Science.gov

Sample records for ice making system

  1. Making an Ice Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopaska-Merkel, David C.

    1995-01-01

    Explains an activity in which students construct a simulated ice core. Materials required include only a freezer, food coloring, a bottle, and water. This hands-on exercise demonstrates how a glacier is formed, how ice cores are studied, and the nature of precision and accuracy in measurement. Suitable for grades three through eight. (Author/PVD)

  2. Let's Make Metric Ice Cream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Marianna

    1975-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity which involved sixth grade students in a learning situation including making ice cream, safety procedures in a science laboratory, calibrating a thermometer, using metric units of volume and mass. (EB)

  3. 21 CFR 1250.86 - Water for making ice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water for making ice. 1250.86 Section 1250.86 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.86 Water for making ice. Only potable...

  4. 21 CFR 1250.86 - Water for making ice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water for making ice. 1250.86 Section 1250.86 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.86 Water for making ice. Only potable...

  5. 21 CFR 1250.86 - Water for making ice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water for making ice. 1250.86 Section 1250.86 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.86 Water for making ice. Only potable...

  6. 21 CFR 1250.86 - Water for making ice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Water for making ice. 1250.86 Section 1250.86 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.86 Water for making ice. Only potable...

  7. 21 CFR 1250.86 - Water for making ice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water for making ice. 1250.86 Section 1250.86 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.86 Water for making ice. Only potable...

  8. CO2 (dry ice) cleaning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Donald M.

    1995-03-01

    Tomco Equipment Company has participated in the dry ice (solid carbon dioxide, CO2) cleaning industry for over ten years as a pioneer in the manufacturer of high density, dry ice cleaning pellet production equipment. For over four years Tomco high density pelletizers have been available to the dry ice cleaning industry. Approximately one year ago Tomco introduced the DI-250, a new dry ice blast unit making Tomco a single source supplier for sublimable media, particle blast, cleaning systems. This new blast unit is an all pneumatic, single discharge hose device. It meters the insertion of 1/8 inch diameter (or smaller), high density, dry ice pellets into a high pressure, propellant gas stream. The dry ice and propellant streams are controlled and mixed from the blast cabinet. From there the mixture is transported to the nozzle where the pellets are accelerated to an appropriate blasting velocity. When directed to impact upon a target area, these dry ice pellets have sufficient energy to effectively remove most surface coatings through dry, abrasive contact. The meta-stable, dry ice pellets used for CO2 cleaning, while labeled 'high density,' are less dense than alternate, abrasive, particle blast media. In addition, after contacting the target surface, they return to their equilibrium condition: a superheated gas state. Most currently used grit blasting media are silicon dioxide based, which possess a sharp tetrahedral molecular structure. Silicon dioxide crystal structures will always produce smaller sharp-edged replicas of the original crystal upon fracture. Larger, softer dry ice pellets do not share the same sharp-edged crystalline structures as their non-sublimable counterparts when broken. In fact, upon contact with the target surface, dry ice pellets will plastically deform and break apart. As such, dry ice cleaning is less harmful to sensitive substrates, workers and the environment than chemical or abrasive cleaning systems. Dry ice cleaning system

  9. CO2 (dry ice) cleaning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Donald M.

    1995-01-01

    Tomco Equipment Company has participated in the dry ice (solid carbon dioxide, CO2) cleaning industry for over ten years as a pioneer in the manufacturer of high density, dry ice cleaning pellet production equipment. For over four years Tomco high density pelletizers have been available to the dry ice cleaning industry. Approximately one year ago Tomco introduced the DI-250, a new dry ice blast unit making Tomco a single source supplier for sublimable media, particle blast, cleaning systems. This new blast unit is an all pneumatic, single discharge hose device. It meters the insertion of 1/8 inch diameter (or smaller), high density, dry ice pellets into a high pressure, propellant gas stream. The dry ice and propellant streams are controlled and mixed from the blast cabinet. From there the mixture is transported to the nozzle where the pellets are accelerated to an appropriate blasting velocity. When directed to impact upon a target area, these dry ice pellets have sufficient energy to effectively remove most surface coatings through dry, abrasive contact. The meta-stable, dry ice pellets used for CO2 cleaning, while labeled 'high density,' are less dense than alternate, abrasive, particle blast media. In addition, after contacting the target surface, they return to their equilibrium condition: a superheated gas state. Most currently used grit blasting media are silicon dioxide based, which possess a sharp tetrahedral molecular structure. Silicon dioxide crystal structures will always produce smaller sharp-edged replicas of the original crystal upon fracture. Larger, softer dry ice pellets do not share the same sharp-edged crystalline structures as their non-sublimable counterparts when broken. In fact, upon contact with the target surface, dry ice pellets will plastically deform and break apart. As such, dry ice cleaning is less harmful to sensitive substrates, workers and the environment than chemical or abrasive cleaning systems. Dry ice cleaning system

  10. A Terminal Area Icing Remote Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Serke, David J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) have developed an icing remote sensing technology that has demonstrated skill at detecting and classifying icing hazards in a vertical column above an instrumented ground station. This technology is now being extended to provide volumetric coverage surrounding an airport. With volumetric airport terminal area coverage, the resulting icing hazard information will be usable by aircrews, traffic control, and airline dispatch to make strategic and tactical decisions regarding routing when conditions are conducive to airframe icing. Building on the existing vertical pointing system, the new method for providing volumetric coverage will utilize cloud radar, microwave radiometry, and NEXRAD radar. This terminal area icing remote sensing system will use the data streams from these instruments to provide icing hazard classification along the defined approach paths into an airport. Strategies for comparison to in-situ instruments on aircraft and weather balloons for a planned NASA field test are discussed, as are possible future applications into the NextGen airspace system.

  11. Ice thickness measurement system for the icing research tunnel calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Theresa L.; Dearmon, John M.

    1993-01-01

    To measure icing patterns across a test section of the Icing Research Tunnel, an automated rotating bar measurement system was developed at NASA LeRC. In comparison with the previously used manual measurement system, this system provides a number of improvements: increased accuracy and repeatability, increased number of data points, reduced tunnel operating time, and improved documentation. The automated system uses a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) to measure ice accretion. This instrument is driven along the bar by means of an intelligent stepper motor which also controls data recording. This paper describes the rotating bar calibration measurement system.

  12. Ice storage systems spark air conditioning savings

    SciTech Connect

    Kohlenberger, C.R.

    1981-03-01

    Thermal storage systems similar to giant storage batteries are explained by means of storing energy (either hot or cold) during these off-peak times for use at the more convenient time when the actual load is impressed on to the system. This load shifting, of course, does not actually save energy. It merely shifts the load to a time when the electric utility can more conveniently handle that load. In fact, more actual KW hours may be utilized by this shift, but with the resulting cost to the consumer being reduced. System concepts are described and energy cost comparisons are made. Various methods of ice making systems are presented and analyzed.

  13. ISSM: Ice Sheet System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larour, Eric; Schiermeier, John E.; Seroussi, Helene; Morlinghem, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    In order to have the capability to use satellite data from its own missions to inform future sea-level rise projections, JPL needed a full-fledged ice-sheet/iceshelf flow model, capable of modeling the mass balance of Antarctica and Greenland into the near future. ISSM was developed with such a goal in mind, as a massively parallelized, multi-purpose finite-element framework dedicated to ice-sheet modeling. ISSM features unstructured meshes (Tria in 2D, and Penta in 3D) along with corresponding finite elements for both types of meshes. Each finite element can carry out diagnostic, prognostic, transient, thermal 3D, surface, and bed slope simulations. Anisotropic meshing enables adaptation of meshes to a certain metric, and the 2D Shelfy-Stream, 3D Blatter/Pattyn, and 3D Full-Stokes formulations capture the bulk of the ice-flow physics. These elements can be coupled together, based on the Arlequin method, so that on a large scale model such as Antarctica, each type of finite element is used in the most efficient manner. For each finite element referenced above, ISSM implements an adjoint. This adjoint can be used to carry out model inversions of unknown model parameters, typically ice rheology and basal drag at the ice/bedrock interface, using a metric such as the observed InSAR surface velocity. This data assimilation capability is crucial to allow spinning up of ice flow models using available satellite data. ISSM relies on the PETSc library for its vectors, matrices, and solvers. This allows ISSM to run efficiently on any parallel platform, whether shared or distrib- ISSM: Ice Sheet System Model NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California uted. It can run on the largest clusters, and is fully scalable. This allows ISSM to tackle models the size of continents. ISSM is embedded into MATLAB and Python, both open scientific platforms. This improves its outreach within the science community. It is entirely written in C/C++, which gives it flexibility in its

  14. Airborne Tomographic Swath Ice Sounding Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Xiaoqing; Rodriquez, Ernesto; Freeman, Anthony; Jezek, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Glaciers and ice sheets modulate global sea level by storing water deposited as snow on the surface, and discharging water back into the ocean through melting. Their physical state can be characterized in terms of their mass balance and dynamics. To estimate the current ice mass balance, and to predict future changes in the motion of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, it is necessary to know the ice sheet thickness and the physical conditions of the ice sheet surface and bed. This information is required at fine resolution and over extensive portions of the ice sheets. A tomographic algorithm has been developed to take raw data collected by a multiple-channel synthetic aperture sounding radar system over a polar ice sheet and convert those data into two-dimensional (2D) ice thickness measurements. Prior to this work, conventional processing techniques only provided one-dimensional ice thickness measurements along profiles.

  15. Continuous Ice Formation in a Tube by Using Water-Oil Emulsion for Dynamic-type Ice-Making Cold Thermal Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Yoshinari; Nakagawa, Shinji; Okada, Masashi; Matsumoto, Koji; Kawagoe, Tetsuo

    Dynamic-type of ice-making cold thermal energy storage systems using water-silicone oil emulsion with an additive, (C2H50)3SiC3H6NH2, has been proposed. Two kinds of heat exchanger were examined and the performances were compared with each other. One type of heat exchanger was a spiral tube and it was immersed in a low temperature thermostatic bath. The other was coil-shaped double tube heat exchanger using two tubes. The emulsion was circulated to make ice continuously. These systems were operated under various cooling conditions (flow rates of the emulsion and brine temperatures). The effects of the tube materials (fluororesin and non-fluororesin) and thickness were also examined. Slurry ice was formed continuously without adhesion of ice to the cooling wall under certain conditions. Using the fluororesin tube prevented ice from the adhesion and it enlarged the range of the cooling conditions under which slurry ice was formed continuously. Furthermore, by making thickness of the tube thinner and increasing the heat transfer coefficient on the outside of the tube, ice was made continuously without lowering the rate of ice formation at a higher brine temperature.

  16. Microwave System for Detecting Ice on Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, Philip J.; Glynn, Dennis P., Jr.; Joseph, John C.

    2004-01-01

    A microwave-based system has been developed as a means of detecting ice on aircraft surfaces, with enough sensitivity to provide a warning before the ice accretes to a dangerous thickness. The system can measure the thickness of ice from a few mils (1 mil = 0.0254 mm) to about 1/4 in. (.6 mm) and can distinguish among (1) ice, (2) water (or deicing fluid), and (3) a mixture of ice and water (or deicing fluid). Sensors have been ruggedized to withstand the rain erosion environment.

  17. Sea Ice Mapping using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solbø, S.; Storvold, R.

    2011-12-01

    Mapping of sea ice extent and sea ice features is an important task in climate research. Since the arctic coastal and oceanic areas have a high probability of cloud coverage, aerial platforms are superior to satellite measurements for high-resolution optical measurements. However, routine observations of sea ice conditions present a variety of problems using conventional piloted aircrafts. Specially, the availability of suitable aircrafts for lease does not cover the demand in major parts of the arctic. With the recent advances in unmanned aerial systems (UAS), there is a high possibility of establishing routine, cost effective aerial observations of sea ice conditions in the near future. Unmanned aerial systems can carry a wide variety of sensors useful for characterizing sea-ice features. For instance, the CryoWing UAS, a system initially designed for measurements of the cryosphere, can be equipped with digital cameras, surface thermometers and laser altimeters for measuring freeboard of ice flows. In this work we will present results from recent CryoWing sea ice flights on Svalbard, Norway. The emphasis will be on data processing for stitching together images acquired with the non-stabilized camera payload, to form high-resolution mosaics covering large spatial areas. These data are being employed to map ice conditions; including ice and lead features and melt ponds. These high-resolution mosaics are also well suited for sea-ice mechanics, classification studies and for validation of satellite sea-ice products.

  18. Development and Performance Evaluation of an Ozone-Contained Ice Making Machine Employing Pressurized Air Tight Containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Kenji; Akiyama, Tomoaki; Hirofuji, Yushi; Koyama, Shigeru

    Ozone has the capability of sterilization and deodorization due to high oxidation power. It is also effective for the conservation of perishable foods and purification of water. However, ozone has a disadvantage, that is, conservation of ozone is difficult because it reacts to oxygen. Recently, ozone-contained ice is taken attention for the purpose of its conservation. The use of ozone-contained ice seems to keep food fresher when we conserve and transport perishable foods due to the effects of cooling and sterilization of ozone-contained ice. In the present study, we have developed an ozone-contained ice making machine employing pressurized air tight containers with commercially available size. And the performance evaluation of the system is also carried out. Furthermore, we investigated the sterilization effect of ozone-contained ice on conservation of fish. It was seen that ozone-contained ice is effective for sterilization of surface of fish.

  19. Ice Storage System for School Complex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Ross D.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a project at the Manatee Education Center in Naples, Florida, which won an ASHRAE award. Project involved the implementation of ice-storage technology in 19 schools. Compares the performance of ice-storage systems with traditional chiller designs in two other schools. Tables illustrate costs for the campuses. Addresses the maintenance…

  20. Marginal Ice Zone Processes Observed from Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappa, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent years have seen extreme changes in the Arctic. Marginal ice zones (MIZ), or areas where the "ice-albedo feedback" driven by solar warming is highest and ice melt is extensive, may provide insights into the extent of these changes. Furthermore, MIZ play a central role in setting the air-sea CO2 balance making them a critical component of the global carbon cycle. Incomplete understanding of how the sea-ice modulates gas fluxes renders it difficult to estimate the carbon budget in MIZ. Here, we investigate the turbulent mechanisms driving mixing and gas exchange in leads, polynyas and in the presence of ice floes using both field and laboratory measurements. Measurements from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in the marginal ice zone were made during 2 experiments: 1) North of Oliktok Point AK in the Beaufort Sea were made during the Marginal Ice Zone Ocean and Ice Observations and Processes EXperiment (MIZOPEX) in July-August 2013 and 2) Fram Strait and Greenland Sea northwest of Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway during the Air-Sea-Ice Physics and Biogeochemistry Experiment (ASIPBEX) April - May 2015. We developed a number of new payloads that include: i) hyperspectral imaging spectrometers to measure VNIR (400-1000 nm) and NIR (900-1700 nm) spectral radiance; ii) net longwave and net shortwave radiation for ice-ocean albedo studies; iii) air-sea-ice turbulent fluxes as well as wave height, ice freeboard, and surface roughness with a LIDAR; and iv) drone-deployed micro-drifters (DDµD) deployed from the UAS that telemeter temperature, pressure, and RH as it descends through the atmosphere and temperature and salinity of the upper meter of the ocean once it lands on the ocean's surface. Visible and IR imagery of melting ice floes clearly defines the scale of the ice floes. The IR imagery show distinct cooling of the skin sea surface temperature (SST) as well as an intricate circulation and mixing pattern that depends on the surface current, wind speed, and near

  1. A Systems-Level Perspective on Engine Ice Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan David; Guo, Ten-Huei; Simon, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    Talk covers: (1) Problem of Engine Power Loss;(2) Modeling Engine Icing Effects; (3) Simulation of Engine Rollback; (4) Icing/Engine Control System Interaction; (5) Detection of Ice Accretion; (6) Potential Mitigation Strategies.

  2. Laboratory performance of a dynamic ice storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, T.K.; Tomlinson, J.J.

    1991-06-01

    The performance of a commercial 30-ton dynamic ice storage system was measured in a dedicated laboratory test facility and the results analyzed. The ice storage system was tested over a wide range of operating conditions to characterize the ice generating performance as a function of condensing conditions, ice build time, and defrost time. The overall efficiency of ice production was determined and the effect of refrigeration system component performance on the overall system efficiency was evaluated. The ability of the charged system -- a tank of ice slush -- to meet a simulated cooling load over was also evaluated. 18 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Ice matrix in reconfigurable microfluidic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossi, A. M.; Vareijka, M.; Piletska, E. V.; Turner, A. P. F.; Meglinski, I.; Piletsky, S. A.

    2013-07-01

    Microfluidic devices find many applications in biotechnologies. Here, we introduce a flexible and biocompatible microfluidic ice-based platform with tunable parameters and configuration of microfluidic patterns that can be changed multiple times during experiments. Freezing and melting of cavities, channels and complex relief structures created and maintained in the bulk of ice by continuous scanning of an infrared laser beam are used as a valve action in microfluidic systems. We demonstrate that pre-concentration of samples and transport of ions and dyes through the open channels created can be achieved in ice microfluidic patterns by IR laser-assisted zone melting. The proposed approach can be useful for performing separation and sensing processes in flexible reconfigurable microfluidic devices.

  4. Surface ices in the outer solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, Ted L.; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1994-01-01

    Planetary volatile inventories are products of several factors: (1) condensation-accretion of pre-planetary material which determines the bulk volatile inventory; (2) energy history of a planet, including timing, causes, and mechanisms of degassing; (3) the volatile sinks, including temporary, long term, and permanent; and (4) external processes operating on the volatile inventory. Information regarding the current surface compositions provide insight into both internal and surface-atmosphere evolutionary history. Our discussion focuses upon the surface composition of outer solar system planets and satellites as determined by spacecraft and telescopic spectral observations. We provide a review and an update of the recent work by Cruikshank and Brown that includes more recent observations and interpretations. In the context of formation and evolution of solar system bodies, the interesting ices typically considered are simple molecules formed from elements having high cosmic abundances. These mainly include ices of H2O, NH3, SO2, H2S, CH4, CO, CO2, and N2. In the solid state, these ices have vibrational spectral features, analogous to their gaseous counterparts but rotational transitions are quenched, that lie in the near- and mid-infrared. The overtone and combination modes, occurring in the visible and near-IR region, are of particular importance as standard observational techniques used to identify these ices rely upon reflected solar energy. Table I summarizes the ices found on various bodies in the outer solar system. H2O is most abundant surface material in the inner and middle regions while more volatile species appear to dominate surfaces in the outermost edge of the outer solar system.

  5. Wind-electric ice making for villages in the developing world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, H.; Drouilhet, S.; Flowers, L.; Bergey, M.; Brandemuehl, M.

    1994-07-01

    For many villages in the developing world, renewable energy sources are the most economical means of providing power. There is a significant need for ice to preserve fish and produce for shipment to market. Since fishing villages are near coastlines with fairly reliable wind resources, wind-powered ice machines would capitalize on a good match between ice demand and energy supply. To date little work has been done on the use of wind turbines for ice making applications. This paper presents the results of wind-electric ice making research project conducted by the University of Colorado, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Bergey Windpower Co. Several potential problems related to intermittent and variable frequency operation were determined prior to testing. Initial tests were conducted using a dynamometer to evaluate the significance of these potential problems under simulated conditions and to define basic performance expectations for ice makers in the 1.2 tons/day size range. Field testing will be completed soon to determine long-term performance of one ice maker.

  6. 14 CFR 25.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 25.1093... Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction system must have means to prevent and eliminate icing. Unless this is done by other means, it must be...

  7. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system icing. Each engine, with all icing protection systems operating, must— (a) Operate throughout its flight power... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system icing. 33.68 Section...

  8. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181... Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane....

  9. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181... Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane....

  10. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181... Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane....

  11. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181... Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane....

  12. Hybrid system for producing and storing ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, C. E.; Larash, R. C.; Gorski, A. J.

    Refrigeration, cooling and/or chilling methods usually require rather large amounts of energy for operation. This system uses naturally frozen ice in long term storage to provide an economical source of ice for various cooling or chilling purposes. Initial research and computer simulations indicate that in areas where the winter is suffuciently cold and of sufficient duration, this system would be an economical, viable option for uses such as simple refrigeration, summer air conditioning, or simply for effective dehumidification. In a 36 day melting period in June and July 1984, the system ran nearly continuously for 768 hours, recovering a total of 743 tons of cooling with an estimated 5 to 8% of the stored cooling capacity remaining. The seasonal melting loss was approximately 50% of the stored capacity.

  13. Active laser system for sea ice control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evtikhiev, Nickolay N.; Gaponov, Alexandr E.; Kuluba, Yury N.; Matous, Vladislav I.; Radominov, Oleg E.; Tuzikov, Vladimir Z.; Vargaftic, Vasiliy N.

    1997-01-01

    The airborne systems are used for complex investigations of coastline very successfully, for example it can be used to measure the depth of the sea, to discover the reefs and so on. Such information may be used in navigation too. The specific conditions of navigation in the North and Pole seas defines the necessity of exact knowledge about the ice cracks in order to find the possible direction of the ship movement. The active optical system, working in the near IR region, has many advantages before the passive one, especially if it is necessary to work during the polar night and at bad weather conditions. In this article we discuss the demands to the laser active airborne systems, that given the accurate picture of the ice with high resolution in the daytime and nighttime conditions. Such system based on the laser, mechanical scanner and avalanche photodiode is very compact, reliable and informative. The picture of the ice surface can be shown on the TV monitor, can be written to the memory and can be delivered to the processing center by the radiochannel. The experimental results are shown together with results of this system probing in the conditions of the North Pole Ocean.

  14. Advanced ice protection systems test in the NASA Lewis icing research tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Thomas H.; Shin, Jaiwon; Mesander, Geert A.

    1991-01-01

    Tests of eight different deicing systems based on variations of three different technologies were conducted in the NASA Lewis Research Center Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) in June and July 1990. The systems used pneumatic, eddy current repulsive, and electro-expulsive means to shed ice. The tests were conducted on a 1.83 m span, 0.53 m chord NACA 0012 airfoil operated at a 4 degree angle of attack. The models were tested at two temperatures: a glaze condition at minus 3.9 C and a rime condition at minus 17.2 C. The systems were tested through a range of icing spray times and cycling rates. Characterization of the deicers was accomplished by monitoring power consumption, ice shed particle size, and residual ice. High speed video motion analysis was performed to quantify ice particle size.

  15. Advanced ice protection systems test in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Thomas H.; Shin, Jaiwan; Mesander, Geert A.

    1991-01-01

    Tests of eight different deicing systems based on variations of three different technologies were conducted in the NASA Lewis Research Center Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) in June and July 1990. The systems used pneumatic, eddy current repulsive, and electroexpulsive means to shed ice. The tests were conducted on a 1.83 m span, 0.53 m chord NACA 0012 airfoil operated at a 4 degree angle of attack. The models were tested at two temperatures: a glaze condition at minus 3.9 C and a rime condition at minus 17.2 C. The systems were tested through a range of icing spray times and cycling rates. Characterization of the deicers was accomplished by monitoring power consumption, ice shed particle size, and residual ice. High speed video motion analysis was performed to quantify ice particle size.

  16. Ice Sheet System Model as Educational Entertainment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, G.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the importance of polar ice sheets and their role in the evolution of Sea Level Rise (SLR), as well as Climate Change, is of paramount importance for policy makers as well as the public and schools at large. For example, polar ice sheets and glaciers currently account for 1/3 of the SLR signal, a ratio that will increase in the near to long-term future, which has tremendous societal ramifications. Consequently, it is important to increase awareness about our changing planet. In our increasingly digital society, mobile and web applications are burgeoning venues for such outreach. The Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) is a software that was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/CalTech/NASA, in collaboration with University of California Irvine (UCI), with the goal of better understanding the evolution of polar ice sheets. It is a state-of-the-art framework, which relies on higher-end cluster-computing to address some of the aforementioned challenges. In addition, it is a flexible framework that can be deployed on any hardware; in particular, on mobile platforms such as Android or iOS smart phones. Here, we look at how the ISSM development team managed to port their model to these platforms, what the implications are for improving how scientists disseminate their results, and how a broader audience may familiarize themselves with running complex climate models in simplified scenarios which are highly educational and entertaining in content. We also look at the future plans toward a web portal fully integrated with mobile technologies to deliver the best content to the public, and to provide educational plans/lessons that can be used in grades K-12 as well as collegiate under-graduate and graduate programs.

  17. FLYSAFE, nowcasting of in flight icing supporting aircrew decision making process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouin, A.; Le Bot, C.

    2009-09-01

    FLYSAFE is an Integrated Project of the 6th framework of the European Commission with the aim to improve flight safety through the development of a Next Generation Integrated Surveillance System (NGISS). The NGISS provides information to the flight crew on the three major external hazards for aviation: weather, air traffic and terrain. The NGISS has the capability of displaying data about all three hazards on a single display screen, facilitating rapid pilot appreciation of the situation by the flight crew. Weather Information Management Systems (WIMS) were developed to provide the NGISS and the flight crew with weather related information on in-flight icing, thunderstorms, wake-vortex and clear-air turbulence. These products are generated on the ground from observations and model forecasts. WIMS supply relevant information on three different scales: global, regional and local (over airport Terminal Manoeuvring Area). Within the flysafe program, around 120 hours of flight trials were performed during February 2008 and August 2008. Two aircraft were involved each with separate objectives : - to assess FLYSAFE's innovative solutions for the data-link, on-board data fusion, data-display, and data-updates during flight; - to evaluate the new weather information management systems (in flight icing and thunderstorms) using in-situ measurements recorded on board the test aircraft. In this presentation we will focus on the in-flight icing nowcasting system developed at Météo France in the framework of FLYSAFE: the local ICE WIMS. The local ICE WIMS is based on data fusion. The most relevant information for icing detection is extracted from the numerical weather prediction model, the infra-red and visible satellite imagery and the ground weather radar reflectivities. After a presentation of the local ICE WIMS, we detail the evaluation of the local ICE WIMS performed using the winter and summer flight trial data.

  18. Validation Ice Crystal Icing Engine Test in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) is an existing altitude simulation jet engine test facility located at NASA Glenn Research Center in Clevleand, OH. It was modified in 2012 with the integration of an ice crystal cloud generation system. This paper documents the inaugural ice crystal cloud test in PSLthe first ever full scale, high altitude ice crystal cloud turbofan engine test to be conducted in a ground based facility. The test article was a Lycoming ALF502-R5 high bypass turbofan engine, serial number LF01. The objectives of the test were to validate the PSL ice crystal cloud calibration and engine testing methodologies by demonstrating the capability to calibrate and duplicate known flight test events that occurred on the same LF01 engine and to generate engine data to support fundamental and computational research to investigate and better understand the physics of ice crystal icing in a turbofan engine environment while duplicating known revenue service events and conducting test points while varying facility and engine parameters. During PSL calibration testing it was discovered than heated probes installed through tunnel sidewalls experienced ice buildup aft of their location due to ice crystals impinging upon them, melting and running back. Filtered city water was used in the cloud generation nozzle system to provide ice crystal nucleation sites. This resulted in mineralization forming on flow path hardware that led to a chronic degradation of performance during the month long test. Lacking internal flow path cameras, the response of thermocouples along the flow path was interpreted as ice building up. Using this interpretation, a strong correlation between total water content (TWC) and a weaker correlation between median volumetric diameter (MVD) of the ice crystal cloud and the rate of ice buildup along the instrumented flow path was identified. For this test article the engine anti-ice system was required to be turned on before ice crystal icing

  19. Validation Ice Crystal Icing Engine Test in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) is an existing altitude simulation jet engine test facility located at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, OH. It was modified in 2012 with the integration of an ice crystal cloud generation system. This paper documents the inaugural ice crystal cloud test in PSL--the first ever full scale, high altitude ice crystal cloud turbofan engine test to be conducted in a ground based facility. The test article was a Lycoming ALF502-R5 high bypass turbofan engine, serial number LF01. The objectives of the test were to validate the PSL ice crystal cloud calibration and engine testing methodologies by demonstrating the capability to calibrate and duplicate known flight test events that occurred on the same LF01 engine and to generate engine data to support fundamental and computational research to investigate and better understand the physics of ice crystal icing in a turbofan engine environment while duplicating known revenue service events and conducting test points while varying facility and engine parameters. During PSL calibration testing it was discovered than heated probes installed through tunnel sidewalls experienced ice buildup aft of their location due to ice crystals impinging upon them, melting and running back. Filtered city water was used in the cloud generation nozzle system to provide ice crystal nucleation sites. This resulted in mineralization forming on flow path hardware that led to a chronic degradation of performance during the month long test. Lacking internal flow path cameras, the response of thermocouples along the flow path was interpreted as ice building up. Using this interpretation, a strong correlation between total water content (TWC) and a weaker correlation between median volumetric diameter (MVD) of the ice crystal cloud and the rate of ice buildup along the instrumented flow path was identified. For this test article the engine anti-ice system was required to be turned on before ice crystal

  20. Development of the improved helicopter icing spray system (IHISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Andrew A.; Jenks, Mark D.; Gaitskill, William H.

    1989-01-01

    Boeing Helicopters has been awarded a contract by the U.S. Army to design, fabricate and test a replacement for the existing Helicopter Icing Spray System (HISS). The Improved Hiss (IHISS), capable of deployment from any CH-47D helicopter, will include new icing spray nozzles and pneumatic pressure source, and a significantly larger water tank and spray boom. Results are presented for extensive bench and icing tunnel test programs used to select and modify an improved spray nozzle and validate spray boom aerodynamic characteristics. The resulting system will provide a significantly larger icing cloud with droplet characteristics closely matching natural icing conditions.

  1. Ice Crystal Icing Engine Testing in the NASA Glenn Research Center's Propulsion Systems Laboratory: Altitude Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a full scale ice crystal icing turbofan engine test using an obsolete Allied Signal ALF502-R5 engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) at NASA Glenn Research Center. The test article used was the exact engine that experienced a loss of power event after the ingestion of ice crystals while operating at high altitude during a 1997 Honeywell flight test campaign investigating the turbofan engine ice crystal icing phenomena. The test plan included test points conducted at the known flight test campaign field event pressure altitude and at various pressure altitudes ranging from low to high throughout the engine operating envelope. The test article experienced a loss of power event at each of the altitudes tested. For each pressure altitude test point conducted the ambient static temperature was predicted using a NASA engine icing risk computer model for the given ambient static pressure while maintaining the engine speed.

  2. ICE stereocamera system - photogrammetric setup for retrieval and analysis of small scale sea ice topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divine, Dmitry; Pedersen, Christina; Karlsen, Tor Ivan; Aas, Harald; Granskog, Mats; Renner, Angelika; Spreen, Gunnar; Gerland, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    A new thin-ice Arctic paradigm requires reconsideration of the set of parameterizations of mass and energy exchange within the ocean-sea-ice-atmosphere system used in modern CGCMs. Such a reassessment would require a comprehensive collection of measurements made specifically on first-year pack ice with a focus on summer melt season when the difference from typical conditions for the earlier multi-year Arctic sea ice cover becomes most pronounced. Previous in situ studies have demonstrated a crucial importance of smaller (i.e. less than 10 m) scale surface topography features for the seasonal evolution of pack ice. During 2011-2012 NPI developed a helicopter borne ICE stereocamera system intended for mapping the sea ice surface topography and aerial photography. The hardware component of the system comprises two Canon 5D Mark II cameras, combined GPS/INS unit by "Novatel" and a laser altimeter mounted in a single enclosure outside the helicopter. The unit is controlled by a PXI chassis mounted inside the helicopter cabin. The ICE stereocamera system was deployed for the first time during the 2012 summer field season. The hardware setup has proven to be highly reliable and was used in about 30 helicopter flights over Arctic sea-ice during July-September. Being highly automated it required a minimal human supervision during in-flight operation. The deployment of the camera system was mostly done in combination with the EM-bird, which measures sea-ice thickness, and this combination provides an integrated view of sea ice cover along the flight track. During the flight the cameras shot sequentially with a time interval of 1 second each to ensure sufficient overlap between subsequent images. Some 35000 images of sea ice/water surface captured per camera sums into 6 Tb of data collected during its first field season. The reconstruction of the digital elevation model of sea ice surface will be done using SOCET SET commercial software. Refraction at water/air interface can

  3. New Icing Cloud Simulation System at the NASA Glenn Research Center Icing Research Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, Thomas B.; Oldenburg, John R.; Sheldon, David W.

    1999-01-01

    A new spray bar system was designed, fabricated, and installed in the NASA Glenn Research Center's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). This system is key to the IRT's ability to do aircraft in-flight icing cloud simulation. The performance goals and requirements levied on the design of the new spray bar system included increased size of the uniform icing cloud in the IRT test section, faster system response time, and increased coverage of icing conditions as defined in Appendix C of the Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR), Part 25 and Part 29. Through significant changes to the mechanical and electrical designs of the previous-generation spray bar system, the performance goals and requirements were realized. Postinstallation aerodynamic and icing cloud calibrations were performed to quantify the changes and improvements made to the IRT test section flow quality and icing cloud characteristics. The new and improved capability to simulate aircraft encounters with in-flight icing clouds ensures that the 1RT will continue to provide a satisfactory icing ground-test simulation method to the aeronautics community.

  4. Sea Ice in the NCEP Climate Forecast System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Grumbine, R. W.

    2015-12-01

    Sea ice is known to play a significant role in the global climate system. For a weather or climate forecast system (CFS), it is important that the realistic distribution of sea ice is represented. Sea ice prediction is challenging; sea ice can form or melt, it can move with wind and/or ocean current; sea ice interacts with both the air above and ocean underneath, it influences by, and has impact on the air and ocean conditions. NCEP has developed coupled CFS (version 2, CFSv2) and carried out CFS reanalysis (CFSR), which includes a coupled model with the NCEP global forecast system, a land model, an ocean model (GFDL MOM4), and a sea ice model. In this work, we present the NCEP coupled model, the CFSv2 sea ice component that includes a dynamic thermodynamic sea ice model and a simple "assimilation" scheme, how sea ice has been assimilated in CFSR, the characteristics of the sea ice from CFSR and CFSv2, and the improvements of sea ice needed for future CFS (version 3) and the CFSR.

  5. Sea Ice Topography Profiling using Laser Altimetry from Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocker, Roger Ian

    Arctic sea ice is undergoing a dramatic transition from a perennial ice pack with a high prevalence of old multiyear ice, to a predominantly seasonal ice pack comprised primarily of young first-year and second-year ice. This transition has brought about changes in the sea ice thickness and topography characteristics, which will further affect the evolution and survivability of the ice pack. The varying ice conditions have substantial implications for commercial operations, international affairs, regional and global climate, our ability to model climate dynamics, and the livelihood of Arctic inhabitants. A number of satellite and airborne missions are dedicated to monitoring sea ice, but they are limited by their spatial and temporal resolution and coverage. Given the fast rate of sea ice change and its pervasive implications, enhanced observational capabilities are needed to augment the current strategies. The CU Laser Profilometer and Imaging System (CULPIS) is designed specifically for collecting fine-resolution elevation data and imagery from small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), and has a great potential to compliment ongoing missions. This altimeter system has been integrated into four different UAS, and has been deployed during Arctic and Antarctic science campaigns. The CULPIS elevation measurement accuracy is shown to be 95±25 cm, and is limited primarily by GPS positioning error (<25 cm), aircraft attitude determination error (<20 cm), and sensor misalignment error (<20 cm). The relative error is considerably smaller over short flight distances, and the measurement precision is shown to be <10 cm over a distance of 200 m. Given its fine precision, the CULPIS is well suited for measuring sea ice topography, and observed ridge height and ridge separation distributions are found to agree with theoretical distributions to within 5%. Simulations demonstrate the inability of course-resolution measurements to accurately represent the theoretical distributions

  6. IceVal DatAssistant: An Interactive, Automated Icing Data Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinson, Laurie H.; Wright, William B.

    2008-01-01

    As with any scientific endeavor, the foundation of icing research at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is the data acquired during experimental testing. In the case of the GRC Icing Branch, an important part of this data consists of ice tracings taken following tests carried out in the GRC Icing Research Tunnel (IRT), as well as the associated operational and environmental conditions during those tests. Over the years, the large number of experimental runs completed has served to emphasize the need for a consistent strategy to manage the resulting data. To address this situation, the Icing Branch has recently elected to implement the IceVal DatAssistant automated data management system. With the release of this system, all publicly available IRT-generated experimental ice shapes with complete and verifiable conditions have now been compiled into one electronically-searchable database; and simulation software results for the equivalent conditions, generated using the latest version of the LEWICE ice shape prediction code, are likewise included and linked to the corresponding experimental runs. In addition to this comprehensive database, the IceVal system also includes a graphically-oriented database access utility, which provides reliable and easy access to all data contained in the database. In this paper, the issues surrounding historical icing data management practices are discussed, as well as the anticipated benefits to be achieved as a result of migrating to the new system. A detailed description of the software system features and database content is also provided; and, finally, known issues and plans for future work are presented.

  7. IceVal DatAssistant: An Interactive, Automated Icing Data Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinson, Laurie H.; Wright, William B.

    2008-01-01

    As with any scientific endeavor, the foundation of icing research at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is the data acquired during experimental testing. In the case of the GRC Icing Branch, an important part of this data consists of ice tracings taken following tests carried out in the GRC Icing Research Tunnel (IRT), as well as the associated operational and environmental conditions documented during these tests. Over the years, the large number of experimental runs completed has served to emphasize the need for a consistent strategy for managing this data. To address the situation, the Icing Branch has recently elected to implement the IceVal DatAssistant automated data management system. With the release of this system, all publicly available IRT-generated experimental ice shapes with complete and verifiable conditions have now been compiled into one electronically-searchable database. Simulation software results for the equivalent conditions, generated using the latest version of the LEWICE ice shape prediction code, are likewise included and are linked to the corresponding experimental runs. In addition to this comprehensive database, the IceVal system also includes a graphically-oriented database access utility, which provides reliable and easy access to all data contained in the database. In this paper, the issues surrounding historical icing data management practices are discussed, as well as the anticipated benefits to be achieved as a result of migrating to the new system. A detailed description of the software system features and database content is also provided; and, finally, known issues and plans for future work are presented.

  8. Structure of Water Ice in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, David; Jenniskens, Peter; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Nearly all of the properties of solar system ices (chemical reaction rates, volatile retention and release, vaporization behavior, thermal conductivity, infrared spectral characteristics and the like) are a direct consequence of ice structure. However, the characterization of astrophysical ices and their laboratory analogs has typically utilized indirect measurements which yield phenomenological interpretations. When water ice is vapor-deposited at 14 K and warmed until it volatilizes in moderate vacuum, the ice undergoes a series of amorphous to amorphous and amorphous to crystalline structural transitions which we have characterized by diffraction methods. These structural transitions correlate with and underlie many phenomena observed in laboratory infrared and gas release experiments. The elucidation of the dynamic structural changes which occur in vapor-deposited water ice as a function of time, temperature and radiation history allows for the more complete interpretation of remote observations of astrophysical ices and their laboratory analogs.

  9. 14 CFR 25.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 25.1093... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction...

  10. Interferometric System for Measuring Thickness of Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussein, Ziad; Jordan, Rolando; McDonald, Kyle; Holt, Benjamin; Huang, John; Kugo, Yasuo; Ishimaru, Akira; Jaruwatanadilok, Semsak; Akins, Torry; Gogineni, Prasad

    2006-01-01

    The cryospheric advanced sensor (CAS) is a developmental airborne (and, potentially, spaceborne) radar-based instrumentation system for measuring and mapping the thickness of sea ice. A planned future version of the system would also provide data on the thickness of snow covering sea ice. Frequent measurements of the thickness of polar ocean sea ice and its snow cover on a synoptic scale are critical to understanding global climate change and ocean circulation.

  11. Energy-Efficient Systems Eliminate Icing Danger for UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Ames Research Center engineer Leonard Haslim invented an anti-icing t echnology called an electroexpulsive separation system, which uses m echanical force to shatter potentially dangerous ice buildup on an ai rcraft surface. Temecula, California-based Ice Management Systems (no w known as IMS-ESS) licensed the technology from Ames and has discov ered a niche market for the lightweight, energy-efficient technology: unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). IMS-ESS systems now prevent damagi ng ice accumulation on military UAVs, allowing the vehicles to carry out crucial missions year round.

  12. Practical Use Study of the Direct Conveyance and Cooling System for Iced Water by the Propylene Glycol Solutio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Mitsuo; Ninomiya, Tohru; Matsubara, Kazuo; Aikawa, Keisuke; Ikoma, Kenji

    In a cold storage warehouse, by developing the thermal energy storage technique using cheap electric powerin the night, it is necessary to construct a high-efficient and energy-saving-type refrigeration system in which air conditioning is possible at 0 degrees c. We created a brine iced water (ice slurry) cooled under 0 degreesc by a closed supercooling ice making method. For a practical application, the brine iced water was directly sent to the load side, and it was utilized as the secondary refrigerant for the heat exchange. As a result, by replacing the pure water with a marketed propylene glycol solution, it was proven that the conventional closed supercooling ice making method could be similarly utilized for the ice making. However, it is necessary to control the evaporation temperature in the refrigerator, because the freezing temperature changes with the brine concentration. In the refrigerator entrance, it is necessary to heat at a constant temperature so that the inflow brine may not freeze. In case of the brine iced water, the fluidity of the brine iced water is high, and the ice particle is carried away by the flow. Therefore, it is necessary to prevent runoff of the ice particle from an intake of the thermal storage tank in case of thebrine water. This proposal system was confirmed that there was practically no problem by an operation of a 15kW refrigerator system.

  13. Multiscale Observation System for Sea Ice Drift and Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lensu, M.; Haapala, J. J.; Heiler, I.; Karvonen, J.; Suominen, M.

    2011-12-01

    The drift and deformation of sea ice cover is most commonly followed from successive SAR images. The time interval between the images is seldom less than one day which provides rather crude approximation of the motion fields as ice can move tens of kilometers per day. This is particulary so from the viewpoint of operative services, seeking to provide real time information for ice navigating ships and other end users, as leads are closed and opened or ridge fields created in time scales of one hour or less. The ice forecast models are in a need of better temporal resolution for ice motion data as well. We present experiences from a multiscale monitoring system set up to the Bay of Bothnia, the northernmost basin of the Baltic Sea. The basin generates difficult ice conditions every winter while the ports are kept open with the help of an icebreaker fleet. The key addition to SAR imagery is the use of coastal radars for the monitoring of coastal ice fields. An independent server is used to tap the radar signal and process it to suit ice monitoring purposes. This is done without interfering the basic use of the radars, the ship traffic monitoring. About 20 images per minute are captured and sent to the headquarters for motion field extraction, website animation and distribution. This provides very detailed real time picture of the ice movement and deformation within 20 km range. The real time movements are followed in addition with ice drifter arrays, and using AIS ship identification data, from which the translation of ship cannels due to ice drift can be found out. To the operative setup is associated an extensive research effort that uses the data for ice drift model enhancement. The Baltic ice models seek to forecast conditions relevant to ship traffic, especilly hazardous ones like severe ice compression. The main missing link here is downscaling, or the relation of local scale ice dynamics and kinematics to the ice model scale behaviour. The data flow when

  14. An Analysis on Ice Storing CharacterIstics in Dynamic-type Ice Storage System using Supercooled Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizawa, Naoki; Tanino, Masayuki; Kozawa, Yoshiyuki

    For an application of the Dynamic-type Ice Storage System to the District Cooling and Heating System, the effects of ice content (IPF) and mass flow rate of supplying ice-slurry on the ice storing characteristics in a tank were investigated by experiments and analyses. In the analytical model, we considered that the ice-rich layer would be ununiform by raising of IPF and the water permeability in the ice-rich layer increases. By raising of IPF and reducing of mass flow rate of supplying ice-slurry, ice-rich layer could not spread in a tank. The porosity of ice-rich layer was contracting to the value of 0.8-0.9 in the ice storing process. The stored ice quantity depends on distribution and porosity of ice-rich layer in a tank decreased to 10% by raising IPF from 2.5wt% to 10wt% and reducing mass flow rate as constant ice flow rate. The analytical results could express the experimental results about stored ice quantity. Our analytical model is considered to be applicable to prediction of the ice storing characteristics and to design of an ice storage tank.

  15. Spectral properties of water ice and contaminants. [of importance to remote sensing of ice in solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, P. G.; Clark, R. N.

    1985-01-01

    For remote sensing studies of ices in the solar system, it is important to understand the optical properties of water ice, and mixtures of ice and particulate materials. The present paper has the objective to review the current understanding of the spectral properties of ice, and mixtures of ice and particulates. The review is to provide a basis for the understanding of the remote sensing of ice. It is found that reflectance spectra of ice-soil intimate mixtures are complex, nonlinear functions of the optical and physical properties of the components which comprise the surface.

  16. Investigation of Icing Characteristics of Typical Light Airplane Engine Induction Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, W. D.

    1949-01-01

    The icing characteristics of two typical light-airplane engine induction systems were investigated using the carburetors and manifolds of engines in the horsepower ranges from 65 to 85 and 165 to 185. The smaller system consisted of a float-type carburetor with an unheated manifold and the larger system consisted of a single-barrel pressure-type carburetor with an oil-jacketed manifold. Carburetor-air temperature and humidity limits of visible and serious Icing were determined for various engine power conditions. Several.methods of achieving ice-free induction systems are discussed along with estimates of surface heating requirements of the various induct ion-system components. A study was also made of the icing characteristics of a typical light-airplane air scoop with an exposed filter and a modified system that provided a normal ram inlet with the filter located in a position to Induce inertia separation of the free water from the charge air. The principle of operation of float-type carburetors is proved to make them inherently more susceptible to icing at the throttle plate than pressure-type carburetors.. The results indicated that proper jacketing and heating of all parts exposed to the fuel spray can satisfactorily reduce or eliminate icing in the float-type carburetor and the manifold. Pressure-type carburetors can be protected from serious Icing by proper location of the fuel-discharge nozzle combined with suitable application of heat to critical parts.

  17. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181 Section 125.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of...

  18. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283 Section 121.283 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to...

  19. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283 Section 121.283 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to...

  20. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283 Section 121.283 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to...

  1. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283 Section 121.283 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to...

  2. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283 Section 121.283 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to...

  3. Radiative transfer in atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Z.; Stamnes, K.; Weeks, W.F.; Tsay, S.C.

    1996-04-01

    Radiative energy is critical in controlling the heat and mass balance of sea ice, which significantly affects the polar climate. In the polar oceans, light transmission through the atmosphere and sea ice is essential to the growth of plankton and algae and, consequently, to the microbial community both in the ice and in the ocean. Therefore, the study of radiative transfer in the polar atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean system is of particular importance. Lacking a properly coupled radiative transfer model for the atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system, a consistent study of the radiative transfer in the polar atmosphere, snow, sea ice, and ocean system has not been undertaken before. The radiative transfer processes in the atmosphere and in the ice and ocean have been treated separately. Because the radiation processes in the atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean depend on each other, this separate treatment is inconsistent. To study the radiative interaction between the atmosphere, clouds, snow, sea ice, and ocean, a radiative transfer model with consistent treatment of radiation in the coupled system is needed and is under development.

  4. Icing tunnel tests of a glycol-exuding porous leading edge ice protection system on a general aviation airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlman, D. L.; Schweikhard, W. G.; Albright, A. E.; Evanich, P.

    1981-01-01

    A glycol-exuding porous leading edge ice protection system was tested. Results show that the system is very effective in preventing ice accretion (anti-ice mode) or removing ice from an airfoil. Minimum glycol flow rates required for anti-icing are a function of velocity, liquid water content in the air, ambient temperature, and droplet size. Large ice caps were removed in only a few minutes using anti-ice flow rates. It was found that the shed time is a function of the type of ice, size of the ice cap, angle of attack, and glycol flow rate. Wake survey measurements show that there is no significant drag penalty for the installation or operation of the system tested.

  5. Radiation Transport in the Atmosphere - Sea Ice - Ocean System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Zhonghai

    1995-01-01

    A comprehensive radiative transfer model for the coupled atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system has been developed. The theoretical work required for constructing such a coupled model is described first. This work extends the discrete ordinate method, which has been proven to be effective in studies of radiative transfer in the atmosphere, to solve the radiative transfer problem pertaining to a system consisting of two strata with different indices of refraction, such as the atmosphere-ocean system and the atmosphere -sea ice-ocean system. The relevant changes (as compared to the standard problem with constant index of refraction throughout the medium) in formulation and solution of the radiative transfer equation, including the proper application of interface and boundary conditions, are presented. This solution is then applied to the atmosphere -sea ice-ocean system to study the solar energy balance in this coupled system. The input parameters required by the model are observable physical properties (e.g., the profiles of temperature and gas concentrations in the atmosphere, and the profiles of temperature, density, and salinity in the ice). The atmosphere, sea ice and ocean are each divided into a sufficient number of layers in the vertical to adequately resolve changes in their optical properties. This model rigorously accounts for the multiple scattering and absorption by atmospheric molecules, clouds, snow and sea water, as well as inclusions in the sea ice, such as brine pockets and air bubbles. The effects of various factors on the solar energy distribution in the entire system have been studied quantitatively. These factors include the ice salinity and density variations, cloud microphysics as well as variations in melt ponds and snow cover on the ice surface. Finally, the coupled radiative transfer model is used to study the impacts of clouds, snow and ice algae on the light transport in sea ice and in the ocean, as well as to simulate spectral irradiance and

  6. Field demonstration of the ICE 250{trademark} Cleaning System

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, J.L.; Jackson, L.M.

    1999-10-05

    The ICE 250{trademark} Cleaning System was engineered to convert water into small ice particles for use in cleaning and decontamination applications. Ice crystals are produced in a special icemaker and pressured through a hose-nozzle onto the surface to be cleaned. The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center and Ice Cleaning Systems, Inc., conducted a test of this system at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 to evaluate the system's cleaning capabilities in an oil field environment. Equipment cleaned included an oil storage tank, a rod pumping unit, a road grader, and a wellhead. Contaminants were unrefined sour crude oil, hydraulic fluid, paraffin, and dirt, occurring separately and as mixtures. In all four demonstration cleaning tasks, the ICE 250 System effectively removed surface contaminant mixtures in a timely manner and left no oily residue. A minimal amount of waste moisture was generated, thereby reducing cleanup and disposal costs.

  7. Icing-Protection Requirements for Reciprocating-Engine Induction System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, Willard D; Rollin, Vern G; Mulholland, Donald R

    1950-01-01

    Despite the development of relatively ice-free fuel-metering systems, the widespread use of alternate and heated-air intakes, and the use of alcohol for emergency de-icing, icing of aircraft-engine induction systems is a serious problem. Investigations have been made to study and to combat all phases of this icing problem. From these investigations, criterions for safe operation and for design of new induction systems have been established. The results were obtained from laboratory investigations of carburetor-supercharger combinations, wind-tunnel investigations of air scoops, multicylinder-engine studies, and flight investigations. Characteristics of three forms of ice, impact, throttling, and fuel evaporation were studied. The effects of several factors on the icing characteristics were also studied and included: (1) atmospheric conditions, (2) engine and air-scoop configurations, including light-airplane system, (3) type fuel used, and (4) operating variables, such as power condition, use of a manifold pressure regulator, mixture setting, carburetor heat, and water-alcohol injection. In addition, ice-detection methods were investigated and methods of preventing and removing induction-system ice were studied. Recommendations are given for design and operation with regard to induction-system design.

  8. Icing research tunnel rotating bar calibration measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Theresa L.; Dearmon, John M.

    1993-01-01

    In order to measure icing patterns across a test section of the Icing Research Tunnel, an automated rotating bar measurement system was developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. In comparison with the previously used manual measurement system, this system provides a number of improvements: increased accuracy and repeatability, increased number of data points, reduced tunnel operating time, and improved documentation. The automated system uses a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) to measure ice accretion. This instrument is driven along the bar by means of an intelligent stepper motor which also controls data recording. This paper describes the rotating bar calibration measurement system.

  9. Parameterizations for ice nucleation in biological and atmospheric systems.

    PubMed

    Koop, Thomas; Zobrist, Bernhard

    2009-12-14

    Ice nucleation is an important process in numerous environmental systems such as atmospheric aerosol droplets or biological tissues. Here we analyze two widely used approaches for describing homogeneous ice nucleation in aqueous solutions with respect to their applicability to heterogeneous ice nucleation processes: the lambda approach and the water-activity-based approach. We study experimentally the heterogeneous ice nucleation behaviour of mineral dust particles and biological ice nuclei (Snomax; Pseudomonas syringae) in aqueous solutions as a function of solute concentration for various solutes (sulfuric acid, ammonium sulfate, glucose, and poly(ethylene glycol) with two different molar masses of 400 and 6000 g mol(-1)). We show that the ice nucleation temperature and the corresponding lambda values depend on both the type of ice nucleus and the type of solute, while the water-activity-based approach depends only on the type of ice nucleus when the solution water activity is known. Finally, we employ both approaches to the study of ice nucleation in biological systems such as the supercooling point of living larvae and insects. We show that the behaviour of freeze tolerant and freeze avoiding species can be described using the two approaches and we discuss how the analysis can be used to interpret experimental results of the freezing behaviour of living species. PMID:19924318

  10. Data assimilation of surface altimetry on the North-Easter Ice Stream using the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larour, Eric; Utke, Jean; Morlighem, Mathieu; Seroussi, Helene; Csatho, Beata; Schenk, Anton; Rignot, Eric; Khazendar, Ala

    2014-05-01

    Extensive surface altimetry data has been collected on polar ice sheets over the past decades, following missions such as Envisat and IceSat. This data record will further increase in size with the new CryoSat mission, the ongoing Operation IceBridge Mission and the soon to launch IceSat-2 mission. In order to make the best use of these dataset, ice flow models need to improve on the way they ingest surface altimetry to infer: 1) parameterizations of poorly known physical processes such as basal friction; 2) boundary conditions such as Surface Mass Balance (SMB). Ad-hoc sensitivity studies and adjoint-based inversions have so far been the way ice sheet models have attempted to resolve the impact of 1) on their results. As for boundary conditions or the lack thereof, most studies assume that they are a fixed quantity, which, though prone to large errors from the measurement itself, is not varied according to the simulated results. Here, we propose a method based on automatic differentiation to improve boundary conditions at the base and surface of the ice sheet during a short-term transient run for which surface altimetry observations are available. The method relies on minimizing a cost-function, the best fit between modeled surface evolution and surface altimetry observations, using gradients that are computed for each time step from automatic differentiation of the ISSM (Ice Sheet System Model) code. The approach relies on overloaded operators using the ADOLC (Automatic Differentiation by OverLoading in C++) package. It is applied to the 79 North Glacier, Greenland, for a short term transient spanning a couple of decades before the start of the retreat of the Zachariae Isstrom outlet glacier. Our results show adjustments required on the basal friction and the SMB of the whole basin to best fit surface altimetry observations, along with sensitivities each one of these parameters has on the overall cost function. Our approach presents a pathway towards assimilating

  11. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    DOEpatents

    Weng, Kuo-Lianq; Weng, Kuo-Liang

    1998-01-01

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

  12. Methods and systems for detection of ice formation on surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfano, Robert R. (Inventor); Wang, Wubao (Inventor); Sztul, Henry (Inventor); Budansky, Yury (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A system for detecting ice formation on metal, painted metal and other material surfaces can include a transparent window having an exterior surface upon which ice can form; a light source and optics configured and arranged to illuminate the exterior surface of the window from behind the exterior surface; and a detector and optics configured and arranged to receive light backscattered by the exterior surface and any ice disposed on the exterior surface and determine the thickness of the ice layer. For example, the system can be used with aircraft by placing one or more windows in the wings of the aircraft. The system is used for a novel optical method for real-time on-board detection and warning of ice formation on surfaces of airplanes, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and other vehicles and stationary structures to improve their safety and operation.

  13. Systems Engineering Techniques for ALS Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Luis F.; Drysdale, Alan E.; Jones, Harry; Levri, Julie A.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) Metric is the predominant tool for predicting the cost of ALS systems. Metric goals for the ALS Program are daunting, requiring a threefold increase in the ALS Metric by 2010. Confounding the problem, the rate new ALS technologies reach the maturity required for consideration in the ALS Metric and the rate at which new configurations are developed is slow, limiting the search space and potentially giving the perspective of a ALS technology, the ALS Metric may remain elusive. This paper is a sequel to a paper published in the proceedings of the 2003 ICES conference entitled, "Managing to the metric: an approach to optimizing life support costs." The conclusions of that paper state that the largest contributors to the ALS Metric should be targeted by ALS researchers and management for maximum metric reductions. Certainly, these areas potentially offer large potential benefits to future ALS missions; however, the ALS Metric is not the only decision-making tool available to the community. To facilitate decision-making within the ALS community a combination of metrics should be utilized, such as the Equivalent System Mass (ESM)-based ALS metric, but also those available through techniques such as life cycle costing and faithful consideration of the sensitivity of the assumed models and data. Often a lack of data is cited as the reason why these techniques are not considered for utilization. An existing database development effort within the ALS community, known as OPIS, may provide the opportunity to collect the necessary information to enable the proposed systems analyses. A review of these additional analysis techniques is provided, focusing on the data necessary to enable these. The discussion is concluded by proposing how the data may be utilized by analysts in the future.

  14. Short-term sea ice forecasting: An assessment of ice concentration and ice drift forecasts using the U.S. Navy's Arctic Cap Nowcast/Forecast System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, David A.; Allard, Richard A.; Metzger, E. Joseph; Posey, Pamela G.; Preller, Ruth H.; Wallcraft, Alan J.; Phelps, Michael W.; Smedstad, Ole Martin

    2015-12-01

    In this study the forecast skill of the U.S. Navy operational Arctic sea ice forecast system, the Arctic Cap Nowcast/Forecast System (ACNFS), is presented for the period February 2014 to June 2015. ACNFS is designed to provide short term, 1-7 day forecasts of Arctic sea ice and ocean conditions. Many quantities are forecast by ACNFS; the most commonly used include ice concentration, ice thickness, ice velocity, sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, and sea surface velocities. Ice concentration forecast skill is compared to a persistent ice state and historical sea ice climatology. Skill scores are focused on areas where ice concentration changes by ±5% or more, and are therefore limited to primarily the marginal ice zone. We demonstrate that ACNFS forecasts are skilful compared to assuming a persistent ice state, especially beyond 24 h. ACNFS is also shown to be particularly skilful compared to a climatologic state for forecasts up to 102 h. Modeled ice drift velocity is compared to observed buoy data from the International Arctic Buoy Programme. A seasonal bias is shown where ACNFS is slower than IABP velocity in the summer months and faster in the winter months. In February 2015, ACNFS began to assimilate a blended ice concentration derived from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) and the Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS). Preliminary results show that assimilating AMSR2 blended with IMS improves the short-term forecast skill and ice edge location compared to the independently derived National Ice Center Ice Edge product.

  15. Global ice-sheet system interlocked by sea level

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, G.H.; Hughes, T.J.; Karlen, W.

    1986-01-01

    Denton and Hughes postulated that sea level linked a global ice-sheet system with both terrestrial and grounded marine components during later Quaternary ice ages. Summer temperature changes near Northern Hemisphere melting margins initiated sea-level fluctuations that controlled marine components in both polar hemispheres. It was further proposed that variations of this ice-sheet system amplified and transmitted Milankovitch summer half-year insolation changes between 45 and 75/sup 0/N into global climatic changes. New tests of this hypothesis implicate sea level as a major control of the areal extent of grounded portions of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. But factors other than areal changes of the grounded Antarctic Ice Sheet may have strongly influenced Southern Hemisphere climate and terminated the last ice age simultaneously in both polar hemispheres. Atmospheric carbon dioxide linked to high-latitude oceans is the most likely candidate, but another potential influence was high-frequency climatic oscillations. It is postulated that variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide acted through an Antarctic ice shelf linked to the grounded ice sheet to produce and terminate Southern Hemisphere ice-age climate. It is further postulated that Milankovitch summer insolation combined with a warm-high frequency oscillation caused marked recession of Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet melting margins and the North Atlantic polar front about 14,000 /sup 14/C yr B.P. This permitted renewed formation of North Atlantic Deep Water, which could well have controlled atmospheric carbon dioxide. Combined melting and consequent sea-level rise from the three warming factors initiated irreversible collapse of the interlocked global ice-sheet system, which was at its largest but most vulnerable configuration.

  16. Aircraft Icing Weather Data Reporting and Dissemination System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, Ellen J.; Minsk, Brian; Lindholm, Tenny; Politovich, Marcia; Reehorst, Andrew (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The long-term operational concept of this research is to develop an onboard aircraft system that assesses and reports atmospheric icing conditions automatically and in a timely manner in order to improve aviation safety and the efficiency of aircraft operations via improved real-time and forecast weather products. The idea is to use current measurement capabilities on aircraft equipped with icing sensors and in-flight data communication technologies as a reporting source. Without requiring expensive avionics upgrades, aircraft data must be processed and available for downlink. Ideally, the data from multiple aircraft can then be integrated (along with other real-time and modeled data) on the ground such that aviation-centered icing hazard metrics for volumes of airspace can be assessed. As the effect of icing on different aircraft types can vary, the information should be displayed in meaningful ways such that multiple types of users can understand the information. That is, information must be presented in a manner to allow users to understand the icing conditions with respect to individual concerns and aircraft capabilities. This research provides progress toward this operational concept by: identifying an aircraft platform capable of digitally capturing, processing, and downlinking icing data; identifying the required in situ icing data processing; investigating the requirements for routing the icing data for use by weather products; developing an icing case study in order to gain insight into major air carrier needs; developing and prototyping icing display concepts based on the National Center for Atmospheric Research's existing diagnostic and forecast experimental icing products; and conducting a usability study for the prototyped icing display concepts.

  17. ICE System: Interruptible control expert system. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vezina, James M.

    1990-01-01

    The Interruptible Control Expert (ICE) System is based on an architecture designed to provide a strong foundation for real-time production rule expert systems. Three principles are adopted to guide the development of ICE. A practical delivery platform must be provided, no specialized hardware can be used to solve deficiencies in the software design. Knowledge of the environment and the rule-base is exploited to improve the performance of a delivered system. The third principle of ICE is to respond to the most critical event, at the expense of the more trivial tasks. Minimal time is spent on classifying the potential importance of environmental events with the majority of the time used for finding the responses. A feature of the system, derived from all three principles, is the lack of working memory. By using a priori information, a fixed amount of memory can be specified for the hardware platform. The absence of working memory removes the dangers of garbage collection during the continuous operation of the controller.

  18. All Systems Go for Engine Icing Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    All the pieces came together to recently produce a successful first run of a ground test investigating how ice can accumulate inside a hot jet engine. A full-size engine, spray bars to create the i...

  19. An operational all-weather Great Lakes ice information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedney, R. T.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of the NASA developed all-weather ice information system for the Great Lakes winter navigation program. The system utilizes an X-band side looking airborne radar (SLAR) for determining type, location, and areal distribution of the ice cover in the Great Lakes and an airborne, S band, down looking short pulse radar for obtaining ice thickness. Digitized SLAR data are relayed in real time via the NOAA-GOES satellite in geosynchronous orbit. The SLAR images along with hand drawn interpretative ice charts for various Great Lakes winter shipping areas are broadcast to facsimile recorders aboard vessles is the area via the MARAD marine VHF-FM radio network. These data assist such vessels in navigating both through and around the ice.

  20. Antarctic sea ice carbon dioxide system and controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fransson, Agneta; Chierici, Melissa; Yager, Patricia L.; Smith, Walker O., Jr.

    2011-12-01

    In austral summer, from December 2008 to January 2009, we investigated the sea-ice carbon dioxide (CO2) system and CO2 controls in the Amundsen and Ross Seas, Antarctica. We sampled seawater, brine and sea ice for the measurements of total alkalinity (AT), total inorganic carbon (DIC), pH, inorganic nutrients, particulate organic carbon (POC) and nitrogen (PON), chlorophyll a, pigments, salinity and temperature. Large variability in all measured parameters was observed in time and space due to the complex sea-ice dynamics. We discuss the controls of the sea-ice CO2 system, such as brine rejection, biological processes, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation/dissolution and CO2 exchange. Most (80 to 90%) of the DIC loss was due to brine rejection, which suggests that the sea ice acted as an efficient DIC sink from 0.8 and 2.6 mol m-2 yr-1 (9.6-31 g C m-2 yr-1). The remaining change in DIC was to a large extent explained by net biological production. The AT:DIC ratio in the sea ice was higher than in the under-ice water (UIW), with ratios reaching 1.7, which indicated CaCO3 precipitation and concomitant DIC loss in the sea ice. Elevated AT:DIC ratios and carbonate concentrations were also observed in the UIW, which reflect the solid CaCO3 rejected from the ice during melt. The potential for uptake of atmospheric CO2 in the mixed layer increased by approximately 56 μatm due to the combined effect of CaCO3 precipitation during ice formation, and ice melt in summer.

  1. Monstrous Ice Cloud System in Titan's Present South Polar Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, Robert; McLain, Jason; Achterberg, Richard; Flasar, F. Michael; Milam, Stefanie

    2015-11-01

    During southern autumn when sunlight was still available, Cassini's Imaging Science Subsystem discovered a cloud around 300 km near Titan's south pole (West, R. A. et al., AAS/DPS Abstracts, 45, #305.03, 2013); the cloud was later determined by Cassini's Visible and InfraRed Mapping Spectrometer to contain HCN ice (de Kok et al., Nature, 514, pp 65-67, 2014). This cloud has proven to be only the tip of an extensive ice cloud system contained in Titan's south polar stratosphere, as seen through the night-vision goggles of Cassini's Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS). As the sun sets and the gloom of southern winter approaches, evidence is beginning to accumulate from CIRS far-IR spectra that a massive system of nitrile ice clouds is developing in Titan's south polar stratosphere. Even during the depths of northern winter, nothing like the strength of this southern system was evident in corresponding north polar regions.From the long slant paths that are available from limb-viewing CIRS far-IR spectra, we have the first definitive detection of the ν6 band of cyanoacetylene (HC3N) ice in Titan’s south polar stratosphere. In addition, we also see a strong blend of nitrile ice lattice vibration features around 160 cm-1. From these data we are able to derive ice abundances. The most prominent (and still chemically unidentified) ice emission feature, the Haystack, (at 220 cm-1) is also observed. We establish the vertical distributions of the ice cloud systems associated with both the 160 cm-1 feature and the Haystack. The ultimate aim is to refine the physical and possibly the chemical relationships between the two. Transmittance thin film spectra of nitrile ice mixtures obtained in our Spectroscopy for Planetary ICes Environments (SPICE) laboratory are used to support these analyses.

  2. Ice Crystal Icing Engine Testing in the NASA Glenn Research Center's Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL): Altitude Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducted a full scale ice crystal icing turbofan engine test in the NASA Glenn Research Centers Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) Facility in February 2013. Honeywell Engines supplied the test article, an obsolete, unmodified Lycoming ALF502-R5 turbofan engine serial number LF01 that experienced an un-commanded loss of thrust event while operating at certain high altitude ice crystal icing conditions. These known conditions were duplicated in the PSL for this testing.

  3. NASA Glenn Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL) Icing Facility Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    This oral presentation is an update to the Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL) engine ice testing. It provides a summary of the modifications done to the facility and recently completed calibrations and test program.

  4. Evolution of the subglacial hydrologic system beneath the rapidly decaying Cordilleran Ice Sheet caused by ice-dammed lake drainage: implications for meltwater-induced ice acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Matthew J.; Brennand, Tracy A.; Perkins, Andrew J.

    2012-09-01

    A positive correlation between ice-dammed lake drainage and ice acceleration at Antarctic Ice Sheets (AIS) and land-terminating sections of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has been implicated in enhanced ice sheet decay. However, the paucity of direct measurements at the ice sheet bed restricts our understanding of subglacial drainage system evolution in response to transient water inputs. We present evidence that two meltwater corridors on the former bed of the thin (˜600 m at Last Glacial Maximum over the interior Plateaus of British Columbia) and rapidly decaying Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS) were generated subglacially in response to the drainage of an ice-dammed lake and operated as canals (tunnel channels). Geomorphological, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data reveal a simple event sequence that includes initial propagation of a broad (at least 2.5 km wide) floodwave (inefficient drainage) from an ice-dammed lake, over relatively short (3-24 km) zones at the corridor heads that collapsed into efficient canals (large (up to 0.25-2.5 km wide) channels incised down into the sediment bed and up into the ice) downglacier. Canal formation on the southern Fraser Plateau involved synchronous (along the full canal length) system development, including elements of headward erosion and plunge pool formation. Our data suggest that ice-dammed lake drainage beneath a rapidly decaying thin ice mass that has an efficient antecedent drainage network is not conducive to large-scale ice acceleration. These data may aid better assessment of the role of ice-dammed lake drainage on the dynamics of former, as well as contemporary, ice sheets.

  5. A Systems-Level Perspective on Engine Ice Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Guo, Ten-Huei; Simon, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    The accretion of ice in the compression system of commercial gas turbine engines operating in high ice water content conditions is a safety issue being studied by the aviation sector. While most of the research focuses on the underlying physics of ice accretion and the meteorological conditions in which accretion can occur, a systems-level perspective on the topic lends itself to potential near-term operational improvements. This work focuses on developing an accurate and reliable algorithm for detecting the accretion of ice in the low pressure compressor of a generic 40,000 lbf thrust class engine. The algorithm uses only the two shaft speed sensors and works regardless of engine age, operating condition, and power level. In a 10,000-case Monte Carlo simulation, the detection approach was found to have excellent capability at determining ice accretion from sensor noise with detection occurring when ice blocks an average of 6.8% of the low pressure compressor area. Finally, an initial study highlights a potential mitigation strategy that uses the existing engine actuators to raise the temperature in the low pressure compressor in an effort to reduce the rate at which ice accretes.

  6. Supercooled large drop detection with NASA's Icing Remote Sensing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serke, David J.; Reehorst, Andrew L.; Politovich, Marcia K.

    2010-10-01

    In-flight icing occurs when aircraft impact supercooled liquid drops. The supercooled liquid freezes on contact and the accreted ice changes a plane's aerodynamic characteristics, which can lead to dangerous loss of control. NASA's Icing Remote Sensing System consists of a multi-channel radiometer, a laser ceilometer and a vertically-pointing Kaband radar, whos fields are merged with internal software logic to arrive at a hazard classification for in-flight icing. The radiometer is used to derive atmospheric temperature soundings and integrated liquid water and the ceilometer and radar are used to define cloud boundaries. The integrated liquid is then distributed within the determined cloud boundaries and layers to arrive at liquid water content profiles, which if present below freezing are categorized as icing hazards. This work outlines how the derived liquid water content and measured Ka-band reflectivity factor profiles can be used to derive a vertical profile of radar-estimated particle size. This is only possible because NASA's system arrives at independent and non-correlated measures of liquid water and reflectivity factor for a given range volume. The size of the drops significantly effect the drop collection efficiency and the location that icing accretion occurs on the craft's superstructure and thus how a vehicle's performance is altered. Large drops, generally defined as over 50 μm in diameter, tend to accrete behind the normal ice protected areas of the leading edge of the wing and other control surfaces. The NASA Icing Remote Sensing System was operated near Montreal, Canada for the Alliance Icing Research Study II in 2003 and near Cleveland, Ohio from 2006 onward. In this study, we present case studies to show how NASA's Icing Remote Sensing System can detect and differentiate between no icing, small drop and large drop in-flight icing hazards to aircraft. This new product provides crucial realtime hazard detection capabilities which improve

  7. Global ice-sheet system interlocked by sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, George H.; Hughes, Terence J.; Karlén, Wibjörn

    1986-07-01

    Denton and Hughes (1983, Quaternary Research20, 125-144) postulated that sea level linked a global ice-sheet system with both terrestrial and grounded marine components during late Quaternary ice ages. Summer temperature changes near Northern Hemisphere melting margins initiated sea-level fluctuations that controlled marine components in both polar hemispheres. It was further proposed that variations of this ice-sheet system amplified and transmitted Milankovitch summer half-year insolation changes between 45 and 75°N into global climatic changes. New tests of this hypothesis implicate sea level as a major control of the areal extent of grounded portions of the Antarctic Ice Sheet, thus fitting the concept of a globally interlocked ice-sheet system. But recent atmospheric modeling results ( Manabe and Broccoli, 1985, Journal of Geophysical Research90, 2167-2190) suggest that factors other than areal changes of the grounded Antarctic Ice Sheet strongly influenced Southern Hemisphere climate and terminated the last ice age simultaneously in both polar hemispheres. Atmospheric carbon dioxide linked to high-latitude oceans is the most likely candidate ( Shackleton and Pisias, 1985, Atmospheric carbon dioxide, orbital forcing, and climate. In "The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric CO 2: Natural Variations Archean to Present" (E. T. Sundquest and W. S. Broecker, Eds.), pp. 303-318. Geophysical Monograph 32, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C.), but another potential influence was high-frequency climatic oscillations (2500 yr). It is postulated that variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide acted through an Antarctic ice shelf linked to the grounded ice sheet to produce and terminate Southern Hemisphere ice-age climate. It is further postulated that Milankovitch summer insolation combined with a warm high-frequency oscillation caused marked recession of Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet melting margins and the North Atlantic polar front about 14,000 14C yr B.P. This

  8. Ice Cloud Properties in Ice-Over-Water Cloud Systems Using TRMM VIRS and TMI Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Huang, Jianping; Lin, Bing; Yi, Yuhong; Arduini, Robert F.; Fan, Tai-Fang; Ayers, J. Kirk; Mace, Gerald G.

    2007-01-01

    A multi-layered cloud retrieval system (MCRS) is updated and used to estimate ice water path in maritime ice-over-water clouds using Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) measurements from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission spacecraft between January and August 1998. Lookup tables of top-of-atmosphere 0.65- m reflectance are developed for ice-over-water cloud systems using radiative transfer calculations with various combinations of ice-over-water cloud layers. The liquid and ice water paths, LWP and IWP, respectively, are determined with the MCRS using these lookup tables with a combination of microwave (MW), visible (VIS), and infrared (IR) data. LWP, determined directly from the TMI MW data, is used to define the lower-level cloud properties to select the proper lookup table. The properties of the upper-level ice clouds, such as optical depth and effective size, are then derived using the Visible Infrared Solar-infrared Split-window Technique (VISST), which matches the VIRS IR, 3.9- m, and VIS data to the multilayer-cloud lookup table reflectances and a set of emittance parameterizations. Initial comparisons with surface-based radar retrievals suggest that this enhanced MCRS can significantly improve the accuracy and decrease the IWP in overlapped clouds by 42% and 13% compared to using the single-layer VISST and an earlier simplified MW-VIS-IR (MVI) differencing method, respectively, for ice-over-water cloud systems. The tropical distribution of ice-over-water clouds is the same as derived earlier from combined TMI and VIRS data, but the new values of IWP and optical depth are slightly larger than the older MVI values, and exceed those of single-layered layered clouds by 7% and 11%, respectively. The mean IWP from the MCRS is 8-14% greater than that retrieved from radar retrievals of overlapped clouds over two surface sites and the standard deviations of the differences are similar to those for single-layered clouds. Examples

  9. Great Lakes all-weather ice information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schertler, R. J.; Mueller, R. A.; Jirberg, R. J.; Cooper, D. W.; Heighway, J. E.; Holmes, A. D.; Gedney, R. T.; Mark, H.

    1975-01-01

    A system is described which utilizes an X-band Side-Looking-Airborne-Radar (SLAR) for determining type, location, and aerial distribution of the ice cover in the Great Lakes and an airborne, S-band, short pulse radar for obtaining ice thickness. The SLAR system is currently mounted aboard a U.S. Coast Guard C-130B aircraft. Digitized SLAR data are relayed in real-time via the NOAA-GOES-1 satellite in geosynchronous orbit to the U.S. Coast Guard Ice Center in Cleveland, Ohio. SLAR images along with hand-drawn interpretative ice charts for various winter shipping areas in the Great Lakes are broadcast to facsimile recorders aboard Great Lakes vessels. The operational aspects of this ice information system are being demonstrated by NASA, U.S. Coast Guard, and NOAA/National Weather Service. Results from the 1974-75 winter season demonstrated the ability of this system to provide all-weather ice information to shippers in a timely manner.

  10. A Real-Time Satellite-Based Icing Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Smith, William L., Jr.; Nguyen, Louis; Khaiyer, Mandana M.; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Heck, Patrick W.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Bernstein, Ben C.; McDonough, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Aircraft icing is one of the most dangerous weather conditions for general aviation. Currently, model forecasts and pilot reports (PIREPS) constitute much of the database available to pilots for assessing the icing conditions in a particular area. Such data are often uncertain or sparsely available. Improvements in the temporal and areal coverage of icing diagnoses and prognoses would mark a substantial enhancement of aircraft safety in regions susceptible to heavy supercooled liquid water clouds. The use of 3.9 microns data from meteorological satellite imagers for diagnosing icing conditions has long been recognized (e.g., Ellrod and Nelson, 1996) but to date, no explicit physically based methods have been implemented. Recent advances in cloud detection and cloud property retrievals using operational satellite imagery open the door for real-time objective applications of those satellite datasets for a variety of weather phenomena. Because aircraft icing is related to cloud macro- and microphysical properties (e.g., Cober et al. 1995), it is logical that the cloud properties from satellite data would be useful for diagnosing icing conditions. This paper describes the a prototype realtime system for detecting aircraft icing from space.

  11. Physical State of Ices in the Outer Solar System. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, Ted L.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Comparison of the identity and abundances of ices observed around protostars and those associated with comets clearly suggests that comets preserve the heritage of the interstellar materials that aggregated to form them. However, the ability to identify these same species on icy satellites in the outer solar system is a complex function of the composition of the original ices, their subsequent thermal histories, and their exposure to various radiation environments. Our ability to identify the ices currently present on objects in the outer solar system relies upon observational and laboratory, and theoretical efforts. To date there is ample observational evidence for crystalline water ice throughout the outer solar system. In addition, there is growing evidence that amorphous ice may be present on some bodies. More volatile ices, e.g. N2, CH4. CO, and other species, e.g. ammonia hydrate, are identified on objects lying at and beyond Uranus. Both photolysis and radiolysis play important roles in altering the original surfaces due to chemical reactions and erosion of the surface. Ultraviolet photolysis appears to dominate alteration of the upper few hundred Angstroms, although sputtering the surface can sometimes be a significantly competitative process; dominating on icy surfaces embedded in a strong planetary magnetospheric field. There is growing observational evidence that the by-products of photolysis and radiolysis, suggested on a theoretical basis, are present on icy surfaces.

  12. Retrieving Ice Basal Motion Using the Hydrologically Coupled JPL/UCI Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakbaz, B.; Morlighem, M.; Seroussi, H. L.; Larour, E. Y.

    2011-12-01

    The study of basal sliding in ice sheets requires coupling ice-flow models with subglacial water flow. In fact, subglacial hydrology models can be used to model basal water-pressure explicitly and to generate basal sliding velocities. This study addresses the addition of a thin-film-based subglacial hydrologic module to the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) developed by JPL in collaboration with the University of California Irvine (UCI). The subglacial hydrology model follows the study of J. Johnson (2002) who assumed a non-arborscent distributed drainage system in the form of a thin film beneath ice sheets. The differential equation that arises from conservation of mass in the water system is solved numerically with the finite element method in order to obtain the spatial distribution of basal water over the study domain. The resulting sheet water thickness is then used to model the basal water-pressure and subsequently the basal sliding velocity. In this study, an introduction and preliminary results of the subglacial water flow and basal sliding velocity will be presented for the Pine Island Glacier west Antarctica.This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Modeling, Analysis and Prediction (MAP) Program.

  13. Sediment fluxes of an Antarctic palaeo-ice stream system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Kelly; Larter, Robert; Smith, James; Hillenbrand, Claus-Dieter

    2016-04-01

    New marine-geophysical data (multibeam bathymetry, high-resolution acoustic profiles) acquired in 2014 have been integrated with heritage multichannel seismic-reflection and deep-tow boomer profiles from Anvers-Hugo Trough, western Antarctic Peninsula. From these datasets we have identified seismic facies relating to ice-stream advance and flow, ice-stream retreat, and post-glacial sedimentation processes. We identify multiple subglacial seismic units forming MSGL and other streamlined landforms at a variety of size scales. This may be indicative of multiple generations of ice-flow through the confluent ice-stream system. We also calculate the sediment volumes of a series of grounding-zone wedges (GZWs) located on the outer and mid-shelf that were produced during several stillstands in the trough as the grounded ice margin retreated through the system during deglaciation around c. 15-13 ka (from published core chronologies). Based on these volumes we consider the likely rates of subglacial sediment delivery by the Anvers Trough palaeo-ice stream and compare these to inferred flux rates from other palaeo- and modern Antarctic ice streams. In addition, we map the post-glacial glacimarine sediment package in the trough. Large mapped sediment thicknesses of this unit across the trough are consistent with high post-glacial sediment accumulation rates reported from cores acquired in the Anvers-Hugo Trough system. Previous authors have attributed this to exceptionally high primary productivity in a calving-bay re-entrant settings produced as ice retreated across the shelf on this part of the Antarctic margin.

  14. Bacterial study of Vostok drilling fluid: the tool to make ice core finding confident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekhina, I. A.; Petit, J. R.; Lukin, V. V.; Bulat, S. A.

    2003-04-01

    Decontamination of Vostok ice core is a critical issue in molecular biology studies. Core surface contains a film of hardly removable 'dirty' drilling fluid representing a mixture of polyhydrocarbons (PHC) including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and freon. To make ice microbial finding more confident the original Vostok drilling fluid sampled from different depths (110m - 3600m) was analyzed for bacterial content by ribosomal DNA sequencing. Total, 33 clones of 16S ribosomal DNA were recovered from four samples of drilling fluid at 110, 2750, 3400, and 3600m leading to identification of 8 bacterial species. No overlapping was observed even for neighboring samples (3400m and 3600m). At present four major bacteria with the titer more than 103-104 cells per ml (as estimated from PCR results) are identified. Among them we found: unknown representative of Desulfobacteraceae which are able to oxidize sulphates and degrade benzenes (110m); PAH-degrading alpha-proteobacterium Sphingomonas natatoria (3400m); alpha-proteobacterium representing closely-related group of Sphingomonas sp. (e.g., S. aurantiaca) which are able to degrade PAH as well, and human pathogen closely related to Haloanella gallinarum of CFB group (3600m). Four additional species were revealed as single clones and showed relatedness to human pathogens and saprophytes as well as soil bacteria. These bacteria may represent drilling fluid contaminants introduced during its sampling or DNA extraction procedure. Of four major bacteria revealed, one species, Sphingomonas natatoria, has been met by us in the Vostok core from 3607 m depth (AF532054) whereas another Sphingomonas sp. which we refer to as S. aurantiaca was found in Antarctic microbial endolithic community (AF548567), hydrocarbon-containing soil near Scott Base in Antarctica (AF184221) and even isolated from 3593m Vostok accretion ice (AF324199) and Taylor Dome core (AF395031). The source for major human pathogen-related bacteria is rather uncertain

  15. Experimental study of fluid deicing system in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    An investigation of the icing of horizontal control surfaces at the VFW in 1970 led them to select the NASA Icing Research Tunnel at LRC for their tests. Tests were performed for the VFW 614 aircraft. The TKS ice warning system, the Rosemont ice warning system and the liquid water content indicator were investigated and found to be appropriate for the aircraft.

  16. Ice Detector and Deicing Fluid Effectiveness Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seegmiller, H. Lee B. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An ice detector and deicing fluid effectiveness monitoring system for an aircraft is disclosed. The ice detection portion is particularly suited for use in flight to notify the flight crew of an accumulation of ice on an aircraft lifting and control surfaces, or helicopter rotors, whereas the deicing fluid effectiveness monitoring portion is particularly suited for use on the ground to notify the flight crew of the possible loss of the effectiveness of the deicing fluid. The ice detection portion comprises a temperature sensor and a parallel arrangement of electrodes whose coefficient of coupling is indicative of the formation of the ice, as well as the thickness of the formed ice. The fluid effectiveness monitoring portion comprises a temperature sensor and an ionic-conduction cell array that measures the conductivity of the deicing fluid which is indicative of its concentration and, thus, its freezing point. By measuring the temperature and having knowledge of the freezing point of the deicing fluid, the fluid effectiveness monitoring portion predicts when the deicing fluid may lose its effectiveness because its freezing point may correspond to the temperature of the ambient.

  17. Evolution of Planetary Ice-Ocean Systems: Effects of Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allu Peddinti, D.; McNamara, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary oceanography is enjoying renewed attention thanks to not only the detection of several exoplanetary ocean worlds but also due to the expanding family of ocean worlds within our own star system. Our solar system is now believed to host about nine ocean worlds including Earth, some dwarf planets and few moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Amongst them, Europa, like Earth is thought to have an ice Ih-liquid water system. However, the thickness of the Europan ice-ocean system is much larger than that of the Earth. The evolution of this system would determine the individual thicknesses of the ice shell and the ocean. In turn, these thicknesses can alter the course of evolution of the system. In a pure H2O system, the thickness of the ice shell would govern if heat loss occurs entirely by conduction or if the shell begins to convect as it attains a threshold thickness. This switch between conduction-convection regimes could determine the longevity of the subsurface ocean and hence define the astrobiological potential of the planetary body at any given time. In reality, however, the system is not pure water ice. The detected induced magnetic field infers a saline ocean layer. Salts are expected to act as an anti-freeze allowing a subsurface ocean to persist over long periods but the amount of salts would determine the extent of that effect. In our current study, we use geodynamic models to examine the effect of salinity on the evolution of ice-ocean system. An initial ocean with different salinities is allowed to evolve. The effect of salinity on thickness of the two layers at any time is examined. We also track how salinity controls the switch between conductive-convective modes. The study shows that for a given time period, larger salinities can maintain a thick vigorously convecting ocean while the smaller salinities behave similar to a pure H2O system leading to a thick convecting ice-shell. A range of salinities identified can potentially predict the current state

  18. The NASA Icing Remote Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Brinker, David J.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Ryerson, Charles C.; Koenig, George G.

    2005-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) have an on-going activity to develop remote sensing technologies for the detection and measurement of icing conditions aloft. A multiple instrument approach is the current emphasis of this activity. Utilizing radar, radiometry, and lidar, a region of supercooled liquid is identified. If the liquid water content (LWC) is sufficiently high, then the region of supercooled liquid cloud is flagged as being an aviation hazard. The instruments utilized for the current effort are an X-band vertical staring radar, a radiometer that measures twelve frequencies between 22 and 59 GHz, and a lidar ceilometer. The radar data determine cloud boundaries, the radiometer determines the sub-freezing temperature heights and total liquid water content, and the ceilometer refines the lower cloud boundary. Data are post-processed with a LabVIEW program with a resultant supercooled LWC profile and aircraft hazard identification. Remotely sensed measurements gathered during the 2003-2004 Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS II) were compared to aircraft in-situ measurements. Although the comparison data set is quite small, the cases examined indicate that the remote sensing technique appears to be an acceptable approach.

  19. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction system icing. 33.68 Section 33.68 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system...

  20. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system icing. 33.68 Section 33.68 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system...

  1. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Induction system icing. 33.68 Section 33.68 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system...

  2. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system icing. 33.68 Section 33.68 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system...

  3. The Ice Diminishing Arctic:Needs for Science Informed Decision Making (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, K.

    2013-12-01

    The rapid reduction in Arctic Ocean sea ice cover and volume has lead to the need to increase the ability to carry out wide spread observations which will lead to the understanding of the causes and impacts on the Arctic region and the mid-latitudes as well. Physical changes (which far outpace the current models of sea ice loss) have not yet been properly characterized, nor have attibutions been developed which explain the causes of these changes. Impacts are thought to be profound on Arctic ecosystems, air-sea interactions, lateral and vertical heat gain and loss from a newly mixed ocean, and on newly eroding coastlines. Even more profound may be the impacts of a changing Arctic on the degradation of the Jet Stream which can lead to severe storms, unusual storm tracks and severe weather conditions in the mid-latitudes. These impacts are already in the global system. A question arises: How can we as scientists involved in the observations of these Arctic changes work with science agencies and Institutions to effectively inform the many policy decisions that will need to be made in response to these global changes.

  4. High Resolution Continuous Flow Analysis System for Polar Ice Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallmayr, Remi; Azuma, Kumiko; Yamada, Hironobu; Kjær, Helle Astrid; Vallelonga, Paul; Azuma, Nobuhiko; Takata, Morimasa

    2014-05-01

    In the last decades, Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) technology for ice core analyses has been developed to reconstruct the past changes of the climate system 1), 2). Compared with traditional analyses of discrete samples, a CFA system offers much faster and higher depth resolution analyses. It also generates a decontaminated sample stream without time-consuming sample processing procedure by using the inner area of an ice-core sample.. The CFA system that we have been developing is currently able to continuously measure stable water isotopes 3) and electrolytic conductivity, as well as to collect discrete samples for the both inner and outer areas with variable depth resolutions. Chemistry analyses4) and methane-gas analysis 5) are planned to be added using the continuous water stream system 5). In order to optimize the resolution of the current system with minimal sample volumes necessary for different analyses, our CFA system typically melts an ice core at 1.6 cm/min. Instead of using a wire position encoder with typical 1mm positioning resolution 6), we decided to use a high-accuracy CCD Laser displacement sensor (LKG-G505, Keyence). At the 1.6 cm/min melt rate, the positioning resolution was increased to 0.27mm. Also, the mixing volume that occurs in our open split debubbler is regulated using its weight. The overflow pumping rate is smoothly PID controlled to maintain the weight as low as possible, while keeping a safety buffer of water to avoid air bubbles downstream. To evaluate the system's depth-resolution, we will present the preliminary data of electrolytic conductivity obtained by melting 12 bags of the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core. The samples correspond to different climate intervals (Greenland Stadial 21, 22, Greenland Stadial 5, Greenland Interstadial 5, Greenland Interstadial 7, Greenland Stadial 8). We will present results for the Greenland Stadial -8, whose depths and ages are between 1723.7 and 1724.8 meters, and 35.520 to

  5. A Study of the Effects of Altitude on Thermal Ice Protection System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Gene; Oleskiw, Myron; Broeren, Andy P.; Orchard, David

    2013-01-01

    Thermal ice protection systems use heat energy to prevent a dangerous buildup of ice on an aircraft. As aircraft become more efficient, less heat energy is available to operate a thermal ice protections system. This requires that thermal ice protection systems be designed to more exacting standards so as to more efficiently prevent a dangerous ice buildup without adversely affecting aircraft safety. While the effects of altitude have always beeing taked into account in the design of thermal ice protection systems, a better understanding of these effects is needed so as to enable more exact design, testing, and evaluation of these systems.

  6. An Ice Protection and Detection Systems Manufacturer's Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, Dave

    2009-01-01

    Accomplishments include: World Class Aircraft Icing Research Center and Facility. Primary Sponsor/Partner - Aircraft Icing Consortia/Meetings. Icing Research Tunnel. Icing Test Aircraft. Icing Codes - LEWICE/Scaling, et al. Development of New Technologies (SBIR, STTR, et al). Example: Look Ahead Ice Detection. Pilot Training Materials. Full Cooperation with Academia, Government and Industry.

  7. Determination of Ice Water Path in Ice-over-Water Cloud Systems Using Combined MODIS and AMSR-E Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Jianping; Minnis, Patrick; Lin, Bing; Yi, Yuhong; Fan, T.-F.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Ayers, J. K.

    2006-01-01

    To provide more accurate ice cloud properties for evaluating climate models, the updated version of multi-layered cloud retrieval system (MCRS) is used to retrieve ice water path (IWP) in ice-over-water cloud systems over global ocean using combined instrument data from the Aqua satellite. The liquid water path (LWP) of lower layer water clouds is estimated from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) measurements. With the lower layer LWP known, the properties of the upper-level ice clouds are then derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer measurements by matching simulated radiances from a two-cloud layer radiative transfer model. Comparisons with single-layer cirrus systems and surface-based radar retrievals show that the MCRS can significantly improve the accuracy and reduce the over-estimation of optical depth and ice water path retrievals for ice over-water cloud systems. During the period from December 2004 through February 2005, the mean daytime ice cloud optical depth and IWP for overlapped ice-over-water clouds over ocean from Aqua are 7.6 and 146.4 gm(sup -2), respectively, significantly less than the initial single layer retrievals of 17.3 and 322.3 gm(sup -2). The mean IWP for actual single-layer clouds was 128.2 gm(sup -2).

  8. Automatic control study of the icing research tunnel refrigeration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, Arthur W.; Soeder, Ronald H.

    1991-01-01

    The Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) at the NASA Lewis Research Center is a subsonic, closed-return atmospheric tunnel. The tunnel includes a heat exchanger and a refrigeration plant to achieve the desired air temperature and a spray system to generate the type of icing conditions that would be encountered by aircraft. At the present time, the tunnel air temperature is controlled by manual adjustment of freon refrigerant flow control valves. An upgrade of this facility calls for these control valves to be adjusted by an automatic controller. The digital computer simulation of the IRT refrigeration plant and the automatic controller that was used in the simulation are discussed.

  9. 14 CFR 23.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... airplane with sea level engines using conventional venturi carburetors has a preheater that can provide a... sea level engine(s) using fuel metering device tending to prevent icing has a sheltered alternate... power; (5) Each airplane with sea level or altitude engine(s) using fuel injection systems...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... airplane with sea level engines using conventional venturi carburetors has a preheater that can provide a... sea level engine(s) using fuel metering device tending to prevent icing has a sheltered alternate... power; (5) Each airplane with sea level or altitude engine(s) using fuel injection systems...

  11. Evaluating an Ice-Storage System in a Deregulated Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staniewicz, Theodore J.; Watson, Joseph J.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the difficulties the electric industry's deregulation created for St. Joseph's University's (Philadelphia) development of a thermal ice-storage system as part of its HVAC design and the school's solution. A monthly equipment summary sheet with year-to-date figures is provided. (GR)

  12. 14 CFR 23.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... airplane with sea level engines using conventional venturi carburetors has a preheater that can provide a... sea level engine(s) using fuel metering device tending to prevent icing has a sheltered alternate... power; (5) Each airplane with sea level or altitude engine(s) using fuel injection systems...

  13. Ethane Ices in the Outer Solar System: Spectroscopy and Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, R. L.; Moore, M. H.; Raines, L. L.

    2009-01-01

    We report recent experiments on ethane ices made at temperatures applicable to the outer Solar System. New near- and mid-infrared data for crystalline and amorphous ethane, including new spectra for a seldom-studied solid phase that exists at 35-55 K, are presented along with radiation-chemical experiments showing the formation of more-complex hydrocarbons,

  14. The Ice Core Data Gateway: The one stop gateway to ice core data held at the Antarctic Glaciological Data Center (AGDC), the World Data Center for Paleoclimatology, and the Arctic System Science's Data Coordination Center (ADCC).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, R.; Scambos, T.; Eakin, M.; Anderson, D.; McNeave, C.

    2002-12-01

    The Ice Core Data Gateway archives and distributes physical and geochemical data from ice cores collected in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Typical data sets include age-depth relationships, oxygen and hydrogen isotope concentrations, major element chemistry, accumulation rates and pollen. The data are in general presented as ASCII files with a short text metadata description. The archive is designed to provide access to ice core data sets over the long term, thereby making them available for comparison with future data: a critical component of change detection studies. By facilitating broad data access, the center promotes interdisciplinary scientific research. Investigators are encouraged to contribute data sets derived from ice cores to the Ice Core Data Gateway. Data center staff will work with you to compile data set documentation prior to making the data available to users. Contributing scientists are given prominent recognition in the documentation, and while the data center answers technical questions about format, citations for usage, etc., it can refer scientific questions to contributors if requested. Contributing your data to the Ice Core Data Gateway and associated data centers directly supports to NSF Office of Polar Programs Guidelines and Award Conditions for Scientific Data (http://www.nsf.gov/pubsys/ods/getpub.cfm?opp991). This effort is being coordinated with the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Initiative and U.S. component of the International Trans Antarctic Science Expedition (ITASE), and includes data from the Arctic System Science Program's Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2) ice core.

  15. Decadal variability in coupled sea-ice-thermohaline circulation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Neelin, J.D.

    1997-12-01

    An interdecadal oscillation in a coupled ocean-ice system was identified in a previous study. This paper extends that study to further examine the stability of the oscillation and the sensitivity of its frequency to various parameters and forcing fields. Three models are used: (i) an analytical box model; (ii) a two-dimensional model for the ocean thermohaline circulation (THC) coupled to a thermodynamic ice model, as in the authors` previous study; and (iii) a three-dimensional ocean general circulation model (OGCM) coupled to a similar ice model. The box model is used to elucidate the essential feedbacks that give rise to this oscillation and to identify the most important parameters and processes that determine the period. The counted model becomes more stable toward low coupling, greater diffusion, and weaker THC feedback. Nonlinear effects in the sea-ice model become important in the higher ocean-ice coupling regime where the effective sea-ice damping associated with this nonlinearity stabilizes the model. The 3D OGCM is used to test this coupled ocean-ice mechanism in a more realistic model setting. This model generates an interdecadal oscillation whose characteristics and phase relations among the model variables are similar to the oscillation obtained in the 2D models. The major difference is that the oscillation frequency is considerably lower. The difference can be explained in terms of the analytical box model solution in which the period of oscillation depends on the rate of anomalous density production by melting/cooling of sea ice per SST anomaly, times the rate of warming/cooling by anomalous THC heat advection per change in density anomaly. The 3D model has a smaller THC response to high-latitude density perturbations than the 2D model, and anomalous velocities in the 3D case tend to follow the mean isotherms so anomalous heat advection is reduced. This slows the ocean-ice feedback process, leading to the longer oscillation period. 36 refs., 27 figs.

  16. Fully coupled ice sheet-earth system model: How does the Greenlandic ice sheet interact in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodehacke, C.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Vizcaino, M.

    2012-04-01

    As ice sheets belong to the slowest climate components, they are usually not interactively coupled in current climate models. Therefore, long-term climate projections are incomplete and only the consideration of ice sheet interactions allows tackling fundamental questions, such as how do ice sheets modify the reaction of the climate systems under a strong CO2 forcing? The earth system model MPI-ESM, with the atmosphere model ECHAM6 and ocean model MPIOM, is coupled to the modified ice sheet model PISM. This ice sheet model, which is developed at the University of Fairbanks, represents the ice sheet of Greenland at a horizontal resolution of 10 km. The coupling is performed by calculating the surface mass balance based on 6-hourly atmospheric data to determine the boundary condition for the ice sheet model. The response of the ice sheet to this forcing, which includes orographic changes and fresh water fluxes, are passed back to the ESM. In contrast to commonly used strategies, we use a mass conserving scheme and do therefore neither apply flux corrections nor utilize anomaly coupling. Under a strong CO2 forcing a disintegrating Greenlandic ice sheet contributes to a rising sea level and has the potential to alter the formation of deep water masses in the adjacent formation sites Labrador Sea and Nordic Seas. We will present results for an idealized forcing with a growing atmospheric CO2 concentration that rises by 1% per year until four-times the pre-industrial level has been reached. We will discuss the reaction of the ice sheet and immediate responses of the ocean to ice loss.

  17. Surface roughness due to residual ice in the use of low power deicing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jaiwon; Bond, Thomas H.

    1993-01-01

    Thicknesses of residual ice are presented to provide information on surface contamination and associated roughness during deicing events. Data was obtained from low power ice protection systems tests conducted in the Icing Research Tunnel at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) with nine different deicing systems. Results show that roughness associated with residual ice is not characterized by uniformly distributed roughness. Results also show that deicing systems require a critical mass of ice to generate a sufficient expelling force to remove the ice.

  18. Flow of ices in the Ammonia-Water System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, W. B.; Kirby, S. H.; Stern, L. A.

    1993-01-01

    We have fabricated in the laboratory and subsequently deformed crystalline hydrates and partial melts of the water-rich end of the NH3-H2O system, with the aim of improving our understanding of physical processes occurring in icy moons of the outer solar system. Deformation experiments were carried out at constant strain rate. The range of experimental variables are given. Phase relationships in the NH3-H2O system indicate that water ice and ammonia dihydrate, NH3-2H2O, are the stable phases under our experiment conditions. X-ray diffraction of our samples usually revealed these as the dominant phases, but we have also observed an amorphous phase (in unpressurized samples only) and occasionally significant ammonia monohydrate, NH3-H2O. The onset of partial melting at the peritectic temperature at about 176 K appeared as a sharp transition in strength observed in samples of x(sub NH3) = 0.05 and 0.01, the effect of melt was less pronounced. For any given water ice + dihydrate alloy in the subsolidus region, we observed one rheological law over the entire temperature range from 175 K to about 140 K. Below 140 K, a shear instability similar to that occurring in pure water ice under the same conditions limited our ability to measure ductile flow. The rheological laws for the several alloys vary systematically from that of pure ice to that of dihydrate. Pure dihydrate is about 4 orders of magnitude less viscous than water ice just below the peritectic temperature, but because of a very pronounced temperature dependence in dihydrate (100 kJ/mol versus 43 kJ/mol for water ice) the viscosity of dihydrate equals or exceeds that of water ice at T less than 140 K. The large variation in viscosity of dihydrate with relatively small changes in temperature may be helpful in explaining the rich variety of tectonic and volcanic features seen on the surfaces of icy moons in the outer solar system.

  19. A system of system lenses for leadership decision-making.

    PubMed

    Cady, Phil

    2016-01-01

    The sheer volume and dynamics among system agents in healthcare makes decision-making a daunting task at all levels. Being clear about what leaders mean by "healthcare system" is critical in aligning system strategy and leadership decision-making. This article presents an emerging set of lenses (ideology and beliefs, rational and irrational information processing, interpersonal social dynamics, process and value creation, and context) to help frame leadership decision-making in healthcare systems. PMID:26656390

  20. High-resolution wave forecasting system for the seasonally ice-covered Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuomi, Laura; Lehtiranta, Jonni

    2016-04-01

    When forecasting surface waves in seasonally ice-covered seas, the inclusion of ice conditions in the modelling is important. The ice cover affects the propagation and also changes the fetch over which the waves grow. In wave models the ice conditions are often still given as a boundary condition and handled by excluding areas where the ice concentration exceeds a certain threshold value. The ice data used are typically based on satellite analysis or expert analysis of local Ice Services who combine data from different sources. This type of data is sufficiently accurate to evaluate the near-real time ice concentrations, but when making forecasts it is also important to account for the possible changes in ice conditions. For example in a case of a high wind situation, there can be rapid changes in the ice field, when the wind and waves may push the ice towards shores and cause fragmentation of ice field. To enhance handling of ice conditions in the Baltic Sea wave forecasts, utilisation of ice model data was studied. Ice concentration, thickness produced by FMI's operational ice model HELMI were used to provide ice data to wave model as follows: Wave model grid points where the ice concentration was more than or equal to 70% and the ice thickness more than1 cm, were excluded from calculations. Ice concentrations smaller than that were taken into account as additional grid obstructions by decreasing the wave energy passed from one grid cell to another. A challenge in evaluating wave forecast accuracy in partly ice covered areas it that there's typically no wave buoy data available, since the buoys have to be recovered well before the sea area freezes. To evaluate the accuracy of wave forecast in partially ice covered areas, significant wave heights from altimeter's ERS2, Envisat, Jason-1 and Jason-2 were extracted from Ifremer database. Results showed that the more frequent update of the ice data was found to improve the wave forecast especially during high wind

  1. Origin of Water Ice in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunine, J. I.

    The origin and early distribution of water ice and more volatile compounds in the outer solar system is considered. The origin of water ice during planetary formation is at least twofold: It condenses beyond a certain distance from the proto-Sun - no more than 5 AU but perhaps as close as 2 AU - and it falls in from the surrounding molecular cloud. Because some of the infalling water ice is not sublimated in the ambient disk, complete mixing between these two sources was not achieved, and at least two populations of icy planetesimals may have been present in the protoplanetary disk. Added to this is a third reservoir of water ice planetesimals representing material chemically processed and then condensed in satellite-forming disks around giant planets. Water of hydration in silicates inward of the condensation front might be a separate source, if the hydration occurred directly from the nebular disk and not later in the parent bodies. The differences among these reservoirs of icy planetesimals ought to be reflected in diverse composition and abundance of trapped or condensed species more volatile than the water ice matrix, although radial mixing may have erased most of the differences. Possible sources of water for Earth are diverse, and include Mars-sized hydrated bodies in the asteroid belt, smaller "asteroidal" bodies, water adsorbed into dry silicate grains in the nebula, and comets.These different sources may be distinguished by their deuterium-to-hydrogen ratio, and by predictions on the relative amounts of water (and isotopic compositional differences) between Earth and Mars.

  2. Engine Icing Capability Enhancements for the Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The AC9C is holding their biannual committee meeting in Ottawa, Ontario on 18-20 October 2010. I have been asked to provide a short presentation of the status of the icing project upgrade to the PSL test facility. I will highlight the progress made during construction the past 6 months, our approach for checkout of the facility, and an overview of the system design and its capabilities. A copy of the presentation is attached.

  3. Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) Force Measurement System (FMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    An Electronics Engineer at the Glenn Research Center (GRC), requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) provide technical support for an evaluation of the existing force measurement system (FMS) at the GRC's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) with the intent of developing conceptual designs to improve the tunnel's force measurement capability in order to better meet test customer needs. This report contains the outcome of the NESC technical review.

  4. Cryosphere Science Outreach using the Ice Sheet System Model and a Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, D. L. C.; Halkides, D. J.; Larour, E. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the role of Cryosphere Science within the larger context of Sea Level Rise is both a technical and educational challenge that needs to be addressed if the public at large is to trulyunderstand the implications and consequences of Climate Change. Within this context, we propose a new approach in which scientific tools are used directly inside a mobile/website platform geared towards Education/Outreach. Here, we apply this approach by using the Ice Sheet System Model, a state of the art Cryosphere model developed at NASA, and integrated within a Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory, with the goal is to outreach Cryospherescience to K-12 and College level students. The approach mixes laboratory experiments, interactive classes/lessons on a website, and a simplified interface to a full-fledged instance of ISSM to validate the classes/lessons. This novel approach leverages new insights from the Outreach/Educational community and the interest of new generations in web based technologies and simulation tools, all of it delivered in a seamlessly integrated web platform. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory undera contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cryosphere Science Program.

  5. Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems in Observations of Glaciers, Ice Sheets, Sea Ice and Snow Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzfeld Mayer, M. U.

    2015-12-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are being used increasingly in observations of the Earth, especially as such UAS become smaller, lighter and hence less expensive. In this paper, we present examples of observations of snow fields, glaciers and ice sheets and of sea ice in the Arctic that have been collected from UAS. We further examine possibilities for instrument miniaturization, using smaller UAS and smaller sensors for collecting data. The quality and type of data is compared to that of satellite observations, observations from manned aircraft and to measurements made during field experiments on the ground. For example, a small UAS can be sent out to observe a sudden event, such as a natural catastrophe, and provide high-resolution imagery, but a satellite has the advantage of providing the same type of data over much of the Earth's surface and for several years, but the data is generally of lower resolution. Data collected on the ground typically have the best control and quality, but the survey area is usually small. Here we compare micro-topographic measurements made on snow fields the Colorado Rocky Mountains with airborne and satellite data.

  6. Processing Mechanisms for Interstellar Ices: Connections to the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, Y. J.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The organic component of the interstellar medium, which has revealed itself through the ubiquitous 3.4 micrometers hydrocarbon absorption feature, is widespread throughout the disk of our galaxy and has been attributed to dust grains residing in the diffuse interstellar medium. The absorption band positions near 3.4 micrometers are characteristic of C-H stretching vibrations in the -CH3 and -CH2- groups of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons associated with perturbing chemical groups. The production of complex molecules is thought to occur within dense molecular clouds when ice-mantled grains are processed by various energetic mechanisms. Studies of the processing of interstellar ices and the subsequent production of organic residues have relevance to studies of ices in the solar system, because primitive, icy solar system bodies such as those in the Kuiper belt are likely reservoirs of organic material, either preserved from the interstellar medium or produced in situ. Connections between the interstellar medium and the early solar nebula have long been a source of interest. A comparison of the interstellar organics and the Murchison meteorite illustrates the importance of probing the interstellar connection to the solar system, because although the carbonaceous meteorites are undoubtedly highly processed, they do retain specific interstellar signatures (such as diamonds, SiC grains, graphite and enriched D/H). The organic component, while not proven interstellar, has a remarkable similarity to the interstellar organics observed in over a dozen sightlines through our galaxy. This paper compares spectra from laboratory organics produced through the processing of interstellar ice analog materials with the high resolution infrared observations of the interstellar medium in order to investigate the mechanisms (such as ion bombardment, plasma processing, and UV photolysis) that may be producing the organics in the ISM.

  7. Making Technology Ready: Integrated Systems Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Oliver, Patrick J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper identifies work needed by developers to make integrated system health management (ISHM) technology ready and by programs to make mission infrastructure ready for this technology. This paper examines perceptions of ISHM technologies and experience in legacy programs. Study methods included literature review and interviews with representatives of stakeholder groups. Recommendations address 1) development of ISHM technology, 2) development of ISHM engineering processes and methods, and 3) program organization and infrastructure for ISHM technology evolution, infusion and migration.

  8. Enceladus: An Active Ice World in the Saturn System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, John R.; Nimmo, Francis

    2013-05-01

    Enceladus, one of the mid-sized icy moons of Saturn, has an importance to planetary science far greater than its modest 504-km diameter would suggest. Intensive exploration of Enceladus by the Cassini Saturn orbiter has revealed that it is the only known icy world in the solar system with ongoing deep-seated geological activity. Active tectonic fractures at Enceladus's south pole, dubbed “tiger stripes,” warmed by internal tidally generated heat, spew supersonic jets of water vapor, other gases, and ice particles into circum-Saturnian space. A subsurface saltwater sea probably exists under the south pole, between the ice shell and the silicate core. Because of evidence that liquid water is probably present at the jet sources, Enceladus is also of great astrobiological interest as a potential habitat for life.

  9. The Effect of Ice Shelf Meltwater on Antarctic Sea Ice and the Southern Ocean in an Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauling, A.; Bitz, C. M.; Smith, I.; Langhorne, P.

    2015-12-01

    It has been suggested that recent Antarctic sea ice expansion resulted from an increase in fresh water reaching the Southern Ocean. This presentation investigates this conjecture in an Earth System Model. The freshwater flux from ice sheet and ice shelf mass imbalance is largely missing in models that participated in the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). However, CMIP5 models do account for the fresh water from precipitation minus evaporation (P-E). On average in CMIP5 models P- E reaching the Southern Ocean has increased to a present value of about 2600 Gt yr-1 greater than pre-industrial times and 3-8 times larger than estimates of the mass imbalance of Antarctic ice sheets and shelves. Two sets of model experiments were conducted from 1980-2013 in CESM1-CAM5 artificially distributing fresh water either at the ocean surface according to an estimate of iceberg melt, or at the ice shelf fronts at depth. An anomalous reduction in vertical advection of heat into the surface mixed layer resulted in sea surface cooling at high southern latitudes, and an associated increase in sea ice area. A freshwater enhancement of 1780 Gt yr-1 (approximately 1.3 times either present day basal melt or iceberg calving freshwater fluxes) raised the sea ice total area by 1×106 km2. Yet, even a freshwater enhancement up to 2670 Gt yr-1 was insufficient to offset the sea ice decline due to anthropogenic forcing for any period of 20 years or longer. Further, the sea ice response was found to be insensitive to the depth of fresh water injection.

  10. Making the most of residential photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, S.; Parker, D.; Hayter, S.

    1999-10-18

    Making the Most of Residential Photovoltaic Systems, was recently produced by NREL Communications and Public Affairs. It showcases a demonstration project in Florida that produced some remarkable results by incorporating both energy efficiency and photovoltaic systems into newly built housing. The brochure points up the benefits of making wise personal choices about energy use, and how large-scale use of advanced energy technologies can benefit the nation. This is one of a series of brochures that presents stimulating information about photovoltaics, with a goal of helping to push this technology into the power-generation mix in different utilities, communities, and states.

  11. ICE Raids, Children, Media, and Making Sense of Latino Newcomers in Flyover Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Edmund T.; Reeves, Jenelle

    2012-01-01

    Extant cultural models articulated in "Flyover Country" print media responses to ICE workplace raids showed a welcome of sorts of Latino newcomers. These models suggest a place for Latino students at school and more broadly for Latino children and parents in these communities. Thus, they index an unwillingness to see Latino newcomers in…

  12. EUV-VUV Photolysis of Molecular Ice Systems of Astronomical Interest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. Y. Robert; Judge, D. L.; Cheng, B.-M.

    2006-01-01

    We wish to report laboratory simulation results obtained from extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis of molecular ices relevant to the cometary-type ices and icy satellites of planetary systems. Specifically, we identify the type of molecules that form in the ices and/or those that come off the ice surfaces, quantify their production yields and destruction yields, understand their production mechanisms, and ascertain their significance in astronomical environments.

  13. JBluIce-EPICS control system for macromolecular crystallography.

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, S.; Makarov, O.; Hilgart, M.; Pothineni, S.; Urakhchin, A.; Devarapalli, S.; Yoder, D.; Becker, M.; Ogata, C.; Sanishvili, R.; Nagarajan, V.; Smith, J. L.; Fischetti, R. F.

    2011-01-01

    The trio of macromolecular crystallography beamlines constructed by the General Medicine and Cancer Institutes Collaborative Access Team (GM/CA-CAT) in Sector 23 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) have been in growing demand owing to their outstanding beam quality and capacity to measure data from crystals of only a few micrometres in size. To take full advantage of the state-of-the-art mechanical and optical design of these beamlines, a significant effort has been devoted to designing fast, convenient, intuitive and robust beamline controls that could easily accommodate new beamline developments. The GM/CA-CAT beamline controls are based on the power of EPICS for distributed hardware control, the rich Java graphical user interface of Eclipse RCP and the task-oriented philosophy as well as the look and feel of the successful SSRL BluIce graphical user interface for crystallography. These beamline controls feature a minimum number of software layers, the wide use of plug-ins that can be written in any language and unified motion controls that allow on-the-fly scanning and optimization of any beamline component. This paper describes the ways in which BluIce was combined with EPICS and converted into the Java-based JBluIce, discusses the solutions aimed at streamlining and speeding up operations and gives an overview of the tools that are provided by this new open-source control system for facilitating crystallographic experiments, especially in the field of microcrystallography.

  14. NASA Icing Remote Sensing System Comparisons From AIRS II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Brinker, David J.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.

    2005-01-01

    NASA has an on-going activity to develop remote sensing technologies for the detection and measurement of icing conditions aloft. A multiple instrument approach is the current emphasis of this activity. Utilizing radar, radiometry, and lidar, a region of supercooled liquid is identified. If the liquid water content (LWC) is sufficiently high, then the region of supercooled liquid cloud is flagged as being an aviation hazard. The instruments utilized for the current effort are an X-band vertical staring radar, a radiometer that measures twelve frequencies between 22 and 59 GHz, and a lidar ceilometer. The radar data determine cloud boundaries, the radiometer determines the sub-freezing temperature heights and total liquid water content, and the ceilometer refines the lower cloud boundary. Data is post-processed with a LabVIEW program with a resultant supercooled LWC profile and aircraft hazard identification. Individual remotely sensed measurements gathered during the 2003-2004 Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS II) were compared to aircraft in-situ measurements. Comparisons between the remote sensing system s fused icing product and in-situ measurements from the research aircraft are reviewed here. While there are areas where improvement can be made, the cases examined indicate that the fused sensor remote sensing technique appears to be a valid approach.

  15. Transport, hysteresis and avalanches in artificial spin ice systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reichhardt, Charles; Reichhardt, Cynthia J; Libal, A

    2010-01-01

    We examine the hopping dynamics of an artificial spin ice system constructed from colloids on a kagome optical trap array where each trap has two possible states. By applying an external drive from an electric field which is analogous to a biasing applied magnetic field for real spin systems, we can create polarized states that obey the spin-ice rules of two spins in and one spin out at each vertex. We demonstrate that when we sweep the external drive and measure the fraction of the system that has been polarized, we can generate a hysteresis loop analogous to the hysteretic magnetization versus external magnetic field curves for real spin systems. The disorder in our system can be readily controlled by changing the barrier that must be overcome before a colloid can hop from one side of a trap to the other. For systems with no disorder, the effective spins all flip simultaneously as the biasing field is changed, while for strong disorder the hysteresis curves show a series of discontinuous jumps or avalanches similar to Barkhausen noise.

  16. Involving the motor system in decision making.

    PubMed

    Wyss, Reto; König, Peter; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2004-02-01

    The control of behaviour is usually understood in terms of three distinct components: sensory processing, decision making and movement control. Recently, this view has been questioned on the basis of physiological and behavioural data, blurring the distinction between these three stages. This raises the question to what extent the motor system itself can contribute to the interpretation of behavioural situations. To investigate this question we use a neural model of sensory motor integration applied to a behaving mobile robot performing a navigation task. We show that the population response of the motor system provides a substrate for the categorization of behavioural situations. This categorization allows for the assessment of the complexity of a behavioural situation and regulates whether higher-level decision making is required to resolve behavioural conflicts. Our model lends credence to an emerging reconceptualization of behavioural control where the motor system can be considered as part of a high-level perceptual system. PMID:15101417

  17. Respecting Teachers' Diverse Decision-Making Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starnes, Bobby Ann

    1999-01-01

    Reflects on teachers' diverse decision-making systems. Matching teachers' beliefs, or frameworks, to the programs they are asked to use is crucial to success and sustainability. Incompatible programs and curricula that are forced on teachers will not succeed. Examples of "teacher-proof" programs illustrate this viewpoint. (CDS)

  18. NACA Investigations of Icing-Protection Systems for Turbojet-Engine Installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VonGlahn, Uwe; Callaghan, Edmund E.; Gray, Vernon H.

    1951-01-01

    Investigations have been made in flight and in wind tunnels to determine which components of turbojet installations are most critical in icing conditions, and to evaluate several methods of icing protection. From these studies, the requirements necessary for adequate icing protection and the consequent penalties on engine performance can be estimated. Because investigations have indicated that the compressor-inlet screen constitutes the greatest icing hazard and is difficult to protect, complete removal or retraction of the screen upon encountering an icing condition is recommended. In the absence of the screen, the inlet guide vanes of an axial-flow-type turbojet engine constitute the greatest danger to engine operation in an icing condition; a centrifugal-type engine, on the other hand, is relatively unsusceptible to icing once the screen has been removed. Of the three icing-protection systems investigated, surface heating, hot-gas bleedback, and inertia-separation inlets, only the first two offer an acceptable solution to the problem of engine icing protection. Surface heating, either by gas heating or electrical means, appears to be the most acceptable icing-protection method with regard to performance losses. Hot-gas bleedback, although causing undesirable thrust losses, offers an easy means of obtaining icing protection for some installations. The final choice of an icing-protection system depends, however, on the supply of heated gas and electrical power available and on the allowable performance and. weight penalties associated with each system.

  19. Icing tunnel tests of a composite porous leading edge for use with a liquid anti-ice system. [Lewis icing research tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlman, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The efficacy of liquid ice protection systems which distribute a glycol-water solution onto leading edge surfaces through a porous skin was demonstrated in tests conducted in the NASA Lewis icing research tunnel using a composite porous leading edge panels. The data obtained were compared with the performance of previously tested stainless steel leading edge with the same geometry. Results show: (1) anti-ice protection of a composite leading edge is possible for all the simulated conditions tested; (2) the glycol flow rates required to achieve anti-ice protection were generally much higher than those required for a stainless steel panel; (3) the low reservoir pressures of the glycol during test runs indicates that more uniform distribution of glycol, and therefore lower glycol flow rates, can probably be achieved by decreasing the porosity of the panel; and (4) significant weight savings can be achieved in fluid ice protection systems with composite porous leading edges. The resistance of composite panels to abrasion and erosion must yet be determined before they can be incorporated in production systems.

  20. The pre-LGM evolution of the Uummannaq ice Stream system in West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, David; Lane, Tim; Rea, Brice; Jamieson, Stewart

    2016-04-01

    Ice streams are a key component of an ice sheet system. They are fast flowing, dynamic corridors of ice that play a pivotal role in modulating ice flux from the interior of an ice sheet to its terrestrial or marine margin. The behaviour of marine-terminating ice streams in particular is critical in determining the dynamic (in)stability of ice sheets and ice/ocean interaction through time. However, despite an increase in palaeo-ice stream reconstructions and improvements in numerical modelling, in many instances we know little about the evolution of ice streams beyond the last glacial cycle. This is particularly true for topographically-guided or constrained ice stream systems that must represent the end-member state of a system that has developed over million year time scales. Recent research suggests that topographic focussing, subglacial geology, meltwater routing and calving margins are the primary controls on ice stream evolution. However, few studies have considered the combined role of geology, pre Quaternary landscapes and uplift in pre-conditioning a landscape for ice stream onset. This paper explores the factors that have controlled the evolution of the Uummannaq Ice Stream (UIS) system in West Greenland. During the last glacial cycle the UIS was a topographically-guided system, but the variables that led to ice stream onset prior to the Late Quaternary remain poorly understood. Geology, selective linear erosion and dynamic feedbacks were all important controls, but the influence of rifting, early uplift and pre-glacial topography in particular may have been pivotal controls on the evolution and location of the UIS onset zone.

  1. Spray nozzle investigation for the Improved Helicopter Icing Spray System (IHISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Andrew A.; Oldenburg, John R.

    1990-01-01

    A contract has been awarded by the U.S. Army to design, fabricate and test a replacement for the existing Helicopter Icing Spray System. Data are shown for extensive bench and icing tunnel test programs used to select and modify an improved spray nozzle. The IHISS, capable of deployment from any CH-47 helicopter, will include new icing spray nozzles and pneumatic pressure source, and a significantly larger water tank and spray boom. The resulting system will provide a significantly larger icing cloud with droplet characteristics closely matching natural icing conditions.

  2. Ground-Based Icing Condition Remote Sensing System Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Koenig, George G.

    2001-01-01

    This report documents the NASA Glenn Research Center activities to assess and down select remote sensing technologies for the purpose of developing a system capable of measuring icing condition hazards aloft. The information generated by such a remote sensing system is intended for use by the entire aviation community, including flight crews. air traffic controllers. airline dispatchers, and aviation weather forecasters. The remote sensing system must be capable of remotely measuring temperature and liquid water content (LWC), and indicating the presence of super-cooled large droplets (SLD). Technologies examined include Profiling Microwave Radiometer, Dual-Band Radar, Multi-Band Radar, Ka-Band Radar. Polarized Ka-Band Radar, and Multiple Field of View (MFOV) Lidar. The assessment of these systems took place primarily during the Mt. Washington Icing Sensors Project (MWISP) in April 1999 and the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS) from November 1999 to February 2000. A discussion of the various sensing technologies is included. The result of the assessment is that no one sensing technology can satisfy all of the stated project goals. Therefore a proposed system includes radiometry and Ka-band radar. A multilevel approach is proposed to allow the future selection of the fielded system based upon required capability and available funding. The most basic level system would be the least capable and least expensive. The next level would increase capability and cost, and the highest level would be the most capable and most expensive to field. The Level 1 system would consist of a Profiling Microwave Radiometer. The Level 2 system would add a Ka-Band Radar. The Level 3 system would add polarization to the Ka-Band Radar. All levels of the system would utilize hardware that is already under development by the U.S. Government. However, to meet the needs of the aviation community, all levels of the system will require further development. In addition to the proposed system

  3. Naturalistic Decision Making For Power System Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Podmore, Robin; Robinson, Marck; Ey, Pamela

    2009-06-23

    Abstract: Motivation -- As indicated by the Blackout of 2003, the North American interconnected electric system is vulnerable to cascading outages and widespread blackouts. Investigations of large scale outages often attribute the causes to the three T’s: Trees, Training and Tools. A systematic approach has been developed to document and understand the mental processes that an expert power system operator uses when making critical decisions. The approach has been developed and refined as part of a capability demonstration of a high-fidelity real-time power system simulator under normal and emergency conditions. To examine naturalistic decision making (NDM) processes, transcripts of operator-to-operator conversations are analyzed to reveal and assess NDM-based performance criteria. Findings/Design -- The results of the study indicate that we can map the Situation Awareness Level of the operators at each point in the scenario. We can also identify clearly what mental models and mental simulations are being performed at different points in the scenario. As a result of this research we expect that we can identify improved training methods and improved analytical and visualization tools for power system operators. Originality/Value -- The research applies for the first time, the concepts of Recognition Primed Decision Making, Situation Awareness Levels and Cognitive Task Analysis to training of electric power system operators. Take away message -- The NDM approach provides an ideal framework for systematic training management and mitigation to accelerate learning in team-based training scenarios with high-fidelity power grid simulators.

  4. The Role of Snow and Ice in the Climate System

    ScienceCinema

    Barry, Roger G.

    2009-09-01

    Global snow and ice cover (the 'cryosphere') plays a major role in global climate and hydrology through a range of complex interactions and feedbacks, the best known of which is the ice - albedo feedback. Snow and ice cover undergo marked seasonal and long term changes in extent and thickness. The perennial elements - the major ice sheets and permafrost - play a role in present-day regional and local climate and hydrology, but the large seasonal variations in snow cover and sea ice are of importance on continental to hemispheric scales. The characteristics of these variations, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, and evidence for recent trends in snow and ice extent are discussed.

  5. The Role of Snow and Ice in the Climate System

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, Roger G.

    2007-12-19

    Global snow and ice cover (the 'cryosphere') plays a major role in global climate and hydrology through a range of complex interactions and feedbacks, the best known of which is the ice - albedo feedback. Snow and ice cover undergo marked seasonal and long term changes in extent and thickness. The perennial elements - the major ice sheets and permafrost - play a role in present-day regional and local climate and hydrology, but the large seasonal variations in snow cover and sea ice are of importance on continental to hemispheric scales. The characteristics of these variations, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, and evidence for recent trends in snow and ice extent are discussed.

  6. Systems and Techniques for Identifying and Avoiding Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John

    1995-01-01

    In-flight icing is one of the most difficult aviation weather hazards facing general aviation. Because most aircraft in the general aviation category are not certified for flight into known icing conditions, techniques for identifying and avoiding in-flight ice are important to maintain safety while increasing the utility and dispatch capability which is part of the AGATE vision. This report summarizes a brief study effort which: (1) Reviewed current ice identification, forecasting, and avoidance techniques; (2) Assessed feasibility of improved forecasting and ice avoidance procedures; and (3) Identified key issues for the development of improved capability with regard to in-flight icing.

  7. Volume Ice Radiolysis in the Outer Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Cooper, P. D.

    2006-05-01

    The primary energy flux of charged particle components of the heliospheric and magnetospheric environments of the solar system is primarily carried by highly penetrating energetic particles. Although laboratory experiments on production of organics and oxidants typically only address effects on very thin surface layers, energy deposition occurs on surfaces of icy bodies of the outer solar system to meters in depth. Time scales for significant radiolytic deposition vary from thousands of years at millimeter depths on Europa to billions of years in the meters-deep regolith of Kuiper Belt Objects. Radioisotope decay (e.g., K-40) also contributes to volume radiolysis as the only energy source at much greater depths. Radiolytic oxygen is a potential resource for life within Europa and a partial source of oxygen for Saturn's magnetosphere and Titan's upper atmosphere. Interactions of very high energy cosmic rays with ices at Titan's surface may provide one of the few sources of oxidants in that organic-rich environment. The red colors of low-inclination classical Kuiper Belt Objects at 40- 50 AU, and Centaur objects originating from this same population, may arise from volume radiolysis of deep ice layers below more refractory radiation crusts eroded away by surface sputtering and micrometeoroid impacts. A variety of techniques are potentially available to measure volume radiolysis products and have been proposed for study as part of the new Space Physics of Life initiative at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The technique of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) has been used in medical studies to measure oxidant production in irradiated human tissue for cancer treatment. Other potential techniques include optical absorption spectroscopy and standard wet chemical analysis. These and other potential techniques are briefly reviewed for applicability to problems in solar system ice radiolysis and astrobiology.

  8. A method of predicting flow rates required to achieve anti-icing performance with a porous leading edge ice protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlman, D. L.; Albright, A. E.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical method was developed for predicting minimum flow rates required to provide anti-ice protection with a porous leading edge fluid ice protection system. The predicted flow rates compare with an average error of less than 10 percent to six experimentally determined flow rates from tests in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel on a general aviation wing section.

  9. The effect of sea ice on the solar energy budget in the astmosphere-sea ice-ocean system: A model study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Z.; Stamnes, Knut; Weeks, W. F.; Tsay, Si-Chee

    1994-01-01

    A coupled one-dimensional multilayer and multistream radiative transfer model has been developed and applied to the study of radiative interactions in the atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean system. The consistent solution of the radiative transfer equation in this coupled system automatically takes into account the refraction and reflection at the air-ice interface and allows flexibility in choice of stream numbers. The solar radiation spectrum (0.25 micron-4.0 micron) is divided into 24 spectral bands to account adequately for gaseous absorption in the atmosphere. The effects of ice property changes, including salinity and density variations, as well as of melt ponds and snow cover variations over the ice on the solar energy distribution in the entire system have been studied quantitatively. The results show that for bare ice it is the scattering, determined by air bubbles and brine pockets, in just a few centimeters of the top layer of ice that plays the most important role in the solar energy absorption and partitioning in the entire system. Ice thickness is important to the energy distribution only when the ice is thin, while the absorption in the atmosphere is not sensitive to ice thickness exceeds about 70 cm. The presence of clouds moderates all the sensitivities of the absorptive amounts in each layer to the variations in the ice properties and ice thickness. Comparisons with observational spectral albedo values for two simple ice types are also presented.

  10. A method of predicting flow rates required to achieve anti-icing performance with a porous leading edge ice protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlman, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    A proposed method of analytically predicting the minimum fluid flow rate required to provide anti-ice protection with a porous leading edge system on a wing under a given set of flight conditions is presented. Results of the proposed method are compared with the actual results of an icing test of a real wing section in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel.

  11. Making real-time reactive systems reliable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzullo, Keith; Wood, Mark

    1990-01-01

    A reactive system is characterized by a control program that interacts with an environment (or controlled program). The control program monitors the environment and reacts to significant events by sending commands to the environment. This structure is quite general. Not only are most embedded real time systems reactive systems, but so are monitoring and debugging systems and distributed application management systems. Since reactive systems are usually long running and may control physical equipment, fault tolerance is vital. The research tries to understand the principal issues of fault tolerance in real time reactive systems and to build tools that allow a programmer to design reliable, real time reactive systems. In order to make real time reactive systems reliable, several issues must be addressed: (1) How can a control program be built to tolerate failures of sensors and actuators. To achieve this, a methodology was developed for transforming a control program that references physical value into one that tolerates sensors that can fail and can return inaccurate values; (2) How can the real time reactive system be built to tolerate failures of the control program. Towards this goal, whether the techniques presented can be extended to real time reactive systems is investigated; and (3) How can the environment be specified in a way that is useful for writing a control program. Towards this goal, whether a system with real time constraints can be expressed as an equivalent system without such constraints is also investigated.

  12. Study on Supercooling Release in Encapsulated Ice System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Yooko; Hasegawa, Hiromi; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Kurosaki, Kenji; Sato, Mamoru; Watanabe, Kenji; Iwatsubo, Tetsushiro

    As regards the supercooling phenomena which is important matter in encapsulated ice system, we studied the supercooling release agent using the microorganism. Though the nucleation active bacteria had the high super cooling release ability, it was proved that the performance gradually lowered in long terms continuous use, when the live microorganism was used. In order to solve this problem, the sterilization treatment of the microorganism was examined and it was clariiied that there was the high effect in the ultraviolet irradiation. In addition, the persistence of the supercooling release ability is improved by freeze-drying treatment.

  13. Sputtering of ices in the outer solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Exploration of the outer solar system has led to studies in a new area of physics: electronically induced sputtering of low-temperature, condensed-gas solids (ices). Many of the icy bodies in the outer solar system were found to be bombarded by relatively intense fluxes of ions and electrons, causing both changes in their optical reflectance and ejection (sputtering) of molecules from their surfaces. The small cohesive energies of the condensed-gas solids afford relatively large sputtering rates from the electronic excitations produced in the solid by fast ions and electrons. Such sputtering produces an ambient gas about an icy body, often the source of the local plasma. This colloquium outlines the physics of the sputtering of ices and its relevance to several outer-solar-system phenomena: the sputter-produced plasma trapped in Saturn{close_quote}s magnetosphere; the O{sub 2} atmosphere on Europa; and optical absorption features such as SO{sub 2} in the surface of Europa and O{sub 2} and, possibly, O{sub 3} in the surface of Ganymede. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  14. Lunar South Pole ice as heat sink for Lunar cryofuel production system

    SciTech Connect

    Zuppero, A.; Stanley, M.; Modro, S.M.; Whitman, P.

    1995-03-01

    Recent Clementine bistatic radar data suggest that water ice may be present in a {open_quotes}forever shaded{close_quotes} depression or crater at the South Pole of the Moon. The ice is a feedstock for the electrolysis production of cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen rocket fuels for a transportation system on the moon and for leaving and descending on to the moon. The ice also provides a convective heat sink critical to the practical implementation of high throughput electric power generators and refrigerators that liquefy and cool the oxygen and hydrogen into cryogenic rocket fuel. This brief analysis shows that about a hundred tonnes of hardware delivered to the lunar surface can produce tens of thousands of tonnes of rocket fuel per year, on the moon. And it makes the point that if convective cooling is used instead of radiative cooling, then power and processing systems can be used that exist and have been tested already. This shortens the time by an order of magnitude to develop lunar operations. Quick deployment of a chemical cryofuel energy source is a key factor in the economics of lunar development.

  15. Ice Thermal Storage Systems for Nuclear Power Plant Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

    2013-03-01

    Availability of cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. One potential solution is to use ice thermal storage (ITS) systems that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses the ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS also provides a way to shift a large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body, adding ITS can bring significant economic benefits and avoid forced derating and shutdown during extremely hot weather. For the new plants using dry cooling towers, adding the ITS systems can effectively reduce the efficiency loss during hot weather so that new plants could be considered in regions lack of cooling water. This paper will review light water reactor cooling issues and present the feasibility study results.

  16. The ancient heritage of water ice in the solar system.

    PubMed

    Cleeves, L Ilsedore; Bergin, Edwin A; Alexander, Conel M O'D; Du, Fujun; Graninger, Dawn; Öberg, Karin I; Harries, Tim J

    2014-09-26

    Identifying the source of Earth's water is central to understanding the origins of life-fostering environments and to assessing the prevalence of such environments in space. Water throughout the solar system exhibits deuterium-to-hydrogen enrichments, a fossil relic of low-temperature, ion-derived chemistry within either (i) the parent molecular cloud or (ii) the solar nebula protoplanetary disk. Using a comprehensive treatment of disk ionization, we find that ion-driven deuterium pathways are inefficient, which curtails the disk's deuterated water formation and its viability as the sole source for the solar system's water. This finding implies that, if the solar system's formation was typical, abundant interstellar ices are available to all nascent planetary systems. PMID:25258075

  17. On-ice vibroseis and snowstreamer systems for geoscientific research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisen, Olaf; Hofstede, Coen; Diez, Anja; Kristoffersen, Yngve; Lambrecht, Astrid; Mayer, Christoph; Blenkner, Rick; Hilmarsson, Sverrir

    2015-03-01

    We present implementations of vibroseis system configurations with a snowstreamer for over-ice long-distance seismic traverses (>100 km). The configurations have been evaluated in Antarctica on ice sheet and ice shelf areas in the period 2010-2014. We discuss results of two different vibroseis sources: Failing Y-1100 on skis with a peak force of 120 kN in the frequency range 10-110 Hz; IVI EnviroVibe with a nominal peak force of 66 kN in the nominal frequency range 10-300 Hz. All measurements used a well-established 60 channel 1.5 km snowstreamer for the recording. Employed forces during sweeps were limited to less than 80% of the peak force. Maximum sweep frequencies, with a typical duration of 10 s, were 100 and 250 Hz for the Failing and EnviroVibe, respectively. Three different concepts for source movement were employed: the Failing vibrator was mounted with wheels on skis and pulled by a Pistenbully snow tractor. The EnviroVibe was operated self-propelled on Mattracks on the Antarctic plateau. This lead to difficulties in soft snow. For later implementations the EnviroVibe with tracks was put on a polyethylene (PE) sled. The sled had a hole in the center to lower the vibrator baseplate directly onto the snow surface. With the latter setup, data production varied between 20 km/day for 6-fold and 40 km/day for single fold for 9 h/day of measurements. The combination of tracks with the PE-sled was especially advantageous on hard and rough surfaces because of the flexibility of each component and the relatively lose mounting. The systems presented here are suitable to obtain data of subglacial and sub-seabed sediment layers and englacial layering in comparable quality as obtained from marine geophysics and land-based explosive surveys. The large offset aperture of the streamer overcomes limitations of radar systems for imaging of steep along-track subglacial topography. With joint international scientific and logistic efforts, large-scale mapping of Antarctica

  18. Information Processing in Decision-Making Systems

    PubMed Central

    van der Meer, Matthijs; Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Redish, A. David

    2015-01-01

    Decisions result from an interaction between multiple functional systems acting in parallel to process information in very different ways, each with strengths and weaknesses. In this review, the authors address three action-selection components of decision-making: The Pavlovian system releases an action from a limited repertoire of potential actions, such as approaching learned stimuli. Like the Pavlovian system, the habit system is computationally fast but, unlike the Pavlovian system permits arbitrary stimulus-action pairings. These associations are a “forward” mechanism; when a situation is recognized, the action is released. In contrast, the deliberative system is flexible but takes time to process. The deliberative system uses knowledge of the causal structure of the world to search into the future, planning actions to maximize expected rewards. Deliberation depends on the ability to imagine future possibilities, including novel situations, and it allows decisions to be taken without having previously experienced the options. Various anatomical structures have been identified that carry out the information processing of each of these systems: hippocampus constitutes a map of the world that can be used for searching/imagining the future; dorsal striatal neurons represent situation-action associations; and ventral striatum maintains value representations for all three systems. Each system presents vulnerabilities to pathologies that can manifest as psychiatric disorders. Understanding these systems and their relation to neuroanatomy opens up a deeper way to treat the structural problems underlying various disorders. PMID:22492194

  19. Modeling the seasonal variability of a coupled Arctic ice-ocean system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Mellor, George L.

    1992-01-01

    The seasonal variability of the ice-ocean system in the Arctic Basin and the Norwegian, Greenland, and Barents Seas was modeled using a three-dimensional coupled ice-ocean model developed at Princeton University. The snow-ice model uses a three-level thermodynamic scheme similar to Semtner's (1976), but is extended to include the effect of leads. It is shown that simulations using the climatological monthly forcing fields produce a realistic seasonal variability of the ice cover. The ice thickness had a considerable sensitivity to the choice of the long-wave back radiation scheme, but these effects can be reduced through dynamical factors.

  20. Naturalistic Decision Making for Power System Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Podmore, Robin; Robinson, Marck; Ey, Pamela

    2010-02-01

    Motivation – Investigations of large-scale outages in the North American interconnected electric system often attribute the causes to three T’s: Trees, Training and Tools. To document and understand the mental processes used by expert operators when making critical decisions, a naturalistic decision making (NDM) model was developed. Transcripts of conversations were analyzed to reveal and assess NDM-based performance criteria. Findings/Design – An item analysis indicated that the operators’ Situation Awareness Levels, mental models, and mental simulations can be mapped at different points in the training scenario. This may identify improved training methods or analytical/ visualization tools. Originality/Value – This study applies for the first time, the concepts of Recognition Primed Decision Making, Situation Awareness Levels and Cognitive Task Analysis to training of electric power system operators. Take away message – The NDM approach provides a viable framework for systematic training management to accelerate learning in simulator-based training scenarios for power system operators and teams.

  1. An ice-motion tracking system at the Alaska SAR facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, Ronald; Curlander, John C.; Pang, Shirley S.; Mcconnell, Ross

    1990-01-01

    An operational system for extracting ice-motion information from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery is being developed as part of the Alaska SAR Facility. This geophysical processing system (GPS) will derive ice-motion information by automated analysis of image sequences acquired by radars on the European ERS-1, Japanese ERS-1, and Canadian RADARSAT remote sensing satellites. The algorithm consists of a novel combination of feature-based and area-based techniques for the tracking of ice floes that undergo translation and rotation between imaging passes. The system performs automatic selection of the image pairs for input to the matching routines using an ice-motion estimator. It is designed to have a daily throughput of ten image pairs. A description is given of the GPS system, including an overview of the ice-motion-tracking algorithm, the system architecture, and the ice-motion products that will be available for distribution to geophysical data users.

  2. VAV systems -- What makes them succeed? What makes them fail?

    SciTech Connect

    Cappellin, T.E.

    1997-12-31

    When variable-air-volume (VAV) systems work right, they provide excellent temperature and humidity control and in addition deliver outside air to conditioned spaces in amounts sufficient to satisfy ASHRAE Standard 62 and meet all criteria required for acceptable indoor air quality. The final benefit is lower utility cost when compared to a comparable constant-air-volume system. However, the successful performance of VAV systems is often compromised by flawed conception, faulty design, defective installation, poor start-up, inaccurate operation, and inadequate maintenance. Field observations of underperforming VAV systems have uncovered problems due to mistakes that have been made through all the phases of system development. It is recommended that most VAV systems be designed, installed, started, and operated under a comprehensive commissioning process. Experience has shown that careful monitoring of all phases of development and operation will ensure that there are minimal problems to plague the building owner and operating personnel once the system is in use. This paper is written from the viewpoint of a former contractor who is now a professional engineer and who has designed, installed, started, and maintained VAV systems.

  3. Altitude Effects on Thermal Ice Protection System Performance; A Study of an Alternative Simulation Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Gene; Wright, Bill; Orchard, David; Oleskiw, Myron

    2015-01-01

    The quest for more energy-efficient green aircraft, dictates that all systems, including the ice protection system (IPS), be closely examined for ways to reduce energy consumption and to increase efficiency. A thermal ice protection systems must protect the aircraft from the hazardous effects of icing, and yet it needs to do so as efficiently as possible. The system can no longer be afforded the degree of over-design in power usage they once were. To achieve these more exacting designs, a better understanding of the heat and mass transport phenomena involved during an icing encounter is needed.

  4. Design, fabrication, and testing of an ultrasonic de-icing system for helicopter rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, Jose Luis

    A low-power, non-thermal ultrasonic de-icing system is introduced as a possible substitute for current electro-thermal systems. The system generates delaminating ultrasonic transverse shear stresses at the interface of accreted ice. A PZT-4 disk driven at 28.5 KHz (radial resonance of the disk) instantaneously de-bonds 2 mm thick freezer ice layers. The ice layers are accreted to a 0.7 mm thick, 30.4 cm x 30.4 cm steel plate at an environment temperature of -20°C. A power input of 50 Watts is applied to the actuator (50 V, 19.6 KV/m), which translates to a de-icing power of 0.07 W/cm2. A finite element model of the actuator bonded to the isotropic plate is used to guide the design of the system, and predicts the transverse shear stresses at the ice interface. Wind tunnel icing tests were conducted to demonstrate the potential use of the proposed system under impact icing conditions. Both glaze ice and rime ice were generated on steel and composite plates by changing the cloud conditions of the wind tunnel. Continuous ultrasonic vibration prevented impact ice formation around the actuator location at an input power not exceeding 0.18 W/cm 2 (1.2 W/in2). As ice thickness reached a critical thickness of approximately 1.2 mm, shedding occurred on those locations where ultrasonic transverse shear stresses exceeded the shear adhesion strength of the ice. Finite element transverse shear stress predictions correlate with observed experimental impact ice de-bonding behavior. To increase the traveling distance of propagating ultrasonic waves, ultrasonic shear horizontal wave modes are studied. Wave modes providing large modal interface transverse shear stress concentration coefficients (ISCC) between the host structure (0.7 mm thick steel plate) and accreted ice (2.5 mm thick ice layer) are identified and investigated for a potential increase in the wave propagation distance. Ultrasonic actuators able to trigger these optimum wave modes are designed and fabricated. Despite

  5. A novel backpackable ice-penetrating radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Kenichi; Saito, Ryoji; Naruse, Renji

    We have developed a novel ice-penetrating radar system that can be carried on a backpack. Including batteries for a 3 hour continuous measurement, the total weight is 13 kg. In addition, it operates reliably down to -25°C, has a low power consumption of 24 W, and is semi-waterproof. The system has a built-in-one controller with a high-brightness display for reading data quickly, a receiver with 12-bit digitizing, and a 1 kV pulse transmitter in which the pulse amplitude varies by <0.2%. Optical communications between components provides low-noise data acquisition and allows synchronizing of the pulse transmission with sampling. Measurements with the system revealed the 300 m deep bed topography of a temperate valley glacier in the late ablation season.

  6. N-ICE2015: Multi-disciplinary study of the young sea ice system north of Svalbard from winter to summer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steen, Harald; Granskog, Mats; Assmy, Philipp; Duarte, Pedro; Hudson, Stephen; Gerland, Sebastian; Spreen, Gunnar; Smedsrud, Lars H.

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean is shifting to a new regime with a thinner and smaller sea-ice area cover. Until now, winter sea ice extent has changed less than during summer, as the heat loss to the atmosphere during autumn and winter is large enough form an ice cover in most regions. The insulating snow cover also heavily influences the winter ice growth. Consequently, the older, thicker multi-year sea ice has been replace by a younger and thinner sea. These large changes in the sea ice cover may have dramatic consequences for ecosystems, energy fluxes and ultimately atmospheric circulation and the Northern Hemisphere climate. To study the effects of the changing Arctic the Norwegian Polar Institute, together with national and international partners, launched from January 11 to June 24, 2015 the Norwegian Young Sea ICE cruise 2015 (N-ICE2015). N-ICE2015 was a multi-disciplinary cruise aimed at simultaneously studying the effect of the Arctic Ocean changes in the sea ice, the atmosphere, in radiation, in ecosystems. as well as water chemistry. R/V Lance was frozen into the drift ice north of Svalbard at about N83 E25 and drifted passively southwards with the ice until she was broken loose. When she was loose, R/V Lance was brought back north to a similar starting position. While fast in the ice, she served as a living and working platform for 100 scientist and engineers from 11 countries. One aim of N-ICE2015 is to present a comprehensive data-set on the first year ice dominated system available for the scientific community describing the state and changes of the Arctic sea ice system from freezing to melt. Analyzing the data is progressing and some first results will be presented.

  7. Discovery of water ice nearly everywhere in the solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Zuppero, A.

    1995-10-01

    During the last decade we have discovered sources of accessible water in some form nearly everywhere in the solar system. Water ice has been found on the planet Mercury; probably on the Earth`s Moon; on Mars; on near Earth objects; on comets whose orbits frequently come close to that of Earth`s orbit; probably on Ceres, the largest inner asteroid; and on comets previously and incorrectly considered to be out of practical reach. The comets also provide massive quantities of hydrocarbons, similar to oil shale. The masses of either water or hydrocarbons are measured in units of cubic kilometers. The water is key to space transportation because it can be used as a rocket propellant directly, and because thermal process alone can be used to convert it and hydrocarbons into hydrogen, the highest performing rocket propellant. This presentation outlines what is currently known about the locations of the water ice, and sketches the requirements and environments of missions to prospect for and assay the water sources.

  8. The ancient heritage of water ice in the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleeves, L. Ilsedore; Bergin, Edwin A.; Alexander, Conel M. O.'D.; Du, Fujun; Graninger, Dawn; Öberg, Karin I.; Harries, Tim J.

    2014-09-01

    Identifying the source of Earth’s water is central to understanding the origins of life-fostering environments and to assessing the prevalence of such environments in space. Water throughout the solar system exhibits deuterium-to-hydrogen enrichments, a fossil relic of low-temperature, ion-derived chemistry within either (i) the parent molecular cloud or (ii) the solar nebula protoplanetary disk. Using a comprehensive treatment of disk ionization, we find that ion-driven deuterium pathways are inefficient, which curtails the disk’s deuterated water formation and its viability as the sole source for the solar system’s water. This finding implies that, if the solar system’s formation was typical, abundant interstellar ices are available to all nascent planetary systems.

  9. Improving Sea Ice Prediction in the NCEP Climate Forecast System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collow, T. W.; Wang, W.; Kumar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Skillful prediction of Arctic sea ice is important for the wide variety of interests focused in that region. However, the current operational system used by the NOAA Climate Prediction Center does not adequately predict the seasonal climatology of sea ice extent and maintains too high sea ice coverage across the Arctic. It is thought that the primary reasoning for this lies in the initialization of sea ice thickness. Experiments are carried out using the Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) model with an improved sea ice thickness initialization from the Pan-Arctic Ice Ocean Analysis and Assimilation System (PIOMAS) rather than the default Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) sea ice thickness data. All other variables are initialized from CFSR. In addition, physics parameterizations are adjusted to better simulate real world conditions. Here we focus on hindcasts initialized from 2005-2014. Although the seasonal cycle of sea ice is generally better captured in runs that use PIOMAS sea ice thickness initialization, local sea ice freeze in early winter in the Bering Strait and Chukchi Sea is delayed when both sea ice thickness configurations are used. In addition ice freeze in the North Atlantic is more pronounced than in the observations. This shows that simply changing initial sea ice thickness is not enough to improve forecasts for all locations. Modeled atmospheric and oceanic parameters are investigated including the radiation budget, land surface temperature advection, and sub-surface oceanic heat flow to diagnose possible reasons for the modeling deficiencies, and further modifications to the model will be discussed.

  10. A PHOTOMETRIC SYSTEM FOR DETECTION OF WATER AND METHANE ICES ON KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo, Chadwick A.; Sheppard, Scott S.; Schaller, Emily L. E-mail: sheppard@dtm.ciw.edu

    2011-04-01

    We present a new near-infrared photometric system for detection of water ice and methane ice in the solar system. The system consists of two medium-band filters in the K-band region of the near-infrared, which are sensitive to water ice and methane ice, plus continuum observations in the J band and Y band. The primary purpose of this system is to distinguish between three basic types of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs)-those rich in water ice, those rich in methane ice, and those with little absorbance. In this work, we present proof-of-concept observations of 51 KBOs using our filter system, 21 of which have never been observed in the near-infrared spectroscopically. We show that our custom photometric system is consistent with previous spectroscopic observations while reducing telescope observing time by a factor of {approx}3. We use our filters to identify Haumea collisional family members, which are thought to be collisional remnants of a much larger body and are characterized by large fractions of water ice on their surfaces. We add 2009 YE{sub 7} to the Haumea collisional family based on our water ice band observations (J - H{sub 2}O = -1.03 {+-} 0.27) which indicate a high amount of water ice absorption, our calculated proper orbital elements, and the neutral optical colors we measured, V - R = 0.38 {+-} 0.04, which are all consistent with the rest of the Haumea family. We identify several objects dynamically similar to Haumea as being distinct from the Haumea family as they do not have water ice on their surfaces. In addition, we find that only the largest KBOs have methane ice, and Haumea itself has significantly less water ice absorption than the smaller Haumea family members. We find no evidence for other families in the Kuiper Belt.

  11. Measurement of lake ice thickness with a short-pulse radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. W.; Mueller, R. A.; Schertler, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of lake ice thickness were made during March 1975 at the Straits of Mackinac by using a short-pulse radar system aboard an all-terrain vehicle. These measurements were compared with ice thicknesses determined with an auger. Over 25 sites were explored which had ice thicknesses in the range 29 to 60 cm. The maximum difference between radar and auger measurements was less than 9.8 percent. The magnitude of the error was less than + or - 3.5 cm. The NASA operating short-pulse radar system used in monitoring lake ice thickness from an aircraft is also described.

  12. Analysis and testing of the Diamond One wing anti-icing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeoman, K. E.

    1985-01-01

    The Diamond One wing leading edge is protected against ice accretions by a bleed air anti-icing system. Three cross-sections selected for computer modeling considered the thermal mechanisms of convection, conduction, evaporation and sensible heating of impinged and runback water. With an instrumented aircraft, the model was refined using dry air and above freezing cloud flight test data. The refined model was exercised for wing surface temperature predictions for six critical icing conditions and found safe for natural icing flight testing. Measured natural icing test data was then inserted into the model to compare predicted vs. measured temperatures. Correlation was achieved and the system was accepted by FAA as safe for flight into known icing conditions.

  13. New Spray Bar System Installed in NASA Lewis' Icing Research Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, Thomas B.

    1998-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) is the world's largest refrigerated wind tunnel dedicated to the study of aircraft icing. In the IRT, natural icing conditions are duplicated to test the effects of in-flight icing on actual aircraft components and on scale models of airplanes and helicopters. The IRT's ability to reproduce a natural icing cloud was significantly improved with the recent installation of a new spray bar system. It is the spray bar system that transforms the low-speed wind tunnel into an icing wind tunnel by producing microscopic droplets of water and injecting them into the wind tunnel air stream in order to accurately simulate cloud moisture.

  14. Seismic Network in Greenland Monitors Earth and Ice System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, John F.; Nettles, Meredith; Walter, Fabian; Anderson, Kent; Dahl-Jensen, Trine; Giardini, Domenico; Govoni, Aladino; Hanka, Winfried; Lasocki, Stanislaw; Lee, Won Sang; McCormack, David; Mykkeltveit, Svein; Stutzmann, Eleonore; Tsuboi, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Some of the most dramatic effects of climate change have been observed in the Earth's polar regions. In Greenland, ice loss from the Greenland ice sheet has accelerated in recent years [Shepherd et al., 2012]. Outlet glaciers are changing their behavior rapidly, with many thinning, retreating, and accelerating [Joughin et al., 2004]. The loss of ice weighing on the crust and mantle below has allowed both to rebound, resulting in high rock uplift rates [Bevis et al., 2012]. Changes in ice cover and meltwater production influence sea level and climate feedbacks; they are expected to contribute to increasing vulnerability to geohazards such as landslides, flooding, and extreme weather.

  15. Tracking and responding to a changing Arctic sea-ice cover: How ice users can help the scientific community design better observing systems (Louis Agassiz Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eicken, Hajo

    2010-05-01

    The Arctic sea-ice cover is undergoing a major transformation, with substantial reductions in summer ice extent reflecting changes in ice thickness, age, and circulation. These changes are impacting Arctic ecosystems and a range of human activities. Anticipating and responding to such impacts, exacerbated by increasing economic activity in parts of the Arctic, requires a foundation of environmental observations and model predictions. Recent increases in industrial activities such as shipping and resource development in parts of the Arctic have further highlighted the need for an integrated observing system. In the case of a changing sea-ice cover, how would one best design and optimize such a system? One of the challenges is to meet the information needs of the scientific community in furthering fundamental understanding of the Arctic system, as well as those of key stakeholders and society, helping them to prepare for and respond to Arctic change. This presentation focuses on how the concept of sea-ice system services, i.e., the uses and benefits (or harm) derived from sea ice, may help guide the implementation of an effective observing system. Principal service categories are (1) sea ice as climate regulator, marine hazard, and coastal buffer; (2) transportation and use of ice as a platform; (3) cultural services obtained from the "icescape"; and (4) support of food webs and biological diversity by sea ice. An analysis of the different ice services provided to different user groups can help prioritize different types of observations and determine optimal measurement strategies. Moreover, the focus on different uses of the ice cover may also help synthesize fundamental and applied research to help Arctic communities adapt in a changing environment. Alaska has experienced some of the most substantial changes in sea-ice conditions throughout the Arctic over the past three decades and is used to illustrate the concepts discussed above. Specifically, we have examined

  16. Ice/berm interaction study using rotary sidescan sonar and acoustic profiling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Good, R.R.; Anderson, K.G.; Lanzier, H.H.

    1984-05-01

    Tarsiut Island, in the Canadian Beaufort Sea, was the first dredged caisson retained island built for exploration drilling operations in the Arctic offshore. Due to the island's configuration location, a large first-year ice rubble pile would result from the ice/structure interaction. This paper outlines how a rotary side-scan sonar and a mechanically scanning, narrow-beam acoustic profiling system were used to determine the geometry and the contact area of the underside of heavily rubbled first-year ice. The results of this study are to be used to further the understanding of the nature and mechanism of the ice/structure interaction in Arctic offshore structures.

  17. Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    2005-01-01

    Sea ice covers vast areas of the polar oceans, with ice extent in the Northern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 7 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September to approximately 15 x 10(exp 6) sq km in March and ice extent in the Southern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km in February to approximately 18 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September. These ice covers have major impacts on the atmosphere, oceans, and ecosystems of the polar regions, and so as changes occur in them there are potential widespread consequences. Satellite data reveal considerable interannual variability in both polar sea ice covers, and many studies suggest possible connections between the ice and various oscillations within the climate system, such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and Antarctic Oscillation, or Southern Annular Mode. Nonetheless, statistically significant long-term trends are also apparent, including overall trends of decreased ice coverage in the Arctic and increased ice coverage in the Antarctic from late 1978 through the end of 2003, with the Antarctic ice increases following marked decreases in the Antarctic ice during the 1970s. For a detailed picture of the seasonally varying ice cover at the start of the 21st century, this chapter includes ice concentration maps for each month of 2001 for both the Arctic and the Antarctic, as well as an overview of what the satellite record has revealed about the two polar ice covers from the 1970s through 2003.

  18. Real-Time Observations of Optical Properties of Arctic Sea Ice with an Autonomous System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Gerland, S.; Nicolaus, M.; Granskog, M. A.; Hudson, S. R.; Perovich, D. K.; Karlsen, T. I.; Fossan, K.

    2012-12-01

    The recent drastic changes in the Arctic sea ice cover have altered the interaction of solar radiation and sea ice. To improve our understanding of this interaction, a Spectral Radiation Buoy (SRB) for measuring sea ice optical properties was developed, based on a system used during the last International Polar Year at the drift of "Tara" across the Arctic Ocean. A first version of the SRB was deployed on drifting ice in the high Arctic in April 2012. It includes three Satlantic spectral radiometers (two in air, one under ice), covering the wavelength range from 347 nm to 804 nm with 3.3 nm spectral resolution, a bio-shutter to protect the under-ice radiometer, a data logger to handle and store collected data, and an Iridium satellite modem to transfer data in real-time. The under-ice radiometer is mounted on an adjustable under-ice arm, and the other instruments are mounted on a triangular frame frozen into the ice. The SRB measures simultaneously, autonomously and continuously the spectral fluxes of incident and reflected solar radiation, as well as under-ice irradiance, water temperature and water pressure every hour. So far, between mid April and early August 2012, the system has drifted about 600 km, from the starting position near the North Pole towards the Fram Strait. The data collected during this deployment, so far, already demonstrate that this system is suitable for autonomous and long-term observations over and under sea ice in harsh conditions. Along with the SRB, commercially available Ice Mass Balance buoys (IMB) were deployed on the same ice floe. In the vicinity of the site, manned baseline measurements of snow and sea ice physical properties have been carried out during the SRB deployment. The combined datasets allow description of the evolution of the ice floe during seasonal melt. With snow melt, the spectral surface albedo decreased and the transmittance through the snow and ice increased after mid-April, especially when melt ponds started to

  19. Impact of sea-ice processes on the carbonate system and ocean acidification at the ice-water interface of the Amundsen Gulf, Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fransson, Agneta; Chierici, Melissa; Miller, Lisa A.; Carnat, Gauthier; Shadwick, Elizabeth; Thomas, Helmuth; Pineault, Simon; Papakyriakou, Tim N.

    2013-12-01

    From sea-ice formation in November 2007 to onset of ice melt in May 2008, we studied the carbonate system in first-year Arctic sea ice, focusing on the impact of calcium-carbonate (CaCO3) saturation states of aragonite (ΩAr) and calcite (ΩCa) at the ice-water interface (UIW). Based on total inorganic carbon (CT) and total alkalinity (AT), and derived pH, CO2, carbonate ion ([CO32-]) concentrations and Ω, we investigated the major drivers such as brine rejection, CaCO3 precipitation, bacterial respiration, primary production and CO2-gas flux in sea ice, brine, frost flowers and UIW. We estimated large variability in sea-ice CT at the top, mid, and bottom ice. Changes due to CaCO3 and CO2-gas flux had large impact on CT in the whole ice core from March to May, bacterial respiration was important at the bottom ice during all months, and primary production in May. It was evident that the sea-ice processes had large impact on UIW, resulting in a five times larger seasonal amplitude of the carbonate system, relative to the upper 20 m. During ice formation, [CO2] increased by 30 µmol kg-1, [CO32-] decreased by 50 µmol kg-1, and the ΩAr decreased by 0.8 in the UIW due to CO2-enriched brine from solid CaCO3. Conversely, during ice melt, [CO32-] increased by 90 µmol kg-1 in the UIW, and Ω increased by 1.4 between March and May, likely due to CaCO3 dissolution and primary production. We estimated that increased ice melt would lead to enhanced oceanic uptake of inorganic carbon to the surface layer.

  20. Topological defects from doping and quenched disorder in artificial ice systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reichhardt, Charles; Reichhardt, Cynthia J; Libal, A

    2010-01-01

    We examine the ice-rule obeying and ice-rule breaking vertices in an artificial spin ice system created using magnetic vortices in type-II superconductors with nanostructured pinning arrays. We show that this system can be doped by changing the external field to move the number of vortices away from commensurability and create sites that contain two or zero vortices. For a square ice, the doping leads to the formation of a grain boundary of vertices that do not obey the ice rules. In commensurate systems where the ice rules are obeyed, we can introduce random disorder at the individual pinning sites to create regions where vortices may not be able to flip from one side of the trap to another. For weak disorder, all of the vertices still obey the ice rules, while at intermediate levels of disorder we find grain boundaries of vertices which do not obey the ice rules. For strong disorder it is possible to create isolated paired vertices that do not obey the ice rules. In summary, we have shown that an artificial square ice can be created using vortices in a type-II superconductor interacting with a periodic array of pinning sites where each site has a double well potential. By defining the direction of the effective spin according to the side of the double well occupied by the vortex, we find that this system obeys the ice rules for square ice. We add disorder to the system in the form of randomness of the height of the potential barrier at the center of the well, and obtain vertex configurations using a rotating drive protocol which is similar to the shaking ac magnetic field used in nanomagnetic systems. For weak disorder the entire system still obeys the square ice rules. For intermediate disorder, ice-rule breaking vertices appear and form grain boundaries, while for strong disorder there are both gain boundaries and isolated paired defects. In a system with uniform potential barrier heights, we introduce disorder by moving away from commensurability and creating

  1. Ice Chemistry on Outer Solar System Bodies: Electron Radiolysis of N2-, CH4-, and CO-Containing Ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materese, Christopher K.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Imanaka, Hiroshi; Nuevo, Michel

    2015-10-01

    Radiation processing of the surface ices of outer Solar System bodies may be an important process for the production of complex chemical species. The refractory materials resulting from radiation processing of known ices are thought to impart to them a red or brown color, as perceived in the visible spectral region. In this work, we analyzed the refractory materials produced from the 1.2-keV electron bombardment of low-temperature N2-, CH4-, and CO-containing ices (100:1:1), which simulates the radiation from the secondary electrons produced by cosmic ray bombardment of the surface ices of Pluto. Despite starting with extremely simple ices dominated by N2, electron irradiation processing results in the production of refractory material with complex oxygen- and nitrogen-bearing organic molecules. These refractory materials were studied at room temperature using multiple analytical techniques including Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Infrared spectra of the refractory material suggest the presence of alcohols, carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes, amines, and nitriles. XANES spectra of the material indicate the presence of carboxyl groups, amides, urea, and nitriles, and are thus consistent with the IR data. Atomic abundance ratios for the bulk composition of these residues from XANES analysis show that the organic residues are extremely N-rich, having ratios of N/C ∼ 0.9 and O/C ∼ 0.2. Finally, GC-MS data reveal that the residues contain urea as well as numerous carboxylic acids, some of which are of interest for prebiotic and biological chemistries.

  2. Automatic digital photo-book making system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wiley; Teo, Patrick; Muzzolini, Russ

    2010-02-01

    The diversity of photo products has grown more than ever before. A group of photos are not only printed individually, but also can be arranged in specific order to tell a story, such as in a photo book, a calendar or a poster collage. Similar to making a traditional scrapbook, digital photo book tools allow the user to choose a book style/theme, layouts of pages, backgrounds and the way the pictures are arranged. This process is often time consuming to users, given the number of images and the choices of layout/background combinations. In this paper, we developed a system to automatically generate photo books with only a few initial selections required. The system utilizes time stamps, color indices, orientations and other image properties to best fit pictures into a final photo book. The common way of telling a story is to lay the pictures out in chronological order. If the pictures are proximate in time, they will coincide with each other and are often logically related. The pictures are naturally clustered along a time line. Breaks between clusters can be used as a guide to separate pages or spreads, thus, pictures that are logically related can stay close on the same page or spread. When people are making a photo book, it is helpful to start with chronologically grouped images, but time alone wont be enough to complete the process. Each page is limited by the number of layouts available. Many aesthetic rules also apply, such as, emphasis of preferred pictures, consistency of local image density throughout the whole book, matching a background to the content of the images, and the variety of adjacent page layouts. We developed an algorithm to group images onto pages under the constraints of aesthetic rules. We also apply content analysis based on the color and blurriness of each picture, to match backgrounds and to adjust page layouts. Some of our aesthetic rules are fixed and given by designers. Other aesthetic rules are statistic models trained by using

  3. An Ice Core Melter System for Continuous Major and Trace Chemical Analyses of a New Mt. Logan Summit Ice Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterberg, E. C.; Handley, M. J.; Sneed, S. D.; Mayewski, P. A.; Kreutz, K. J.; Fisher, D. A.

    2004-12-01

    The ice core melter system at the University of Maine Climate Change Institute has been recently modified and updated to allow high-resolution (<1-2 cm ice/sample), continuous and coregistered sampling of ice cores, most notably the 2001 Mt. Logan summit ice core (187 m to bedrock), for analyses of 34 trace elements (Sr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Pb, Bi, U, As, Al, S, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, REE suite) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), 8 major ions (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, MSA) by ion chromatography (IC), stable water isotopes (δ 18O, δ D, d) and volcanic tephra. The UMaine continuous melter (UMCoM) system is housed in a dedicated clean room with HEPA filtered air. Standard clean room procedures are employed during melting. A Wagenbach-style continuous melter system has been modified to include a pure Nickel melthead that can be easily dismantled for thorough cleaning. The system allows melting of both ice and firn without wicking of the meltwater into unmelted core. Contrary to ice core melter systems in which the meltwater is directly channeled to online instruments for continuous flow analyses, the UMCoM system collects discrete samples for each chemical analysis under ultraclean conditions. Meltwater from the pristine innermost section of the ice core is split between one fraction collector that accumulates ICP-MS samples in acid pre-cleaned polypropylene vials under a class-100 HEPA clean bench, and a second fraction collector that accumulates IC samples. A third fraction collector accumulates isotope and tephra samples from the potentially contaminated outer portion of the core. This method is advantageous because an archive of each sample remains for subsequent analyses (including trace element isotope ratios), and ICP-MS analytes are scanned for longer intervals and in replicate. Method detection limits, calculated from de-ionized water blanks passed through the entire UMCoM system, are below 10% of average Mt

  4. Late Quaternary Advance and Retreat of an East Antarctic Ice Shelf System: Insights from Sedimentary Beryllium-10 Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guitard, M. E.; Shevenell, A.; Domack, E. W.; Rosenheim, B. E.; Yokoyama, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Observed retreat of Antarctica's marine-based glaciers and the presence of warm (~2°C) modified Circumpolar Deep Water on Antarctica's continental shelves imply ocean temperatures may influence Antarctic cryosphere stability. A paucity of information regarding Late Quaternary East Antarctic cryosphere-ocean interactions makes assessing the variability, timing, and style of deglacial retreat difficult. Marine sediments from Prydz Bay, East Antarctica contain hemipelagic siliceous mud and ooze units (SMO) alternating with glacial marine sediments. The record suggests Late Quaternary variability of local outlet glacier systems, including the Lambert Glacier/Amery Ice Shelf system that drains 15% of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. We present a refined radiocarbon chronology and beryllium-10 (10Be) record of Late Quaternary depositional history in Prydz Channel, seaward of the Amery Ice Shelf system, which provides insight into the timing and variability of this important outlet glacier system. We focus on three piston cores (NBP01-01, JPC 34, 35, 36; 750 m water depth) that contain alternating SMO and granulated units uninterrupted by glacial till; the record preserves a succession of glacial marine deposits that pre-date the Last Glacial Maximum. We utilize the ramped pyrolysis preparatory method to improve the bulk organic carbon 14C-based chronology for Prydz Channel. To determine if the SMO intervals reflect open water conditions or sub-ice shelf advection, we measured sedimentary 10Be concentrations. Because ice cover affects 10Be pathways through the water column, sedimentary concentrations should provide information on past depositional environments in Prydz Channel. In Prydz Channel sediments, 10Be concentrations are generally higher in SMO units and lower in glacial units, suggesting Late Quaternary fluctuations in the Amery Ice Shelf. Improved chronologic constraints indicate that these fluctuations occurred on millennial timescales during the Last Glacial

  5. Application of thermal imagery to the development of a Great Lakes ice information system. [infrared and SLAR imagery of fresh water ice thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schertler, R. J.; Raquet, C. A.; Svehla, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Recent measurements and analysis have shown that thermal infrared imagery (wavelength, 8-14 microns) can be employed to delineate the relative thicknesses of various regions of freshwater ice, as well as, differentiate new ice from both open water areas and thicker (young)ice. Thermal imagery was observed to be generally superior to visual (0.4 - 0.7 microns) and our SLAR (3.3 cm) imagery for estimating relative ice thicknesses and delineating open water from new ice growth. In a real-time Great Lakes Ice Information System, thermal imagery can not only provide supplementary imagery but also aid in developing interpretative methods for all-weather SLAR imagery, as well as, establishing the areal extent of spot thickness measurements.

  6. Laboratory Studies of Extraterrestrial Ices and PAHs: Making an Astrobiological Silk Purse Out of An Interstellar Sow's Ear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudgins, Douglas M.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of interstellar material over the past twenty years thanks to significant, parallel developments in observational astronomy and laboratory astrophysics. Today, the composition of dust in the ISM is reasonably well constrained to cold, micron-sized particles of various refractory materials. Shrouded within the protective confines of cold, opaque molecular clouds--the birthplace of stars and planets--these particles secrete mantles of mixed molecular lees whose major components are also well constrained. Finally, amidst the molecular inventory of these ice mantles are likely to be found polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), whose telltale infrared signature I is now recognized throughout the Universe. However, of what significance is this scenario to the origin of life in our solar system--or any other? The major components of the icy materials observed in interstellar clouds and in our own solar system are uniformly quite simple. In addition, despite the fact that PAHs likely represent the single largest molecular reservoir of organic carbon in evolving planetary systems, they are not what would be considered "biogenic" molecules. Although interesting from a chemical and astrophysical standpoint, in the absence of a mechanism by which these materials can be transformed into more biochemically significant structures, they are of little Astrobiological significance. In this talk, we will begin with a brief review of the nature and abundance of the "raw" population of PAHs and PAH-related materials in the ISM. From there, we will move on to explore our laboratory simulations of the photochemical evolution of realistic mixed molecular ices under conditions which simulate those encountered in the ISM and in evolving planetary systems. Particular attention will be paid to the surprisingly complex array of organic species that are produced in these ices from such a deceptively simple inventory of starting materials

  7. Use of the X-Band Radar to Support the Detection of In-Flight Icing Hazards by the NASA Icing Remote Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serke, David J.; Politovich, Marcia K.; Reehorst, Andrew L.; Gaydos, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The Alliance Icing Research Study-II (AIRS-II) field program was conducted near Montreal, Canada during the winter of 2003. The NASA Icing Remote Detection System (NIRSS) was deployed to detect in-flight icing hazards and consisted of a vertically pointing multichannel radiometer, a ceilometer and an x-band cloud radar. The radiometer was used to derive atmospheric temperature soundings and integrated liquid water, while the ceilometer and radar were used only to define cloud boundaries. The purpose of this study is to show that the radar reflectivity profiles from AIRS-II case studies could be used to provide a qualitative icing hazard.

  8. A seamless approach to understanding and predicting Arctic sea ice in Met Office modelling systems.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Helene T; Ridley, Jeff K; Keen, Ann B; West, Alex E; Peterson, K Andrew; Rae, Jamie G L; Milton, Sean F; Bacon, Sheldon

    2015-07-13

    Recent CMIP5 models predict large losses of summer Arctic sea ice, with only mitigation scenarios showing sustainable summer ice. Sea ice is inherently part of the climate system, and heat fluxes affecting sea ice can be small residuals of much larger air-sea fluxes. We discuss analysis of energy budgets in the Met Office climate models which point to the importance of early summer processes (such as clouds and meltponds) in determining both the seasonal cycle and the trend in ice decline. We give examples from Met Office modelling systems to illustrate how the seamless use of models for forecasting on time scales from short range to decadal might help to unlock the drivers of high latitude biases in climate models. PMID:26032316

  9. Measures Earth System Data Records (ESDR) of Ice Motion in Antarctica: Status, Impact and Future Products.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuchl, B.; Rignot, E. J.; Mouginot, J.

    2014-12-01

    Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data is an extremely useful tool for providing relevant information about the ice sheet ECV: ice vector velocity, grounding line position, and ice front location. Here, we provide an overview of the SAR Earth System Data Records (ESDR) for Antarctica part of MEaSUREs that includes: the first complete map of surface ice vector velocity in Antarctica, a map of grounding line positions around Antarctica, ice velocity time series for selected regions: Ross and Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelves and associated drainage basins, the Amundsen Sea Embayment of West Antarctica which is the largest contributor to sea level rise from Antarctica and the focus of rapid ice sheet retreat, and Larsen-B and -C ice shelves which is the second largest contribution to sea level rise from Antarctica. Other products include a database of ice shelf boundaries and drainage basins based on ice motion mapping and digital elevation models generated independently. Data continuity is a crucial aspect of this work and a fundamental challenge for the continuation of these products due to the lack of a dedicated interferometric mission on the cryosphere until the SAR mission under consideration between NASA and ISRO is approved. Four SAR missions ceased operations since IPY. CSA's RADARSAT-2 has provided important bridging data between these missions in Greenland and Antarctica. In 2014, ESA launched Sentinel-1a and JAXA launched ALOS-2 PALSAR, for which we will have limited data access. The Polar Space Task Group (PSTG) created by WMO has established a mandate to support cryospheric products from scientific research using international SARs which continues to play an active role in securing key data acquisitions over ice sheets. We will provide an overview of current efforts. This work was conducted at UC Irvine, Department of Earth System Science under a contract with NASA's MEaSUREs program.

  10. Dynamics of coupled ice-ocean system in the marginal ice zone: Study of the mesoscale processes and of constitutive equations for sea ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, S.

    1984-01-01

    This study is aimed at the modelling of mesoscale processed such as up/downwelling and ice edge eddies in the marginal ice zones. A 2-dimensional coupled ice-ocean model is used for the study. The ice model is coupled to the reduced gravity ocean model (f-plane) through interfacial stresses. The constitutive equations of the sea ice are formulated on the basis of the Reiner-Rivlin theory. The internal ice stresses are important only at high ice concentrations (90-100%), otherwise the ice motion is essentially free drift, where the air-ice stress is balanced by the ice-water stress. The model was tested by studying the upwelling dynamics. Winds parallel to the ice edge with the ice on the right produce upwilling because the air-ice momentum flux is much greater that air-ocean momentum flux, and thus the Ekman transport is bigger under the ice than in the open water. The upwelling simulation was extended to include temporally varying forcing, which was chosen to vary sinusoidally with a 4 day period. This forcing resembles successive cyclone passings. In the model with a thin oceanic upper layer, ice bands were formed.

  11. Semi-automated Digital Imaging and Processing System for Measuring Lake Ice Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Preetpal

    Canada is home to thousands of freshwater lakes and rivers. Apart from being sources of infinite natural beauty, rivers and lakes are an important source of water, food and transportation. The northern hemisphere of Canada experiences extreme cold temperatures in the winter resulting in a freeze up of regional lakes and rivers. Frozen lakes and rivers tend to offer unique opportunities in terms of wildlife harvesting and winter transportation. Ice roads built on frozen rivers and lakes are vital supply lines for industrial operations in the remote north. Monitoring the ice freeze-up and break-up dates annually can help predict regional climatic changes. Lake ice impacts a variety of physical, ecological and economic processes. The construction and maintenance of a winter road can cost millions of dollars annually. A good understanding of ice mechanics is required to build and deem an ice road safe. A crucial factor in calculating load bearing capacity of ice sheets is the thickness of ice. Construction costs are mainly attributed to producing and maintaining a specific thickness and density of ice that can support different loads. Climate change is leading to warmer temperatures causing the ice to thin faster. At a certain point, a winter road may not be thick enough to support travel and transportation. There is considerable interest in monitoring winter road conditions given the high construction and maintenance costs involved. Remote sensing technologies such as Synthetic Aperture Radar have been successfully utilized to study the extent of ice covers and record freeze-up and break-up dates of ice on lakes and rivers across the north. Ice road builders often used Ultrasound equipment to measure ice thickness. However, an automated monitoring system, based on machine vision and image processing technology, which can measure ice thickness on lakes has not been thought of. Machine vision and image processing techniques have successfully been used in manufacturing

  12. Investigation of Aerodynamic and Icing Characteristics of a Flush Alternate Inlet Induction System Air Scoop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James P.

    1953-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the NACA Lewis icing research tunnel to determine the aerodynamic and icing characteristics of a full-scale induction-system air-scoop assembly incorporating a flush alternate inlet. The flush inlet was located immediately downstream of the offset ram inlet and included a 180 deg reversal and a 90 deg elbow in the ducting between inlet and carburetor top deck. The model also had a preheat-air inlet. The investigation was made over a range of mass-air- flow ratios of 0 to 0.8, angles of attack of 0 and 4 deg airspeeds of 150 to 270 miles per hour, air temperatures of 0 and 25 F various liquid-water contents, and droplet sizes. The ram inlet gave good pressure recovery in both clear air and icing but rapid blockage of the top-deck screen occurred during icing. The flush alternate inlet had poor pressure recovery in both clear air and icing. The greatest decreases in the alternate-inlet pressure recovery were obtained at icing conditions of low air temperature and high liquid-water content. No serious screen icing was observed with the alternate inlet. Pressure and temperature distributions on the carburetor top deck were determined using the preheat-air supply with the preheat- and alternate-inlet doors in various positions. No screen icing occurred when the preheat-air system was operated in combination with alternate-inlet air flow.

  13. Summary of results from an ultrasonic in-flight wing ice detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongerholt, Derrick D.; Willms, Gary; Rose, Joseph L.

    2002-05-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves provide a convenient and reliable method to detect contaminants on the surface of the structure the wave travels in. Classifying the contaminants is possible by selecting the guided wave mode with the appropriate wave structure. An ice detection system, using this technology, designed at Sensor Systems, Goodrich Corporation is described. The system is demonstrated in-flight and is shown to be successful in detecting ice bonded to the aircraft wing leading edge.

  14. Electrometric method to determine the surface impedance of an ice-sea water bilayer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkuev, Yu. B.; Naguslaeva, I. B.; Khaptanov, V. B.; Dembelov, M. G.

    2016-02-01

    An electrometric method to determine the surface impedance of an ice-sea water bilayer system is suggested. The complex impedance (its magnitude and phase) of this system is determined at very low, low, and medium frequencies from electrometric, rather than radio, measurements. For the ice-sea water system, it is sufficient to determine the conductivity and thickness of a water sample from drilling data.

  15. SONARC: A Sea Ice Monitoring and Forecasting System to Support Safe Operations and Navigation in Arctic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, S. R.; Babiker, M.; Sandven, S.; Muckenhuber, S.; Korosov, A.; Bobylev, L.; Vesman, A.; Mushta, A.; Demchev, D.; Volkov, V.; Smirnov, K.; Hamre, T.

    2015-12-01

    Sea ice monitoring and forecasting systems are important tools for minimizing accident risk and environmental impacts of Arctic maritime operations. Satellite data such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR), combined with atmosphere-ice-ocean forecasting models, navigation models and automatic identification system (AIS) transponder data from ships are essential components of such systems. Here we present first results from the SONARC project (project term: 2015-2017), an international multidisciplinary effort to develop novel and complementary ice monitoring and forecasting systems for vessels and offshore platforms in the Arctic. Automated classification methods (Zakhvatkina et al., 2012) are applied to Sentinel-1 dual-polarization SAR images from the Barents and Kara Sea region to identify ice types (e.g. multi-year ice, level first-year ice, deformed first-year ice, new/young ice, open water) and ridges. Short-term (1-3 days) ice drift forecasts are computed from SAR images using feature tracking and pattern tracking methods (Berg & Eriksson, 2014). Ice classification and drift forecast products are combined with ship positions based on AIS data from a selected period of 3-4 weeks to determine optimal vessel speed and routing in ice. Results illustrate the potential of high-resolution SAR data for near-real-time monitoring and forecasting of Arctic ice conditions. Over the next 3 years, SONARC findings will contribute new knowledge about sea ice in the Arctic while promoting safe and cost-effective shipping, domain awareness, resource management, and environmental protection.

  16. Active Lakes of the Recovery Ice Stream, East Antarctica: A Bedrock-Controlled Subglacial Hydrological System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricker, H. A.; Scambos, T. A.; Bell, R. E.; Carter, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    A connected system of active sub-glacial lakes was revealed beneath the Recovery Ice Stream, East Antarctica by ICESat laser altimetry acquired from 2003 to 2008. Here we combine repeat-track analysis of ICESat (2003-2009), Operation IceBridge laser altimetry and radio-echo sounding (RES; 2011 and 2012), and MODIS image differencing (2009-2011) to learn more about the surface and bedrock topographic setting of the lakes and the constraints on water flow through the system. IceBridge data reveal a ~1500 m deep, ~1000 km long bedrock trough under the main trunk of Recovery Ice Stream. We extend the lake activity time series to 2012 for the three lower lakes using IceBridge data: one lake underwent a large deflation between 2009 and 2011; another lake, which had been continuously filling between 2003 and 2010, started to drain after 2011. Hydrologic connections among the lakes appear to be direct and responsive. We reproduce the lake activity using a simple subglacial water model. The hydrologic system beneath Recovery Ice Stream is controlled by unusually pronounced bedrock topography (and not ice surface topography, as is the case for most Antarctic systems studied to date). We discuss potential causes of non-steady hydrologic behavior in major Antarctic catchments.

  17. Ice Thermal Storage Systems for LWR Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

    2010-06-01

    Availability of enough cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. The issues become more severe due to the new round of nuclear power expansion and global warming. During hot summer days, cooling water leaving a power plant may become too hot to threaten aquatic life so that environmental regulations may force the plant to reduce power output or even temporarily to be shutdown. For new nuclear power plants to be built at areas without enough cooling water, dry cooling can be used to remove waste heat directly into the atmosphere. However, dry cooling will result in much lower thermal efficiency when the weather is hot. One potential solution for the above mentioned issues is to use ice thermal storage systems (ITS) that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses those ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS is suitable for supplemental cooling storage due to its very high energy storage density. ITS also provides a way to shift large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. Some gas turbine plants already use ITS to increase thermal efficiency during peak hours in summer. ITSs have also been widely used for building cooling to save energy cost. Among three cooling methods for LWR applications: once-through, wet cooling tower, and dry cooling tower, once-through cooling plants near a large water body like an ocean or a large lake and wet cooling plants can maintain the designed turbine backpressure (or condensation temperature) during 99% of the time; therefore, adding ITS to those plants will not generate large benefits. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body like a river or a small lake, adding ITS can bring significant economic

  18. Results of a low power ice protection system test and a new method of imaging data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jaiwon; Bond, Thomas H.; Mesander, Geert A.

    1992-01-01

    Tests were conducted on a BF Goodrich De-Icing System's Pneumatic Impulse Ice Protection (PIIP) system in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). Characterization studies were done on shed ice particle size by changing the input pressure and cycling time of the PIIP de-icer. The shed ice particle size was quantified using a newly developed image software package. The tests were conducted on a 1.83 m (6 ft) span, 0.53 m (221 in) chord NACA 0012 airfoil operated at a 4 degree angle of attack. The IRT test conditions were a -6.7 C (20 F) glaze ice, and a -20 C (-4 F) rime ice. The ice shedding events were recorded with a high speed video system. A detailed description of the image processing package and the results generated from this analytical tool are presented.

  19. D/H Fractionation in the Atmosphere-Ground Ice System on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellehøj, M. D.; Johnsen, S. J.; Madsen, M. B.

    2009-03-01

    The solid-vapor fractionation processes of Deuterium/Hydrogen (D/H) in the ground ice-atmosphere system on Mars are investigated through experiments and modeling. Preliminary results mainly from the experimental work are presented.

  20. A study of carburetor/induction system icing in general aviation accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obermayer, R. W.; Roe, W. T.

    1975-01-01

    An assessment of the frequency and severity of carburetor/induction icing in general-aviation accidents was performed. The available literature and accident data from the National Transportation Safety Board were collected. A computer analysis of the accident data was performed. Between 65 and 90 accidents each year involve carburetor/induction system icing as a probable cause/factor. Under conditions conducive to carburetor/induction icing, between 50 and 70 percent of engine malfunction/failure accidents (exclusive of those due to fuel exhaustion) are due to carburetor/induction system icing. Since the evidence of such icing may not remain long after an accident, it is probable that the frequency of occurrence of such accidents is underestimated; therefore, some extrapolation of the data was conducted. The problem of carburetor/induction system icing is particularly acute for pilots with less than 1000 hours of total flying time. The severity of such accidents is about the same as any accident resulting from a forced landing or precautionary landing. About 144 persons, on the average, are exposed to death and injury each year in accidents involving carburetor/induction icing as a probable cause/factor.

  1. Decision Technology Systems: A Vehicle to Consolidate Decision Making Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgionne, Guisseppi A.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of management decision making and the support needed to manage successfully highlights a Decision Technology System (DTS) that integrates other information systems. Topics discussed include computer information systems (CISs); knowledge gateways; the decision-making process; decision support systems (DSS); expert systems; and facility…

  2. A dynamical-systems approach for computing ice-affected streamflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holtschlag, David J.

    1996-01-01

    A dynamical-systems approach was developed and evaluated for computing ice-affected streamflow. The approach provides for dynamic simulation and parameter estimation of site-specific equations relating ice effects to routinely measured environmental variables. Comparison indicates that results from the dynamical-systems approach ranked higher than results from 11 analytical methods previously investigated on the basis of accuracy and feasibility criteria. Additional research will likely lead to further improvements in the approach.

  3. Decision Making and Systems Thinking: Educational Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurtseven, M. Kudret; Buchanan, Walter W.

    2016-01-01

    Decision making in most universities is taught within the conventional OR/MS (Operations Research/Management Science) paradigm. This paradigm is known to be "hard" since it is consisted of mathematical tools, and normally suitable for solving structured problems. In complex situations the conventional OR/MS paradigm proves to be…

  4. Analyses and tests for design of an electro-impulse de-icing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumwalt, G. W.; Schrag, R. L.; Bernhart, W. D.; Friedberg, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    De-icing of aircraft by using the electro-magnetic impulse phenomenon was proposed and demonstrated in several European countries. However, it is not available as a developed system due to lack of research on the basic physical mechanisms and necessary design parameters. The de-icing is accomplished by rapidly discharging high voltage capacitors into a wire coil rigidly supported just inside the aircraft skin. Induced eddy currents in the skin create a repulsive force resulting in a hammer-like force which cracks, de-bonds, and expels ice on the skin surface. The promised advantages are very low energy, high reliability of de-icing, and low maintenance. Three years of Electo-Impulse De-icing (EIDI) research is summarized and the analytical studies and results of testing done in the laboratory, in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel, and in flight are presented. If properly designed, EIDI was demonstrated to be an effective and practical ice protection system for small aircraft, turbojet engine inlets, elements of transport aircraft, and shows promise for use on helicopter rotor blades. Included are practical techniques of fabrication of impulse coils and their mountings. The use of EIDI with nonmetallic surface materials is also described.

  5. An Approach to Detect and Mitigate Ice Particle Accretion in Aircraft Engine Compression Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Guo, Ten-Huei; Simon, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    The accretion of ice in the compression system of commercial gas turbine engines operating in high ice water content conditions is a safety issue being studied by the aviation sector. While most of the research focuses on the underlying physics of ice accretion and the meteorological conditions in which accretion can occur, a systems-level perspective on the topic lends itself to potential near-term operational improvements. This work focuses on developing an accurate and reliable algorithm for detecting the accretion of ice in the low pressure compressor of a generic 40,000 lbf thrust class engine. The algorithm uses only the two shaft speed sensors and works regardless of engine age, operating condition, and power level. In a 10,000-case Monte Carlo simulation, the detection approach was found to have excellent capability at determining ice accretion from sensor noise with detection occurring when ice blocks an average of 6.8% of the low pressure compressor area. Finally, an initial study highlights a potential mitigation strategy that uses the existing engine actuators to raise the temperature in the low pressure compressor in an effort to reduce the rate at which ice accretes.

  6. An Approach to Detect and Mitigate Ice Particle Accretion in Aircraft Engine Compression Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Guo, Ten-Huei; Simon, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    The accretion of ice in the compression system of commercial gas turbine engines operating in high ice water content conditions is a safety issue being studied by the aviation sector. While most of the research focuses on the underlying physics of ice accretion and the meteorological conditions in which accretion can occur, a systems-level perspective on the topic lends itself to potential near-term operational improvements. This work focuses on developing an accurate and reliable algorithm for detecting the accretion of ice in the low pressure compressor of a generic 40,000 lbf thrust class engine. The algorithm uses only the two shaft speed sensors and works regardless of engine age, operating condition, and power level. In a 10,000-case Monte Carlo simulation, the detection approach was found to have excellent capability at determining ice accretion from sensor noise with detection occurring when ice blocks an average of 6.8 percent of the low pressure compressor area. Finally, an initial study highlights a potential mitigation strategy that uses the existing engine actuators to raise the temperature in the low pressure compressor in an effort to reduce the rate at which ice accretes.

  7. Representation of Sea Ice Processes in State of the Art Earth System Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, D. A.; Holland, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    The majority of Earth System Models now include thermodynamic-dynamic sea ice models with a subgridscale representation of ice thickness. The current sea ice component of the Community Earth System Model is the Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE) version 5. This new version of the model includes prognostic salinity in the vertical thermodynamic calculation as well as a representation of melt pond drainage through the sea ice. The CICE5 also includes a melt pond parameterization that takes into account the deformed and non-deformed ice within a model grid cell. Snow on sea ice processes allow for an evolving effective snow grain radius as a function of temperature, which is used in the shortwave radiative transfer and surface albedo calculation. I will discuss the results from coupled climate model sensitivity simulations that consider the subgridscale representations of some of these processes. This will include analysis of mean state and feedbacks in both the Arctic and Antarctic. Additional discussion will be provided on how we have used observations to guide these efforts.

  8. The IceCube data acquisition system: Signal capture, digitization,and timestamping

    SciTech Connect

    The IceCube Collaboration; Matis, Howard

    2009-03-02

    IceCube is a km-scale neutrino observatory under construction at the South Pole with sensors both in the deep ice (InIce) and on the surface (IceTop). The sensors, called Digital Optical Modules (DOMs), detect, digitize and timestamp the signals from optical Cherenkov-radiation photons. The DOM Main Board (MB) data acquisition subsystem is connected to the central DAQ in the IceCube Laboratory (ICL) by a single twisted copper wire-pair and transmits packetized data on demand. Time calibration ismaintained throughout the array by regular transmission to the DOMs of precisely timed analog signals, synchronized to a central GPS-disciplined clock. The design goals and consequent features, functional capabilities, and initial performance of the DOM MB, and the operation of a combined array of DOMs as a system, are described here. Experience with the first InIce strings and the IceTop stations indicates that the system design and performance goals have been achieved.

  9. Libre Systems: Making Data and Software More Available Through Re-usable Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, S.; Lacy, J.; Reed, S.; Truslove, I.; Lopez, L.; McNulty, M.; Wu, H.; Duerr, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    With the amount of stored data increasing at an exponential rate, it is becoming increasingly important for scientists and data managers to find effective ways to allow users to discover and use data effectively. Sharing software tools to assist in this effort is also becoming more vital in making this a reality. The National Snow and Ice Data Center's Libre project is solving this by creating a system of components including an aggregator, which will allow users to find data and services matching specified criteria more easily. While making it flexible enough to ingest metadata from various sources is important, it is also important to make the concepts and actual software components available to others who wish to make their data and services more discoverable and accessible. The Libre system is designed to make this a reality, by componentizing the underlying mechanisms and thus allowing the pieces to be shared and reused by those who need them. These components can then be tailored to meet specific needs, allowing the individual data providers to avoid wasteful duplication of effort, and focus more on making their data available to the world. This componentization would also allow the data providers to replace specific pieces with other software if desired, while still preserving the overall functionality of the system. When finished, the various components of the Libre system will be released to the open source community, facilitating the easy inclusion and modification of the system, and allowing users to discover data and services more easily.

  10. CIR Casting System for making transtibial sockets.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yeongchi; Casanova, Hector R; Reisinger, Kim D; Smith, William K; Childress, Dudley S

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes a new casting system for transtibial socket fabrication. Like the earlier CIR Sand Casting System, the CIR Casting System is based on the 'dilatancy' principle that is similar to the packaging process for coffee beans by which loose beans become a solid mass when a vacuum is applied. The main difference from the CIR Sand Casting System is that the CIR Casting System uses light-weight, polystyrene beads in place of silica sand as the primary material for casting the negative mold. The formed negative mold can be converted into a positive sand model for modification and socket formation. With the new plaster-less casting system, the prosthetist can fabricate a transtibial prosthesis in about one hour. It reduces the set-up cost, overall weight and size of the casting system, and increases portability for service in remote areas. The System also creates minimal waste and is energy-conserving and environmentally-friendly. PMID:19235060

  11. Studies of Ice Nucleating Aerosol Particles in Arctic Cloud Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, David C.; DeMott, Paul J.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.

    2001-01-01

    The focus of this research is to improve the understanding of ice nucleating aerosol particles (IN) and the role they play in ice formation in Arctic clouds. IN are important for global climate issues in a variety of ways. The primary effect is their role in determining the phase (liquid or solid) of cloud particles. The microscale impact is on cloud particle size, growth rate, shape, fall speed, concentration, radiative properties, and scavenging of gases and aerosols. On a larger scale, ice formation affects the development of precipitation (rate, amount, type, and distribution), latent heat release (rate and altitude), ambient humidity, the persistence of clouds, and cloud albedo. The overall goals of our FIRE 3 research are to characterize the concentrations and variability of Arctic IN during the winter-spring transition, to compare IN measurements with ice concentrations in Arctic clouds, and to examine selected IN samples for particle morphology and chemical there are distinguishable chemical signatures. The results can be combined with other measurements of aerosols, gaseous species, and cloud characteristics in order to understand the processes that determine the phase and concentration of cloud particles.

  12. 14 CFR 27.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... carburetors has a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 90 degrees F.; (2) Each rotorcraft with sea level... has a preheater capable of providing a heat rise of 120 degrees F.; and (4) Each rotorcraft with altitude engines using carburetors tending to prevent icing has a preheater that can provide a heat rise...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... using— (1) Conventional venturi carburetors have a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 120 F. with... probability of ice formation has a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 100 °F. with the engine at 60... protection at its critical condition, without adverse effect, in an atmosphere that is at a...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... using— (1) Conventional venturi carburetors have a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 120 F. with... probability of ice formation has a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 100 °F. with the engine at 60... protection at its critical condition, without adverse effect, in an atmosphere that is at a...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... carburetors has a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 90 °F.; (2) Each rotorcraft with sea level engines using carburetors tending to prevent icing has a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 70 °F.; (3... provide a heat rise of 120 °F.; and (4) Each rotorcraft with altitude engines using carburetors tending...

  16. 14 CFR 27.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... carburetors has a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 90 degrees F.; (2) Each rotorcraft with sea level... has a preheater capable of providing a heat rise of 120 degrees F.; and (4) Each rotorcraft with altitude engines using carburetors tending to prevent icing has a preheater that can provide a heat rise...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... carburetors has a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 90 °F.; (2) Each rotorcraft with sea level engines using carburetors tending to prevent icing has a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 70 °F.; (3... provide a heat rise of 120 °F.; and (4) Each rotorcraft with altitude engines using carburetors tending...

  18. Making policy and procedure systems work effectively.

    PubMed

    Virani, T

    1996-01-01

    Policy and procedure manuals can be cumbersome to keep current and updated. One approach to meet this challenge is by implementing a decentralized system to develop, review, revise and approve policies and procedures. Mechanisms to operationalize such a system involve sharing of responsibility and accountability of specified policies and procedures by various existing committees and development of coordinating systems and support mechanisms. Other key attributes of a decentralized system included collaboration and extensive communication strategies. PMID:8695607

  19. Ice-ocean-atmosphere coupling in the Regional Arctic System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, A.; Brunke, M.; Cassano, J. J.; Craig, A.; Duvivier, A.; Hughes, M.; Maslowski, W.; Nijssen, B.; Osinski, R.

    2013-12-01

    This work demonstrates the sea ice model performance in the latest version of the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM), which is a fully coupled regional climate model developed by a group of U.S. institutions as a regional counterpart to the Community Earth System Model (CESM). RASM is comprised of the Parallel Ocean Program (POP), Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE), Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. It uses the same coupling infrastructure as CESM, with important physics differences that we have found to be important in our high-resolution model. Model evaluations using SSM/I sea ice extent and concentration, ICESat sea ice thickness measurements, ice-ocean buoys, and satellite retrievals of sea ice drift and deformation, lead us to adjust the standard CESM Monin-Obukhov ice-ocean-atmospheric coupling and ice-ocean stress term used for coupling with POP-CICE at eddy-permitting resolution of 1/12 degree with the 50km resolution WRF and VIC models. Evaluation metrics based on scaling laws and wavelet techniques illustrate that 20-minute coupling produces deformation and drift statistics commensurate with high temporal and spatial resolution measurements. However, dynamical interactions are compromised when typical radiative settings are used as in stand-alone POP-CICE and WRF. This highlights the limitations of surface polar boundary conditions in stand-alone models relative to fully coupled interactions. Our results suggest that use of uncoupled models as testbeds for improved polar components of next-generation global Earth System Models may introduce biases into fully coupled systems, and these can be reduced using a regional coupled climate system model, such as RASM, as a testbed instead.

  20. Balance Mass Flux and Velocity Across the Equilibrium Line in Ice Drainage Systems of Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Giovinetto, Mario B.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Estimates of balance mass flux and the depth-averaged ice velocity through the cross-section aligned with the equilibrium line are produced for each of six drainage systems in Greenland. (The equilibrium line, which lies at approximately 1200 m elevation on the ice sheet, is the boundary between the area of net snow accumulation at higher elevations and the areas of net melting at lower elevations around the ice sheet.) Ice drainage divides and six major drainage systems are delineated using surface topography from ERS (European Remote Sensing) radar altimeter data. The net accumulation rate in the accumulation zone bounded by the equilibrium line is 399 Gt/yr and net ablation rate in the remaining area is 231 Gt/yr. (1 GigaTon of ice is 1090 kM(exp 3). The mean balance mass flux and depth-averaged ice velocity at the cross-section aligned with the modeled equilibrium line are 0.1011 Gt kM(exp -2)/yr and 0.111 km/yr, respectively, with little variation in these values from system to system. The ratio of the ice mass above the equilibrium line to the rate of mass output implies an effective exchange time of approximately 6000 years for total mass exchange. The range of exchange times, from a low of 3 ka in the SE drainage system to 14 ka in the NE, suggests a rank as to which regions of the ice sheet may respond more rapidly to climate fluctuations.

  1. Passenger comfort technology for system decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    Decisions requiring passenger comfort technology were shown to depend on: the relationship between comfort and other factors (e.g., cost, urgency, alternate modes) in traveler acceptance of the systems, serving a selected market require technology to quantify effects of comfort versus offsetting factors in system acceptance. Public predict the maximum percentage of travelers who willingly accept the overall comfort of any trip ride. One or the other of these technology requirements apply to decisions on system design, operation and maintenance.

  2. Quantum criticality and fractional charge excitations in itinerant ice-rule systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udagawa, Masafumi; Ishizuka, Hiroaki; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2013-03-01

    ``Ice rule'' is a configurational constraint on Ising-type variables defined on tetrahedron-based lattices, such as a pyrochlore lattice, so that two out of the four sites on a tetrahedron are in the opposite state to the other two. This concept plays an important role in many systems, such as water ice Ih, magnetite Fe3O4, and spin ice materials Ho(Dy)2Ti2O7. Under the ice-rule constraint, the ground state is disordered and retains macroscopic degeneracy. Nevertheless, the ice-rule configuration is not completely random but has a peculiar spatial structure with quasi-long-range correlation. It is interesting to ask how itinerant electrons change their properties by coupling to this anomalous spatial structure. To answer this problem, we adopt an extended Falicov-Kimball model as a minimal model, in which itinerant electrons interact with localized charge degrees of freedom under the ice rule. We exactly solve this model on a loop-less variant of the tetrahedron-based lattices, a tetrahedron Husimi cactus and clarify the ground-state phase diagram. The exact solution reveals a quantum critical point separating two insulating phases, where a novel non-Fermi-liquid behavior emerges. We also discuss the nature of fractional excitations breaking the ice-rule manifold.

  3. A comparison of ice VII formed in the H2O, NaCl-H2O, and CH3OH-H2O systems: Implications for H2O-rich planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Mark R.; Aarestad, Elizabeth; Scott, Henry P.; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2013-02-01

    High-pressure H2O polymorphs, namely ice VI, ice VII, and ice X, are hypothesized to make up a considerable portion of the interiors of large icy satellites and select extra-solar planets. The incorporation of foreign ions or molecules into these high-pressure phases is possible through ocean-ice interaction, rock-ice interaction at depth, or processes that occurred during accretion. Recent research concerning the effects charged ions have on ice VII has shown that these ions notably affect the structure of ice VII (Frank et al., 2006; Klotz et al., 2009). This study was designed to determine the effects of a molecular impurity on ice VII and compare those effects to both pure H2O ice and ice with an ionic impurity. Ice samples were formed in this study via compression in a diamond anvil cell from either H2O, a 1.60 mol% NaCl aqueous solution, a 1.60 mol% CH3OH aqueous solution, or a 5.00 mol% CH3OH aqueous solution and were compressed up to 71 GPa at room temperature. Ice formed from pure H2O had no impurities whereas ices formed in the NaCl-H2O and CH3OH-H2O systems contained the impurities Na+ and Cl- and CH3OH, respectively. Pressure-volume relations were observed in situ by using synchrotron based X-ray diffraction and were used to determine the equations of state for ices formed in the H2O, NaCl-H2O and CH3OH-H2O systems. The data illustrate that ice VII formed from a NaCl-bearing aqueous solution exhibited a depressed volume when compared to that of H2O-only ice VII at any given pressure, whereas ice VII formed from CH3OH-bearing aqueous solutions showed an opposite trend, with an increase in volume relative to that of pure ice VII. The ices within planetary bodies will most likely have both ionic and molecular impurities and the trends outlined in this study can be used to improve density profiles of H2O-rich planetary bodies.

  4. Long-term observing system for the oceanic regime of Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Østerhus, Svein; Schröder, Michael; Hellmer, Hartmunt; Darelius, Elin; Nicholls, Keith; Makinson, Keith

    2014-05-01

    Long term observations of the flow of dense waters from their area of formation to the abyss of the World Ocean, and the return flow of warm waters, are central to climate research. For the Weddell Sea an important component of such a system entails monitoring the formation of High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW) on the continental shelf north of Ronne Ice Front, the transformation to Ice Shelf Water (ISW) beneath the floating Filchner-Ronne ice shelf, and the flux of ISW overflowing the shelf break to the deep Weddell Sea. Equally important is the return flow of warm water toward the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf system. AWI, BAS and UNI/UIB operate a number of monitoring stations in the southern Weddell Sea. The systems build upon techniques and methods developed over several decades and have a proven record of high data return. Here we present plans for extending, integrating and operating the existing long term observatories to increase our knowledge of the natural variability of the ocean-ice shelf system, and to allow early identification of possible changes of regional or global importance. The S2 observatory at the Filchner sill was established in 1977 and continues to deliver the longest existing marine time series from Antarctica. As a key site for monitoring the ISW overflow S2 is a part of the global net of monitoring sites under CLIVAR Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS) and OceanSITES. The existing S2 observatory consists of a sub-surface mooring carrying sensors for current velocity, temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen measurements. Observations at the Filchner sill also show a seasonal inflow of relatively warm water that is able to reach Filchner Ice Front. New model results indicate that this flow of water might increase in the future and we have deployed a number of instrumented moorings in the Filchner Depression to estimate the heat flux towards the ice shelf. In 1999 we established Site 5 on Ronne Ice Shelf using a hot-water drill to access

  5. Influence of Sea Ice on Arctic Marine Sulfur Biogeochemistry in the Community Climate System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, Clara; Jin, Meibing

    2013-06-30

    Global climate models (GCMs) have not effectively considered how responses of arctic marine ecosystems to a warming climate will influence the global climate system. A key response of arctic marine ecosystems that may substantially influence energy exchange in the Arctic is a change in dimethylsulfide (DMS) emissions, because DMS emissions influence cloud albedo. This response is closely tied to sea ice through its impacts on marine ecosystem carbon and sulfur cycling, and the ice-albedo feedback implicated in accelerated arctic warming. To reduce the uncertainty in predictions from coupled climate simulations, important model components of the climate system, such as feedbacks between arctic marine biogeochemistry and climate, need to be reasonably and realistically modeled. This research first involved model development to improve the representation of marine sulfur biogeochemistry simulations to understand/diagnose the control of sea-ice-related processes on the variability of DMS dynamics. This study will help build GCM predictions that quantify the relative current and possible future influences of arctic marine ecosystems on the global climate system. Our overall research objective was to improve arctic marine biogeochemistry in the Community Climate System Model (CCSM, now CESM). Working closely with the Climate Ocean Sea Ice Model (COSIM) team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), we added 1 sea-ice algae and arctic DMS production and related biogeochemistry to the global Parallel Ocean Program model (POP) coupled to the LANL sea ice model (CICE). Both CICE and POP are core components of CESM. Our specific research objectives were: 1) Develop a state-of-the-art ice-ocean DMS model for application in climate models, using observations to constrain the most crucial parameters; 2) Improve the global marine sulfur model used in CESM by including DMS biogeochemistry in the Arctic; and 3) Assess how sea ice influences DMS dynamics in the arctic marine

  6. JBluIce-EPICS: a fast and flexible open-source beamline control system for macromolecular crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, S.; Hilgart, M.; Makarov, O.; Pothineni, S. B.; Yoder, D.; Ogata, C.; Sanishvili, R.; Venugopalan, N.; Becker, M.; Clift, M.; Smith, J. L.; Fischetti, R. F.

    2013-03-01

    This paper overviews recent advances in the JBluIce-EPICS open-source control system designed at the macromolecular crystallography beamlines of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences and National Cancer Institute at the Advanced Photon Source (GM/CA@APS). We discuss some technical highlights of this system distinguishing it from the competition, such as reduction of software layers to only two, possibility to operate JBluIce in parallel with other beamline controls, plugin-enabled architecture where the plugins can be written in any programming language, and utilization of the whole power of the Java integrated development environment in the Graphical User Interface. Then, we demonstrate how these highlights help to make JBluIce fast, easily adaptable to new beamline developments, and intuitive for users. In particular, we discuss several recent additions to the system including a bridge between crystal rastering and data collection, automatic detection of raster polygons from optical crystal centering, background data processing, and a pathway to a fully automated pipeline from crystal screening to solving crystal structure.

  7. Experimental investigation on performance of ice storage air-conditioning system with separate heat pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Guiyin; Liu, Xu; Wu, Shuangmao

    2009-11-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of ice storage air-conditioning system with separate helical heat pipe is conducted in this paper. The experimental system of ice storage air-conditioning system with separate heat pipe is set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure and the condensation pressure of refrigeration system, the refrigeration capacity and the COP (coefficient of performance) of the system, the IPF (ice packing factor) and the cool storage capacity in the cool storage tank during charging period, and the cool discharge rate and the cool discharge capacity in the cool storage tank, the outlet water temperature in the cool storage tank and the outlet air temperature in room unit during discharging period are investigated. The experimental results show that the ice storage air-conditioning system with separate helical heat pipe can stably work during charging and discharging period. This indicates that the ice storage air-conditioning system with separate helical heat pipe is well adapted to cool storage air-conditioning systems in building. (author)

  8. Young Solar System in the Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger annotated version

    This artist's diagram compares the Epsilon Eridani system to our own solar system. The two systems are structured similarly, and both host asteroids (brown), comets (blue) and planets (white dots).

    Epsilon Eridani is our closest known planetary system, located about 10 light-years away in the constellation Eridanus. Its central star is a younger, fainter version of our sun, and is about 800 million years old about the same age of our solar system when life first took root on Earth.

    Observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope show that the system hosts two asteroid belts, in addition to previously identified candidate planets and an outer comet ring.

    Epsilon Eridani's inner asteroid belt is located at about the same position as ours, approximately three astronomical units from its star (an astronomical unit is the distance between Earth and the sun.). The system's second, denser belt lies at about the same place where Uranus orbits in our solar system, or 20 astronomical units from the star.

    In the same way that Jupiter lies just outside our asteroid belt, shepherding its rocky debris into a ring, Epsilon Eridani is thought to have planets orbiting near the rims of its two belts. The first of these planets was identified in 2000 via the radial velocity technique. Called Epsilon Eridani b, it orbits at an average distance of 3.4 astronomical units placing it just outside the system's inner asteroid belt.

    The second planet orbiting near the rim of the outer asteroid belt at 20 astronomical units was inferred when Spitzer discovered the belt.

    A third planet might orbit in Epsilon Eridani at the inner edge of its outermost comet ring, which lies between 35 and 90 astronomical units. This planet was first hinted at in 1998 due to observed lumpiness in the comet ring.

    The outer comet ring around Epsilon Eridani is denser than our

  9. Decision-making in healthcare as a complex adaptive system.

    PubMed

    Kuziemsky, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare transformation requires a change in how the business of healthcare is done. Traditional decision-making approaches based on stable and predictable systems are inappropriate in healthcare because of the complex nature of healthcare delivery. This article reviews challenges to using traditional decision-making approaches in healthcare and how insight from Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) could support healthcare management. The article also provides a system model to guide decision-making in healthcare as a CAS. PMID:26656389

  10. What makes closed ecological systems sustainable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitelson, I.; Degermendzhy, A.; Rodicheva, E.

    A closed ecosystem has some properties that an open systems lacks. Let us consider the ones that increase the sustainability of an ecosystem. The common feature of biological and physicochemical life support systems is that basically they are both catalytic. There are two fundamental properties distinguishing biological systems: 1) they are auto-catalytic: their catalysts - enzymes of protein nature - are continuously reproduced when the system functions; 2) the program of every process performed by enzymes and the program of their reproduction are inherent in the biological system itself - in the totality of genomes of the species involved in the functioning of the ecosystem. Actually, one cell with the genome capable of the phenotypic realization is enough for the self- restoration of the function performed by the cells of this species in the ecosystem. The multi-cellular organisms with stem cells are constantly ready to repair themselves by intensifying the continuous process of regeneration. We (Gitelson) have made a quantitative investigation of this process by studying the regeneration and reparation of erythrocytes in mammals. The continuous microalgal culture of Chlorella vulgaris was taken to investigate quantitatively the similar functional process of self-restoration in unicellular algae (Rodicheva). Based on the data obtained, we proposed a mathematical model of the restoration process in the cell population that has suffered an acute radiation damage. Besides these general biological mechanisms responsible for their sustainability, closed systems also possess specific features enhancing their stability. They are as follows: 1. Nutrients cannot leave the system. 2. The metabolic pathways of the material cycling are closed. 3. The rates of interlink metabolism are in conformity with each other due to their mutual limitation. We present the data obtained in the Bios-3 experiments that prove the efficiency of this mechanism as a factor of the

  11. Crystallization of amorphous water ice in the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Blake, D. F.

    1996-01-01

    Electron diffraction studies of vapor-deposited water ice have characterized the dynamical structural changes during crystallization that affect volatile retention in cometary materials. Crystallization is found to occur by nucleation of small domains, while leaving a significant part of the amorphous material in a slightly more relaxed amorphous state that coexists metastably with cubic crystalline ice. The onset of the amorphous relaxation is prior to crystallization and coincides with the glass transition. Above the glass transition temperature, the crystallization kinetics are consistent with the amorphous solid becoming a "strong" viscous liquid. The amorphous component can effectively retain volatiles during crystallization if the volatile concentration is approximately 10% or less. For higher initial impurity concentrations, a significant amount of impurities is released during crystallization, probably because the impurities are trapped on the surfaces of micropores. A model for crystallization over long timescales is described that can be applied to a wide range of impure water ices under typical astrophysical conditions if the fragility factor D, which describes the viscosity behavior, can be estimated.

  12. Rapid Access Ice Drill: A New Tool for Exploration of the Deep Antarctic Ice Sheets and Subglacial Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodge, J. W.; Severinghaus, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Rapid Access Ice Drill (RAID) will penetrate the Antarctic ice sheets in order to core through deep ice, the glacial bed, and into bedrock below. This new technology will provide a critical first look at the interface between major ice caps and their subglacial geology. Currently in construction, RAID is a mobile drilling system capable of making several long boreholes in a single field season in Antarctica. RAID is interdisciplinary and will allow access to polar paleoclimate records in ice >1 Ma, direct observation at the base of the ice sheets, and recovery of rock cores from the ice-covered East Antarctic craton. RAID uses a diamond rock-coring system as in mineral exploration. Threaded drill-pipe with hardened metal bits will cut through ice using reverse circulation of Estisol for pressure-compensation, maintenance of temperature, and removal of ice cuttings. Near the bottom of the ice sheet, a wireline bottom-hole assembly will enable diamond coring of ice, the glacial bed, and bedrock below. Once complete, boreholes will be kept open with fluid, capped, and made available for future down-hole measurement of thermal gradient, heat flow, ice chronology, and ice deformation. RAID will also sample for extremophile microorganisms. RAID is designed to penetrate up to 3,300 meters of ice and take sample cores in less than 200 hours. This rapid performance will allow completion of a borehole in about 10 days before moving to the next drilling site. RAID is unique because it can provide fast borehole access through thick ice; take short ice cores for paleoclimate study; sample the glacial bed to determine ice-flow conditions; take cores of subglacial bedrock for age dating and crustal history; and create boreholes for use as an observatory in the ice sheets. Together, the rapid drilling capability and mobility of the drilling system, along with ice-penetrating imaging methods, will provide a unique 3D picture of the interior Antarctic ice sheets.

  13. An Instructional System for Consumer Decision-Making: Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suchman, J. Richard; DiSario, Martha R.

    An instructional system is presented for building the competencies of adult basic education students in making consumer decisions, and offers a guide to teachers who wish to design their own decision-making problems for students. The first four chapters provide a brief introduction, discuss the rational consumer decision-making process and the…

  14. Methods of validating the Advanced Diagnosis and Warning system for aircraft ICing Environments (ADWICE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosczyk, S.; Hauf, T.; Leifeld, C.

    2003-04-01

    In-flight icing is one of the most hazardous problems in aviation. It was determined as contributing factor in more than 800 incidents worldwide. And though the meteorological factors of airframe icing become more and more transparent, they have to be integrated into the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) certification rules first. Therefore best way to enhance aviational safety is to know the areas of dangerous icing conditions in order to prevent flying in them. For this reason the German Weather Service (DWD), the Institute for Atmospheric Physics at the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) and the Institute of Meteorology and Climatology (ImuK) of the University of Hanover started developingADWICE - theAdvanced Diagnosis and Warning system for aircraft ICing Environments - in 1998. This algorithm is based on the DWDLocal Model (LM) forecast of temperature and humidity, in fusion with radar and synop and, coming soon, satellite data. It gives an every-hour nowcast of icing severity and type - divided into four categories: freezing rain, convective, stratiform and general - for the middle European area. A first validation of ADWICE took place in 1999 with observational data from an in-flight icing campaign during EURICE in 1997. The momentary validation deals with a broader database. As first step the output from ADWICE is compared to observations from pilots (PIREPs) to get a statistic of the probability of detecting icing and either no-icing conditions within the last icing-seasons. There were good results of this method with the AmericanIntegrated Icing Diagnostic Algorithm (IIDA). A problem though is the small number of PIREPs from Europe in comparison to the US. So a temporary campaign of pilots (including Lufthansa and Aerolloyd) collecting cloud and icing information every few miles is intended to solve this unpleasant situation. Another source of data are the measurements of theFalcon - a DLR research aircraft carrying an icing sensor. In addition to that

  15. Design and deployment of a stationary ice-penetrating radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, G. E.; Mingo, L.; Saint-Jacques, D.

    2015-12-01

    Ice-penetrating radar (IPR) is a popular tool in glaciology, used most commonly for mapping ice depth. Dielectric contrasts between englacial materials, including ice, water, and impurities, allow the detection of internal stratigraphy and some characterization of englacial properties. Here we describe the design and the 2014-2015 deployments of an autonomous stationary ice-penetrating radar system that was tested on a large outlet glacier of the Icefield Ranges of southwest Yukon, Canada. The radar system was deployed within a kilometer of an ice-marginal lake that is dammed by the Kaskawulsh Glacier and drains annually in a subglacial jökulhlaup. It was programmed to perform a series of soundings every few hours and was left unattended over the course of 6 weeks in 2014 and 7 weeks in 2015, while the lake level was monitored with a pressure transducer and time-lapse imagery. The 2014 dataset is characterized by a marked decrease in englacial reflector strength and coherence during the drainage of the ice-dammed lake. We interpret these data as a significant change in englacial saturation associated with the flood. The 2015 dataset post-dates the flood and provides an opportunity to examine more subtle changes in englacial and subglacial properties. Radar mapping in the vicinity of the deployment locations provides context for the time-dependent measurements, also showing significant differences before and after lake drainage.

  16. A Regional Coupled Model System to Examine Ocean-Atmosphere-Sea Ice, Ice Sheet and Permafrost Interactions in the Arctic: HIRHAM5 - HYCOM - CICE - PISM - GIPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, J. H.; Mottram, R.; Langen, P. L.; Madsen, K. S.; Stendel, M.; Rodehacke, C. B.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Marchenko, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    We introduce a high resolution fully coupled regional model system that describes ocean, atmosphere and sea ice processes in the Arctic Ocean and North Atlantic and treats atmosphere / ocean / ice sheet interactions as well as land and sub-sea permafrost processes in an advanced semi-coupled form. The system has been developed using five existing model components: the high resolution regional climate model HIRHAM5, the regional ocean model HYCOM and the CICE model that describes sea ice dynamics, the PISM ice sheet model and the GIPL permafrost model. These models have been interactively coupled which enables us to perform experiments examining the relative importance of ocean and atmospheric forcing as well as internal dynamics, to explain the recent rapid decline of Arctic sea ice, recent changes in the Greenland ice sheet mass balance together with both land and sub-sea permafrost conditions. Analysis of the model results indicates the model can successfully reproduce the interannual and seasonal variability in sea ice extent, describe recent changes in the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance as well as permafrost conditions around Greenland and possibly under the Arctic Ocean sea floor. This opens up the possibility of a range of process based experiments as well as simulations to project the future and study the past of Arctic sea ice that we plan to run using the EC-Earth GCM as boundary forcing. Examples, focusing on various coupling issues will be presented and the need for further refinements will be assessed by highlighting processes that appear to be essential to the interactions and hence possibly important at climate scales.

  17. Thermodynamics of the formaldehyde-water and formaldehyde-ice systems for atmospheric applications.

    PubMed

    Barret, Manuel; Houdier, Stephan; Domine, Florent

    2011-01-27

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a species involved in numerous key atmospheric chemistry processes that can significantly impact the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. Since gaseous HCHO is soluble in water, the water droplets of clouds and the ice crystals of snow exchange HCHO with the gas phase and the partitioning of HCHO between the air, water, and ice phases must be known to understand its chemistry. This study proposes thermodynamic formulations for the partitioning of HCHO between the gas phase and the ice and liquid water phases. A reanalysis of existing data on the vapor-liquid equilibrium has shown the inadequacy of the Henry's law formulation, and we instead propose the following equation to predict the mole fraction of HCHO in liquid water at equilibrium, X(HCHO,liq), as a function of the partial pressure P(HCHO) (Pa) and temperature T (K): X(HCHO,liq) = 1.700 × 10(-15) e((8014/T))(P(HCHO))(1.105). Given the paucity of data on the gas-ice equilibrium, the solubility of HCHO and the diffusion coefficient (D(HCHO)) in ice were measured by exposing large single ice crystals to low P(HCHO). Our recommended value for D(HCHO) over the temperature range 243-266 K is D(HCHO) = 6 × 10(-12) cm(2) s(-1). The solubility of HCHO in ice follows the relationship X(HCHO,ice) = 9.898 × 10(-13) e((4072/T))(P(HCHO))(0.803). Extrapolation of these data yields the P(HCHO) versus 1/T phase diagram for the H(2)O-HCHO system. The comparison of our results to existing data on the partitioning of HCHO between the snow and the atmosphere in the high arctic highlights the interplay between thermodynamic equilibrium and kinetics processes in natural systems. PMID:21171657

  18. Tightly integrated single- and multi-crystal data collection strategy calculation and parallelized data processing in JBluIce beamline control system

    PubMed Central

    Pothineni, Sudhir Babu; Venugopalan, Nagarajan; Ogata, Craig M.; Hilgart, Mark C.; Stepanov, Sergey; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Becker, Michael; Winter, Graeme; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Smith, Janet L.; Fischetti, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    The calculation of single- and multi-crystal data collection strategies and a data processing pipeline have been tightly integrated into the macromolecular crystallographic data acquisition and beamline control software JBluIce. Both tasks employ wrapper scripts around existing crystallographic software. JBluIce executes scripts through a distributed resource management system to make efficient use of all available computing resources through parallel processing. The JBluIce single-crystal data collection strategy feature uses a choice of strategy programs to help users rank sample crystals and collect data. The strategy results can be conveniently exported to a data collection run. The JBluIce multi-crystal strategy feature calculates a collection strategy to optimize coverage of reciprocal space in cases where incomplete data are available from previous samples. The JBluIce data processing runs simultaneously with data collection using a choice of data reduction wrappers for integration and scaling of newly collected data, with an option for merging with pre-existing data. Data are processed separately if collected from multiple sites on a crystal or from multiple crystals, then scaled and merged. Results from all strategy and processing calculations are displayed in relevant tabs of JBluIce. PMID:25484844

  19. Tightly integrated single- and multi-crystal data collection strategy calculation and parallelized data processing in JBluIce beamline control system.

    PubMed

    Pothineni, Sudhir Babu; Venugopalan, Nagarajan; Ogata, Craig M; Hilgart, Mark C; Stepanov, Sergey; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Becker, Michael; Winter, Graeme; Sauter, Nicholas K; Smith, Janet L; Fischetti, Robert F

    2014-12-01

    The calculation of single- and multi-crystal data collection strategies and a data processing pipeline have been tightly integrated into the macromolecular crystallographic data acquisition and beamline control software JBluIce. Both tasks employ wrapper scripts around existing crystallographic software. JBluIce executes scripts through a distributed resource management system to make efficient use of all available computing resources through parallel processing. The JBluIce single-crystal data collection strategy feature uses a choice of strategy programs to help users rank sample crystals and collect data. The strategy results can be conveniently exported to a data collection run. The JBluIce multi-crystal strategy feature calculates a collection strategy to optimize coverage of reciprocal space in cases where incomplete data are available from previous samples. The JBluIce data processing runs simultaneously with data collection using a choice of data reduction wrappers for integration and scaling of newly collected data, with an option for merging with pre-existing data. Data are processed separately if collected from multiple sites on a crystal or from multiple crystals, then scaled and merged. Results from all strategy and processing calculations are displayed in relevant tabs of JBluIce. PMID:25484844

  20. Tightly integrated single- and multi-crystal data collection strategy calculation and parallelized data processing in JBluIce beamline control system

    SciTech Connect

    Pothineni, Sudhir Babu; Venugopalan, Nagarajan; Ogata, Craig M.; Hilgart, Mark C.; Stepanov, Sergey; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Becker, Michael; Winter, Graeme; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Smith, Janet L.; Fischetti, Robert F.

    2014-11-18

    The calculation of single- and multi-crystal data collection strategies and a data processing pipeline have been tightly integrated into the macromolecular crystallographic data acquisition and beamline control software JBluIce. Both tasks employ wrapper scripts around existing crystallographic software. JBluIce executes scripts through a distributed resource management system to make efficient use of all available computing resources through parallel processing. The JBluIce single-crystal data collection strategy feature uses a choice of strategy programs to help users rank sample crystals and collect data. The strategy results can be conveniently exported to a data collection run. The JBluIce multi-crystal strategy feature calculates a collection strategy to optimize coverage of reciprocal space in cases where incomplete data are available from previous samples. The JBluIce data processing runs simultaneously with data collection using a choice of data reduction wrappers for integration and scaling of newly collected data, with an option for merging with pre-existing data. Data are processed separately if collected from multiple sites on a crystal or from multiple crystals, then scaled and merged. Results from all strategy and processing calculations are displayed in relevant tabs of JBluIce.

  1. Tightly integrated single- and multi-crystal data collection strategy calculation and parallelized data processing in JBluIce beamline control system

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pothineni, Sudhir Babu; Venugopalan, Nagarajan; Ogata, Craig M.; Hilgart, Mark C.; Stepanov, Sergey; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Becker, Michael; Winter, Graeme; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Smith, Janet L.; et al

    2014-11-18

    The calculation of single- and multi-crystal data collection strategies and a data processing pipeline have been tightly integrated into the macromolecular crystallographic data acquisition and beamline control software JBluIce. Both tasks employ wrapper scripts around existing crystallographic software. JBluIce executes scripts through a distributed resource management system to make efficient use of all available computing resources through parallel processing. The JBluIce single-crystal data collection strategy feature uses a choice of strategy programs to help users rank sample crystals and collect data. The strategy results can be conveniently exported to a data collection run. The JBluIce multi-crystal strategy feature calculates amore » collection strategy to optimize coverage of reciprocal space in cases where incomplete data are available from previous samples. The JBluIce data processing runs simultaneously with data collection using a choice of data reduction wrappers for integration and scaling of newly collected data, with an option for merging with pre-existing data. Data are processed separately if collected from multiple sites on a crystal or from multiple crystals, then scaled and merged. Results from all strategy and processing calculations are displayed in relevant tabs of JBluIce.« less

  2. An Investigation of a Thermal Ice-Prevention System for a Twin-Engine Transport Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Alun R

    1946-01-01

    Several previously published reports on a comprehensive investigation of a thermal ice-prevention system for a typical twin-engine transport airplane are correlated with some unpublished data to present the entire investigation in one publication. Several previously published reports on a comprehensive investigation of a thermal ice-prevention system for a typical twin-engine transport airplane are correlated with some unpublished data to present the entire investigation in one publication. The thermal system investigated was based upon the transfer of heat from the engine exhaust gas to air, which is then caused to flow along the inner surface of any portion of the airplane for which protection is desired.

  3. Measurements of the isotopic composition of ice and vapor above a tropical convective system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, A.; Hanisco, T. F.; Sayres, D. S.; St Clair, J.; Smith, J. B.; Weinstock, E. M.; Anderson, J.

    2011-12-01

    We present observations of the isotopic composition of condensed and vapor water in the lower tropical tropopause layer (TTL) above a large summertime tropical convective system obtained by the Hoxotope and ICOS isotope instruments flown on the NASA WB-57 during TC4. A simple ice isotopic physics model is used in conjunction with our observational data to determine the origin of the condensed phase encountered above the cloud top. Regions of ice that are characteristic of both convective lofting, where the ice is isotopically heavier than the surroundings, and in situ condensation, where the ice shows little difference in isotopic composition with respect to the vapor, are encountered above the convective cell with convective lofting being the dominant mechanism by which water is transported to this altitude. While ice lofting is an important component of water transport models in the TTL, the isotopic composition of ice has been a relatively unconstrained parameter. Observations of condensed isotopes coupled with the vertical profile of vapor in the summertime TTL suggests that there is a seasonal variation in convective timescales that needs to be accounted for in convectively-influenced trajectory models describing the transport of water in the TTL.

  4. Analysis of ice crystals occuring in the upper high levels of tropical mesoscale convective systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delplanque, Alexandre

    2015-04-01

    In 2010 several test flights were performed in tropical marine meso-scale convective systems at flight levels between 10.5 and 10.8 km. Ice crystals were observed with a high speed CDD camera (image pixel resolution: 15 μ m, time resolution 0.007 s) hereafter called the Airbus nephelometer. In-cloud observations were not restricted to the stratiform regions of the MCS but also convective cores were intensely sampled. High number concentrations of ice crystals (N > 1000 L-1) and IWC of more than 4 g.m-3 could be observed. The main objective of our study is the retrieval of the ice water mass from ice particle number distribution and crystal habits, both observed by the Airbus nephelometer. The shape of ice particles was supposed to correspond to the form of oblate spheroids. A statistical study of the aspect ratio of crystal images was performed comparing two different geometrical approaches for the aspect ratio of their semi axis. One uses the ratio of minimum to maximum length, the other is based on the aspect ratio which best fits the crystal image. Different regions of the MCS present different mean aspect ratios measured at small scale (200 m). Variations of the aspect ratio seem to be associated with different nucleation and growth histories for the crystals. For regions with 'young' ice crystals, an anti-correlation between the aspect ratio and ice number concentration was observed. This observation is compared with the results obtained from simple diffusional growth modeling. To better quantify the characteristics of high concentrations of small ice crystal MCS regions, we propose to use the size distribution of the mean aspect ratio (from 100 μ m to 1 mm), to distinguish quite different behaviors for 'young' and 'mature' convective regions.

  5. HAIC/HIWC field campaign - investigating ice microphysics in high ice water content regions of mesoscale convective systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Delphine; Fontaine, Emmanuel; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons; Strapp, J. Walter; Lilie, Lyle; Dezitter, Fabien; Grandin, Alice

    2015-04-01

    Despite existing research programs focusing on tropical convection, high ice water content (IWC) regions in Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS) - potentially encountered by commercial aircraft and related to reported in-service events - remain poorly documented either because investigation of such high IWC regions was not of highest priority or because utilized instrumentation was not capable of providing accurate cloud microphysical measurements. To gather quantitative data in high IWC regions, a multi-year international HAIC/HIWC (High Altitude Ice Crystals / High Ice Water Content) field project has been designed including a first field campaign conducted out of Darwin (Australia) in 2014. The French Falcon 20 research aircraft had been equipped among others with a state-of-the-art in situ microphysics package including the IKP (isokinetic evaporator probe which provides a reference measurement of IWC and TWC), the CDP (cloud droplet spectrometer probe measuring particles in the range 2-50 µm), the 2D-S (2D-Stereo, 10-1280 µm) and PIP (precipitation imaging probe, 100-6400 µm) optical array probes. Microphysical data collection has been performed mainly at -40°C and -30°C levels, whereas little data could be sampled at -50°C and at -15C/-10°C. The study presented here focuses on ice crystal size properties, thereby analyzing in detail the 2D image data from 2D-S and PIP optical array imaging probes. 2D images recorded with 2D-S and PIP were processed in order to extract a large variety of geometrical parameters, such as maximum diameter (Dmax), 2D surface equivalent diameter (Deq), and the corresponding number particle size distribution (PSD). Using the PSD information from both probes, a composite size distribution was then built, with sizes ranging from few tens of µm to roughly 10 mm. Finally, mass-size relationships for ice crystals in tropical convection were established in terms of power laws in order to compute median mass diameters MMDmax and

  6. The CONCEPTS Global Ice-Ocean Prediction System: Establishing an Environmental Prediction Capability in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellerin, Pierre; Smith, Gregory; Testut, Charles-Emmanuel; Surcel Colan, Dorina; Roy, Francois; Reszka, Mateusz; Dupont, Frederic; Lemieux, Jean-Francois; Beaudoin, Christiane; He, Zhongjie; Belanger, Jean-Marc; Deacu, Daniel; Lu, Yimin; Buehner, Mark; Davidson, Fraser; Ritchie, Harold; Lu, Youyu; Drevillon, Marie; Tranchant, Benoit; Garric, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    Here we describe a new system implemented recently at the Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) entitled the Global Ice Ocean Prediction System (GIOPS). GIOPS provides ice and ocean analyses and 10 day forecasts daily at 00GMT on a global 1/4° resolution grid. GIOPS includes a full multivariate ocean data assimilation system that combines satellite observations of sea level anomaly and sea surface temperature (SST) together with in situ observations of temperature and salinity. In situ observations are obtained from a variety of sources including: the Argo network of autonomous profiling floats, moorings, ships of opportunity, marine mammals and research cruises. Ocean analyses are blended with sea ice analyses produced by the Global Ice Analysis System.. GIOPS has been developed as part of the Canadian Operational Network of Coupled Environmental PredicTion Systems (CONCEPTS) tri-departmental initiative between Environment Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada and National Defense. The development of GIOPS was made through a partnership with Mercator-Océan, a French operational oceanography group. Mercator-Océan provided the ocean data assimilation code and assistance with the system implementation. GIOPS has undergone a rigorous evaluation of the analysis, trial and forecast fields demonstrating its capacity to provide high-quality products in a robust and reliable framework. In particular, SST and ice concentration forecasts demonstrate a clear benefit with respect to persistence. These results support the use of GIOPS products within other CMC operational systems, and more generally, as part of a Government of Canada marine core service. Impact of a two-way coupling between the GEM atmospheric model and NEMO-CICE ocean-ice model will also be presented.

  7. Improving Climate Literacy Using The Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM): A Prototype Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory For Use In K-12 Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halkides, D. J.; Larour, E. Y.; Perez, G.; Petrie, K.; Nguyen, L.

    2013-12-01

    Statistics indicate that most Americans learn what they will know about science within the confines of our public K-12 education system and the media. Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) aim to remedy science illiteracy and provide guidelines to exceed the Common Core State Standards that most U.S. state governments have adopted, by integrating disciplinary cores with crosscutting ideas and real life practices. In this vein, we present a prototype ';Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory' (I-Lab), geared to K-12 students, educators and interested members of the general public. I-Lab will allow users to perform experiments using a state-of-the-art dynamical ice sheet model and provide detailed downloadable lesson plans, which incorporate this model and are consistent with NGSS Physical Science criteria for different grade bands (K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12). The ultimate goal of this website is to improve public climate science literacy, especially in regards to the crucial role of the polar ice sheets in Earth's climate and sea level. The model used will be the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM), an ice flow model developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and UC Irvine, that simulates the near-term evolution of polar ice sheets (Greenland and Antarctica) and includes high spatial resolution capabilities and data assimilation to produce realistic simulations of ice sheet dynamics at the continental scale. Open sourced since 2011, ISSM is used in cutting edge cryosphere research around the globe. Thru I-Lab, students will be able to access ISSM using a simple, online graphical interface that can be launched from a web browser on a computer, tablet or smart phone. The interface will allow users to select different climate conditions and watch how the polar ice sheets evolve in time under those conditions. Lesson contents will include links to background material and activities that teach observation recording, concept articulation, hypothesis formulation and testing, and

  8. Glacial ice cores: A model system for developing extraterrestrial decontamination protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christner, Brent C.; Mikucki, Jill A.; Foreman, Christine M.; Denson, Jackie; Priscu, John C.

    2005-04-01

    Evidence gathered from spacecraft orbiting Mars has shown that water ice exists at both poles and may form a large subsurface reservoir at lower latitudes. The recent exploration of the martian surface by unmanned landers and surface rovers, and the planned missions to eventually return samples to Earth have raised concerns regarding both forward and back contamination. Methods to search for life in these icy environments and adequate protocols to prevent contamination can be tested with earthly analogues. Studies of ice cores on Earth have established past climate changes and geological events, both globally and regionally, but only recently have these results been correlated with the biological materials (i.e., plant fragments, seeds, pollen grains, fungal spores, and microorganisms) that are entrapped and preserved within the ice. The inclusion of biology into ice coring research brings with it a whole new approach towards decontamination. Our investigations on ice from the Vostok core (Antarctica) have shown that the outer portion of the cores have up to 3 and 2 orders of magnitude higher bacterial density and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) than the inner portion of the cores, respectively, as a result of drilling and handling. The extreme gradients that exist between the outer and inner portion of these samples make contamination a very relevant aspect of geomicrobiological investigations with ice cores, particularly when the actual numbers of ambient bacterial cells are low. To address this issue and the inherent concern it raises for the integrity of future investigations with ice core materials from terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments, we employed a procedure to monitor the decontamination process in which ice core surfaces are painted with a solution containing a tracer microorganism, plasmid DNA, and fluorescent dye before sampling. Using this approach, a simple and direct method is proposed to verify the authenticity of geomicrobiological

  9. Optimization via CFD of aircraft hot-air anti-icing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellissier, Mathieu Paul Constantin

    In-flight icing is a major concern in aircraft safety and a non-negligible source of incidents and accidents, and is still a serious hazard today. It remains consequently a design and certification challenge for aircraft manufacturers. The aerodynamic performance of an aircraft can indeed degrade rapidly when flying in icing conditions, leading to incidents or accidents. In-flight icing occurs when an aircraft passes through clouds containing supercooled water droplets at or below freezing temperature. Droplets impinge on its exposed surfaces and freeze, causing roughness and shape changes that increase drag, decrease lift and reduce the stall angle of attack, eventually inducing flow separation and stall. This hazardous ice accretion is prevented by the use of dedicated anti-icing systems, among which hot-air-types are the most common for turbofan aircraft. This work presents a methodology for the optimization of such aircraft hot-air-type anti-icing systems, known as Piccolo tubes. Having identified through 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) the most critical in-flight icing conditions, as well as determined thermal power constraints, the objective is to optimize the heat distribution in such a way to minimize power requirements, while meeting or exceeding all safety regulation requirements. To accomplish this, an optimization method combining 3D CFD, Reduced-Order Models (ROM) and Genetic Algorithms (GA) is constructed to determine the optimal configuration of the Piccolo tube (angles of jets, spacing between holes, and position from leading edge). The methodology successfully results in increasingly optimal configurations from three up to five design variables.

  10. Mobile Permanent Magnet NMR Systems for Field Studies on Antarctic Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gädke, Achim; Dykstra, Robin

    2011-03-01

    A permanent magnet based Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) system has been developed to measure various properties of the brine in sea ice. In contrast to systems utilizing the Earth's field in previous expeditions, the comparatively high field of 0.28 T provided by permanent magnets allows for shorter measurement times and advanced NMR protocols. In November 2009 the instrument was deployed to Antarctica to investigate sea ice grown under natural conditions. In this paper the instrument is described, preliminary results are reported and future options for mobile NMR applications in Antarctica discussed.