polar regions.From the long slant paths that are available from limb-viewing CIRS far-IR spectra, we have the first definitive detection of the ν6 band of cyanoacetylene (HC3N) ice in Titan’s south polar stratosphere. In addition, we also see a strong blend of nitrile ice lattice vibration features around 160 cm-1. From these data we are able to derive ice abundances. The most prominent (and still chemically unidentified) ice emission feature, the Haystack, (at 220 cm-1) is also observed. We establish the vertical distributions of the ice cloud systems associated with both the 160 cm-1 feature and the Haystack. The ultimate aim is to refine the physical and possibly the chemical relationships between the two. Transmittance thin film spectra of nitrile ice mixtures obtained in our Spectroscopy for Planetary ICes Environments (SPICE) laboratory are used to support these analyses.

  2. Ice Crystal Icing Engine Testing in the NASA Glenn Research Center's Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL): Altitude Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducted a full scale ice crystal icing turbofan engine test in the NASA Glenn Research Centers Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) Facility in February 2013. Honeywell Engines supplied the test article, an obsolete, unmodified Lycoming ALF502-R5 turbofan engine serial number LF01 that experienced an un-commanded loss of thrust event while operating at certain high altitude ice crystal icing conditions. These known conditions were duplicated in the PSL for this testing.

  3. NASA Glenn Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL) Icing Facility Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    This oral presentation is an update to the Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL) engine ice testing. It provides a summary of the modifications done to the facility and recently completed calibrations and test program.

  4. Evolution of the subglacial hydrologic system beneath the rapidly decaying Cordilleran Ice Sheet caused by ice-dammed lake drainage: implications for meltwater-induced ice acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Matthew J.; Brennand, Tracy A.; Perkins, Andrew J.

    2012-09-01

    A positive correlation between ice-dammed lake drainage and ice acceleration at Antarctic Ice Sheets (AIS) and land-terminating sections of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has been implicated in enhanced ice sheet decay. However, the paucity of direct measurements at the ice sheet bed restricts our understanding of subglacial drainage system evolution in response to transient water inputs. We present evidence that two meltwater corridors on the former bed of the thin (˜600 m at Last Glacial Maximum over the interior Plateaus of British Columbia) and rapidly decaying Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS) were generated subglacially in response to the drainage of an ice-dammed lake and operated as canals (tunnel channels). Geomorphological, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data reveal a simple event sequence that includes initial propagation of a broad (at least 2.5 km wide) floodwave (inefficient drainage) from an ice-dammed lake, over relatively short (3-24 km) zones at the corridor heads that collapsed into efficient canals (large (up to 0.25-2.5 km wide) channels incised down into the sediment bed and up into the ice) downglacier. Canal formation on the southern Fraser Plateau involved synchronous (along the full canal length) system development, including elements of headward erosion and plunge pool formation. Our data suggest that ice-dammed lake drainage beneath a rapidly decaying thin ice mass that has an efficient antecedent drainage network is not conducive to large-scale ice acceleration. These data may aid better assessment of the role of ice-dammed lake drainage on the dynamics of former, as well as contemporary, ice sheets.

  5. A Systems-Level Perspective on Engine Ice Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Guo, Ten-Huei; Simon, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    The accretion of ice in the compression system of commercial gas turbine engines operating in high ice water content conditions is a safety issue being studied by the aviation sector. While most of the research focuses on the underlying physics of ice accretion and the meteorological conditions in which accretion can occur, a systems-level perspective on the topic lends itself to potential near-term operational improvements. This work focuses on developing an accurate and reliable algorithm for detecting the accretion of ice in the low pressure compressor of a generic 40,000 lbf thrust class engine. The algorithm uses only the two shaft speed sensors and works regardless of engine age, operating condition, and power level. In a 10,000-case Monte Carlo simulation, the detection approach was found to have excellent capability at determining ice accretion from sensor noise with detection occurring when ice blocks an average of 6.8% of the low pressure compressor area. Finally, an initial study highlights a potential mitigation strategy that uses the existing engine actuators to raise the temperature in the low pressure compressor in an effort to reduce the rate at which ice accretes.

  6. Supercooled large drop detection with NASA's Icing Remote Sensing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serke, David J.; Reehorst, Andrew L.; Politovich, Marcia K.

    2010-10-01

    In-flight icing occurs when aircraft impact supercooled liquid drops. The supercooled liquid freezes on contact and the accreted ice changes a plane's aerodynamic characteristics, which can lead to dangerous loss of control. NASA's Icing Remote Sensing System consists of a multi-channel radiometer, a laser ceilometer and a vertically-pointing Kaband radar, whos fields are merged with internal software logic to arrive at a hazard classification for in-flight icing. The radiometer is used to derive atmospheric temperature soundings and integrated liquid water and the ceilometer and radar are used to define cloud boundaries. The integrated liquid is then distributed within the determined cloud boundaries and layers to arrive at liquid water content profiles, which if present below freezing are categorized as icing hazards. This work outlines how the derived liquid water content and measured Ka-band reflectivity factor profiles can be used to derive a vertical profile of radar-estimated particle size. This is only possible because NASA's system arrives at independent and non-correlated measures of liquid water and reflectivity factor for a given range volume. The size of the drops significantly effect the drop collection efficiency and the location that icing accretion occurs on the craft's superstructure and thus how a vehicle's performance is altered. Large drops, generally defined as over 50 μm in diameter, tend to accrete behind the normal ice protected areas of the leading edge of the wing and other control surfaces. The NASA Icing Remote Sensing System was operated near Montreal, Canada for the Alliance Icing Research Study II in 2003 and near Cleveland, Ohio from 2006 onward. In this study, we present case studies to show how NASA's Icing Remote Sensing System can detect and differentiate between no icing, small drop and large drop in-flight icing hazards to aircraft. This new product provides crucial realtime hazard detection capabilities which improve

  7. Global ice-sheet system interlocked by sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, George H.; Hughes, Terence J.; Karlén, Wibjörn

    1986-07-01

    Denton and Hughes (1983, Quaternary Research20, 125-144) postulated that sea level linked a global ice-sheet system with both terrestrial and grounded marine components during late Quaternary ice ages. Summer temperature changes near Northern Hemisphere melting margins initiated sea-level fluctuations that controlled marine components in both polar hemispheres. It was further proposed that variations of this ice-sheet system amplified and transmitted Milankovitch summer half-year insolation changes between 45 and 75°N into global climatic changes. New tests of this hypothesis implicate sea level as a major control of the areal extent of grounded portions of the Antarctic Ice Sheet, thus fitting the concept of a globally interlocked ice-sheet system. But recent atmospheric modeling results ( Manabe and Broccoli, 1985, Journal of Geophysical Research90, 2167-2190) suggest that factors other than areal changes of the grounded Antarctic Ice Sheet strongly influenced Southern Hemisphere climate and terminated the last ice age simultaneously in both polar hemispheres. Atmospheric carbon dioxide linked to high-latitude oceans is the most likely candidate ( Shackleton and Pisias, 1985, Atmospheric carbon dioxide, orbital forcing, and climate. In "The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric CO 2: Natural Variations Archean to Present" (E. T. Sundquest and W. S. Broecker, Eds.), pp. 303-318. Geophysical Monograph 32, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C.), but another potential influence was high-frequency climatic oscillations (2500 yr). It is postulated that variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide acted through an Antarctic ice shelf linked to the grounded ice sheet to produce and terminate Southern Hemisphere ice-age climate. It is further postulated that Milankovitch summer insolation combined with a warm high-frequency oscillation caused marked recession of Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet melting margins and the North Atlantic polar front about 14,000 14C yr B.P. This

  8. Ice Cloud Properties in Ice-Over-Water Cloud Systems Using TRMM VIRS and TMI Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Huang, Jianping; Lin, Bing; Yi, Yuhong; Arduini, Robert F.; Fan, Tai-Fang; Ayers, J. Kirk; Mace, Gerald G.

    2007-01-01

    A multi-layered cloud retrieval system (MCRS) is updated and used to estimate ice water path in maritime ice-over-water clouds using Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) measurements from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission spacecraft between January and August 1998. Lookup tables of top-of-atmosphere 0.65- m reflectance are developed for ice-over-water cloud systems using radiative transfer calculations with various combinations of ice-over-water cloud layers. The liquid and ice water paths, LWP and IWP, respectively, are determined with the MCRS using these lookup tables with a combination of microwave (MW), visible (VIS), and infrared (IR) data. LWP, determined directly from the TMI MW data, is used to define the lower-level cloud properties to select the proper lookup table. The properties of the upper-level ice clouds, such as optical depth and effective size, are then derived using the Visible Infrared Solar-infrared Split-window Technique (VISST), which matches the VIRS IR, 3.9- m, and VIS data to the multilayer-cloud lookup table reflectances and a set of emittance parameterizations. Initial comparisons with surface-based radar retrievals suggest that this enhanced MCRS can significantly improve the accuracy and decrease the IWP in overlapped clouds by 42% and 13% compared to using the single-layer VISST and an earlier simplified MW-VIS-IR (MVI) differencing method, respectively, for ice-over-water cloud systems. The tropical distribution of ice-over-water clouds is the same as derived earlier from combined TMI and VIRS data, but the new values of IWP and optical depth are slightly larger than the older MVI values, and exceed those of single-layered layered clouds by 7% and 11%, respectively. The mean IWP from the MCRS is 8-14% greater than that retrieved from radar retrievals of overlapped clouds over two surface sites and the standard deviations of the differences are similar to those for single-layered clouds. Examples

  9. Great Lakes all-weather ice information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schertler, R. J.; Mueller, R. A.; Jirberg, R. J.; Cooper, D. W.; Heighway, J. E.; Holmes, A. D.; Gedney, R. T.; Mark, H.

    1975-01-01

    A system is described which utilizes an X-band Side-Looking-Airborne-Radar (SLAR) for determining type, location, and aerial distribution of the ice cover in the Great Lakes and an airborne, S-band, short pulse radar for obtaining ice thickness. The SLAR system is currently mounted aboard a U.S. Coast Guard C-130B aircraft. Digitized SLAR data are relayed in real-time via the NOAA-GOES-1 satellite in geosynchronous orbit to the U.S. Coast Guard Ice Center in Cleveland, Ohio. SLAR images along with hand-drawn interpretative ice charts for various winter shipping areas in the Great Lakes are broadcast to facsimile recorders aboard Great Lakes vessels. The operational aspects of this ice information system are being demonstrated by NASA, U.S. Coast Guard, and NOAA/National Weather Service. Results from the 1974-75 winter season demonstrated the ability of this system to provide all-weather ice information to shippers in a timely manner.

  10. A Real-Time Satellite-Based Icing Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Smith, William L., Jr.; Nguyen, Louis; Khaiyer, Mandana M.; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Heck, Patrick W.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Bernstein, Ben C.; McDonough, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Aircraft icing is one of the most dangerous weather conditions for general aviation. Currently, model forecasts and pilot reports (PIREPS) constitute much of the database available to pilots for assessing the icing conditions in a particular area. Such data are often uncertain or sparsely available. Improvements in the temporal and areal coverage of icing diagnoses and prognoses would mark a substantial enhancement of aircraft safety in regions susceptible to heavy supercooled liquid water clouds. The use of 3.9 microns data from meteorological satellite imagers for diagnosing icing conditions has long been recognized (e.g., Ellrod and Nelson, 1996) but to date, no explicit physically based methods have been implemented. Recent advances in cloud detection and cloud property retrievals using operational satellite imagery open the door for real-time objective applications of those satellite datasets for a variety of weather phenomena. Because aircraft icing is related to cloud macro- and microphysical properties (e.g., Cober et al. 1995), it is logical that the cloud properties from satellite data would be useful for diagnosing icing conditions. This paper describes the a prototype realtime system for detecting aircraft icing from space.

  11. Physical State of Ices in the Outer Solar System. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, Ted L.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Comparison of the identity and abundances of ices observed around protostars and those associated with comets clearly suggests that comets preserve the heritage of the interstellar materials that aggregated to form them. However, the ability to identify these same species on icy satellites in the outer solar system is a complex function of the composition of the original ices, their subsequent thermal histories, and their exposure to various radiation environments. Our ability to identify the ices currently present on objects in the outer solar system relies upon observational and laboratory, and theoretical efforts. To date there is ample observational evidence for crystalline water ice throughout the outer solar system. In addition, there is growing evidence that amorphous ice may be present on some bodies. More volatile ices, e.g. N2, CH4. CO, and other species, e.g. ammonia hydrate, are identified on objects lying at and beyond Uranus. Both photolysis and radiolysis play important roles in altering the original surfaces due to chemical reactions and erosion of the surface. Ultraviolet photolysis appears to dominate alteration of the upper few hundred Angstroms, although sputtering the surface can sometimes be a significantly competitative process; dominating on icy surfaces embedded in a strong planetary magnetospheric field. There is growing observational evidence that the by-products of photolysis and radiolysis, suggested on a theoretical basis, are present on icy surfaces.

  12. Retrieving Ice Basal Motion Using the Hydrologically Coupled JPL/UCI Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakbaz, B.; Morlighem, M.; Seroussi, H. L.; Larour, E. Y.

    2011-12-01

    The study of basal sliding in ice sheets requires coupling ice-flow models with subglacial water flow. In fact, subglacial hydrology models can be used to model basal water-pressure explicitly and to generate basal sliding velocities. This study addresses the addition of a thin-film-based subglacial hydrologic module to the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) developed by JPL in collaboration with the University of California Irvine (UCI). The subglacial hydrology model follows the study of J. Johnson (2002) who assumed a non-arborscent distributed drainage system in the form of a thin film beneath ice sheets. The differential equation that arises from conservation of mass in the water system is solved numerically with the finite element method in order to obtain the spatial distribution of basal water over the study domain. The resulting sheet water thickness is then used to model the basal water-pressure and subsequently the basal sliding velocity. In this study, an introduction and preliminary results of the subglacial water flow and basal sliding velocity will be presented for the Pine Island Glacier west Antarctica.This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Modeling, Analysis and Prediction (MAP) Program.

  13. Sediment fluxes of an Antarctic palaeo-ice stream system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Kelly; Larter, Robert; Smith, James; Hillenbrand, Claus-Dieter

    2016-04-01

    New marine-geophysical data (multibeam bathymetry, high-resolution acoustic profiles) acquired in 2014 have been integrated with heritage multichannel seismic-reflection and deep-tow boomer profiles from Anvers-Hugo Trough, western Antarctic Peninsula. From these datasets we have identified seismic facies relating to ice-stream advance and flow, ice-stream retreat, and post-glacial sedimentation processes. We identify multiple subglacial seismic units forming MSGL and other streamlined landforms at a variety of size scales. This may be indicative of multiple generations of ice-flow through the confluent ice-stream system. We also calculate the sediment volumes of a series of grounding-zone wedges (GZWs) located on the outer and mid-shelf that were produced during several stillstands in the trough as the grounded ice margin retreated through the system during deglaciation around c. 15-13 ka (from published core chronologies). Based on these volumes we consider the likely rates of subglacial sediment delivery by the Anvers Trough palaeo-ice stream and compare these to inferred flux rates from other palaeo- and modern Antarctic ice streams. In addition, we map the post-glacial glacimarine sediment package in the trough. Large mapped sediment thicknesses of this unit across the trough are consistent with high post-glacial sediment accumulation rates reported from cores acquired in the Anvers-Hugo Trough system. Previous authors have attributed this to exceptionally high primary productivity in a calving-bay re-entrant settings produced as ice retreated across the shelf on this part of the Antarctic margin.

  14. Bacterial study of Vostok drilling fluid: the tool to make ice core finding confident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekhina, I. A.; Petit, J. R.; Lukin, V. V.; Bulat, S. A.

    2003-04-01

    Decontamination of Vostok ice core is a critical issue in molecular biology studies. Core surface contains a film of hardly removable 'dirty' drilling fluid representing a mixture of polyhydrocarbons (PHC) including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and freon. To make ice microbial finding more confident the original Vostok drilling fluid sampled from different depths (110m - 3600m) was analyzed for bacterial content by ribosomal DNA sequencing. Total, 33 clones of 16S ribosomal DNA were recovered from four samples of drilling fluid at 110, 2750, 3400, and 3600m leading to identification of 8 bacterial species. No overlapping was observed even for neighboring samples (3400m and 3600m). At present four major bacteria with the titer more than 103-104 cells per ml (as estimated from PCR results) are identified. Among them we found: unknown representative of Desulfobacteraceae which are able to oxidize sulphates and degrade benzenes (110m); PAH-degrading alpha-proteobacterium Sphingomonas natatoria (3400m); alpha-proteobacterium representing closely-related group of Sphingomonas sp. (e.g., S. aurantiaca) which are able to degrade PAH as well, and human pathogen closely related to Haloanella gallinarum of CFB group (3600m). Four additional species were revealed as single clones and showed relatedness to human pathogens and saprophytes as well as soil bacteria. These bacteria may represent drilling fluid contaminants introduced during its sampling or DNA extraction procedure. Of four major bacteria revealed, one species, Sphingomonas natatoria, has been met by us in the Vostok core from 3607 m depth (AF532054) whereas another Sphingomonas sp. which we refer to as S. aurantiaca was found in Antarctic microbial endolithic community (AF548567), hydrocarbon-containing soil near Scott Base in Antarctica (AF184221) and even isolated from 3593m Vostok accretion ice (AF324199) and Taylor Dome core (AF395031). The source for major human pathogen-related bacteria is rather uncertain

  15. Experimental study of fluid deicing system in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    An investigation of the icing of horizontal control surfaces at the VFW in 1970 led them to select the NASA Icing Research Tunnel at LRC for their tests. Tests were performed for the VFW 614 aircraft. The TKS ice warning system, the Rosemont ice warning system and the liquid water content indicator were investigated and found to be appropriate for the aircraft.

  16. Ice Detector and Deicing Fluid Effectiveness Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seegmiller, H. Lee B. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An ice detector and deicing fluid effectiveness monitoring system for an aircraft is disclosed. The ice detection portion is particularly suited for use in flight to notify the flight crew of an accumulation of ice on an aircraft lifting and control surfaces, or helicopter rotors, whereas the deicing fluid effectiveness monitoring portion is particularly suited for use on the ground to notify the flight crew of the possible loss of the effectiveness of the deicing fluid. The ice detection portion comprises a temperature sensor and a parallel arrangement of electrodes whose coefficient of coupling is indicative of the formation of the ice, as well as the thickness of the formed ice. The fluid effectiveness monitoring portion comprises a temperature sensor and an ionic-conduction cell array that measures the conductivity of the deicing fluid which is indicative of its concentration and, thus, its freezing point. By measuring the temperature and having knowledge of the freezing point of the deicing fluid, the fluid effectiveness monitoring portion predicts when the deicing fluid may lose its effectiveness because its freezing point may correspond to the temperature of the ambient.

  17. Evolution of Planetary Ice-Ocean Systems: Effects of Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allu Peddinti, D.; McNamara, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary oceanography is enjoying renewed attention thanks to not only the detection of several exoplanetary ocean worlds but also due to the expanding family of ocean worlds within our own star system. Our solar system is now believed to host about nine ocean worlds including Earth, some dwarf planets and few moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Amongst them, Europa, like Earth is thought to have an ice Ih-liquid water system. However, the thickness of the Europan ice-ocean system is much larger than that of the Earth. The evolution of this system would determine the individual thicknesses of the ice shell and the ocean. In turn, these thicknesses can alter the course of evolution of the system. In a pure H2O system, the thickness of the ice shell would govern if heat loss occurs entirely by conduction or if the shell begins to convect as it attains a threshold thickness. This switch between conduction-convection regimes could determine the longevity of the subsurface ocean and hence define the astrobiological potential of the planetary body at any given time. In reality, however, the system is not pure water ice. The detected induced magnetic field infers a saline ocean layer. Salts are expected to act as an anti-freeze allowing a subsurface ocean to persist over long periods but the amount of salts would determine the extent of that effect. In our current study, we use geodynamic models to examine the effect of salinity on the evolution of ice-ocean system. An initial ocean with different salinities is allowed to evolve. The effect of salinity on thickness of the two layers at any time is examined. We also track how salinity controls the switch between conductive-convective modes. The study shows that for a given time period, larger salinities can maintain a thick vigorously convecting ocean while the smaller salinities behave similar to a pure H2O system leading to a thick convecting ice-shell. A range of salinities identified can potentially predict the current state

  18. The NASA Icing Remote Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Brinker, David J.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Ryerson, Charles C.; Koenig, George G.

    2005-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) have an on-going activity to develop remote sensing technologies for the detection and measurement of icing conditions aloft. A multiple instrument approach is the current emphasis of this activity. Utilizing radar, radiometry, and lidar, a region of supercooled liquid is identified. If the liquid water content (LWC) is sufficiently high, then the region of supercooled liquid cloud is flagged as being an aviation hazard. The instruments utilized for the current effort are an X-band vertical staring radar, a radiometer that measures twelve frequencies between 22 and 59 GHz, and a lidar ceilometer. The radar data determine cloud boundaries, the radiometer determines the sub-freezing temperature heights and total liquid water content, and the ceilometer refines the lower cloud boundary. Data are post-processed with a LabVIEW program with a resultant supercooled LWC profile and aircraft hazard identification. Remotely sensed measurements gathered during the 2003-2004 Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS II) were compared to aircraft in-situ measurements. Although the comparison data set is quite small, the cases examined indicate that the remote sensing technique appears to be an acceptable approach.

  19. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction system icing. 33.68 Section 33.68 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system...

  20. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system icing. 33.68 Section 33.68 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system...

  1. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Induction system icing. 33.68 Section 33.68 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system...

  2. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system icing. 33.68 Section 33.68 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system...

  3. The Ice Diminishing Arctic:Needs for Science Informed Decision Making (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, K.

    2013-12-01

    The rapid reduction in Arctic Ocean sea ice cover and volume has lead to the need to increase the ability to carry out wide spread observations which will lead to the understanding of the causes and impacts on the Arctic region and the mid-latitudes as well. Physical changes (which far outpace the current models of sea ice loss) have not yet been properly characterized, nor have attibutions been developed which explain the causes of these changes. Impacts are thought to be profound on Arctic ecosystems, air-sea interactions, lateral and vertical heat gain and loss from a newly mixed ocean, and on newly eroding coastlines. Even more profound may be the impacts of a changing Arctic on the degradation of the Jet Stream which can lead to severe storms, unusual storm tracks and severe weather conditions in the mid-latitudes. These impacts are already in the global system. A question arises: How can we as scientists involved in the observations of these Arctic changes work with science agencies and Institutions to effectively inform the many policy decisions that will need to be made in response to these global changes.

  4. High Resolution Continuous Flow Analysis System for Polar Ice Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallmayr, Remi; Azuma, Kumiko; Yamada, Hironobu; Kjær, Helle Astrid; Vallelonga, Paul; Azuma, Nobuhiko; Takata, Morimasa

    2014-05-01

    In the last decades, Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) technology for ice core analyses has been developed to reconstruct the past changes of the climate system 1), 2). Compared with traditional analyses of discrete samples, a CFA system offers much faster and higher depth resolution analyses. It also generates a decontaminated sample stream without time-consuming sample processing procedure by using the inner area of an ice-core sample.. The CFA system that we have been developing is currently able to continuously measure stable water isotopes 3) and electrolytic conductivity, as well as to collect discrete samples for the both inner and outer areas with variable depth resolutions. Chemistry analyses4) and methane-gas analysis 5) are planned to be added using the continuous water stream system 5). In order to optimize the resolution of the current system with minimal sample volumes necessary for different analyses, our CFA system typically melts an ice core at 1.6 cm/min. Instead of using a wire position encoder with typical 1mm positioning resolution 6), we decided to use a high-accuracy CCD Laser displacement sensor (LKG-G505, Keyence). At the 1.6 cm/min melt rate, the positioning resolution was increased to 0.27mm. Also, the mixing volume that occurs in our open split debubbler is regulated using its weight. The overflow pumping rate is smoothly PID controlled to maintain the weight as low as possible, while keeping a safety buffer of water to avoid air bubbles downstream. To evaluate the system's depth-resolution, we will present the preliminary data of electrolytic conductivity obtained by melting 12 bags of the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core. The samples correspond to different climate intervals (Greenland Stadial 21, 22, Greenland Stadial 5, Greenland Interstadial 5, Greenland Interstadial 7, Greenland Stadial 8). We will present results for the Greenland Stadial -8, whose depths and ages are between 1723.7 and 1724.8 meters, and 35.520 to

  5. A Study of the Effects of Altitude on Thermal Ice Protection System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Gene; Oleskiw, Myron; Broeren, Andy P.; Orchard, David

    2013-01-01

    Thermal ice protection systems use heat energy to prevent a dangerous buildup of ice on an aircraft. As aircraft become more efficient, less heat energy is available to operate a thermal ice protections system. This requires that thermal ice protection systems be designed to more exacting standards so as to more efficiently prevent a dangerous ice buildup without adversely affecting aircraft safety. While the effects of altitude have always beeing taked into account in the design of thermal ice protection systems, a better understanding of these effects is needed so as to enable more exact design, testing, and evaluation of these systems.

  6. An Ice Protection and Detection Systems Manufacturer's Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, Dave

    2009-01-01

    Accomplishments include: World Class Aircraft Icing Research Center and Facility. Primary Sponsor/Partner - Aircraft Icing Consortia/Meetings. Icing Research Tunnel. Icing Test Aircraft. Icing Codes - LEWICE/Scaling, et al. Development of New Technologies (SBIR, STTR, et al). Example: Look Ahead Ice Detection. Pilot Training Materials. Full Cooperation with Academia, Government and Industry.

  7. Determination of Ice Water Path in Ice-over-Water Cloud Systems Using Combined MODIS and AMSR-E Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Jianping; Minnis, Patrick; Lin, Bing; Yi, Yuhong; Fan, T.-F.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Ayers, J. K.

    2006-01-01

    To provide more accurate ice cloud properties for evaluating climate models, the updated version of multi-layered cloud retrieval system (MCRS) is used to retrieve ice water path (IWP) in ice-over-water cloud systems over global ocean using combined instrument data from the Aqua satellite. The liquid water path (LWP) of lower layer water clouds is estimated from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) measurements. With the lower layer LWP known, the properties of the upper-level ice clouds are then derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer measurements by matching simulated radiances from a two-cloud layer radiative transfer model. Comparisons with single-layer cirrus systems and surface-based radar retrievals show that the MCRS can significantly improve the accuracy and reduce the over-estimation of optical depth and ice water path retrievals for ice over-water cloud systems. During the period from December 2004 through February 2005, the mean daytime ice cloud optical depth and IWP for overlapped ice-over-water clouds over ocean from Aqua are 7.6 and 146.4 gm(sup -2), respectively, significantly less than the initial single layer retrievals of 17.3 and 322.3 gm(sup -2). The mean IWP for actual single-layer clouds was 128.2 gm(sup -2).

  8. Automatic control study of the icing research tunnel refrigeration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, Arthur W.; Soeder, Ronald H.

    1991-01-01

    The Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) at the NASA Lewis Research Center is a subsonic, closed-return atmospheric tunnel. The tunnel includes a heat exchanger and a refrigeration plant to achieve the desired air temperature and a spray system to generate the type of icing conditions that would be encountered by aircraft. At the present time, the tunnel air temperature is controlled by manual adjustment of freon refrigerant flow control valves. An upgrade of this facility calls for these control valves to be adjusted by an automatic controller. The digital computer simulation of the IRT refrigeration plant and the automatic controller that was used in the simulation are discussed.

  9. 14 CFR 23.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... airplane with sea level engines using conventional venturi carburetors has a preheater that can provide a... sea level engine(s) using fuel metering device tending to prevent icing has a sheltered alternate... power; (5) Each airplane with sea level or altitude engine(s) using fuel injection systems...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... airplane with sea level engines using conventional venturi carburetors has a preheater that can provide a... sea level engine(s) using fuel metering device tending to prevent icing has a sheltered alternate... power; (5) Each airplane with sea level or altitude engine(s) using fuel injection systems...

  11. Evaluating an Ice-Storage System in a Deregulated Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staniewicz, Theodore J.; Watson, Joseph J.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the difficulties the electric industry's deregulation created for St. Joseph's University's (Philadelphia) development of a thermal ice-storage system as part of its HVAC design and the school's solution. A monthly equipment summary sheet with year-to-date figures is provided. (GR)

  12. 14 CFR 23.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... airplane with sea level engines using conventional venturi carburetors has a preheater that can provide a... sea level engine(s) using fuel metering device tending to prevent icing has a sheltered alternate... power; (5) Each airplane with sea level or altitude engine(s) using fuel injection systems...

  13. Ethane Ices in the Outer Solar System: Spectroscopy and Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, R. L.; Moore, M. H.; Raines, L. L.

    2009-01-01

    We report recent experiments on ethane ices made at temperatures applicable to the outer Solar System. New near- and mid-infrared data for crystalline and amorphous ethane, including new spectra for a seldom-studied solid phase that exists at 35-55 K, are presented along with radiation-chemical experiments showing the formation of more-complex hydrocarbons,

  14. The Ice Core Data Gateway: The one stop gateway to ice core data held at the Antarctic Glaciological Data Center (AGDC), the World Data Center for Paleoclimatology, and the Arctic System Science's Data Coordination Center (ADCC).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, R.; Scambos, T.; Eakin, M.; Anderson, D.; McNeave, C.

    2002-12-01

    The Ice Core Data Gateway archives and distributes physical and geochemical data from ice cores collected in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Typical data sets include age-depth relationships, oxygen and hydrogen isotope concentrations, major element chemistry, accumulation rates and pollen. The data are in general presented as ASCII files with a short text metadata description. The archive is designed to provide access to ice core data sets over the long term, thereby making them available for comparison with future data: a critical component of change detection studies. By facilitating broad data access, the center promotes interdisciplinary scientific research. Investigators are encouraged to contribute data sets derived from ice cores to the Ice Core Data Gateway. Data center staff will work with you to compile data set documentation prior to making the data available to users. Contributing scientists are given prominent recognition in the documentation, and while the data center answers technical questions about format, citations for usage, etc., it can refer scientific questions to contributors if requested. Contributing your data to the Ice Core Data Gateway and associated data centers directly supports to NSF Office of Polar Programs Guidelines and Award Conditions for Scientific Data (http://www.nsf.gov/pubsys/ods/getpub.cfm?opp991). This effort is being coordinated with the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Initiative and U.S. component of the International Trans Antarctic Science Expedition (ITASE), and includes data from the Arctic System Science Program's Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2) ice core.

  15. Decadal variability in coupled sea-ice-thermohaline circulation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Neelin, J.D.

    1997-12-01

    An interdecadal oscillation in a coupled ocean-ice system was identified in a previous study. This paper extends that study to further examine the stability of the oscillation and the sensitivity of its frequency to various parameters and forcing fields. Three models are used: (i) an analytical box model; (ii) a two-dimensional model for the ocean thermohaline circulation (THC) coupled to a thermodynamic ice model, as in the authors` previous study; and (iii) a three-dimensional ocean general circulation model (OGCM) coupled to a similar ice model. The box model is used to elucidate the essential feedbacks that give rise to this oscillation and to identify the most important parameters and processes that determine the period. The counted model becomes more stable toward low coupling, greater diffusion, and weaker THC feedback. Nonlinear effects in the sea-ice model become important in the higher ocean-ice coupling regime where the effective sea-ice damping associated with this nonlinearity stabilizes the model. The 3D OGCM is used to test this coupled ocean-ice mechanism in a more realistic model setting. This model generates an interdecadal oscillation whose characteristics and phase relations among the model variables are similar to the oscillation obtained in the 2D models. The major difference is that the oscillation frequency is considerably lower. The difference can be explained in terms of the analytical box model solution in which the period of oscillation depends on the rate of anomalous density production by melting/cooling of sea ice per SST anomaly, times the rate of warming/cooling by anomalous THC heat advection per change in density anomaly. The 3D model has a smaller THC response to high-latitude density perturbations than the 2D model, and anomalous velocities in the 3D case tend to follow the mean isotherms so anomalous heat advection is reduced. This slows the ocean-ice feedback process, leading to the longer oscillation period. 36 refs., 27 figs.

  16. Fully coupled ice sheet-earth system model: How does the Greenlandic ice sheet interact in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodehacke, C.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Vizcaino, M.

    2012-04-01

    As ice sheets belong to the slowest climate components, they are usually not interactively coupled in current climate models. Therefore, long-term climate projections are incomplete and only the consideration of ice sheet interactions allows tackling fundamental questions, such as how do ice sheets modify the reaction of the climate systems under a strong CO2 forcing? The earth system model MPI-ESM, with the atmosphere model ECHAM6 and ocean model MPIOM, is coupled to the modified ice sheet model PISM. This ice sheet model, which is developed at the University of Fairbanks, represents the ice sheet of Greenland at a horizontal resolution of 10 km. The coupling is performed by calculating the surface mass balance based on 6-hourly atmospheric data to determine the boundary condition for the ice sheet model. The response of the ice sheet to this forcing, which includes orographic changes and fresh water fluxes, are passed back to the ESM. In contrast to commonly used strategies, we use a mass conserving scheme and do therefore neither apply flux corrections nor utilize anomaly coupling. Under a strong CO2 forcing a disintegrating Greenlandic ice sheet contributes to a rising sea level and has the potential to alter the formation of deep water masses in the adjacent formation sites Labrador Sea and Nordic Seas. We will present results for an idealized forcing with a growing atmospheric CO2 concentration that rises by 1% per year until four-times the pre-industrial level has been reached. We will discuss the reaction of the ice sheet and immediate responses of the ocean to ice loss.

  17. Surface roughness due to residual ice in the use of low power deicing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jaiwon; Bond, Thomas H.

    1993-01-01

    Thicknesses of residual ice are presented to provide information on surface contamination and associated roughness during deicing events. Data was obtained from low power ice protection systems tests conducted in the Icing Research Tunnel at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) with nine different deicing systems. Results show that roughness associated with residual ice is not characterized by uniformly distributed roughness. Results also show that deicing systems require a critical mass of ice to generate a sufficient expelling force to remove the ice.

  18. Flow of ices in the Ammonia-Water System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, W. B.; Kirby, S. H.; Stern, L. A.

    1993-01-01

    We have fabricated in the laboratory and subsequently deformed crystalline hydrates and partial melts of the water-rich end of the NH3-H2O system, with the aim of improving our understanding of physical processes occurring in icy moons of the outer solar system. Deformation experiments were carried out at constant strain rate. The range of experimental variables are given. Phase relationships in the NH3-H2O system indicate that water ice and ammonia dihydrate, NH3-2H2O, are the stable phases under our experiment conditions. X-ray diffraction of our samples usually revealed these as the dominant phases, but we have also observed an amorphous phase (in unpressurized samples only) and occasionally significant ammonia monohydrate, NH3-H2O. The onset of partial melting at the peritectic temperature at about 176 K appeared as a sharp transition in strength observed in samples of x(sub NH3) = 0.05 and 0.01, the effect of melt was less pronounced. For any given water ice + dihydrate alloy in the subsolidus region, we observed one rheological law over the entire temperature range from 175 K to about 140 K. Below 140 K, a shear instability similar to that occurring in pure water ice under the same conditions limited our ability to measure ductile flow. The rheological laws for the several alloys vary systematically from that of pure ice to that of dihydrate. Pure dihydrate is about 4 orders of magnitude less viscous than water ice just below the peritectic temperature, but because of a very pronounced temperature dependence in dihydrate (100 kJ/mol versus 43 kJ/mol for water ice) the viscosity of dihydrate equals or exceeds that of water ice at T less than 140 K. The large variation in viscosity of dihydrate with relatively small changes in temperature may be helpful in explaining the rich variety of tectonic and volcanic features seen on the surfaces of icy moons in the outer solar system.

  19. A system of system lenses for leadership decision-making.

    PubMed

    Cady, Phil

    2016-01-01

    The sheer volume and dynamics among system agents in healthcare makes decision-making a daunting task at all levels. Being clear about what leaders mean by "healthcare system" is critical in aligning system strategy and leadership decision-making. This article presents an emerging set of lenses (ideology and beliefs, rational and irrational information processing, interpersonal social dynamics, process and value creation, and context) to help frame leadership decision-making in healthcare systems. PMID:26656390

  20. High-resolution wave forecasting system for the seasonally ice-covered Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuomi, Laura; Lehtiranta, Jonni

    2016-04-01

    When forecasting surface waves in seasonally ice-covered seas, the inclusion of ice conditions in the modelling is important. The ice cover affects the propagation and also changes the fetch over which the waves grow. In wave models the ice conditions are often still given as a boundary condition and handled by excluding areas where the ice concentration exceeds a certain threshold value. The ice data used are typically based on satellite analysis or expert analysis of local Ice Services who combine data from different sources. This type of data is sufficiently accurate to evaluate the near-real time ice concentrations, but when making forecasts it is also important to account for the possible changes in ice conditions. For example in a case of a high wind situation, there can be rapid changes in the ice field, when the wind and waves may push the ice towards shores and cause fragmentation of ice field. To enhance handling of ice conditions in the Baltic Sea wave forecasts, utilisation of ice model data was studied. Ice concentration, thickness produced by FMI's operational ice model HELMI were used to provide ice data to wave model as follows: Wave model grid points where the ice concentration was more than or equal to 70% and the ice thickness more than1 cm, were excluded from calculations. Ice concentrations smaller than that were taken into account as additional grid obstructions by decreasing the wave energy passed from one grid cell to another. A challenge in evaluating wave forecast accuracy in partly ice covered areas it that there's typically no wave buoy data available, since the buoys have to be recovered well before the sea area freezes. To evaluate the accuracy of wave forecast in partially ice covered areas, significant wave heights from altimeter's ERS2, Envisat, Jason-1 and Jason-2 were extracted from Ifremer database. Results showed that the more frequent update of the ice data was found to improve the wave forecast especially during high wind

  1. Origin of Water Ice in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunine, J. I.

    The origin and early distribution of water ice and more volatile compounds in the outer solar system is considered. The origin of water ice during planetary formation is at least twofold: It condenses beyond a certain distance from the proto-Sun - no more than 5 AU but perhaps as close as 2 AU - and it falls in from the surrounding molecular cloud. Because some of the infalling water ice is not sublimated in the ambient disk, complete mixing between these two sources was not achieved, and at least two populations of icy planetesimals may have been present in the protoplanetary disk. Added to this is a third reservoir of water ice planetesimals representing material chemically processed and then condensed in satellite-forming disks around giant planets. Water of hydration in silicates inward of the condensation front might be a separate source, if the hydration occurred directly from the nebular disk and not later in the parent bodies. The differences among these reservoirs of icy planetesimals ought to be reflected in diverse composition and abundance of trapped or condensed species more volatile than the water ice matrix, although radial mixing may have erased most of the differences. Possible sources of water for Earth are diverse, and include Mars-sized hydrated bodies in the asteroid belt, smaller "asteroidal" bodies, water adsorbed into dry silicate grains in the nebula, and comets.These different sources may be distinguished by their deuterium-to-hydrogen ratio, and by predictions on the relative amounts of water (and isotopic compositional differences) between Earth and Mars.

  2. Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) Force Measurement System (FMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    An Electronics Engineer at the Glenn Research Center (GRC), requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) provide technical support for an evaluation of the existing force measurement system (FMS) at the GRC's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) with the intent of developing conceptual designs to improve the tunnel's force measurement capability in order to better meet test customer needs. This report contains the outcome of the NESC technical review.

  3. Engine Icing Capability Enhancements for the Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The AC9C is holding their biannual committee meeting in Ottawa, Ontario on 18-20 October 2010. I have been asked to provide a short presentation of the status of the icing project upgrade to the PSL test facility. I will highlight the progress made during construction the past 6 months, our approach for checkout of the facility, and an overview of the system design and its capabilities. A copy of the presentation is attached.

  4. Making Technology Ready: Integrated Systems Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Oliver, Patrick J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper identifies work needed by developers to make integrated system health management (ISHM) technology ready and by programs to make mission infrastructure ready for this technology. This paper examines perceptions of ISHM technologies and experience in legacy programs. Study methods included literature review and interviews with representatives of stakeholder groups. Recommendations address 1) development of ISHM technology, 2) development of ISHM engineering processes and methods, and 3) program organization and infrastructure for ISHM technology evolution, infusion and migration.

  5. Cryosphere Science Outreach using the Ice Sheet System Model and a Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, D. L. C.; Halkides, D. J.; Larour, E. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the role of Cryosphere Science within the larger context of Sea Level Rise is both a technical and educational challenge that needs to be addressed if the public at large is to trulyunderstand the implications and consequences of Climate Change. Within this context, we propose a new approach in which scientific tools are used directly inside a mobile/website platform geared towards Education/Outreach. Here, we apply this approach by using the Ice Sheet System Model, a state of the art Cryosphere model developed at NASA, and integrated within a Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory, with the goal is to outreach Cryospherescience to K-12 and College level students. The approach mixes laboratory experiments, interactive classes/lessons on a website, and a simplified interface to a full-fledged instance of ISSM to validate the classes/lessons. This novel approach leverages new insights from the Outreach/Educational community and the interest of new generations in web based technologies and simulation tools, all of it delivered in a seamlessly integrated web platform. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory undera contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cryosphere Science Program.

  6. Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems in Observations of Glaciers, Ice Sheets, Sea Ice and Snow Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzfeld Mayer, M. U.

    2015-12-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are being used increasingly in observations of the Earth, especially as such UAS become smaller, lighter and hence less expensive. In this paper, we present examples of observations of snow fields, glaciers and ice sheets and of sea ice in the Arctic that have been collected from UAS. We further examine possibilities for instrument miniaturization, using smaller UAS and smaller sensors for collecting data. The quality and type of data is compared to that of satellite observations, observations from manned aircraft and to measurements made during field experiments on the ground. For example, a small UAS can be sent out to observe a sudden event, such as a natural catastrophe, and provide high-resolution imagery, but a satellite has the advantage of providing the same type of data over much of the Earth's surface and for several years, but the data is generally of lower resolution. Data collected on the ground typically have the best control and quality, but the survey area is usually small. Here we compare micro-topographic measurements made on snow fields the Colorado Rocky Mountains with airborne and satellite data.

  7. Processing Mechanisms for Interstellar Ices: Connections to the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, Y. J.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The organic component of the interstellar medium, which has revealed itself through the ubiquitous 3.4 micrometers hydrocarbon absorption feature, is widespread throughout the disk of our galaxy and has been attributed to dust grains residing in the diffuse interstellar medium. The absorption band positions near 3.4 micrometers are characteristic of C-H stretching vibrations in the -CH3 and -CH2- groups of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons associated with perturbing chemical groups. The production of complex molecules is thought to occur within dense molecular clouds when ice-mantled grains are processed by various energetic mechanisms. Studies of the processing of interstellar ices and the subsequent production of organic residues have relevance to studies of ices in the solar system, because primitive, icy solar system bodies such as those in the Kuiper belt are likely reservoirs of organic material, either preserved from the interstellar medium or produced in situ. Connections between the interstellar medium and the early solar nebula have long been a source of interest. A comparison of the interstellar organics and the Murchison meteorite illustrates the importance of probing the interstellar connection to the solar system, because although the carbonaceous meteorites are undoubtedly highly processed, they do retain specific interstellar signatures (such as diamonds, SiC grains, graphite and enriched D/H). The organic component, while not proven interstellar, has a remarkable similarity to the interstellar organics observed in over a dozen sightlines through our galaxy. This paper compares spectra from laboratory organics produced through the processing of interstellar ice analog materials with the high resolution infrared observations of the interstellar medium in order to investigate the mechanisms (such as ion bombardment, plasma processing, and UV photolysis) that may be producing the organics in the ISM.

  8. Enceladus: An Active Ice World in the Saturn System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, John R.; Nimmo, Francis

    2013-05-01

    Enceladus, one of the mid-sized icy moons of Saturn, has an importance to planetary science far greater than its modest 504-km diameter would suggest. Intensive exploration of Enceladus by the Cassini Saturn orbiter has revealed that it is the only known icy world in the solar system with ongoing deep-seated geological activity. Active tectonic fractures at Enceladus's south pole, dubbed “tiger stripes,” warmed by internal tidally generated heat, spew supersonic jets of water vapor, other gases, and ice particles into circum-Saturnian space. A subsurface saltwater sea probably exists under the south pole, between the ice shell and the silicate core. Because of evidence that liquid water is probably present at the jet sources, Enceladus is also of great astrobiological interest as a potential habitat for life.

  9. The Effect of Ice Shelf Meltwater on Antarctic Sea Ice and the Southern Ocean in an Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauling, A.; Bitz, C. M.; Smith, I.; Langhorne, P.

    2015-12-01

    It has been suggested that recent Antarctic sea ice expansion resulted from an increase in fresh water reaching the Southern Ocean. This presentation investigates this conjecture in an Earth System Model. The freshwater flux from ice sheet and ice shelf mass imbalance is largely missing in models that participated in the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). However, CMIP5 models do account for the fresh water from precipitation minus evaporation (P-E). On average in CMIP5 models P- E reaching the Southern Ocean has increased to a present value of about 2600 Gt yr-1 greater than pre-industrial times and 3-8 times larger than estimates of the mass imbalance of Antarctic ice sheets and shelves. Two sets of model experiments were conducted from 1980-2013 in CESM1-CAM5 artificially distributing fresh water either at the ocean surface according to an estimate of iceberg melt, or at the ice shelf fronts at depth. An anomalous reduction in vertical advection of heat into the surface mixed layer resulted in sea surface cooling at high southern latitudes, and an associated increase in sea ice area. A freshwater enhancement of 1780 Gt yr-1 (approximately 1.3 times either present day basal melt or iceberg calving freshwater fluxes) raised the sea ice total area by 1×106 km2. Yet, even a freshwater enhancement up to 2670 Gt yr-1 was insufficient to offset the sea ice decline due to anthropogenic forcing for any period of 20 years or longer. Further, the sea ice response was found to be insensitive to the depth of fresh water injection.

  10. Making the most of residential photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, S.; Parker, D.; Hayter, S.

    1999-10-18

    Making the Most of Residential Photovoltaic Systems, was recently produced by NREL Communications and Public Affairs. It showcases a demonstration project in Florida that produced some remarkable results by incorporating both energy efficiency and photovoltaic systems into newly built housing. The brochure points up the benefits of making wise personal choices about energy use, and how large-scale use of advanced energy technologies can benefit the nation. This is one of a series of brochures that presents stimulating information about photovoltaics, with a goal of helping to push this technology into the power-generation mix in different utilities, communities, and states.

  11. ICE Raids, Children, Media, and Making Sense of Latino Newcomers in Flyover Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Edmund T.; Reeves, Jenelle

    2012-01-01

    Extant cultural models articulated in "Flyover Country" print media responses to ICE workplace raids showed a welcome of sorts of Latino newcomers. These models suggest a place for Latino students at school and more broadly for Latino children and parents in these communities. Thus, they index an unwillingness to see Latino newcomers in…

  12. EUV-VUV Photolysis of Molecular Ice Systems of Astronomical Interest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. Y. Robert; Judge, D. L.; Cheng, B.-M.

    2006-01-01

    We wish to report laboratory simulation results obtained from extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis of molecular ices relevant to the cometary-type ices and icy satellites of planetary systems. Specifically, we identify the type of molecules that form in the ices and/or those that come off the ice surfaces, quantify their production yields and destruction yields, understand their production mechanisms, and ascertain their significance in astronomical environments.

  13. JBluIce-EPICS control system for macromolecular crystallography.

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, S.; Makarov, O.; Hilgart, M.; Pothineni, S.; Urakhchin, A.; Devarapalli, S.; Yoder, D.; Becker, M.; Ogata, C.; Sanishvili, R.; Nagarajan, V.; Smith, J. L.; Fischetti, R. F.

    2011-01-01

    The trio of macromolecular crystallography beamlines constructed by the General Medicine and Cancer Institutes Collaborative Access Team (GM/CA-CAT) in Sector 23 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) have been in growing demand owing to their outstanding beam quality and capacity to measure data from crystals of only a few micrometres in size. To take full advantage of the state-of-the-art mechanical and optical design of these beamlines, a significant effort has been devoted to designing fast, convenient, intuitive and robust beamline controls that could easily accommodate new beamline developments. The GM/CA-CAT beamline controls are based on the power of EPICS for distributed hardware control, the rich Java graphical user interface of Eclipse RCP and the task-oriented philosophy as well as the look and feel of the successful SSRL BluIce graphical user interface for crystallography. These beamline controls feature a minimum number of software layers, the wide use of plug-ins that can be written in any language and unified motion controls that allow on-the-fly scanning and optimization of any beamline component. This paper describes the ways in which BluIce was combined with EPICS and converted into the Java-based JBluIce, discusses the solutions aimed at streamlining and speeding up operations and gives an overview of the tools that are provided by this new open-source control system for facilitating crystallographic experiments, especially in the field of microcrystallography.

  14. NASA Icing Remote Sensing System Comparisons From AIRS II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Brinker, David J.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.

    2005-01-01

    NASA has an on-going activity to develop remote sensing technologies for the detection and measurement of icing conditions aloft. A multiple instrument approach is the current emphasis of this activity. Utilizing radar, radiometry, and lidar, a region of supercooled liquid is identified. If the liquid water content (LWC) is sufficiently high, then the region of supercooled liquid cloud is flagged as being an aviation hazard. The instruments utilized for the current effort are an X-band vertical staring radar, a radiometer that measures twelve frequencies between 22 and 59 GHz, and a lidar ceilometer. The radar data determine cloud boundaries, the radiometer determines the sub-freezing temperature heights and total liquid water content, and the ceilometer refines the lower cloud boundary. Data is post-processed with a LabVIEW program with a resultant supercooled LWC profile and aircraft hazard identification. Individual remotely sensed measurements gathered during the 2003-2004 Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS II) were compared to aircraft in-situ measurements. Comparisons between the remote sensing system s fused icing product and in-situ measurements from the research aircraft are reviewed here. While there are areas where improvement can be made, the cases examined indicate that the fused sensor remote sensing technique appears to be a valid approach.

  15. Transport, hysteresis and avalanches in artificial spin ice systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reichhardt, Charles; Reichhardt, Cynthia J; Libal, A

    2010-01-01

    We examine the hopping dynamics of an artificial spin ice system constructed from colloids on a kagome optical trap array where each trap has two possible states. By applying an external drive from an electric field which is analogous to a biasing applied magnetic field for real spin systems, we can create polarized states that obey the spin-ice rules of two spins in and one spin out at each vertex. We demonstrate that when we sweep the external drive and measure the fraction of the system that has been polarized, we can generate a hysteresis loop analogous to the hysteretic magnetization versus external magnetic field curves for real spin systems. The disorder in our system can be readily controlled by changing the barrier that must be overcome before a colloid can hop from one side of a trap to the other. For systems with no disorder, the effective spins all flip simultaneously as the biasing field is changed, while for strong disorder the hysteresis curves show a series of discontinuous jumps or avalanches similar to Barkhausen noise.

  16. Involving the motor system in decision making.

    PubMed

    Wyss, Reto; König, Peter; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2004-02-01

    The control of behaviour is usually understood in terms of three distinct components: sensory processing, decision making and movement control. Recently, this view has been questioned on the basis of physiological and behavioural data, blurring the distinction between these three stages. This raises the question to what extent the motor system itself can contribute to the interpretation of behavioural situations. To investigate this question we use a neural model of sensory motor integration applied to a behaving mobile robot performing a navigation task. We show that the population response of the motor system provides a substrate for the categorization of behavioural situations. This categorization allows for the assessment of the complexity of a behavioural situation and regulates whether higher-level decision making is required to resolve behavioural conflicts. Our model lends credence to an emerging reconceptualization of behavioural control where the motor system can be considered as part of a high-level perceptual system. PMID:15101417

  17. Respecting Teachers' Diverse Decision-Making Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starnes, Bobby Ann

    1999-01-01

    Reflects on teachers' diverse decision-making systems. Matching teachers' beliefs, or frameworks, to the programs they are asked to use is crucial to success and sustainability. Incompatible programs and curricula that are forced on teachers will not succeed. Examples of "teacher-proof" programs illustrate this viewpoint. (CDS)

  18. NACA Investigations of Icing-Protection Systems for Turbojet-Engine Installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VonGlahn, Uwe; Callaghan, Edmund E.; Gray, Vernon H.

    1951-01-01

    Investigations have been made in flight and in wind tunnels to determine which components of turbojet installations are most critical in icing conditions, and to evaluate several methods of icing protection. From these studies, the requirements necessary for adequate icing protection and the consequent penalties on engine performance can be estimated. Because investigations have indicated that the compressor-inlet screen constitutes the greatest icing hazard and is difficult to protect, complete removal or retraction of the screen upon encountering an icing condition is recommended. In the absence of the screen, the inlet guide vanes of an axial-flow-type turbojet engine constitute the greatest danger to engine operation in an icing condition; a centrifugal-type engine, on the other hand, is relatively unsusceptible to icing once the screen has been removed. Of the three icing-protection systems investigated, surface heating, hot-gas bleedback, and inertia-separation inlets, only the first two offer an acceptable solution to the problem of engine icing protection. Surface heating, either by gas heating or electrical means, appears to be the most acceptable icing-protection method with regard to performance losses. Hot-gas bleedback, although causing undesirable thrust losses, offers an easy means of obtaining icing protection for some installations. The final choice of an icing-protection system depends, however, on the supply of heated gas and electrical power available and on the allowable performance and. weight penalties associated with each system.

  19. Icing tunnel tests of a composite porous leading edge for use with a liquid anti-ice system. [Lewis icing research tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlman, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The efficacy of liquid ice protection systems which distribute a glycol-water solution onto leading edge surfaces through a porous skin was demonstrated in tests conducted in the NASA Lewis icing research tunnel using a composite porous leading edge panels. The data obtained were compared with the performance of previously tested stainless steel leading edge with the same geometry. Results show: (1) anti-ice protection of a composite leading edge is possible for all the simulated conditions tested; (2) the glycol flow rates required to achieve anti-ice protection were generally much higher than those required for a stainless steel panel; (3) the low reservoir pressures of the glycol during test runs indicates that more uniform distribution of glycol, and therefore lower glycol flow rates, can probably be achieved by decreasing the porosity of the panel; and (4) significant weight savings can be achieved in fluid ice protection systems with composite porous leading edges. The resistance of composite panels to abrasion and erosion must yet be determined before they can be incorporated in production systems.

  20. The pre-LGM evolution of the Uummannaq ice Stream system in West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, David; Lane, Tim; Rea, Brice; Jamieson, Stewart

    2016-04-01

    Ice streams are a key component of an ice sheet system. They are fast flowing, dynamic corridors of ice that play a pivotal role in modulating ice flux from the interior of an ice sheet to its terrestrial or marine margin. The behaviour of marine-terminating ice streams in particular is critical in determining the dynamic (in)stability of ice sheets and ice/ocean interaction through time. However, despite an increase in palaeo-ice stream reconstructions and improvements in numerical modelling, in many instances we know little about the evolution of ice streams beyond the last glacial cycle. This is particularly true for topographically-guided or constrained ice stream systems that must represent the end-member state of a system that has developed over million year time scales. Recent research suggests that topographic focussing, subglacial geology, meltwater routing and calving margins are the primary controls on ice stream evolution. However, few studies have considered the combined role of geology, pre Quaternary landscapes and uplift in pre-conditioning a landscape for ice stream onset. This paper explores the factors that have controlled the evolution of the Uummannaq Ice Stream (UIS) system in West Greenland. During the last glacial cycle the UIS was a topographically-guided system, but the variables that led to ice stream onset prior to the Late Quaternary remain poorly understood. Geology, selective linear erosion and dynamic feedbacks were all important controls, but the influence of rifting, early uplift and pre-glacial topography in particular may have been pivotal controls on the evolution and location of the UIS onset zone.

  1. Spray nozzle investigation for the Improved Helicopter Icing Spray System (IHISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Andrew A.; Oldenburg, John R.

    1990-01-01

    A contract has been awarded by the U.S. Army to design, fabricate and test a replacement for the existing Helicopter Icing Spray System. Data are shown for extensive bench and icing tunnel test programs used to select and modify an improved spray nozzle. The IHISS, capable of deployment from any CH-47 helicopter, will include new icing spray nozzles and pneumatic pressure source, and a significantly larger water tank and spray boom. The resulting system will provide a significantly larger icing cloud with droplet characteristics closely matching natural icing conditions.

  2. Ground-Based Icing Condition Remote Sensing System Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Koenig, George G.

    2001-01-01

    This report documents the NASA Glenn Research Center activities to assess and down select remote sensing technologies for the purpose of developing a system capable of measuring icing condition hazards aloft. The information generated by such a remote sensing system is intended for use by the entire aviation community, including flight crews. air traffic controllers. airline dispatchers, and aviation weather forecasters. The remote sensing system must be capable of remotely measuring temperature and liquid water content (LWC), and indicating the presence of super-cooled large droplets (SLD). Technologies examined include Profiling Microwave Radiometer, Dual-Band Radar, Multi-Band Radar, Ka-Band Radar. Polarized Ka-Band Radar, and Multiple Field of View (MFOV) Lidar. The assessment of these systems took place primarily during the Mt. Washington Icing Sensors Project (MWISP) in April 1999 and the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS) from November 1999 to February 2000. A discussion of the various sensing technologies is included. The result of the assessment is that no one sensing technology can satisfy all of the stated project goals. Therefore a proposed system includes radiometry and Ka-band radar. A multilevel approach is proposed to allow the future selection of the fielded system based upon required capability and available funding. The most basic level system would be the least capable and least expensive. The next level would increase capability and cost, and the highest level would be the most capable and most expensive to field. The Level 1 system would consist of a Profiling Microwave Radiometer. The Level 2 system would add a Ka-Band Radar. The Level 3 system would add polarization to the Ka-Band Radar. All levels of the system would utilize hardware that is already under development by the U.S. Government. However, to meet the needs of the aviation community, all levels of the system will require further development. In addition to the proposed system

  3. Naturalistic Decision Making For Power System Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Podmore, Robin; Robinson, Marck; Ey, Pamela

    2009-06-23

    Abstract: Motivation -- As indicated by the Blackout of 2003, the North American interconnected electric system is vulnerable to cascading outages and widespread blackouts. Investigations of large scale outages often attribute the causes to the three T’s: Trees, Training and Tools. A systematic approach has been developed to document and understand the mental processes that an expert power system operator uses when making critical decisions. The approach has been developed and refined as part of a capability demonstration of a high-fidelity real-time power system simulator under normal and emergency conditions. To examine naturalistic decision making (NDM) processes, transcripts of operator-to-operator conversations are analyzed to reveal and assess NDM-based performance criteria. Findings/Design -- The results of the study indicate that we can map the Situation Awareness Level of the operators at each point in the scenario. We can also identify clearly what mental models and mental simulations are being performed at different points in the scenario. As a result of this research we expect that we can identify improved training methods and improved analytical and visualization tools for power system operators. Originality/Value -- The research applies for the first time, the concepts of Recognition Primed Decision Making, Situation Awareness Levels and Cognitive Task Analysis to training of electric power system operators. Take away message -- The NDM approach provides an ideal framework for systematic training management and mitigation to accelerate learning in team-based training scenarios with high-fidelity power grid simulators.

  4. Systems and Techniques for Identifying and Avoiding Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John

    1995-01-01

    In-flight icing is one of the most difficult aviation weather hazards facing general aviation. Because most aircraft in the general aviation category are not certified for flight into known icing conditions, techniques for identifying and avoiding in-flight ice are important to maintain safety while increasing the utility and dispatch capability which is part of the AGATE vision. This report summarizes a brief study effort which: (1) Reviewed current ice identification, forecasting, and avoidance techniques; (2) Assessed feasibility of improved forecasting and ice avoidance procedures; and (3) Identified key issues for the development of improved capability with regard to in-flight icing.

  5. The Role of Snow and Ice in the Climate System

    ScienceCinema

    Barry, Roger G.

    2009-09-01

    Global snow and ice cover (the 'cryosphere') plays a major role in global climate and hydrology through a range of complex interactions and feedbacks, the best known of which is the ice - albedo feedback. Snow and ice cover undergo marked seasonal and long term changes in extent and thickness. The perennial elements - the major ice sheets and permafrost - play a role in present-day regional and local climate and hydrology, but the large seasonal variations in snow cover and sea ice are of importance on continental to hemispheric scales. The characteristics of these variations, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, and evidence for recent trends in snow and ice extent are discussed.

  6. The Role of Snow and Ice in the Climate System

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, Roger G.

    2007-12-19

    Global snow and ice cover (the 'cryosphere') plays a major role in global climate and hydrology through a range of complex interactions and feedbacks, the best known of which is the ice - albedo feedback. Snow and ice cover undergo marked seasonal and long term changes in extent and thickness. The perennial elements - the major ice sheets and permafrost - play a role in present-day regional and local climate and hydrology, but the large seasonal variations in snow cover and sea ice are of importance on continental to hemispheric scales. The characteristics of these variations, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, and evidence for recent trends in snow and ice extent are discussed.

  7. Volume Ice Radiolysis in the Outer Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Cooper, P. D.

    2006-05-01

    The primary energy flux of charged particle components of the heliospheric and magnetospheric environments of the solar system is primarily carried by highly penetrating energetic particles. Although laboratory experiments on production of organics and oxidants typically only address effects on very thin surface layers, energy deposition occurs on surfaces of icy bodies of the outer solar system to meters in depth. Time scales for significant radiolytic deposition vary from thousands of years at millimeter depths on Europa to billions of years in the meters-deep regolith of Kuiper Belt Objects. Radioisotope decay (e.g., K-40) also contributes to volume radiolysis as the only energy source at much greater depths. Radiolytic oxygen is a potential resource for life within Europa and a partial source of oxygen for Saturn's magnetosphere and Titan's upper atmosphere. Interactions of very high energy cosmic rays with ices at Titan's surface may provide one of the few sources of oxidants in that organic-rich environment. The red colors of low-inclination classical Kuiper Belt Objects at 40- 50 AU, and Centaur objects originating from this same population, may arise from volume radiolysis of deep ice layers below more refractory radiation crusts eroded away by surface sputtering and micrometeoroid impacts. A variety of techniques are potentially available to measure volume radiolysis products and have been proposed for study as part of the new Space Physics of Life initiative at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The technique of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) has been used in medical studies to measure oxidant production in irradiated human tissue for cancer treatment. Other potential techniques include optical absorption spectroscopy and standard wet chemical analysis. These and other potential techniques are briefly reviewed for applicability to problems in solar system ice radiolysis and astrobiology.

  8. Making real-time reactive systems reliable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzullo, Keith; Wood, Mark

    1990-01-01

    A reactive system is characterized by a control program that interacts with an environment (or controlled program). The control program monitors the environment and reacts to significant events by sending commands to the environment. This structure is quite general. Not only are most embedded real time systems reactive systems, but so are monitoring and debugging systems and distributed application management systems. Since reactive systems are usually long running and may control physical equipment, fault tolerance is vital. The research tries to understand the principal issues of fault tolerance in real time reactive systems and to build tools that allow a programmer to design reliable, real time reactive systems. In order to make real time reactive systems reliable, several issues must be addressed: (1) How can a control program be built to tolerate failures of sensors and actuators. To achieve this, a methodology was developed for transforming a control program that references physical value into one that tolerates sensors that can fail and can return inaccurate values; (2) How can the real time reactive system be built to tolerate failures of the control program. Towards this goal, whether the techniques presented can be extended to real time reactive systems is investigated; and (3) How can the environment be specified in a way that is useful for writing a control program. Towards this goal, whether a system with real time constraints can be expressed as an equivalent system without such constraints is also investigated.

  9. A method of predicting flow rates required to achieve anti-icing performance with a porous leading edge ice protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlman, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    A proposed method of analytically predicting the minimum fluid flow rate required to provide anti-ice protection with a porous leading edge system on a wing under a given set of flight conditions is presented. Results of the proposed method are compared with the actual results of an icing test of a real wing section in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel.

  10. A method of predicting flow rates required to achieve anti-icing performance with a porous leading edge ice protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlman, D. L.; Albright, A. E.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical method was developed for predicting minimum flow rates required to provide anti-ice protection with a porous leading edge fluid ice protection system. The predicted flow rates compare with an average error of less than 10 percent to six experimentally determined flow rates from tests in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel on a general aviation wing section.

  11. The effect of sea ice on the solar energy budget in the astmosphere-sea ice-ocean system: A model study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Z.; Stamnes, Knut; Weeks, W. F.; Tsay, Si-Chee

    1994-01-01

    A coupled one-dimensional multilayer and multistream radiative transfer model has been developed and applied to the study of radiative interactions in the atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean system. The consistent solution of the radiative transfer equation in this coupled system automatically takes into account the refraction and reflection at the air-ice interface and allows flexibility in choice of stream numbers. The solar radiation spectrum (0.25 micron-4.0 micron) is divided into 24 spectral bands to account adequately for gaseous absorption in the atmosphere. The effects of ice property changes, including salinity and density variations, as well as of melt ponds and snow cover variations over the ice on the solar energy distribution in the entire system have been studied quantitatively. The results show that for bare ice it is the scattering, determined by air bubbles and brine pockets, in just a few centimeters of the top layer of ice that plays the most important role in the solar energy absorption and partitioning in the entire system. Ice thickness is important to the energy distribution only when the ice is thin, while the absorption in the atmosphere is not sensitive to ice thickness exceeds about 70 cm. The presence of clouds moderates all the sensitivities of the absorptive amounts in each layer to the variations in the ice properties and ice thickness. Comparisons with observational spectral albedo values for two simple ice types are also presented.

  12. Study on Supercooling Release in Encapsulated Ice System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Yooko; Hasegawa, Hiromi; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Kurosaki, Kenji; Sato, Mamoru; Watanabe, Kenji; Iwatsubo, Tetsushiro

    As regards the supercooling phenomena which is important matter in encapsulated ice system, we studied the supercooling release agent using the microorganism. Though the nucleation active bacteria had the high super cooling release ability, it was proved that the performance gradually lowered in long terms continuous use, when the live microorganism was used. In order to solve this problem, the sterilization treatment of the microorganism was examined and it was clariiied that there was the high effect in the ultraviolet irradiation. In addition, the persistence of the supercooling release ability is improved by freeze-drying treatment.

  13. Sputtering of ices in the outer solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Exploration of the outer solar system has led to studies in a new area of physics: electronically induced sputtering of low-temperature, condensed-gas solids (ices). Many of the icy bodies in the outer solar system were found to be bombarded by relatively intense fluxes of ions and electrons, causing both changes in their optical reflectance and ejection (sputtering) of molecules from their surfaces. The small cohesive energies of the condensed-gas solids afford relatively large sputtering rates from the electronic excitations produced in the solid by fast ions and electrons. Such sputtering produces an ambient gas about an icy body, often the source of the local plasma. This colloquium outlines the physics of the sputtering of ices and its relevance to several outer-solar-system phenomena: the sputter-produced plasma trapped in Saturn{close_quote}s magnetosphere; the O{sub 2} atmosphere on Europa; and optical absorption features such as SO{sub 2} in the surface of Europa and O{sub 2} and, possibly, O{sub 3} in the surface of Ganymede. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  14. Lunar South Pole ice as heat sink for Lunar cryofuel production system

    SciTech Connect

    Zuppero, A.; Stanley, M.; Modro, S.M.; Whitman, P.

    1995-03-01

    Recent Clementine bistatic radar data suggest that water ice may be present in a {open_quotes}forever shaded{close_quotes} depression or crater at the South Pole of the Moon. The ice is a feedstock for the electrolysis production of cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen rocket fuels for a transportation system on the moon and for leaving and descending on to the moon. The ice also provides a convective heat sink critical to the practical implementation of high throughput electric power generators and refrigerators that liquefy and cool the oxygen and hydrogen into cryogenic rocket fuel. This brief analysis shows that about a hundred tonnes of hardware delivered to the lunar surface can produce tens of thousands of tonnes of rocket fuel per year, on the moon. And it makes the point that if convective cooling is used instead of radiative cooling, then power and processing systems can be used that exist and have been tested already. This shortens the time by an order of magnitude to develop lunar operations. Quick deployment of a chemical cryofuel energy source is a key factor in the economics of lunar development.

  15. Ice Thermal Storage Systems for Nuclear Power Plant Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

    2013-03-01

    Availability of cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. One potential solution is to use ice thermal storage (ITS) systems that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses the ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS also provides a way to shift a large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body, adding ITS can bring significant economic benefits and avoid forced derating and shutdown during extremely hot weather. For the new plants using dry cooling towers, adding the ITS systems can effectively reduce the efficiency loss during hot weather so that new plants could be considered in regions lack of cooling water. This paper will review light water reactor cooling issues and present the feasibility study results.

  16. The ancient heritage of water ice in the solar system.

    PubMed

    Cleeves, L Ilsedore; Bergin, Edwin A; Alexander, Conel M O'D; Du, Fujun; Graninger, Dawn; Öberg, Karin I; Harries, Tim J

    2014-09-26

    Identifying the source of Earth's water is central to understanding the origins of life-fostering environments and to assessing the prevalence of such environments in space. Water throughout the solar system exhibits deuterium-to-hydrogen enrichments, a fossil relic of low-temperature, ion-derived chemistry within either (i) the parent molecular cloud or (ii) the solar nebula protoplanetary disk. Using a comprehensive treatment of disk ionization, we find that ion-driven deuterium pathways are inefficient, which curtails the disk's deuterated water formation and its viability as the sole source for the solar system's water. This finding implies that, if the solar system's formation was typical, abundant interstellar ices are available to all nascent planetary systems. PMID:25258075

  17. On-ice vibroseis and snowstreamer systems for geoscientific research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisen, Olaf; Hofstede, Coen; Diez, Anja; Kristoffersen, Yngve; Lambrecht, Astrid; Mayer, Christoph; Blenkner, Rick; Hilmarsson, Sverrir

    2015-03-01

    We present implementations of vibroseis system configurations with a snowstreamer for over-ice long-distance seismic traverses (>100 km). The configurations have been evaluated in Antarctica on ice sheet and ice shelf areas in the period 2010-2014. We discuss results of two different vibroseis sources: Failing Y-1100 on skis with a peak force of 120 kN in the frequency range 10-110 Hz; IVI EnviroVibe with a nominal peak force of 66 kN in the nominal frequency range 10-300 Hz. All measurements used a well-established 60 channel 1.5 km snowstreamer for the recording. Employed forces during sweeps were limited to less than 80% of the peak force. Maximum sweep frequencies, with a typical duration of 10 s, were 100 and 250 Hz for the Failing and EnviroVibe, respectively. Three different concepts for source movement were employed: the Failing vibrator was mounted with wheels on skis and pulled by a Pistenbully snow tractor. The EnviroVibe was operated self-propelled on Mattracks on the Antarctic plateau. This lead to difficulties in soft snow. For later implementations the EnviroVibe with tracks was put on a polyethylene (PE) sled. The sled had a hole in the center to lower the vibrator baseplate directly onto the snow surface. With the latter setup, data production varied between 20 km/day for 6-fold and 40 km/day for single fold for 9 h/day of measurements. The combination of tracks with the PE-sled was especially advantageous on hard and rough surfaces because of the flexibility of each component and the relatively lose mounting. The systems presented here are suitable to obtain data of subglacial and sub-seabed sediment layers and englacial layering in comparable quality as obtained from marine geophysics and land-based explosive surveys. The large offset aperture of the streamer overcomes limitations of radar systems for imaging of steep along-track subglacial topography. With joint international scientific and logistic efforts, large-scale mapping of Antarctica

  18. Information Processing in Decision-Making Systems

    PubMed Central

    van der Meer, Matthijs; Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Redish, A. David

    2015-01-01

    Decisions result from an interaction between multiple functional systems acting in parallel to process information in very different ways, each with strengths and weaknesses. In this review, the authors address three action-selection components of decision-making: The Pavlovian system releases an action from a limited repertoire of potential actions, such as approaching learned stimuli. Like the Pavlovian system, the habit system is computationally fast but, unlike the Pavlovian system permits arbitrary stimulus-action pairings. These associations are a “forward” mechanism; when a situation is recognized, the action is released. In contrast, the deliberative system is flexible but takes time to process. The deliberative system uses knowledge of the causal structure of the world to search into the future, planning actions to maximize expected rewards. Deliberation depends on the ability to imagine future possibilities, including novel situations, and it allows decisions to be taken without having previously experienced the options. Various anatomical structures have been identified that carry out the information processing of each of these systems: hippocampus constitutes a map of the world that can be used for searching/imagining the future; dorsal striatal neurons represent situation-action associations; and ventral striatum maintains value representations for all three systems. Each system presents vulnerabilities to pathologies that can manifest as psychiatric disorders. Understanding these systems and their relation to neuroanatomy opens up a deeper way to treat the structural problems underlying various disorders. PMID:22492194

  19. Modeling the seasonal variability of a coupled Arctic ice-ocean system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Mellor, George L.

    1992-01-01

    The seasonal variability of the ice-ocean system in the Arctic Basin and the Norwegian, Greenland, and Barents Seas was modeled using a three-dimensional coupled ice-ocean model developed at Princeton University. The snow-ice model uses a three-level thermodynamic scheme similar to Semtner's (1976), but is extended to include the effect of leads. It is shown that simulations using the climatological monthly forcing fields produce a realistic seasonal variability of the ice cover. The ice thickness had a considerable sensitivity to the choice of the long-wave back radiation scheme, but these effects can be reduced through dynamical factors.

  20. Naturalistic Decision Making for Power System Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Podmore, Robin; Robinson, Marck; Ey, Pamela

    2010-02-01

    Motivation – Investigations of large-scale outages in the North American interconnected electric system often attribute the causes to three T’s: Trees, Training and Tools. To document and understand the mental processes used by expert operators when making critical decisions, a naturalistic decision making (NDM) model was developed. Transcripts of conversations were analyzed to reveal and assess NDM-based performance criteria. Findings/Design – An item analysis indicated that the operators’ Situation Awareness Levels, mental models, and mental simulations can be mapped at different points in the training scenario. This may identify improved training methods or analytical/ visualization tools. Originality/Value – This study applies for the first time, the concepts of Recognition Primed Decision Making, Situation Awareness Levels and Cognitive Task Analysis to training of electric power system operators. Take away message – The NDM approach provides a viable framework for systematic training management to accelerate learning in simulator-based training scenarios for power system operators and teams.

  1. VAV systems -- What makes them succeed? What makes them fail?

    SciTech Connect

    Cappellin, T.E.

    1997-12-31

    When variable-air-volume (VAV) systems work right, they provide excellent temperature and humidity control and in addition deliver outside air to conditioned spaces in amounts sufficient to satisfy ASHRAE Standard 62 and meet all criteria required for acceptable indoor air quality. The final benefit is lower utility cost when compared to a comparable constant-air-volume system. However, the successful performance of VAV systems is often compromised by flawed conception, faulty design, defective installation, poor start-up, inaccurate operation, and inadequate maintenance. Field observations of underperforming VAV systems have uncovered problems due to mistakes that have been made through all the phases of system development. It is recommended that most VAV systems be designed, installed, started, and operated under a comprehensive commissioning process. Experience has shown that careful monitoring of all phases of development and operation will ensure that there are minimal problems to plague the building owner and operating personnel once the system is in use. This paper is written from the viewpoint of a former contractor who is now a professional engineer and who has designed, installed, started, and maintained VAV systems.

  2. An ice-motion tracking system at the Alaska SAR facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, Ronald; Curlander, John C.; Pang, Shirley S.; Mcconnell, Ross

    1990-01-01

    An operational system for extracting ice-motion information from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery is being developed as part of the Alaska SAR Facility. This geophysical processing system (GPS) will derive ice-motion information by automated analysis of image sequences acquired by radars on the European ERS-1, Japanese ERS-1, and Canadian RADARSAT remote sensing satellites. The algorithm consists of a novel combination of feature-based and area-based techniques for the tracking of ice floes that undergo translation and rotation between imaging passes. The system performs automatic selection of the image pairs for input to the matching routines using an ice-motion estimator. It is designed to have a daily throughput of ten image pairs. A description is given of the GPS system, including an overview of the ice-motion-tracking algorithm, the system architecture, and the ice-motion products that will be available for distribution to geophysical data users.

  3. Altitude Effects on Thermal Ice Protection System Performance; A Study of an Alternative Simulation Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Gene; Wright, Bill; Orchard, David; Oleskiw, Myron

    2015-01-01

    The quest for more energy-efficient green aircraft, dictates that all systems, including the ice protection system (IPS), be closely examined for ways to reduce energy consumption and to increase efficiency. A thermal ice protection systems must protect the aircraft from the hazardous effects of icing, and yet it needs to do so as efficiently as possible. The system can no longer be afforded the degree of over-design in power usage they once were. To achieve these more exacting designs, a better understanding of the heat and mass transport phenomena involved during an icing encounter is needed.

  4. Design, fabrication, and testing of an ultrasonic de-icing system for helicopter rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, Jose Luis

    A low-power, non-thermal ultrasonic de-icing system is introduced as a possible substitute for current electro-thermal systems. The system generates delaminating ultrasonic transverse shear stresses at the interface of accreted ice. A PZT-4 disk driven at 28.5 KHz (radial resonance of the disk) instantaneously de-bonds 2 mm thick freezer ice layers. The ice layers are accreted to a 0.7 mm thick, 30.4 cm x 30.4 cm steel plate at an environment temperature of -20°C. A power input of 50 Watts is applied to the actuator (50 V, 19.6 KV/m), which translates to a de-icing power of 0.07 W/cm2. A finite element model of the actuator bonded to the isotropic plate is used to guide the design of the system, and predicts the transverse shear stresses at the ice interface. Wind tunnel icing tests were conducted to demonstrate the potential use of the proposed system under impact icing conditions. Both glaze ice and rime ice were generated on steel and composite plates by changing the cloud conditions of the wind tunnel. Continuous ultrasonic vibration prevented impact ice formation around the actuator location at an input power not exceeding 0.18 W/cm 2 (1.2 W/in2). As ice thickness reached a critical thickness of approximately 1.2 mm, shedding occurred on those locations where ultrasonic transverse shear stresses exceeded the shear adhesion strength of the ice. Finite element transverse shear stress predictions correlate with observed experimental impact ice de-bonding behavior. To increase the traveling distance of propagating ultrasonic waves, ultrasonic shear horizontal wave modes are studied. Wave modes providing large modal interface transverse shear stress concentration coefficients (ISCC) between the host structure (0.7 mm thick steel plate) and accreted ice (2.5 mm thick ice layer) are identified and investigated for a potential increase in the wave propagation distance. Ultrasonic actuators able to trigger these optimum wave modes are designed and fabricated. Despite

  5. A novel backpackable ice-penetrating radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Kenichi; Saito, Ryoji; Naruse, Renji

    We have developed a novel ice-penetrating radar system that can be carried on a backpack. Including batteries for a 3 hour continuous measurement, the total weight is 13 kg. In addition, it operates reliably down to -25°C, has a low power consumption of 24 W, and is semi-waterproof. The system has a built-in-one controller with a high-brightness display for reading data quickly, a receiver with 12-bit digitizing, and a 1 kV pulse transmitter in which the pulse amplitude varies by <0.2%. Optical communications between components provides low-noise data acquisition and allows synchronizing of the pulse transmission with sampling. Measurements with the system revealed the 300 m deep bed topography of a temperate valley glacier in the late ablation season.

  6. N-ICE2015: Multi-disciplinary study of the young sea ice system north of Svalbard from winter to summer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steen, Harald; Granskog, Mats; Assmy, Philipp; Duarte, Pedro; Hudson, Stephen; Gerland, Sebastian; Spreen, Gunnar; Smedsrud, Lars H.

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean is shifting to a new regime with a thinner and smaller sea-ice area cover. Until now, winter sea ice extent has changed less than during summer, as the heat loss to the atmosphere during autumn and winter is large enough form an ice cover in most regions. The insulating snow cover also heavily influences the winter ice growth. Consequently, the older, thicker multi-year sea ice has been replace by a younger and thinner sea. These large changes in the sea ice cover may have dramatic consequences for ecosystems, energy fluxes and ultimately atmospheric circulation and the Northern Hemisphere climate. To study the effects of the changing Arctic the Norwegian Polar Institute, together with national and international partners, launched from January 11 to June 24, 2015 the Norwegian Young Sea ICE cruise 2015 (N-ICE2015). N-ICE2015 was a multi-disciplinary cruise aimed at simultaneously studying the effect of the Arctic Ocean changes in the sea ice, the atmosphere, in radiation, in ecosystems. as well as water chemistry. R/V Lance was frozen into the drift ice north of Svalbard at about N83 E25 and drifted passively southwards with the ice until she was broken loose. When she was loose, R/V Lance was brought back north to a similar starting position. While fast in the ice, she served as a living and working platform for 100 scientist and engineers from 11 countries. One aim of N-ICE2015 is to present a comprehensive data-set on the first year ice dominated system available for the scientific community describing the state and changes of the Arctic sea ice system from freezing to melt. Analyzing the data is progressing and some first results will be presented.

  7. Discovery of water ice nearly everywhere in the solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Zuppero, A.

    1995-10-01

    During the last decade we have discovered sources of accessible water in some form nearly everywhere in the solar system. Water ice has been found on the planet Mercury; probably on the Earth`s Moon; on Mars; on near Earth objects; on comets whose orbits frequently come close to that of Earth`s orbit; probably on Ceres, the largest inner asteroid; and on comets previously and incorrectly considered to be out of practical reach. The comets also provide massive quantities of hydrocarbons, similar to oil shale. The masses of either water or hydrocarbons are measured in units of cubic kilometers. The water is key to space transportation because it can be used as a rocket propellant directly, and because thermal process alone can be used to convert it and hydrocarbons into hydrogen, the highest performing rocket propellant. This presentation outlines what is currently known about the locations of the water ice, and sketches the requirements and environments of missions to prospect for and assay the water sources.

  8. The ancient heritage of water ice in the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleeves, L. Ilsedore; Bergin, Edwin A.; Alexander, Conel M. O.'D.; Du, Fujun; Graninger, Dawn; Öberg, Karin I.; Harries, Tim J.

    2014-09-01

    Identifying the source of Earth’s water is central to understanding the origins of life-fostering environments and to assessing the prevalence of such environments in space. Water throughout the solar system exhibits deuterium-to-hydrogen enrichments, a fossil relic of low-temperature, ion-derived chemistry within either (i) the parent molecular cloud or (ii) the solar nebula protoplanetary disk. Using a comprehensive treatment of disk ionization, we find that ion-driven deuterium pathways are inefficient, which curtails the disk’s deuterated water formation and its viability as the sole source for the solar system’s water. This finding implies that, if the solar system’s formation was typical, abundant interstellar ices are available to all nascent planetary systems.

  9. Improving Sea Ice Prediction in the NCEP Climate Forecast System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collow, T. W.; Wang, W.; Kumar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Skillful prediction of Arctic sea ice is important for the wide variety of interests focused in that region. However, the current operational system used by the NOAA Climate Prediction Center does not adequately predict the seasonal climatology of sea ice extent and maintains too high sea ice coverage across the Arctic. It is thought that the primary reasoning for this lies in the initialization of sea ice thickness. Experiments are carried out using the Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) model with an improved sea ice thickness initialization from the Pan-Arctic Ice Ocean Analysis and Assimilation System (PIOMAS) rather than the default Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) sea ice thickness data. All other variables are initialized from CFSR. In addition, physics parameterizations are adjusted to better simulate real world conditions. Here we focus on hindcasts initialized from 2005-2014. Although the seasonal cycle of sea ice is generally better captured in runs that use PIOMAS sea ice thickness initialization, local sea ice freeze in early winter in the Bering Strait and Chukchi Sea is delayed when both sea ice thickness configurations are used. In addition ice freeze in the North Atlantic is more pronounced than in the observations. This shows that simply changing initial sea ice thickness is not enough to improve forecasts for all locations. Modeled atmospheric and oceanic parameters are investigated including the radiation budget, land surface temperature advection, and sub-surface oceanic heat flow to diagnose possible reasons for the modeling deficiencies, and further modifications to the model will be discussed.

  10. A PHOTOMETRIC SYSTEM FOR DETECTION OF WATER AND METHANE ICES ON KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo, Chadwick A.; Sheppard, Scott S.; Schaller, Emily L. E-mail: sheppard@dtm.ciw.edu

    2011-04-01

    We present a new near-infrared photometric system for detection of water ice and methane ice in the solar system. The system consists of two medium-band filters in the K-band region of the near-infrared, which are sensitive to water ice and methane ice, plus continuum observations in the J band and Y band. The primary purpose of this system is to distinguish between three basic types of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs)-those rich in water ice, those rich in methane ice, and those with little absorbance. In this work, we present proof-of-concept observations of 51 KBOs using our filter system, 21 of which have never been observed in the near-infrared spectroscopically. We show that our custom photometric system is consistent with previous spectroscopic observations while reducing telescope observing time by a factor of {approx}3. We use our filters to identify Haumea collisional family members, which are thought to be collisional remnants of a much larger body and are characterized by large fractions of water ice on their surfaces. We add 2009 YE{sub 7} to the Haumea collisional family based on our water ice band observations (J - H{sub 2}O = -1.03 {+-} 0.27) which indicate a high amount of water ice absorption, our calculated proper orbital elements, and the neutral optical colors we measured, V - R = 0.38 {+-} 0.04, which are all consistent with the rest of the Haumea family. We identify several objects dynamically similar to Haumea as being distinct from the Haumea family as they do not have water ice on their surfaces. In addition, we find that only the largest KBOs have methane ice, and Haumea itself has significantly less water ice absorption than the smaller Haumea family members. We find no evidence for other families in the Kuiper Belt.

  11. Measurement of lake ice thickness with a short-pulse radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. W.; Mueller, R. A.; Schertler, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of lake ice thickness were made during March 1975 at the Straits of Mackinac by using a short-pulse radar system aboard an all-terrain vehicle. These measurements were compared with ice thicknesses determined with an auger. Over 25 sites were explored which had ice thicknesses in the range 29 to 60 cm. The maximum difference between radar and auger measurements was less than 9.8 percent. The magnitude of the error was less than + or - 3.5 cm. The NASA operating short-pulse radar system used in monitoring lake ice thickness from an aircraft is also described.

  12. New Spray Bar System Installed in NASA Lewis' Icing Research Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, Thomas B.

    1998-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) is the world's largest refrigerated wind tunnel dedicated to the study of aircraft icing. In the IRT, natural icing conditions are duplicated to test the effects of in-flight icing on actual aircraft components and on scale models of airplanes and helicopters. The IRT's ability to reproduce a natural icing cloud was significantly improved with the recent installation of a new spray bar system. It is the spray bar system that transforms the low-speed wind tunnel into an icing wind tunnel by producing microscopic droplets of water and injecting them into the wind tunnel air stream in order to accurately simulate cloud moisture.

  13. Analysis and testing of the Diamond One wing anti-icing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeoman, K. E.

    1985-01-01

    The Diamond One wing leading edge is protected against ice accretions by a bleed air anti-icing system. Three cross-sections selected for computer modeling considered the thermal mechanisms of convection, conduction, evaporation and sensible heating of impinged and runback water. With an instrumented aircraft, the model was refined using dry air and above freezing cloud flight test data. The refined model was exercised for wing surface temperature predictions for six critical icing conditions and found safe for natural icing flight testing. Measured natural icing test data was then inserted into the model to compare predicted vs. measured temperatures. Correlation was achieved and the system was accepted by FAA as safe for flight into known icing conditions.

  14. Seismic Network in Greenland Monitors Earth and Ice System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, John F.; Nettles, Meredith; Walter, Fabian; Anderson, Kent; Dahl-Jensen, Trine; Giardini, Domenico; Govoni, Aladino; Hanka, Winfried; Lasocki, Stanislaw; Lee, Won Sang; McCormack, David; Mykkeltveit, Svein; Stutzmann, Eleonore; Tsuboi, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Some of the most dramatic effects of climate change have been observed in the Earth's polar regions. In Greenland, ice loss from the Greenland ice sheet has accelerated in recent years [Shepherd et al., 2012]. Outlet glaciers are changing their behavior rapidly, with many thinning, retreating, and accelerating [Joughin et al., 2004]. The loss of ice weighing on the crust and mantle below has allowed both to rebound, resulting in high rock uplift rates [Bevis et al., 2012]. Changes in ice cover and meltwater production influence sea level and climate feedbacks; they are expected to contribute to increasing vulnerability to geohazards such as landslides, flooding, and extreme weather.

  15. Tracking and responding to a changing Arctic sea-ice cover: How ice users can help the scientific community design better observing systems (Louis Agassiz Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eicken, Hajo

    2010-05-01

    The Arctic sea-ice cover is undergoing a major transformation, with substantial reductions in summer ice extent reflecting changes in ice thickness, age, and circulation. These changes are impacting Arctic ecosystems and a range of human activities. Anticipating and responding to such impacts, exacerbated by increasing economic activity in parts of the Arctic, requires a foundation of environmental observations and model predictions. Recent increases in industrial activities such as shipping and resource development in parts of the Arctic have further highlighted the need for an integrated observing system. In the case of a changing sea-ice cover, how would one best design and optimize such a system? One of the challenges is to meet the information needs of the scientific community in furthering fundamental understanding of the Arctic system, as well as those of key stakeholders and society, helping them to prepare for and respond to Arctic change. This presentation focuses on how the concept of sea-ice system services, i.e., the uses and benefits (or harm) derived from sea ice, may help guide the implementation of an effective observing system. Principal service categories are (1) sea ice as climate regulator, marine hazard, and coastal buffer; (2) transportation and use of ice as a platform; (3) cultural services obtained from the "icescape"; and (4) support of food webs and biological diversity by sea ice. An analysis of the different ice services provided to different user groups can help prioritize different types of observations and determine optimal measurement strategies. Moreover, the focus on different uses of the ice cover may also help synthesize fundamental and applied research to help Arctic communities adapt in a changing environment. Alaska has experienced some of the most substantial changes in sea-ice conditions throughout the Arctic over the past three decades and is used to illustrate the concepts discussed above. Specifically, we have examined

  16. Ice/berm interaction study using rotary sidescan sonar and acoustic profiling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Good, R.R.; Anderson, K.G.; Lanzier, H.H.

    1984-05-01

    Tarsiut Island, in the Canadian Beaufort Sea, was the first dredged caisson retained island built for exploration drilling operations in the Arctic offshore. Due to the island's configuration location, a large first-year ice rubble pile would result from the ice/structure interaction. This paper outlines how a rotary side-scan sonar and a mechanically scanning, narrow-beam acoustic profiling system were used to determine the geometry and the contact area of the underside of heavily rubbled first-year ice. The results of this study are to be used to further the understanding of the nature and mechanism of the ice/structure interaction in Arctic offshore structures.

  17. Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    2005-01-01

    Sea ice covers vast areas of the polar oceans, with ice extent in the Northern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 7 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September to approximately 15 x 10(exp 6) sq km in March and ice extent in the Southern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km in February to approximately 18 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September. These ice covers have major impacts on the atmosphere, oceans, and ecosystems of the polar regions, and so as changes occur in them there are potential widespread consequences. Satellite data reveal considerable interannual variability in both polar sea ice covers, and many studies suggest possible connections between the ice and various oscillations within the climate system, such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and Antarctic Oscillation, or Southern Annular Mode. Nonetheless, statistically significant long-term trends are also apparent, including overall trends of decreased ice coverage in the Arctic and increased ice coverage in the Antarctic from late 1978 through the end of 2003, with the Antarctic ice increases following marked decreases in the Antarctic ice during the 1970s. For a detailed picture of the seasonally varying ice cover at the start of the 21st century, this chapter includes ice concentration maps for each month of 2001 for both the Arctic and the Antarctic, as well as an overview of what the satellite record has revealed about the two polar ice covers from the 1970s through 2003.

  18. Real-Time Observations of Optical Properties of Arctic Sea Ice with an Autonomous System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Gerland, S.; Nicolaus, M.; Granskog, M. A.; Hudson, S. R.; Perovich, D. K.; Karlsen, T. I.; Fossan, K.

    2012-12-01

    The recent drastic changes in the Arctic sea ice cover have altered the interaction of solar radiation and sea ice. To improve our understanding of this interaction, a Spectral Radiation Buoy (SRB) for measuring sea ice optical properties was developed, based on a system used during the last International Polar Year at the drift of "Tara" across the Arctic Ocean. A first version of the SRB was deployed on drifting ice in the high Arctic in April 2012. It includes three Satlantic spectral radiometers (two in air, one under ice), covering the wavelength range from 347 nm to 804 nm with 3.3 nm spectral resolution, a bio-shutter to protect the under-ice radiometer, a data logger to handle and store collected data, and an Iridium satellite modem to transfer data in real-time. The under-ice radiometer is mounted on an adjustable under-ice arm, and the other instruments are mounted on a triangular frame frozen into the ice. The SRB measures simultaneously, autonomously and continuously the spectral fluxes of incident and reflected solar radiation, as well as under-ice irradiance, water temperature and water pressure every hour. So far, between mid April and early August 2012, the system has drifted about 600 km, from the starting position near the North Pole towards the Fram Strait. The data collected during this deployment, so far, already demonstrate that this system is suitable for autonomous and long-term observations over and under sea ice in harsh conditions. Along with the SRB, commercially available Ice Mass Balance buoys (IMB) were deployed on the same ice floe. In the vicinity of the site, manned baseline measurements of snow and sea ice physical properties have been carried out during the SRB deployment. The combined datasets allow description of the evolution of the ice floe during seasonal melt. With snow melt, the spectral surface albedo decreased and the transmittance through the snow and ice increased after mid-April, especially when melt ponds started to

  19. Impact of sea-ice processes on the carbonate system and ocean acidification at the ice-water interface of the Amundsen Gulf, Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fransson, Agneta; Chierici, Melissa; Miller, Lisa A.; Carnat, Gauthier; Shadwick, Elizabeth; Thomas, Helmuth; Pineault, Simon; Papakyriakou, Tim N.

    2013-12-01

    From sea-ice formation in November 2007 to onset of ice melt in May 2008, we studied the carbonate system in first-year Arctic sea ice, focusing on the impact of calcium-carbonate (CaCO3) saturation states of aragonite (ΩAr) and calcite (ΩCa) at the ice-water interface (UIW). Based on total inorganic carbon (CT) and total alkalinity (AT), and derived pH, CO2, carbonate ion ([CO32-]) concentrations and Ω, we investigated the major drivers such as brine rejection, CaCO3 precipitation, bacterial respiration, primary production and CO2-gas flux in sea ice, brine, frost flowers and UIW. We estimated large variability in sea-ice CT at the top, mid, and bottom ice. Changes due to CaCO3 and CO2-gas flux had large impact on CT in the whole ice core from March to May, bacterial respiration was important at the bottom ice during all months, and primary production in May. It was evident that the sea-ice processes had large impact on UIW, resulting in a five times larger seasonal amplitude of the carbonate system, relative to the upper 20 m. During ice formation, [CO2] increased by 30 µmol kg-1, [CO32-] decreased by 50 µmol kg-1, and the ΩAr decreased by 0.8 in the UIW due to CO2-enriched brine from solid CaCO3. Conversely, during ice melt, [CO32-] increased by 90 µmol kg-1 in the UIW, and Ω increased by 1.4 between March and May, likely due to CaCO3 dissolution and primary production. We estimated that increased ice melt would lead to enhanced oceanic uptake of inorganic carbon to the surface layer.

  20. Topological defects from doping and quenched disorder in artificial ice systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reichhardt, Charles; Reichhardt, Cynthia J; Libal, A

    2010-01-01

    We examine the ice-rule obeying and ice-rule breaking vertices in an artificial spin ice system created using magnetic vortices in type-II superconductors with nanostructured pinning arrays. We show that this system can be doped by changing the external field to move the number of vortices away from commensurability and create sites that contain two or zero vortices. For a square ice, the doping leads to the formation of a grain boundary of vertices that do not obey the ice rules. In commensurate systems where the ice rules are obeyed, we can introduce random disorder at the individual pinning sites to create regions where vortices may not be able to flip from one side of the trap to another. For weak disorder, all of the vertices still obey the ice rules, while at intermediate levels of disorder we find grain boundaries of vertices which do not obey the ice rules. For strong disorder it is possible to create isolated paired vertices that do not obey the ice rules. In summary, we have shown that an artificial square ice can be created using vortices in a type-II superconductor interacting with a periodic array of pinning sites where each site has a double well potential. By defining the direction of the effective spin according to the side of the double well occupied by the vortex, we find that this system obeys the ice rules for square ice. We add disorder to the system in the form of randomness of the height of the potential barrier at the center of the well, and obtain vertex configurations using a rotating drive protocol which is similar to the shaking ac magnetic field used in nanomagnetic systems. For weak disorder the entire system still obeys the square ice rules. For intermediate disorder, ice-rule breaking vertices appear and form grain boundaries, while for strong disorder there are both gain boundaries and isolated paired defects. In a system with uniform potential barrier heights, we introduce disorder by moving away from commensurability and creating

  1. Ice Chemistry on Outer Solar System Bodies: Electron Radiolysis of N2-, CH4-, and CO-Containing Ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materese, Christopher K.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Imanaka, Hiroshi; Nuevo, Michel

    2015-10-01

    Radiation processing of the surface ices of outer Solar System bodies may be an important process for the production of complex chemical species. The refractory materials resulting from radiation processing of known ices are thought to impart to them a red or brown color, as perceived in the visible spectral region. In this work, we analyzed the refractory materials produced from the 1.2-keV electron bombardment of low-temperature N2-, CH4-, and CO-containing ices (100:1:1), which simulates the radiation from the secondary electrons produced by cosmic ray bombardment of the surface ices of Pluto. Despite starting with extremely simple ices dominated by N2, electron irradiation processing results in the production of refractory material with complex oxygen- and nitrogen-bearing organic molecules. These refractory materials were studied at room temperature using multiple analytical techniques including Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Infrared spectra of the refractory material suggest the presence of alcohols, carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes, amines, and nitriles. XANES spectra of the material indicate the presence of carboxyl groups, amides, urea, and nitriles, and are thus consistent with the IR data. Atomic abundance ratios for the bulk composition of these residues from XANES analysis show that the organic residues are extremely N-rich, having ratios of N/C ∼ 0.9 and O/C ∼ 0.2. Finally, GC-MS data reveal that the residues contain urea as well as numerous carboxylic acids, some of which are of interest for prebiotic and biological chemistries.

  2. Automatic digital photo-book making system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wiley; Teo, Patrick; Muzzolini, Russ

    2010-02-01

    The diversity of photo products has grown more than ever before. A group of photos are not only printed individually, but also can be arranged in specific order to tell a story, such as in a photo book, a calendar or a poster collage. Similar to making a traditional scrapbook, digital photo book tools allow the user to choose a book style/theme, layouts of pages, backgrounds and the way the pictures are arranged. This process is often time consuming to users, given the number of images and the choices of layout/background combinations. In this paper, we developed a system to automatically generate photo books with only a few initial selections required. The system utilizes time stamps, color indices, orientations and other image properties to best fit pictures into a final photo book. The common way of telling a story is to lay the pictures out in chronological order. If the pictures are proximate in time, they will coincide with each other and are often logically related. The pictures are naturally clustered along a time line. Breaks between clusters can be used as a guide to separate pages or spreads, thus, pictures that are logically related can stay close on the same page or spread. When people are making a photo book, it is helpful to start with chronologically grouped images, but time alone wont be enough to complete the process. Each page is limited by the number of layouts available. Many aesthetic rules also apply, such as, emphasis of preferred pictures, consistency of local image density throughout the whole book, matching a background to the content of the images, and the variety of adjacent page layouts. We developed an algorithm to group images onto pages under the constraints of aesthetic rules. We also apply content analysis based on the color and blurriness of each picture, to match backgrounds and to adjust page layouts. Some of our aesthetic rules are fixed and given by designers. Other aesthetic rules are statistic models trained by using

  3. An Ice Core Melter System for Continuous Major and Trace Chemical Analyses of a New Mt. Logan Summit Ice Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterberg, E. C.; Handley, M. J.; Sneed, S. D.; Mayewski, P. A.; Kreutz, K. J.; Fisher, D. A.

    2004-12-01

    The ice core melter system at the University of Maine Climate Change Institute has been recently modified and updated to allow high-resolution (<1-2 cm ice/sample), continuous and coregistered sampling of ice cores, most notably the 2001 Mt. Logan summit ice core (187 m to bedrock), for analyses of 34 trace elements (Sr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Pb, Bi, U, As, Al, S, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, REE suite) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), 8 major ions (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, MSA) by ion chromatography (IC), stable water isotopes (δ 18O, δ D, d) and volcanic tephra. The UMaine continuous melter (UMCoM) system is housed in a dedicated clean room with HEPA filtered air. Standard clean room procedures are employed during melting. A Wagenbach-style continuous melter system has been modified to include a pure Nickel melthead that can be easily dismantled for thorough cleaning. The system allows melting of both ice and firn without wicking of the meltwater into unmelted core. Contrary to ice core melter systems in which the meltwater is directly channeled to online instruments for continuous flow analyses, the UMCoM system collects discrete samples for each chemical analysis under ultraclean conditions. Meltwater from the pristine innermost section of the ice core is split between one fraction collector that accumulates ICP-MS samples in acid pre-cleaned polypropylene vials under a class-100 HEPA clean bench, and a second fraction collector that accumulates IC samples. A third fraction collector accumulates isotope and tephra samples from the potentially contaminated outer portion of the core. This method is advantageous because an archive of each sample remains for subsequent analyses (including trace element isotope ratios), and ICP-MS analytes are scanned for longer intervals and in replicate. Method detection limits, calculated from de-ionized water blanks passed through the entire UMCoM system, are below 10% of average Mt

  4. Late Quaternary Advance and Retreat of an East Antarctic Ice Shelf System: Insights from Sedimentary Beryllium-10 Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guitard, M. E.; Shevenell, A.; Domack, E. W.; Rosenheim, B. E.; Yokoyama, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Observed retreat of Antarctica's marine-based glaciers and the presence of warm (~2°C) modified Circumpolar Deep Water on Antarctica's continental shelves imply ocean temperatures may influence Antarctic cryosphere stability. A paucity of information regarding Late Quaternary East Antarctic cryosphere-ocean interactions makes assessing the variability, timing, and style of deglacial retreat difficult. Marine sediments from Prydz Bay, East Antarctica contain hemipelagic siliceous mud and ooze units (SMO) alternating with glacial marine sediments. The record suggests Late Quaternary variability of local outlet glacier systems, including the Lambert Glacier/Amery Ice Shelf system that drains 15% of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. We present a refined radiocarbon chronology and beryllium-10 (10Be) record of Late Quaternary depositional history in Prydz Channel, seaward of the Amery Ice Shelf system, which provides insight into the timing and variability of this important outlet glacier system. We focus on three piston cores (NBP01-01, JPC 34, 35, 36; 750 m water depth) that contain alternating SMO and granulated units uninterrupted by glacial till; the record preserves a succession of glacial marine deposits that pre-date the Last Glacial Maximum. We utilize the ramped pyrolysis preparatory method to improve the bulk organic carbon 14C-based chronology for Prydz Channel. To determine if the SMO intervals reflect open water conditions or sub-ice shelf advection, we measured sedimentary 10Be concentrations. Because ice cover affects 10Be pathways through the water column, sedimentary concentrations should provide information on past depositional environments in Prydz Channel. In Prydz Channel sediments, 10Be concentrations are generally higher in SMO units and lower in glacial units, suggesting Late Quaternary fluctuations in the Amery Ice Shelf. Improved chronologic constraints indicate that these fluctuations occurred on millennial timescales during the Last Glacial

  5. Application of thermal imagery to the development of a Great Lakes ice information system. [infrared and SLAR imagery of fresh water ice thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schertler, R. J.; Raquet, C. A.; Svehla, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Recent measurements and analysis have shown that thermal infrared imagery (wavelength, 8-14 microns) can be employed to delineate the relative thicknesses of various regions of freshwater ice, as well as, differentiate new ice from both open water areas and thicker (young)ice. Thermal imagery was observed to be generally superior to visual (0.4 - 0.7 microns) and our SLAR (3.3 cm) imagery for estimating relative ice thicknesses and delineating open water from new ice growth. In a real-time Great Lakes Ice Information System, thermal imagery can not only provide supplementary imagery but also aid in developing interpretative methods for all-weather SLAR imagery, as well as, establishing the areal extent of spot thickness measurements.

  6. Laboratory Studies of Extraterrestrial Ices and PAHs: Making an Astrobiological Silk Purse Out of An Interstellar Sow's Ear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudgins, Douglas M.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of interstellar material over the past twenty years thanks to significant, parallel developments in observational astronomy and laboratory astrophysics. Today, the composition of dust in the ISM is reasonably well constrained to cold, micron-sized particles of various refractory materials. Shrouded within the protective confines of cold, opaque molecular clouds--the birthplace of stars and planets--these particles secrete mantles of mixed molecular lees whose major components are also well constrained. Finally, amidst the molecular inventory of these ice mantles are likely to be found polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), whose telltale infrared signature I is now recognized throughout the Universe. However, of what significance is this scenario to the origin of life in our solar system--or any other? The major components of the icy materials observed in interstellar clouds and in our own solar system are uniformly quite simple. In addition, despite the fact that PAHs likely represent the single largest molecular reservoir of organic carbon in evolving planetary systems, they are not what would be considered "biogenic" molecules. Although interesting from a chemical and astrophysical standpoint, in the absence of a mechanism by which these materials can be transformed into more biochemically significant structures, they are of little Astrobiological significance. In this talk, we will begin with a brief review of the nature and abundance of the "raw" population of PAHs and PAH-related materials in the ISM. From there, we will move on to explore our laboratory simulations of the photochemical evolution of realistic mixed molecular ices under conditions which simulate those encountered in the ISM and in evolving planetary systems. Particular attention will be paid to the surprisingly complex array of organic species that are produced in these ices from such a deceptively simple inventory of starting materials

  7. Use of the X-Band Radar to Support the Detection of In-Flight Icing Hazards by the NASA Icing Remote Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serke, David J.; Politovich, Marcia K.; Reehorst, Andrew L.; Gaydos, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The Alliance Icing Research Study-II (AIRS-II) field program was conducted near Montreal, Canada during the winter of 2003. The NASA Icing Remote Detection System (NIRSS) was deployed to detect in-flight icing hazards and consisted of a vertically pointing multichannel radiometer, a ceilometer and an x-band cloud radar. The radiometer was used to derive atmospheric temperature soundings and integrated liquid water, while the ceilometer and radar were used only to define cloud boundaries. The purpose of this study is to show that the radar reflectivity profiles from AIRS-II case studies could be used to provide a qualitative icing hazard.

  8. A seamless approach to understanding and predicting Arctic sea ice in Met Office modelling systems.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Helene T; Ridley, Jeff K; Keen, Ann B; West, Alex E; Peterson, K Andrew; Rae, Jamie G L; Milton, Sean F; Bacon, Sheldon

    2015-07-13

    Recent CMIP5 models predict large losses of summer Arctic sea ice, with only mitigation scenarios showing sustainable summer ice. Sea ice is inherently part of the climate system, and heat fluxes affecting sea ice can be small residuals of much larger air-sea fluxes. We discuss analysis of energy budgets in the Met Office climate models which point to the importance of early summer processes (such as clouds and meltponds) in determining both the seasonal cycle and the trend in ice decline. We give examples from Met Office modelling systems to illustrate how the seamless use of models for forecasting on time scales from short range to decadal might help to unlock the drivers of high latitude biases in climate models. PMID:26032316

  9. Measures Earth System Data Records (ESDR) of Ice Motion in Antarctica: Status, Impact and Future Products.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuchl, B.; Rignot, E. J.; Mouginot, J.

    2014-12-01

    Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data is an extremely useful tool for providing relevant information about the ice sheet ECV: ice vector velocity, grounding line position, and ice front location. Here, we provide an overview of the SAR Earth System Data Records (ESDR) for Antarctica part of MEaSUREs that includes: the first complete map of surface ice vector velocity in Antarctica, a map of grounding line positions around Antarctica, ice velocity time series for selected regions: Ross and Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelves and associated drainage basins, the Amundsen Sea Embayment of West Antarctica which is the largest contributor to sea level rise from Antarctica and the focus of rapid ice sheet retreat, and Larsen-B and -C ice shelves which is the second largest contribution to sea level rise from Antarctica. Other products include a database of ice shelf boundaries and drainage basins based on ice motion mapping and digital elevation models generated independently. Data continuity is a crucial aspect of this work and a fundamental challenge for the continuation of these products due to the lack of a dedicated interferometric mission on the cryosphere until the SAR mission under consideration between NASA and ISRO is approved. Four SAR missions ceased operations since IPY. CSA's RADARSAT-2 has provided important bridging data between these missions in Greenland and Antarctica. In 2014, ESA launched Sentinel-1a and JAXA launched ALOS-2 PALSAR, for which we will have limited data access. The Polar Space Task Group (PSTG) created by WMO has established a mandate to support cryospheric products from scientific research using international SARs which continues to play an active role in securing key data acquisitions over ice sheets. We will provide an overview of current efforts. This work was conducted at UC Irvine, Department of Earth System Science under a contract with NASA's MEaSUREs program.

  10. Dynamics of coupled ice-ocean system in the marginal ice zone: Study of the mesoscale processes and of constitutive equations for sea ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, S.

    1984-01-01

    This study is aimed at the modelling of mesoscale processed such as up/downwelling and ice edge eddies in the marginal ice zones. A 2-dimensional coupled ice-ocean model is used for the study. The ice model is coupled to the reduced gravity ocean model (f-plane) through interfacial stresses. The constitutive equations of the sea ice are formulated on the basis of the Reiner-Rivlin theory. The internal ice stresses are important only at high ice concentrations (90-100%), otherwise the ice motion is essentially free drift, where the air-ice stress is balanced by the ice-water stress. The model was tested by studying the upwelling dynamics. Winds parallel to the ice edge with the ice on the right produce upwilling because the air-ice momentum flux is much greater that air-ocean momentum flux, and thus the Ekman transport is bigger under the ice than in the open water. The upwelling simulation was extended to include temporally varying forcing, which was chosen to vary sinusoidally with a 4 day period. This forcing resembles successive cyclone passings. In the model with a thin oceanic upper layer, ice bands were formed.

  11. Semi-automated Digital Imaging and Processing System for Measuring Lake Ice Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Preetpal

    Canada is home to thousands of freshwater lakes and rivers. Apart from being sources of infinite natural beauty, rivers and lakes are an important source of water, food and transportation. The northern hemisphere of Canada experiences extreme cold temperatures in the winter resulting in a freeze up of regional lakes and rivers. Frozen lakes and rivers tend to offer unique opportunities in terms of wildlife harvesting and winter transportation. Ice roads built on frozen rivers and lakes are vital supply lines for industrial operations in the remote north. Monitoring the ice freeze-up and break-up dates annually can help predict regional climatic changes. Lake ice impacts a variety of physical, ecological and economic processes. The construction and maintenance of a winter road can cost millions of dollars annually. A good understanding of ice mechanics is required to build and deem an ice road safe. A crucial factor in calculating load bearing capacity of ice sheets is the thickness of ice. Construction costs are mainly attributed to producing and maintaining a specific thickness and density of ice that can support different loads. Climate change is leading to warmer temperatures causing the ice to thin faster. At a certain point, a winter road may not be thick enough to support travel and transportation. There is considerable interest in monitoring winter road conditions given the high construction and maintenance costs involved. Remote sensing technologies such as Synthetic Aperture Radar have been successfully utilized to study the extent of ice covers and record freeze-up and break-up dates of ice on lakes and rivers across the north. Ice road builders often used Ultrasound equipment to measure ice thickness. However, an automated monitoring system, based on machine vision and image processing technology, which can measure ice thickness on lakes has not been thought of. Machine vision and image processing techniques have successfully been used in manufacturing

  12. Investigation of Aerodynamic and Icing Characteristics of a Flush Alternate Inlet Induction System Air Scoop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James P.

    1953-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the NACA Lewis icing research tunnel to determine the aerodynamic and icing characteristics of a full-scale induction-system air-scoop assembly incorporating a flush alternate inlet. The flush inlet was located immediately downstream of the offset ram inlet and included a 180 deg reversal and a 90 deg elbow in the ducting between inlet and carburetor top deck. The model also had a preheat-air inlet. The investigation was made over a range of mass-air- flow ratios of 0 to 0.8, angles of attack of 0 and 4 deg airspeeds of 150 to 270 miles per hour, air temperatures of 0 and 25 F various liquid-water contents, and droplet sizes. The ram inlet gave good pressure recovery in both clear air and icing but rapid blockage of the top-deck screen occurred during icing. The flush alternate inlet had poor pressure recovery in both clear air and icing. The greatest decreases in the alternate-inlet pressure recovery were obtained at icing conditions of low air temperature and high liquid-water content. No serious screen icing was observed with the alternate inlet. Pressure and temperature distributions on the carburetor top deck were determined using the preheat-air supply with the preheat- and alternate-inlet doors in various positions. No screen icing occurred when the preheat-air system was operated in combination with alternate-inlet air flow.

  13. Summary of results from an ultrasonic in-flight wing ice detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongerholt, Derrick D.; Willms, Gary; Rose, Joseph L.

    2002-05-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves provide a convenient and reliable method to detect contaminants on the surface of the structure the wave travels in. Classifying the contaminants is possible by selecting the guided wave mode with the appropriate wave structure. An ice detection system, using this technology, designed at Sensor Systems, Goodrich Corporation is described. The system is demonstrated in-flight and is shown to be successful in detecting ice bonded to the aircraft wing leading edge.

  14. Electrometric method to determine the surface impedance of an ice-sea water bilayer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkuev, Yu. B.; Naguslaeva, I. B.; Khaptanov, V. B.; Dembelov, M. G.

    2016-02-01

    An electrometric method to determine the surface impedance of an ice-sea water bilayer system is suggested. The complex impedance (its magnitude and phase) of this system is determined at very low, low, and medium frequencies from electrometric, rather than radio, measurements. For the ice-sea water system, it is sufficient to determine the conductivity and thickness of a water sample from drilling data.

  15. SONARC: A Sea Ice Monitoring and Forecasting System to Support Safe Operations and Navigation in Arctic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, S. R.; Babiker, M.; Sandven, S.; Muckenhuber, S.; Korosov, A.; Bobylev, L.; Vesman, A.; Mushta, A.; Demchev, D.; Volkov, V.; Smirnov, K.; Hamre, T.

    2015-12-01

    Sea ice monitoring and forecasting systems are important tools for minimizing accident risk and environmental impacts of Arctic maritime operations. Satellite data such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR), combined with atmosphere-ice-ocean forecasting models, navigation models and automatic identification system (AIS) transponder data from ships are essential components of such systems. Here we present first results from the SONARC project (project term: 2015-2017), an international multidisciplinary effort to develop novel and complementary ice monitoring and forecasting systems for vessels and offshore platforms in the Arctic. Automated classification methods (Zakhvatkina et al., 2012) are applied to Sentinel-1 dual-polarization SAR images from the Barents and Kara Sea region to identify ice types (e.g. multi-year ice, level first-year ice, deformed first-year ice, new/young ice, open water) and ridges. Short-term (1-3 days) ice drift forecasts are computed from SAR images using feature tracking and pattern tracking methods (Berg & Eriksson, 2014). Ice classification and drift forecast products are combined with ship positions based on AIS data from a selected period of 3-4 weeks to determine optimal vessel speed and routing in ice. Results illustrate the potential of high-resolution SAR data for near-real-time monitoring and forecasting of Arctic ice conditions. Over the next 3 years, SONARC findings will contribute new knowledge about sea ice in the Arctic while promoting safe and cost-effective shipping, domain awareness, resource management, and environmental protection.

  16. Active Lakes of the Recovery Ice Stream, East Antarctica: A Bedrock-Controlled Subglacial Hydrological System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricker, H. A.; Scambos, T. A.; Bell, R. E.; Carter, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    A connected system of active sub-glacial lakes was revealed beneath the Recovery Ice Stream, East Antarctica by ICESat laser altimetry acquired from 2003 to 2008. Here we combine repeat-track analysis of ICESat (2003-2009), Operation IceBridge laser altimetry and radio-echo sounding (RES; 2011 and 2012), and MODIS image differencing (2009-2011) to learn more about the surface and bedrock topographic setting of the lakes and the constraints on water flow through the system. IceBridge data reveal a ~1500 m deep, ~1000 km long bedrock trough under the main trunk of Recovery Ice Stream. We extend the lake activity time series to 2012 for the three lower lakes using IceBridge data: one lake underwent a large deflation between 2009 and 2011; another lake, which had been continuously filling between 2003 and 2010, started to drain after 2011. Hydrologic connections among the lakes appear to be direct and responsive. We reproduce the lake activity using a simple subglacial water model. The hydrologic system beneath Recovery Ice Stream is controlled by unusually pronounced bedrock topography (and not ice surface topography, as is the case for most Antarctic systems studied to date). We discuss potential causes of non-steady hydrologic behavior in major Antarctic catchments.

  17. Ice Thermal Storage Systems for LWR Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

    2010-06-01

    Availability of enough cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. The issues become more severe due to the new round of nuclear power expansion and global warming. During hot summer days, cooling water leaving a power plant may become too hot to threaten aquatic life so that environmental regulations may force the plant to reduce power output or even temporarily to be shutdown. For new nuclear power plants to be built at areas without enough cooling water, dry cooling can be used to remove waste heat directly into the atmosphere. However, dry cooling will result in much lower thermal efficiency when the weather is hot. One potential solution for the above mentioned issues is to use ice thermal storage systems (ITS) that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses those ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS is suitable for supplemental cooling storage due to its very high energy storage density. ITS also provides a way to shift large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. Some gas turbine plants already use ITS to increase thermal efficiency during peak hours in summer. ITSs have also been widely used for building cooling to save energy cost. Among three cooling methods for LWR applications: once-through, wet cooling tower, and dry cooling tower, once-through cooling plants near a large water body like an ocean or a large lake and wet cooling plants can maintain the designed turbine backpressure (or condensation temperature) during 99% of the time; therefore, adding ITS to those plants will not generate large benefits. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body like a river or a small lake, adding ITS can bring significant economic

  18. Results of a low power ice protection system test and a new method of imaging data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jaiwon; Bond, Thomas H.; Mesander, Geert A.

    1992-01-01

    Tests were conducted on a BF Goodrich De-Icing System's Pneumatic Impulse Ice Protection (PIIP) system in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). Characterization studies were done on shed ice particle size by changing the input pressure and cycling time of the PIIP de-icer. The shed ice particle size was quantified using a newly developed image software package. The tests were conducted on a 1.83 m (6 ft) span, 0.53 m (221 in) chord NACA 0012 airfoil operated at a 4 degree angle of attack. The IRT test conditions were a -6.7 C (20 F) glaze ice, and a -20 C (-4 F) rime ice. The ice shedding events were recorded with a high speed video system. A detailed description of the image processing package and the results generated from this analytical tool are presented.

  19. D/H Fractionation in the Atmosphere-Ground Ice System on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellehøj, M. D.; Johnsen, S. J.; Madsen, M. B.

    2009-03-01

    The solid-vapor fractionation processes of Deuterium/Hydrogen (D/H) in the ground ice-atmosphere system on Mars are investigated through experiments and modeling. Preliminary results mainly from the experimental work are presented.

  20. A study of carburetor/induction system icing in general aviation accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obermayer, R. W.; Roe, W. T.

    1975-01-01

    An assessment of the frequency and severity of carburetor/induction icing in general-aviation accidents was performed. The available literature and accident data from the National Transportation Safety Board were collected. A computer analysis of the accident data was performed. Between 65 and 90 accidents each year involve carburetor/induction system icing as a probable cause/factor. Under conditions conducive to carburetor/induction icing, between 50 and 70 percent of engine malfunction/failure accidents (exclusive of those due to fuel exhaustion) are due to carburetor/induction system icing. Since the evidence of such icing may not remain long after an accident, it is probable that the frequency of occurrence of such accidents is underestimated; therefore, some extrapolation of the data was conducted. The problem of carburetor/induction system icing is particularly acute for pilots with less than 1000 hours of total flying time. The severity of such accidents is about the same as any accident resulting from a forced landing or precautionary landing. About 144 persons, on the average, are exposed to death and injury each year in accidents involving carburetor/induction icing as a probable cause/factor.

  1. Decision Technology Systems: A Vehicle to Consolidate Decision Making Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgionne, Guisseppi A.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of management decision making and the support needed to manage successfully highlights a Decision Technology System (DTS) that integrates other information systems. Topics discussed include computer information systems (CISs); knowledge gateways; the decision-making process; decision support systems (DSS); expert systems; and facility…

  2. A dynamical-systems approach for computing ice-affected streamflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holtschlag, David J.

    1996-01-01

    A dynamical-systems approach was developed and evaluated for computing ice-affected streamflow. The approach provides for dynamic simulation and parameter estimation of site-specific equations relating ice effects to routinely measured environmental variables. Comparison indicates that results from the dynamical-systems approach ranked higher than results from 11 analytical methods previously investigated on the basis of accuracy and feasibility criteria. Additional research will likely lead to further improvements in the approach.

  3. Decision Making and Systems Thinking: Educational Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurtseven, M. Kudret; Buchanan, Walter W.

    2016-01-01

    Decision making in most universities is taught within the conventional OR/MS (Operations Research/Management Science) paradigm. This paradigm is known to be "hard" since it is consisted of mathematical tools, and normally suitable for solving structured problems. In complex situations the conventional OR/MS paradigm proves to be…

  4. The IceCube data acquisition system: Signal capture, digitization,and timestamping

    SciTech Connect

    The IceCube Collaboration; Matis, Howard

    2009-03-02

    IceCube is a km-scale neutrino observatory under construction at the South Pole with sensors both in the deep ice (InIce) and on the surface (IceTop). The sensors, called Digital Optical Modules (DOMs), detect, digitize and timestamp the signals from optical Cherenkov-radiation photons. The DOM Main Board (MB) data acquisition subsystem is connected to the central DAQ in the IceCube Laboratory (ICL) by a single twisted copper wire-pair and transmits packetized data on demand. Time calibration ismaintained throughout the array by regular transmission to the DOMs of precisely timed analog signals, synchronized to a central GPS-disciplined clock. The design goals and consequent features, functional capabilities, and initial performance of the DOM MB, and the operation of a combined array of DOMs as a system, are described here. Experience with the first InIce strings and the IceTop stations indicates that the system design and performance goals have been achieved.

  5. An Approach to Detect and Mitigate Ice Particle Accretion in Aircraft Engine Compression Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Guo, Ten-Huei; Simon, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    The accretion of ice in the compression system of commercial gas turbine engines operating in high ice water content conditions is a safety issue being studied by the aviation sector. While most of the research focuses on the underlying physics of ice accretion and the meteorological conditions in which accretion can occur, a systems-level perspective on the topic lends itself to potential near-term operational improvements. This work focuses on developing an accurate and reliable algorithm for detecting the accretion of ice in the low pressure compressor of a generic 40,000 lbf thrust class engine. The algorithm uses only the two shaft speed sensors and works regardless of engine age, operating condition, and power level. In a 10,000-case Monte Carlo simulation, the detection approach was found to have excellent capability at determining ice accretion from sensor noise with detection occurring when ice blocks an average of 6.8 percent of the low pressure compressor area. Finally, an initial study highlights a potential mitigation strategy that uses the existing engine actuators to raise the temperature in the low pressure compressor in an effort to reduce the rate at which ice accretes.

  6. An Approach to Detect and Mitigate Ice Particle Accretion in Aircraft Engine Compression Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Guo, Ten-Huei; Simon, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    The accretion of ice in the compression system of commercial gas turbine engines operating in high ice water content conditions is a safety issue being studied by the aviation sector. While most of the research focuses on the underlying physics of ice accretion and the meteorological conditions in which accretion can occur, a systems-level perspective on the topic lends itself to potential near-term operational improvements. This work focuses on developing an accurate and reliable algorithm for detecting the accretion of ice in the low pressure compressor of a generic 40,000 lbf thrust class engine. The algorithm uses only the two shaft speed sensors and works regardless of engine age, operating condition, and power level. In a 10,000-case Monte Carlo simulation, the detection approach was found to have excellent capability at determining ice accretion from sensor noise with detection occurring when ice blocks an average of 6.8% of the low pressure compressor area. Finally, an initial study highlights a potential mitigation strategy that uses the existing engine actuators to raise the temperature in the low pressure compressor in an effort to reduce the rate at which ice accretes.

  7. Representation of Sea Ice Processes in State of the Art Earth System Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, D. A.; Holland, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    The majority of Earth System Models now include thermodynamic-dynamic sea ice models with a subgridscale representation of ice thickness. The current sea ice component of the Community Earth System Model is the Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE) version 5. This new version of the model includes prognostic salinity in the vertical thermodynamic calculation as well as a representation of melt pond drainage through the sea ice. The CICE5 also includes a melt pond parameterization that takes into account the deformed and non-deformed ice within a model grid cell. Snow on sea ice processes allow for an evolving effective snow grain radius as a function of temperature, which is used in the shortwave radiative transfer and surface albedo calculation. I will discuss the results from coupled climate model sensitivity simulations that consider the subgridscale representations of some of these processes. This will include analysis of mean state and feedbacks in both the Arctic and Antarctic. Additional discussion will be provided on how we have used observations to guide these efforts.

  8. Analyses and tests for design of an electro-impulse de-icing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumwalt, G. W.; Schrag, R. L.; Bernhart, W. D.; Friedberg, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    De-icing of aircraft by using the electro-magnetic impulse phenomenon was proposed and demonstrated in several European countries. However, it is not available as a developed system due to lack of research on the basic physical mechanisms and necessary design parameters. The de-icing is accomplished by rapidly discharging high voltage capacitors into a wire coil rigidly supported just inside the aircraft skin. Induced eddy currents in the skin create a repulsive force resulting in a hammer-like force which cracks, de-bonds, and expels ice on the skin surface. The promised advantages are very low energy, high reliability of de-icing, and low maintenance. Three years of Electo-Impulse De-icing (EIDI) research is summarized and the analytical studies and results of testing done in the laboratory, in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel, and in flight are presented. If properly designed, EIDI was demonstrated to be an effective and practical ice protection system for small aircraft, turbojet engine inlets, elements of transport aircraft, and shows promise for use on helicopter rotor blades. Included are practical techniques of fabrication of impulse coils and their mountings. The use of EIDI with nonmetallic surface materials is also described.

  9. Libre Systems: Making Data and Software More Available Through Re-usable Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, S.; Lacy, J.; Reed, S.; Truslove, I.; Lopez, L.; McNulty, M.; Wu, H.; Duerr, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    With the amount of stored data increasing at an exponential rate, it is becoming increasingly important for scientists and data managers to find effective ways to allow users to discover and use data effectively. Sharing software tools to assist in this effort is also becoming more vital in making this a reality. The National Snow and Ice Data Center's Libre project is solving this by creating a system of components including an aggregator, which will allow users to find data and services matching specified criteria more easily. While making it flexible enough to ingest metadata from various sources is important, it is also important to make the concepts and actual software components available to others who wish to make their data and services more discoverable and accessible. The Libre system is designed to make this a reality, by componentizing the underlying mechanisms and thus allowing the pieces to be shared and reused by those who need them. These components can then be tailored to meet specific needs, allowing the individual data providers to avoid wasteful duplication of effort, and focus more on making their data available to the world. This componentization would also allow the data providers to replace specific pieces with other software if desired, while still preserving the overall functionality of the system. When finished, the various components of the Libre system will be released to the open source community, facilitating the easy inclusion and modification of the system, and allowing users to discover data and services more easily.

  10. CIR Casting System for making transtibial sockets.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yeongchi; Casanova, Hector R; Reisinger, Kim D; Smith, William K; Childress, Dudley S

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes a new casting system for transtibial socket fabrication. Like the earlier CIR Sand Casting System, the CIR Casting System is based on the 'dilatancy' principle that is similar to the packaging process for coffee beans by which loose beans become a solid mass when a vacuum is applied. The main difference from the CIR Sand Casting System is that the CIR Casting System uses light-weight, polystyrene beads in place of silica sand as the primary material for casting the negative mold. The formed negative mold can be converted into a positive sand model for modification and socket formation. With the new plaster-less casting system, the prosthetist can fabricate a transtibial prosthesis in about one hour. It reduces the set-up cost, overall weight and size of the casting system, and increases portability for service in remote areas. The System also creates minimal waste and is energy-conserving and environmentally-friendly. PMID:19235060

  11. Making policy and procedure systems work effectively.

    PubMed

    Virani, T

    1996-01-01

    Policy and procedure manuals can be cumbersome to keep current and updated. One approach to meet this challenge is by implementing a decentralized system to develop, review, revise and approve policies and procedures. Mechanisms to operationalize such a system involve sharing of responsibility and accountability of specified policies and procedures by various existing committees and development of coordinating systems and support mechanisms. Other key attributes of a decentralized system included collaboration and extensive communication strategies. PMID:8695607

  12. Studies of Ice Nucleating Aerosol Particles in Arctic Cloud Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, David C.; DeMott, Paul J.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.

    2001-01-01

    The focus of this research is to improve the understanding of ice nucleating aerosol particles (IN) and the role they play in ice formation in Arctic clouds. IN are important for global climate issues in a variety of ways. The primary effect is their role in determining the phase (liquid or solid) of cloud particles. The microscale impact is on cloud particle size, growth rate, shape, fall speed, concentration, radiative properties, and scavenging of gases and aerosols. On a larger scale, ice formation affects the development of precipitation (rate, amount, type, and distribution), latent heat release (rate and altitude), ambient humidity, the persistence of clouds, and cloud albedo. The overall goals of our FIRE 3 research are to characterize the concentrations and variability of Arctic IN during the winter-spring transition, to compare IN measurements with ice concentrations in Arctic clouds, and to examine selected IN samples for particle morphology and chemical there are distinguishable chemical signatures. The results can be combined with other measurements of aerosols, gaseous species, and cloud characteristics in order to understand the processes that determine the phase and concentration of cloud particles.

  13. 14 CFR 27.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... carburetors has a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 90 degrees F.; (2) Each rotorcraft with sea level... has a preheater capable of providing a heat rise of 120 degrees F.; and (4) Each rotorcraft with altitude engines using carburetors tending to prevent icing has a preheater that can provide a heat rise...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... using— (1) Conventional venturi carburetors have a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 120 F. with... probability of ice formation has a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 100 °F. with the engine at 60... protection at its critical condition, without adverse effect, in an atmosphere that is at a...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... using— (1) Conventional venturi carburetors have a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 120 F. with... probability of ice formation has a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 100 °F. with the engine at 60... protection at its critical condition, without adverse effect, in an atmosphere that is at a...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... carburetors has a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 90 °F.; (2) Each rotorcraft with sea level engines using carburetors tending to prevent icing has a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 70 °F.; (3... provide a heat rise of 120 °F.; and (4) Each rotorcraft with altitude engines using carburetors tending...

  17. 14 CFR 27.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... carburetors has a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 90 degrees F.; (2) Each rotorcraft with sea level... has a preheater capable of providing a heat rise of 120 degrees F.; and (4) Each rotorcraft with altitude engines using carburetors tending to prevent icing has a preheater that can provide a heat rise...

  18. 14 CFR 29.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... carburetors has a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 90 °F.; (2) Each rotorcraft with sea level engines using carburetors tending to prevent icing has a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 70 °F.; (3... provide a heat rise of 120 °F.; and (4) Each rotorcraft with altitude engines using carburetors tending...

  19. Ice-ocean-atmosphere coupling in the Regional Arctic System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, A.; Brunke, M.; Cassano, J. J.; Craig, A.; Duvivier, A.; Hughes, M.; Maslowski, W.; Nijssen, B.; Osinski, R.

    2013-12-01

    This work demonstrates the sea ice model performance in the latest version of the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM), which is a fully coupled regional climate model developed by a group of U.S. institutions as a regional counterpart to the Community Earth System Model (CESM). RASM is comprised of the Parallel Ocean Program (POP), Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE), Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. It uses the same coupling infrastructure as CESM, with important physics differences that we have found to be important in our high-resolution model. Model evaluations using SSM/I sea ice extent and concentration, ICESat sea ice thickness measurements, ice-ocean buoys, and satellite retrievals of sea ice drift and deformation, lead us to adjust the standard CESM Monin-Obukhov ice-ocean-atmospheric coupling and ice-ocean stress term used for coupling with POP-CICE at eddy-permitting resolution of 1/12 degree with the 50km resolution WRF and VIC models. Evaluation metrics based on scaling laws and wavelet techniques illustrate that 20-minute coupling produces deformation and drift statistics commensurate with high temporal and spatial resolution measurements. However, dynamical interactions are compromised when typical radiative settings are used as in stand-alone POP-CICE and WRF. This highlights the limitations of surface polar boundary conditions in stand-alone models relative to fully coupled interactions. Our results suggest that use of uncoupled models as testbeds for improved polar components of next-generation global Earth System Models may introduce biases into fully coupled systems, and these can be reduced using a regional coupled climate system model, such as RASM, as a testbed instead.

  20. Balance Mass Flux and Velocity Across the Equilibrium Line in Ice Drainage Systems of Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Giovinetto, Mario B.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Estimates of balance mass flux and the depth-averaged ice velocity through the cross-section aligned with the equilibrium line are produced for each of six drainage systems in Greenland. (The equilibrium line, which lies at approximately 1200 m elevation on the ice sheet, is the boundary between the area of net snow accumulation at higher elevations and the areas of net melting at lower elevations around the ice sheet.) Ice drainage divides and six major drainage systems are delineated using surface topography from ERS (European Remote Sensing) radar altimeter data. The net accumulation rate in the accumulation zone bounded by the equilibrium line is 399 Gt/yr and net ablation rate in the remaining area is 231 Gt/yr. (1 GigaTon of ice is 1090 kM(exp 3). The mean balance mass flux and depth-averaged ice velocity at the cross-section aligned with the modeled equilibrium line are 0.1011 Gt kM(exp -2)/yr and 0.111 km/yr, respectively, with little variation in these values from system to system. The ratio of the ice mass above the equilibrium line to the rate of mass output implies an effective exchange time of approximately 6000 years for total mass exchange. The range of exchange times, from a low of 3 ka in the SE drainage system to 14 ka in the NE, suggests a rank as to which regions of the ice sheet may respond more rapidly to climate fluctuations.

  1. Passenger comfort technology for system decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    Decisions requiring passenger comfort technology were shown to depend on: the relationship between comfort and other factors (e.g., cost, urgency, alternate modes) in traveler acceptance of the systems, serving a selected market require technology to quantify effects of comfort versus offsetting factors in system acceptance. Public predict the maximum percentage of travelers who willingly accept the overall comfort of any trip ride. One or the other of these technology requirements apply to decisions on system design, operation and maintenance.

  2. Quantum criticality and fractional charge excitations in itinerant ice-rule systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udagawa, Masafumi; Ishizuka, Hiroaki; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2013-03-01

    ``Ice rule'' is a configurational constraint on Ising-type variables defined on tetrahedron-based lattices, such as a pyrochlore lattice, so that two out of the four sites on a tetrahedron are in the opposite state to the other two. This concept plays an important role in many systems, such as water ice Ih, magnetite Fe3O4, and spin ice materials Ho(Dy)2Ti2O7. Under the ice-rule constraint, the ground state is disordered and retains macroscopic degeneracy. Nevertheless, the ice-rule configuration is not completely random but has a peculiar spatial structure with quasi-long-range correlation. It is interesting to ask how itinerant electrons change their properties by coupling to this anomalous spatial structure. To answer this problem, we adopt an extended Falicov-Kimball model as a minimal model, in which itinerant electrons interact with localized charge degrees of freedom under the ice rule. We exactly solve this model on a loop-less variant of the tetrahedron-based lattices, a tetrahedron Husimi cactus and clarify the ground-state phase diagram. The exact solution reveals a quantum critical point separating two insulating phases, where a novel non-Fermi-liquid behavior emerges. We also discuss the nature of fractional excitations breaking the ice-rule manifold.

  3. A comparison of ice VII formed in the H2O, NaCl-H2O, and CH3OH-H2O systems: Implications for H2O-rich planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Mark R.; Aarestad, Elizabeth; Scott, Henry P.; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2013-02-01

    High-pressure H2O polymorphs, namely ice VI, ice VII, and ice X, are hypothesized to make up a considerable portion of the interiors of large icy satellites and select extra-solar planets. The incorporation of foreign ions or molecules into these high-pressure phases is possible through ocean-ice interaction, rock-ice interaction at depth, or processes that occurred during accretion. Recent research concerning the effects charged ions have on ice VII has shown that these ions notably affect the structure of ice VII (Frank et al., 2006; Klotz et al., 2009). This study was designed to determine the effects of a molecular impurity on ice VII and compare those effects to both pure H2O ice and ice with an ionic impurity. Ice samples were formed in this study via compression in a diamond anvil cell from either H2O, a 1.60 mol% NaCl aqueous solution, a 1.60 mol% CH3OH aqueous solution, or a 5.00 mol% CH3OH aqueous solution and were compressed up to 71 GPa at room temperature. Ice formed from pure H2O had no impurities whereas ices formed in the NaCl-H2O and CH3OH-H2O systems contained the impurities Na+ and Cl- and CH3OH, respectively. Pressure-volume relations were observed in situ by using synchrotron based X-ray diffraction and were used to determine the equations of state for ices formed in the H2O, NaCl-H2O and CH3OH-H2O systems. The data illustrate that ice VII formed from a NaCl-bearing aqueous solution exhibited a depressed volume when compared to that of H2O-only ice VII at any given pressure, whereas ice VII formed from CH3OH-bearing aqueous solutions showed an opposite trend, with an increase in volume relative to that of pure ice VII. The ices within planetary bodies will most likely have both ionic and molecular impurities and the trends outlined in this study can be used to improve density profiles of H2O-rich planetary bodies.

  4. Long-term observing system for the oceanic regime of Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Østerhus, Svein; Schröder, Michael; Hellmer, Hartmunt; Darelius, Elin; Nicholls, Keith; Makinson, Keith

    2014-05-01

    Long term observations of the flow of dense waters from their area of formation to the abyss of the World Ocean, and the return flow of warm waters, are central to climate research. For the Weddell Sea an important component of such a system entails monitoring the formation of High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW) on the continental shelf north of Ronne Ice Front, the transformation to Ice Shelf Water (ISW) beneath the floating Filchner-Ronne ice shelf, and the flux of ISW overflowing the shelf break to the deep Weddell Sea. Equally important is the return flow of warm water toward the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf system. AWI, BAS and UNI/UIB operate a number of monitoring stations in the southern Weddell Sea. The systems build upon techniques and methods developed over several decades and have a proven record of high data return. Here we present plans for extending, integrating and operating the existing long term observatories to increase our knowledge of the natural variability of the ocean-ice shelf system, and to allow early identification of possible changes of regional or global importance. The S2 observatory at the Filchner sill was established in 1977 and continues to deliver the longest existing marine time series from Antarctica. As a key site for monitoring the ISW overflow S2 is a part of the global net of monitoring sites under CLIVAR Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS) and OceanSITES. The existing S2 observatory consists of a sub-surface mooring carrying sensors for current velocity, temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen measurements. Observations at the Filchner sill also show a seasonal inflow of relatively warm water that is able to reach Filchner Ice Front. New model results indicate that this flow of water might increase in the future and we have deployed a number of instrumented moorings in the Filchner Depression to estimate the heat flux towards the ice shelf. In 1999 we established Site 5 on Ronne Ice Shelf using a hot-water drill to access

  5. Influence of Sea Ice on Arctic Marine Sulfur Biogeochemistry in the Community Climate System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, Clara; Jin, Meibing

    2013-06-30

    Global climate models (GCMs) have not effectively considered how responses of arctic marine ecosystems to a warming climate will influence the global climate system. A key response of arctic marine ecosystems that may substantially influence energy exchange in the Arctic is a change in dimethylsulfide (DMS) emissions, because DMS emissions influence cloud albedo. This response is closely tied to sea ice through its impacts on marine ecosystem carbon and sulfur cycling, and the ice-albedo feedback implicated in accelerated arctic warming. To reduce the uncertainty in predictions from coupled climate simulations, important model components of the climate system, such as feedbacks between arctic marine biogeochemistry and climate, need to be reasonably and realistically modeled. This research first involved model development to improve the representation of marine sulfur biogeochemistry simulations to understand/diagnose the control of sea-ice-related processes on the variability of DMS dynamics. This study will help build GCM predictions that quantify the relative current and possible future influences of arctic marine ecosystems on the global climate system. Our overall research objective was to improve arctic marine biogeochemistry in the Community Climate System Model (CCSM, now CESM). Working closely with the Climate Ocean Sea Ice Model (COSIM) team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), we added 1 sea-ice algae and arctic DMS production and related biogeochemistry to the global Parallel Ocean Program model (POP) coupled to the LANL sea ice model (CICE). Both CICE and POP are core components of CESM. Our specific research objectives were: 1) Develop a state-of-the-art ice-ocean DMS model for application in climate models, using observations to constrain the most crucial parameters; 2) Improve the global marine sulfur model used in CESM by including DMS biogeochemistry in the Arctic; and 3) Assess how sea ice influences DMS dynamics in the arctic marine

  6. JBluIce-EPICS: a fast and flexible open-source beamline control system for macromolecular crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, S.; Hilgart, M.; Makarov, O.; Pothineni, S. B.; Yoder, D.; Ogata, C.; Sanishvili, R.; Venugopalan, N.; Becker, M.; Clift, M.; Smith, J. L.; Fischetti, R. F.

    2013-03-01

    This paper overviews recent advances in the JBluIce-EPICS open-source control system designed at the macromolecular crystallography beamlines of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences and National Cancer Institute at the Advanced Photon Source (GM/CA@APS). We discuss some technical highlights of this system distinguishing it from the competition, such as reduction of software layers to only two, possibility to operate JBluIce in parallel with other beamline controls, plugin-enabled architecture where the plugins can be written in any programming language, and utilization of the whole power of the Java integrated development environment in the Graphical User Interface. Then, we demonstrate how these highlights help to make JBluIce fast, easily adaptable to new beamline developments, and intuitive for users. In particular, we discuss several recent additions to the system including a bridge between crystal rastering and data collection, automatic detection of raster polygons from optical crystal centering, background data processing, and a pathway to a fully automated pipeline from crystal screening to solving crystal structure.

  7. Experimental investigation on performance of ice storage air-conditioning system with separate heat pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Guiyin; Liu, Xu; Wu, Shuangmao

    2009-11-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of ice storage air-conditioning system with separate helical heat pipe is conducted in this paper. The experimental system of ice storage air-conditioning system with separate heat pipe is set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure and the condensation pressure of refrigeration system, the refrigeration capacity and the COP (coefficient of performance) of the system, the IPF (ice packing factor) and the cool storage capacity in the cool storage tank during charging period, and the cool discharge rate and the cool discharge capacity in the cool storage tank, the outlet water temperature in the cool storage tank and the outlet air temperature in room unit during discharging period are investigated. The experimental results show that the ice storage air-conditioning system with separate helical heat pipe can stably work during charging and discharging period. This indicates that the ice storage air-conditioning system with separate helical heat pipe is well adapted to cool storage air-conditioning systems in building. (author)

  8. Young Solar System in the Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger annotated version

    This artist's diagram compares the Epsilon Eridani system to our own solar system. The two systems are structured similarly, and both host asteroids (brown), comets (blue) and planets (white dots).

    Epsilon Eridani is our closest known planetary system, located about 10 light-years away in the constellation Eridanus. Its central star is a younger, fainter version of our sun, and is about 800 million years old about the same age of our solar system when life first took root on Earth.

    Observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope show that the system hosts two asteroid belts, in addition to previously identified candidate planets and an outer comet ring.

    Epsilon Eridani's inner asteroid belt is located at about the same position as ours, approximately three astronomical units from its star (an astronomical unit is the distance between Earth and the sun.). The system's second, denser belt lies at about the same place where Uranus orbits in our solar system, or 20 astronomical units from the star.

    In the same way that Jupiter lies just outside our asteroid belt, shepherding its rocky debris into a ring, Epsilon Eridani is thought to have planets orbiting near the rims of its two belts. The first of these planets was identified in 2000 via the radial velocity technique. Called Epsilon Eridani b, it orbits at an average distance of 3.4 astronomical units placing it just outside the system's inner asteroid belt.

    The second planet orbiting near the rim of the outer asteroid belt at 20 astronomical units was inferred when Spitzer discovered the belt.

    A third planet might orbit in Epsilon Eridani at the inner edge of its outermost comet ring, which lies between 35 and 90 astronomical units. This planet was first hinted at in 1998 due to observed lumpiness in the comet ring.

    The outer comet ring around Epsilon Eridani is denser than our

  9. Decision-making in healthcare as a complex adaptive system.

    PubMed

    Kuziemsky, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare transformation requires a change in how the business of healthcare is done. Traditional decision-making approaches based on stable and predictable systems are inappropriate in healthcare because of the complex nature of healthcare delivery. This article reviews challenges to using traditional decision-making approaches in healthcare and how insight from Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) could support healthcare management. The article also provides a system model to guide decision-making in healthcare as a CAS. PMID:26656389

  10. What makes closed ecological systems sustainable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitelson, I.; Degermendzhy, A.; Rodicheva, E.

    A closed ecosystem has some properties that an open systems lacks. Let us consider the ones that increase the sustainability of an ecosystem. The common feature of biological and physicochemical life support systems is that basically they are both catalytic. There are two fundamental properties distinguishing biological systems: 1) they are auto-catalytic: their catalysts - enzymes of protein nature - are continuously reproduced when the system functions; 2) the program of every process performed by enzymes and the program of their reproduction are inherent in the biological system itself - in the totality of genomes of the species involved in the functioning of the ecosystem. Actually, one cell with the genome capable of the phenotypic realization is enough for the self- restoration of the function performed by the cells of this species in the ecosystem. The multi-cellular organisms with stem cells are constantly ready to repair themselves by intensifying the continuous process of regeneration. We (Gitelson) have made a quantitative investigation of this process by studying the regeneration and reparation of erythrocytes in mammals. The continuous microalgal culture of Chlorella vulgaris was taken to investigate quantitatively the similar functional process of self-restoration in unicellular algae (Rodicheva). Based on the data obtained, we proposed a mathematical model of the restoration process in the cell population that has suffered an acute radiation damage. Besides these general biological mechanisms responsible for their sustainability, closed systems also possess specific features enhancing their stability. They are as follows: 1. Nutrients cannot leave the system. 2. The metabolic pathways of the material cycling are closed. 3. The rates of interlink metabolism are in conformity with each other due to their mutual limitation. We present the data obtained in the Bios-3 experiments that prove the efficiency of this mechanism as a factor of the

  11. Crystallization of amorphous water ice in the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Blake, D. F.

    1996-01-01

    Electron diffraction studies of vapor-deposited water ice have characterized the dynamical structural changes during crystallization that affect volatile retention in cometary materials. Crystallization is found to occur by nucleation of small domains, while leaving a significant part of the amorphous material in a slightly more relaxed amorphous state that coexists metastably with cubic crystalline ice. The onset of the amorphous relaxation is prior to crystallization and coincides with the glass transition. Above the glass transition temperature, the crystallization kinetics are consistent with the amorphous solid becoming a "strong" viscous liquid. The amorphous component can effectively retain volatiles during crystallization if the volatile concentration is approximately 10% or less. For higher initial impurity concentrations, a significant amount of impurities is released during crystallization, probably because the impurities are trapped on the surfaces of micropores. A model for crystallization over long timescales is described that can be applied to a wide range of impure water ices under typical astrophysical conditions if the fragility factor D, which describes the viscosity behavior, can be estimated.

  12. Rapid Access Ice Drill: A New Tool for Exploration of the Deep Antarctic Ice Sheets and Subglacial Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodge, J. W.; Severinghaus, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Rapid Access Ice Drill (RAID) will penetrate the Antarctic ice sheets in order to core through deep ice, the glacial bed, and into bedrock below. This new technology will provide a critical first look at the interface between major ice caps and their subglacial geology. Currently in construction, RAID is a mobile drilling system capable of making several long boreholes in a single field season in Antarctica. RAID is interdisciplinary and will allow access to polar paleoclimate records in ice >1 Ma, direct observation at the base of the ice sheets, and recovery of rock cores from the ice-covered East Antarctic craton. RAID uses a diamond rock-coring system as in mineral exploration. Threaded drill-pipe with hardened metal bits will cut through ice using reverse circulation of Estisol for pressure-compensation, maintenance of temperature, and removal of ice cuttings. Near the bottom of the ice sheet, a wireline bottom-hole assembly will enable diamond coring of ice, the glacial bed, and bedrock below. Once complete, boreholes will be kept open with fluid, capped, and made available for future down-hole measurement of thermal gradient, heat flow, ice chronology, and ice deformation. RAID will also sample for extremophile microorganisms. RAID is designed to penetrate up to 3,300 meters of ice and take sample cores in less than 200 hours. This rapid performance will allow completion of a borehole in about 10 days before moving to the next drilling site. RAID is unique because it can provide fast borehole access through thick ice; take short ice cores for paleoclimate study; sample the glacial bed to determine ice-flow conditions; take cores of subglacial bedrock for age dating and crustal history; and create boreholes for use as an observatory in the ice sheets. Together, the rapid drilling capability and mobility of the drilling system, along with ice-penetrating imaging methods, will provide a unique 3D picture of the interior Antarctic ice sheets.

  13. An Instructional System for Consumer Decision-Making: Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suchman, J. Richard; DiSario, Martha R.

    An instructional system is presented for building the competencies of adult basic education students in making consumer decisions, and offers a guide to teachers who wish to design their own decision-making problems for students. The first four chapters provide a brief introduction, discuss the rational consumer decision-making process and the…

  14. Methods of validating the Advanced Diagnosis and Warning system for aircraft ICing Environments (ADWICE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosczyk, S.; Hauf, T.; Leifeld, C.

    2003-04-01

    In-flight icing is one of the most hazardous problems in aviation. It was determined as contributing factor in more than 800 incidents worldwide. And though the meteorological factors of airframe icing become more and more transparent, they have to be integrated into the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) certification rules first. Therefore best way to enhance aviational safety is to know the areas of dangerous icing conditions in order to prevent flying in them. For this reason the German Weather Service (DWD), the Institute for Atmospheric Physics at the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) and the Institute of Meteorology and Climatology (ImuK) of the University of Hanover started developingADWICE - theAdvanced Diagnosis and Warning system for aircraft ICing Environments - in 1998. This algorithm is based on the DWDLocal Model (LM) forecast of temperature and humidity, in fusion with radar and synop and, coming soon, satellite data. It gives an every-hour nowcast of icing severity and type - divided into four categories: freezing rain, convective, stratiform and general - for the middle European area. A first validation of ADWICE took place in 1999 with observational data from an in-flight icing campaign during EURICE in 1997. The momentary validation deals with a broader database. As first step the output from ADWICE is compared to observations from pilots (PIREPs) to get a statistic of the probability of detecting icing and either no-icing conditions within the last icing-seasons. There were good results of this method with the AmericanIntegrated Icing Diagnostic Algorithm (IIDA). A problem though is the small number of PIREPs from Europe in comparison to the US. So a temporary campaign of pilots (including Lufthansa and Aerolloyd) collecting cloud and icing information every few miles is intended to solve this unpleasant situation. Another source of data are the measurements of theFalcon - a DLR research aircraft carrying an icing sensor. In addition to that

  15. Design and deployment of a stationary ice-penetrating radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, G. E.; Mingo, L.; Saint-Jacques, D.

    2015-12-01

    Ice-penetrating radar (IPR) is a popular tool in glaciology, used most commonly for mapping ice depth. Dielectric contrasts between englacial materials, including ice, water, and impurities, allow the detection of internal stratigraphy and some characterization of englacial properties. Here we describe the design and the 2014-2015 deployments of an autonomous stationary ice-penetrating radar system that was tested on a large outlet glacier of the Icefield Ranges of southwest Yukon, Canada. The radar system was deployed within a kilometer of an ice-marginal lake that is dammed by the Kaskawulsh Glacier and drains annually in a subglacial jökulhlaup. It was programmed to perform a series of soundings every few hours and was left unattended over the course of 6 weeks in 2014 and 7 weeks in 2015, while the lake level was monitored with a pressure transducer and time-lapse imagery. The 2014 dataset is characterized by a marked decrease in englacial reflector strength and coherence during the drainage of the ice-dammed lake. We interpret these data as a significant change in englacial saturation associated with the flood. The 2015 dataset post-dates the flood and provides an opportunity to examine more subtle changes in englacial and subglacial properties. Radar mapping in the vicinity of the deployment locations provides context for the time-dependent measurements, also showing significant differences before and after lake drainage.

  16. A Regional Coupled Model System to Examine Ocean-Atmosphere-Sea Ice, Ice Sheet and Permafrost Interactions in the Arctic: HIRHAM5 - HYCOM - CICE - PISM - GIPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, J. H.; Mottram, R.; Langen, P. L.; Madsen, K. S.; Stendel, M.; Rodehacke, C. B.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Marchenko, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    We introduce a high resolution fully coupled regional model system that describes ocean, atmosphere and sea ice processes in the Arctic Ocean and North Atlantic and treats atmosphere / ocean / ice sheet interactions as well as land and sub-sea permafrost processes in an advanced semi-coupled form. The system has been developed using five existing model components: the high resolution regional climate model HIRHAM5, the regional ocean model HYCOM and the CICE model that describes sea ice dynamics, the PISM ice sheet model and the GIPL permafrost model. These models have been interactively coupled which enables us to perform experiments examining the relative importance of ocean and atmospheric forcing as well as internal dynamics, to explain the recent rapid decline of Arctic sea ice, recent changes in the Greenland ice sheet mass balance together with both land and sub-sea permafrost conditions. Analysis of the model results indicates the model can successfully reproduce the interannual and seasonal variability in sea ice extent, describe recent changes in the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance as well as permafrost conditions around Greenland and possibly under the Arctic Ocean sea floor. This opens up the possibility of a range of process based experiments as well as simulations to project the future and study the past of Arctic sea ice that we plan to run using the EC-Earth GCM as boundary forcing. Examples, focusing on various coupling issues will be presented and the need for further refinements will be assessed by highlighting processes that appear to be essential to the interactions and hence possibly important at climate scales.

  17. Thermodynamics of the formaldehyde-water and formaldehyde-ice systems for atmospheric applications.

    PubMed

    Barret, Manuel; Houdier, Stephan; Domine, Florent

    2011-01-27

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a species involved in numerous key atmospheric chemistry processes that can significantly impact the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. Since gaseous HCHO is soluble in water, the water droplets of clouds and the ice crystals of snow exchange HCHO with the gas phase and the partitioning of HCHO between the air, water, and ice phases must be known to understand its chemistry. This study proposes thermodynamic formulations for the partitioning of HCHO between the gas phase and the ice and liquid water phases. A reanalysis of existing data on the vapor-liquid equilibrium has shown the inadequacy of the Henry's law formulation, and we instead propose the following equation to predict the mole fraction of HCHO in liquid water at equilibrium, X(HCHO,liq), as a function of the partial pressure P(HCHO) (Pa) and temperature T (K): X(HCHO,liq) = 1.700 × 10(-15) e((8014/T))(P(HCHO))(1.105). Given the paucity of data on the gas-ice equilibrium, the solubility of HCHO and the diffusion coefficient (D(HCHO)) in ice were measured by exposing large single ice crystals to low P(HCHO). Our recommended value for D(HCHO) over the temperature range 243-266 K is D(HCHO) = 6 × 10(-12) cm(2) s(-1). The solubility of HCHO in ice follows the relationship X(HCHO,ice) = 9.898 × 10(-13) e((4072/T))(P(HCHO))(0.803). Extrapolation of these data yields the P(HCHO) versus 1/T phase diagram for the H(2)O-HCHO system. The comparison of our results to existing data on the partitioning of HCHO between the snow and the atmosphere in the high arctic highlights the interplay between thermodynamic equilibrium and kinetics processes in natural systems. PMID:21171657

  18. Tightly integrated single- and multi-crystal data collection strategy calculation and parallelized data processing in JBluIce beamline control system

    PubMed Central

    Pothineni, Sudhir Babu; Venugopalan, Nagarajan; Ogata, Craig M.; Hilgart, Mark C.; Stepanov, Sergey; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Becker, Michael; Winter, Graeme; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Smith, Janet L.; Fischetti, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    The calculation of single- and multi-crystal data collection strategies and a data processing pipeline have been tightly integrated into the macromolecular crystallographic data acquisition and beamline control software JBluIce. Both tasks employ wrapper scripts around existing crystallographic software. JBluIce executes scripts through a distributed resource management system to make efficient use of all available computing resources through parallel processing. The JBluIce single-crystal data collection strategy feature uses a choice of strategy programs to help users rank sample crystals and collect data. The strategy results can be conveniently exported to a data collection run. The JBluIce multi-crystal strategy feature calculates a collection strategy to optimize coverage of reciprocal space in cases where incomplete data are available from previous samples. The JBluIce data processing runs simultaneously with data collection using a choice of data reduction wrappers for integration and scaling of newly collected data, with an option for merging with pre-existing data. Data are processed separately if collected from multiple sites on a crystal or from multiple crystals, then scaled and merged. Results from all strategy and processing calculations are displayed in relevant tabs of JBluIce. PMID:25484844

  19. Tightly integrated single- and multi-crystal data collection strategy calculation and parallelized data processing in JBluIce beamline control system.

    PubMed

    Pothineni, Sudhir Babu; Venugopalan, Nagarajan; Ogata, Craig M; Hilgart, Mark C; Stepanov, Sergey; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Becker, Michael; Winter, Graeme; Sauter, Nicholas K; Smith, Janet L; Fischetti, Robert F

    2014-12-01

    The calculation of single- and multi-crystal data collection strategies and a data processing pipeline have been tightly integrated into the macromolecular crystallographic data acquisition and beamline control software JBluIce. Both tasks employ wrapper scripts around existing crystallographic software. JBluIce executes scripts through a distributed resource management system to make efficient use of all available computing resources through parallel processing. The JBluIce single-crystal data collection strategy feature uses a choice of strategy programs to help users rank sample crystals and collect data. The strategy results can be conveniently exported to a data collection run. The JBluIce multi-crystal strategy feature calculates a collection strategy to optimize coverage of reciprocal space in cases where incomplete data are available from previous samples. The JBluIce data processing runs simultaneously with data collection using a choice of data reduction wrappers for integration and scaling of newly collected data, with an option for merging with pre-existing data. Data are processed separately if collected from multiple sites on a crystal or from multiple crystals, then scaled and merged. Results from all strategy and processing calculations are displayed in relevant tabs of JBluIce. PMID:25484844

  20. Tightly integrated single- and multi-crystal data collection strategy calculation and parallelized data processing in JBluIce beamline control system

    SciTech Connect

    Pothineni, Sudhir Babu; Venugopalan, Nagarajan; Ogata, Craig M.; Hilgart, Mark C.; Stepanov, Sergey; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Becker, Michael; Winter, Graeme; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Smith, Janet L.; Fischetti, Robert F.

    2014-11-18

    The calculation of single- and multi-crystal data collection strategies and a data processing pipeline have been tightly integrated into the macromolecular crystallographic data acquisition and beamline control software JBluIce. Both tasks employ wrapper scripts around existing crystallographic software. JBluIce executes scripts through a distributed resource management system to make efficient use of all available computing resources through parallel processing. The JBluIce single-crystal data collection strategy feature uses a choice of strategy programs to help users rank sample crystals and collect data. The strategy results can be conveniently exported to a data collection run. The JBluIce multi-crystal strategy feature calculates a collection strategy to optimize coverage of reciprocal space in cases where incomplete data are available from previous samples. The JBluIce data processing runs simultaneously with data collection using a choice of data reduction wrappers for integration and scaling of newly collected data, with an option for merging with pre-existing data. Data are processed separately if collected from multiple sites on a crystal or from multiple crystals, then scaled and merged. Results from all strategy and processing calculations are displayed in relevant tabs of JBluIce.

  1. Tightly integrated single- and multi-crystal data collection strategy calculation and parallelized data processing in JBluIce beamline control system

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pothineni, Sudhir Babu; Venugopalan, Nagarajan; Ogata, Craig M.; Hilgart, Mark C.; Stepanov, Sergey; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Becker, Michael; Winter, Graeme; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Smith, Janet L.; et al

    2014-11-18

    The calculation of single- and multi-crystal data collection strategies and a data processing pipeline have been tightly integrated into the macromolecular crystallographic data acquisition and beamline control software JBluIce. Both tasks employ wrapper scripts around existing crystallographic software. JBluIce executes scripts through a distributed resource management system to make efficient use of all available computing resources through parallel processing. The JBluIce single-crystal data collection strategy feature uses a choice of strategy programs to help users rank sample crystals and collect data. The strategy results can be conveniently exported to a data collection run. The JBluIce multi-crystal strategy feature calculates amore » collection strategy to optimize coverage of reciprocal space in cases where incomplete data are available from previous samples. The JBluIce data processing runs simultaneously with data collection using a choice of data reduction wrappers for integration and scaling of newly collected data, with an option for merging with pre-existing data. Data are processed separately if collected from multiple sites on a crystal or from multiple crystals, then scaled and merged. Results from all strategy and processing calculations are displayed in relevant tabs of JBluIce.« less

  2. An Investigation of a Thermal Ice-Prevention System for a Twin-Engine Transport Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Alun R

    1946-01-01

    Several previously published reports on a comprehensive investigation of a thermal ice-prevention system for a typical twin-engine transport airplane are correlated with some unpublished data to present the entire investigation in one publication. Several previously published reports on a comprehensive investigation of a thermal ice-prevention system for a typical twin-engine transport airplane are correlated with some unpublished data to present the entire investigation in one publication. The thermal system investigated was based upon the transfer of heat from the engine exhaust gas to air, which is then caused to flow along the inner surface of any portion of the airplane for which protection is desired.

  3. Measurements of the isotopic composition of ice and vapor above a tropical convective system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, A.; Hanisco, T. F.; Sayres, D. S.; St Clair, J.; Smith, J. B.; Weinstock, E. M.; Anderson, J.

    2011-12-01

    We present observations of the isotopic composition of condensed and vapor water in the lower tropical tropopause layer (TTL) above a large summertime tropical convective system obtained by the Hoxotope and ICOS isotope instruments flown on the NASA WB-57 during TC4. A simple ice isotopic physics model is used in conjunction with our observational data to determine the origin of the condensed phase encountered above the cloud top. Regions of ice that are characteristic of both convective lofting, where the ice is isotopically heavier than the surroundings, and in situ condensation, where the ice shows little difference in isotopic composition with respect to the vapor, are encountered above the convective cell with convective lofting being the dominant mechanism by which water is transported to this altitude. While ice lofting is an important component of water transport models in the TTL, the isotopic composition of ice has been a relatively unconstrained parameter. Observations of condensed isotopes coupled with the vertical profile of vapor in the summertime TTL suggests that there is a seasonal variation in convective timescales that needs to be accounted for in convectively-influenced trajectory models describing the transport of water in the TTL.

  4. Analysis of ice crystals occuring in the upper high levels of tropical mesoscale convective systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delplanque, Alexandre

    2015-04-01

    In 2010 several test flights were performed in tropical marine meso-scale convective systems at flight levels between 10.5 and 10.8 km. Ice crystals were observed with a high speed CDD camera (image pixel resolution: 15 μ m, time resolution 0.007 s) hereafter called the Airbus nephelometer. In-cloud observations were not restricted to the stratiform regions of the MCS but also convective cores were intensely sampled. High number concentrations of ice crystals (N > 1000 L-1) and IWC of more than 4 g.m-3 could be observed. The main objective of our study is the retrieval of the ice water mass from ice particle number distribution and crystal habits, both observed by the Airbus nephelometer. The shape of ice particles was supposed to correspond to the form of oblate spheroids. A statistical study of the aspect ratio of crystal images was performed comparing two different geometrical approaches for the aspect ratio of their semi axis. One uses the ratio of minimum to maximum length, the other is based on the aspect ratio which best fits the crystal image. Different regions of the MCS present different mean aspect ratios measured at small scale (200 m). Variations of the aspect ratio seem to be associated with different nucleation and growth histories for the crystals. For regions with 'young' ice crystals, an anti-correlation between the aspect ratio and ice number concentration was observed. This observation is compared with the results obtained from simple diffusional growth modeling. To better quantify the characteristics of high concentrations of small ice crystal MCS regions, we propose to use the size distribution of the mean aspect ratio (from 100 μ m to 1 mm), to distinguish quite different behaviors for 'young' and 'mature' convective regions.

  5. HAIC/HIWC field campaign - investigating ice microphysics in high ice water content regions of mesoscale convective systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Delphine; Fontaine, Emmanuel; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons; Strapp, J. Walter; Lilie, Lyle; Dezitter, Fabien; Grandin, Alice

    2015-04-01

    Despite existing research programs focusing on tropical convection, high ice water content (IWC) regions in Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS) - potentially encountered by commercial aircraft and related to reported in-service events - remain poorly documented either because investigation of such high IWC regions was not of highest priority or because utilized instrumentation was not capable of providing accurate cloud microphysical measurements. To gather quantitative data in high IWC regions, a multi-year international HAIC/HIWC (High Altitude Ice Crystals / High Ice Water Content) field project has been designed including a first field campaign conducted out of Darwin (Australia) in 2014. The French Falcon 20 research aircraft had been equipped among others with a state-of-the-art in situ microphysics package including the IKP (isokinetic evaporator probe which provides a reference measurement of IWC and TWC), the CDP (cloud droplet spectrometer probe measuring particles in the range 2-50 µm), the 2D-S (2D-Stereo, 10-1280 µm) and PIP (precipitation imaging probe, 100-6400 µm) optical array probes. Microphysical data collection has been performed mainly at -40°C and -30°C levels, whereas little data could be sampled at -50°C and at -15C/-10°C. The study presented here focuses on ice crystal size properties, thereby analyzing in detail the 2D image data from 2D-S and PIP optical array imaging probes. 2D images recorded with 2D-S and PIP were processed in order to extract a large variety of geometrical parameters, such as maximum diameter (Dmax), 2D surface equivalent diameter (Deq), and the corresponding number particle size distribution (PSD). Using the PSD information from both probes, a composite size distribution was then built, with sizes ranging from few tens of µm to roughly 10 mm. Finally, mass-size relationships for ice crystals in tropical convection were established in terms of power laws in order to compute median mass diameters MMDmax and

  6. The CONCEPTS Global Ice-Ocean Prediction System: Establishing an Environmental Prediction Capability in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellerin, Pierre; Smith, Gregory; Testut, Charles-Emmanuel; Surcel Colan, Dorina; Roy, Francois; Reszka, Mateusz; Dupont, Frederic; Lemieux, Jean-Francois; Beaudoin, Christiane; He, Zhongjie; Belanger, Jean-Marc; Deacu, Daniel; Lu, Yimin; Buehner, Mark; Davidson, Fraser; Ritchie, Harold; Lu, Youyu; Drevillon, Marie; Tranchant, Benoit; Garric, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    Here we describe a new system implemented recently at the Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) entitled the Global Ice Ocean Prediction System (GIOPS). GIOPS provides ice and ocean analyses and 10 day forecasts daily at 00GMT on a global 1/4° resolution grid. GIOPS includes a full multivariate ocean data assimilation system that combines satellite observations of sea level anomaly and sea surface temperature (SST) together with in situ observations of temperature and salinity. In situ observations are obtained from a variety of sources including: the Argo network of autonomous profiling floats, moorings, ships of opportunity, marine mammals and research cruises. Ocean analyses are blended with sea ice analyses produced by the Global Ice Analysis System.. GIOPS has been developed as part of the Canadian Operational Network of Coupled Environmental PredicTion Systems (CONCEPTS) tri-departmental initiative between Environment Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada and National Defense. The development of GIOPS was made through a partnership with Mercator-Océan, a French operational oceanography group. Mercator-Océan provided the ocean data assimilation code and assistance with the system implementation. GIOPS has undergone a rigorous evaluation of the analysis, trial and forecast fields demonstrating its capacity to provide high-quality products in a robust and reliable framework. In particular, SST and ice concentration forecasts demonstrate a clear benefit with respect to persistence. These results support the use of GIOPS products within other CMC operational systems, and more generally, as part of a Government of Canada marine core service. Impact of a two-way coupling between the GEM atmospheric model and NEMO-CICE ocean-ice model will also be presented.

  7. Improving Climate Literacy Using The Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM): A Prototype Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory For Use In K-12 Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halkides, D. J.; Larour, E. Y.; Perez, G.; Petrie, K.; Nguyen, L.

    2013-12-01

    Statistics indicate that most Americans learn what they will know about science within the confines of our public K-12 education system and the media. Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) aim to remedy science illiteracy and provide guidelines to exceed the Common Core State Standards that most U.S. state governments have adopted, by integrating disciplinary cores with crosscutting ideas and real life practices. In this vein, we present a prototype ';Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory' (I-Lab), geared to K-12 students, educators and interested members of the general public. I-Lab will allow users to perform experiments using a state-of-the-art dynamical ice sheet model and provide detailed downloadable lesson plans, which incorporate this model and are consistent with NGSS Physical Science criteria for different grade bands (K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12). The ultimate goal of this website is to improve public climate science literacy, especially in regards to the crucial role of the polar ice sheets in Earth's climate and sea level. The model used will be the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM), an ice flow model developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and UC Irvine, that simulates the near-term evolution of polar ice sheets (Greenland and Antarctica) and includes high spatial resolution capabilities and data assimilation to produce realistic simulations of ice sheet dynamics at the continental scale. Open sourced since 2011, ISSM is used in cutting edge cryosphere research around the globe. Thru I-Lab, students will be able to access ISSM using a simple, online graphical interface that can be launched from a web browser on a computer, tablet or smart phone. The interface will allow users to select different climate conditions and watch how the polar ice sheets evolve in time under those conditions. Lesson contents will include links to background material and activities that teach observation recording, concept articulation, hypothesis formulation and testing, and

  8. Glacial ice cores: A model system for developing extraterrestrial decontamination protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christner, Brent C.; Mikucki, Jill A.; Foreman, Christine M.; Denson, Jackie; Priscu, John C.

    2005-04-01

    Evidence gathered from spacecraft orbiting Mars has shown that water ice exists at both poles and may form a large subsurface reservoir at lower latitudes. The recent exploration of the martian surface by unmanned landers and surface rovers, and the planned missions to eventually return samples to Earth have raised concerns regarding both forward and back contamination. Methods to search for life in these icy environments and adequate protocols to prevent contamination can be tested with earthly analogues. Studies of ice cores on Earth have established past climate changes and geological events, both globally and regionally, but only recently have these results been correlated with the biological materials (i.e., plant fragments, seeds, pollen grains, fungal spores, and microorganisms) that are entrapped and preserved within the ice. The inclusion of biology into ice coring research brings with it a whole new approach towards decontamination. Our investigations on ice from the Vostok core (Antarctica) have shown that the outer portion of the cores have up to 3 and 2 orders of magnitude higher bacterial density and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) than the inner portion of the cores, respectively, as a result of drilling and handling. The extreme gradients that exist between the outer and inner portion of these samples make contamination a very relevant aspect of geomicrobiological investigations with ice cores, particularly when the actual numbers of ambient bacterial cells are low. To address this issue and the inherent concern it raises for the integrity of future investigations with ice core materials from terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments, we employed a procedure to monitor the decontamination process in which ice core surfaces are painted with a solution containing a tracer microorganism, plasmid DNA, and fluorescent dye before sampling. Using this approach, a simple and direct method is proposed to verify the authenticity of geomicrobiological

  9. Optimization via CFD of aircraft hot-air anti-icing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellissier, Mathieu Paul Constantin

    In-flight icing is a major concern in aircraft safety and a non-negligible source of incidents and accidents, and is still a serious hazard today. It remains consequently a design and certification challenge for aircraft manufacturers. The aerodynamic performance of an aircraft can indeed degrade rapidly when flying in icing conditions, leading to incidents or accidents. In-flight icing occurs when an aircraft passes through clouds containing supercooled water droplets at or below freezing temperature. Droplets impinge on its exposed surfaces and freeze, causing roughness and shape changes that increase drag, decrease lift and reduce the stall angle of attack, eventually inducing flow separation and stall. This hazardous ice accretion is prevented by the use of dedicated anti-icing systems, among which hot-air-types are the most common for turbofan aircraft. This work presents a methodology for the optimization of such aircraft hot-air-type anti-icing systems, known as Piccolo tubes. Having identified through 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) the most critical in-flight icing conditions, as well as determined thermal power constraints, the objective is to optimize the heat distribution in such a way to minimize power requirements, while meeting or exceeding all safety regulation requirements. To accomplish this, an optimization method combining 3D CFD, Reduced-Order Models (ROM) and Genetic Algorithms (GA) is constructed to determine the optimal configuration of the Piccolo tube (angles of jets, spacing between holes, and position from leading edge). The methodology successfully results in increasingly optimal configurations from three up to five design variables.

  10. Mobile Permanent Magnet NMR Systems for Field Studies on Antarctic Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gädke, Achim; Dykstra, Robin

    2011-03-01

    A permanent magnet based Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) system has been developed to measure various properties of the brine in sea ice. In contrast to systems utilizing the Earth's field in previous expeditions, the comparatively high field of 0.28 T provided by permanent magnets allows for shorter measurement times and advanced NMR protocols. In November 2009 the instrument was deployed to Antarctica to investigate sea ice grown under natural conditions. In this paper the instrument is described, preliminary results are reported and future options for mobile NMR applications in Antarctica discussed.

  11. Personal Ice Cooling System (PICS). Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. To this end, the Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE`s Office of Science and Technology sponsors Large-Scale Demonstration and Deployment Projects (LSDDPs) in which developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE`s projects and to others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased cost of operation. As buildings are demolished as part of the DOE Fernald Environmental Management Project`s (FEMP`s) D and D Plan, many of the activities are performed in hot weather and usually require use of various types and layers of personal protective equipment (PPE). While PPE is designed to protect the worker from contamination, it also significantly compromises the body`s ability to cool itself, leading to potentially serious heat stress situations. This report describes a comparative demonstration between the methodology currently used for heat stress management (i.e., limited stay times and cool-down rooms) and an alternative personal ice cooling suit technology. The baseline methodology for heat stress management is limited stay times when working in hot conditions. The FEMP`s Safety Performance Requirements outline the procedures and stay times to be followed and consider the temperature of the working environment, work load, and the type and amount of PPE required for the job. While these common criteria for determining stay times, other sites may have different requirements. This demonstration investigates the feasibility of using the personal ice cooling suite as a tool for managing heat stress in workers at the FEMP. This report provides a comparative analysis of

  12. An Investigation of the Icing and Heated-air De-icing Characteristics of the R-2600-13 Induction System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Gilbert E.

    1946-01-01

    A laboratory investigation was made on a Holley 1685-HB carburetor mounted on an R-2600-13 supercharger assembly to determine the icing characteristics and the heated-air de-icing requirements of this portion of the B-25D airplane induction system. Icing has been found to be most prevalent at relatively small throttle openings and, consequently, all runs were made at simulated 60-percent normal rated power condition. Icing characteristics were determined during a series of 15-minute runs over a range of inlet-air conditions. For the de-icing investigation severe impact ice was allowed to form in the induction system and the time required for the recovery of 95 percent of the maximum possible air flow at the original throttle setting was then determined for a range of wet-bulb temperatures. Results of these runs showed that ice on the walls of the carburetor adapter and on the rim of the impeller-shroud portion of the supercharger diffuser plate did not affect engine operation at 60-percent normal rated power. Ice that adversely affected the air flow and the fuel-air ratio was formed only on the central web of the carburetor and then only when the inlet air was saturated or contained free moisture in excess of saturation. No serious ice formations were observed at inlet-air temperatures above 66 0 F or with an inlet-air enthalpy greater than 34 Btu per pound. The maximum temperature at. which any trace of icing could be detected was 1110 F with a relative humidity of approximately 28 percent, The air-flow recovery time for emergency de-icing was 0.3 minute for.an enthalpy of 35 Btu per pound or wet-bulb temperature of 68 0 F. Further increase in enthalpy and wet-bulb temperature above these values resulted in very slight improvement in recovery time. The fuel-air ratio restored by a 5-Minute application of heated air was approximately 7 percent less than the initial value for cold-air conditions.

  13. All-weather ice information system for Alaskan arctic coastal shipping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedney, R. T.; Jirberg, R. J.; Schertler, R. J.; Mueller, R. A.; Chase, T. L.; Kramarchuk, I.; Nagy, L. A.; Hanlon, R. A.; Mark, H.

    1977-01-01

    A near real-time ice information system designed to aid arctic coast shipping along the Alaskan North Slope is described. The system utilizes a X-band Side Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) mounted aboard a U.S. Coast Guard HC-130B aircraft. Radar mapping procedures showing the type, areal distribution and concentration of ice cover were developed. In order to guide vessel operational movements, near real-time SLAR image data were transmitted directly from the SLAR aircraft to Barrow, Alaska and the U.S. Coast Guard icebreaker Glacier. In addition, SLAR image data were transmitted in real time to Cleveland, Ohio via the NOAA-GOES Satellite. Radar images developed in Cleveland were subsequently facsimile transmitted to the U.S. Navy's Fleet Weather Facility in Suitland, Maryland for use in ice forecasting and also as a demonstration back to Barrow via the Communications Technology Satellite.

  14. An Intercomparison of Predicted Sea Ice Concentration from Global Ocean Forecast System & Arctic Cap Nowcast/Forecast System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosemond, K.

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research is to provide an evaluation of improvements in marginal ice zone (MIZ) and pack ice estimations from the Global Ocean Forecast System (GOFS) model compared to the current operational model, the Arctic Cap Nowcast/Forecast System (ACNFS). This will be determined by an intercomparison between the subjectively estimated operational ice concentration data from the National Ice Center (NIC) MIZ analysis and the ice concentration estimates from GOFS and ACNFS. This will help ascertain which nowcast from the models compares best to the NIC operational data stream needed for vessel support. It will also provide a quantitative assessment of GOFS and ACNFS performance and be used in the Operational Evaluation (OPEVAL) report from the NIC to NRL. The intercomparison results are based on statistical evaluations through a series of map overlays from both models ACNFS, GOFS with the NIC's MIZ data. All data was transformed to a common grid and difference maps were generated to determine which model had the greatest difference compared to the MIZ ice concentrations. This was provided daily for both the freeze-up and meltout seasons. Results indicated the GOFS model surpassed the ACNFS model, however both models were comparable. These results will help US Navy and NWS Anchorage ice forecasters understand model biases and know which model guidance is likely to provide the best estimate of future ice conditions.The objective of this research is to provide an evaluation of improvements in marginal ice zone (MIZ) and pack ice estimations from the Global Ocean Forecast System (GOFS) model compared to the current operational model, the Arctic Cap Nowcast/Forecast System (ACNFS). This will be determined by an intercomparison between the subjectively estimated operational ice concentration data from the National Ice Center (NIC) MIZ analysis and the ice concentration estimates from GOFS and ACNFS. This will help ascertain which nowcast from the models

  15. Mapping sea ice using reflected GNSS signals in a bistatic radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, Clara; Zuffada, Cinzia; Shah, Rashmi; Mannucci, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals can be used as a kind of bistatic radar, with receivers opportunistically recording ground-reflected signals transmitted by the GNSS satellites themselves. This technique, GNSS-Reflectometry (GNSS-R), has primarily been explored using receivers flown on aircraft or balloons, or in modeling studies. Last year's launch of the TechDemoSat-1 (TDS-1) satellite represents an enormous opportunity to investigate the potential of using spaceborne GNSS receivers to sense changes in the land and ocean surface. Here, we examine the ability of reflected GNSS signals to estimate sea ice extent and sea ice age, as well as comment on the possibility of using GNSS-R to detect leads and polynyas within the ice. In particular, we quantify how the peak power of Delay Doppler Maps (DDMs) generated within the GNSS receiver responds as the satellite flies over the Polar Regions. To compute the effective peak power of each DDM, we first normalize the peak power of the DDM by the noise floor. We also correct for antenna gain, range, and incidence angle. Once these corrections are made, the effective peak power across DDMs may be used as a proxy for changes in surface permittivity and surface roughness. We compare our calculations of reflected power to existing sea ice remote sensing products such as data from the SSMI/S as well as Landsat imagery. Our analysis shows that GNSS reflections are extremely sensitive to the sea ice edge, with increases in reflected power of more than 10 dB relative to reflected power over the open ocean. As the sea ice ages, it thickens and roughens, and reflected power decreases, though it does not decrease below the power over the open ocean. Given the observed sensitivity of GNSS reflections to small features over land and the sensitivity to the sea ice edge, we hypothesize that reflection data could help map the temporal evolution of leads and polynyas.

  16. Replicating the Ice-Volume Signal of the Early Pleistocene with a Complex Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabor, C. R.; Poulsen, C. J.; Pollard, D.

    2013-12-01

    Milankovitch theory proposes high-latitude summer insolation intensity paces the ice ages by controlling perennial snow cover amounts (Milankovitch, 1941). According to theory, the ~21 kyr cycle of precession should dominate the ice-volume records since it has the greatest influence on high-latitude summer insolation. Modeling experiments frequently support Milankovitch theory by attributing the majority of Northern Hemisphere high-latitude summer snowmelt to changes in the cycle of precession (e.g. Jackson and Broccoli, 2003). However, ice-volume proxy records, especially those of the Early Pleistocene (2.6-0.8 Ma), display variability with a period of ~41 kyr (Raymo and Lisiecki, 2005), indicative of insolation forcing from obliquity, which has a much smaller influence on summer insolation intensity than precession. Several hypotheses attempt to explain the discrepancies between Milkankovitch theory and the proxy records by invoking phenomena such as insolation gradients (Raymo and Nisancioglu, 2003), hemispheric offset (Raymo et al., 2006; Lee and Poulsen, 2009), and integrated summer energy (Huybers, 2006); however, all of these hypotheses contain caveats (Ruddiman, 2006) and have yet to be supported by modeling studies that use a complex GCM. To explore potential solutions to this '41 kyr problem,' we use an Earth system model composed of the GENESIS GCM and Land Surface model, the BIOME4 vegetation model, and the Pennsylvania State ice-sheet model. Using an asynchronous coupling technique, we run four idealized transient combinations of obliquity and precession, representing the orbital extremes of the Pleistocene (Berger and Loutre, 1991). Each experiment is run through several complete orbital cycles with a dynamic ice domain spanning North America and Greenland, and fixed preindustrial greenhouse-gas concentrations. For all orbital configurations, model results produce greater ice-volume spectral power at the frequency of obliquity despite significantly

  17. 76 FR 7238 - Pipeline Safety: Dangers of Abnormal Snow and Ice Build-Up on Gas Distribution Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... distribution system facilities appear to have been related to either the stress of snow and ice or the... distribution system facilities that appear to have been related to either the stress of snow and ice or... greatest risk. Damage may result from the stresses imposed by the additional loading of the snow or...

  18. Simulations of ice shelves in the Parallel Ocean Program (POP), the ocean model of the Community Earth System Model (CESM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asay-Davis, Xylar

    2013-04-01

    We present a series of simulations using POP2X, a modified version of the LANL Parallel Ocean Program version 2 (POP2) that includes circulations in ice-shelf cavities. The geometry of the ice-shelf/ocean interface is represented using the partial-top cells, following the approach developed by Losch (2008) for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology General Circulation Model (MITgcm). The model domain is an idealized domain reminiscent of the Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelf cavity. Our simulations show relatively warm circumpolar deep water (CDW) flowing into the Filchner trough, causing a large increase in melting under the ice shelf. Using more realistic geometry and climate forcing, Helmer et al. (2012) saw a drastic increase in melting in the late twenty-first century as a result of similar processes. We show that vertical model resolution can have a strong impact on the melt rate and circulation in the vicinity of the ice shelf. The results suggest that a resolution-conscious parameterization of the buoyancy-driven plume under ice shelves is needed. This work is an early step toward coupling POP2X to the Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM) in order to perform more advanced modeling of ice-sheet/ocean interactions. Remarkable advances in ice-sheet model physics and numerical methods in recent years mean that a number of these models (e.g. the CISM; the Ice Sheet System Model; the Elmer Ice Sheet Model) have both sufficient physical accuracy and numerical scalability to be ready for inclusion in Earth System Models (ESMs). A significant stumbling block preventing full ice-sheet/ocean coupling is the inability of ocean models to handle ice-shelf cavity geometries that change in time. This is a major focus of our ongoing research.

  19. Unique, low-energy air-conditioning system using naturally-frozen ice

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, D.L.; Masoero, M.; Socolow, R.H.; Taylor, T.B.

    1981-01-01

    An effective low-energy-consumption air-conditioning system, using naturally-frozen ice as the heat sink, has been successfully demonstrated. During the summer of 1980, a test building at Princeton University was cooled using ice frozen during the previous winter. The ice is produced outdoors by spraying water into winter air, and stored until summer in an excavated reservoir under an insulating blanket. During the air-conditioning season, melt water from the bottom of the lined, ice-filled reservoir is pumped through a conventional water-to-air heat exchanger within the conditioned space, to provide air cooling and dehumidification. The water warmed in the exchange is returned to the reservoir, to be recooled to 0/sup 0/C by the remaining ice. This approach not only significantly reduces the total energy required to produce a given cooling effect relative to other means in current use, but also shifts the time of major energy use away from the electric utility's summer load peak period.

  20. Helicopter-borne measurements of sea ice thickness, using a small and lightweight, digital EM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Christian; Lobach, John; Hendricks, Stefan; Rabenstein, Lasse; Pfaffling, Andreas

    2009-03-01

    Sea ice is an important climate variable and is also an obstacle for marine operations in polar regions. We have developed a small and lightweight, digitally operated frequency-domain electromagnetic-induction (EM) system, a so-called EM bird, dedicated for measurements of sea ice thickness. It is 3.5 m long and weighs only 105 kg, and can therefore easily be shipped to remote places and operated from icebreakers and small helicopters. Here, we describe the technical design of the bird operating at two frequencies of f1 = 3.68 kHz and f2 = 112 kHz, and study its technical performance. On average, noise amounts to ± 8.5 ppm and ± 17.5 ppm for f1 and f2, respectively. Electrical drift amounts to 200 ppm/h and 2000 ppm/h for f1 and f2, during the first 0.5 h of operation. It is reduced by 75% after 2 h. Calibration of the Inphase and Quadrature ppm signals varies by 2 to 3%. A sensitivity study shows that all these signal variations do affect the accuracy of the ice thickness retrieval, but that it remains better than ± 0.1 m over level ice in most cases. This accuracy is also confirmed by means of comparisons of the helicopter EM data with other thickness measurements. The paper also presents the ice thickness retrieval from single-component Inphase data of f1.

  1. Defining Mesoscale Convective Systems by Their 85-GHz Ice-Scattering Signatures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Karen I.; Zipser, Edward J.

    1996-06-01

    Mesoseale Convective systems are composed of numerous deep convective cells with varying amounts of large, convectively produced ice particles aloft. The magnitude of the 85-GHz brightness temperature depression resulting from scattering by large ice is believed to be related to the convective intensity and to the magnitude of the convective fluxes through a deep layer. The 85-GHz ice-scattering signature can be used to map the distribution of organized mesoscale regions of convectively produced large ice particles. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the usefulness of the 85-GHz ice-scattering signature for describing the frequency, convective intensity, and geographic distribution of mesoscale convective systems.Objective criteria were developed to identify mesoscale convective systems from raw data from January, April, July, and October 1993. To minimize the effects of background contamination and to ensure that bounded areas contained convective elements, a "mesoscale convective system" was defined as an area bounded by 250 K of at least 2000 km2 of 85 GHz, with a minimum brightness temperature 225 K. Mesoscale convective systems extracted from the raw data were sorted and plotted by their areas and by their minimum brightness temperatures. Four area and brightness temperature classes were used to account for a spectrum of organized convection ranging from small to very large and from less organized to highly organized. The populations of mesoscale convective systems by this study's definition were consistent with infrared-based climatologies and large-scale seasonal dynamics. Land/water differences were high-lighted by the plots of minimum brightness temperature. Most of the intense mesoscale convective systems were located on or near land and seemed to occur most frequently in particular areas in North America, South America, Africa, and India.

  2. NASA Glenn Propulsion Systems Lab: 2012 Inaugural Ice Crystal Cloud Calibration Procedure and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Judith F.; Rosine, Bryan M.

    2014-01-01

    The inaugural calibration of the ice crystal and supercooled liquid water clouds generated in NASA Glenn's engine altitude test facility, the Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL) is reported herein. This calibration was in support of the inaugural engine ice crystal validation test. During the Fall of 2012 calibration effort, cloud uniformity was documented via an icing grid, laser sheet and cloud tomography. Water content was measured via multi-wire and robust probes, and particle sizes were measured with a Cloud Droplet Probe and Cloud Imaging Probe. The environmental conditions ranged from 5,000 to 35,000 ft, Mach 0.15 to 0.55, temperature from +50 to -35 F and relative humidities from less than 1 percent to 75 percent in the plenum.

  3. Comparison of two droplet sizing systems in an icing wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldenburg, J. R.; Ide, R. F.

    1990-01-01

    A comparison between the Phase Doppler Analyzer and the combined measurements from the Particle Measuring Systems Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe and the Optical Array Probe was conducted in an icing wind tunnel using NASA Icing Research Tunnel spray nozzles to produce the icing cloud. Clouds with a range of volume median diameters from 10 to greater than 50 microns were used for the instrument comparisons. A comparison of the volume median diameter from the Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer and only the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe indicated agreement up to 18 microns. A combined volume median diameter was calculated from the droplet distribution of the Optical Array Probe and the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe. A comparison of the combined volume median diameters and the Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer volume median diameters showed agreement up to 30 microns with the agreement deteriorating rapidly above 30 microns. Droplet distributions from the Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer, the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe, and Optical Array Probe are presented.

  4. Comparison of two droplet sizing systems in an icing wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldenburg, John R.; Ide, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    A comparison between the Phase Doppler Analyzer and the combined measurements from the Particle Measuring Systems Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe and the Optical Array Probe was conducted in an icing wind tunnel using NASA Icing Research Tunnel spray nozzles to produce the icing cloud. Clouds with a range of volume median diameterss from 10 to greater than 50 microns were used for the instrument comparisons. A comparison of the volume median diameter from the Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer and only the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe indicated agreement up to 18 microns. A combined volume median diameter was calculated from the droplet distribution of the Optical Array Probe and the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe. A comparison of the combined volume median diameters and the Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer volume median diameters showed agreement up to 30 microns with the agreement deteriorating rapidly above 30 microns. Droplet distributions from the Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer, the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe, and Optical Array Probe are presented.

  5. Magnetostatic bias in Kagome artificial spin ice systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.

    2016-04-01

    The magnetostatic bias in elongated nanomagnetic elements arranged in artificial Kagome spin ice arrays is studied by micromagnetic simulations. Using the Nmag package the reversal of a given element has been simulated under the influence of its four nearest neighbors with their magnetic states fixed in all possible configurations, which amount to 24=16 states that can be classified under five distinct cases. The hysteresis loop of each element is greatly influenced by the magnetic state of the nearest neighbors, not only by the expected shift due to dipolar interaction bias, but as it regards the loop shape and width itself. This presents a correction to the usual macrospin calculation based on the assumption that the loop is shifted by a biasing field (equal to the local dipole field) but the loop width (and shape in general) does not change. Although coercive and biasing fields depend strongly on the dimensions their relative strength has only weak thickness dependence for a fixed length to width aspect ratio. Therefore the behavior of such arrays is expected to be to a large degree size invariant apart from an appropriate maximum external applied field scaling.

  6. The LARsen Ice Shelf System, Antarctica, LARISSA a Model for Antarctic Integrated System Science (AISS) Investigations using Marine Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domack, E. W.; Huber, B. A.; Vernet, M.; Leventer, A.; Scambos, T. A.; Mosley-Thompson, E. S.; Smith, C. R.; de Batist, M. A.; Yoon, H.; Larissa

    2010-12-01

    The LARISSA program is the first interdisciplinary project funded in the AISS program of the NSF Office of Polar Programs and was officially launched in the closing days of the IPY. This program brings together investigators, students, and media to address the rapid and fundamental changes taking place in the region of the Larsen Ice Shelf and surrounding areas. Scientific foci include: glaciologic and oceanographic interactions, the response of pelagic and benthic ecosystems to ice shelf decay, sedimentary record of ice shelf break disintegration, the geologic evolution of ice shelf systems over the last 100,000 years, paleoclimate/environmental records from marine sediment and ice cores, and the crustal response to ice mass loss at decade to millennial time scales. The first major field season took place this past austral summer aboard the NB Palmer (cruise NBP10-01) which deployed with a multi-layered logistical infrastructure that included: two Bell 220 aircraft, a multifunctional deep water ROV, video guided sediment corer, jumbo piston core, and an array of oceanographic and biological sensors and instruments. In tandem with this ship based operation Twin Otter aircraft supported an ice core team upon the crest of the Bruce Plateau with logistic support provided by the BAS at Rothera Station. Although unusually heavy sea ice prevented much of the original work from being completed in the Larsen Embayment the interdisciplinary approach proved useful. Further the logistical model of ship based aircraft to support interdisciplinary work proved viable, again despite an unusually severe summer meterologic pattern across the northern Antarctic Peninsula. As the program moves forward other vessels will come into play and the model can be applied to interdisciplinary objectives in other regions of Antarctica which are remote and lack land based infrastructure to support coastal field programs in glaciology, geology, or meteorology. This work could then be completed

  7. Creating future fit between ice and society: The institutionalization of a refuge in the Arctic to preserve sea ice system services in a changing North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovecraft, A. L.; Meek, C. L.

    2010-12-01

    The Arctic sea ice system can be holistically characterized as a social-ecological system that provides not only vital geophysical and biological services to climate and oceans but also provisioning services to people and industry. These services are under threat from the three major interconnected global forces of increasing traffic for shipping, security, and tourism; contaminant accumulation primarily from distant, but also related to some local marine activities, industrial production; and climatic changes, especially the warming at the poles which is diminishing the earth’s cryosphere. As the Arctic becomes more open due to sea ice loss the current strategies to preserve individual species or sea ice system functions may become obsolete in the next several decades. Concurrent to this will be the rise of traffic in areas currently not passable and an increase in exploitation of natural resources (biological and mineral) further north. This expansion of human activity does not have a suite of institutions in place that comprehensively address a future open Arctic Ocean and the coasts of the circumpolar north. Consequently, as the amount of space that can preserve a diversity of sea ice system services shrinks and the use of that space becomes crowded with interests, governments across scales need to be able to plan to balance the increase in use with preservation of services valuable both in terms of regulating and supporting planetary processes and the cultural and provisioning services more immediately tied to human flourishing. In short, it is a race between stressors and human capacity to manage them through rules minimizing their direct impact on the ice or preventing them from entering an eventual “ice shed” boundaries of a minimum summer sea ice cover. This poster explores the potential for the creation of a system of governance that would provide a refuge based on the projected summer sea ice to remain in the Arctic even as the climate shifts in

  8. Operational coupled atmosphere - ocean - ice forecast system for the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucher, M.; Roy, F.; Desjardins, S.; Fogarty, C.; Pellerin, P.; Ritchie, H.; Denis, B.

    2009-09-01

    A fully interactive coupled atmosphere-ocean-ice forecasting system for the Gulf of St. Lawrence (GSL) has been running in experimental mode at the Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) for the last two winter seasons. The goal of this project is to provide more accurate weather and sea ice forecasts over the GSL and adjacent coastal areas by including atmosphere-oceanice interactions in the CMC operational forecast system using a formal coupling strategy between two independent modeling components. The atmospheric component is the Canadian operational GEM model (Côté et al. 1998) and the oceanic component is the ocean-ice model for the Gulf of St. Lawrence developed at the Maurice Lamontagne Institute (IML) (Saucier et al. 2003, 2004). The coupling between those two models is achieved by exchanging surface fluxes and variables through MPI communication. The re-gridding of the variables is done with a package developed at the Recherche en Prevision Numerique centre (RPN, Canada). Coupled atmosphere - ocean - ice forecasts are issued once a day based on 00GMT data. Results for the past two years have demonstrated that the coupled system produces improved forecasts in and around the GSL during all seasons, proving that atmosphere-ocean-ice interactions are indeed important even for short-term Canadian weather forecasts. This has important implications for other coupled modeling and data assimilation partnerships that are in progress involving EC, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) and the National Defense (DND). Following this experimental phase, it is anticipated that this GSL system will be the first fully interactive coupled system to be implemented at CMC.

  9. TOPAZ4: an ocean-sea ice data assimilation system for the North Atlantic and Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakov, P.; Counillon, F.; Bertino, L.; Lisæter, K. A.; Oke, P. R.; Korablev, A.

    2012-04-01

    We present a detailed description of TOPAZ4, the latest version of TOPAZ - a coupled ocean-sea ice data assimilation system for the North Atlantic Ocean and Arctic. It is the only operational, large-scale ocean data assimilation system that uses the ensemble Kalman filter. This means that TOPAZ features a time-evolving, state-dependent estimate of the state error covariance. Based on results from the pilot MyOcean reanalysis for 2003-2008, we demonstrate that TOPAZ4 produces a realistic estimate of the ocean circulation and the sea ice. We find that the ensemble spread for temperature and sea-level remains fairly constant throughout the reanalysis demonstrating that the data assimilation system is robust to ensemble collapse. Moreover, the ensemble spread for ice concentration is well correlated with the actual errors. This indicates that the ensemble statistics provide reliable state-dependent error estimates - a feature that is unique to ensemble-based data assimilation systems. We demonstrate that the quality of the reanalysis changes when different sea surface temperature products are assimilated, or when in situ profiles below the ice in the Arctic Ocean are assimilated. We find that data assimilation improves the match to independent observations compared to a free model. Improvements are particularly noticeable for ice thickness, salinity in the Arctic, and temperature in the Fram Strait, but not for transport estimates or underwater temperature. At the same time, the pilot reanalysis has revealed several flaws in the system that have degraded its performance. Finally, we show that a simple bias estimation scheme can effectively detect the seasonal or constant bias in temperature and sea-level.

  10. TOPAZ4: an ocean-sea ice data assimilation system for the North Atlantic and Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakov, P.; Counillon, F.; Bertino, L.; Lisæter, K. A.; Oke, P. R.; Korablev, A.

    2012-08-01

    We present a detailed description of TOPAZ4, the latest version of TOPAZ - a coupled ocean-sea ice data assimilation system for the North Atlantic Ocean and Arctic. It is the only operational, large-scale ocean data assimilation system that uses the ensemble Kalman filter. This means that TOPAZ features a time-evolving, state-dependent estimate of the state error covariance. Based on results from the pilot MyOcean reanalysis for 2003-2008, we demonstrate that TOPAZ4 produces a realistic estimate of the ocean circulation in the North Atlantic and the sea-ice variability in the Arctic. We find that the ensemble spread for temperature and sea-level remains fairly constant throughout the reanalysis demonstrating that the data assimilation system is robust to ensemble collapse. Moreover, the ensemble spread for ice concentration is well correlated with the actual errors. This indicates that the ensemble statistics provide reliable state-dependent error estimates - a feature that is unique to ensemble-based data assimilation systems. We demonstrate that the quality of the reanalysis changes when different sea surface temperature products are assimilated, or when in-situ profiles below the ice in the Arctic Ocean are assimilated. We find that data assimilation improves the match to independent observations compared to a free model. Improvements are particularly noticeable for ice thickness, salinity in the Arctic, and temperature in the Fram Strait, but not for transport estimates or underwater temperature. At the same time, the pilot reanalysis has revealed several flaws in the system that have degraded its performance. Finally, we show that a simple bias estimation scheme can effectively detect the seasonal or constant bias in temperature and sea-level.

  11. Microwave radiometric aircraft observations of the Fabry-Perot interference fringes of an ice-water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, R. F.; Swift, C. T.; Fedors, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    Airborne stepped-frequency microwave radiometer (SFMR) observations of the Fabry-Perot interference fringes of ice-water systems are discussed. The microwave emissivity at normal incidence of a smooth layered dielectric medium over a semi-infinite dielectric medium is examined for the case of ice over water as a function of ice thickness and attenuation coefficient, and the presence of quarter-wavelength oscillations in emissivity as the ice thickness and frequency are varied is pointed out. Experimental observations of pronounced quarter-wavelength oscillations in radiometric brightness temperature due to the Fabry-Perot interference fringes over smooth sea ice and lake ice varying in roughness as the radiometer frequencies were scanned are then presented.

  12. Development of a one-dimensional electro-thermophysical model of the snow sea-ice system: Arctic climate processes and microwave remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanesiak, John Michael

    Snow covered sea ice plays a crucial role in the earth's climate. This includes polar biology, local, regional and world weather and ocean circulations as well as indigenous people's way of life. Recent research has indicated significant climate change in the polar regions, especially the Canadian arctic. Polar climate processes are also among the most poorly misrepresented within global circulation models (GCMs). The goal of this thesis is to improve our understanding and capability to simulate arctic climate processes in a predictive sense. An electro-thermophysical relationship exists between the thermophysical characteristics (climate variables and processes) and electrical properties (dielectrics) that control microwave remote sensing of snow-covered first- year sea ice (FYI). This work explicitly links microwave dielectrics and a thermodynamic model of snow and sea ice by addressing four key issues. These includes: (1)ensure the existing one-dimensional sea ice models treat the surface energy balance (SEB) and snow/ice thermodynamics in the appropriate time scales we see occurring in field experiments, (2)ensure the snow/ice thermodynamics are not compromised by differences in environmental and spatial representation within components of the SEB, (3)ensure the snow layer is properly handled in the modeling environment, and (4)how we can make use of satellite microwave remote sensing data within the model environment. Results suggest that diurnal processes are critical and need to be accounted for in modeling snow-covered FYI, similar to time scales acting in microwave remote sensing signatures. Output from the coupled snow sea-ice model provides the required input to microwave dielectric models of snow and sea ice to predict microwave penetration depths within the snow and sea ice (an Electro-Thermophysical model of the Snow Sea Ice System (ETSSIS)). Results suggest ETSSIS can accurately simulate microwave penetration depths in the cold dry snow season and

  13. Ice Formation on Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritz, L

    1939-01-01

    This report makes use of the results obtained in the Gottingen ice tunnel in which the atmospheric conditions are simulated and the process of ice formation photographed. The effect of ice formation is threefold: 1) added weight to the airplane; 2) a change in the lift and drag forces; 3) a change in the stability characteristics.

  14. Evaluation of a new Gulf of St. Lawrence coupled environmental prediction system based on the GEM atmospheric model and on the NEMO-CICE ocean-ice model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellerin, Pierre; Roy, François; Dick, Sarah; Smith, Greg; Dupont, Fred; Pilon, Mark; Senneville, Simon; Chanut, Jerome

    2015-04-01

    The Canadian operational Gulf of St. Lawrence (GSL) coupled environmental forecast system has been updated with a new ocean-ice component (NEMO-CICE) and coupling methodology. The use of NEMO-CICE will facilitate future advances toward an increase in resolution and the introduction of new scientific developments. Indeed NEMO and CICE are supported by a large scientific community and are based on more efficient computing technologies than the current system. An ensemble of hindcasts over previous years demonstrate that recent developments in the NEMO-CICE model make it possible to meet the high quality standards of the ocean model by Saucier et al. (2009) used in the previous operational system in terms of the tides, circulation and water mass properties. We present results from these hindcasts as well as from an experimental run for the winter of 2014 and compare them with the operational system. The experimental run includes a pseudo-analysis cycle producing daily initial ice-ocean conditions and their subsequent coupled atmosphere-ice-ocean 48 hr forecasts. We first examine extreme weather event cases, and then present results from a subjective evaluation as well as objective skill scores for SST analyses and for ice, surface air temperature and wind forecasts. The importance of the two-way coupling will also be assessed.

  15. On the state of water ice on saturn's moon Titan and implications to icy bodies in the outer solar system.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weijun; Jewitt, David; Kaiser, Ralf I

    2009-10-22

    The crystalline state of water ice in the Solar System depends on the temperature history of the ice and the influence of energetic particles to which it has been exposed. We measured the infrared absorption spectra of amorphous and crystalline water ice in the 10-50 K and 10-140 K temperature ranges, respectively, and conducted a systematic experimental study to investigate the amorphization of crystalline water ice via ionizing radiation irradiation at doses of up to 160 +/- 30 eV per molecule. We found that crystalline water ice can be converted only partially to amorphous ice by electron irradiation. The experiments showed that a fraction of the 1.65 microm band, which is characteristic for crystalline water ice, survived the irradiation, to a degree that strongly depends on the temperature. Quantitative kinetic fits of the temporal evolution of the 1.65 mum band clearly demonstrate that there is a balance between thermal recrystallization and irradiation-induced amorphization, with thermal recrystallizaton dominant at higher temperatures. Our experiments show the amorphization at 40 K was incomplete, in contradiction to Mastrapa and Brown's conclusion (Icarus 2006, 183, 207.). At 50 K, the recrystallization due to thermal effects is strong, and most of the crystalline ice survived. Temperatures of most icy objects in the Solar System, including Jovian satellites, Saturnian satellites (including Titan), and Kuiper Belt Objects, are equal to or above 50 K; this explains why water ice detected on those objects is mostly crystalline. PMID:19827849

  16. The Europa Imaging System (EIS): Investigating Europa's geology, ice shell, and current activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtle, Elizabeth; Thomas, Nicolas; Fletcher, Leigh; Hayes, Alexander; Ernst, Carolyn; Collins, Geoffrey; Hansen, Candice; Kirk, Randolph L.; Nimmo, Francis; McEwen, Alfred; Hurford, Terry; Barr Mlinar, Amy; Quick, Lynnae; Patterson, Wes; Soderblom, Jason

    2016-07-01

    NASA's Europa Mission, planned for launch in 2022, will perform more than 40 flybys of Europa with altitudes at closest approach as low as 25 km. The instrument payload includes the Europa Imaging System (EIS), a camera suite designed to transform our understanding of Europa through global decameter-scale coverage, topographic and color mapping, and unprecedented sub- meter-scale imaging. EIS combines narrow-angle and wide-angle cameras to address these science goals: • Constrain the formation processes of surface features by characterizing endogenic geologic structures, surface units, global cross-cutting relationships, and relationships to Europa's subsurface structure and potential near-surface water. • Search for evidence of recent or current activity, including potential plumes. • Characterize the ice shell by constraining its thickness and correlating surface features with subsurface structures detected by ice penetrating radar. • Characterize scientifically compelling landing sites and hazards by determining the nature of the surface at scales relevant to a potential lander. EIS Narrow-angle Camera (NAC): The NAC, with a 2.3°° x 1.2°° field of view (FOV) and a 10-μμrad instantaneous FOV (IFOV), achieves 0.5-m pixel scale over a 2-km-wide swath from 50-km altitude. A 2-axis gimbal enables independent targeting, allowing very high-resolution stereo imaging to generate digital topographic models (DTMs) with 4-m spatial scale and 0.5-m vertical precision over the 2-km swath from 50-km altitude. The gimbal also makes near-global (>95%) mapping of Europa possible at ≤50-m pixel scale, as well as regional stereo imaging. The NAC will also perform high-phase-angle observations to search for potential plumes. EIS Wide-angle Camera (WAC): The WAC has a 48°° x 24°° FOV, with a 218-μμrad IFOV, and is designed to acquire pushbroom stereo swaths along flyby ground-tracks. From an altitude of 50 km, the WAC achieves 11-m pixel scale over a 44-km

  17. Altitude Effects on Thermal Ice Protection System Performance; a Study of an Alternative Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Orchard, David; Wright, William B.; Oleskiw, Myron

    2016-01-01

    Research has been conducted to better understand the phenomena involved during operation of an aircraft's thermal ice protection system under running wet icing conditions. In such situations, supercooled water striking a thermally ice-protected surface does not fully evaporate but runs aft to a location where it freezes. The effects of altitude, in terms of air pressure and density, on the processes involved were of particular interest. Initial study results showed that the altitude effects on heat energy transfer were accurately modeled using existing methods, but water mass transport was not. Based upon those results, a new method to account for altitude effects on thermal ice protection system operation was proposed. The method employs a two-step process where heat energy and mass transport are sequentially matched, linked by matched surface temperatures. While not providing exact matching of heat and mass transport to reference conditions, the method produces a better simulation than other methods. Moreover, it does not rely on the application of empirical correction factors, but instead relies on the straightforward application of the primary physics involved. This report describes the method, shows results of testing the method, and discusses its limitations.

  18. A high velocity impact experiment of micro-scale ice particles using laser-driven system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hyeonju; Kim, Jungwook; Yoh, Jack J.

    2014-11-01

    A jet engine for high speed air breathing propulsion is subject to continuous wear as a result of impacts of micro-scale ice particles during a flight in the atmosphere. The inlet duct and compressor blades are exposed to on-coming frozen moisture particles that may result in the surface damage and significantly shorten the designed lifetime of the aircraft. Under such prolonged high-speed impact loading, the performance parameters such as flight instability and power loss of a jet engine can be significantly degraded. In this work, a laser-driven system was designed to accelerate micro-scale ice particles to the velocity up to Mach 2 using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser beam at 100-600 mJ with 1064 nm wavelength and 9 ns pulse duration. The high speed images (Phantom v711) and double exposure shadowgraphs were used to calculate the average velocity of ice particles and their deceleration. Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector measurements were also utilized for the analysis of free surface velocity of a metal foil in order to understand the interfacial dynamics between the impacting particles and accepting metal target. The velocity of our ice particles is sufficiently fast for studying the effect of moisture particle collision on an air-breathing duct of high speed aircraft, and thus the results can provide insight into how minute space debris or micrometeorites cause damage to the orbiting spacecraft at large.

  19. How do the physical properties of ice influence the habitability of outer solar system satellites? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmo, F.

    2009-12-01

    [11] might enhance downwards transportation rates. A less obvious issue is the extent to which the silicate portion of the satellites can be heated. This is because 1) hot silicates prolong the life of an overlying ocean and 2) hydrothermal circulation is a source of reactants. Europa [12] and Enceladus [13] may both possess hot, partially-molten silicate interiors. However, at least for Enceladus the temperatures inferred by [13] cannot be explained by conventional tidal heating [7]. One possibility is that the conventional Maxwell viscoelastic rheological model does not adequately describe dissipation in real geological materials [14], and that more complicated descriptions are required. [1] Gaidos EJ, Science 284, 1631-33, 1999. [2] Hand KP et al., Astrobiology 7, 1006-22, 2007. [3] Zolotov MY Shock EL, JGR 109, E06003, 2004. [4] Schulze-Makuch D, Irwin LN Astrobiology 2, 105-21, 2002. [5] Barr AC, McKinnon WB, JGR 112, E02012, 2007. [6] Ross RG, Kargel JS, in Solar System Ices, 33-62, 1998. [7] Roberts JH, Nimmo F, Icarus 194, 675-89, 2008. [8] Deschamps F, Sotin C, JGR 106, 5107-21, 2001. [9] Barr AC et al., LPSC 33, 1545, 2002. [10] Postberg F et al., Nature 459, 1098-1101, 2009. [11] Nimmo F, Gaidos E, JGR 107, 5021, 2002. [12] Greenberg R et al., Rev. Geophys. 40, 1004, 2002. [13] Matson DL et al., Icarus 187, 569-73, 2007. [14] McCarthy C et al., LPSC 39, 2512, 2008.

  20. Use of a new high-speed digital data acquisition system in airborne ice-sounding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, David L.; Bradley, Jerry A.; Hodge, Steven M.

    1989-01-01

    A high-speed digital data acquisition and signal averaging system for borehole, surface, and airborne radio-frequency geophysical measurements was designed and built by the US Geological Survey. The system permits signal averaging at rates high enough to achieve significant signal-to-noise enhancement in profiling, even in airborne applications. The first field use of the system took place in Greenland in 1987 for recording data on a 150 by 150-km grid centered on the summit of the Greenland ice sheet. About 6000-line km were flown and recorded using the new system. The data can be used to aid in siting a proposed scientific corehole through the ice sheet.

  1. Thermoeconomic optimal sizing for ice storage system in partial storage control strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.H.; Joo, Y.J.; Choi, B.Y.; Kwon, S.C.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes optimal sizing of ice storage and chiller system through parametric simulation for a commercial office building with peak cooling load of 600 tons. As an optimality criterion, the minimization of the annualized capital cost and fuel exergy costs on the basis of thermoeconomic analysis was chosen. This paper considers encapsulated ice storage system in chiller-downstream arrangement with chiller-priority control and storage-priority control strategies. Minimal required chiller sizes of the system for each control strategy are determined with storage fraction from 40% to 60%. The design condition, which has minimum cost, lies on the curve of the set of required chiller size and storage fraction. The optimal sizing is defined in this paper as the choice of size of chiller and storage tank, which leads to minimization of the annualized cost per exergy unit of product for the system.

  2. Development of a direct contact ice storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, R.

    1989-03-01

    The program described involves the design, construction, and performance testing of a Direct Freeze Thermal Energy Storage System. Task 1 (Design) has been completed; and Task 2 (construction) is in progress, with equipment procurements presently underway. Once constructed, the system will undergo extensive laboratory performance testing and analysis, followed by an assessment of the system`s cost effectiveness. This study will advance the understanding and development of the direct freeze concept, which offers inherent benefits for thermal energy storage.

  3. On the use of the point-mass modeling technique for assessing ice-mass variations in alpine glacier systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimond, Stefan; Baur, Oliver; Krauss, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    Most scientific studies dealing with gravity-based ice-mass balance estimations focus on the Earth's continental glacier systems, namely the Greenland and the Antarctica ice sheets. Alpine glacier regions such as the Alps, Himalaya or Patagonia, on the other hand, seem to be less considered. According to the most recent assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), however, glacier shrinkage is one of the most dominant contributors to global sea level rise. In this context we investigate the capability of the point-mass modeling technique to assess ice-mass variations in small-scale alpine regions from space-borne gravimetric data. Two different approaches of this method can be distinguished: point-mass modeling with (i) predefined and fixed positions and (ii) with unknown locations of the surface mass changes. Approach (i) yields a linear functional model in which only the magnitudes of the point-masses are considered unknown. A highly non-linear optimization problem needs to be solved for approach (ii), since both the magnitudes and the coordinates of the point-masses are introduced as unknown parameters. In addition to that, owing to the effect of downward continuation, this problem is categorized as ill-posed and needs to be remedied by introducing regularization. The L-curve criterion or the generalized cross-validation method are typically used for selecting a suitable regularization factor. We conducted a series of close-loop simulation tests for various alpine glacier systems to compare the two approaches. In order to solve the global optimization problems in (i) and (ii), we make use of genetic algorithms.

  4. Extraction and characterization of gelatin from two edible Sudanese insects and its applications in ice cream making.

    PubMed

    Mariod, Abdalbasit Adam; Fadul, Hadia

    2015-07-01

    Three methods were used for extraction of gelatin from two insects, melon bug (Coridius viduatus) and sorghum bug (Agonoscelis versicoloratus versicoloratus). Extraction of insect gelatin using hot water gave higher yield reached up to 3.0%, followed by mild acid extraction which gave 1.5% and distilled water extraction which gave only 1.0%, respectively. The obtained gelatins were characterized by FTIR and the spectra of insect's gelatin seem to be similar when compared with commercial gelatin. Amide II bands of gelatins from melon and sorghum bug appeared around at 1542-1537 cm(-1). Slight differences in the amino acid composition of gelatin extracted from the two insects were observed. Ice cream was made by using 0.5% insect's gelatin and compared with that made using 0.5% commercial gelatin as stabilizing agent. The properties of the obtained ice cream produced using insects gelatin were significantly different when compared with that made using commercial gelatin. PMID:24958775

  5. Reconstruction of the Greenland ice sheet dynamics in a fully coupled Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybak, Oleg; Volodin, Evgeny; Huybrechts, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Earth system models (ESMs) are undoubtedly effective tools for studying climate dynamics. Incorporation of evolving ice sheets to ESMs is a challenging task because response times of the climate system and of ice sheets differ by several orders of magnitude. Besides, AO GCMs operate on spatial and temporal resolutions substantially differing from those of ice sheet models (ICMs). Therefore elaboration of an effective coupling methodology of an AO GCM and an ICM is the key problem of an ESM construction and utilization. Several downscaling strategies of varying complexity exist now of data exchange between modeled climate system and ice sheets. Application of a particular strategy depends on the research objectives. In our view, the optimum approach for model studying of significant environmental changes (e.g. glacial/interglacial transitions) when ice sheets undergo substantial evolution of geometry and volume would be an asynchronous coupling. The latter allows simulation in the interactive way of growth and decay of ice sheets in the changing climatic conditions. In the focus of the presentation, is the overview of coupling aspects of an AO GCM INMCM32 elaborated in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics (Moscow, Russia) to the Greenland ice sheet model (GrISM, Vrije Uninersiteit Brussel, Belgium). To provide interactive coupling of INMCM32 (spatial resolution 5°×4°, 21 vertical layers and temporal resolution 6 min. in the atmospheric block) and GrISM (spatial resolution 20×20 km, 51 vertical layers and 1 yr temporal resolution), we employ a special energy- and water balance model (EWBM-G), which serves as a buffer providing effective data exchange between INMCM32 and GrISM. EWBM-G operates in a rectangle domain including Greenland. Transfer of daily meanings of simulated climatic variables (air surface temperature and specific humidity) is provided on the lateral boundarias of the domain and inside the domain (sea level air pressure, wind speed and total

  6. Making intelligent systems team players: Overview for designers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schreckenghost, Debra L.

    1992-01-01

    This report is a guide and companion to the NASA Technical Memorandum 104738, 'Making Intelligent Systems Team Players,' Volumes 1 and 2. The first two volumes of this Technical Memorandum provide comprehensive guidance to designers of intelligent systems for real-time fault management of space systems, with the objective of achieving more effective human interaction. This report provides an analysis of the material discussed in the Technical Memorandum. It clarifies what it means for an intelligent system to be a team player, and how such systems are designed. It identifies significant intelligent system design problems and their impacts on reliability and usability. Where common design practice is not effective in solving these problems, we make recommendations for these situations. In this report, we summarize the main points in the Technical Memorandum and identify where to look for further information.

  7. Experimental and analytical investigation of a freezing point depressant fluid ice protection system. M.S. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albright, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    A glycol-exuding porous leading edge ice protection system was tested in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel. Stainless steel mesh, laser drilled titanium, and composite panels were tested on two general aviation wing sections. Two different glycol-water solutions were evaluated. Minimum glycol flow rates required for anti-icing were obtained as a function of angle of attack, liquid water content, volume median drop diameter, temperature, and velocity. Ice accretions formed after five minutes of icing were shed in three minutes or less using a glycol fluid flow equal to the anti-ice flow rate. Two methods of predicting anti-ice flow rates are presented and compared with a large experimental data base of anti-ice flow rates over a wide range of icing conditions. The first method presented in the ADS-4 document typically predicts flow rates lower than the experimental flow rates. The second method, originally published in 1983, typically predicts flow rates up to 25 percent higher than the experimental flow rates. This method proved to be more consistent between wing-panel configurations. Significant correlation coefficients between the predicted flow rates and the experimental flow rates ranged from .867 to .947.

  8. Ice-Free Arctic Ocean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The current warming trends in the Arctic may shove the Arctic system into a seasonally ice-free state not seen for more than one million years, according to a new report. The melting is accelerating, and researchers were unable to identify any natural processes that might slow the deicing of the Arctic. "What really makes the Arctic different from…

  9. The Fate of De-icing Salts in Stormwater Management Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballestero, T. P.; Roseen, R. M.; Houle, J. J.

    2005-05-01

    The traditional paradigm behind the design of stormwater management systems is to minimize the water quantity and water quality impacts resulting from land modification. The intent is to yield post-development hydrology similar to pre-development hydrology. The water quality aspect has been primarily focused on sediment removal, however, rarely are stormwater management systems designed for removal of de-icing salt. Chloride toxicity effects upon aquatic organisms resulting from snowmelt runoff are pronounced, routine, and problematic in northern climates. The capacity of current management strategies to treat chloride is in question. This paper explores the fate of de-icing salt through 13 different stormwater management systems. The systems include swales, retention pond, infiltration systems, bioretention systems, wetlands, manufactured devices, and porous asphalt. All systems exist at a field site and are delivered the same runoff (quantity and quality). The devices were designed and installed in accordance with existing drainage manual recommendations. None were designed for salt removal. As expected, devices with minimal water storage do not remove salt. Devices that do have significant amounts of storage do not remove salt, however the effluent concentrations are not as high as the influent concentrations: the peak influent salt concentration is attenuated similar to how the peak inflow discharge is attenuated by storage routing. The porous asphalt has displayed some remarkable characteristics. This surface has remained permeable throughout the winter, even though in addition to the de-icing chemicals, sand is applied. It appears that very little de-icing salt is needed on the surface, which has enormous economic and environmental implications.

  10. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  11. Laboratory Studies of Ethane Ice Relevant to Outer Solar System Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Marla H.; Hudson, Reggie; Raines, Lily

    2009-01-01

    Oort Cloud comets, as well as TNOs Makemake (2045 FYg), Quaoar, and Pluto, are known to contain ethane. However, even though this molecule is found on several outer Solar System objects relatively little information is available about its amorphous and crystalline phases. In new experiments, we have prepared ethane ices at temperatures applicable to the outer Solar System, and have heated and ion-irradiated these ices to study phase changes and ethane's radiation chemistry using mid-IR spectroscopy (2.2 - 16.6 microns). Included in our work is the meta-stable phase that exists at 35 - 55 K. These results, including newly obtained optical constants, are relevant to ground-based observational campaigns, the New Horizons mission, and supporting laboratory work. An improved understanding of solid-phase ethane may contribute to future searches for this and other hydrocarbons in the outer Solar System.

  12. The IceCube data acquisition system for galactic core collapse supernova searches

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, Volker; Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory was designed to detect highly energetic neutrinos. The detector was built as a lattice of 5160 photomultiplier tubes monitoring one cubic kilometer of clear Antarctic ice. Due to low photomultiplier dark noise rates in the cold and radio-pure ice, IceCube is also able to detect bursts of O(10MeV) neutrinos expected to be emitted from core collapse supernovae. The detector will provide the world’s highest statistical precision for the lightcurves of galactic supernovae by observing an induced collective rise in all photomultiplier rates [1]. This paper presents the supernova data acquisition system, the search algorithms for galactic supernovae, as well as the recently implemented HitSpooling DAQ extension. HitSpooling will overcome the current limitation of transmitting photomultiplier rates in intervals of 1.6384 ms by storing all recorded time-stamped hits for supernova candidate triggers. From the corresponding event-based information, the average neutrino energy can be estimated and the background induced by detector noise and atmospheric muons can be reduced.

  13. Detection of the Impact of Ice Crystal Accretion in an Aircraft Engine Compression System During Dynamic Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Simon, Donald L.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2014-01-01

    The accretion of ice in the compression system of commercial gas turbine engines operating in high ice water content conditions is a safety issue being studied by the aviation community. While most of the research focuses on the underlying physics of ice accretion and the meteorological conditions in which accretion can occur, a systems-level perspective on the topic lends itself to potential near-term operational improvements. Here a detection algorithm is developed which has the capability to detect the impact of ice accretion in the Low Pressure Compressor of an aircraft engine during steady flight as well as during changes in altitude. Unfortunately, the algorithm as implemented was not able to distinguish throttle changes from ice accretion and thus more work remains to be done.

  14. Development and Implementation of a Model-Driven Envelope Protection System for In-Flight Ice Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gingras, David R.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Martos, Borja; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Morelli, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Fatal loss-of-control (LOC) accidents have been directly related to in-flight airframe icing. The prototype system presented in this paper directly addresses the need for real-time onboard envelope protection in icing conditions. The combinations of a-priori information and realtime aerodynamic estimations are shown to provide sufficient input for determining safe limits of the flight envelope during in-flight icing encounters. The Icing Contamination Envelope Protection (ICEPro) system has been designed and implemented to identify degradations in airplane performance and flying qualities resulting from ice contamination and provide safe flight-envelope cues to the pilot. Components of ICEPro are described and results from preliminary tests are presented.

  15. Advanced Optical Diagnostics for Ice Crystal Cloud Measurements in the NASA Glenn Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bencic, Timothy J.; Fagan, Amy; Van Zante, Judith F.; Kirkegaard, Jonathan P.; Rohler, David P.; Maniyedath, Arjun; Izen, Steven H.

    2013-01-01

    A light extinction tomography technique has been developed to monitor ice water clouds upstream of a direct connected engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The system consists of 60 laser diodes with sheet generating optics and 120 detectors mounted around a 36-inch diameter ring. The sources are pulsed sequentially while the detectors acquire line-of-sight extinction data for each laser pulse. Using computed tomography algorithms, the extinction data are analyzed to produce a plot of the relative water content in the measurement plane. To target the low-spatial-frequency nature of ice water clouds, unique tomography algorithms were developed using filtered back-projection methods and direct inversion methods that use Gaussian basis functions. With the availability of a priori knowledge of the mean droplet size and the total water content at some point in the measurement plane, the tomography system can provide near real-time in-situ quantitative full-field total water content data at a measurement plane approximately 5 feet upstream of the engine inlet. Results from ice crystal clouds in the PSL are presented. In addition to the optical tomography technique, laser sheet imaging has also been applied in the PSL to provide planar ice cloud uniformity and relative water content data during facility calibration before the tomography system was available and also as validation data for the tomography system. A comparison between the laser sheet system and light extinction tomography resulting data are also presented. Very good agreement of imaged intensity and water content is demonstrated for both techniques. Also, comparative studies between the two techniques show excellent agreement in calculation of bulk total water content averaged over the center of the pipe.

  16. Decision making algorithm for development strategy of information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derman, Galyna Y.; Nikitenko, Olena D.; Kotyra, Andrzej; Bazarova, Madina; Kassymkhanova, Dana

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents algorithm of decision making for development strategy of information systems. The process of development is planned taking into account the internal and external factors of the enterprise which affect the prospects of development of both the information system and the whole enterprise. The initial state of the system must be taken into account. The total risk is the criterion for selecting the strategy. The risk is calculated using statistical and fuzzy data of system's parameters. These data are summarized by means of the function of uncertainty. The software for the realization of the algorithm of decision making on choosing the development strategy of information system is developed and created in this paper.

  17. Remote profiling of lake ice thickness using a short pulse radar system aboard a C-47 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. W.; Heighway, J. E.; Shook, D. F.; Jirberg, R. J.; Vickers, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    Design and operation of short pulse radar systems for use in ice thickness measurement are described. Two ice profiling systems were tested, an S system which used either random noise or continous wave modulation at 2.8 GHz and a less powerful C band system which operated at 6.0 GHz and did not have random noise modulation. Flight altitudes of 4,000 feet were used, but the S band system was usable at 7,000 feet allowing flights in poor weather conditions. A minimum ice thickness of four inches is required for measurement, while the thickest ice measured was 36 inches. System accuracy is plus or minus one inch.

  18. Modeling the Effects of Ice Accretion on the Low Pressure Compressor and the Overall Turbofan Engine System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph P.; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Wright, William B.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study is on utilizing a mean line compressor flow analysis code coupled to an engine system thermodynamic code, to estimate the effects of ice accretion on the low pressure compressor, and quantifying its effects on the engine system throughout a notional flight trajectory. In this paper a temperature range in which engine icing would occur was assumed. This provided a mechanism to locate potential component icing sites and allow the computational tools to add blockages due to ice accretion in a parametric fashion. Ultimately the location and level of blockage due to icing would be provided by an ice accretion code. To proceed, an engine system modeling code and a mean line compressor flow analysis code were utilized to calculate the flow conditions in the fan-core and low pressure compressor and to identify potential locations within the compressor where ice may accrete. In this study, an "additional blockage" due to the accretion of ice on the metal surfaces, has been added to the baseline aerodynamic blockage due to boundary layer, as well as the blade metal blockage. Once the potential locations of ice accretion are identified, the levels of additional blockage due to accretion were parametrically varied to estimate the effects on the low pressure compressor blade row performance operating within the engine system environment. This study includes detailed analysis of compressor and engine performance during cruise and descent operating conditions at several altitudes within the notional flight trajectory. The purpose of this effort is to develop the computer codes to provide a predictive capability to forecast the onset of engine icing events, such that they could ultimately help in the avoidance of these events.

  19. Stochastic ice stream dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantelli, Elisa; Bertagni, Matteo Bernard; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-08-01

    Ice streams are narrow corridors of fast-flowing ice that constitute the arterial drainage network of ice sheets. Therefore, changes in ice stream flow are key to understanding paleoclimate, sea level changes, and rapid disintegration of ice sheets during deglaciation. The dynamics of ice flow are tightly coupled to the climate system through atmospheric temperature and snow recharge, which are known exhibit stochastic variability. Here we focus on the interplay between stochastic climate forcing and ice stream temporal dynamics. Our work demonstrates that realistic climate fluctuations are able to (i) induce the coexistence of dynamic behaviors that would be incompatible in a purely deterministic system and (ii) drive ice stream flow away from the regime expected in a steady climate. We conclude that environmental noise appears to be crucial to interpreting the past behavior of ice sheets, as well as to predicting their future evolution.

  20. Stochastic ice stream dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mantelli, Elisa; Bertagni, Matteo Bernard; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-08-01

    Ice streams are narrow corridors of fast-flowing ice that constitute the arterial drainage network of ice sheets. Therefore, changes in ice stream flow are key to understanding paleoclimate, sea level changes, and rapid disintegration of ice sheets during deglaciation. The dynamics of ice flow are tightly coupled to the climate system through atmospheric temperature and snow recharge, which are known exhibit stochastic variability. Here we focus on the interplay between stochastic climate forcing and ice stream temporal dynamics. Our work demonstrates that realistic climate fluctuations are able to (i) induce the coexistence of dynamic behaviors that would be incompatible in a purely deterministic system and (ii) drive ice stream flow away from the regime expected in a steady climate. We conclude that environmental noise appears to be crucial to interpreting the past behavior of ice sheets, as well as to predicting their future evolution. PMID:27457960

  1. Monitoring and decision making by people in man machine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannsen, G.

    1979-01-01

    The analysis of human monitoring and decision making behavior as well as its modeling are described. Classic and optimal control theoretical, monitoring models are surveyed. The relationship between attention allocation and eye movements is discussed. As an example of applications, the evaluation of predictor displays by means of the optimal control model is explained. Fault detection involving continuous signals and decision making behavior of a human operator engaged in fault diagnosis during different operation and maintenance situations are illustrated. Computer aided decision making is considered as a queueing problem. It is shown to what extent computer aids can be based on the state of human activity as measured by psychophysiological quantities. Finally, management information systems for different application areas are mentioned. The possibilities of mathematical modeling of human behavior in complex man machine systems are also critically assessed.

  2. Earth Observing System (EOS) Snow and Ice Products for Observation and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D.; Kaminski, M.; Cavalieri, D.; Dickinson, R.; Marquis, M.; Riggs, G.; Robinson, D.; VanWoert, M.; Wolfe, R.

    2005-01-01

    Snow and ice are the key components of the Earth's cryosphere, and their influence on the Earth's energy balance is very significant due at least in part to the large areal extent and high albedo characterizing these features. Large changes in the cryosphere have been measured over the last century and especially over the past decade, and remote sensing plays a pivotal role in documenting these changes. Many of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) products derived from instruments on the Terra, Aqua, and Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) satellites are useful for measuring changes in features that are associated with climate change. The utility of the products is continually enhanced as the length of the time series increases. To gain a more coherent view of the cryosphere and its historical and recent changes, the EOS products may be employed together, in conjunction with other sources of data, and in models. To further this goal, the first EOS Snow and Ice Products Workshop was convened. The specific goals of the workshop were to provide current and prospective users of EOS snow and ice products up-to-date information on the products, their validation status and future enhancements, to help users utilize the data products through hands-on demonstrations, and to facilitate the integration of EOS products into models. Oral and poster sessions representing a wide variety of snow and ice topics were held; three panels were also convened to discuss workshop themes. Panel discussions focused on data fusion and assimilation of the products into models. Approximately 110 people attended, representing a wide array of interests and organizations in the cryospheric community.

  3. A safety-based decision making architecture for autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musto, Joseph C.; Lauderbaugh, L. K.

    1991-01-01

    Engineering systems designed specifically for space applications often exhibit a high level of autonomy in the control and decision-making architecture. As the level of autonomy increases, more emphasis must be placed on assimilating the safety functions normally executed at the hardware level or by human supervisors into the control architecture of the system. The development of a decision-making structure which utilizes information on system safety is detailed. A quantitative measure of system safety, called the safety self-information, is defined. This measure is analogous to the reliability self-information defined by McInroy and Saridis, but includes weighting of task constraints to provide a measure of both reliability and cost. An example is presented in which the safety self-information is used as a decision criterion in a mobile robot controller. The safety self-information is shown to be consistent with the entropy-based Theory of Intelligent Machines defined by Saridis.

  4. Making the System Work for Your Child with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Peter S.

    2004-01-01

    Even for parents who "do everything right," the road to successful management of ADHD is seldom smooth. Now leading child psychiatrist Dr. Peter Jensen guides parents over the rough patches and around the hairpin curves in this empowering, highly informative book. Readers learn the "whats," "whys," and "how-tos" of making the system work-getting…

  5. Decision Making Methods in Space Economics and Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews various methods of decision making and the impact that they have on space economics and systems engineering. Some of the methods discussed are: Present Value and Internal Rate of Return (IRR); Cost-Benefit Analysis; Real Options; Cost-Effectiveness Analysis; Cost-Utility Analysis; Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT); and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP).

  6. Parental Decision Making in an Education Voucher System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, R. Gary

    Parental decisionmaking is the keystone of any voucher model. This paper examines the parental decisionmaking process as it has unfolded in the educational voucher experiment in the Alum Rock school system near San Jose, California. The author assumed at the outset that parents cannot make intelligent choices between schooling alternatives if they…

  7. Physico-chemistry of ices in space: from Earth to the ISS to the solar system and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, J.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Fraser, H.; Garcia Ruiz, J.; Hadamcik, E.; Levasseur-Regourd, A.; Sarkissan, A.; Price, S.; Prodi, F.; Williams, D.

    Ices are observed throughout the universe: in other galaxies, star-forming regions, in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and in protoplanetary disks. Molecular ices are also widespread in our Solar System: they cover the poles of terrestrial planets (e.g. Earth, Mars), the surfaces of planets, moons, and smaller bodies in the outer solar system (e.g. Europa, comets), and exist in planetary atmospheres, including our own. This ESA-funded Topical Team was formed in response to the International Announcement of Opportunity 2000, in Basic and Applied Physical Sciences, to investigate future research directions in ice physics and chemistry in support of astronomy, aeronomy and atmospheric sciences. These investigations have included laboratory based requirements, experiments under micro- or reduced gravity, and exploration of our local solar system. Many experiments that evaluate the physical and chemical properties of the ice under realistic atmospheric / astronomical conditions require small particles or clouds. In both instances ice studies under microgravity conditions offer significant advantages. By studying the surface and bulk morphology of molecular ices in microgravity over a range of pressure and temperature conditions, we will be able to emulate ice morphologies in other regions of our universe. This will also include the characterization of icy aerosol particles which play an important role in Earth's climate system and in atmospheric chemistry. In this paper we will present the team's key findings, describing the research that is possible with existing laboratory and ISS facilities, as well as planned and future ISS facilities and space-based missions.

  8. Remote Pulsed Laser Raman Spectroscopy System for Detecting Qater, Ice, and Hydrous Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Christopher S.; Abedin, M. Nuraul; Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Ismail, Syed; Singh, Upendra; Refaat, Tamer F.; Elsayed-Ali, Hani; Sandford, Steve

    2006-01-01

    For exploration of planetary surfaces, detection of water and ice is of great interest in supporting existence of life on other planets. Therefore, a remote Raman spectroscopy system was demonstrated at NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with University of Hawaii for detecting ice-water and hydrous minerals on planetary surfaces. In this study, a 532 nm pulsed laser is utilized as an excitation source to allow detection in high background radiation conditions. The Raman scattered signal is collected by a 4-inch telescope positioned in front of a spectrograph. The Raman spectrum is analyzed using a spectrograph equipped with a holographic super notch filter to eliminate Rayleigh scattering, and a holographic transmission grating that simultaneously disperses two spectral tracks onto the detector for higher spectral range. To view the spectrum, the spectrograph is coupled to an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD), which allows detection of very weak Stokes line. The ICCD is operated in gated mode to further suppress effects from background radiation and long-lived fluorescence. The sample is placed at 5.6 m from the telescope, and the laser is mounted on the telescope in a coaxial geometry to achieve maximum performance. The system was calibrated using the spectral lines of a Neon lamp source. To evaluate the system, Raman standard samples such as calcite, naphthalene, acetone, and isopropyl alcohol were analyzed. The Raman evaluation technique was used to analyze water, ice and other hydrous minerals and results from these species are presented.

  9. Methanol ice on the surface of minor bodies in the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlin, F.; Quirico, E.; Barucci, M. A.; de Bergh, C.

    2012-08-01

    Aims: Spectral analyses of trans-Neptunan objects (TNOs) and of the linked Centaurs, which are supposed to be among the most primitive minor bodies in the solar system, reveal some chemical and physical properties of their surface. To determine the surface composition of these objects and their surface evolution is essential for gaining clues on the conditions under which the solar system has been formed. Methods: Chemical composition and physical properties of the surface of three objects have been constrained by computing the depth of the absorption features of the spectra in the near-infrared, running spectral models based on radiative transfer theory in the [0.4-2.3] μm range, and analyzing new laboratory measurements of the spectral behavior of thin samples of H2O-CH3OH mixtures. Results: Our investigations allow us to confirm the presence of CH3OH ice on the surface of the Centaur (5145) Pholus and the resonant (55638) TNO 2002 VE95. It may also possibly be found on the classical TNO (120348) 2004 TY364. Our laboratory experiments indicate that the behavior of the methanol and water ice absorption bands is dependent on the ambient temperature and the dilution level of the mixture. These results also suggest that methanol may be diluted in water ice on the surface of the Centaur Pholus. Conclusions: Formation and destruction processes of methanol suggest that a part (at least) of the surface of these objects is younger than the solar system age. If confirmed, this shows that primordial ices could still be detected on the surface of objects that are submitted to irradiation and rejuvenation processes.

  10. Tracer gauge: an automated dye dilution gauging system for ice-affected streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clow, D.W.; Fleming, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    In-stream flow protection programs require accurate, real-time streamflow data to aid in the protection of aquatic ecosystems during winter base flow periods. In cold regions, however, winter streamflow often can only be estimated because in-channel ice causes variable backwater conditions and alters the stage-discharge relation. In this study, an automated dye dilution gauging system, a tracer gauge, was developed for measuring discharge in ice-affected streams. Rhodamine WT is injected into the stream at a constant rate, and downstream concentrations are measured with a submersible fluorometer. Data loggers control system operations, monitor key variables, and perform discharge calculations. Comparison of discharge from the tracer gauge and from a Cipoletti weir during periods of extensive ice cover indicated that the root-mean-square error of the tracer gauge was 0.029 m3 s−1, or 6.3% of average discharge for the study period. The tracer gauge system can provide much more accurate data than is currently available for streams that are strongly ice affected and, thus, could substantially improve management of in-stream flow protection programs during winter in cold regions. Care must be taken, however, to test for the validity of key assumptions, including complete mixing and conservative behavior of dye, no changes in storage, and no gains or losses of water to or from the stream along the study reach. These assumptions may be tested by measuring flow-weighted dye concentrations across the stream, performing dye mass balance analyses, and evaluating breakthrough curve behavior.

  11. Pilot interaction with automated airborne decision making systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, W. B.; Chu, Y. Y.; Greenstein, J. S.; Walden, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was made of interaction between a human pilot and automated on-board decision making systems. Research was initiated on the topic of pilot problem solving in automated and semi-automated flight management systems and attempts were made to develop a model of human decision making in a multi-task situation. A study was made of allocation of responsibility between human and computer, and discussed were various pilot performance parameters with varying degrees of automation. Optimal allocation of responsibility between human and computer was considered and some theoretical results found in the literature were presented. The pilot as a problem solver was discussed. Finally the design of displays, controls, procedures, and computer aids for problem solving tasks in automated and semi-automated systems was considered.

  12. Leveraging Cloud Technology to Provide a Responsive, Reliable and Scalable Backend for the Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory Using the Ice Sheet System Model and Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, G. L.; Larour, E. Y.; Halkides, D. J.; Cheng, D. L. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory(VISL) is a Cryosphere outreach effort byscientists at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory(JPL) in Pasadena, CA, Earth and SpaceResearch(ESR) in Seattle, WA, and the University of California at Irvine (UCI), with the goal of providing interactive lessons for K-12 and college level students,while conforming to STEM guidelines. At the core of VISL is the Ice Sheet System Model(ISSM), an open-source project developed jointlyat JPL and UCI whose main purpose is to model the evolution of the polar ice caps in Greenland and Antarctica. By using ISSM, VISL students have access tostate-of-the-art modeling software that is being used to conduct scientificresearch by users all over the world. However, providing this functionality isby no means simple. The modeling of ice sheets in response to sea and atmospheric temperatures, among many other possible parameters, requiressignificant computational resources. Furthermore, this service needs to beresponsive and capable of handling burst requests produced by classrooms ofstudents. Cloud computing providers represent a burgeoning industry. With majorinvestments by tech giants like Amazon, Google and Microsoft, it has never beeneasier or more affordable to deploy computational elements on-demand. This isexactly what VISL needs and ISSM is capable of. Moreover, this is a promisingalternative to investing in expensive and rapidly devaluing hardware.

  13. Discrete Element Method Simulations of Ice Floe Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calantoni, J.; Bateman, S. P.; Shi, F.; Orzech, M.; Veeramony, J.

    2014-12-01

    Ice floes were modeled using LIGGGHTS, an open source discrete element method (DEM) software, where individual elements were bonded together to make floes. The bonds were allowed to break with a critical stress calibrated to existing laboratory measurements for the compressive, tensile, and flexural strength of ice floes. The DEM allows for heterogeneous shape and size distributions of the ice floes to evolve over time. We simulated the interaction between sea ice and ocean waves in the marginal ice zone using a coupled wave-ice system. The waves were modeled with NHWAVE, a non-hydrostatic wave model that predicts instantaneous surface elevation and the three-dimensional flow field. The ice floes and waves were coupled through buoyancy and drag forces. Preliminary comparisons with field and laboratory measurements for coupled simulations will be presented.

  14. Greenland Ice Sheet glacier motion and ice loss: New understanding of ice sheet behavior through remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, T. A.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Scambos, T.; Joughin, I.

    2015-12-01

    Ice loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet makes up roughly a third of current sea level rise, also generating substantial local and regional freshwater fluxes. Containing more than 6 meters of sea level rise equivalent in ice, Greenland has the potential to contribute much more to rising ocean levels and freshening water in the future. Understanding the dynamics of the ice sheet, particularly the behavior of fast flowing coastal outlet glaciers, is critical to improving predictions of future ice sheet change and associated impacts. Combining velocity, glacier ice front, sea ice, and ice sheet surface melt data, we made several important advances in characterizing and understanding seasonal glacier behavior and the processes driving change: 1) seasonal velocity patterns fall into at least 3 distinct patterns, 2) these seasonal velocity patterns likely indicate differences in glacier responsiveness to ocean versus subglacial hydrologic processes, and 3) in some regions seasonal versus multi-year velocity changes appear most strongly influenced by different environmental factors. Further progress was previously hampered by limits in measurement resolution across space and time. To address this challenge, we are creating a new - and continuously growing - ice velocity dataset from Landsat 8 imagery. This data stream supports comprehensive global measurements of ice flow, providing a leap in our understanding of ice sheet motion across space and time. We offer a high-level discussion of our research findings and an introduction to the new Landsat 8-enabled data stream. Our results and measurement capabilities deliver critical new knowledge about ice sheet behavior and interaction with ocean and climate factors. These advances, in turn, have important implications for other elements of Earth system research, including climate, oceanography, and biology.

  15. Pilot interaction with automated airborne decision making systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, John M.

    1990-01-01

    Ways in which computers can aid the decision making of an human operator of an aerospace system are investigated. The approach taken is to aid rather than replace the human operator, because operational experience has shown that humans can enhance the effectiveness of systems. As systems become more automated, the role of the operator has shifted to that of a manager and problem solver. This shift has created the research area of how to aid the human in this role. Published research in four areas is described. A discussion is presented of the DC-8 flight simulator at Georgia Tech.

  16. Seasonal forecast skill of Arctic sea ice area in a dynamical forecast system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmond, M.; Fyfe, J. C.; Flato, G. M.; Kharin, V. V.; Merryfield, W. J.

    2013-02-01

    AbstractWe assess the seasonal forecast skill of pan-Arctic sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> area in a dynamical forecast <span class="hlt">system</span> that includes interactive atmosphere, ocean, and sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> components. Forecast skill is quantified by the correlation skill score computed from 12 month ensemble forecasts initialized in each month between January 1979 to December 2009. We find that forecast skill is substantial for all lead times and predicted seasons except spring but is mainly due to the strong downward trend in observations for lead times of about 4 months and longer. Skill is higher when evaluated against an observation-based dataset with larger trends. The forecast skill when linear trends are removed from the forecasts and verifying observations is small and generally not statistically significant at lead times greater than 2 to 3 months, except for January/February when forecast skill is moderately high up to an 11 month lead time. For short lead times, high trend-independent forecast skill is found for October, while low skill is found for November/December. This is consistent with the seasonal variation of observed lag correlations. For most predicted months and lead times, trend-independent forecast skill exceeds that of an anomaly persistence forecast, highlighting the potential for dynamical forecast <span class="hlt">systems</span> to provide valuable seasonal predictions of Arctic sea <span class="hlt">ice</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/181896','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/181896"><span id="translatedtitle">Asthenospheric <span class="hlt">ice</span>-load effects in a global dynamical-<span class="hlt">system</span> model of the Pleistocene climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Saltzman, B.; Verbitsky, M.Ya.</p> <p>1992-10-01</p> <p>In a previous dynamical model the late Cenozoic climate variations were simulated, taking into account free and forced variations of atmospheric carbon dioxide acting in concert with changes in global <span class="hlt">ice</span> mass and the deep ocean thermal state, all under the influence of the known earth-orbital radiative changes. This model is now extended by adding another relevant variable, bedrock/asthenosphere depression, including its associated <span class="hlt">ice</span>-calving effects. Within the context of this extended model we (1) demonstrate the main results of previous bedrock/<span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet models in what we believe is the simplest possible manner, (2) show how these previous models can exhibit the mid-Pleistocene transition with the inclusion of CO{sub 2} effects, (3) discuss the limitations of these previous bedrock models, and (4) illustrate the possibility of removing some of these limitations and accounting for further aspects of the paleoclimate record by using the full dynamical <span class="hlt">system</span> that includes forced and free effects of CO{sub 2}, as well as effects of bedrock depression and Milankovitch forcing. As one example of a new possibility, with bedrock effects included in the full <span class="hlt">system</span> we can obtain a solution characterized by irregularly spaced, intermittent episodes in which the behavior is dominated either by near-40 kyr period oscillations or by near-100 kyr periods (such as prevailed over the Pleistocene). 27 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22167525','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22167525"><span id="translatedtitle">THE RADIAL DISTRIBUTION OF WATER <span class="hlt">ICE</span> AND CHROMOPHORES ACROSS SATURN'S <span class="hlt">SYSTEM</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Filacchione, G.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Tosi, F.; Ciarniello, M.; Clark, R. N.; Nicholson, P. D.; Lunine, J. I.; Hedman, M. M.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Brown, R. H.; Buratti, B. J.; Flamini, E.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Over the past eight years, the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) on board the Cassini orbiter has returned hyperspectral images in the 0.35-5.1 {mu}m range of the icy satellites and rings of Saturn. These very different objects show significant variations in surface composition, roughness, and regolith grain size as a result of their evolutionary histories, endogenic processes, and interactions with exogenic particles. The distributions of surface water <span class="hlt">ice</span> and chromophores, i.e., organic and non-icy materials, across the Saturnian <span class="hlt">system</span>, are traced using specific spectral indicators (spectral slopes and absorption band depths) obtained from rings mosaics and disk-integrated satellites observations by VIMS. Moving from the inner C ring to Iapetus, we found a marking uniformity in the distribution of abundance of water <span class="hlt">ice</span>. On the other hand, the distribution of chromophores is much more concentrated in the rings particles and on the outermost satellites (Rhea, Hyperion, and Iapetus). A reduction of red material is observed on the satellites' surfaces orbiting within the E ring environment likely due to fine particles from Enceladus' plumes. Once the exogenous dark material covering the Iapetus' leading hemisphere is removed, the texture of the water <span class="hlt">ice</span>-rich surfaces, inferred through the 2 {mu}m band depth, appears remarkably uniform across the entire <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100042407','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100042407"><span id="translatedtitle">Examination of <span class="hlt">Icing</span> Induced Loss of Control and Its Mitigations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reehorst, Andrew L.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Colantonio, Renato O.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Factors external to the aircraft are often a significant causal factor in loss of control (LOC) accidents. In today s aviation world, very few accidents stem from a single cause and typically have a number of causal factors that culminate in a LOC accident. Very often the "trigger" that initiates an accident sequence is an external environment factor. In a recent NASA statistical analysis of LOC accidents, aircraft <span class="hlt">icing</span> was shown to be the most common external environmental LOC causal factor for scheduled operations. When investigating LOC accident or incidents aircraft <span class="hlt">icing</span> causal factors can be categorized into groups of 1) in-flight encounter with super-cooled liquid water clouds, 2) take-off with <span class="hlt">ice</span> contamination, or 3) in-flight encounter with high concentrations of <span class="hlt">ice</span> crystals. As with other flight hazards, <span class="hlt">icing</span> induced LOC accidents can be prevented through avoidance, detection, and recovery mitigations. For <span class="hlt">icing</span> hazards, avoidance can take the form of avoiding flight into <span class="hlt">icing</span> conditions or avoiding the hazard of <span class="hlt">icing</span> by <span class="hlt">making</span> the aircraft tolerant to <span class="hlt">icing</span> conditions. <span class="hlt">Icing</span> detection mitigations can take the form of detecting <span class="hlt">icing</span> conditions or detecting early performance degradation caused by <span class="hlt">icing</span>. Recovery from <span class="hlt">icing</span> induced LOC requires flight crew or automated <span class="hlt">systems</span> capable of accounting for reduced aircraft performance and degraded control authority during the recovery maneuvers. In this report we review the <span class="hlt">icing</span> induced LOC accident mitigations defined in a recent LOC study and for each mitigation describe a research topic required to enable or strengthen the mitigation. Many of these research topics are already included in ongoing or planned NASA <span class="hlt">icing</span> research activities or are being addressed by members of the <span class="hlt">icing</span> research community. These research activities are described and the status of the ongoing or planned research to address the technology needs is discussed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1047150','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1047150"><span id="translatedtitle">An update on land-<span class="hlt">ice</span> modeling in the CESM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lipscomb, William H</p> <p>2011-01-18</p> <p>Mass loss from land <span class="hlt">ice</span>, including the Greenland and Antarctic <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheets as well as smaller glacier and <span class="hlt">ice</span> caps, is <span class="hlt">making</span> a large and growing contribution to global sea-level rise. Land <span class="hlt">ice</span> is only beginning to be incorporated in climate models. The goal of the Land <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Working Group (LIWG) is to develop improved land-<span class="hlt">ice</span> models and incorporate them in CESM, in order to provide useful, physically-based sea-level predictions. LJWG efforts to date have led to the inclusion of a dynamic <span class="hlt">ice</span>-sheet model (the Glimmer Community <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Sheet Model, or Glimmer-CISM) in the Community Earth <span class="hlt">System</span> Model (CESM), which was released in June 2010. CESM also includes a new surface-mass-balance scheme for <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheets in the Community Land Model. Initial modeling efforts are focused on the Greenland <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet. Preliminary results are promising. In particular, the simulated surface mass balance for Greenland is in good agreement with observations and regional model results. The current model, however, has significant limitations: The land-<span class="hlt">ice</span> coupling is one-way; we are using a serial version of Glimmer-CISM with the shallow-<span class="hlt">ice</span> approximation; and there is no <span class="hlt">ice</span>-ocean coupling. During the next year we plan to implement two-way coupling (including <span class="hlt">ice</span>-ocean coupling with a dynamic Antarctic <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet) with a parallel , higher-order version of Glimmer-CISM. We will also add parameterizations of small glaciers and <span class="hlt">ice</span> caps. With these model improvements, CESM will be able to simulate all the major contributors to 21st century global sea-level rise. Results of the first round of simulations should be available in time to be included in the Fifth Assessment Report (ARS) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C31D0348P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C31D0348P"><span id="translatedtitle">Top Sounder <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Penetration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Porter, D. L.; Goemmer, S. A.; Sweeney, J. H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Ice</span> draft measurements are made as part of normal operations for all US Navy submarines operating in the Arctic Ocean. The submarine <span class="hlt">ice</span> draft data are unique in providing high resolution measurements over long transects of the <span class="hlt">ice</span> covered ocean. The data has been used to document a multidecadal drop in <span class="hlt">ice</span> thickness, and for validating and improving numerical sea-<span class="hlt">ice</span> models. A submarine upward-looking sonar draft measurement is made by a sonar transducer mounted in the sail or deck of the submarine. An acoustic beam is transmitted upward through the water column, reflecting off the bottom of the sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> and returning to the transducer. <span class="hlt">Ice</span> thickness is estimated as the difference between the ship's depth (measured by pressure) and the acoustic range to the bottom of the <span class="hlt">ice</span> estimated from the travel time of the sonar pulse. Digital recording <span class="hlt">systems</span> can provide the return off the water-<span class="hlt">ice</span> interface as well as returns that have penetrated the <span class="hlt">ice</span>. Typically, only the first return from the <span class="hlt">ice</span> hull is analyzed. Information regarding <span class="hlt">ice</span> flow interstitial layers provides <span class="hlt">ice</span> age information and may possibly be derived with the entire return signal. The approach being investigated is similar to that used in measuring bottom sediment layers and will involve measuring the echo level from the first interface, solving the reflection loss from that transmission, and employing reflection loss versus impedance mismatch to ascertain <span class="hlt">ice</span> structure information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1005631','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1005631"><span id="translatedtitle">Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction Investigation of the Anomalous Behavior of <span class="hlt">Ice</span> During Freezing of Aqueous <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Varshney, Dushyant B.; Elliott, James A.; Gatlin, Larry A.; Kumar, Satyendra; Suryanarayanan, Raj; Shalaev, Evgenyi Y.</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>Simple aqueous <span class="hlt">systems</span>, i.e., phosphate-glycine buffers and pure water, were studied at subambient temperatures by X-ray difractometry using a high-intensity synchrotron radiation source at the Advanced Photon Source of Argonne National Laboratory. Complex X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, with two or more poorly resolved peaks in place of each of the four diagnostic peaks of hexagonal <span class="hlt">ice</span>, 100, 002, 101, and 102, referred as 'splitting', were observed in the majority of cases. The splitting of up to 0.05 {angstrom} (d-spacing) was detected for 100, 002, and 101 peaks, whereas 102 peak was less affected. Deformation of the lattice of hexagonal <span class="hlt">ice</span>, probably due to local stress created on the <span class="hlt">ice/ice</span> or <span class="hlt">ice</span>/container interface during water-to-<span class="hlt">ice</span> transformation, is proposed as a possible mechanism for the observed splitting of XRD peaks. Using molecular modeling, it was estimated that the observed shifts in the peak positions are equivalent to applying a hydrostatic pressure of 2-3 kbars. The splitting can be used to quantify stresses during freezing, which could improve our understanding of the role of water-to-<span class="hlt">ice</span> transformation on the destabilization of proteins and other biological <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810014536','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810014536"><span id="translatedtitle">Commercial aviation <span class="hlt">icing</span> research requirements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koegeboehn, L. P.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>A short range and long range <span class="hlt">icing</span> research program was proposed. A survey was made to various industry and goverment agencies to obtain their views of needs for commercial aviation <span class="hlt">ice</span> protection. Through these responsed, other additional data, and Douglas Aircraft <span class="hlt">icing</span> expertise; an assessment of the state-of-the-art of aircraft <span class="hlt">icing</span> data and <span class="hlt">ice</span> protection <span class="hlt">systems</span> was made. The information was then used to formulate the <span class="hlt">icing</span> research programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019595','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019595"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Making</span> intelligent <span class="hlt">systems</span> team players: Additional case studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Malin, Jane T.; Schreckenghost, Debra L.; Rhoads, Ron W.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Observations from a case study of intelligent <span class="hlt">systems</span> are reported as part of a multi-year interdisciplinary effort to provide guidance and assistance for designers of intelligent <span class="hlt">systems</span> and their user interfaces. A series of studies were conducted to investigate issues in designing intelligent fault management <span class="hlt">systems</span> in aerospace applications for effective human-computer interaction. The results of the initial study are documented in two NASA technical memoranda: TM 104738 <span class="hlt">Making</span> Intelligent <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Team Players: Case Studies and Design Issues, Volumes 1 and 2; and TM 104751, <span class="hlt">Making</span> Intelligent <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Team Players: Overview for Designers. The objective of this additional study was to broaden the investigation of human-computer interaction design issues beyond the focus on monitoring and fault detection in the initial study. The results of this second study are documented which is intended as a supplement to the original design guidance documents. These results should be of interest to designers of intelligent <span class="hlt">systems</span> for use in real-time operations, and to researchers in the areas of human-computer interaction and artificial intelligence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770015870&hterms=decision+making+system&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddecision%2Bmaking%2Bsystem','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770015870&hterms=decision+making+system&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddecision%2Bmaking%2Bsystem"><span id="translatedtitle">Facts and fiction of learning <span class="hlt">systems</span>. [decision <span class="hlt">making</span> intelligent control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Saridis, G. N.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The methodology that will provide the updated precision for the hardware control and the advanced decision <span class="hlt">making</span> and planning in the software control is called learning <span class="hlt">systems</span> and intelligent control. It was developed theoretically as an alternative for the nonsystematic heuristic approaches of artificial intelligence experiments and the inflexible formulation of modern optimal control methods. Its basic concepts are discussed and some feasibility studies of some practical applications are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930082173','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930082173"><span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory Investigation of <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Formation and Elimination in the Induction <span class="hlt">System</span> of a Large Twin-engine Cargo Aircraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Colis, William D</p> <p>1947-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">icing</span> characteristics, the de-<span class="hlt">icing</span> rate with hot air, and the effect of impact <span class="hlt">ice</span> on fuel metering and mixture distribution have been determined in a laboratory investigation of that part of the engine induction <span class="hlt">system</span> consisting of a three-barrel injection-type carburetor and a supercharger housing with spinner-type fuel injection from an 18-cylinder radial engine used on a large twin-engine cargo airplane. The induction <span class="hlt">system</span> remained <span class="hlt">ice</span>-free at carburetor-air temperatures above 36 F regardless of the moisture content of the air. Between carburetor-air temperatures of 32 F and 36 F with humidity ratios in excess of saturation, serious throttling <span class="hlt">ice</span> formed in the carburetor because of expansion cooling of the air; at carburetor-air temperatures below 32 F with humidity ratios in excess of saturation, serious impact-<span class="hlt">ice</span> formations occurred, Spinner-type fuel injection at the entrance to the supercharger and heating of the supercharger-inlet elbow and the guide vanes by the warn oil in the rear engine housing are design features that proved effective in eliminating fuel-evaporation <span class="hlt">icing</span> and minimized the formation of throttling <span class="hlt">ice</span> below the carburetor. Air-flow recovery time with fixed throttle was rapidly reduced as the inlet -air wet -bulb temperature was increased to 55 F; further temperature increase produced negligible improvement in recovery time. Larger <span class="hlt">ice</span> formations and lower <span class="hlt">icing</span> temperatures increased the time required to restore proper air flow at a given wet-bulb temperature. Impact-<span class="hlt">ice</span> formations on the entrance screen and the top of the carburetor reduced the over-all fuel-air ratio and increased the spread between the over-all ratio and the fuel-air ratio of the individual cylinders. The normal spread of fuel-air ratio was increased from 0.020 to 0.028 when the left quarter of the entrance screen was blocked in a manner simulating the blocking resulting from <span class="hlt">ice</span> formations released from upstream duct walls during hot-air de-<span class="hlt">icing</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050186610&hterms=Research+World&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DResearch%2BWorld','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050186610&hterms=Research+World&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DResearch%2BWorld"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Icing</span> Research Tunnel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chennault, Jonathan</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Icing</span> Research Tunnel in Building 11 at the NASA Glenn Research Center is committed to researching the effects of in flight <span class="hlt">icing</span> on aircraft and testing ways to stop the formation of hazardous <span class="hlt">icing</span> conditions on planes. During this summer, I worked here with Richard DelRosa, the lead engineer for this area. address one of the major concerns of aviation: <span class="hlt">icing</span> conditions. During the war, many planes crashed (especially supply planes going over the.Himalayas) because <span class="hlt">ice</span> built up in their wings and clogged the engines. To this day, it remains the largest <span class="hlt">ice</span> tunnel in the world, with a test section that measures 6 feet high, 9 feet long, and 20 feet wide. It can simulate airspeeds from 50 to 300 miles per hour at temperatures as low as -50 Fahrenheit. Using these capabilities, IRT can simulate actual conditions at high altitudes. The first thing I did was creating a cross reference in Microsoft Excel. It lists commands for the DPU units that control the pressure and temperature variations in the tunnel, as well as the type of command (keyboard, multiplier, divide, etc). The cross reference also contains the algorithm for every command, and which page it is listed in on the control sheet (visual Auto-CAD graphs, which I helped to <span class="hlt">make</span>). I actually spent most of the time on the computer using Auto-CAD. I drew a diagram of the entire <span class="hlt">icing</span> tunnel and then drew diagrams of its various parts. Between my mentor and me, we have drawings of every part of it, from the spray bars to the thermocouples, power cabinets, input-output connectors for power <span class="hlt">systems</span>, and layouts of various other machines. I was also responsible for drawing schematics for the Escort <span class="hlt">system</span> (which controls the spray bars), the power <span class="hlt">system</span>, DPUs, and other electrical <span class="hlt">systems</span>. In my spare time, I am attempting to build and program the "toddler". Toddler is a walking robot that I have to program in PBASIC language. When complete, it should be able to walk on level terrain while avoiding obstacles in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820026193&hterms=supervision&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dsupervision','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820026193&hterms=supervision&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dsupervision"><span id="translatedtitle">Supervision of dynamic <span class="hlt">systems</span>: Monitoring, decision-<span class="hlt">making</span> and control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>White, T. N.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Effects of task variables on the performance of the human supervisor by means of modelling techniques are discussed. The task variables considered are: The dynamics of the <span class="hlt">system</span>, the task to be performed, the environmental disturbances and the observation noise. A relationship between task variables and parameters of a supervisory model is assumed. The model consists of three parts: (1) The observer part is thought to be a full order optimal observer, (2) the decision-<span class="hlt">making</span> part is stated as a set of decision rules, and (3) the controller part is given by a control law. The observer part generates, on the basis of the <span class="hlt">system</span> output and the control actions, an estimate of the state of the <span class="hlt">system</span> and its associated variance. The outputs of the observer part are then used by the decision-<span class="hlt">making</span> part to determine the instants in time of the observation actions on the one hand and the controls actions on the other. The controller part <span class="hlt">makes</span> use of the estimated state to derive the amplitude(s) of the control action(s).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.P23B1935O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.P23B1935O"><span id="translatedtitle">Physical Chemical Controls of Methane and other Hydrocarbon gases in Outer Solar <span class="hlt">System</span> Water-<span class="hlt">Ice</span> <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Osegovic, J. P.; Max, M. D.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Saturn's moon Enceladus appear to have liquid water under its thin icy surface that has venting water and complex hydrocarbons. Jupiter's moon Europa is locked under a very thick layer of surface <span class="hlt">ice</span>. Because Saturn's moon Titan contains abundant hydrocarbon gasses and liquids and both Saturn and Jupiter contain abundant hydrocarbon gases, it is likely that Europa also may have significant quantities of hydrocarbon gases in their water-<span class="hlt">ice</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Both of these moons have the potential for life. We have begun to explore the impact that gas hydrate, which is a crystalline material composed of water and gas molecules, has on the availability of liquid water on a planet's surface: what conditions need to be present to initiate hydrate formation from a primordial selection of gases, salts, and water, how isolated hydrate <span class="hlt">systems</span> evolve under the condition of mass transfer from ex-hydrate stability conditions to pro-hydrate stability conditions, the timespan of conditions that hydrate formation can host liquid solutions in an otherwise cooling regime; and the impact that additional chemistry, such as primitive chemosynthesis, may have on the sequestered hydrocarbon gases in hydrate. The analog for gas hydrate on these moons is the Permafrost hydrate <span class="hlt">system</span> of Earth. Gas hydrate and water <span class="hlt">ice</span> are stable in a compound cryosphere with <span class="hlt">ice</span> extending downward from cold surface conditions to about the 273 K isotherm. Hydrate, depending on the mixture of gases in it, is stable from some depth below the surface to some isotherm that could be considerably in excess of 273 K. Salinity may strongly affect stability conditions. In order to estimate the thickness of the gas hydrate stability zone and its effect on 'planetary' heat flow, we model heat production as a function of mass flow. Variables are gravity, <span class="hlt">ice</span> thickness, temperature of the surrounding medium (space, <span class="hlt">ice</span>, and water), the thickness of the "ocean", the and the thermophysical properties of the gas being</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810068602','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810068602"><span id="translatedtitle">A Procedure for the Design of Air-Heated <span class="hlt">Ice</span>-Prevention <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Neel, C. B.</p> <p>1954-01-01</p> <p>A procedure proposed for use in the design of air-heated <span class="hlt">systems</span> for the continuous prevention of <span class="hlt">ice</span> formation on airplane components is set forth. Required heat-transfer and air-pressure-loss equations are presented, and methods of selecting appropriate meteorological conditions for flight over specified geographical areas and for the calculation of water-drop-impingement characteristics are suggested. In order to facilitate the design, a simple electrical analogue was devised which solves the complex heat-transfer relationships existing in the thermal-<span class="hlt">system</span> analysis. The analogue is described and an illustration of its application to design is given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GMD.....6.1299G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GMD.....6.1299G"><span id="translatedtitle">Capabilities and performance of Elmer/<span class="hlt">Ice</span>, a new-generation <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gagliardini, O.; Zwinger, T.; Gillet-Chaulet, F.; Durand, G.; Favier, L.; de Fleurian, B.; Greve, R.; Malinen, M.; Martín, C.; Råback, P.; Ruokolainen, J.; Sacchettini, M.; Schäfer, M.; Seddik, H.; Thies, J.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>The Fourth IPCC Assessment Report concluded that <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet flow models, in their current state, were unable to provide accurate forecast for the increase of polar <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet discharge and the associated contribution to sea level rise. Since then, the glaciological community has undertaken a huge effort to develop and improve a new generation of <span class="hlt">ice</span> flow models, and as a result a significant number of new <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet models have emerged. Among them is the parallel finite-element model Elmer/<span class="hlt">Ice</span>, based on the open-source multi-physics code Elmer. It was one of the first full-Stokes models used to <span class="hlt">make</span> projections for the evolution of the whole Greenland <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet for the coming two centuries. Originally developed to solve local <span class="hlt">ice</span> flow problems of high mechanical and physical complexity, Elmer/<span class="hlt">Ice</span> has today reached the maturity to solve larger-scale problems, earning the status of an <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet model. Here, we summarise almost 10 yr of development performed by different groups. Elmer/<span class="hlt">Ice</span> solves the full-Stokes equations, for isotropic but also anisotropic <span class="hlt">ice</span> rheology, resolves the grounding line dynamics as a contact problem, and contains various basal friction laws. Derived fields, like the age of the <span class="hlt">ice</span>, the strain rate or stress, can also be computed. Elmer/<span class="hlt">Ice</span> includes two recently proposed inverse methods to infer badly known parameters. Elmer is a highly parallelised code thanks to recent developments and the implementation of a block preconditioned solver for the Stokes <span class="hlt">system</span>. In this paper, all these components are presented in detail, as well as the numerical performance of the Stokes solver and developments planned for the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zto9mhEuDHg','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zto9mhEuDHg"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping <span class="hlt">Ice</span> with Airborne Lasers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Determining whether polar <span class="hlt">ice</span> quantities are growing or shrinking requires accurate and detailed measurements, year over year. To help <span class="hlt">make</span> those measurements, <span class="hlt">Ice</span>Bridge mission aircraft fire 3,000...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1811757R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1811757R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Melt ponds and marginal <span class="hlt">ice</span> zone from new algorithm of sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> concentration retrieval</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Repina, Irina; Tikhonov, Vasiliy; Komarova, Nataliia; Raev, Mikhail; Sharkov, Evgeniy</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Studies of spatial and temporal properties of sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> distribution in polar regions help to monitor global environmental changes and reveal their natural and anthropogenic factors, as well as <span class="hlt">make</span> forecasts of weather, marine transportation and fishing conditions, assess perspectives of mineral mining on the continental shelf, etc. Contact methods of observation are often insufficient to meet the goals, very complicated technically and organizationally and not always safe for people involved. Remote sensing techniques are believed to be the best alternative. Its include monitoring of polar regions by means of passive microwave sensing with the aim to determine spatial distribution, types, thickness and snow cover of <span class="hlt">ice</span>. However, the algorithms employed today to retrieve sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> characteristics from passive microwave sensing data for different reasons give significant errors, especially in summer period and also near <span class="hlt">ice</span> edges and in cases of open <span class="hlt">ice</span>. A new algorithm of sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> concentration retrieval in polar regions from satellite microwave radiometry data is discussed. Beside estimating sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> concentration, the algorithm <span class="hlt">makes</span> it possible to indicate <span class="hlt">ice</span> areas with melting snow and melt ponds. Melt ponds are an important element of the Arctic climate <span class="hlt">system</span>. Covering up to 50% of the surface of drifting <span class="hlt">ice</span> in summer, they are characterized by low albedo values and absorb several times more incident shortwave radiation than the rest of the snow and <span class="hlt">ice</span> cover. The change of melt ponds area in summer period 1987-2015 is investigated. The marginal <span class="hlt">ice</span> zone (MIZ) is defined as the area where open ocean processes, including specifically ocean waves, alter significantly the dynamical properties of the sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> cover. Ocean wave fields comprise short waves generated locally and swell propagating from the large ocean basins. Depending on factors like wind direction and ocean currents, it may consist of anything from isolated, small and large <span class="hlt">ice</span> floes drifting over a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030001737','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030001737"><span id="translatedtitle">Technology for <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Rinks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Ron Urban's International <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Shows set up portable <span class="hlt">ice</span> rinks for touring troupes performing on temporary rinks at amusement parks, sports arenas, dinner theaters, shopping malls and civic centers. Key to enhanced rink portability, fast freezing and maintaining <span class="hlt">ice</span> consistency is a mat of flexible tubing called ICEMAT, an offshoot of a solar heating <span class="hlt">system</span> developed by Calmac, Mfg. under contract with Marshall.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1207938','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1207938"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimizing the performance of <span class="hlt">Ice</span>-storage <span class="hlt">Systems</span> in Electricity Load Management through a credit mechanism. An analytical work for Jiangsu, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Han, Yafeng; Shen, Bo; Hu, Huajin; Fan, Fei</p> <p>2015-01-12</p> <p><span class="hlt">Ice</span>-storage air-conditioning is a technique that uses <span class="hlt">ice</span> for thermal energy storage. Replacing existing air conditioning <span class="hlt">systems</span> with <span class="hlt">ice</span> storage has the advantage of shifting the load from on-peak times to off-peak times that often have excess generation. However, increasing the use of <span class="hlt">ice</span>-storage faces significant challenges in China. One major barrier is the inefficiency in the current electricity tariff structure. There is a lack of effective incentive mechanism that induces <span class="hlt">ice</span>-storage <span class="hlt">systems</span> from achieving optimal load-shifting results. This study presents an analysis that compares the potential impacts of <span class="hlt">ice</span>-storage <span class="hlt">systems</span> on load-shifting under a new credit-based incentive scheme and the existing incentive arrangement in Jiangsu, China. The study indicates that by changing how <span class="hlt">ice</span>-storage <span class="hlt">systems</span> are incentivized in Jiangsu, load-shifting results can be improved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1207938-optimizing-performance-ice-storage-systems-electricity-load-management-through-credit-mechanism-analytical-work-jiangsu-china','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1207938-optimizing-performance-ice-storage-systems-electricity-load-management-through-credit-mechanism-analytical-work-jiangsu-china"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimizing the performance of <span class="hlt">Ice</span>-storage <span class="hlt">Systems</span> in Electricity Load Management through a credit mechanism. An analytical work for Jiangsu, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Han, Yafeng; Shen, Bo; Hu, Huajin; Fan, Fei</p> <p>2015-01-12</p> <p><span class="hlt">Ice</span>-storage air-conditioning is a technique that uses <span class="hlt">ice</span> for thermal energy storage. Replacing existing air conditioning <span class="hlt">systems</span> with <span class="hlt">ice</span> storage has the advantage of shifting the load from on-peak times to off-peak times that often have excess generation. However, increasing the use of <span class="hlt">ice</span>-storage faces significant challenges in China. One major barrier is the inefficiency in the current electricity tariff structure. There is a lack of effective incentive mechanism that induces <span class="hlt">ice</span>-storage <span class="hlt">systems</span> from achieving optimal load-shifting results. This study presents an analysis that compares the potential impacts of <span class="hlt">ice</span>-storage <span class="hlt">systems</span> on load-shifting under a new credit-based incentive scheme andmore » the existing incentive arrangement in Jiangsu, China. The study indicates that by changing how <span class="hlt">ice</span>-storage <span class="hlt">systems</span> are incentivized in Jiangsu, load-shifting results can be improved.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ctpu.book...51K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ctpu.book...51K"><span id="translatedtitle">Economic Decision <span class="hlt">Making</span>: Application of the Theory of Complex <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kitt, Robert</p> <p></p> <p>In this chapter the complex <span class="hlt">systems</span> are discussed in the context of economic and business policy and decision <span class="hlt">making</span>. It will be showed and motivated that social <span class="hlt">systems</span> are typically chaotic, non-linear and/or non-equilibrium and therefore complex <span class="hlt">systems</span>. It is discussed that the rapid change in global consumer behaviour is underway, that further increases the complexity in business and management. For policy <span class="hlt">making</span> under complexity, following principles are offered: openness and international competition, tolerance and variety of ideas, self-reliability and low dependence on external help. The chapter contains four applications that build on the theoretical motivation of complexity in social <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The first application demonstrates that small economies have good prospects to gain from the global processes underway, if they can demonstrate production flexibility, reliable business ethics and good risk management. The second application elaborates on and discusses the opportunities and challenges in decision <span class="hlt">making</span> under complexity from macro and micro economic perspective. In this environment, the challenges for corporate management are being also permanently changed: the balance between short term noise and long term chaos whose attractor includes customers, shareholders and employees must be found. The emergence of chaos in economic relationships is demonstrated by a simple <span class="hlt">system</span> of differential equations that relate the stakeholders described above. The chapter concludes with two financial applications: about debt and risk management. The non-equilibrium economic establishment leads to additional problems by using excessive borrowing; unexpected downturns in economy can more easily kill companies. Finally, the demand for quantitative improvements in risk management is postulated. Development of the financial markets has triggered non-linearity to spike in prices of various production articles such as agricultural and other commodities that has added market</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/83180','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/83180"><span id="translatedtitle">The effects of arctic stratus clouds on the solar energy budget in the atmosphere-sea <span class="hlt">ice</span>-ocean <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jin, Z.; Stamnes, K.; Zak, B.D.</p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p>This article describes a comprehensive radiative transfer model pertinent to the atmosphere-sea <span class="hlt">ice</span>-ocean <span class="hlt">system</span>. The main features of the model include: The atmosphere, sea <span class="hlt">ice</span>, and ocean each represented by a sufficient number of layers to resolve the change in the optical properties of each stratum; An appropriate quadrature structure to take into account the total reflection at the air-<span class="hlt">ice</span> or air-water interface, as well as to solve the radiative transfer equation in the coupled <span class="hlt">system</span> consistently; Provision for a different number of streams (quadrature points) in the atmosphere, <span class="hlt">ice</span>, and ocean, chosen based on the optical properties in each stratum and the computational accuracy method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......233S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......233S"><span id="translatedtitle">Autonomous perception and decision <span class="hlt">making</span> in cyber-physical <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sarkar, Soumik</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>The cyber-physical <span class="hlt">system</span> (CPS) is a relatively new interdisciplinary technology area that includes the general class of embedded and hybrid <span class="hlt">systems</span>. CPSs require integration of computation and physical processes that involves the aspects of physical quantities such as time, energy and space during information processing and control. The physical space is the source of information and the cyber space <span class="hlt">makes</span> use of the generated information to <span class="hlt">make</span> decisions. This dissertation proposes an overall architecture of autonomous perception-based decision & control of complex cyber-physical <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Perception involves the recently developed framework of Symbolic Dynamic Filtering for abstraction of physical world in the cyber space. For example, under this framework, sensor observations from a physical entity are discretized temporally and spatially to generate blocks of symbols, also called words that form a language. A grammar of a language is the set of rules that determine the relationships among words to build sentences. Subsequently, a physical <span class="hlt">system</span> is conjectured to be a linguistic source that is capable of generating a specific language. The proposed technology is validated on various (experimental and simulated) case studies that include health monitoring of aircraft gas turbine engines, detection and estimation of fatigue damage in polycrystalline alloys, and parameter identification. Control of complex cyber-physical <span class="hlt">systems</span> involve distributed sensing, computation, control as well as complexity analysis. A novel statistical mechanics-inspired complexity analysis approach is proposed in this dissertation. In such a scenario of networked physical <span class="hlt">systems</span>, the distribution of physical entities determines the underlying network topology and the interaction among the entities forms the abstract cyber space. It is envisioned that the general contributions, made in this dissertation, will be useful for potential application areas such as smart power grids and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.P11B2093R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.P11B2093R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ice</span> Giant Exploration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rymer, A. M.; Arridge, C. S.; Masters, A.; Turtle, E. P.; Simon, A. A.; Hofstadter, M. D.; Turrini, D.; Politi, R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Giants in our solar <span class="hlt">system</span>, Uranus and Neptune, are fundamentally different from their Gas Giant siblings Jupiter and Saturn, from the different proportions of rock and <span class="hlt">ice</span> to the configuration of their planetary magnetic fields. Kepler space telescope discoveries of exo-planets indicate that planets of this type are among the most ubiquitous universally and therefore a future mission to explore the nature of the <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Giants in our own solar <span class="hlt">system</span> will provide insights into the nature of extra-solar <span class="hlt">system</span> objects in general. Uranus has the smallest self- luminosity of all the planets, potentially related to catastrophic events early in the planet's history, which also may explain Uranus' large obliquity. Uranus' atmosphere is subject to extreme seasonal forcing <span class="hlt">making</span> it unique in the Solar <span class="hlt">System</span>. Neptune is also unique in a number of ways, notably its large moon Triton which is likely a captured Kuiper Belt Object and one of only two moons in the solar <span class="hlt">system</span> with a robustly collisional atmosphere. Similar to Uranus, the angle between the solar wind and the magnetic dipole axis is subject to large-amplitude variations on both diurnal and seasonal timescales, but peculiarly it has one of the quietest magnetospheres of the solar <span class="hlt">system</span>, at least according to Voyager 2, the only spacecraft to encounter Neptune to date. A comprehensive mission, as advocated in the Decadal Survey, would provide enormous science return but is also challenging and expensive. In this presentation we will discuss mission scenarios and suggest how collaboration between disciplines and internationally can help us to pursue a mission that includes <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Giant exploration.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IJTIA.129..166S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IJTIA.129..166S"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of Simulator Based on Stochastic Switched ARX Model for Refrigeration <span class="hlt">System</span> with <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Thermal Storage <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shioya, Tsubasa; Fujimoto, Yasutaka</p> <p></p> <p>In this paper, we introduce a simulator for <span class="hlt">ice</span> thermal storage <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Basically, the refrigeration <span class="hlt">system</span> is modeled as a linear discrete-time <span class="hlt">system</span>. For <span class="hlt">system</span> identifications, the least square method is used. However, it is difficult to identify the switching time of the electromagnetic valve of brine pipes attached at showcases accurately by this method. In order to overcome this difficulty, a simulator based on the stochastic switched ARX model is developed. The data obtained from the simulator are compared with actual data. We verify the effectiveness of the proposed simulator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AAS...206.0708P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AAS...206.0708P"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Star and the Smog Star: Spitzer Observations of Two FU Orionis <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Polomski, E.; Ruch, G. T.; Woodward, C. E.; Gehrz, R. D.</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>RNO 1B/C and Parsamian 21 are classified as FU Ori <span class="hlt">systems</span> based upon similarities to the optical spectra of other known FU Ori <span class="hlt">systems</span>. FU Ori <span class="hlt">systems</span> are believed to be actively accreting circumstellar disk <span class="hlt">systems</span> and exhibit many phenomena associated with the early stages of disk/star evolution. We have obtained infrared imaging and spectroscopy of RNO 1B, RNO 1C and Parsamian 21 with the Spitzer Space Telescope. These observations reveal a wealth of infrared features from <span class="hlt">ices</span>, silicates, hydrocarbons, and molecular hydrogen. RNO 1B/C and Parsamian 21 show extremely different mineralogy; the RNO 1B and 1C <span class="hlt">systems</span> are dominated by <span class="hlt">ices</span> and silicates, whereas Parsamian 21 is dominated by emission from hydrocarbon grains similar to those found in smog. These features are indicative of the grain sizes, extinction, and composition of the dust in the circumstellar environments of these stars. We present 3-70 micron imaging and infrared and optical spectroscopy of these objects and explore the relationship of the spectral features to the FU Ori phenomena and circumstellar disk evolution. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407. The authors were supported in part through contracts 1256406 and 1215746 issued by JPL/Caltech to the University of Minnesota.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027832','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027832"><span id="translatedtitle">Geospatial decision support <span class="hlt">systems</span> for societal decision <span class="hlt">making</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bernknopf, R.L.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>While science provides reliable information to describe and understand the earth and its natural processes, it can contribute more. There are many important societal issues in which scientific information can play a critical role. Science can add greatly to policy and management decisions to minimize loss of life and property from natural and man-made disasters, to manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources, and in general, to enhance and protect our quality of life. However, the link between science and decision-<span class="hlt">making</span> is often complicated and imperfect. Technical language and methods surround scientific research and the dissemination of its results. Scientific investigations often are conducted under different conditions, with different spatial boundaries, and in different timeframes than those needed to support specific policy and societal decisions. Uncertainty is not uniformly reported in scientific investigations. If society does not know that data exist, what the data mean, where to use the data, or how to include uncertainty when a decision has to be made, then science gets left out -or misused- in a decision <span class="hlt">making</span> process. This paper is about using Geospatial Decision Support <span class="hlt">Systems</span> (GDSS) for quantitative policy analysis. Integrated natural -social science methods and tools in a Geographic Information <span class="hlt">System</span> that respond to decision-<span class="hlt">making</span> needs can be used to close the gap between science and society. The GDSS has been developed so that nonscientists can pose "what if" scenarios to evaluate hypothetical outcomes of policy and management choices. In this approach decision makers can evaluate the financial and geographic distribution of potential policy options and their societal implications. Actions, based on scientific information, can be taken to mitigate hazards, protect our air and water quality, preserve the planet's biodiversity, promote balanced land use planning, and judiciously exploit natural resources. Applications using the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812003O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812003O"><span id="translatedtitle">On the Role of Arctic Sea <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Deformations: An Evaluation of the Regional Arctic <span class="hlt">System</span> Model Results with Observations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Osinski, Robert; Maslowski, Wieslaw; Roberts, Andrew</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The atmosphere - sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> - ocean fluxes and their contribution to rapid changes in the Arctic <span class="hlt">system</span> are not well understood and generally are not resolved by global climate models (GCMs). While many significant model refinements have been made in the recent past, including the representation of sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> rheology, surface albedo and <span class="hlt">ice</span>-albedo feedback, other processes such as sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> deformations, still require further studies and model advancements. Of particular potential interest here are linear kinematic features (LKFs), which control winter air-sea heat exchange and affect buoyancy forces in the ocean. Their importance in Arctic climate change, especially under an increasing first-year <span class="hlt">ice</span> cover, is yet to be determined and their simulation requires representation of processes currently at sub-grid scale of most GCMs. To address some of the GCM limitations and to better understand the role of LKFs in air-sea exchange we use the Regional Arctic <span class="hlt">System</span> Model (RASM), which allows high spatio-temporal resolution and regional focus on the Arctic. RASM is a fully coupled regional climate model, developed to study dynamic and thermodynamic processes and their coupling across the atmosphere-sea <span class="hlt">ice</span>-ocean interface. It consists of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) atmospheric model, the Parallel Ocean Program (POP), the Community <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Model (CICE) and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land hydrology model. The sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> component has been upgraded to the Los Alamos Community <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Model version 5.1 (CICE5.1), which allows either Elastic-Viscous-Plastic (EVP) or a new anisotropic (EPA) rheology. RASM's domain is pan-Arctic, with the ocean and sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> components configured at an eddy-permitting horizontal resolution of 1/12-degree as well as 1/48-degree, for limited simulations. The atmosphere and land model components are configured at 50-km grids. All the components are coupled at a 20-minute time step. Results from multiple RASM simulations are analyzed and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27293017','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27293017"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification and Evaluation of Cryoprotective Peptides from Chicken Collagen: <span class="hlt">Ice</span>-Growth Inhibition Activity Compared to That of Type I Antifreeze Proteins in Sucrose Model <span class="hlt">Systems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Du, Lihui; Betti, Mirko</p> <p>2016-06-29</p> <p>The ability of chicken collagen peptides to inhibit the growth of <span class="hlt">ice</span> crystals was evaluated and compared to that of fish antifreeze proteins (AFPs). This <span class="hlt">ice</span> inhibition activity was assessed using a polarized microscope by measuring <span class="hlt">ice</span> crystal dimensions in a sucrose model <span class="hlt">system</span> with and without collagen peptides after seven thermal cycles. The <span class="hlt">system</span> was stabilized at -25 °C and cycled between -16 and -12 °C. Five candidate peptides with <span class="hlt">ice</span> inhibition activity were identified using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry and were then synthesized. Their <span class="hlt">ice</span> inhibition capacity was compared to that of type I AFPs in a 23% sucrose model <span class="hlt">system</span>. Specific collagen peptides with certain amino acid sequences reduced the extent of <span class="hlt">ice</span> growth by approximately 70% at a relatively low concentration (1 mg/mL). These results suggest that specific collagen peptides may act in a noncolligative manner, inhibiting <span class="hlt">ice</span> crystal growth like type I AFPs, but less efficiently. PMID:27293017</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040081064&hterms=concentration+camps&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dconcentration%2Bcamps','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040081064&hterms=concentration+camps&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dconcentration%2Bcamps"><span id="translatedtitle">EOS Aqua AMSR-E Arctic Sea <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Validation Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cavalieri, D. J.; Markus, T.; Gasiewski, A.; Klein, M.; Maslanik, J.; Sturm, M.; Stroeve, J.; Heinrichs, J.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>A coordinated Arctic sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> validation field campaign using the NASA Wallops P-3B aircraft was successfully completed in March 2003. This campaign was part of the program for validating the Earth Observing <span class="hlt">System</span> (EOS) Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> products. The AMSR-E, designed and built by the Japanese National Space Development Agency for NASA, was launched May 4,2002 on the EOS Aqua spacecraft. The AMSR-E sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> products include sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> concentration, sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> temperature, and snow depth on sea <span class="hlt">ice</span>. The primary instrument on the P-3B aircraft was the NOAA ETL Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR) covering the same frequencies and polarizations as the AMSR-E. This paper describes the objectives of each of the seven flights, the Arctic regions overflown, and the coordination among satellite, aircraft, and surface-based measurements. Two of the seven aircraft flights were coordinated with scientists <span class="hlt">making</span> surface measurements of snow and <span class="hlt">ice</span> properties including sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> temperature and snow depth on sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> at a study area near Barrow, AK and at a Navy <span class="hlt">ice</span> camp located in the Beaufort Sea. The remaining flights covered portions of the Bering Sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> edge, the Chukchi Sea, and Norton Sound. Comparisons among the satellite and aircraft PSR data sets are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/960660','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/960660"><span id="translatedtitle">Vortex <span class="hlt">ice</span> in nanostructured superconductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reichhardt, Charles; Reichhardt, Cynthia J; Libal, Andras J</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>We demonstrate using numerical simulations of nanostructured superconductors that it is possible to realize vortex <span class="hlt">ice</span> states that are analogous to square and kagome <span class="hlt">ice</span>. The <span class="hlt">system</span> can be brought into a state that obeys either global or local <span class="hlt">ice</span> rules by applying an external current according to an annealing protocol. We explore the breakdown of the <span class="hlt">ice</span> rules due to disorder in the nanostructure array and show that in square <span class="hlt">ice</span>, topological defects appear along grain boundaries, while in kagome <span class="hlt">ice</span>, individual defects appear. We argue that the vortex <span class="hlt">system</span> offers significant advantages over other artificial <span class="hlt">ice</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011TRACE..13..239S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011TRACE..13..239S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Bench Scale Test of Absorption Slurry-<span class="hlt">ice</span> Maker</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sasao, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Takashi</p> <p></p> <p>Slurry <span class="hlt">ice</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> is desirable as cold heat source for air conditioning, because it requires less conveyance power or less pipe size. On the other hand, recently absorption refrigerator is reevaluated because it can utilize various types of waste heat and it does not use fluorocarbon refrigerant. But it had been regarded to be difficult to <span class="hlt">make</span> <span class="hlt">ice</span> by absorption refrigerator because the refrigerant is water. However <span class="hlt">making</span> slurry <span class="hlt">ice</span> is possible, of cource, if the slurry <span class="hlt">ice</span> generated by partial freezing of water is continuously taken away from the evaporator. This method was certified experimentally with a bench scale model. For <span class="hlt">ice</span> <span class="hlt">making</span> continuously, <span class="hlt">ice</span> had not to be frozen stiff at water surface or inside wall of the evaporator. Then refrigerant water in the evaporator was raised swirl flow. And inside wall of the evaporator was finished by water repellent coating, and heated from outside wall. This slurry <span class="hlt">ice</span> was adaptable to hydraulic transportation, because <span class="hlt">ice</span> was needle crystal with about 5 mm length and <span class="hlt">ice</span> temperature was 0°C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5801L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5801L"><span id="translatedtitle">The Met Office Coupled Atmosphere/Land/Ocean/Sea-<span class="hlt">Ice</span> Data Assimilation <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lea, Daniel; Mirouze, Isabelle; King, Robert; Martin, Matthew; Hines, Adrian</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The Met Office has developed a weakly-coupled data assimilation (DA) <span class="hlt">system</span> using the global coupled model HadGEM3 (Hadley Centre Global Environment Model, version 3). At present the analysis from separate ocean and atmosphere DA <span class="hlt">systems</span> are combined to produced coupled forecasts. The aim of coupled DA is to produce a more consistent analysis for coupled forecasts which may lead to less initialisation shock and improved forecast performance. The HadGEM3 coupled model combines the atmospheric model UM (Unified Model) at 60 km horizontal resolution on 85 vertical levels, the ocean model NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) at 25 km (at the equator) horizontal resolution on 75 vertical levels, and the sea-<span class="hlt">ice</span> model CICE at the same resolution as NEMO. The atmosphere and the ocean/sea-<span class="hlt">ice</span> fields are coupled every 1-hour using the OASIS coupler. The coupled model is corrected using two separate 6-hour window data assimilation <span class="hlt">systems</span>: a 4D-Var for the atmosphere with associated soil moisture content nudging and snow analysis schemes on the one hand, and a 3D-Var FGAT for the ocean and sea-<span class="hlt">ice</span> on the other hand. The background information in the DA <span class="hlt">systems</span> comes from a previous 6-hour forecast of the coupled model. To isolate the impact of the coupled DA, 13-month experiments have been carried out, including 1) a full atmosphere/land/ocean/sea-<span class="hlt">ice</span> coupled DA run, 2) an atmosphere-only run forced by OSTIA SSTs and sea-<span class="hlt">ice</span> with atmosphere and land DA, and 3) an ocean-only run forced by atmospheric fields from run 2 with ocean and sea-<span class="hlt">ice</span> DA. In addition, 5-day and 10-day forecast runs, have been produced from initial conditions generated by either run 1 or a combination of runs 2 and 3. The different results have been compared to each other and, whenever possible, to other references such as the Met Office atmosphere and ocean operational analyses or the OSTIA SST data. The performance of the coupled DA is similar to the existing separate ocean and atmosphere</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvL.108f6406U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvL.108f6406U"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-Kondo Mechanism for Resistivity Minimum in Spin <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Conduction <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Udagawa, Masafumi; Ishizuka, Hiroaki; Motome, Yukitoshi</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>We present a mechanism of resistivity minimum in conduction electron <span class="hlt">systems</span> coupled with localized moments, which is distinguished from the Kondo effect. Instead of the spin-flip process in the Kondo effect, electrons are elastically scattered by local spin correlations which evolve in a particular way under geometrical frustration as decreasing temperature. This is demonstrated by the cellular dynamical mean-field theory for a spin-<span class="hlt">ice</span>-type Kondo lattice model on a pyrochlore lattice. Peculiar temperature dependences of the resistivity, specific heat, and magnetic susceptibility in the non-Kondo mechanism are compared with the experimental data in metallic Ir pyrochlore oxides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6147H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6147H"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating the Uptake Mechanisms of Hydrogen Peroxide to Single and Polycrystalline <span class="hlt">Ice</span> with a Novel Flow Tube <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hong, Angela; Ammann, Markus; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Air-<span class="hlt">ice</span> chemical interactions are important for describing the distribution and subsequent chemical fate of trace atmospheric gases within <span class="hlt">ice</span> and snow and determining the oxidative capacities of these environments. The nature of this interaction is governed by a compound's physicochemical properties as well as <span class="hlt">ice</span> microstructure. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reservoir of HOx radicals in the atmosphere and an important chromophore in snow and <span class="hlt">ice</span>, is a trace gas that demonstrates complex uptake behaviour to frozen aqueous media by the reversible, fast adsorption to the air-<span class="hlt">ice</span> interface, aggregation, and lateral interactions, and a slower process, ostensibly via uptake into the bulk. However, the exact mechanism and kinetics for the slow uptake of H2O2 and the size of this reservoir is unknown. It is important to describe and quantify this loss term, over environmentally-relevant timescales, accommodation of H2O2 into the bulk may be the dominant process which controls the composition and chemistry of the snow and overlying atmosphere. We hypothesize that the slow uptake of H2O2 occurs by diffusion into the grain boundaries of <span class="hlt">ice</span>. To provide mechanistic insight to the macroscopic phenomenon of atmospheric gas uptake to <span class="hlt">ice</span>, and discern various mechanisms including adsorption to air-<span class="hlt">ice</span> interface and accommodation into the bulk through uptake into grain boundaries, we design, machine, and validate a novel flow reactor <span class="hlt">system</span> featuring a Drilled <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Flow Tube (DIFT). Our flow reactor <span class="hlt">system</span> is uniquely suited to testing these uptake mechanisms: by controlling the degree of grain boundaries present in the DIFT (ie. monocrystalline or polycrystalline), we can directly observe the effect of the <span class="hlt">ice</span> microstructure on the adsorptive and bulk uptake of trace atmospheric gases over long timescales (eg. on the order of hours). Here, we describe method development of the DIFT and demonstrate using polarised microscopy imagery that our experimental set-up allows for the direct</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009DPS....41.6512M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009DPS....41.6512M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory Studies of Ethane <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Relevant to Outer Solar <span class="hlt">System</span> Surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moore, Marla H.; Hudson, R. L.; Raines, L.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Oort Cloud comets, as well as TNOs Makemake (2005 FY9), Quaoar, and Pluto, are known to contain ethane. However, even though this molecule is found on several outer Solar <span class="hlt">System</span> objects relatively little information is available about its amorphous and crystalline phases. In new experiments, we have prepared ethane <span class="hlt">ices</span> at temperatures applicable to the outer Solar <span class="hlt">System</span>, and have heated and ion-irradiated these <span class="hlt">ices</span> to study phase changes and ethane's radiation chemistry using mid-IR spectroscopy (2.2 - 16.6 microns). Included in our work is the meta-stable phase that exists at 35 - 55 K. These results, including newly obtained optical constants, are relevant to ground-based observational campaigns, the New Horizons mission, and supporting laboratory work. An improved understanding of solid-phase ethane may contribute to future searches for this and other hydrocarbons in the outer Solar <span class="hlt">System</span>. This work was funded by NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics, Planetary Atmospheres, and Outer Planets programs. LR was supported by a summer research internship at the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Goddard Center for Astrobiology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160006102','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160006102"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Multimodal Input for Autonomous Decision <span class="hlt">Making</span> for Unmanned <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Neilan, James H.; Cross, Charles; Rothhaar, Paul; Tran, Loc; Motter, Mark; Qualls, Garry; Trujillo, Anna; Allen, B. Danette</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Autonomous decision <span class="hlt">making</span> in the presence of uncertainly is a deeply studied problem space particularly in the area of autonomous <span class="hlt">systems</span> operations for land, air, sea, and space vehicles. Various techniques ranging from single algorithm solutions to complex ensemble classifier <span class="hlt">systems</span> have been utilized in a research context in solving mission critical flight decisions. Realized <span class="hlt">systems</span> on actual autonomous hardware, however, is a difficult <span class="hlt">systems</span> integration problem, constituting a majority of applied robotics development timelines. The ability to reliably and repeatedly classify objects during a vehicles mission execution is vital for the vehicle to mitigate both static and dynamic environmental concerns such that the mission may be completed successfully and have the vehicle operate and return safely. In this paper, the Autonomy Incubator proposes and discusses an ensemble learning and recognition <span class="hlt">system</span> planned for our autonomous framework, AEON, in selected domains, which fuse decision criteria, using prior experience on both the individual classifier layer and the ensemble layer to mitigate environmental uncertainty during operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990071137&hterms=east+antarctic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Deast%2Bantarctic','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990071137&hterms=east+antarctic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Deast%2Bantarctic"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ice</span> Flow in the North East Greenland <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Stream</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Joughin, Ian; Kwok, Ron; Fahnestock, M.; MacAyeal, Doug</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Early observations with ERS-1 SAR image data revealed a large <span class="hlt">ice</span> stream in North East Greenland (Fahnestock 1993). The <span class="hlt">ice</span> stream has a number of the characteristics of the more closely studied <span class="hlt">ice</span> streams in Antarctica, including its large size and gross geometry. The onset of rapid flow close to the <span class="hlt">ice</span> divide and the evolution of its flow pattern, however, <span class="hlt">make</span> this <span class="hlt">ice</span> stream unique. These features can be seen in the balance velocities for the <span class="hlt">ice</span> stream (Joughin 1997) and its outlets. The <span class="hlt">ice</span> stream is identifiable for more than 700 km, <span class="hlt">making</span> it much longer than any other flow feature in Greenland. Our research goals are to gain a greater understanding of the <span class="hlt">ice</span> flow in the northeast Greenland <span class="hlt">ice</span> stream and its outlet glaciers in order to assess their impact on the past, present, and future mass balance of the <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet. We will accomplish these goals using a combination of remotely sensed data and <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet models. We are using satellite radar interferometry data to produce a complete maps of velocity and topography over the entire <span class="hlt">ice</span> stream. We are in the process of developing methods to use these data in conjunction with existing <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet models similar to those that have been used to improve understanding of the mechanics of flow in Antarctic <span class="hlt">ice</span> streams.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6551F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6551F"><span id="translatedtitle">Constraints on <span class="hlt">ice</span> volume changes of the WAIS and Ross <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Shelf since the LGM based on cosmogenic exposure ages in the Darwin-Hatherton glacial <span class="hlt">system</span> of the Transantarctic Mountains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fink, David; Storey, Bryan; Hood, David; Joy, Kurt; Shulmeister, James</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Quantitative assessment of the spatial and temporal scale of <span class="hlt">ice</span> volume change of the West Antarctic <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet (WAIS) and Ross <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Shelf since the last glacial maximum (LGM) ~20 ka is essential to accurately predict <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet response to current and future climate change. Although global sea level rose by approximately 120 metres since the LGM, the contribution of polar <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheets is uncertain and the timing of any such contribution is controversial. Mackintosh et al (2007) suggest that sectors of the EAIS, similar to those studied at Framnes Mountains where the <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet slowly calves at coastal margins, have made marginal contributions to global sea-level rise between 13 and 7 ka. In contrast, Stone et al (2003) document continuing WAIS decay during the mid-late Holocene, raising the question of what was the response of the WAIS since LGM and into the Holocene. Terrestrial evidence is restricted to sparse coastal oasis and <span class="hlt">ice</span> free mountains which archive limits of former <span class="hlt">ice</span> advances. Mountain ranges flanking the Darwin-Hatherton glaciers exhibit well-defined moraines, weathering signatures, boulder rich plateaus and glacial tills, which preserve the evidence of advance and retreat of the <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet during previous glacial cycles. Previous studies suggest a WAIS at the LGM in this location to be at least 1,000 meters thicker than today. As part of the New Zealand Latitudinal Gradient Project along the Transantarctic, we collected samples for cosmogenic exposure dating at a) Lake Wellman area bordering the Hatherton Glacier, (b) Roadend Nunatak at the confluence of the Darwin and Hatherton glaciers and (c) Diamond Hill which is positioned at the intersection of the Ross <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Shelf and Darwin Glacier outlet. While the technique of exposure dating is very successful in mid-latitude alpine glacier <span class="hlt">systems</span>, it is more challenging in polar <span class="hlt">ice</span>-sheet regions due to the prevalence of cold-based <span class="hlt">ice</span> over-riding events and absence of outwash processes which removes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18..563D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18..563D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A combined road weather forecast <span class="hlt">system</span> to prevent road <span class="hlt">ice</span> formation in the Adige Valley (Italy)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Antonacci, Gianluca; Todeschini, Ilaria; Apolloni, Roberto; Pretto, Ilaria</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Road <span class="hlt">ice</span> is a dangerous meteorological hazard to a nation's transportation <span class="hlt">system</span> and economy. By reducing the pavement friction with vehicle tyres, <span class="hlt">ice</span> formation on pavements increases accident risk and delays travelling times thus posing a serious threat to road users' safety and the running of economic activities. Keeping roads clear and open is therefore essential, especially in mountainous areas where <span class="hlt">ice</span> is likely to form during the winter period. Winter road maintenance helps to restore road efficiency and security, and its benefits are up to 8 times the costs sustained for anti-<span class="hlt">icing</span> strategies [1]. However, the optimization of maintenance costs and the reduction of the environmental damage from over-salting demand further improvements. These can be achieved by reliable road weather forecasts, and in particular by the prediction of road surface temperatures (RSTs). RST is one of the most important parameters in determining road surface conditions. It is well known from literature that <span class="hlt">ice</span> forms on pavements in high-humidity conditions when RSTs are below 0°C. We have therefore implemented an automatic forecast <span class="hlt">system</span> to predict critical RSTs on a test route along the Adige Valley complex terrain, in the Italian Alps. The <span class="hlt">system</span> considers two physical models, each computing heat and energy fluxes between the road and the atmosphere. One is Reuter's radiative cooling model, which predicts RSTs at sunrise as a function of surface temperatures at sunset and the time passed since then [2]. One is METRo (Model of the Environment and Temperature of Roads), a road weather forecast software which also considers heat conduction through road material [3]. We have applied the forecast <span class="hlt">system</span> to a network of road weather stations (road weather information <span class="hlt">system</span>, RWIS) installed on the test route [4]. Road and atmospheric observations from RWIS have been used as initial conditions for both METRo and Reuter's model. In METRo observations have also been coupled to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14621175','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14621175"><span id="translatedtitle">Transport and transformation of de-<span class="hlt">icing</span> urea from airport runways in a constructed wetland <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thorén, A K; Legrand, C; Herrmann, J</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Urea, NH2-CO-NH2, is used as a de-<span class="hlt">icing</span> agent at Kalmar Airport, southeast Sweden. During 1998-2001, urea contributed on average 30% of the yearly nitrogen (N) transport of 41,000 kg via Törnebybäcken stream to the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea. In order to reduce stream transport of N from airport, agricultural and other diffuse sources, a wetland was constructed in 1996. Annual wetland retention of total-N varied in the range of 2,500-8,100 kg (6-36% of influent) during 1998-2001, according to mass balances calculated from monthly sampling. During airport de-<span class="hlt">icing</span>, January-March 2001,660 kg urea-N out of 2,600 kg applied urea-N reached the wetland according to daily sampling. This indicated that 75% of the urea was transformed before entering the wetland. Urea was found to be only a minor part (8%) of total-N in the wetland influent. Calculations of cumulative urea-N loads at the wetland inlet and outlet respectively, showed a significant urea transformation during February 2001 with approximately 40% of the incoming urea-N being transformed in the wetland <span class="hlt">system</span>. These results show that significant amounts of urea can be transformed in a wetland <span class="hlt">system</span> at air temperatures around 0 degree C. PMID:14621175</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110020737','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110020737"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiolysis of Amino Acids in Outer Solar-<span class="hlt">System</span> <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Analogs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gerakines, Perry A.; Hudson, Reggie L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Amino acids have been found in cometary dust particles and in the organic component of meteorites. These molecules, important for pre-biotic chemistry and for active biological <span class="hlt">systems</span>, might be formed in cold planetary or interstellar environments and then delivered to H20-rich surfaces in the outer solar <span class="hlt">system</span>. Many models for the availability of organic species on Earth and elsewhere depend on the ability of these molecules to survive in radiation-rich space environments. This poster presents results of O.8-MeV proton radiolysis of <span class="hlt">ice</span> films at lS-140K. using infrared spectroscopy, the destruction rates of glycine, alanine, and phenylalanine have been determined for both pure films and those containing amino acids diluted in H2o. our results are discussed in terms of the survivability of these molecules in the icy surfaces present in the outer solar <span class="hlt">system</span> and the possibility of their detection by instruments on board the New Horizons spacecraft</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp...31L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp...31L"><span id="translatedtitle">Present-day and future Antarctic <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet climate and surface mass balance in the Community Earth <span class="hlt">System</span> Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Vizcaino, Miren; Fyke, Jeremy; van Kampenhout, Leo; van den Broeke, Michiel R.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We present climate and surface mass balance (SMB) of the Antarctic <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet (AIS) as simulated by the global, coupled ocean-atmosphere-land Community Earth <span class="hlt">System</span> Model (CESM) with a horizontal resolution of ˜1° in the past, present and future (1850-2100). CESM correctly simulates present-day Antarctic sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> extent, large-scale atmospheric circulation and near-surface climate, but fails to simulate the recent expansion of Antarctic sea <span class="hlt">ice</span>. The present-day Antarctic <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet SMB equals 2280 ± 131 {Gt year^{-1}} , which concurs with existing independent estimates of AIS SMB. When forced by two CMIP5 climate change scenarios (high mitigation scenario RCP2.6 and high-emission scenario RCP8.5), CESM projects an increase of Antarctic <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet SMB of about 70 {Gt year^{-1}} per degree warming. This increase is driven by enhanced snowfall, which is partially counteracted by more surface melt and runoff along the <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet's edges. This intensifying hydrological cycle is predominantly driven by atmospheric warming, which increases (1) the moisture-carrying capacity of the atmosphere, (2) oceanic source region evaporation, and (3) summer AIS cloud liquid water content.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21474379','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21474379"><span id="translatedtitle">ABIOTIC FORMATION OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS (RCOOH) IN INTERSTELLAR AND SOLAR <span class="hlt">SYSTEM</span> MODEL <span class="hlt">ICES</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kim, Y. S.; Kaiser, R. I.</p> <p>2010-12-10</p> <p>The present laboratory study simulated the abiotic formation of carboxylic acids (RCOOH) in interstellar and solar <span class="hlt">system</span> model <span class="hlt">ices</span> of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2})-hydrocarbon mix C{sub n} H{sub 2n+2} (n = 1-6). The pristine model <span class="hlt">ices</span> were irradiated at 10 K under contamination-free, ultrahigh vacuum conditions with energetic electrons generated in the track of galactic cosmic-ray particles. The chemical processing of the <span class="hlt">ices</span> was monitored by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and a quadrupole mass spectrometer during the irradiation phase and subsequent warm-up phases on line and in situ in order to extract qualitative (carriers) and quantitative (rate constants and yields) information on the newly synthesized species. Carboxylic acids were identified to be the main carrier, together with carbon monoxide (CO) and a trace of formyl (HCO) and hydroxycarbonyl (HOCO) radicals at 10 K. The upper limit of acid column density at 10 K was estimated as much as (1.2 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup 17} molecules cm{sup -2} at doses of 17 {+-} 2 eV molecule{sup -1}, or the yield of 39% {+-} 4% from the initial column density of carbon dioxide. The temporal column density profiles of the products were then numerically fit using two independent kinetic schemes of reaction mechanisms. Finally, we transfer this laboratory simulation to star-forming regions of the interstellar medium, wherein cosmic-ray-induced processing of icy grains at temperatures as low as 10 K could contribute to the current level of chemical complexity as evidenced in astronomical observations and in extracts of carbonaceous meteorites.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21483931','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21483931"><span id="translatedtitle">On the formation of ozone in oxygen-rich solar <span class="hlt">system</span> <span class="hlt">ices</span> via ionizing radiation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ennis, Courtney P; Bennett, Chris J; Kaiser, Ralf I</p> <p>2011-05-28</p> <p>The irradiation of pure molecular oxygen (O(2)) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) <span class="hlt">ices</span> with 5 keV H(+) and He(+) ions was investigated experimentally to simulate the chemical processing of oxygen rich planetary and interstellar surfaces by exposure to galactic cosmic ray (GCR), solar wind, and magnetospheric particles. Deposited at 12 K under ultra-high vacuum conditions (UHV), the irradiated condensates were monitored on-line and in situ in the solid-state by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), revealing the formation of ozone (O(3)) in irradiated oxygen <span class="hlt">ice</span>; and ozone, carbon monoxide (CO), and cyclic carbon trioxide (c-CO(3)) in irradiated carbon dioxide. In addition to these irradiation products, evolution of gas-phase molecular hydrogen (H(2)), atomic helium (He) and molecular oxygen (O(2)) were identified in the subliming oxygen and carbon dioxide condensates by quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS). Temporal abundances of the oxygen and carbon dioxide precursors and the observed molecular products were compiled over the irradiation period to develop reaction schemes unfolding in the <span class="hlt">ices</span>. These reactions were observed to be dependent on the generation of atomic oxygen (O) by the homolytic dissociation of molecular oxygen induced by electronic, S(e), and nuclear, S(n), interaction with the impinging ions. In addition, the destruction of the ozone and carbon trioxide products back to the molecular oxygen and carbon dioxide precursors was promoted over an extended period of ion bombardment. Finally, destruction and formation yields were calculated and compared between irradiation sources (including 5 keV electrons) which showed a surprising correlation between the molecular yields (∼10(-3)-10(-4) molecules eV(-1)) created by H(+) and He(+) impacts. However, energy transfer by isoenergetic, fast electrons typically generated ten times more product molecules per electron volt (∼10(-2)-10(-3) molecules eV(-1)) than exposure to the ions. Implications of these</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......135A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......135A"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical modeling and simulation of hot air jet anti-<span class="hlt">icing</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> employing channels for enhanced heat transfer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ahmed, Kamran Zaki</p> <p></p> <p>Aircraft <span class="hlt">icing</span> is a serious concern for the aviation community since it is one of the major causes of fatal aircraft accidents. Aircrafts use different anti-<span class="hlt">icing</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span> and one such <span class="hlt">system</span> is the hot-air anti-<span class="hlt">icing</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>, which utilizes hot-air from the engine compressor bleed to heat critical aircraft surfaces and prevent <span class="hlt">ice</span> formation. Numerous experimental and numerical studies have been performed to increase the efficiency of the hot-air jet based anti-<span class="hlt">icing</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Most of the investigations have focused on either orifice design or the impingement region of target surface geometry. Since the impingement surface heat transfer drops off sharply past the stagnation region, investigators have studied the use of multiple jets to enhance surface heat transfer over a larger area. However, use of multiple jets is a further strain on engine resources. One way to conserve engine resources is to use single jet in conjunction with various geometric and physical mechanisms to enhance heat transfer. The current study focuses on enhancing heat transfer using a single jet and a channel. The study investigates the effect of channel's height, inlet location and Reynolds number on heat transfer characteristics in terms of average Nusselt number distribution along the impingement surface. The commercial CFD code, FLUENT, is used to simulate the different cases. Results indicate that the heat transfer depends strongly on height and width of channel, jet-to-target spacing, inlet angle and jet Reynolds number.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012TCD.....6.5037R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012TCD.....6.5037R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Ikaite crystal distribution in Arctic winter sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> and implications for CO2 <span class="hlt">system</span> dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rysgaard, S.; Søgaard, D. H.; Cooper, M.; Pućko, M.; Lennert, K.; Papakyriakou, T. N.; Wang, F.; Geilfus, N. X.; Glud, R. N.; Ehn, J.; McGinnnis, D. F.; Attard, K.; Sievers, J.; Deming, J. W.; Barber, D.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The precipitation of ikaite (CaCO3·6H2O) in polar sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> is critical to the efficiency of the sea <span class="hlt">ice</span>-driven carbon pump and potentially important to the global carbon cycle, yet the spatial and temporal occurrence of ikaite within the <span class="hlt">ice</span> is poorly known. We report unique observations of ikaite in unmelted <span class="hlt">ice</span> and vertical profiles of ikaite abundance and concentration in sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> for the crucial season of winter. <span class="hlt">Ice</span> was examined from two locations: a 1 m thick land-fast <span class="hlt">ice</span> site and a 0.3 m thick polynya site, both in the Young Sound area (74° N, 20° W) of NE Greenland. Ikaite crystals, ranging in size from a few µm to 700 µm were observed to concentrate in the interstices between the <span class="hlt">ice</span> platelets in both granular and columnar sea <span class="hlt">ice</span>. In vertical sea-<span class="hlt">ice</span> profiles from both locations, ikaite concentration determined from image analysis, decreased with depth from surfaceice values of 700-900 µmol kg-1 <span class="hlt">ice</span> (~ 25 × 106 crystals kg-1) to bottom-layer values of 100-200 µmol kg-1 <span class="hlt">ice</span> (1-7 × 106 kg-1), all of which are much higher (4-10 times) than those reported in the few previous studies. Direct measurements of total alkalinity (TA) in surface layers fell within the same range as ikaite concentration whereas TA concentrations in bottom layers were twice as high. This depth-related discrepancy suggests interior <span class="hlt">ice</span> processes where ikaite crystals form in surface sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> layers and partly dissolved in bottom layers. From these findings and model calculations we relate sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> formation and melt to observed pCO2 conditions in polar surface waters, and hence, the air-sea CO2 flux.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21456825','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21456825"><span id="translatedtitle">Regular network model for the sea <span class="hlt">ice</span>-albedo feedback in the Arctic.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Müller-Stoffels, Marc; Wackerbauer, Renate</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>The Arctic Ocean and sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> form a feedback <span class="hlt">system</span> that plays an important role in the global climate. The complexity of highly parameterized global circulation (climate) models <span class="hlt">makes</span> it very difficult to assess feedback processes in climate without the concurrent use of simple models where the physics is understood. We introduce a two-dimensional energy-based regular network model to investigate feedback processes in an Arctic <span class="hlt">ice</span>-ocean layer. The model includes the nonlinear aspect of the <span class="hlt">ice</span>-water phase transition, a nonlinear diffusive energy transport within a heterogeneous <span class="hlt">ice</span>-ocean lattice, and spatiotemporal atmospheric and oceanic forcing at the surfaces. First results for a horizontally homogeneous <span class="hlt">ice</span>-ocean layer show bistability and related hysteresis between perennial <span class="hlt">ice</span> and perennial open water for varying atmospheric heat influx. Seasonal <span class="hlt">ice</span> cover exists as a transient phenomenon. We also find that ocean heat fluxes are more efficient than atmospheric heat fluxes to melt Arctic sea <span class="hlt">ice</span>. PMID:21456825</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A53D3243V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A53D3243V"><span id="translatedtitle">Variation of <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Crystal Size, Shape and Asymmetry Parameter in Tops of Convective Storm <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Observed during SEAC4RS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Diedenhoven, B.; Cairns, B.; Fridlind, A. M.; Ackerman, A. S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The sizes and shapes of <span class="hlt">ice</span> particles in tops of convective storms have a significant impact on their radiative properties. <span class="hlt">Ice</span> crystal sizes and shapes likely vary with altitude, environmental conditions and convective strength, but these relationships are not well characterized. The rich dataset of the NASA SEAC4RS field campaign offers unique perspectives to further identify variations of <span class="hlt">ice</span> crystal sizes and shapes and their relations to environmental and dynamical conditions. Here we focus on data acquired with the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP), which was mounted on the high-altitude ER-2 aircraft during SEAC4RS. RSP's unique multi-angular, multi-wavelength total and polarized reflectance measurements allow retrieval of <span class="hlt">ice</span> effective radius, the aspect ratio of components of <span class="hlt">ice</span> crystals, the crystal distortion level and <span class="hlt">ice</span> asymmetry parameter, as well as cloud optical thickness and cloud top height. Using RSP data, as well as data from the eMAS and CPL sensors and in situ probes, we explore the statistical variation of <span class="hlt">ice</span> properties retrieved during SEAC4RS in tops of convective <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The data indicates that, in general, <span class="hlt">ice</span> crystal populations consistent with plate-like components with aspect ratios near 0.4 are prevalent at cloud tops. The asymmetry parameter is around 0.76-0.8 and generally decreases with increasing cloud top height, mainly because the <span class="hlt">ice</span> crystal distortion increases with height. Below about 12 km height, the effective radius decreases with increasing altitude, as previously shown for convective clouds using satellite data, but at higher levels the SEAC4RS data indicate a transition to effective radii increasing with cloud top height. Here we explore some possible explanations for this transition, related to its approximate coincidence with the level of minimum stability and the homogeneous freezing level, either of which could affect <span class="hlt">ice</span> crystal formation and evolution. Additionally, we will demonstrate some of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.2597L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.2597L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Determining <span class="hlt">ice</span> water content from 2D crystal images in convective cloud <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leroy, Delphine; Coutris, Pierre; Fontaine, Emmanuel; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons; Strapp, J. Walter</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Cloud microphysical in-situ instrumentation measures bulk parameters like total water content (TWC) and/or derives particle size distributions (PSD) (utilizing optical spectrometers and optical array probes (OAP)). The goal of this work is to introduce a comprehensive methodology to compute TWC from OAP measurements, based on the dataset collected during recent HAIC (High Altitude <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Crystals)/HIWC (High <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Water Content) field campaigns. Indeed, the HAIC/HIWC field campaigns in Darwin (2014) and Cayenne (2015) provide a unique opportunity to explore the complex relationship between cloud particle mass and size in <span class="hlt">ice</span> crystal environments. Numerous mesoscale convective <span class="hlt">systems</span> (MCSs) were sampled with the French Falcon 20 research aircraft at different temperature levels from -10°C up to 50°C. The aircraft instrumentation included an IKP-2 (isokinetic probe) to get reliable measurements of TWC and the optical array probes 2D-S and PIP recording images over the entire <span class="hlt">ice</span> crystal size range. Based on the known principle relating crystal mass and size with a power law (m=α•Dβ), Fontaine et al. (2014) performed extended 3D crystal simulations and thereby demonstrated that it is possible to estimate the value of the exponent β from OAP data, by analyzing the surface-size relationship for the 2D images as a function of time. Leroy et al. (2015) proposed an extended version of this method that produces estimates of β from the analysis of both the surface-size and perimeter-size relationships. Knowing the value of β, α then is deduced from the simultaneous IKP-2 TWC measurements for the entire HAIC/HIWC dataset. The statistical analysis of α and β values for the HAIC/HIWC dataset firstly shows that α is closely linked to β and that this link changes with temperature. From these trends, a generalized parameterization for α is proposed. Finally, the comparison with the initial IKP-2 measurements demonstrates that the method is able to predict TWC values</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27348980','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27348980"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial Contamination of <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Machines Is Mediated by Activated Charcoal Filtration <span class="hlt">Systems</span> in a City Hospital.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yorioka, Katsuhiro; Oie, Shigeharu; Hayashi, Koji; Kimoto, Hiroo; Furukawa, Hiroyuki</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Although microbial contamination of <span class="hlt">ice</span> machines has been reported, no previous study has addressed microbial contamination of <span class="hlt">ice</span> produced by machines equipped with activated charcoal (AC) filters in hospitals. The aim of this study was to provide clinical data for evaluating AC filters to prevent microbial contamination of <span class="hlt">ice</span>. We compared microbial contamination in <span class="hlt">ice</span> samples produced by machines with (n = 20) and without an AC filter (n = 40) in Shunan City Shinnanyo Municipal Hospital. All samples from the <span class="hlt">ice</span> machine equipped with an AC filter contained 10-116 CFUs/g of glucose nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chryseobacterium meningosepticum. No microorganisms were detected in samples from <span class="hlt">ice</span> machines without AC filters. After the AC filter was removed from the <span class="hlt">ice</span> machine that tested positive for Gram-negative bacteria, the <span class="hlt">ice</span> was resampled (n = 20). Analysis found no contaminants. <span class="hlt">Ice</span> machines equipped with AC filters pose a serious risk factor for <span class="hlt">ice</span> contamination. New filter-use guidelines and regulations on bacterial detection limits to prevent contamination of <span class="hlt">ice</span> in healthcare facilities are necessary. PMID:27348980</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920013291','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920013291"><span id="translatedtitle">The NASA aircraft <span class="hlt">icing</span> research program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shaw, Robert J.; Reinmann, John J.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The objective of the NASA aircraft <span class="hlt">icing</span> research program is to develop and <span class="hlt">make</span> available to industry <span class="hlt">icing</span> technology to support the needs and requirements for all-weather aircraft designs. Research is being done for both fixed wing and rotary wing applications. The NASA program emphasizes technology development in two areas, advanced <span class="hlt">ice</span> protection concepts and <span class="hlt">icing</span> simulation. Reviewed here are the computer code development/validation, <span class="hlt">icing</span> wind tunnel testing, and <span class="hlt">icing</span> flight testing efforts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9045K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9045K"><span id="translatedtitle">GIA <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kachuck, Samuel; Cathles, Larry; Amantov, Aleksey</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Defining the <span class="hlt">ice</span> load in a way that avoids circularity is perhaps the most difficult aspect of GIA modeling. At any instant of past time the global land-supported <span class="hlt">ice</span> load must honor the meltwater curve and the known edges of the <span class="hlt">ice</span>, but within these constraints the <span class="hlt">ice</span> mass can be swapped to a considerable extent between the various glacial <span class="hlt">systems</span> and parts of those <span class="hlt">systems</span>. In our models, <span class="hlt">ice</span> thickness is controlled by the effective basal shear stress (EBSS). This parameter incorporates the sub-<span class="hlt">ice</span> lithology (e.g., whether the <span class="hlt">ice</span> rests on sediment of crystalline rock), the relative local snow accumulation rate, and the local basal shear strength (which presumably depends most strongly on sub-<span class="hlt">ice</span> temperature). The effective basal shear stress can be fairly easily modified to construct an <span class="hlt">ice</span> model. The <span class="hlt">ice</span> model is evaluated by the geological reasonability of its changes in EBSS in space and time, and by how well it matches measured GIA data. The risk that an incorrect earth model can be forced to fit the GIA data by manipulating the <span class="hlt">ice</span> model (the circularity mentioned above) can be minimized by evaluating the longest wavelength deformations (peripheral bulge behavior) before proceeding to the shorter wavelength deformations (local emergence variations). The poster will describe how we have proceeded in this fashion to develop a framework for interpreting GIA data in Norway. The poster will be augmented by computer software that compares emergence data to models at specific sites in Norway.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6974E..0OH','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6974E..0OH"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic adaptive learning for decision-<span class="hlt">making</span> supporting <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>He, Haibo; Cao, Yuan; Chen, Sheng; Desai, Sachi; Hohil, Myron E.</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a novel adaptive learning method for data mining in support of decision-<span class="hlt">making</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Due to the inherent characteristics of information ambiguity/uncertainty, high dimensionality and noisy in many homeland security and defense applications, such as surveillances, monitoring, net-centric battlefield, and others, it is critical to develop autonomous learning methods to efficiently learn useful information from raw data to help the decision <span class="hlt">making</span> process. The proposed method is based on a dynamic learning principle in the feature spaces. Generally speaking, conventional approaches of learning from high dimensional data sets include various feature extraction (principal component analysis, wavelet transform, and others) and feature selection (embedded approach, wrapper approach, filter approach, and others) methods. However, very limited understandings of adaptive learning from different feature spaces have been achieved. We propose an integrative approach that takes advantages of feature selection and hypothesis ensemble techniques to achieve our goal. Based on the training data distributions, a feature score function is used to provide a measurement of the importance of different features for learning purpose. Then multiple hypotheses are iteratively developed in different feature spaces according to their learning capabilities. Unlike the pre-set iteration steps in many of the existing ensemble learning approaches, such as adaptive boosting (AdaBoost) method, the iterative learning process will automatically stop when the intelligent <span class="hlt">system</span> can not provide a better understanding than a random guess in that particular subset of feature spaces. Finally, a voting algorithm is used to combine all the decisions from different hypotheses to provide the final prediction results. Simulation analyses of the proposed method on classification of different US military aircraft databases show the effectiveness of this method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AdSpR..55.2190B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AdSpR..55.2190B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">MUSE - Mission to the Uranian <span class="hlt">system</span>: Unveiling the evolution and formation of <span class="hlt">ice</span> giants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bocanegra-Bahamón, Tatiana; Bracken, Colm; Costa Sitjà, Marc; Dirkx, Dominic; Gerth, Ingo; Konstantinidis, Kostas; Labrianidis, Christos; Laneuville, Matthieu; Luntzer, Armin; MacArthur, Jane L.; Maier, Andrea; Morschhauser, Achim; Nordheim, Tom A.; Sallantin, Renaud; Tlustos, Reinhard</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The planet Uranus, one of the two <span class="hlt">ice</span> giants in the Solar <span class="hlt">System</span>, has only been visited once by the Voyager 2 spacecraft in 1986. <span class="hlt">Ice</span> giants represent a fundamental class of planets, and many known exoplanets fall within this category. Therefore, a dedicated mission to an <span class="hlt">ice</span> giant is crucial to improve the understanding of the formation, evolution and current characteristics of such planets in order to extend the knowledge of both the Solar <span class="hlt">System</span> and exoplanetary <span class="hlt">systems</span>. In the study at hand, the rationale, selection, and conceptual design for a mission to investigate the Uranian <span class="hlt">system</span>, as an archetype for <span class="hlt">ice</span> giants, is presented. A structured analysis of science questions relating to the Uranian <span class="hlt">system</span> is performed, categorized by the themes atmosphere, interior, moons and rings, and magnetosphere. In each theme, science questions are defined, with their relative importance in the theme quantified. Additionally, top-level weights for each theme are defined, with atmosphere and interior weighted the strongest, as they are more related to both exoplanetary <span class="hlt">systems</span> and the Uranian <span class="hlt">system</span>, than the other two themes (which are more specific for the planet itself). Several top level mission architecture aspects have been defined, from which the most promising concepts were generated using heuristic methods. A trade-off analysis of these concepts is presented, separately, for engineering aspects, such as cost, complexity, and risk, and for science aspects. The science score for each mission is generated from the capability of each mission concept to answer the science questions. The trade-off results in terms of relative science and engineering weight are presented, and competitive mission concepts are analyzed based on the preferred mission type. A mission design point for a typical flagship science mission is selected from the trade space. It consists of a Uranus orbiter with a dry mass of 2073 kg including 402 kg of payload and a Uranus entry probe, which is to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1090226','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1090226"><span id="translatedtitle">Reducing uncertainty in high-resolution sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> models.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Arctic sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> is an important component of the global climate <span class="hlt">system</span>, reflecting a significant amount of solar radiation, insulating the ocean from the atmosphere and influencing ocean circulation by modifying the salinity of the upper ocean. The thickness and extent of Arctic sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> have shown a significant decline in recent decades with implications for global climate as well as regional geopolitics. Increasing interest in exploration as well as climate feedback effects <span class="hlt">make</span> predictive mathematical modeling of sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> a task of tremendous practical import. Satellite data obtained over the last few decades have provided a wealth of information on sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> motion and deformation. The data clearly show that <span class="hlt">ice</span> deformation is focused along narrow linear features and this type of deformation is not well-represented in existing models. To improve sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> dynamics we have incorporated an anisotropic rheology into the Los Alamos National Laboratory global sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> model, CICE. Sensitivity analyses were performed using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA) to determine the impact of material parameters on sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> response functions. Two material strength parameters that exhibited the most significant impact on responses were further analyzed to evaluate their influence on quantitative comparisons between model output and data. The sensitivity analysis along with ten year model runs indicate that while the anisotropic rheology provides some benefit in velocity predictions, additional improvements are required to <span class="hlt">make</span> this material model a viable alternative for global sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910065267&hterms=methods+numeric&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmethods%2Bnumeric','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910065267&hterms=methods+numeric&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmethods%2Bnumeric"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> leads with a coupled numeric/symbolic <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Key, J.; Schweiger, A. J.; Maslanik, J. A.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>A method is presented which facilitates the detection and delineation of leads with single-channel Landsat data by coupling numeric and symbolic procedures. The procedure consists of three steps: (1) using the dynamic threshold method, an image is mapped to a lead/no lead binary image; (2) the likelihood of fragments to be real leads is examined with a set of numeric rules; and (3) pairs of objects are examined geometrically and merged where possible. The processing ends when all fragments are merged and statistical characteristics are determined, and a map of valid lead objects are left which summarizes useful physical in the lead complexes. Direct implementation of domain knowledge and rapid prototyping are two benefits of the rule-based <span class="hlt">system</span>. The approach is found to be more successfully applied to mid- and high-level processing, and the <span class="hlt">system</span> can retrieve statistics about sea-<span class="hlt">ice</span> leads as well as detect the leads.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040120981','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040120981"><span id="translatedtitle">EOS Aqua AMSR-E Arctic Sea <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Validation Program: Arctic2003 Aircraft Campaign Flight Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cavalieri, D. J.; Markus,T.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>In March 2003 a coordinated Arctic sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> validation field campaign using the NASA Wallops P-3B aircraft was successfully completed. This campaign was part of the program for validating the Earth Observing <span class="hlt">System</span> (EOS) Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> products. The AMSR-E, designed and built by the Japanese National Space Development Agency for NASA, was launched May 4, 2002 on the EOS Aqua spacecraft. The AMSR-E sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> products to be validated include sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> concentration, sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> temperature, and snow depth on sea <span class="hlt">ice</span>. This flight report describes the suite of instruments flown on the P-3, the objectives of each of the seven flights, the Arctic regions overflown, and the coordination among satellite, aircraft, and surface-based measurements. Two of the seven aircraft flights were coordinated with scientists <span class="hlt">making</span> surface measurements of snow and <span class="hlt">ice</span> properties including sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> temperature and snow depth on sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> at a study area near Barrow, AK and at a Navy <span class="hlt">ice</span> camp located in the Beaufort Sea. Two additional flights were dedicated to <span class="hlt">making</span> heat and moisture flux measurements over the St. Lawrence Island polynya to support ongoing air-sea-<span class="hlt">ice</span> processes studies of Arctic coastal polynyas. The remaining flights covered portions of the Bering Sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> edge, the Chukchi Sea, and Norton Sound.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EPSC...10..787B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EPSC...10..787B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ice</span> Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>blugerman, n.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>My project is to <span class="hlt">make</span> <span class="hlt">ice</span> observatories to perceive astral movements as well as light phenomena in the shape of cosmic rays and heat, for example.I find the idea of creating an observation point in space, that in time will change shape and eventually disappear, in consonance with the way we humans have been approaching the exploration of the universe since we started doing it. The transformation in the elements we use to understand big and small transformations, within the universe elements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=trump&pg=5&id=EJ838659','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=trump&pg=5&id=EJ838659"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Systemic</span> Data-Based Decision <span class="hlt">Making</span>: A <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Approach for Using Data in Schools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Walser, Tamara M.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>No Child Left Behind has increased data collection and reporting, the development of data <span class="hlt">systems</span>, and interest in using data for decision-<span class="hlt">making</span> in schools and classrooms. Ends-driven decision <span class="hlt">making</span> has become common educational practice, where the ends justify the means at all costs, and short-term results trump longer-term outcomes and the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040035528','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040035528"><span id="translatedtitle">Implications of Contingency Planning Support for Weather and <span class="hlt">Icing</span> Information</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vigeant-Langlois, Laurence; Hansman, R. John, Jr.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>A human-centered <span class="hlt">systems</span> analysis was applied to the adverse aircraft weather encounter problem in order to identify desirable functions of weather and <span class="hlt">icing</span> information. The importance of contingency planning was identified as emerging from a <span class="hlt">system</span> safety design methodology as well as from results of other aviation decision-<span class="hlt">making</span> studies. The relationship between contingency planning support and information on regions clear of adverse weather was investigated in a scenario- based analysis. A rapid prototype example of the key elements in the depiction of <span class="hlt">icing</span> conditions was developed in a case study, and the implications for the components of the <span class="hlt">icing</span> information <span class="hlt">system</span> were articulated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4248833','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4248833"><span id="translatedtitle">The TetR-Type MfsR Protein of the Integrative and Conjugative Element (<span class="hlt">ICE</span>) ICEclc Controls both a Putative Efflux <span class="hlt">System</span> and Initiation of <span class="hlt">ICE</span> Transfer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pradervand, Nicolas; Delavat, François; Sulser, Sandra; Miyazaki, Ryo</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Integrative and conjugating elements (<span class="hlt">ICE</span>) are self-transferable DNAs widely present in bacterial genomes, which often carry a variety of auxiliary genes of potential adaptive benefit. One of the model <span class="hlt">ICE</span> is ICEclc, an element originally found in Pseudomonas knackmussii B13 and known for its propensity to provide its host with the capacity to metabolize chlorocatechols and 2-aminophenol. In this work, we studied the mechanism and target of regulation of MfsR, a TetR-type repressor previously found to exert global control on ICEclc horizontal transfer. By using a combination of ICEclc mutant and transcriptome analysis, gene reporter fusions, and DNA binding assays, we found that MfsR is a repressor of both its own expression and that of a gene cluster putatively coding for a major facilitator superfamily efflux <span class="hlt">system</span> on ICEclc (named mfsABC). Phylogenetic analysis suggests that mfsR was originally located immediately adjacent to the efflux pump genes but became displaced from its original cis target DNA by a gene insertion. This resulted in divergence of the original bidirectional promoters into two separated individual regulatory units. Deletion of mfsABC did not result in a strong phenotype, and despite screening a large number of compounds and conditions, we were unable to define the precise current function or target of the putative efflux pump. Our data reconstruct how the separation of an ancestor mfsR-mfsABC <span class="hlt">system</span> led to global control of ICEclc transfer by MfsR. PMID:25182498</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C51A0673B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C51A0673B"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmosphere - Sea <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Coupling in the Navy's Global Coupled Modeling <span class="hlt">System</span>: Diagnosing Polar Prediction using the sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> models, CICE4 and CICE5, coupled with the NAVGEM Atmospheric Model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barton, N. P.; Chen, J.; Whitcomb, T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The United States Naval Research Laboratory is developing a global coupled model for sub-seasonal to seasonal predictions under the Earth <span class="hlt">System</span> Prediction Capability national program. The Navy's full Earth <span class="hlt">System</span> coupled model has a dynamic atmosphere, ocean, and sea <span class="hlt">ice</span>. This presentation only examines atmosphere - sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> coupling without using a dynamic ocean to isolate interactions. The Navy's Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM) is used for the atmospheric model and two versions of the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Community sea <span class="hlt">ICe</span> Code (CICE version 4 and 5) are used for sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> model. Data assimilative five day hindcasts are performed from March 2014 to September 2014 using NAVGEM-CICE4 and NAVGEM-CICE5 configurations. Differences in sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> and low-level temperatures are examined in detail. The NAVGEM-CICE5 configuration results in a larger coverage of sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> compared to the NAVGEM-CICE4 configuration, and this is consistent with thicker sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> in the NAVGEM-CICE5 runs. Low-level temperatures in the NAVGEM-CICE4 are greater during Northern Hemisphere spring compared to the NAVGEM-CICE5 configuration. NAVGEM-CICE5 has larger albedos compared to the NAVGEM-CICE4 configuration and may be a primary cause in the lower low-level temperatures. Lastly, these results are discussed in relation to the stand-alone NAVGEM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C44A..06M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C44A..06M"><span id="translatedtitle">Sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> deformation and the <span class="hlt">ice</span> thickness distribution: How novel observations can help to improve models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martin, T.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p> variable ITD and redistribution by ridging on the Arctic climate <span class="hlt">system</span>. For example, the total Arctic sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> volume is increased by 16% in winter and more than 20% in summer, on average the <span class="hlt">ice</span> is ~0.5 m thicker, which benefits multi-year <span class="hlt">ice</span>, but the <span class="hlt">ice</span> concentration is reduced. The latter causes a reduced surface albedo, increased oceanic heat loss/gain in winter/summer, and higher surface air temperatures by 1-2 °C on average. The warmer air temperatures also affect adjacent land areas. However, the parameters applied to the ridging model are not well constrained by observations. To further the understanding of <span class="hlt">ice</span> thickness redistribution by ridging process oriented field studies that record all involved forces are necessary. An example of a deformation event in the Baltic Sea is given, which was well covered by air-borne <span class="hlt">ice</span> thickness and surface roughness measurements complemented by <span class="hlt">ice</span> motion and wind observations. It is the combination of several instruments that yield the full picture and <span class="hlt">make</span> this data set valuable with respect to model improvements.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1036006','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1036006"><span id="translatedtitle">Arctic Sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> model sensitivities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Paskaleva, Biliana Stefanova</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Arctic sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> is an important component of the global climate <span class="hlt">system</span> and, due to feedback effects, the Arctic <span class="hlt">ice</span> cover is changing rapidly. Predictive mathematical models are of paramount importance for accurate estimates of the future <span class="hlt">ice</span> trajectory. However, the sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> components of Global Climate Models (GCMs) vary significantly in their prediction of the future state of Arctic sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> and have generally underestimated the rate of decline in minimum sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> extent seen over the past thirty years. One of the contributing factors to this variability is the sensitivity of the sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> state to internal model parameters. A new sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> model that holds some promise for improving sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> predictions incorporates an anisotropic elastic-decohesive rheology and dynamics solved using the material-point method (MPM), which combines Lagrangian particles for advection with a background grid for gradient computations. We evaluate the variability of this MPM sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> code and compare it with the Los Alamos National Laboratory CICE code for a single year simulation of the Arctic basin using consistent ocean and atmospheric forcing. Sensitivities of <span class="hlt">ice</span> volume, <span class="hlt">ice</span> area, <span class="hlt">ice</span> extent, root mean square (RMS) <span class="hlt">ice</span> speed, central Arctic <span class="hlt">ice</span> thickness,and central Arctic <span class="hlt">ice</span> speed with respect to ten different dynamic and thermodynamic parameters are evaluated both individually and in combination using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA). We find similar responses for the two codes and some interesting seasonal variability in the strength of the parameters on the solution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750009037','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750009037"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ice</span> pack heat sink subsystem, phase 2. [astronaut life support cooling <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Kellner, J. D.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The report describes the design, development, fabrication, and test at one gravity of a prototype <span class="hlt">ice</span> pack heat sink subsystem to be used eventually for astronaut cooling during manned space missions; the investigation of thermal storage material with the objective of uncovering materials with heats of fusion and/or solution in the range of 300 Btu/lb (700 kilojoules/kilogram); and the planned procedure for implementing an <span class="hlt">ice</span> pack heat sink subsystem flight experiment. In normal use, excess heat in the liquid cooling garment (LCG) coolant is transferred to a reusable/regenerable <span class="hlt">ice</span> pack heat sink. For emergency operation, or for extension of extravehicular activity mission time after all the <span class="hlt">ice</span> has melted, water from the <span class="hlt">ice</span> pack is boiled to vacuum, thereby continuing to remove heat from the LCG coolant. This subsystem incorporates a quick disconnect thermal interface between the <span class="hlt">ice</span> pack heat sink and the subsystem heat exchanger.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17.1731L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17.1731L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Subaqueous <span class="hlt">ice</span>-contact fans: Depositional <span class="hlt">systems</span> characterised by highly aggradational supercritical flow conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lang, Joerg; Winsemann, Jutta</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Subaqueous <span class="hlt">ice</span>-contact fans are deposited by high-energy plane-wall jets from subglacial conduits into standing water bodies. Highly aggradational conditions during flow expansion and deceleration allow for the preservation of bedforms related to supercritical flows, which are commonly considered rare in the depositional record. We present field examples from gravelly and sandy subaqueous <span class="hlt">ice</span>-contact fan successions, which indicate that deposition by supercritical flows might be considered as a characteristic feature of these depositional <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The studied successions were deposited in deep <span class="hlt">ice</span>-dammed lakes, which formed along the margins of the Middle Pleistocene Scandinavian <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheets across Northern Germany. The gravel-rich subaqueous fan deposits are dominated by large scour-fills (up to 25 m wide and 3 m) deep and deposits of turbulent hyperconcentrated flows, which are partly attributed to supercritical flow conditions (Winsemann et al., 2009). Scours (up to 4.5 m wide and 0.9 m deep) infilled by gravelly backsets are observed above laterally extensive erosional surfaces and are interpreted as deposits of cyclic steps. Laterally discontinuous beds of low-angle cross-stratified gravel are interpreted as antidune deposits. Downflow and up-section the gravel-rich deposits pass into sand-rich successions, which include deposits of chutes-and-pools, breaking antidunes, stationary antidunes and humpback dunes (Lang and Winsemann, 2013). Deposits of chutes-and-pools and breaking antidunes are characterised by scour-fills (up to 4 m wide and 1.2 m deep) comprising backsets or gently dipping sigmoidal foresets. Stationary antidune deposits consist of laterally extensive sinusoidal waveforms with long wavelengths (1-12 m) and low amplitudes (0.1-0.5 m), which formed under quasi-steady flows at the lower limit of the supercritical flow stage and high rates of sedimentation. Humpback dunes are characterised by divergent sigmoidal foresets and are interpreted as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011RScI...82f5110H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011RScI...82f5110H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">ice</span> lithography instrument</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called <span class="hlt">ice</span> lithography, where <span class="hlt">ice</span> is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of <span class="hlt">ice</span>. To form a lift-off mask, <span class="hlt">ice</span> is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography <span class="hlt">system</span>. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the <span class="hlt">ice</span> mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum <span class="hlt">system</span> and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the <span class="hlt">ice</span> melts, metal deposited on the <span class="hlt">ice</span> disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the <span class="hlt">ice</span> had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography <span class="hlt">system</span>, cryogenic <span class="hlt">systems</span>, and a high vacuum metal deposition <span class="hlt">system</span> in a design that optimizes <span class="hlt">ice</span> lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22062371','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22062371"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">ice</span> lithography instrument</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.</p> <p>2011-06-15</p> <p>We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called <span class="hlt">ice</span> lithography, where <span class="hlt">ice</span> is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of <span class="hlt">ice</span>. To form a lift-off mask, <span class="hlt">ice</span> is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography <span class="hlt">system</span>. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the <span class="hlt">ice</span> mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum <span class="hlt">system</span> and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the <span class="hlt">ice</span> melts, metal deposited on the <span class="hlt">ice</span> disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the <span class="hlt">ice</span> had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography <span class="hlt">system</span>, cryogenic <span class="hlt">systems</span>, and a high vacuum metal deposition <span class="hlt">system</span> in a design that optimizes <span class="hlt">ice</span> lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21721733','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21721733"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">ice</span> lithography instrument.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J A</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called <span class="hlt">ice</span> lithography, where <span class="hlt">ice</span> is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of <span class="hlt">ice</span>. To form a lift-off mask, <span class="hlt">ice</span> is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography <span class="hlt">system</span>. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the <span class="hlt">ice</span> mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum <span class="hlt">system</span> and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the <span class="hlt">ice</span> melts, metal deposited on the <span class="hlt">ice</span> disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the <span class="hlt">ice</span> had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography <span class="hlt">system</span>, cryogenic <span class="hlt">systems</span>, and a high vacuum metal deposition <span class="hlt">system</span> in a design that optimizes <span class="hlt">ice</span> lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines. PMID:21721733</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3144963','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3144963"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">ice</span> lithography instrument</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called <span class="hlt">ice</span> lithography, where <span class="hlt">ice</span> is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of <span class="hlt">ice</span>. To form a lift-off mask, <span class="hlt">ice</span> is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography <span class="hlt">system</span>. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the <span class="hlt">ice</span> mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum <span class="hlt">system</span> and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the <span class="hlt">ice</span> melts, metal deposited on the <span class="hlt">ice</span> disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the <span class="hlt">ice</span> had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography <span class="hlt">system</span>, cryogenic <span class="hlt">systems</span>, and a high vacuum metal deposition <span class="hlt">system</span> in a design that optimizes <span class="hlt">ice</span> lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines. PMID:21721733</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930085318','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930085318"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ice</span> Protection of Turbojet Engines by Inertia Separation of Water I : Alternate-duct <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Von Glahn, Uwe</p> <p>1948-01-01</p> <p>Aerodynamic and <span class="hlt">icing</span> investigations of internal water-inertia separation inlets designed to prevent automatically entrance of large quantities of water into a turbojet engine in <span class="hlt">icing</span> conditions was conducted on a one-half scale model. A simplified analytical approach to the design of internal water-inertia separation inlets is included. Results show that in order to be effective in preventing screen and guide-vane <span class="hlt">icing</span> for an inlet of this type, a ram-pressure recovery of 75 percent was attained at design inlet-velocity ratio in an <span class="hlt">icing</span> condition. For nonicing operation, ram-pressure recovery is comparable to direct-ram inlet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120016761','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120016761"><span id="translatedtitle">Space Launch <span class="hlt">System</span> Complex Decision-<span class="hlt">Making</span> Process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lyles, Garry; Flores, Tim; Hundley, Jason; Monk, Timothy; Feldman,Stuart</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Space Shuttle program has ended and elements of the Constellation Program have either been cancelled or transitioned to new NASA exploration endeavors. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has worked diligently to select an optimum configuration for the Space Launch <span class="hlt">System</span> (SLS), a heavy lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low earth orbit (LEO) large-scale missions for the next several decades. From Fall 2010 until Spring 2011, an SLS decision-<span class="hlt">making</span> framework was formulated, tested, fully documented, and applied to multiple SLS vehicle concepts at NASA from previous exploration architecture studies. This was a multistep process that involved performing figure of merit (FOM)-based assessments, creating Pass/Fail gates based on draft threshold requirements, performing a margin-based assessment with supporting statistical analyses, and performing sensitivity analysis on each. This paper focuses on the various steps and methods of this process (rather than specific data) that allowed for competing concepts to be compared across a variety of launch vehicle metrics in support of the successful completion of the SLS Mission Concept Review (MCR) milestone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20403840','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20403840"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate effects on volcanism: influence on magmatic <span class="hlt">systems</span> of loading and unloading from <span class="hlt">ice</span> mass variations, with examples from Iceland.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Pinel, Virginie; Lund, Björn; Albino, Fabien; Pagli, Carolina; Geirsson, Halldór; Sturkell, Erik</p> <p>2010-05-28</p> <p>Pressure influences both magma production and the failure of magma chambers. Changes in pressure interact with the local tectonic settings and can affect magmatic activity. Present-day reduction in <span class="hlt">ice</span> load on subglacial volcanoes due to global warming is modifying pressure conditions in magmatic <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The large pulse in volcanic production at the end of the last glaciation in Iceland suggests a link between unloading and volcanism, and models of that process can help to evaluate future scenarios. A viscoelastic model of glacio-isostatic adjustment that considers melt generation demonstrates how surface unloading may lead to a pulse in magmatic activity. Iceland's <span class="hlt">ice</span> caps have been thinning since 1890 and glacial rebound at rates exceeding 20 mm yr(-1) is ongoing. Modelling predicts a significant amount of 'additional' magma generation under Iceland due to <span class="hlt">ice</span> retreat. The unloading also influences stress conditions in shallow magma chambers, modifying their failure conditions in a manner that depends critically on <span class="hlt">ice</span> retreat, the shape and depth of magma chambers as well as the compressibility of the magma. An annual cycle of land elevation in Iceland, due to seasonal variation of <span class="hlt">ice</span> mass, indicates an annual modulation of failure conditions in subglacial magma chambers. PMID:20403840</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930006156','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930006156"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical Modeling of Anti-<span class="hlt">icing</span> <span class="hlt">Systems</span> and Comparison to Test Results on a NACA 0012 Airfoil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Al-Khalil, Kamel M.; Potapczuk, Mark G.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>A series of experimental tests were conducted in the NASA Lewis IRT on an electro-thermally heated NACA 0012 airfoil. Quantitative comparisons between the experimental results and those predicted by a computer simulation code were made to assess the validity of a recently developed anti-<span class="hlt">icing</span> model. An infrared camera was utilized to scan the instantaneous temperature contours of the skin surface. Despite some experimental difficulties, good agreement between the numerical predictions and the experiment results were generally obtained for the surface temperature and the possibility for each runback to freeze. Some recommendations were given for an efficient operation of a thermal anti-<span class="hlt">icing</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5508807','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5508807"><span id="translatedtitle">Organic solids produced from simple C/H/O/N <span class="hlt">ices</span> by charged particles - Applications to the outer solar <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Khare, B.N.; Thompson, W.R.; Chyba, C.F.; Sagan, C.; Arakawa, E.T.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The effects of charged particle irradiation by cold plasma discharge on surfaces of H2O:CH4 clathrate with a 200:1 ratio and on <span class="hlt">ices</span> composed of H2O and C2H6 or C2H2 are examined. The molecules studies are found in Comet Halley and are plausible constituents in icy outer solar <span class="hlt">system</span> objects. The IR transmission spectra of four <span class="hlt">ice</span>-tholin residues obtained in the laboratory are compared with spectra produced by irradiation of gases and <span class="hlt">ices</span> containing simple hydrocarbons. The similarities between CH4 clathrate residue and Halley organic grains, and the surface transport or atmospheric replenishment activity on Triton and Pluto are discussed. 56 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED092689.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED092689.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Aircraft Landing Gear, <span class="hlt">Ice</span> and Rain Control <span class="hlt">Systems</span> (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics 3 (Air Frame):9067.02.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.</p> <p></p> <p>This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to familiarize the student with operation, inspection, troubleshooting, and repair of aircraft landing gear, <span class="hlt">ice</span> and rain control <span class="hlt">systems</span>. It is designed to help the trainee master the knowledge and skills necessary to become an aviation airframe mechanic. The aviation airframe…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1163C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1163C"><span id="translatedtitle">An assessment of the rapid evolution of <span class="hlt">ice</span>-marginal and proglacial <span class="hlt">systems</span> due to ongoing climate change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carrivick, Jonathan</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Ice</span>-marginal and proglacial <span class="hlt">systems</span> are rapidly evolving due to ongoing climate change, which is primarily manifest in deglaciation and thawing permafrost. Evolution of <span class="hlt">ice</span>-marginal and proglacial <span class="hlt">systems</span> can be recognised specifically in geomorphological and hydrological processes, landforms and sediments. These changes will have important and immediate consequences for landscape stability and for water and sediment fluxes, and hence for biogeochemical cycles, ecology and human activity. This presentation will discuss three hot topics; (i) the general response of alpine catchments to deglaciation and permafrost thawing, (ii) the impact of proglacial lakes on <span class="hlt">ice</span> margins and on proglacial <span class="hlt">systems</span>, (iii) the role of sudden onset glacier floods, or 'jökulhlaups', in <span class="hlt">ice</span>-marginal and proglacial <span class="hlt">systems</span>. In all three topics an emphasis will be made on the state of conceptual knowledge, outstanding requirement for quantitative measurement and analysis, and opportunities offered by emerging technology. The presentation will finish with a look forwards to suggest ways of integrating ideas and approaches, resources and methods across research disciplines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/amery_ice_shelf','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/amery_ice_shelf"><span id="translatedtitle">Amery <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Shelf</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-16</p> <p>article title:  Amery <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Shelf's "Loose Tooth" Gets Looser     View Larger Image The Amery <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Shelf is an important dynamic <span class="hlt">system</span> responsible for draining about 16% of ... glaciers. Mass loss from the <span class="hlt">system</span> occurs through basal melting and iceberg calving. These images from the Multi-angle Imaging ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020004188','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020004188"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling South Pacific <span class="hlt">Ice</span>-Ocean Interactions in the Global Climate <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Holland, David M.; Jenkins, Adrian; Jacobs, Stanley S.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this project has been to improve the modeling of interactions between large Antarctic <span class="hlt">ice</span> shelves and adjacent regions of the Southern Ocean. Our larger goal is to gain a better understanding of the extent to which the ocean controls <span class="hlt">ice</span> shelf attrition, thereby influencing the size and dynamics of the Antarctic <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Sheet. Melting and freezing under <span class="hlt">ice</span> shelves also impacts seawater properties, regional upwelling and sinking and the larger-scale ocean circulation. Modifying an isopycnal coordinate general circulation model for use in sub-<span class="hlt">ice</span> shelf cavities, we found that the abrupt change in water column thickness at an <span class="hlt">ice</span> shelf front does not form a strong barrier to buoyancy-driven circulation across the front. Outflow along the <span class="hlt">ice</span> shelf base, driven by melting of the thickest <span class="hlt">ice</span>, is balanced by deep inflow. Substantial effort was focused on the Filchner-Ronne cavity, where other models have been applied and time-series records are available from instruments suspended beneath the <span class="hlt">ice</span>. A model comparison indicated that observed changes in the production of High Salinity Shelf Water could have a major impact on circulation within the cavity. This water propagates into the cavity with an asymmetric seasonal signal that has similar phasing and shape in the model and observations, and can be related to winter production at the sea surface. Even remote parts of the sub-<span class="hlt">ice</span> shelf cavity are impacted by external forcing on sub-annual time scales. This shows that cavity circulations and products, and therefore cavity shape, will respond to interannual variability in sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> production and longer-term climate change. The isopycnal model gives generally lower net melt rates than have been obtained from other models and oceanographic data, perhaps due to its boundary layer formulation, or the lack of tidal forcing. Work continues on a manuscript describing the Ross cavity results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014DPS....4642104P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014DPS....4642104P"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal and Electron Irradiation Processing of Outer Solar<span class="hlt">System</span> <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Simulants: Chemical and Spectroscopic Laboratory Characterization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poston, Michael; Mahjoub, Ahmed; Hand, Kevin; Carlson, Robert; Brown, Mike; Blacksberg, Jordana; Eiler, John; Hodyss, Robert; Carey, Elizabeth; Ehlmann, Bethany</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Our team is examining the effects of energetic radiation and thermal cycling on pure and mixed solar <span class="hlt">system</span> <span class="hlt">ices</span> under ultra-high vacuum conditions. These <span class="hlt">ices</span> are being examined in search of markers that are unique to a specific thermal or radiation history, with specific interest in simulating histories believed to be relevant to Jupiter Trojan asteroids and Kuiper Belt Objects. A key telescopic observation of the Trojan asteroids is that they have a bimodal distribution of spectral slopes in the visible and near infrared regions. One population exhibits very red spectral slopes, while the other moderately red slopes. This distribution may point to differing formation locations and dynamical histories between the two populations. The <span class="hlt">ices</span> are deposited on a cryogenic stage at temperatures appropriate to outer solar <span class="hlt">system</span> objects. Of specific interest are water, methanol, hydrogen sulfide, and ammonia, which are simple <span class="hlt">ice</span> constituents that together contain the most common reactive elements found in <span class="hlt">ices</span>. Electron irradiation has been conducted, with plans to irradiate with other particle sources as well. The <span class="hlt">ices</span> are examined by reflectance spectroscopy in the visible through mid infrared while a quadrapole mass spectrometer monitors the vacuum chamber background for any desorbed or sputtered neutral products. All mixtures analyzed thus far have shown the appearance of new bands and disappearance of others during irradiation and formation of a residue that did not sublime upon heating to 300 Kelvin. This work has been supported by the Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS). The research described here was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and at the Caltech Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070034942&hterms=1044&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231044','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070034942&hterms=1044&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231044"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal Evolution and Interannual Variability of the Local Solar Energy Absorbed by the Arctic Sea <span class="hlt">Ice</span>-Ocean <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Perovich, Donald K.; Nghiem, Son V.; Markus, Thorsten; Schwieger, Axel</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The melt season of the Arctic sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> cover is greatly affected by the partitioning of the incident solar radiation between reflection to the atmosphere and absorption in the <span class="hlt">ice</span> and ocean. This partitioning exhibits a strong seasonal cycle and significant interannual variability. Data in the period 1998, 2000-2004 were analyzed in this study. Observations made during the 1997-1998 SHEBA (Surface HEat Budget of the Arctic Ocean) field experiment showed a strong seasonal dependence of the partitioning, dominated by a five-phase albedo evolution. QuikSCAT scatterometer data from the SHEBA region in 1999-2004 were used to further investigate solar partitioning in summer. The time series of scatterometer data were used to determine the onset of melt and the beginning of freezeup. This information was combined with SSM/I-derived <span class="hlt">ice</span> concentration, TOVS-based estimates of incident solar irradiance, and SHEBA results to estimate the amount of solar energy absorbed in the <span class="hlt">ice</span>-ocean <span class="hlt">system</span> for these years. The average total solar energy absorbed in the <span class="hlt">ice</span>-ocean <span class="hlt">system</span> from April through September was 900 MJ m(sup -2). There was considerable interannual variability, with a range of 826 to 1044 MJ m(sup -2). The total amount of solar energy absorbed by the <span class="hlt">ice</span> and ocean was strongly related to the date of melt onset, but only weakly related to the total duration of the melt season or the onset of freezeup. The timing of melt onset is significant because the incident solar energy is large and a change at this time propagates through the entire melt season, affecting the albedo every day throughout melt and freezeup.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007epsc.conf..895H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007epsc.conf..895H"><span id="translatedtitle">Cryogenic Property Measurements on Icy Compositions with Application to Solar <span class="hlt">System</span> <span class="hlt">Ices</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hays, C.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Barmatz, M.; Mitchell, K.</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p> grains). Post-synthesis microstructural characterization will be performed using Cryogenic Optical Microscopy integrating a cross-polarizer to analyze thin sections, and a Cryogenic Scanning Electron Microscope. Mechanical property measurements on solid specimens will be performed between 80 and 270 K with a cryogenically cooled Instron measurement <span class="hlt">system</span>. Compression measurements will be conducted as a function of temperature, strain-rate, microstructural length scale and orientation. The time dependent viscous response will be measured by performing creep measurements over the same range of temperatures. Using low-frequency cyclic loading, the dissipation factor will be measured at frequencies approaching satellite orbital frequencies. We will report preliminary mechanical property measurements of Antarctic glacial specimens at cryogenic temperatures. Fluids. In order to improve our understanding of effusive cryovolcanism, the rheological properties of liquid and mixed (slurry) materials will be measured between 80 and 300 K using a cryogenically cooled Brookfield rotational rheometer. We will report preliminary measurements of the temperature dependence of the viscous response for several compositions in the Methanol-Water <span class="hlt">System</span>. Also, we will describe an experiment designed to measure methane wetting on water <span class="hlt">ice</span>. These experiments will be carried out in order to explore the effects of the presence of methane lakes on Titan's surface. We are developing the capability to investigate more complex materials relevant to surface processes on Titan, including methane-ethane phase studies, hydrocarbons such as acetylene and benzene, as well as tholins and clathrates, which should exhibit a range of rheological and mechanical properties from fast-moving fluids to glacial creep. Acknowledgements: Most of the research described in this presentation was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090030602','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090030602"><span id="translatedtitle">Proceedings of the Airframe <span class="hlt">Icing</span> Workshop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Colantonio, Ron O. (Editor)</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has a long history of working with its partners towards the understanding of <span class="hlt">ice</span> accretion formation and its associated degradation of aerodynamic performance. The June 9, 2009, Airframe <span class="hlt">Icing</span> Workshop held at GRC provided an opportunity to examine the current NASA airframe <span class="hlt">icing</span> research program and to dialogue on remaining and emerging airframe <span class="hlt">icing</span> issues and research with the external community. Some of the airframe <span class="hlt">icing</span> gaps identified included, but are not limited to, <span class="hlt">ice</span> accretion simulation enhancements, three-dimensional benchmark <span class="hlt">icing</span> database development, three-dimensional <span class="hlt">iced</span> aerodynamics modeling, and technology development for a smart <span class="hlt">icing</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NJPh...15a3022A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NJPh...15a3022A"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ice</span> rule correlations in stuffed spin <span class="hlt">ice</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aldus, R. J.; Fennell, T.; Deen, P. P.; Ressouche, E.; Lau, G. C.; Cava, R. J.; Bramwell, S. T.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Stuffed spin <span class="hlt">ice</span> is a chemical variation of a spin <span class="hlt">ice</span> material like Ho2Ti2O7 in which extra magnetic ions are inserted into the crystal structure. Previous studies have shown that the degree of stuffing has very little effect on the residual entropy in the <span class="hlt">system</span>, which takes a value very close to the spin <span class="hlt">ice</span> entropy. We argue, however, that the observation of this entropy does not imply long range coherence of the <span class="hlt">ice</span> rules, that determine the local spin configurations. We have characterized deviations from the <span class="hlt">ice</span> rules by means of a polarized neutron diffraction study of a single crystal of Ho2+δTi2-δO7-δ/2 with δ = 0.3. Our results demonstrate that the <span class="hlt">ice</span> rules in stuffed spin <span class="hlt">ice</span> are strictly valid only over a relatively short range, and that at longer range stuffed spin <span class="hlt">ice</span> exhibits some characteristics of a ‘cluster glass’, with a tendency to more conventional ferromagnetic correlations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140017426','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140017426"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">System</span> of Conservative Regridding for <span class="hlt">Ice</span>-Atmosphere Coupling in a General Circulation Model (GCM)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fischer, R.; Nowicki, S.; Kelley, M.; Schmidt, G. A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The method of elevation classes, in which the <span class="hlt">ice</span> surface model is run at multiple elevations within each grid cell, has proven to be a useful way for a low-resolution atmosphere inside a general circulation model (GCM) to produce high-resolution downscaled surface mass balance fields for use in one-way studies coupling atmospheres and <span class="hlt">ice</span> flow models. Past uses of elevation classes have failed to conserve mass and energy because the transformation used to regrid to the atmosphere was inconsistent with the transformation used to downscale to the <span class="hlt">ice</span> model. This would cause problems for two-way coupling. A strategy that resolves this conservation issue has been designed and is presented here. The approach identifies three grids between which data must be regridded and five transformations between those grids required by a typical coupled atmosphere-<span class="hlt">ice</span> flow model. This paper develops a theoretical framework for the problem and shows how each of these transformations may be achieved in a consistent, conservative manner. These transformations are implemented in Glint2, a library used to couple atmosphere models with <span class="hlt">ice</span> models. Source code and documentation are available for download. Confounding real-world issues are discussed, including the use of projections for <span class="hlt">ice</span> modeling, how to handle dynamically changing <span class="hlt">ice</span> geometry, and modifications required for finite element <span class="hlt">ice</span> models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PApGe.tmp..114K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PApGe.tmp..114K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ice</span> Fog and Light Snow Measurements Using a High-Resolution Camera <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuhn, Thomas; Gultepe, Ismail</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Ice</span> fog, diamond dust, and light snow usually form over extremely cold weather conditions, and they affect both visibility and Earth's radiative energy budget. Prediction of these hydrometeors using models is difficult because of limited knowledge of the microphysical properties at the small size ranges due to measurement issues. These phenomena need to be better represented in forecast and climate models; therefore, in addition to remote sensing accurate measurements using ground-based instrumentation are required. An imaging instrument, aimed at measuring <span class="hlt">ice</span> fog and light snow particles, has been built and is presented here. The <span class="hlt">ice</span> crystal imaging (ICI) probe samples <span class="hlt">ice</span> particles into a vertical, tapered inlet with an inlet flow rate of 11 L min-1. A laser beam across the vertical air flow containing the <span class="hlt">ice</span> crystals allows for their detection by a photodetector collecting the scattered light. Detected particles are then imaged with high optical resolution. An illuminating LED flash and image capturing are triggered by the photodetector. In this work, ICI measurements collected during the fog remote sensing and modeling (FRAM) project, which took place during Winter of 2010-2011 in Yellowknife, NWT, Canada, are summarized and challenges related to measuring small <span class="hlt">ice</span> particles are described. The majority of <span class="hlt">ice</span> particles during the 2-month-long campaign had sizes between 300 and 800 μm. During <span class="hlt">ice</span> fog events the size distribution measured had a lower mode diameter of 300 μm compared to the overall campaign average with mode at 500 μm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.C14A..02T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.C14A..02T"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate Data Records (CDRs) for <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Motion and <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Age</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tschudi, M. A.; Fowler, C.; Maslanik, J. A.; Stroeve, J. C.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Climate Data Records (CDRs) for remotely-sensed Arctic sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> motion and sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> age are under development by our group at the University of Colorado, Boulder. The <span class="hlt">ice</span> motion product, archived at NSIDC, has a considerable history of use, while sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> age is a relatively new product. Our technique to estimate sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> motion utilizes images from SSM/I, as well as SMMR and the series of AVHRR sensors to estimate the daily motion of <span class="hlt">ice</span> parcels. This method is augmented by incorporating <span class="hlt">ice</span> motion observations from the network of drifting buoys deployed as part of the International Arctic Buoy Program. Our technique to calculate <span class="hlt">ice</span> age relies on following the actual age of the <span class="hlt">ice</span> for each <span class="hlt">ice</span> parcel, categorizing the parcel as first-year <span class="hlt">ice</span>, second-year, <span class="hlt">ice</span>, etc. based on how many summer melt seasons the <span class="hlt">ice</span> parcel survives. Both of these research-grade products have been interpolated onto 25x25 km grid points spanning the entire Arctic Ocean using the Equal-Area Scalable Earth (EASE) grid. Datasets generated from this program have shown that the Arctic <span class="hlt">ice</span> cover has experienced a significant (> 70%) decline in multiyear <span class="hlt">ice</span> over the last 20 years, leaving a younger <span class="hlt">ice</span> cover in 2011. By comparing <span class="hlt">ice</span> age derived by the Lagrangian tracking method to <span class="hlt">ice</span> thickness estimated by <span class="hlt">Ice</span>, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) Geoscience Laser Altimeter <span class="hlt">System</span> (GLAS) data, it is observed that <span class="hlt">ice</span> age is linearly related to <span class="hlt">ice</span> thickness, up to an age of 10 years. Therefore, the shift in dominance of multiyear <span class="hlt">ice</span> to first-year <span class="hlt">ice</span> relates to a significant thinning of the <span class="hlt">ice</span>. This thinning is estimated to correspond to a 40% reduction in <span class="hlt">ice</span> volume in the last 20 years. An ancillary dataset (APP-X) produced by the University of Wisconsin, Madison has been combined with the <span class="hlt">ice</span> motion product to monitor the properties of the sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> parcels tracked by the <span class="hlt">ice</span> motion product. This dataset includes <span class="hlt">ice</span> surface and 2-meter air temperature, albedo, downwelling shortwave</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/972218','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/972218"><span id="translatedtitle">Parameterizing Size Distribution in <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Clouds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.</p> <p>2009-09-25</p> <p> cloud optical properties formulated in terms of PSD parameters in combination with remote measurements of thermal radiances to characterize the small mode. This is possible since the absorption efficiency (Qabs) of small mode crystals is larger at 12 µm wavelength relative to 11 µm wavelength due to the process of wave resonance or photon tunneling more active at 12 µm. This <span class="hlt">makes</span> the 12/11 µm absorption optical depth ratio (or equivalently the 12/11 µm Qabs ratio) a means for detecting the relative concentration of small <span class="hlt">ice</span> particles in cirrus. Using this principle, this project tested and developed PSD schemes that can help characterize cirrus clouds at each of the three ARM sites: SGP, NSA and TWP. This was the main effort of this project. These PSD schemes and <span class="hlt">ice</span> sedimentation velocities predicted from them have been used to test the new cirrus microphysics parameterization in the GCM known as the Community Climate <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Model (CCSM) as part of an ongoing collaboration with NCAR. Regarding the second problem, we developed and did preliminary testing on a passive thermal method for retrieving the total water path (TWP) of Arctic mixed phase clouds where TWPs are often in the range of 20 to 130 g m-2 (difficult for microwave radiometers to accurately measure). We also developed a new radar method for retrieving the cloud <span class="hlt">ice</span> water content (IWC), which can be vertically integrated to yield the <span class="hlt">ice</span> water path (IWP). These techniques were combined to determine the IWP and liquid water path (LWP) in Arctic clouds, and hence the fraction of <span class="hlt">ice</span> and liquid water. We have tested this approach using a case study from the ARM field campaign called M-PACE (Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment). This research led to a new satellite remote sensing method that appears promising for detecting low levels of liquid water in high clouds typically between -20 and -36 oC. We hope to develop this method in future research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.5677M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.5677M"><span id="translatedtitle">Severe winter cooling during the Younger Dryas in northern Alaska - evidence from the stable isotope composition of a buried <span class="hlt">ice</span>-wedge <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meyer, Hanno; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Yoshikawa, Kenji; Opel, Thomas; Wetterich, Sebastian; Hubberten, Hans-W.; Brown, Jerry</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The Younger Dryas (YD) interval, from approximately 12.9 to 11.5 kyr cal BP, a rapid reversion to glacial climate conditions at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, has generally been attributed to the release of meltwater from the Laurentide <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Sheet to the North Atlantic or Arctic oceans. The reaction of the North Pacific region to this "shutdown" of the thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic during Younger Dryas is, however, little understood. The YD cold interval is of great interest for understanding rapid natural climate change, especially with regard to recent global warming scenarios. Various archives such as glacier <span class="hlt">ice</span>, tree rings, lacustrine and marine sediments provide evidence for strong climate variability during the Late Glacial-Holocene transition. In our study, we investigated a relict, buried <span class="hlt">ice</span>-wedge <span class="hlt">system</span> within the continuous permafrost zone near Barrow, northern Alaska (71°18'N, 156°40'W). The Barrow <span class="hlt">ice</span>-wedge <span class="hlt">system</span> is buried under about three meters of Late Glacial/early Holocene <span class="hlt">ice</span>-rich sediments. The <span class="hlt">ice</span> wedges are accessible through a shaft which extends into an underground excavation, where a detailed description and sampling with an electrical chain saw were carried out. Permafrost is not only susceptible to recent climate change, it also may store evidence of these changes in ground <span class="hlt">ice</span>, especially in <span class="hlt">ice</span> wedges. <span class="hlt">Ice</span> wedges can be assessed by stable water isotope methods similar to glacier <span class="hlt">ice</span> climate reconstructions. <span class="hlt">Ice</span> wedges are assumed to be indicative of winter climate conditions, because the seasonality of thermal contraction cracking and of the infill of frost cracks are generally related to winter and spring, respectively. In this paper, we present a winter climate record from <span class="hlt">ice</span> wedges in permafrost of northern Alaska, a region, where paleoclimate records extending beyond the Late Glacial-Holocene transition are generally rather sparse, often restricted to lake sediments and rely mostly on summer indicators</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880007258','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880007258"><span id="translatedtitle">NASA's rotorcraft <span class="hlt">icing</span> research program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shaw, Robert J.; Reinmann, John J.; Miller, Thomas L.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The objective of the NASA aircraft <span class="hlt">icing</span> research program is to develop and <span class="hlt">make</span> available <span class="hlt">icing</span> technology to support the needs and requirements of industry for all weather aircraft designs. While a majority of the technology being developed is viewed to be generic (i.e., appropriate to all vehicle classes), vehicle specific emphasis is being placed on the helicopter due to its unique <span class="hlt">icing</span> problems. In particular, some of the considerations for rotorcraft <span class="hlt">icing</span> are indicated. The NASA <span class="hlt">icing</span> research program emphasizes technology development in two key areas: <span class="hlt">ice</span> protection concepts and <span class="hlt">icing</span> simulation (analytical and experimental). The NASA research efforts related to rotorcraft <span class="hlt">icing</span> in these two technology areas will be reviewed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6162293','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6162293"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis and design of an <span class="hlt">ice</span> wall framing <span class="hlt">system</span> for an arctic drilling structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schlechten, J.R.; Bivens, H.R.; Dolan, D.K.; Fernandes, R.L.</p> <p>1984-05-01</p> <p>The exterior shell of a concrete base structure for an arctic oil drilling platform must be designed to resist extremely high local <span class="hlt">ice</span> pressures. Stringent draft criteria for deployment of these structures in shallow waters require that the exterior shells, commonly called <span class="hlt">ice</span> walls, have minimal weight in conjunction with maximum strength. These conflicting requirements are satisfactorily balanced by the selection of an arch shape on the interior face of the wall. This geometry induces arching action within the <span class="hlt">ice</span> wall plate to resist <span class="hlt">ice</span> loads in compression, thereby minimizing principal tension within the concrete. The development of principal tension in a concrete structure limits its ability to resist external forces. This paper describes the design of a prestressed concrete <span class="hlt">ice</span> wall which satisfies these load, weight, and material constraints.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920024897','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920024897"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental study of performance degradation of a rotating <span class="hlt">system</span> in the NASA Lewis RC <span class="hlt">icing</span> tunnel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Korkan, Kenneth</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The Helicopter <span class="hlt">Icing</span> Consortium (HIC) conducted one of the first U.S. tests of a heavily instrumented model in the controlled environment of a refrigerated tunnel. In the <span class="hlt">Icing</span> Research Tunnel (IRT) at NASA LeRC, <span class="hlt">ice</span> was accreted on the main rotor blade of the BMTR-1 Sikorsky model helicopter under a variety of environmental conditions, such that liquid water content (LWC) and volume mean droplet diameter (VMD) ranges reflected the Federal Aviation Agency and Department of Defence <span class="hlt">icing</span> condition envelopes. This report gives the correlated results of the data provided by NASA LeRC. The method of statistical analysis is discussed. Lift, thrust, and torque coefficients are presented as a function of <span class="hlt">icing</span> time, as correlated with changes in ambient temperature, LWC, and VMD. The physical significance of these forces is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.C43B0507H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.C43B0507H"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploring <span class="hlt">Ice</span>-Covered Waters with an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hamilton, A.; Forrest, A.; Laval, B.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Reductions in lake- and sea-<span class="hlt">ice</span> extent and <span class="hlt">ice</span>-shelf collapse in both the Arctic and Antarctic are exposing underlying waters to significant increases in light and heat penetration, altering water mass properties and current dynamics. These physical changes likely drive rapid biological evolution and succession in associated marine ecosystems, influencing the biogeochemical transformation of matter and energy in previously <span class="hlt">ice</span>-covered waters. However the unaltered, or pristine state of waters covered by thick (>3m) or moving <span class="hlt">ice</span> is poorly understood, as these environments are largely inaccessible to investigation from the surface. Advancement of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) technology now allows these vehicles to be utilized as platforms for polar oceanographic research, permitting exploration of previously uncharted <span class="hlt">ice</span>-covered waters. UBC-Gavia, a 2.5 m long AUV operated out of the University of British Columbia, has been involved in several under-<span class="hlt">ice</span> (both lake and sea) missions <span class="hlt">making</span> it one of the few such vehicles to be successfully deployed under-<span class="hlt">ice</span>. Results of three under-<span class="hlt">ice</span> case studies are presented in this work: Pavilion Lake, Canada - an <span class="hlt">ice</span>-covered temperate lake; Lake Thingvallavatn, Iceland - a subarctic lake experiencing spring <span class="hlt">ice</span> break-up; and Joliffe Bay, Lincoln Sea, Canadian High Arctic - a near shore multi- and first-year sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> environment. The focus of each of these case studies was to examine physical processes in the water column under <span class="hlt">ice</span> (e.g. radiatively driven convection) using a Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) profiler mounted on the front of the vehicle. In addition, various engineering lessons were acquired in order to adapt the vehicle for deployment, operation and recovery in <span class="hlt">ice</span>-covered waters. The next phase of research will also be presented; a planned deployment of UBC-Gavia near the McMurdo <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Shelf in Antarctica, to map under <span class="hlt">ice</span> structure, <span class="hlt">ice</span> thickness and convective processes in the water column. These</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C12B..02M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C12B..02M"><span id="translatedtitle">Distinct Seasonal Velocity Patterns Based on <span class="hlt">Ice</span>-Sheet-Wide Analysis of Greenland Outlet Glaciers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moon, T. A.; Joughin, I. R.; Smith, B. E.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Usher, M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Mass loss from the Greenland <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Sheet increased significantly over the last several decades and current mass losses of 260-380 Gt <span class="hlt">ice</span>/yr contribute 0.7-1.1 mm/yr to global sea-level rise. Greenland mass loss includes <span class="hlt">ice</span> discharge via marine-terminating outlet glaciers and surface meltwater runoff, the former now <span class="hlt">making</span> up a third to a half of total <span class="hlt">ice</span> loss. The magnitude of <span class="hlt">ice</span> discharge depends in part on <span class="hlt">ice</span>-flow speed, which has broadly increased since 2000 but varies locally, regionally, and from year to year. Research on a limited set of Greenland glaciers also shows that speeds vary seasonally. However, for much of the west, northwest, and southeast coasts where <span class="hlt">ice</span> loss is increasing most rapidly, there are few or no records of seasonal velocity variation. <span class="hlt">Ice</span> velocity is influenced by several key components of the <span class="hlt">ice</span>-sheet-ocean-climate <span class="hlt">system</span>: subglacial environment, surface melt and runoff, and <span class="hlt">ice</span>-ocean interaction at the <span class="hlt">ice</span>-front (terminus). Thus, knowledge of seasonal velocity patterns is important for predicting annual <span class="hlt">ice</span> discharge, understanding the effects of increased surface melt on total mass loss, and establishing how <span class="hlt">ice</span>-flow responds to other climatic changes. We developed 5-year records of seasonal velocity measurements for 55 glaciers around the <span class="hlt">ice</span>-sheet margin. Among glaciers with significant speed variations, we find three distinct seasonal velocity patterns. One pattern indicates relatively high glacier sensitivity to <span class="hlt">ice</span>-front position, with seasonal summer speedup sustained through fall. The other two patterns appear to be meltwater controlled and indicate regional differences in which some subglacial <span class="hlt">systems</span> likely transition seasonally from inefficient, distributed hydrologic networks to efficient, channelized drainage, while others do not. These differences in dominant velocity control mechanisms reveal likely spatiotemporal variations in the dynamic response of the <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet to climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989SedG...62..407A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989SedG...62..407A"><span id="translatedtitle">Bedforms of the Keewatin <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Sheet, Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aylsworth, J. M.; Shilts, W. W.</p> <p>1989-05-01</p> <p>By compiling glacial bedforms on a map that covers most of one sector of the Laurentide <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Sheet, it is possible to <span class="hlt">make</span> some suggestions about their genesis based largely on spatial relationships. It can be concluded that drumlins and ribbed moraine form at the base of actively flowing <span class="hlt">ice</span> under similar dynamic conditions. For either landform to exist, however, there must have been enough sediment available in the base of the glacier to leave or form a feature large enough to be recognizable. The presence or absence of sufficient load is related to the geology of the glacier bed and has little to do with regionally changing dynamics of the <span class="hlt">ice</span>-water <span class="hlt">system</span>. Likewise, given sufficient load, it is evident that whether drumlins formed or whether ribbed moraine formed in a certain area is a function of the physical nature of the load which is, again, related to geology of the source outcrops. Whether the physical characteristics come into play after the sediment has been released from the <span class="hlt">ice</span> and is being reshaped by basal drag, streamlining, etc., or whether the nature of the load while entrained changes the behaviour of the basal part of the <span class="hlt">ice</span> is unclear. Physical characteristics of the basal sediment load have apparently promoted internal thrusting of coherent slabs of entrained debris and <span class="hlt">ice</span> to form ribbed moraine on melting, whereas drumlins may reflect moulding of plastic subglacial debris or erosional streamlining of both the unconsolidated glacial substrate and bedrock. The observation that many eskers cross drumlin fields at nearly right angles to their orientation suggests that conditions producing streamlining and those pertaining to subglacial drainage are separated in time and circumstance. The general occurrence of drumlins and eskers throughout the sediment-rich portions of the Keewatin <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Sheet, from Zone 1 to its edge, is difficult to reconcile with the restriction and intimate association of these forms with ribbed moraine almost exclusively in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.6229K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.6229K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ice</span> fog and light snow measurements using a high resolution camera <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuhn, Thomas; Gultepe, Ismail</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In this presentation, measurements collected by the <span class="hlt">ice</span> crystal imaging (ICI) probe employed during FRAM (Fog Remote Sensing and Modeling) project for the Winter of 2010-2011 in Yellowknife, NWT, Canada are analysed to study small <span class="hlt">ice</span> crystal impact on aviation operations. <span class="hlt">Ice</span> fog, diamond dust, and light snow form during cold weather conditions and they affect aviation operations through visibility and deposition over the surfaces. In addition, these events influence the local heat budget through radiative cooling. Prediction of these hydrometeors using models is difficult because of limited knowledge of the microphysical properties at the small size ranges. These phenomena need to be better represented in forecast and climate models and this can only be done using accurate measurements from ground-based instrumentation. Imaging of <span class="hlt">ice</span> particles' properties can complement other in-situ measurements being collected routinely. The newly developed ICI probe, aimed at measuring <span class="hlt">ice</span> fog and light snow particles, is presented here. The ICI probe samples <span class="hlt">ice</span> particles through a vertical inlet, where a laser beam and photodetector detect <span class="hlt">ice</span> crystals contained in the flow. The detected particles are then imaged with high optical resolution between 10 to 1000 micron size range. An illuminating LED flash and image capturing for measurements are triggered by the photodetector. The results suggested that the majority of <span class="hlt">ice</span> particles during the two-month long campaign were small with sizes between 300 μm and 800 μm. During <span class="hlt">ice</span> fog events, the size distribution measured had a lower mode diameter of 300 μm compared to the overall campaign average with mode at 500 μm. In this presentation, challenges and issues related to small <span class="hlt">ice</span> crystals are described and their importance for aviation operations and climate change are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C51B0256S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C51B0256S"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of GRACE to the Evaluation of an <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Flow Model of the Greenland <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Sheet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schlegel, N.; Wiese, D. N.; Watkins, M. M.; Larour, E. Y.; Box, J. E.; Fettweis, X.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Morlighem, M.; Boening, C.; Seroussi, H. L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Quantifying Greenland's future contribution to sea level rise is a challenging task and requires accurate estimates of <span class="hlt">ice</span> flow sensitivity to climate change. Transient <span class="hlt">ice</span> flow models are promising tools for estimating future <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet behavior. However, confidence in these types of future projections is low, especially because evaluation of model historical runs is so challenging due to the scarcity of continental-wide data for validation. For more than a decade, NASA's GRACE has continuously acquired time-variable measurements of the Earth's gravity field and has provided unprecedented surveillance of mass balance of the <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheets, offering an opportunity for <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet model evaluation. Here, we take advantage of a new high-resolution (~300 km) monthly mascon solution for the purpose of mass balance comparison with an independent, historical <span class="hlt">ice</span> flow model simulation using the <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Sheet <span class="hlt">System</span> Model (ISSM). The comparison highlights which regions of the <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet differ most from GRACE. Investigation of regional differences in trends and seasonal amplitudes between simulations forced with three different Regional Climate Model (RCM)-based estimates of surface mass balance (SMB) allows us to <span class="hlt">make</span> conclusions about the relative contributions of various error sources in the model hindcast. This study constitutes the first regional comparison of GRACE data and an <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet model. Conclusions will aid in the improvement of RCM SMB estimates as well as <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet simulation estimates of present and future rates of sea level rise. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cryosphere Program and President's and Director's Fund Program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C54B..08L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C54B..08L"><span id="translatedtitle">On the Role of Basal Friction and <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Rheoloy in Constraining the Evolution of Upernavik: Insights from DataAssimilation of Velocity Time Series into the <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Sheet <span class="hlt">System</span> Model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Larour, E. Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Newly released and processed time series of surface velocities for the Upernavik Glacier, Greenland, areassimilated into the <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Sheet <span class="hlt">System</span> Model to reconstruct the evolution of the glacier since 2008, its underlying basal friction at the <span class="hlt">ice</span>/bed interface, and the <span class="hlt">ice</span> rheology throughout the glacier, especially at the shear margins, where softening from cryo-hydrological warming and lateral shearing play a critical role. Several key questions are investigated: 1) the interaction between calving at the <span class="hlt">ice</span> front, loss of lateral butressing at the shear margins, and the evolution of basal friction; 2) the role of basal topography in controlling all five of Upernavik Glacier tributaries, and the sensitivity of basal stress to reconstructions of the latter and 3) the importance of cryo-hydrological warming, and how it compares with other factors such as calving and butressing in understanding <span class="hlt">ice</span>-flow dynamics. The time scales we will investigate range from weeks to years, and will heavily rely on the newly developed data assimilation capabilities of the <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Sheet <span class="hlt">System</span> Model.This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory undera contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cryosphere Science Program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.P42A..08C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.P42A..08C"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface Composition of the Non-<span class="hlt">Ice</span> Component on Icy Satellites and Ring Particles in the Saturn <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clark, R. N.; Pearson, N.; Perlman, Z. S.; Bradley, E. T.; Hendrix, A.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Filacchione, G.; Nicholson, P. D.; Hedman, M. M.; Brown, R. H.; Buratti, B. J.; Baines, K. H.; Sotin, C.; Nelson, R.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Saturn's icy satellites and ring particle surfaces have long been known to be composed mostly of frozen water. However, all surfaces show an absorption due to a non-water-<span class="hlt">ice</span> component whose identity has not been well understood. In the near infrared, water <span class="hlt">ice</span> has strong absorptions which limit detectability of other trace components. Similarly, at wavelengths less than about 0.18 microns, water is very absorbing. However, in the ~0.2 to ~1 micron range, water <span class="hlt">ice</span> has low absorption and trace components are readily detected. Classical interpretations of the UV absorber and dark material on outer Solar <span class="hlt">System</span> satellites have been varying amounts of tholins and carbon. However, tholins have spectral structure not seen in the icy spectra in the Saturn <span class="hlt">System</span>. Many silicates also have UV spectral structure that reject them from contributing significantly to the observed spectral signatures. We have constructed a new UV spectrometer and a new environment chamber for studying the spectral properties of materials from 0.1 to 15 microns. In our survey of the spectral properties of materials so far, we find that small amounts of metallic iron and iron oxides in the icy surfaces are compatible with and can explain the UV, visible and near-infrared spectra of icy surfaces in the Saturn <span class="hlt">system</span> (0.12 to 5.1 microns) using data from the Cassini UltraViolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) and the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). The wide range of observed UV-NIR (0.1-5 micron) spectral signatures provide strong constraints on composition and grain size distribution, including grain sizes of the <span class="hlt">ice</span>. Spectra of the Saturnian rings and icy satellites indicate they have a large range of <span class="hlt">ice</span> grain sizes, from tens of microns to sub-micron. Sub-micron <span class="hlt">ice</span> grains create unusual spectral properties, which are seen in the spectra of the rings and satellites of Saturn and on satellites further out in the Solar <span class="hlt">System</span>. Clark et al. (2012, Icarus v218, p831) showed that VIMS</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TCD.....9.5885R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TCD.....9.5885R"><span id="translatedtitle">neXtSIM: a new Lagrangian sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rampal, P.; Bouillon, S.; Ólason, E.; Morlighem, M.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The Arctic sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> cover has changed drastically over the last decades. Associated with these changes is a shift in dynamical regime seen by an increase of extreme fracturing events and an acceleration of sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> drift. The highly non-linear dynamical response of sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> to external forcing <span class="hlt">makes</span> modelling these changes, and the future evolution of Arctic sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> a challenge for current models. It is, however, increasingly important that this challenge be better met, both because of the important role of sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> in the climate <span class="hlt">system</span> and because of the steady increase of industrial operations in the Arctic. In this paper we present a new dynamical/thermodynamical sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> model, called neXtSIM in order to address this. neXtSIM is a continuous and fully Lagrangian model, and the equations are discretised with the finite-element method. In this model, sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> physics are driven by a synergic combination of two core components: a model for sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> dynamics built on a new mechanical framework using an elasto-brittle rheology, and a model for sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> thermodynamics providing damage healing for the mechanical framework. The results of a thorough evaluation of the model performance for the Arctic are presented for the period September 2007 to October 2008. They show that observed multi-scale statistical properties of sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> drift and deformation are well captured as well as the seasonal cycles of <span class="hlt">ice</span> volume, area, and extent. These results show that neXtSIM is a very promising tool for simulating the sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016TCry...10.1055R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016TCry...10.1055R"><span id="translatedtitle">neXtSIM: a new Lagrangian sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rampal, Pierre; Bouillon, Sylvain; Ólason, Einar; Morlighem, Mathieu</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The Arctic sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> cover has changed drastically over the last decades. Associated with these changes is a shift in dynamical regime seen by an increase of extreme fracturing events and an acceleration of sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> drift. The highly non-linear dynamical response of sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> to external forcing <span class="hlt">makes</span> modelling these changes and the future evolution of Arctic sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> a challenge for current models. It is, however, increasingly important that this challenge be better met, both because of the important role of sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> in the climate <span class="hlt">system</span> and because of the steady increase of industrial operations in the Arctic. In this paper we present a new dynamical/thermodynamical sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> model called neXtSIM that is designed to address this challenge. neXtSIM is a continuous and fully Lagrangian model, whose momentum equation is discretised with the finite-element method. In this model, sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> physics are driven by the combination of two core components: a model for sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> dynamics built on a mechanical framework using an elasto-brittle rheology, and a model for sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> thermodynamics providing damage healing for the mechanical framework. The evaluation of the model performance for the Arctic is presented for the period September 2007 to October 2008 and shows that observed multi-scale statistical properties of sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> drift and deformation are well captured as well as the seasonal cycles of <span class="hlt">ice</span> volume, area, and extent. These results show that neXtSIM is an appropriate tool for simulating sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140003875','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140003875"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Commercial Turbofan Engine <span class="hlt">Icing</span> Risk With <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Crystal Ingestion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Veres, Joseph P.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The occurrence of <span class="hlt">ice</span> accretion within commercial high bypass aircraft turbine engines has been reported under certain atmospheric conditions. Engine anomalies have taken place at high altitudes that have been attributed to <span class="hlt">ice</span> crystal ingestion, partially melting, and <span class="hlt">ice</span> accretion on the compression <span class="hlt">system</span> components. The result was degraded engine performance, and one or more of the following: loss of thrust control (roll back), compressor surge or stall, and flameout of the combustor. As <span class="hlt">ice</span> crystals are ingested into the fan and low pressure compression <span class="hlt">system</span>, the increase in air temperature causes a portion of the <span class="hlt">ice</span> crystals to melt. It is hypothesized that this allows the <span class="hlt">ice</span>-water mixture to cover the metal surfaces of the compressor stationary components which leads to <span class="hlt">ice</span> accretion through evaporative cooling. <span class="hlt">Ice</span> accretion causes a blockage which subsequently results in the deterioration in performance of the compressor and engine. The focus of this research is to apply an engine <span class="hlt">icing</span> computational tool to simulate the flow through a turbofan engine and assess the risk of <span class="hlt">ice</span> accretion. The tool is comprised of an engine <span class="hlt">system</span> thermodynamic cycle code, a compressor flow analysis code, and an <span class="hlt">ice</span> particle melt code that has the capability of determining the rate of sublimation, melting, and evaporation through the compressor flow path, without modeling the actual <span class="hlt">ice</span> accretion. A commercial turbofan engine which has previously experienced <span class="hlt">icing</span> events during operation in a high altitude <span class="hlt">ice</span> crystal environment has been tested in the Propulsion <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Laboratory (PSL) altitude test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. The PSL has the capability to produce a continuous <span class="hlt">ice</span> cloud which are ingested by the engine during operation over a range of altitude conditions. The PSL test results confirmed that there was <span class="hlt">ice</span> accretion in the engine due to <span class="hlt">ice</span> crystal ingestion, at the same simulated altitude operating conditions as experienced previously in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......215D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......215D"><span id="translatedtitle">Polarimetric road <span class="hlt">ice</span> detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Drummond, Krista</p> <p></p> <p>This thesis investigated the science behind polarimetric road <span class="hlt">ice</span> detection <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Laboratory Mueller matrix measurements of a simulated road under differing surface conditions were collected searching for a discriminatory polarization property. These Mueller matrices were decomposed into depolarization, diattenuation, and retardance. Individual sample surface polarization properties were then calculated from these three unique matrices and compared. Specular and off-specular reflection responses of each sample were collected. Four polarization properties stood out for having high separation between dry and <span class="hlt">iced</span> measurements: Depolarization Index, Linear Diattenuation, Linear Polarizance, and Linear Retardance. Through our investigation polarimetric <span class="hlt">ice</span> detection is possible. Continued research of the polarization properties of road <span class="hlt">ice</span> can result in the development of a road <span class="hlt">ice</span> detection <span class="hlt">system</span>. Proposed deployment methods of such a <span class="hlt">system</span> have been outlined following the analysis of the data collected in this experiment.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090030604','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090030604"><span id="translatedtitle">Academic Airframe <span class="hlt">Icing</span> Perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bragg, Mike; Rothmayer, Alric; Thompson, David</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>2-D <span class="hlt">ice</span> accretion and aerodynamics reasonably well understood for engineering applications To significantly improve our current capabilities we need to understand 3-D: a) Important <span class="hlt">ice</span> accretion physics and modeling not well understood in 3-D; and b) Aerodynamics unsteady and 3-D especially near stall. Larger <span class="hlt">systems</span> issues important and require multidisciplinary team approach</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Salmon&pg=2&id=EJ814650','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Salmon&pg=2&id=EJ814650"><span id="translatedtitle">How Activity <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Evolve: <span class="hlt">Making</span> / Saving Salmon in British Columbia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lee, Yew-Jin; Roth, Wolff-Michael</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this article is to describe the history of a state-sponsored salmon enhancement project in British Columbia and to explicate the development of the former using cultural historical activity theory. We <span class="hlt">make</span> thematic the notion of inner contradictions, which express themselves outwardly as a function of both quantitative and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AMTD....710585S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AMTD....710585S"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization and first results of an <span class="hlt">ice</span> nucleating particle measurement <span class="hlt">system</span> based on counterflow virtual impactor technique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schenk, L. P.; Mertes, S.; Kästner, U.; Frank, F.; Nillius, B.; Bundke, U.; Rose, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schneider, J.; Worringen, A.; Kandler, K.; Bukowiecki, N.; Ebert, M.; Curtius, J.; Stratmann, F.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>A specific instrument combination was developed to achieve a better microphysical and chemical characterization of atmospheric aerosol particles that have the potential to act as <span class="hlt">ice</span> nucleating particles (INP). For this purpose a pumped counterflow virtual impactor <span class="hlt">system</span> called IN-PCVI was set up and characterized to separate <span class="hlt">ice</span> particles that had been activated on INP in the Fast <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Nucleus Chamber (FINCH) from interstitial, non-activated particles. This coupled setup consisting of FINCH (<span class="hlt">ice</span> particle activation and counting), IN-PCVI (INP separation and preparation), and further aerosol instrumentation (INP characterization) had been developed for the application in field experiments. The separated INP were characterized on-line with regard to their total number concentration, number size distribution and chemical composition, especially with the Aircraft-based Laser Ablation Aerosol Mass Spectrometer ALABAMA. Moreover, impactor samples for electron microscopy were taken. Due to the coupling the IN-PCVI had to be operated with different flow settings than known from literature, which required a further characterization of its cut-off-behavior. Taking the changed cut-off-behavior into account, the INP number concentration measured by the IN-PCVI <span class="hlt">system</span> was in good agreement with the one detected by the FINCH optics for water saturation ratios up to 1.01 (<span class="hlt">ice</span> saturation ratios between 1.21-1.34 and temperatures between -18 and -26 °C). First field results of INP properties are presented which were gained during the INUIT-JFJ/CLACE 2013 campaign at the high altitude research station Jungfraujoch in the Bernese Alps, Switzerland (3580 m a.s.l.).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023423','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023423"><span id="translatedtitle">Piloted Simulation to Evaluate the Utility of a Real Time Envelope Protection <span class="hlt">System</span> for Mitigating In-Flight <span class="hlt">Icing</span> Hazards</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ranaudo, Richard J.; Martos, Borja; Norton, Bill W.; Gingras, David R.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Morelli, Eugene</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The utility of the <span class="hlt">Icing</span> Contamination Envelope Protection (ICEPro) <span class="hlt">system</span> for mitigating a potentially hazardous <span class="hlt">icing</span> condition was evaluated by 29 pilots using the NASA <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Contamination Effects Flight Training Device (ICEFTD). ICEPro provides real time envelope protection cues and alerting messages on pilot displays. The pilots participating in this test were divided into two groups; a control group using baseline displays without ICEPro, and an experimental group using ICEPro driven display cueing. Each group flew identical precision approach and missed approach procedures with a simulated failure case <span class="hlt">icing</span> condition. Pilot performance, workload, and survey questionnaires were collected for both groups of pilots. Results showed that real time assessment cues were effective in reducing the number of potentially hazardous upset events and in lessening exposure to loss of control following an incipient upset condition. Pilot workload with the added ICEPro displays was not measurably affected, but pilot opinion surveys showed that real time cueing greatly improved their situation awareness of a hazardous aircraft state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SedG..330..108S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SedG..330..108S"><span id="translatedtitle">Sedimentary record of a Scandinavian <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Sheet drainage <span class="hlt">system</span> and till deposition over subglacial obstacles promoting basal sliding (an example from southern Poland)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salamon, Tomasz</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Subglacial obstacles occurring in the path of advancing <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheets generally generate higher longitudinal compression and higher frictional drag than a flat substrate. However, in the case of a soft sediment substratum, they can have a very different effect on <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet behaviour. This study concerns a substrate composed of very fine-grained sediments with low permeability. The relationship between subglacial obstacles and the overriding Scandinavian <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Sheet was studied in an area of southern Poland where a small intervalley Neogene clay ridge (40 m high) was present. Based on sedimentological and structural analysis of subglacial till and gravelly-sandy sediments, the basal depositional processes and subglacial conditions and their influence on <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet behaviour were analysed. The till and related deposits within the ridge reflecting high water pressure conditions and lack of glacitectonic deformations indicate that the clay ridge did not generate much resistance against the advancing <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet, but instead favoured basal slip: the impermeable substratum weakened the <span class="hlt">ice</span>/bed coupling and promoted <span class="hlt">ice</span> detachment from the substratum. Gravelly sandy inclusions at the till/clay contact indicate that during the first stage of <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet overriding, a canal drainage <span class="hlt">system</span> developed at the <span class="hlt">ice</span>/substrate interface. Varied geometry, size and location of inclusions of sorted sediments suggest periodic instability of the canal <span class="hlt">system</span>, which could lead to its transformation from initially uniform to being composed of conduits of different sizes. During later stages of <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet overriding, a traction till was deposited and occasional drainage through a water film was sufficient to evacuate basal meltwater. The resulting change in the character of subglacial drainage was probably related to variations in water pressure gradient during progressive <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet advance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5070122','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5070122"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy conservation in <span class="hlt">ice</span> skating rinks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dietrich, B.K.; McAvoy, T.J.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>An economic and energy analysis of <span class="hlt">ice</span> rinks was made to examine the areas in which energy could be profitably conserved. The areas where new equipment could <span class="hlt">make</span> a major reduction in energy use are: the use of waste heat for space heating, the installation of a low emissivity false ceiling to reduce radiant heat, the use of a load cycling controller to reduce refrigeration costs, and the installation of more efficient lighting <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Changes in rink operating procedure that could cut energy use are: higher refrigerant temperatures, thinner <span class="hlt">ice</span>, the use of colder resurfacing water, turning the compressors and pumps off at night, and reducing ventilation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512562R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512562R"><span id="translatedtitle">Two-way coupled <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet-earth <span class="hlt">system</span> simulations: Consequences of raising CO2 concentration for Greenland and the interacting climate <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rodehacke, Christian; Vizcaino, Miren; Mikolajewicz, Uwe</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The observed distinct warming in the Arctic and the northward flow of tropical water masses seem to trigger enhanced melting of the Greenland <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet, which adds more fresh water into the ambient ocean. A continuation of the observed accelerated melting during the last decade would stabilize the water column in the adjacent deep water formation sides. With our fully coupled <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet-earth <span class="hlt">system</span> model we approach the questions if this weakens the formation of deep water masses and reduces the thermohaline driven meridional overturning circulation (MOC). We have performed idealized future projections to investigate the response of the interaction under raising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration with our two-way coupled <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet-earth <span class="hlt">system</span> model <span class="hlt">system</span>. We will present the building blocks of our fully coupled <span class="hlt">system</span>, which includes a physical based calculation of the <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet's surface mass balance and <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet-ocean interaction; The ESM instead is subject to orographic changes and receives fresh water fluxes, for example. Since the behavior of an <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet in the near future is controlled by both the external forcing and by its initial conditions, we have performed Latin Hyper Cube (LHC) simulations with the <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet model over more than one glacial-interglacial cycle utilizing standard techniques to obtain a reasonable initial state. According to several quantities the best performing LHC member is exposed afterwards to boundary conditions determined from energy balance calculations again obtained from simulated forcing fields. Finally the fully coupled <span class="hlt">system</span> is brought into a quasi-equilibrium under pre-industrial conditions before idealized scenarios have been started. In contrast to commonly used strategies, our coupled <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet inherits the memory of a glacial cycle simulations obtain exclusively from ESM fields. Furthermore we use a mass conserving scheme, do neither apply flux corrections nor utilize anomaly coupling. Under different CO2</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820022421','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820022421"><span id="translatedtitle">Aircraft <span class="hlt">icing</span> research at NASA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reinmann, J. J.; Shaw, R. J.; Olsen, W. A., Jr.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Research activity is described for: <span class="hlt">ice</span> protection <span class="hlt">systems</span>, <span class="hlt">icing</span> instrumentation, experimental methods, analytical modeling for the above, and in flight research. The renewed interest in aircraft <span class="hlt">icing</span> has come about because of the new need for All-Weather Helicopters and General Aviation aircraft. Because of increased fuel costs, tomorrow's Commercial Transport aircraft will also require new types of <span class="hlt">ice</span> protection <span class="hlt">systems</span> and better estimates of the aeropenalties caused by <span class="hlt">ice</span> on unprotected surfaces. The physics of aircraft <span class="hlt">icing</span> is very similar to the <span class="hlt">icing</span> that occurs on ground structures and structures at sea; all involve droplets that freeze on the surfaces because of the cold air. Therefore all <span class="hlt">icing</span> research groups will benefit greatly by sharing their research information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880006421','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880006421"><span id="translatedtitle">The NASA aircraft <span class="hlt">icing</span> research program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shaw, Robert J.; Reinmann, John J.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The objective of the NASA aircraft <span class="hlt">icing</span> research program is to develop and <span class="hlt">make</span> available to industry <span class="hlt">icing</span> technology to support the needs and requirements for all weather aircraft designs. Research is being done for both fixed and rotary wing applications. The NASA program emphasizes technology development in two key areas: advanced <span class="hlt">ice</span> protection concepts and <span class="hlt">icing</span> simulation (analytical and experimental). The computer code development/validation, <span class="hlt">icing</span> wind tunnel testing, and <span class="hlt">icing</span> flight testing efforts which were conducted to support the <span class="hlt">icing</span> technology development are reviewed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9815E..0ZH','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9815E..0ZH"><span id="translatedtitle">Transmission line <span class="hlt">icing</span> measurement on photogrammetry method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Huan; Ma, Xiaohong; Zhao, Lijin; Du, Hao; Luo, Hong; Mao, Xianyin; Tang, Min; Liu, Yawen</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Icing</span> thickness parameter is the basic data for power sector to <span class="hlt">make</span> decision for <span class="hlt">icing</span> accident prevention. In this paper, a transmission line <span class="hlt">icing</span> measurement method is proposed. It used the photogrammetry method to realize <span class="hlt">icing</span> parameters measurement through the integration of high resolution camera, laser range finder and inertial measurement unit. Compared with traditional <span class="hlt">icing</span> measurement method, this method is flexible and is the effective supplement of the fixed <span class="hlt">icing</span> detection terminal. And its high accuracy measurement guarantees the reliability of the <span class="hlt">icing</span> thickness parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009NatGe...2..808.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009NatGe...2..808."><span id="translatedtitle">Ancient <span class="hlt">ice</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>Simon Belt, Guillaume Massé and colleagues rammed their way through sheets of <span class="hlt">ice</span>, spotting some polar bears on the way, in their attempt to reconstruct Arctic sea-<span class="hlt">ice</span> records covering thousands of years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5ujicxo6tF4','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5ujicxo6tF4"><span id="translatedtitle">Over <span class="hlt">Ice</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>All about NASA's <span class="hlt">Ice</span>Bridge P-3B plane and its <span class="hlt">Ice</span>Bridge retrofit. Upgraded with 21st century "special modifications", the aircraft is less a cold war relic and more like the Space Agency's Millenni...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=beyond+AND+budgeting&pg=3&id=EJ411656','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=beyond+AND+budgeting&pg=3&id=EJ411656"><span id="translatedtitle">Electronic "Expert <span class="hlt">Systems</span>" <span class="hlt">Make</span> Light Work of Paperwork.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Trotter, Andrew</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Expert <span class="hlt">systems</span> offer school possibilities beyond relieving employees of routine work. In the future, expert <span class="hlt">systems</span> will become tools for budgeting, staff training, and teaching. Describes a <span class="hlt">system</span> developed at Utah State University, "Mandate Consultant," that helps school staff review the legally mandated steps in developing individualized…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110011418','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110011418"><span id="translatedtitle">The ISS Increments 3 and 4 Test Report: For the Active Rack Isolation <span class="hlt">System</span> ISS Characterization Experiment (ARIS-<span class="hlt">ICE</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Quraishi, Naveed; Allen, Jim; Bushnell, Glenn; Fialho, Ian</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of ARIS-<span class="hlt">ICE</span> is to improve, optimize then operationally test and document the performance of the ARIS <span class="hlt">system</span> on the International Space Station. The <span class="hlt">ICE</span> program required testing across a full 3 increments (2 through 4). This paper represents the operational report summarizing our accomplishments through the third and fourth increment of testing. The main objectives and results of the increment two testing are discussed in The Increment two Operational Report. This report can be obtained from the ISS Payloads Office or from (http://iss-www.isc.nasa.gov/sslissapt/payofc/OZ3/ARIS.html). In summary these were to ensure the smooth and successful activation of the <span class="hlt">system</span> and correct operational issues related to long term testing. Then the follow on increment 3 & 4 testing encompassed the majority of the on orbit performance assessments and improvements made to the ARIS <span class="hlt">system</span>. The intent here is to report these preliminary results of the increment 3 & 4 ARIS-<span class="hlt">ICE</span> testing as well as the ARIS <span class="hlt">system</span> improvements made for our users and customers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/379536','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/379536"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of new GPS aircraft control/display <span class="hlt">system</span> to topographic mapping of the Greenland <span class="hlt">ice</span> cap</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wright, C.W.; Swift, R.N.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>NASA has completed an accurate baseline map of the elevation of the Greenland <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet using a scanning airborne lidar in combination with differential kinematic Global Positioning <span class="hlt">System</span> (GPS) techniques. The present plan is to reoccupy these survey lines which are spread over the major regions of the <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet beginning in 1997. The results are expected to provide a quantitative answer on how the <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet is responding to regional climatic changes. Navigation to within +-100 m of the desired track over lengths of up to 1,000 km are a requirement for the success of the program. To meet this navigational requirement, NASA developed the GPS Flight Management <span class="hlt">System</span> (GFMS). GFMS is a PC based <span class="hlt">system</span> that uses the real-time position update from a single GPS receiver located on the aircraft to calculate a cross-track error and generates aircraft steering commands which are converted into analog Instrument Landing <span class="hlt">System</span> (OM) signals using an RF generator. TU GFMS also updates a cockpit display. 4 refs., 6 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050177043&hterms=land+cover+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dland%2Bcover%2Bchange','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050177043&hterms=land+cover+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dland%2Bcover%2Bchange"><span id="translatedtitle">NASA's Earth Observing <span class="hlt">System</span> (EOS): Observing the Atmosphere, Land, Oceans, and <span class="hlt">Ice</span> from Space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>King, Michael D.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The Earth Observing <span class="hlt">System</span> (EOS) is a space-based observing <span class="hlt">system</span> comprised of a series of satellite sensors by whch scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information <span class="hlt">System</span> (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During this year, the last of the first series of EOS missions, Aura, was launched. Aura is designed exclusively to conduct research on the composition, chemistry, and dynamics of the Earth's upper and lower atmosphere, employing multiple instruments on a single spacecraft. Aura is the third in a series of major Earth observing satellites to study the environment and climate change and is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. The first and second missions, Terra and Aqua, are designed to study the land, oceans, atmospheric constituents (aerosols, clouds, temperature, and water vapor), and the Earth's radiation budget. The other seven EOS spacecraft include satellites to study (i) land cover & land use change, (ii) solar irradiance and solar spectral variation, (iii) <span class="hlt">ice</span> volume, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind and sea surface topography), and (v) vertical variations of clouds, water vapor, and aerosols up to and including the stratosphere. Aura's chemistry measurements will also follow up on measurements that began with NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and continue the record of satellite ozone data collected from the TOMS missions. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using EOS data to examine the health of the earth's atmosphere, including atmospheric chemistry, aerosol properties, and cloud properties, with a special look at the latest earth observing mission, Aura.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040171526&hterms=land+cover+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dland%2Bcover%2Bchange','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040171526&hterms=land+cover+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dland%2Bcover%2Bchange"><span id="translatedtitle">NASA's Earth Observing <span class="hlt">System</span> (EOS): Observing the Atmosphere, Land, Oceans, and <span class="hlt">Ice</span> from Space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>King, Michael D.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The Earth Observing <span class="hlt">System</span> (EOS) is a space-based observing <span class="hlt">system</span> comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information <span class="hlt">System</span> (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During this year, the last of the first series of EOS missions, Aura, was launched. Aura is designed exclusively to conduct research on the composition, chemistry, and dynamics of the Earth's upper and lower atmosphere, employing multiple instruments on a single spacecraft. Aura is the third in a series of major Earth observing satellites to study the environment and climate change and is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. The first and second missions, Terra and Aqua, are designed to study the land, oceans, atmospheric constituents (aerosols, clouds, temperature, and water vapor), and the Earth's radiation budget. The other seven EOS spacecraft include satellites to study (i) land cover & land use change, (ii) solar irradiance and solar spectral variation, (iii) <span class="hlt">ice</span> volume, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind and sea surface topography), and (v) vertical variations of clouds, water vapor, and aerosols up to and including the stratosphere. Aura's chemistry measurements will also follow up on measurements that began with NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and continue the record of satellite ozone data collected from the TOMS missions. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using EOS data to examine the health of the earth's atmosphere, including atmospheric chemistry, aerosol properties, and cloud properties, with a special but not exclusive look at the latest earth observing mission, Aura.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030068097','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030068097"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantification of <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Accretions for <span class="hlt">Icing</span> Scaling Evaluations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ruff, Gary A.; Anderson, David N.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The comparison of <span class="hlt">ice</span> accretion characteristics is an integral part of aircraft <span class="hlt">icing</span> research. It is often necessary to compare an <span class="hlt">ice</span> accretion obtained from a flight test or numerical simulation to one produced in an <span class="hlt">icing</span> wind tunnel or for validation of an <span class="hlt">icing</span> scaling method. Traditionally, this has been accomplished by overlaying two-dimensional tracings of <span class="hlt">ice</span> accretion shapes. This paper addresses the basic question of how to compare <span class="hlt">ice</span> accretions using more quantitative methods. For simplicity, geometric characteristics of the <span class="hlt">ice</span> accretions are used for the comparison. One method evaluated is a direct comparison of the percent differences of the geometric measurements. The second method inputs these measurements into a fuzzy inference <span class="hlt">system</span> to obtain a single measure of the goodness of the comparison. The procedures are demonstrated by comparing <span class="hlt">ice</span> shapes obtained in the <span class="hlt">Icing</span> Research Tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center during recent <span class="hlt">icing</span> scaling tests. The results demonstrate that this type of analysis is useful in quantifying the similarity of <span class="hlt">ice</span> accretion shapes and that the procedures should be further developed by expanding the analysis to additional <span class="hlt">icing</span> data sets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C21B0595Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C21B0595Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Change Detection of the Amery <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Shelf Front (2004-2012) Using ENVISAT ASAR Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, C.; Cheng, X.; Liu, Y.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Antarctic <span class="hlt">ice</span> shelves are prominent constituent parts of <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheets due to their <span class="hlt">ice</span>-ocean-atmosphere interface and their vulnerability to regional and global changes in atmospheric and oceanic temperatures. The majority of mass loss from the Antarctic <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet occurs at the <span class="hlt">ice</span> shelves via either iceberg calving or basal melting. To fully understand the complex process of <span class="hlt">ice</span> shelf mass balance, it is necessary to monitor the <span class="hlt">ice</span> shelf changes over an extended period of time. The Amery <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Shelf is the largest <span class="hlt">ice</span> shelf in East Antarctica. Understanding the changes of the Amery <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Shelf front are crucial for <span class="hlt">making</span> accurate predictions about the response of <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheets to global climate change. Here we use the time series of ENVISAT images from 2004 to 2012 and the <span class="hlt">ice</span> flow lines in Antarctic to monitor the changes of 11 test areas in the Amery <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Shelf front (Fig. 1). Each image was linearly stretched to enhance the edges and then filtered according to an efficient image denoising scheme. We then extracted the coastlines semi-automatically by combining an artificial drawing method with an improved watershed algorithm. The 11 test areas are chosen according to the <span class="hlt">ice</span> flow lines of the Antarctic. The results show that the Amery <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Shelf has been expanding obviously. The rate in the middle of the Amery <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Shelf front is higher than that on both sides of the front. The highest average propagation rate is 3.36 m/day and the lowest rate is 1.65 m/day in the past 9 years. The rates of 11 test areas during 2009 and 2010 are generally lower than those in other periods. It indicates that the propagation rate would be influenced by the climate environment. Additionally, the short-term environmental forces, such as calving events, tidal bending, ocean swell and so on would influence the <span class="hlt">ice</span> shelf propagation. In conclusion, the rapid propagation of the Amery <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Shelf has confirmed the fact that the East Antarctic has been expanding. Once some large iceberg calving</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H43H1052B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H43H1052B"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of Ground Imagery to Study Wood Raft and <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Dynamics in Fluvial <span class="hlt">Systems</span>: Potential and Challenges.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benacchio, V.; Piegay, H.; Buffin-Belanger, T. K.; Vaudor, L.; Michel, K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Automatic cameras allow acquisition of large amounts of information at high resolution in both temporal and spatial dimensions, with a roughly close range. Recently, ground cameras have been used to study the morphological evolution of fluvial environments (e.g. bank erosion, bar mobility, braided pattern changes) or to quantify components of fluvial dynamics (e.g. flow velocity, wood transport or river <span class="hlt">ice</span> development). As the amount of information increases, automation of the data processing becomes essential, but many challenges arise to improve features detection, taking into account light contrasts, shadow and reflection, or to calculate surfaces and volumes from image orthorectification. This study illustrates the high potential of ground cameras to observe and quantify rapid, stochastic or complex events in fluvial <span class="hlt">systems</span> and the numerous challenges we have to face. In order to automatically monitor such key fluvial processes, two ground cameras were installed. The first one was placed on the Genissiat dam (Rhône River, France) focusing on the reservoir where pieces of wood are trapped, creating a large raft. The objective is to survey wood raft area over time as a surrogate of the basin wood production. The second camera was installed along the St Jean River (Gaspesia, Québec) focusing on a pool section. The objective here is to characterize the evolution of <span class="hlt">ice</span> cover, in terms of growing rate and <span class="hlt">ice</span> types. The snowy environment is particularly challenging because of brightness or fairly homogeneous radiometric conditions amongst <span class="hlt">ice</span> types. In both cases, remote sensing technics, especially feature based classification are used. Radiometric and texture indexes are used to discriminate both wood and water and <span class="hlt">ice</span> types.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cosp...37.2940S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cosp...37.2940S"><span id="translatedtitle">Proton and Electron Irradiation of Solid Nitrous Oxide at Different Temperatures and Implications to the Solar <span class="hlt">System</span> <span class="hlt">Ices</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sivaraman, Bhalamurugan; Moore, Marla; Mason, Nigel</p> <p></p> <p>N2 O was the third molecule to be detected in space that contains the NO bond therefore demonstrating the universality of basic chemistry that, on Earth at least, led to evolution of life. Significant concentrations of nitrous oxide (a relative fractional abundance of 10-9 to molecular hydrogen, H2 ) have been observed in the SgrB2(M) and is believed to have been produced by neutral-neutral reactions. Although N2 O has not yet been detected in any of the outer solar <span class="hlt">system</span> planets/satellites it is nevertheless likely that it will be formed by irradiation of common <span class="hlt">ices</span> like N2 , CO2 and CO. Indeed irradiation of N2 and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) <span class="hlt">ice</span> by energetic electrons at 5 keV (Jamieson et al., 2005) and N2 + CO <span class="hlt">ice</span> by protons at 0.8 MeV (Moore and Hudson, 2003) have shown that N2 O will be easily formed in astrochemical <span class="hlt">ices</span>. Therefore it is important to study irradiation of N2 O <span class="hlt">ices</span> in order to determine subsequent chemical products. Earlier experiments (Liang et al., 1984) using 4 keV argon atoms/ions and (Sivaraman et al., 2008) using 1 keV electrons have revealed that, contrary to expectations, ozone is formed when solid nitrogen oxides are bombarded by energetic particles. Since ozone is widely suggested as a biomarker in extrasolar planets, the mechanisms and probability of ozone being formed at different temperatures by such abiotic processes should therefore be investigated. References: C. S. Jamieson, C. J. Bennett, A. M. Mebel, R. I. Kaiser, ApJ 624 (2005) 436. M. H. Moore, R. L. Hudson, Icarus 161 (2003) 486. J. Liang, J. Michl, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 106 (1984) 5039. B. Sivaraman, S. Ptasinska, S. Jheeta, N. J. Mason, Submitted to Chem Phys Lett (2008).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015Icar..246..330P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015Icar..246..330P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The evolution of a Pluto-like <span class="hlt">system</span> during the migration of the <span class="hlt">ice</span> giants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pires, Pryscilla; Giuliatti Winter, Silvia M.; Gomes, Rodney S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The planetary migration of the Solar <span class="hlt">System</span> giant planets in the framework of the Nice model (Tsiganis, K., Gomes, R., Morbidelli, A., Levison, H.F. [2005]. Nature 435,459-461; Morbidelli, A., Levison, H.F., Tsiganis, K., Gomes, R. [2005]. Nature 435, 462-465; Gomes, R., Levison, H.F., Tsiganis, K., Morbidelli, A. [2005]. Nature 435, 466-469) creates a dynamical mechanism which can be used to explain the distribution of objects currently observed in the Kuiper belt (e.g., Levison, H.F., Morbidelli, A., Vanlaerhoven, C., Gomes, R., Tsiganis, K. [2008]. Icarus 196, 258-273). Through this mechanism the planetesimals within the disk, heliocentric distance ranging from beyond Neptune's orbit to approximately 34 AU, are delivered to the belt after a temporary eccentric phase of Uranus and Neptune's orbits. We reproduced the mechanism proposed by Levison et al. to implant bodies into the Kuiper belt. The capture of Pluto into the external 3:2 mean motion resonance with Neptune is associated with this gravitational scattering model. We verified the existence of several close encounters between the <span class="hlt">ice</span> giants and the planetesimals during their outward radial migration, then we believe that the analysis of the dynamical history of the plutonian satellites during this kind of migration is important, and would provide some constrains about their place of formation - within the primordial planetesimal disk or in situ. We performed N-body simulations and recorded the trajectories of the planetesimals during close approaches with Uranus and Neptune. Close encounters with Neptune are the most common, reaching approximately 1200 in total. A Pluto similarly sized body assumed the hyperbolic trajectories of the former primordial planetesimal with respect to those giant planets. We assumed the current mutual orbital configuration and sizes for Pluto's satellites, then we found that the rate of destruction of <span class="hlt">systems</span> similar to that of Pluto with closest approaches to Uranus or Neptune</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2028917','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2028917"><span id="translatedtitle">The effectiveness of <span class="hlt">ice</span>- and Freon-based personal cooling <span class="hlt">systems</span> during work in fully encapsulating suits in the heat.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>White, M K; Glenn, S P; Hudnall, J; Rice, C; Clark, S</p> <p>1991-03-01</p> <p>The use of cooling garments in conjunction with fully encapsulating suits offers the potential for reducing the heat strain for workers at hazardous waste sites and chemical emergencies. This study examined the use of <span class="hlt">ice</span>- and Freon-based cooling garments during exercise in the heat while wearing a U.S. Coast Guard chemical response suit (CRS), a fully encapsulating, Teflon-coated, Nomex suit. Responses of nine healthy men (mean age 28.8 yr) were measured during moderate exercise at 30% of their maximal oxygen consumption in an environmental chamber maintained at 33.9 degrees C (93 degrees F) and 82% relative humidity. The four randomly assigned experimental conditions were (1) the CONTROL, consisting of a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) worn in conjunction with shorts, shirt, helmet, and shoes; (2) the CRS, consisting of the Coast Guard CRS worn with shorts, shirt, SCBA, helmet, gloves, and boots; (3) the <span class="hlt">ICE</span>, which was identical to the CRS ensemble, with the addition of an <span class="hlt">ice</span> and water cooling <span class="hlt">system</span>; and (4) the FREON, which was also identical to the CRS ensemble, with the addition of a Freon-based cooling <span class="hlt">system</span>. To the author's knowledge, this paper is the first to quantify and compare a Freon-based <span class="hlt">system</span> with a circulating <span class="hlt">ice</span> water <span class="hlt">system</span>. The subjects performed repeated rest/work intervals for 45 min, followed by a 10-min recovery period. Measured physiological responses, including heart rate, skin, rectal, and axillary temperatures, were recorded at 1-min intervals during the tests.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2028917</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11542127','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11542127"><span id="translatedtitle">Coloration and darkening of methane clathrate and other <span class="hlt">ices</span> by charged particle irradiation: applications to the outer solar <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thompson, W R; Murray, B G; Khare, B N; Sagan, C</p> <p>1987-12-30</p> <p>Methane clathrate is expected to be an important carbon-containing <span class="hlt">ice</span> in the outer solar <span class="hlt">system</span>. We investigate the effect of electron irradiation by coronal discharge on several simple hydrocarbons enclathrated in or mixed with H2O or H2O+NH3 in simulation of the effects of the solar wind, planetary magnetospheric particles, and cosmic rays on surfaces containing these <span class="hlt">ices</span> in the outer solar <span class="hlt">system</span> and interstellar space. H2O+CH4 clathrate, H2O+C2H6, H2O+CH4+NH3, H2O+C2H6+NH3, and H2O+C2H2 are all initially white <span class="hlt">ices</span>, and all produce yellowish to brownish organic products upon charged particles irradiation. Significant coloration occurs with doses of 10(9) erg cm-2, corresponding to short interplanetary irradiation times. Uranian magnetospheric electrons penetrate to approximately 1 mm depth and deposit this dose in 8, 30, 65, 200, and 500 years into the surfaces of Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, and Oberon, respectively. Further irradiation of the laboratory <span class="hlt">ice</span> surface results in a progressive darkening and a more subdued color. For a conversion efficiency to solids G approximately equal to 1 molecule keV-1, the upper limit for the time for total destruction of CH4 and other simple hydrocarbons in the upper 1 mm is 5 x 10(4) years (Miranda) to 3 x 10(6) years (Oberon). Remote detection of CH4 is possible only when its replenishment rate exceeds the destruction rate at the depth probed by spectroscopy. Reflection spectroscopy or irradiated H2O+CH4 frost is compared with the spectra of several outer solar <span class="hlt">system</span> objects and to other relevant organic and inorganic materials. Ultraviolet-visible and infrared transmission spectroscopy of the postirradiation residues is presented. Persistence of color and of CH4 <span class="hlt">ice</span> bands on Triton and Pluto suggests ongoing surface activity and/or atmospheric haze. Over 4 x 10(9) year time scales, > or = 10 m of satellite and cometary surface material is processed by cosmic rays to a radiation-hardened <span class="hlt">ice</span>-tholin mixture devoid</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED391499.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED391499.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Electronic Performance Support <span class="hlt">Systems</span> (EPSS): <span class="hlt">Making</span> the Transition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Des Jardins, Susan; Davis, Harry, Jr.</p> <p></p> <p>An electronic performance support <span class="hlt">system</span> (EPSS) is a computerized <span class="hlt">system</span> designed to increase productivity by supporting the performance of the worker on demand at the time of need. This way, workers are allowed to perform with a minimum of intervention from others. Popular examples of performance support tools, or partially implemented EPSSs,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26844028','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26844028"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating a decision <span class="hlt">making</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> for cardiovascular dysautonomias diagnosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Idri, Ali; Kadi, Ilham</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Autonomic nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> (ANS) is the part of the nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> that is involved in homeostasis of the whole body functions. A malfunction in this <span class="hlt">system</span> can lead to a cardiovascular dysautonomias. Hence, a set of dynamic tests are adopted in ANS units to diagnose and treat patients with cardiovascular dysautonomias. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a decision tree based cardiovascular dysautonomias prediction <span class="hlt">system</span> on a dataset collected from the ANS unit of the Moroccan university hospital Avicenne. We collected a dataset of 263 records from the ANS unit of the Avicenne hospital. This dataset was split into three subsets: training set (123 records), test set (55 records) and validation set (85 records). C4.5 decision tree algorithm was used in this study to develop the prediction <span class="hlt">system</span>. Moreover, Java Enterprise Edition platform was used to implement a prototype of the developed <span class="hlt">system</span> which was deployed in the Avicenne ANS unit so as to be clinically validated. The performance of the decision tree-based prediction <span class="hlt">system</span> was evaluated by means of the error rate criterion. The error rates were measured for each classifier and have achieved an average value of 1.46, 2.24 and 0.89 % in training, test, and validation sets respectively. The results obtained were encouraging but further replicated studies are still needed to be performed in order to confirm the findings of this study. PMID:26844028</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.C54A..02O&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.C54A..02O&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Southern Hemisphere Sea <span class="hlt">Ice</span> and the Atmospheric Boundary Layer in a High-Resolution Simulation of the Community Earth <span class="hlt">System</span> Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ordóñez, A.; Bitz, C. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Increasing the horizontal resolution of the sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> and ocean components in a global climate model has been shown to affect the extent of sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> and the strength of atmosphere/ocean fluxes. Since existing high-resolution (0.1°) coupled simulations include a dynamical ocean, it is difficult to pinpoint how these results are influenced by the resolution of the sea <span class="hlt">ice</span>. This project takes a closer look at the impact of sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> resolution on ocean/atmosphere interactions in the Southern Hemisphere using the Community Earth <span class="hlt">System</span> Model (CESM1-CAM5) in a slab ocean configuration. In this set-up, sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> and mixed layer ocean models on a 0.1° grid (high resolution) or 1° grid (standard resolution) are coupled with atmosphere and land models run at the same 0.5° resolution. The high resolution model can produce fine scale, open water areas within the <span class="hlt">ice</span> pack that facilitate air/sea flux exchanges and reduce the stability of the lower atmosphere in the model. Correlations between sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> concentration and boundary layer variables will be described at different spatial scales to understand the effects of resolving small scale features. Finally, a kernel feedback analysis will be shown on a 0.1°, double CO2 run to look at the impact of sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> resolution on the regional lapse rate feedback.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3381688','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3381688"><span id="translatedtitle">Universal access: <span class="hlt">making</span> health <span class="hlt">systems</span> work for women</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Universal coverage by health services is one of the core obligations that any legitimate government should fulfil vis-à-vis its citizens. However, universal coverage may not in itself ensure universal access to health care. Among the many challenges to ensuring universal coverage as well as access to health care are structural inequalities by caste, race, ethnicity and gender. Based on a review of published literature and applying a gender-analysis framework, this paper highlights ways in which the policies aimed at promoting universal coverage may not benefit women to the same extent as men because of gender-based differentials and inequalities in societies. It also explores how ‘gender-blind’ organisation and delivery of health care services may deny universal access to women even when universal coverage has been nominally achieved. The paper then <span class="hlt">makes</span> recommendations for addressing these. PMID:22992384</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120016690','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120016690"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling and Detection of <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Particle Accretion in Aircraft Engine Compression <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>May, Ryan D.; Simon, Donald L.; Guo, Ten-Huei</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The accretion of <span class="hlt">ice</span> particles in the core of commercial aircraft engines has been an ongoing aviation safety challenge. While no accidents have resulted from this phenomenon to date, numerous engine power loss events ranging from uneventful recoveries to forced landings have been recorded. As a first step to enabling mitigation strategies during <span class="hlt">ice</span> accretion, a detection scheme must be developed that is capable of being implemented on board modern engines. In this paper, a simple detection scheme is developed and tested using a realistic engine simulation with approximate <span class="hlt">ice</span> accretion models based on data from a compressor design tool. These accretion models are implemented as modified Low Pressure Compressor maps and have the capability to shift engine performance based on a specified level of <span class="hlt">ice</span> blockage. Based on results from this model, it is possible to detect the accretion of <span class="hlt">ice</span> in the engine core by observing shifts in the typical sensed engine outputs. Results are presented in which, for a 0.1 percent false positive rate, a true positive detection rate of 98 percent is achieved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2839418','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2839418"><span id="translatedtitle">How (and why) the immune <span class="hlt">system</span> <span class="hlt">makes</span> us sleep</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Imeri, Luca; Opp, Mark R.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Good sleep is necessary for physical and mental health. For example, sleep loss impairs immune function, and sleep is altered during infection. Immune signalling molecules are present in the healthy brain, where they interact with neurochemical <span class="hlt">systems</span> to contribute to the regulation of normal sleep. Animal studies have shown that interactions between immune signalling molecules (such as the cytokine interleukin 1) and brain neurochemical <span class="hlt">systems</span> (such as the serotonin <span class="hlt">system</span>) are amplified during infection, indicating that these interactions might underlie the changes in sleep that occur during infection. Why should the immune <span class="hlt">system</span> cause us to sleep differently when we are sick? We propose that the alterations in sleep architecture during infection are exquisitely tailored to support the generation of fever, which in turn imparts survival value. PMID:19209176</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6207528','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6207528"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of the <span class="hlt">ice</span> phase on a mesoscale convective <span class="hlt">system</span>: Implication of cloud parameterization and cloud radiative properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chin, H.N.S.; Bradley, M.M.; Molenkamp, C.R.; Grant, K.E.; Chuang, C.</p> <p>1991-08-01</p> <p>This study attempts to provide further understanding of the effect of the <span class="hlt">ice</span> phase on cloud ensemble features which are useful for improving GCM cumulus parameterization. In addition, cloud model results are used to diagnose the radiative properties of anvils in order to assess cloud/radiation interaction and its feedback on the larger-scale climate for the future work. The heat, moisture and mass budget analyses of a simulated squall line <span class="hlt">system</span> indicate that, at least for this type of <span class="hlt">system</span>, the inclusion of the <span class="hlt">ice</span> phase in the microphysics does not considerably change the net cloud heating and drying effects and the feedback on the large-scale motion. Nonetheless, its impact on the radiative properties of clouds significantly influences not only the squall line <span class="hlt">system</span> itself, but also the larger-scale circulation due to the favorable stratification for long-lasting anvil clouds. The water budget suggests a simple methodology to parameterize the microphysical effect without considering it as a model physics module. Further application of the water budget might also be used to parameterize the cloud transport of condensates in the anvil cloud region, which allows the GCM columns to interact with each other. The findings of this study suggest that the <span class="hlt">ice</span> phase could be ignored in the cloud parameterization in order to save significant amounts of computational resources and to simplify the model physics. More scientific effort should, however, be focused on the effect of the <span class="hlt">ice</span> phase to further explore cloud feedback on the large-scale climate through the radiative process. The cloud/radiation interaction and its feedback on the larger-scale climate will be addressed in a companion study by coupling the radiative transfer model with the cloud model. 19 refs., 13 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ApJ...824...81D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ApJ...824...81D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Ion Irradiation of Ethane and Water Mixture <span class="hlt">Ice</span> at 15 K: Implications for the Solar <span class="hlt">System</span> and the ISM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Barros, A. L. F.; da Silveira, E. F.; Fulvio, D.; Rothard, H.; Boduch, P.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Solid water has been observed on the surface of many different astronomical objects and is the dominant <span class="hlt">ice</span> present in the universe, from the solar <span class="hlt">system</span> (detected on the surface of some asteroids, planets and their satellites, trans-Neptunian objects [TNOs], comets, etc.) to dense cold interstellar clouds (where interstellar dust grains are covered with water-rich <span class="hlt">ices</span>). Ethane has been detected across the solar <span class="hlt">system</span>, from the atmosphere of the giant planets and the surface of Saturn’s satellite Titan to various comets and TNOs. To date, there were no experiments focused on icy mixtures of C2H6 and H2O exposed to ion irradiation simulating cosmic rays, a case study for many astronomical environments in which C2H6 has been detected. In this work, the radiolysis of a C2H6:H2O (2:3) <span class="hlt">ice</span> mixture bombarded by a 40 MeV58Ni11+ ion beam is studied. The chemical evolution of the molecular species existing in the sample is monitored by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The analysis of ethane, water, and molecular products in solid phase was performed. Induced chemical reactions in C2H6:H2O <span class="hlt">ice</span> produce 13 daughter molecular species. Their formation and dissociation cross sections are determined. Furthermore, atomic carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen budgets are determined and used to verify the stoichiometry of the most abundantly formed molecular species. The results are discussed in the view of solar <span class="hlt">system</span> and interstellar medium chemistry. The study presented here should be regarded as a first step in laboratory works dedicated to simulate the effect of cosmic radiation on multicomponent mixtures involving C2H6 and H2O.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8042B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8042B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ice</span> Water Path Retrieval Using Microwave and Submillimetre Wave Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brath, Manfred; Grützun, Verena; Mendrok, Jana; Fox, Stuart; Eriksson, Patrick; Buehler, Stefan A.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>There is an ongoing need for data on <span class="hlt">ice</span> clouds. The <span class="hlt">ice</span> water path as an essential climate variable is a fundamental parameter to describe <span class="hlt">ice</span> clouds. Combined passive microwave and submillimetre wave measurements are capable to sample the size distribution of the <span class="hlt">ice</span> particles and are sensitive to relevant particle sizes. This <span class="hlt">makes</span> combined microwave and submillimetre wave measurements useful for estimates of <span class="hlt">ice</span> water path. Furthermore, instead of being sensitive for the upper <span class="hlt">ice</span> column as for example for passive visible and passive infrared measurements, combined microwave and submillimetre wave measurements can sample the full <span class="hlt">ice</span> column. We developed a retrieval algorithm for <span class="hlt">ice</span> water path based on a neural network approach using combined microwave and submillimetre wave measurements, from about 20 channels in the range between 89 GHz and 664 GHz of the electromagnetic sprectra. We trained a neural network by using 1D radiative transfer simulations which were conducted using the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS). The radiative transfer simulations were fed by atmospheric profiles from a numerical weather prediction model. We will present an analysis of the retrieval. Additionally, we will present results of retrieved IWP from combined ISMAR (International SubMillimetre Airborne Radiometer) and MARSS (Microwave Airborne Radiometer Scanning <span class="hlt">System</span>) measurements on board of the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) aircraft during March 2015 over the North Atlantic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C53B0314W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C53B0314W"><span id="translatedtitle">A Thermal Melt Probe <span class="hlt">System</span> for Extensive, Low-Cost Instrument Deployment Within and Beneath <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Sheets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Winebrenner, D. P.; Elam, W. T.; Carpenter, M.; Kintner, P., III</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p> component and <span class="hlt">system</span> testing. We are therefore revising the probe heaters using a newer but more development-intensive technology. With probe <span class="hlt">systems</span> now validated in our tests, this will result in a reliable means to emplace instruments for studies of subglacial hydrology, <span class="hlt">ice</span> dynamics, and possible subglacial ecologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol1-sec96-220.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol1-sec96-220.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 96.220 - What <span class="hlt">makes</span> up a safety management <span class="hlt">system</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What <span class="hlt">makes</span> up a safety management <span class="hlt">system</span>? 96.220 Section 96.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Company and Vessel Safety Management <span class="hlt">Systems</span> § 96.220 What <span class="hlt">makes</span> up a safety management <span class="hlt">system</span>? (a)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol1-sec96-220.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol1-sec96-220.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 96.220 - What <span class="hlt">makes</span> up a safety management <span class="hlt">system</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What <span class="hlt">makes</span> up a safety management <span class="hlt">system</span>? 96.220 Section 96.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Company and Vessel Safety Management <span class="hlt">Systems</span> § 96.220 What <span class="hlt">makes</span> up a safety management <span class="hlt">system</span>? (a)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol1-sec96-220.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol1-sec96-220.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 96.220 - What <span class="hlt">makes</span> up a safety management <span class="hlt">system</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What <span class="hlt">makes</span> up a safety management <span class="hlt">system</span>? 96.220 Section 96.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Company and Vessel Safety Management <span class="hlt">Systems</span> § 96.220 What <span class="hlt">makes</span> up a safety management <span class="hlt">system</span>? (a)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol1-sec96-220.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol1-sec96-220.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 96.220 - What <span class="hlt">makes</span> up a safety management <span class="hlt">system</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What <span class="hlt">makes</span> up a safety management <span class="hlt">system</span>? 96.220 Section 96.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Company and Vessel Safety Management <span class="hlt">Systems</span> § 96.220 What <span class="hlt">makes</span> up a safety management <span class="hlt">system</span>? (a)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol1-sec96-220.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol1-sec96-220.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 96.220 - What <span class="hlt">makes</span> up a safety management <span class="hlt">system</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What <span class="hlt">makes</span> up a safety management <span class="hlt">system</span>? 96.220 Section 96.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Company and Vessel Safety Management <span class="hlt">Systems</span> § 96.220 What <span class="hlt">makes</span> up a safety management <span class="hlt">system</span>? (a)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1044115','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1044115"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting Land-<span class="hlt">Ice</span> Retreat and Sea-Level Rise with the Community Earth <span class="hlt">System</span> Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lipscomb, William</p> <p>2012-06-19</p> <p>Coastal stakeholders need defensible predictions of 21st century sea-level rise (SLR). IPCC assessments suggest 21st century SLR of {approx}0.5 m under aggressive emission scenarios. Semi-empirical models project SLR of {approx}1 m or more by 2100. Although some sea-level contributions are fairly well constrained by models, others are highly uncertain. Recent studies suggest a potential large contribution ({approx}0.5 m/century) from the marine-based West Antarctic <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Sheet, linked to changes in Southern Ocean wind stress. To assess the likelihood of fast retreat of marine <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheets, we need coupled <span class="hlt">ice</span>-sheet/ocean models that do not yet exist (but are well under way). CESM is uniquely positioned to provide integrated, physics based sea-level predictions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=10531&hterms=Turquoise&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DTurquoise','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=10531&hterms=Turquoise&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DTurquoise"><span id="translatedtitle">Record Sea <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Minimum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Arctic sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> reached a record low in September 2007, below the previous record set in 2005 and substantially below the long-term average. This image shows the Arctic as observed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite on September 16, 2007. In this image, blue indicates open water, white indicates high sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> concentration, and turquoise indicates loosely packed sea <span class="hlt">ice</span>. The black circle at the North Pole results from an absence of data as the satellite does not <span class="hlt">make</span> observations that far north. Three contour lines appear on this image. The red line is the 2007 minimum, as of September 15, about the same time the record low was reached, and it almost exactly fits the sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> observed by AMSR-E. The green line indicates the 2005 minimum, the previous record low. The yellow line indicates the median minimum from 1979 to 2000.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900061679&hterms=physical+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dphysical%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900061679&hterms=physical+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dphysical%2Benergy"><span id="translatedtitle">The volume- and surface-binding energies of <span class="hlt">ice</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span> containing CO, CO2, and H2O</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Laboratory-measured, temperature-dependent sticking efficiencies are presently used to derive the surface-binding energies of CO and CO2 on H2O-rich <span class="hlt">ices</span>, with a view to determining the condensation and vaporization properties of these <span class="hlt">systems</span> as well as to the measured energies' implications for both cometary behavior and the evolution of interstellar <span class="hlt">ices</span>. The molecular volume and the surface binding energies are not found to be necessarily related on the basis of simple nearest-neighbor scaling in surface and bulk sites; this may be due to the physical constraints associated with matrix structure-associated physical constraints, which sometimes dominate the volume-binding energies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JGR...10516295H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JGR...10516295H"><span id="translatedtitle">Point measurements of mass balance of the Greenland <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Sheet using precision vertical Global Positioning <span class="hlt">System</span> (GPS) surveys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hamilton, Gordon S.; Whillans, Ian M.</p> <p>2000-07-01</p> <p>Rates of <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet thickening or thinning in Greenland are measured using the coffee-can technique. This entails computing the difference in the vertical velocity of markers anchored in firn and the long-term rate of snow accumulation. The velocities are obtained from repeat surveys using the Global Positioning <span class="hlt">System</span> (GPS). With corrections for densification and along-slope flow, this difference is the local mass balance. For two sites in western Greenland (Camp Century and a site just south of the EGIG line (Crawford Point)) results show <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet thinning. A third west Greenland site (inland from Upernavik) is close to balance. Two sites, Dye-2 in western Greenland and Summit, are thickening slowly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27627342','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27627342"><span id="translatedtitle">Adaptive network models of collective decision <span class="hlt">making</span> in swarming <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Li; Huepe, Cristián; Gross, Thilo</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We consider a class of adaptive network models where links can only be created or deleted between nodes in different states. These models provide an approximate description of a set of <span class="hlt">systems</span> where nodes represent agents moving in physical or abstract space, the state of each node represents the agent's heading direction, and links indicate mutual awareness. We show analytically that the adaptive network description captures a phase transition to collective motion in some swarming <span class="hlt">systems</span>, such as the Vicsek model, and that the properties of this transition are determined by the number of states (discrete heading directions) that can be accessed by each agent. PMID:27627342</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/610746','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/610746"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of geographic data in emergency response decision <span class="hlt">making</span> <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Walker, H.</p> <p>1997-07-01</p> <p>Geographic data have a number of key roles in emergency response <span class="hlt">systems</span> focused on releases of hazardous material to the environment. Maps are a key element in allowing emergency response personnel to become oriented during a response and in presenting status information effectively to these personnel. Geographic data are essential for modeling to predict dispersal patterns during a release. It is also necessary to integrate model and measurement data with demographic information in order to assess the consequences of a release. Appropriate support for such capabilities is based on a number of evolving technologies including fast computers, large databases, network technology, remote sensing and geographic information <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........69R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........69R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ice</span> crystal ingestion by turbofans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rios Pabon, Manuel A.</p> <p></p> <p>This Thesis will present the problem of inflight <span class="hlt">icing</span> in general and inflight <span class="hlt">icing</span> caused by the ingestion of high altitude <span class="hlt">ice</span> crystals produced by high energy mesoscale convective complexes in particular, and propose a new device to prevent it based on dielectric barrier discharge plasma. Inflight <span class="hlt">icing</span> is known to be the cause of 583 air accidents and more than 800 deaths in more than a decade. The new <span class="hlt">ice</span> crystal ingestion problem has caused more than 100 flights to lose engine power since the 1990's, and the NTSB identified it as one of the causes of the Air France flight 447 accident in 1-Jun2008. The mechanics of inflight <span class="hlt">icing</span> not caused by <span class="hlt">ice</span> crystals are well established. Aircraft surfaces exposed to supercooled liquid water droplets will accrete <span class="hlt">ice</span> in direct proportion of the droplet catch and the freezing heat transfer process. The multiphase flow droplet catch is predicted by the simple sum of forces on each spherical droplet and a droplet trajectory calculation based on Lagrangian or Eulerian analysis. The most widely used freezing heat transfer model for inflight <span class="hlt">icing</span> caused by supercooled droplets was established by Messinger. Several computer programs implement these analytical models to predict inflight <span class="hlt">icing</span>, with LEWICE being based on Lagrangian analysis and FENSAP being based on Eulerian analysis as the best representatives among them. This Thesis presents the multiphase fluid mechanics particular to <span class="hlt">ice</span> crystals, and explains how it differs from the established droplet multiphase flow, and the obstacles in implementing the former in computational analysis. A new modification of the Messinger thermal model is proposed to account for <span class="hlt">ice</span> accretion produced by <span class="hlt">ice</span> crystal impingement. Because there exist no computational and experimental ways to fully replicate <span class="hlt">ice</span> crystal inflight <span class="hlt">icing</span>, and because existing <span class="hlt">ice</span> protections <span class="hlt">systems</span> consume vast amounts of energy, a new <span class="hlt">ice</span> protection device based on dielectric barrier discharge plasma is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920001517','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920001517"><span id="translatedtitle">Flow and fracture of <span class="hlt">ice</span> and <span class="hlt">ice</span> mixtures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Durham, W. B.; Kirby, S. H.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Frozen volatiles <span class="hlt">make</span> up an important volume fraction of the low density moons of the outer solar <span class="hlt">system</span>. Understanding the tectonic history of the surfaces of these moons, as well as the evolution of their interiors, requires knowledge of the mechanical strength of these icy materials under the appropriate planetary conditions (temperature, hydrostatic pressure, strain rate). Ongoing lab research is being conducted to measure mechanical properties of several different <span class="hlt">ices</span> under conditions that faithfully reproduce condition both at the moons' surfaces (generally low temperature, to about 100 K, and low pressures) and in the deep interiors (warmer temperatures, pressures to thousands of atmospheres). Recent progress is reported in two different phases of the work: rheology of <span class="hlt">ices</span> in the NH3-H2O <span class="hlt">system</span> at temperatures and strain rates lower than ever before explored, with application to the ammonia-rich moons of Saturn and Uranus; and the water <span class="hlt">ice</span> I yields II phase transformation, which not only applies directly to process deep in the interiors of Ganymede and Callisto, but holds implications for deep terrestrial earthquakes as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gis+AND+applications&pg=6&id=EJ516638','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gis+AND+applications&pg=6&id=EJ516638"><span id="translatedtitle">Geographic Information <span class="hlt">Systems</span>: Empowering Kinds to <span class="hlt">Make</span> a Difference.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Michelsen, Michael W., Jr.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Describes ArcView, a Geographic Information <span class="hlt">System</span> (GIS) that enables K-12 classrooms to access electronic maps and information databases for specific communities. Presents actual applications of ArcView at an elementary school and a high school. Finds that students are using GIS technology to collect, analyze, and apply local data to real…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=historical+AND+monument&pg=4&id=EJ389342','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=historical+AND+monument&pg=4&id=EJ389342"><span id="translatedtitle">Necessary Monuments: The <span class="hlt">Making</span> of the Presidential Library <span class="hlt">System</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wolff, Cynthia J.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Discusses historical precedents that established presidential papers as the private property of presidents; the Historical Records Act of 1978 which assigned ownership of official presidential papers to the federal government; and the Presidential Library Act of 1986 which provides a uniform <span class="hlt">system</span> of standards and access to presidential records…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gis+AND+data&pg=5&id=EJ839090','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gis+AND+data&pg=5&id=EJ839090"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Making</span> Geographic Information <span class="hlt">Systems</span> (GIS) Sustainable in Schools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dascombe, Brett</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Spatial technologies, particularly Geographic Information <span class="hlt">Systems</span> (GIS), have become invaluable and persuasive tools in society today. These technologies have also made their way into classrooms around the world and Australian teachers are leaders in implementing GIS technology into their classrooms. There is still a way to go in order to make…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840021395','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840021395"><span id="translatedtitle">Pilot interaction with automated airborne decision <span class="hlt">making</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rouse, W. B.; Hammer, J. M.; Morris, N. M.; Brown, E. N.; Yoon, W. C.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The use of advanced software engineering methods (e.g., from artificial intelligence) to aid aircraft crews in procedure selection and execution is investigated. Human problem solving in dynamic environments as effected by the human's level of knowledge of <span class="hlt">system</span> operations is examined. Progress on the development of full scale simulation facilities is also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810024692','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810024692"><span id="translatedtitle">Method of <span class="hlt">making</span> a partial interlaminar separation composite <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Elber, W. (Inventor)</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>An interlaminar separation <span class="hlt">system</span> for composites is disclosed a thin layer of a perforated foil film is interposed between adjacent laminae of a composite formed from prepreg tapes. Laminae adherence takes place through the perforations and a composite structure with improved physical property characteristics is produced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22011924','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22011924"><span id="translatedtitle">ON THE FORMATION OF OZONE IN SOLAR <span class="hlt">SYSTEM</span> OXYGEN <span class="hlt">ICES</span> EXPOSED TO HEAVY IONS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ennis, Courtney; Kaiser, Ralf I.</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Mimicking the bombardment of icy surfaces with heavy ions from solar <span class="hlt">system</span> radiation fields, solid-phase molecular oxygen ({sup 32}O{sub 2}) and its isotope labeled analogue ({sup 36}O{sub 2}) were irradiated with monoenergetic carbon (C{sup +}), nitrogen (N{sup +}), and oxygen (O{sup +}) ions in laboratory experiments simulating the interaction of ions from the solar wind and those abundant in planetary magnetospheres. Online Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of the irradiated oxygen <span class="hlt">ices</span> (12 K) showed that the yields of molecular ozone monomer (O{sub 3} {approx} 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} molecules eV{sup -1} in {sup 32}O{sub 2}) were independent of the mass of the implanted C{sup +}, N{sup +}, and O{sup +} ions ({Phi}{sub max} = 4.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} ions cm{sup -2}). The production of oxygen atoms in the solid was observed in the mid-IR stabilized via the [O{sub 3}...O] van der Waals complex. We expand on this inference by comparing the ozone yields induced by light particles (e{sup -}, H{sup +}, and He{sup +}) to the heavy ions (C{sup +}, N{sup +}, and O{sup +}) to provide compelling evidence that the abundance of radiolytic products in an oxygen-bearing solid is primarily dependent on electronic stopping regimes, which supersedes the contribution of nuclear stopping processes irrespective of the mass of the particle irradiation in the kinetic energy regime of solar wind and magnetospheric particles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100032968','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100032968"><span id="translatedtitle">CBSIT 2009: Airborne Validation of Envisat Radar Altimetry and In Situ <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Camp Measurements Over Arctic Sea <span class="hlt">Ice</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Connor, Laurence; Farrell, Sinead; McAdoo, David; Krabill, William; Laxon, Seymour; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline; Markus, Thorsten</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The past few years have seen the emergence of satellite altimetry as valuable tool for taking quantitative sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> monitoring beyond the traditional surface extent measurements and into estimates of sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> thickness and volume, parameters that arc fundamental to improved understanding of polar dynamics and climate modeling. Several studies have now demonstrated the use of both microwave (ERS, Envisat/RA-2) and laser (ICESat/GLAS) satellite altimeters for determining sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> thickness. The complexity of polar environments, however, continues to <span class="hlt">make</span> sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> thickness determination a complicated remote sensing task and validation studies remain essential for successful monitoring of sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> hy satellites. One such validation effort, the Arctic Aircraft Altimeter (AAA) campaign of2006. included underflights of Envisat and ICESat north of the Canadian Archipelago using NASA's P-3 aircraft. This campaign compared Envisat and ICESat sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> elevation measurements with high-resolution airborne elevation measurements, revealing the impact of refrozen leads on radar altimetry and <span class="hlt">ice</span> drift on laser altimetry. Continuing this research and validation effort, the Canada Basin Sea <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Thickness (CBSIT) experiment was completed in April 2009. CBSIT was conducted by NOAA. and NASA as part of NASA's Operation <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Bridge, a gap-filling mission intended to supplement sea and land <span class="hlt">ice</span> monitoring until the launch of NASA's ICESat-2 mission. CBIST was flown on the NASA P-3, which was equipped with a scanning laser altimeter, a Ku-band snow radar, and un updated nadir looking photo-imaging <span class="hlt">system</span>. The CB5IT campaign consisted of two flights: an under flight of Envisat along a 1000 km track similar to that flown in 2006, and a flight through the Nares Strait up to the Lincoln Sea that included an overflight of the Danish GreenArc <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Camp off the coast of northern Greenland. We present an examination of data collected during this campaign, comparing airborne laser altimeter measurements</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24883392','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24883392"><span id="translatedtitle">Risk intelligence: <span class="hlt">making</span> profit from uncertainty in data processing <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zheng, Si; Liao, Xiangke; Liu, Xiaodong</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In extreme scale data processing <span class="hlt">systems</span>, fault tolerance is an essential and indispensable part. Proactive fault tolerance scheme (such as the speculative execution in MapReduce framework) is introduced to dramatically improve the response time of job executions when the failure becomes a norm rather than an exception. Efficient proactive fault tolerance schemes require precise knowledge on the task executions, which has been an open challenge for decades. To well address the issue, in this paper we design and implement RiskI, a profile-based prediction algorithm in conjunction with a riskaware task assignment algorithm, to accelerate task executions, taking the uncertainty nature of tasks into account. Our design demonstrates that the nature uncertainty brings not only great challenges, but also new opportunities. With a careful design, we can benefit from such uncertainties. We implement the idea in Hadoop 0.21.0 <span class="hlt">systems</span> and the experimental results show that, compared with the traditional LATE algorithm, the response time can be improved by 46% with the same <span class="hlt">system</span> throughput. PMID:24883392</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17220963','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17220963"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Systems</span> biology: Potential to improve decision <span class="hlt">making</span> in pharmaceutical development.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mujagic, Hamza</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>On October 5, 2006, the New England <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Biology Association held its first annual meeting at Bentley College, Waltham, Massachusetts. The meeting was organized under the title "<span class="hlt">Systems</span> Biology in Drug Discovery" and was devoted to the presentation of current status and advances in this new and ever-expanding field in medical sciences. It brought together biologists, biochemists, physicians, physicists and engineers, as well as leaders in biopharmaceutical industry interested in this field of science and its possible impact on anticancer drug discovery. The meeting consisted of two sessions, one in the morning and one in the afternoon and a panel discussion at noon. Each session hosted four speakers and a panel discussion featuring five discussants. Each session also included keynote speakers. <span class="hlt">Systems</span> biology can help to identify disease-specific molecules and drug-specific targets. This is especially useful as a new tool in diagnostic approaches and drug discovery. Using specific techniques like gene profiling, marker detection and kinase-specific substrate definition, and combining them with large databases and computational methods it is possible to look at the organism as a complex association of gene activation and control networks, and their products, and thus gain better and more realistic insights into disease processes and into drug mechanisms. PMID:17220963</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4030500','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4030500"><span id="translatedtitle">Risk Intelligence: <span class="hlt">Making</span> Profit from Uncertainty in Data Processing <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liao, Xiangke; Liu, Xiaodong</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In extreme scale data processing <span class="hlt">systems</span>, fault tolerance is an essential and indispensable part. Proactive fault tolerance scheme (such as the speculative execution in MapReduce framework) is introduced to dramatically improve the response time of job executions when the failure becomes a norm rather than an exception. Efficient proactive fault tolerance schemes require precise knowledge on the task executions, which has been an open challenge for decades. To well address the issue, in this paper we design and implement RiskI, a profile-based prediction algorithm in conjunction with a riskaware task assignment algorithm, to accelerate task executions, taking the uncertainty nature of tasks into account. Our design demonstrates that the nature uncertainty brings not only great challenges, but also new opportunities. With a careful design, we can benefit from such uncertainties. We implement the idea in Hadoop 0.21.0 <span class="hlt">systems</span> and the experimental results show that, compared with the traditional LATE algorithm, the response time can be improved by 46% with the same <span class="hlt">system</span> throughput. PMID:24883392</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec29-1419.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec29-1419.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 29.1419 - <span class="hlt">Ice</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... to determine the adequacy of the <span class="hlt">ice</span> protection <span class="hlt">system</span>: (1) Laboratory dry air or simulated <span class="hlt">icing</span>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Ice</span> protection. 29.1419 Section 29.1419... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 29.1419 <span class="hlt">Ice</span> protection. (a) To...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec29-1419.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec29-1419.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 29.1419 - <span class="hlt">Ice</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... to determine the adequacy of the <span class="hlt">ice</span> protection <span class="hlt">system</span>: (1) Laboratory dry air or simulated <span class="hlt">icing</span>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Ice</span> protection. 29.1419 Section 29.1419... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 29.1419 <span class="hlt">Ice</span> protection. (a) To...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec29-1419.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec29-1419.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 29.1419 - <span class="hlt">Ice</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... to determine the adequacy of the <span class="hlt">ice</span> protection <span class="hlt">system</span>: (1) Laboratory dry air or simulated <span class="hlt">icing</span>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Ice</span> protection. 29.1419 Section 29.1419... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 29.1419 <span class="hlt">Ice</span> protection. (a) To...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec23-1419.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec23-1419.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 23.1419 - <span class="hlt">Ice</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... components or models of the components. (2) Flight dry air tests of the <span class="hlt">ice</span> protection <span class="hlt">system</span> as a whole, or... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Ice</span> protection. 23.1419 Section 23.1419... <span class="hlt">Ice</span> protection. If certification with <span class="hlt">ice</span> protection provisions is desired, compliance with...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec23-1419.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec23-1419.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 23.1419 - <span class="hlt">Ice</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... components or models of the components. (2) Flight dry air tests of the <span class="hlt">ice</span> protection <span class="hlt">system</span> as a whole, or... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Ice</span> protection. 23.1419 Section 23.1419... <span class="hlt">Ice</span> protection. If certification with <span class="hlt">ice</span> protection provisions is desired, compliance with...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec29-1419.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec29-1419.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 29.1419 - <span class="hlt">Ice</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... to determine the adequacy of the <span class="hlt">ice</span> protection <span class="hlt">system</span>: (1) Laboratory dry air or simulated <span class="hlt">icing</span>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Ice</span> protection. 29.1419 Section 29.1419... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 29.1419 <span class="hlt">Ice</span> protection. (a) To...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhyEd..38..248C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhyEd..38..248C"><span id="translatedtitle">The physics of <span class="hlt">ice</span> cream</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clarke, Chris</p> <p>2003-05-01</p> <p>Almost everybody likes <span class="hlt">ice</span> cream, so it can provide an excellent vehicle for discussing and demonstrating a variety of physical phenomena, such as Newton's law of cooling, Boyle's law and the relationship between microstructure and macroscopic properties (e.g. Young's modulus). Furthermore, a demonstration of freezing point depression can be used to <span class="hlt">make</span> <span class="hlt">ice</span> cream in the classroom!</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19353770','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19353770"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Making</span> sense of scoring <span class="hlt">systems</span> in community acquired pneumonia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Niederman, Michael S</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The site of care decision is one of the most important in the management of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Several scoring <span class="hlt">systems</span> have been developed to predict mortality risk in CAP, and these have been applied to guide physicians about whether patients should be admitted to the hospital or to the intensive care unit (ICU). However, these tools were initially developed to predict mortality risk, and studies have demonstrated that the risk for death does not always equate with need for hospitalization or ICU care. The most widely studied scoring <span class="hlt">systems</span> are the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) and the CURB-65 (a modification of the British Thoracic Society rule). Each has advantages and limitations, with the more-complex PSI developed to identify low-mortality risk patients, and the CURB-65, which is simpler, being developed to easily identify more severely ill individuals. No scoring <span class="hlt">system</span> can replace clinical judgement about the admission decision, and prospective studies have shown that physicians still admit at least 30-60% of low mortality risk patients when using the PSI to guide this decision. Limitations of these prognostic tools include their variable utility in the elderly, and their failure to include certain comorbidities (COPD, immune suppression) and social factors, in their calculations. The need for ICU care is also not well-defined by measuring the PSI or CURB-65, and other tools such as those developed by the Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society (IDSA/ATS) guideline committee and the SMART-COP rule may have greater utility for this purpose. In the future, measurements of serum biomarkers, such as procalcitonin, may augment the information provided by prognostic scoring tools for patients with CAP. PMID:19353770</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870010471','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870010471"><span id="translatedtitle">Pilot interaction with automated airborne decision <span class="hlt">making</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hammer, John M.; Wan, C. Yoon; Vasandani, Vijay</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The current research is focused on detection of human error and protection from its consequences. A program for monitoring pilot error by comparing pilot actions to a script was described. It dealt primarily with routine errors (slips) that occurred during checklist activity. The model to which operator actions were compared was a script. Current research is an extension along these two dimensions. The ORS fault detection aid uses a sophisticated device model rather than a script. The newer initiative, the model-based and constraint-based warning <span class="hlt">system</span>, uses an even more sophisticated device model and is to prevent all types of error, not just slips or bad decision.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4192923','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4192923"><span id="translatedtitle">Does one national prospective payment <span class="hlt">system</span> market basket <span class="hlt">make</span> sense?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cromwell, Jerry</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>For the first 4 years of Medicare's prospective payment <span class="hlt">system</span> (PPS), one national market basket of cost weights and price proxies has been used to update payment rates. Previous evidence for a single rate is reviewed, and more recent data are presented that show definite regional differences in input price inflation, resulting in systematic gains or losses for some regions. However, as long as the Health Care Financing Administration continues to periodically update its hospital wage index, the net impact on hospitals is minor. Nevertheless, large differences in PPS-excluded hospital cost shares indicate the need for two sets of cost weights. PMID:10313084</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.C51A0674L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.C51A0674L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating the Biases in the Antarctic Sea <span class="hlt">Ice</span> - Ocean <span class="hlt">System</span> of Climate Models using Process-oriented Diagnostics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lecomte, O.; Goosse, H.; Fichefet, T.; Holland, P.; Uotila, P.; Zunz, V.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Most analyses of Antarctic sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> in simulations of the CMIP5 archive have so far been oriented towards the quantification of the disagreement between model results and sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> observations only. Since the decomposition of those biases into distinct physical components is necessary to understand their origins, we propose here an ocean-sea <span class="hlt">ice</span>-atmosphere integrated and process-oriented approach. Not only the biases in variables essential to the sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> seasonal evolution are estimated regionally with regard to observations, but their contributions to the sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> concentration budget are estimated. Following a previously developed method, the sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> concentration balance over the autumn-winter seasons is decomposed into four terms, including the sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> concentration change during the period of interest, advection, divergence and a residual accounting for the net contribution of thermodynamics and <span class="hlt">ice</span> deformation. Concurrently, correlations between trends in ocean temperature at depth and trends in <span class="hlt">ice</span> concentration are calculated directly from various model output fields (including CMIP5 models) to disentangle the role of <span class="hlt">ice</span>-ocean interactions. Results show that the geographical patterns of all mean sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> concentration budget terms over 1992-2005 are in qualitative agreement with the observed ones. Sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> thermodynamic growth is maintained by horizontal divergence near the continent and in the central <span class="hlt">ice</span> pack, whereas melting close to the <span class="hlt">ice</span> edge is led by sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> advection. However, significant errors in all budget terms are observed due to <span class="hlt">ice</span> velocities that tend to be overestimated all around Antarctica in several models, leading to a relatively weak divergence in the inner <span class="hlt">ice</span> pack and to an excessive advection in the marginal <span class="hlt">ice</span> zone. Biases in <span class="hlt">ice</span> drift speed and direction are ultimately related to biases in winds in all models. This method paves the way for a systematic assessment of forthcoming CMIP6 sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> model outputs in the Southern Hemisphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030054534&hterms=Topography&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DTopography','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030054534&hterms=Topography&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DTopography"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterizing the Siple Coast <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Stream <span class="hlt">System</span> using Satellite Images, Improved Topography, and Integrated Aerogeophysical Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Scambos, Ted</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>A technique for improving elevation maps of the polar <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheets has been developed using AVHRR images. The technique is based on 'photoclinometry' or 'shape from shading', a technique used in the past for mapping planetary surfaces where little elevation information was available. The fundamental idea behind photoclinometry is using the brightness of imaged areas to infer their surface slope in the sun-illuminated direction. Our version of the method relies on a calibration of the images based on an existing lower-resolution digital elevation model (DEM), and then using the images to improve the input DEM resolution to the scale of the image data. Most current DEMs covering the <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheets are based on Radar altimetry data, and have an inherent resolution of 10 to 25 km at best - although the grid scale of the DEM is often finer. These DEMs are highly accurate (to less than 1 meter); but they report the mean elevation of a broad area, thus erasing smaller features of glaciological interest. AVHRR image data, when accurately geolocated and calibrated, provides surface slope measurements (based on the pixel brightness under known lighting conditions) every approximately 1.1 km. The limitations of the technique are noisiness in the image data, small variations in the albedo of the snow surface, and the integration technique used to create an elevation field from the image-derived slopes. Our study applied the technique to several <span class="hlt">ice</span> sheet areas having some elevation data; Greenland, the Amery <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Shelf, the Institute <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Stream, and the Siple Coast. For the latter, the input data set was laser-altimetry data collected under NSF's SOAR Facility (Support Office for Aerogeophysical Research) over the onset area of the Siple Coast. Over the course of the grant, the technique was greatly improved and modified, significantly improving accuracy and reducing noise from the images. Several publications resulted from the work, and a follow-on proposal to NASA has been</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.427..125S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.427..125S"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in <span class="hlt">ice</span> dynamics, elevation and mass discharge of Dinsmoor-Bombardier-Edgeworth glacier <span class="hlt">system</span>, Antarctic Peninsula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seehaus, Thorsten; Marinsek, Sebastián; Helm, Veit; Skvarca, Pedro; Braun, Matthias</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The northern Antarctic Peninsula is one of the fastest changing regions on Earth. The disintegration of the Larsen-A <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Shelf in 1995 caused tributary glaciers to adjust by speeding up, surface lowering, and overall increased <span class="hlt">ice</span>-mass discharge. In this study, we investigate the temporal variation of these changes at the Dinsmoor-Bombardier-Edgeworth glacier <span class="hlt">system</span> by analyzing dense time series from various spaceborne and airborne Earth observation missions. Precollapse <span class="hlt">ice</span> shelf conditions and subsequent adjustments through 2014 were covered. Our results show a response of the glacier <span class="hlt">system</span> some months after the breakup, reaching maximum surface velocities at the glacier front of up to 8.8 m/d in 1999 and a subsequent decrease to ∼1.5 m/d in 2014. Using a dense time series of interferometrically derived TanDEM-X digital elevation models and photogrammetric data, an exponential function was fitted for the decrease in surface elevation. Elevation changes in areas below 1000 m a.s.l. amounted to at least 130 ± 15 m between 1995 and 2014, with change rates of ∼3.15 m/a between 2003 and 2008. Current change rates (2010-2014) are in the range of 1.7 m/a. Mass imbalances were computed with different scenarios of boundary conditions. The most plausible results amount to - 40.7 ± 3.9 Gt. The contribution to sea level rise was estimated to be 18.8 ± 1.8 Gt, corresponding to a 0.052 ± 0.005 mm sea level equivalent, for the period 1995-2014. Our analysis and scenario considerations revealed that major uncertainties still exist due to insufficiently accurate <span class="hlt">ice</span>-thickness information. The second largest uncertainty in the computations was the glacier surface mass balance, which is still poorly known. Our time series analysis facilitates an improved comparison with GRACE data and as input to modeling of glacio-isostatic uplift in this region. The study contributed to a better understanding of how glacier <span class="hlt">systems</span> adjust to <span class="hlt">ice</span> shelf disintegration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080048008','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080048008"><span id="translatedtitle">Coating Reduces <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Adhesion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smith, Trent; Prince, Michael; DwWeese, Charles; Curtis, Leslie</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The Shuttle <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Liberation Coating (SILC) has been developed to reduce the adhesion of <span class="hlt">ice</span> to surfaces on the space shuttle. SILC, when coated on a surface (foam, metal, epoxy primer, polymer surfaces), will reduce the adhesion of <span class="hlt">ice</span> by as much as 90 percent as compared to the corresponding uncoated surface. This innovation is a durable coating that can withstand several cycles of <span class="hlt">ice</span> growth and removal without loss of anti-adhesion properties. SILC is made of a binder composed of varying weight percents of siloxane(s), ethyl alcohol, ethyl sulfate, isopropyl alcohol, and of fine-particle polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The combination of these components produces a coating with significantly improved weathering characteristics over the siloxane <span class="hlt">system</span> alone. In some cases, the coating will delay <span class="hlt">ice</span> formation and can reduce the amount of <span class="hlt">ice</span> formed. SILC is not an <span class="hlt">ice</span> prevention coating, but the very high water contact angle (greater than 140 ) causes water to readily run off the surface. This coating was designed for use at temperatures near -170 F (-112 C). <span class="hlt">Ice</span> adhesion tests performed at temperatures from -170 to 20 F (-112 to -7 C) show that SILC is a very effective <span class="hlt">ice</span> release coating. SILC can be left as applied (opaque) or buffed off until the surface appears clear. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data show that the coating is still present after buffing to transparency. This means SILC can be used to prevent <span class="hlt">ice</span> adhesion even when coating windows or other objects, or items that require transmission of optical light. Car windshields are kept cleaner and SILC effectively mitigates rain and snow under driving conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950024504','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950024504"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Making</span> intelligent <span class="hlt">systems</span> team players. A guide to developing intelligent monitoring <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Land, Sherry A.; Malin, Jane T.; Thronesberry, Carroll; Schreckenghost, Debra L.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>This reference guide for developers of intelligent monitoring <span class="hlt">systems</span> is based on lessons learned by developers of the DEcision Support <span class="hlt">SYstem</span> (DESSY), an expert <span class="hlt">system</span> that monitors Space Shuttle telemetry data in real time. DESSY <span class="hlt">makes</span> inferences about commands, state transitions, and simple failures. It performs failure detection rather than in-depth failure diagnostics. A listing of rules from DESSY and cue cards from DESSY subsystems are included to give the development community a better understanding of the selected model <span class="hlt">system</span>. The G-2 programming tool used in developing DESSY provides an object-oriented, rule-based environment, but many of the principles in use here can be applied to any type of monitoring intelligent <span class="hlt">system</span>. The step-by-step instructions and examples given for each stage of development are in G-2, but can be used with other development tools. This guide first defines the authors' concept of real-time monitoring <span class="hlt">systems</span>, then tells prospective developers how to determine <span class="hlt">system</span> requirements, how to build the <span class="hlt">system</span> through a combined design/development process, and how to solve problems involved in working with real-time data. It explains the relationships among operational prototyping, software evolution, and the user interface. It also explains methods of testing, verification, and validation. It includes suggestions for preparing reference documentation and training users.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614536D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614536D"><span id="translatedtitle">The role of pinning-points, marine <span class="hlt">ice</span> and subglacial channeling in defining the buttressing strength of the Roi Baudouin <span class="hlt">Ice</span> Shelf, Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Drews, Reinhard; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Berger, Sophie; Callens, Denis; Favier, Lionel; Pattyn, Frank</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Within the coastal belt of Dronning Maud Land, many <span class="hlt">ice</span> shelves, which are freely floating otherwise, reattach to localized highs in the bathymetry on the <span class="hlt">ice</span>-shelf front. These localized pinning-points exert a buttressing force, which typically slows down the <span class="hlt">ice</span> shelves farther upstream. Our interest is to quantify this buttressing effect, and to determine as to whether or not, the comparatively small pinning-points can play a decisive role in defining the mass balance of tributary glaciers. We consider the Roi Baudouin <span class="hlt">ice</span> shelf, which is laterally confined by two large <span class="hlt">ice</span> rises, and pinned on the <span class="hlt">ice</span>-shelf front by a small <span class="hlt">ice</span> rumple. It buttresses the western Ragnhild glacier. On the <span class="hlt">ice</span>-shelf surface, satellite imagery reveals a number of elongated surface depressions, which are aligned along-flow and which correspond to a sub-<span class="hlt">ice</span> shelf channeling <span class="hlt">system</span>. We present the results of two consecutive field seasons which were geared at unraveling the combined effect of <span class="hlt">ice</span> rumple and subice-shelf channels on the <span class="hlt">ice</span> shelf's buttressing strength. Around 130 km of multi-frequency radar profiles map the channeling as well as the basal interface of the pinning-point. We observe strongly dipping internal layers within the surface depressions and a firmly grounded <span class="hlt">ice</span> rumple. Data from a 20 x 25 km wide GNSS strain net is extended spatially on a 50 m grid with the help of satellite derived surface velocities. Six wide-angle radar surveys within the research grid show that the depth-averaged density varies spatially on scales that are smaller than the grid size in commonly applied Antarctic-wide firn densification models. The density variations are significant, and need to be taken into account when comparing the hydrostatically inverted GPS thickness with the measured radar thickness. Notwithstanding the <span class="hlt">ice</span>-rumple's small extent (1-2 km), the combined strain rates show a shear zone which extends all the way back to the grounding line and emphasizes the importance of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880039581&hterms=Carl+Sagan&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DCarl%2BSagan','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880039581&hterms=Carl+Sagan&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DCarl%2BSagan"><span id="translatedtitle">Coloration and darkening of methane clathrate and other <span class="hlt">ices</span> by charged particle irradiation - Applications to the outer solar <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thompson, W. Reid; Murray, B. G. J. P. T.; Khare, B. N.; Sagan, Carl</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The results of laboratory experiments simulating the irradiation of hydrocarbon-H2O or hydrocarbon-H2O/NH3 clathrates by charged particles in the outer solar <span class="hlt">system</span> are reported. <span class="hlt">Ices</span> produced by condensing and boiling liquid CH4 on an H2O frost surface at 100 K or by cocondensing frosts from gaseous mixtures were exposed to coronal-discharge electron irradiation at 77 K, and the spectral properties of the irradiated surfaces were determined. Significant darkening of the initially white <span class="hlt">ices</span> was observed at doses of 1 Gerg/sq cm, corresponding to 8-500 yrs of irradiation by Uranian magnetospheric electrons on the surfaces of the principal Uranian satellites, or to total destruction of CH4 in the upper 1 mm of the satellite surfaces after 0.05-3.0 Myr. It is estimated that 10 m or more of icy satellite or comet surfaces would be radiation-hardened to a CH4-free <span class="hlt">ice</span>-tholin mixture over 4 Gyr.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11884754','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11884754"><span id="translatedtitle">Antarctic krill under sea <span class="hlt">ice</span>: elevated abundance in a narrow band just south of <span class="hlt">ice</span> edge.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brierley, Andrew S; Fernandes, Paul G; Brandon, Mark A; Armstrong, Frederick; Millard, Nicholas W; McPhail, Steven D; Stevenson, Peter; Pebody, Miles; Perrett, James; Squires, Mark; Bone, Douglas G; Griffiths, Gwyn</p> <p>2002-03-01</p> <p>We surveyed Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) under sea <span class="hlt">ice</span> using the autonomous underwater vehicle Autosub-2. Krill were concentrated within a band under <span class="hlt">ice</span> between 1 and 13 kilometers south of the <span class="hlt">ice</span> edge. Within this band, krill densities were fivefold greater than that of open water. The under-<span class="hlt">ice</span> environment has long been considered an important habitat for krill, but sampling difficulties have previously prevented direct observations under <span class="hlt">ice</span> over the scale necessary for robust krill density estimation. Autosub-2 enabled us to <span class="hlt">make</span> continuous high-resolution measurements of krill density under <span class="hlt">ice</span> reaching 27 kilometers beyond the <span class="hlt">ice</span> edge. PMID:11884754</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25486978','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25486978"><span id="translatedtitle">Match-<span class="hlt">making</span> for posaconazole through <span class="hlt">systems</span> thinking.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fügi, Matthias A; Kaiser, Marcel; Tanner, Marcel; Schneiter, Roger; Mäser, Pascal; Guan, Xue Li</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Currently available drugs for Chagas' disease are limited by toxicity and low efficacy in the chronic stage. Posaconazole, the most advanced new anti-chagasic drug candidate, did not fully confirm its initial potential in a Phase II clinical trial for chronic Chagas' disease. Given that posaconazole is highly active against Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro, and was very well tolerated in clinical trials, it should not be abandoned. Rather, a combination therapy may provide a highly promising outlook. <span class="hlt">Systems</span>-scale approaches facilitate the hunt for a combination partner for posaconazole, which acts by blocking sterol biosynthesis. Mounting evidence suggests the functional interactions between sterols and sphingolipids in vivo. Here, we propose combining sterol and sphingolipid biosynthesis inhibitors to advance drug development in Chagas' disease. PMID:25486978</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1014765','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1014765"><span id="translatedtitle">Coated armor <span class="hlt">system</span> and process for <span class="hlt">making</span> the same</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Chu, Henry S.; Lillo, Thomas M.; McHugh, Kevin M.</p> <p>2010-11-23</p> <p>An armor <span class="hlt">system</span> and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090030606','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090030606"><span id="translatedtitle">Airframe <span class="hlt">Icing</span> Research Gaps: NASA Perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Potapczuk, Mark</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>qCurrent Airframe <span class="hlt">Icing</span> Technology Gaps: Development of a full 3D <span class="hlt">ice</span> accretion simulation model. Development of an improved simulation model for SLD conditions. CFD modeling of stall behavior for <span class="hlt">ice</span>-contaminated wings/tails. Computational methods for simulation of stability and control parameters. Analysis of thermal <span class="hlt">ice</span> protection <span class="hlt">system</span> performance. Quantification of 3D <span class="hlt">ice</span> shape geometric characteristics Development of accurate ground-based simulation of SLD conditions. Development of scaling methods for SLD conditions. Development of advanced diagnostic techniques for assessment of tunnel cloud conditions. Identification of critical <span class="hlt">ice</span> shapes for aerodynamic performance degradation. Aerodynamic scaling issues associated with testing scale model <span class="hlt">ice</span> shape geometries. Development of altitude scaling methods for thermal <span class="hlt">ice</span> protections <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Development of accurate parameter identification methods. Measurement of stability and control parameters for an <span class="hlt">ice</span>-contaminated swept wing aircraft. Creation of control law modifications to prevent loss of control during <span class="hlt">icing</span> encounters. 3D <span class="hlt">ice</span> shape geometries. Collection efficiency data for <span class="hlt">ice</span> shape geometries. SLD <span class="hlt">ice</span> shape data, in-flight and ground-based, for simulation verification. Aerodynamic performance data for 3D geometries and various <span class="hlt">icing</span> conditions. Stability and control parameter data for <span class="hlt">iced</span> aircraft configurations. Thermal <span class="hlt">ice</span> protection <span class="hlt">system</span> data for simulation validation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890004057','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890004057"><span id="translatedtitle">Analytical <span class="hlt">ice</span> shape predictions for flight in natural <span class="hlt">icing</span> conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Berkowitz, Brian M.; Riley, James T.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>LEWICE is an analytical <span class="hlt">ice</span> prediction code that has been evaluated against <span class="hlt">icing</span> tunnel data, but on a more limited basis against flight data. <span class="hlt">Ice</span> shapes predicted by LEWICE is compared with experimental <span class="hlt">ice</span> shapes accreted on the NASA Lewis <span class="hlt">Icing</span> Research Aircraft. The flight data selected for comparison includes liquid water content recorded using a hot wire device and droplet distribution data from a laser spectrometer; the <span class="hlt">ice</span> shape is recorded using stereo photography. The main findings are as follows: (1) An equivalent sand grain roughness correlation different from that used for LEWICE tunnel comparisons must be employed to obtain satisfactory results for flight; (2) Using this correlation and <span class="hlt">making</span> no other changes in the code, the comparisons to <span class="hlt">ice</span> shapes accreted in flight are in general as good as the comparisons to <span class="hlt">ice</span> shapes accreted in the tunnel (as in the case of tunnel <span class="hlt">ice</span> shapes, agreement is least reliable for large glaze <span class="hlt">ice</span> shapes at high angles of attack); (3) In some cases comparisons can be somewhat improved by utilizing the code so as to take account of the variation of parameters such as liquid water content, which may vary significantly in flight.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014P%26SS..104...93T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014P%26SS..104...93T"><span id="translatedtitle">The comparative exploration of the <span class="hlt">ice</span> giant planets with twin spacecraft: Unveiling the history of our Solar <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Turrini, Diego; Politi, Romolo; Peron, Roberto; Grassi, Davide; Plainaki, Christina; Barbieri, Mauro; Lucchesi, David M.; Magni, Gianfranco; Altieri, Francesca;