Science.gov

Sample records for ice melting temperature

  1. Distinguishing snow and ice melt contributions using daily MODIS and a temperature index melt model in the Hunza River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittger, Karl; Brodzik, Mary J.; Racoviteanu, Adina; Barrett, Andrew; Jodha Kalsa, Siri; Armstrong, Richard

    2015-04-01

    In mountainous regions of High Asia, snow and ice both contribute to streamflow, but few in-situ observations exist that can help distinguish between the two components of melt. Our goal is to develop a melt model that can distinguish between seasonal snow and glacier ice melt at a continental scale. We use a combination of MODIS-derived data sets to distinguish three surface types at daily resolution: 1) exposed glacier ice, 2) snow over ice and 3) snow over land. We use MODICE to map glacier area and then distinguish areas of exposed ice from snow over ice using thresholds on MODIS-derived albedo or grain size products. We map snow over land using the daily MODSCAG fractional snow cover product, and use the time series of three surface types as input to a temperature index melt model. The model outputs melt volumes from exposed glacier ice, snow over ice and snow over land, respectively. To partition the glacier surface into exposed glacier ice versus snow over ice, we threshold MODIS albedo or grain size based on higher-resolution Landsat 8 imagery. During the ablation period, the high elevation mid-latitude snowpack receives intense incoming solar radiation resulting in surface albedo decreases and snow grain growth. We compare differences in modeled melt using two albedo products (Terra Daily Snow Cover algorithm (MOD10A1) and Surface Reflectance BRDF/Albedo (MCD43)) and two grain size products (MODIS Snow Covered Area and Grain Size Model (MODSCAG) and MODIS Dust Radiative Forcing in Snow (MODDRFS)). For the Hunza basin, a sub-basin of the Upper Indus basin, for the years 2001-2004, the modeled melt from exposed glacier ice accounts for: 26-44% (MOD10A1 albedo), 24-32% (MCD43 albedo), 17-28% (MODSCAG grain size) or 23-26% (MODDRFS grain size) of the combined melt from all three surface areas.

  2. Variability of Surface Temperature and Melt on the Greenland Ice Sheet, 2000-2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Comiso, Josefino, C.; Shuman, Christopher A.; Koenig, Lora S.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced melting along with surface-temperature increases measured using infrared satellite data, have been documented for the Greenland Ice Sheet. Recently we developed a climate-quality data record of ice-surface temperature (IST) of the Greenland Ice Sheet using the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 1ST product -- http://modis-snow-ice.gsfc.nasa.gov. Using daily and mean monthly MODIS 1ST maps from the data record we show maximum extent of melt for the ice sheet and its six major drainage basins for a 12-year period extending from March of 2000 through December of 2011. The duration of the melt season on the ice sheet varies in different drainage basins with some basins melting progressively earlier over the study period. Some (but not all) of the basins also show a progressively-longer duration of melt. The short time of the study period (approximately 12 years) precludes an evaluation of statistically-significant trends. However the dataset provides valuable information on natural variability of IST, and on the ability of the MODIS instrument to capture changes in IST and melt conditions indifferent drainage basins of the ice sheet.

  3. Surface Temperature and Melt on the Greenland Ice Sheet, 2000 - 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Comiso, Josefino C.; Shuman, Christopher A.; Koeing, Lora S.; Box, Jason E.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced melting along with surface-temperature increases measured using infrared satellite data, have been documented for the Greenland Ice Sheet. Recently we developed a climate-quality data record of ice-surface temperature (IST) of the Greenland Ice Sheet using the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) IST product -- http://modis-snow-ice.gsfc.nasa.gov.Using daily and mean-monthly MODIS IST maps from the data record we show maximum extent of melt for the ice sheet and its six major drainage basins for a 12-year period extending from March of 2000 through December of 2011. The duration of the melt season on the ice sheet varies in different drainage basins with some basins melting progressively earlier over the study period. Some (but not all) of the basins also show a progressively-longer duration of melt. The short time of the study period (approx 12 years) precludes an evaluation of statistically-significant trends. However the dataset provides valuable information on natural variability of IST, and on the ability of the MODIS instrument to capture changes in IST and melt conditions in different drainage basins of the ice sheet.

  4. Greenland ice sheet surface temperature, melt and mass loss: 2000-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, D.K.; Williams, R.S., Jr.; Luthcke, S.B.; DiGirolamo, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    A daily time series of 'clear-sky' surface temperature has been compiled of the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) using 1 km resolution moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) land-surface temperature (LST) maps from 2000 to 2006. We also used mass-concentration data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to study mass change in relationship to surface melt from 2003 to 2006. The mean LST of the GIS increased during the study period by ???0.27??Ca-1. The increase was especially notable in the northern half of the ice sheet during the winter months. Melt-season length and timing were also studied in each of the six major drainage basins. Rapid (<15 days) and sustained mass loss below 2000 m elevation was triggered in 2004 and 2005 as recorded by GRACE when surface melt begins. Initiation of large-scale surface melt was followed rapidly by mass loss. This indicates that surface meltwater is flowing rapidly to the base of the ice sheet, causing acceleration of outlet glaciers, thus highlighting the metastability of parts of the GIS and the vulnerability of the ice sheet to air-temperature increases. If air temperatures continue to rise over Greenland, increased surface melt will play a large role in ice-sheet mass loss.

  5. Melting of Ice under Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Schwegler, E; Sharma, M; Gygi, F; Galli, G

    2008-07-31

    The melting of ice under pressure is investigated with a series of first principles molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, a two-phase approach is used to determine the melting temperature of the ice-VII phase in the range of 10 to 50 GPa. Our computed melting temperatures are consistent with existing diamond anvil cell experiments. We find that for pressures between 10 to 40 GPa, ice melts as a molecular solid. For pressures above {approx}45 GPa there is a sharp increase in the slope of the melting curve due to the presence of molecular dissociation and proton diffusion in the solid, prior to melting. The onset of significant proton diffusion in ice-VII as a function of increasing temperature is found to be gradual and bears many similarities to that of a type-II superionic solid.

  6. Melting of ice under pressure

    PubMed Central

    Schwegler, Eric; Sharma, Manu; Gygi, Franois; Galli, Giulia

    2008-01-01

    The melting of ice under pressure is investigated with a series of first-principles molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, a two-phase approach is used to determine the melting temperature of the ice-VII phase in the range of 1050 GPa. Our computed melting temperatures are consistent with existing diamond anvil cell experiments. We find that for pressures between 10 and 40 GPa, ice melts as a molecular solid. For pressures above ?45 Gpa, there is a sharp increase in the slope of the melting curve because of the presence of molecular dissociation and proton diffusion in the solid before melting. The onset of significant proton diffusion in ice-VII as a function of increasing temperature is found to be gradual and bears many similarities to that of a type-II superionic solid. PMID:18809909

  7. Predicting the melting temperature of ice-Ih with only electronic structure information as input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinnick, Eric R.; Erramilli, Shyamsunder; Wang, Feng

    2012-07-01

    The melting temperature of ice-Ih was calculated with only electronic structure information as input by creating a problem-specific force field. The force field, Water model by AFM for Ice and Liquid (WAIL), was developed with the adaptive force matching (AFM) method by fitting to post-Hartree-Fock quality forces obtained in quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations. WAIL predicts the ice-Ih melting temperature to be 270 K. The model also predicts the densities of ice and water, the temperature of maximum density of water, the heat of vaporizations, and the radial distribution functions for both ice and water in good agreement with experimental measurements. The non-dissociative WAIL model is very similar to a flexible version of the popular TIP4P potential and has comparable computational cost. By customizing to problem-specific configurations with the AFM approach, the resulting model is remarkably more accurate than any variants of TIP4P for simulating ice-Ih and water in the temperature range from 253 K and 293 K under ambient pressure.

  8. Quantum path integral simulation of isotope effects in the melting temperature of ice Ih

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramrez, R.; Herrero, C. P.

    2010-10-01

    The isotope effect in the melting temperature of ice Ih has been studied by free energy calculations within the path integral formulation of statistical mechanics. Free energy differences between isotopes are related to the dependence of their kinetic energy on the isotope mass. The water simulations were performed by using the q-TIP4P/F model, a point charge empirical potential that includes molecular flexibility and anharmonicity in the OH stretch of the water molecule. The reported melting temperature at ambient pressure of this model (T =251 K) increases by 6.50.5 and 8.20.5 K upon isotopic substitution of hydrogen by deuterium and tritium, respectively. These temperature shifts are larger than the experimental ones (3.8 and 4.5 K, respectively). In the classical limit, the melting temperature is nearly the same as that for tritiated ice. This unexpected behavior is rationalized by the coupling between intermolecular interactions and molecular flexibility. This coupling makes the kinetic energy of the OH stretching modes larger in the liquid than in the solid phase. However, the opposite behavior is found for intramolecular modes, which display larger kinetic energy in ice than in liquid water.

  9. Relationship Between Ice Nucleation Temperature Depression and Equilibrium Melting Points Depression of Medaka (Oryzias latipes) Embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimizuka, Norihito; Suzuki, Toru

    We measured the ice nucleation temperature depression , ?Tf , and equilibrium melting points depression, ?Tm, of Medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos with different cryoprotectant (ethylene glycol, 1.3-propanediol, 1.4-butanediol, glycerol aqueous solutions) treatments. Our obtained results showed the good relationship between the ?Tf ,and ?Tm all samples. In addition the value of ? , which can be obtained from the linear relationship, ?Tf =? ?Tm, were confirmed to show correlation with the value of ? , as obtained by the W/O emulsion method.

  10. Water Freezing and Ice Melting.

    PubMed

    Ma?olepsza, Edyta; Keyes, Tom

    2015-12-01

    The generalized replica exchange method (gREM) is designed to sample states with coexisting phases and thereby to describe strong first order phase transitions. The isobaric MD version of the gREM is presented and applied to the freezing of liquid water and the melting of hexagonal and cubic ice. It is confirmed that coexisting states are well-sampled. The statistical temperature as a function of enthalpy, TS(H), is obtained. Hysteresis between freezing and melting is observed and discussed. The entropic analysis of phase transitions is applied and equilibrium transition temperatures, latent heats, and surface tensions are obtained for hexagonal ice ? liquid and cubic ice ? liquid with excellent agreement with published values. A new method is given to assign water molecules among various symmetry types. Pathways for water freezing, ultimately leading to hexagonal ice, are found to contain intermediate layered structures built from hexagonal and cubic ice. PMID:26642983

  11. Bulk heat transfer coefficient in the ice-upper ocean system in the ice melt season derived from concentration-temperature relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nihashi, Sohey; Ohshima, Kay I.

    2008-06-01

    The bulk heat transfer coefficient in the ice-upper ocean system (Kb) in the ice melt season is estimated by a new method at 18 areas that cover much of the Antarctic seasonal ice zone. The method is based on a model in which ice melting is caused only by heat input through open water and is treated in a bulk fashion in the ice-upper ocean system. Kb is estimated by fitting a convergent curve derived from the model to an observed ice concentration-temperature plot (CT-plot). Estimated Kb is 1.15 0.72 10-4 m s-1 on average. If Kb can be expressed by the product of the heat transfer coefficient (ch) and the friction velocity (u?), ch is 0.0113 0.0055. This value is about two times larger than that estimated at the ice bottom. The relationship between Kb and the geostrophic wind speed (Uw), which is roughly proportional to u?, shows a significant positive correlation, as expected. Further, Kb seems more likely to be proportional to the square or cube of Uw rather than a linear relationship. Since Kb estimated from our method is associated with ice melting in a bulk fashion in the ice-upper ocean system, this relationship likely indicates both the mixing process of heat in the upper ocean (proportional to u?3) and the local heat transfer process at the ice-ocean interface (proportional to u?).

  12. Melting Temperature of Ice Ih calculated from coexisting solid-liquid phases

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Yoo, S.; Bai, J.; Morris, James R; Zeng, X.C.

    2005-01-01

    In a previous paper we report the calculated melting temperature of the proton-disordered hexagonal ice I{sub h} using a four-site water model, the TIP4P (Ref. 2) and a five-site model, the TIP5P. In that work, we used a free-energy method. For the TIP4P model, the calculated melting temperature at 1 bar is T{sub m} = 229 {+-} 9 K, whereas for the TIP5P model, T{sub m} = 268 {+-} 6 K. For both models, the long-ranged interactions were truncated at 17 {angstrom}. Interestingly, these values of Tm are very close to T{sub m} = 232 {+-} 5 K and T{sub m} = 273.9 K reported by Sanz et al. and Vega et al. who used a slightly different free-energy method along with Ewald summation technique, although both the TIP4P and TIP5P models were originally developed for use with a truncated Coulomb interaction. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to compute the melting temperature (T{sub m}) of ice I{sub h} with both TIP4P and TIP5P models by using the two-phase coexistence method and to compare with previously obtained T{sub m}; (2) to compute the T{sub m} using recently improved TIP4P and TIP5P models, namely, the TIP4P-Ew (Ref. 6) and TIP5P-Ew (Ref. 7) models. Both models are developed specifically for use with Ewald techniques. The TIP4P-Ew model, in particular, has shown substantial improvement over the original TIP4P model as it can reproduce the density maximum at about 274 K, very close to 277 K of the real water. The original TIP5P model can reproduce the measured T{sub m}. It will be of interest to see whether the improved TIP5P-Ew model can still hold the same level of prediction as far as the T{sub m} is concerned.

  13. Does Ice Dissolve or Does Halite Melt? A Low-Temperature Liquidus Experiment for Petrology Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, John B.

    1992-01-01

    Measurement of the compositions and temperatures of H2O-NaCl brines in equilibrium with ice can be used as an easy in-class experimental determination of a liquidus. This experiment emphasizes the symmetry of the behavior of brines with regard to the minerals ice and halite and helps to free students from the conceptual tethers of one-component…

  14. Does Ice Dissolve or Does Halite Melt? A Low-Temperature Liquidus Experiment for Petrology Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, John B.

    1992-01-01

    Measurement of the compositions and temperatures of H2O-NaCl brines in equilibrium with ice can be used as an easy in-class experimental determination of a liquidus. This experiment emphasizes the symmetry of the behavior of brines with regard to the minerals ice and halite and helps to free students from the conceptual tethers of one-component

  15. Local ice melting by an antifreeze protein.

    PubMed

    Calvaresi, Matteo; Höfinger, Siegfried; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2012-07-01

    Antifreeze proteins, AFP, impede freezing of bodily fluids and damaging of cellular tissues by low temperatures. Adsorption-inhibition mechanisms have been developed to explain their functioning. Using in silico Molecular Dynamics, we show that type I AFP can also induce melting of the local ice surface. Simulations of antifreeze-positive and antifreeze-negative mutants show a clear correlation between melting induction and antifreeze activity. The presence of local melting adds a function to type I AFPs that is unique to these proteins. It may also explain some apparently conflicting experimental results where binding to ice appears both quasipermanent and reversible. PMID:22657839

  16. Sliding temperatures of ice skates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbeck, S. C.; Najarian, L.; Smith, H. B.

    1997-06-01

    The two theories developed to explain the low friction of ice, pressure melting and frictional heating, require opposite temperature shifts at the ice-skate interface. The arguments against pressure melting are strong, but only theoretical. A set of direct temperature measurements shows that frictional heating is the dominant mechanism because temperature behaves in the manner predicted by the theory of frictional heating. Like snow skis, ice skates are warmed by sliding and then cool when the sliding stops. The temperature increases with speed and with thermal insulation. The sliding leaves a warm track on the ice surface behind the skate and the skate sprays warm ejecta.

  17. Trend of melt under Pine Island Glacier ice shelf modulated by high variability in ocean temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutrieux, Pierre; De Rydt, Jan; Jenkins, Adrian; Holland, Paul R.; Ha, Ho Kyung; Lee, Sang Hoon; Povl Abrahamsen, E.; Jacobs, Stanley S.

    2013-04-01

    Pine Island Glacier and neighbouring outlet glaciers of West Antarctica have thinned and accelerated over the last 2 decades, significantly contributing to global sea level rise. Increased ocean heat transport beneath Pine Island Glacier ice shelf and unpinning from a seabed ridge are thought to be the primary drivers of such changes. However, the acceleration of the glacier paused since 2009, renewing questions about the main processes presently affecting the ice/ocean system, the future behaviour of the glacier and the associated impacts. Here, we present ocean observations taken in austral Spring 2012 to show a 200 m lowering of the thermocline at the glacier calving front and a 50% decrease of meltwater production from 2009. High-resolution simulations of the ocean circulation in the cavity beneath the floating tongue of the glacier demonstrate that for the present ice geometry, the seabed ridge blocks the warmest deep waters from reaching the ice and strongly ties meltwater production to thermocline depth above the ridge, hereby making it susceptible to relatively high variability in time, from intraseasonal to interannual. These results highlight the role of climatic variability in glacial ice loss and the fundamental importance of local ice shelf and seabed geometry for determining ice-ocean dynamics.

  18. Satellite-derived, melt-season surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet (2000-2005) and its relationship to mass balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, D.K.; Williams, R.S., Jr.; Casey, K.A.; DiGirolamo, N.E.; Wan, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Mean, clear-sky surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet was measured for each melt season from 2000 to 2005 using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived land-surface temperature (LST) data-product maps. During the period of most-active melt, the mean, clear-sky surface temperature of the ice sheet was highest in 2002 (-8.29 ?? 5.29??C) and 2005 (-8.29 ?? 5.43??C), compared to a 6-year mean of -9.04 ?? 5.59??C, in agreement with recent work by other investigators showing unusually extensive melt in 2002 and 2005. Surface-temperature variability shows a correspondence with the dry-snow facies of the ice sheet; a reduction in area of the dry-snow facies would indicate a more-negative mass balance. Surface-temperature variability generally increased during the study period and is most pronounced in the 2005 melt season; this is consistent with surface instability caused by air-temperature fluctuations. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Ice-Shelf Melting Around Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rignot, E.; Jacobs, S.; Mouginot, J.; Scheuchl, B.

    2013-07-01

    We compare the volume flux divergence of Antarctic ice shelves in 2007 and 2008 with 1979 to 2010 surface accumulation and 2003 to 2008 thinning to determine their rates of melting and mass balance. Basal melt of 1325 235 gigatons per year (Gt/year) exceeds a calving flux of 1089 139 Gt/year, making ice-shelf melting the largest ablation process in Antarctica. The giant cold-cavity Ross, Filchner, and Ronne ice shelves covering two-thirds of the total ice-shelf area account for only 15% of net melting. Half of the meltwater comes from 10 small, warm-cavity Southeast Pacific ice shelves occupying 8% of the area. A similar high melt/area ratio is found for six East Antarctic ice shelves, implying undocumented strong ocean thermal forcing on their deep grounding lines.

  20. Mathematical Modelling of Melt Lake Formation on an Ice Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzard, Sammie; Feltham, Daniel; Flocco, Daniela; Sammonds, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The accumulation of surface meltwater on ice shelves can lead to the formation of melt lakes. These structures have been implicated in crevasse propagation and ice shelf collapse; the Larsen B ice shelf was observed to have a large amount of melt lakes present on its surface just before its collapse in 2002. Through modelling the transport of heat through the surface of the Larsen C ice shelf, where melt lakes have also been observed, this work aims to provide new insights into the ways in which melt lakes are forming and the effect that meltwater filling crevasses on the ice shelf will have. This will enable an assessment of the role of meltwater in triggering ice shelf collapse. The Antarctic Peninsula, where Larsen C is situated, has warmed several times the global average over the last century and this ice shelf has been suggested as a candidate for becoming fully saturated with meltwater by the end of the current century. Here we present results of a 1D mathematical model of heat transfer through an idealised ice shelf. When forced with automatic weather station data from Larsen C, surface melting and the subsequent meltwater accumulation, melt lake development and refreezing are demonstrated through the modelled results. Furthermore, the effect of lateral meltwater transport upon melt lakes is examined. This will be developed through the estimations of meltwater catchment areas and the fraction of the ice shelf where melt lakes are present. Investigating the role of meltwater in ice shelf stability is key as collapse can affect ocean circulation and temperature, and cause a loss of habitat. Additionally, it can cause a loss of the buttressing effect that ice shelves can have on their tributary glaciers, thus allowing the glaciers to accelerate, contributing to sea level rise.

  1. Rapid bottom melting widespread near Antarctic Ice Sheet grounding lines.

    PubMed

    Rignot, Eric; Jacobs, Stanley S

    2002-06-14

    As continental ice from Antarctica reaches the grounding line and begins to float, its underside melts into the ocean. Results obtained with satellite radar interferometry reveal that bottom melt rates experienced by large outlet glaciers near their grounding lines are far higher than generally assumed. The melting rate is positively correlated with thermal forcing, increasing by 1 meter per year for each 0.1 degrees C rise in ocean temperature. Where deep water has direct access to grounding lines, glaciers and ice shelves are vulnerable to ongoing increases in ocean temperature. PMID:12065835

  2. Linking surface energy balance calculations and Temperature Index models of surface melt: Revision of the Positive Degree-Day (PDD) methodology for the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wake, L. M.; Marshall, S. J.; Lecavalier, B.; Milne, G. A.; Huybrechts, P.; Simpson, M. J. R.; Bayou, N.

    2012-04-01

    Positive Degree-Day (PDD) methodology (Braithwaite and Olesen, 1989; Reeh, 1991) is widely used in conjunction with observationally-derived Degree-Day Factors (DDFs) for snow and ice in order to simulate ice-sheet wide ablation rates using mean monthly temperature as the only input. Monthly PDD totals are calculated using the assumption that the monthly temperature distribution follows a Gaussian relationship with a spatially and temporally invariable standard deviation (?m), typically in the range of 4-5oC. DDFs for snow and ice used in ice sheet modelling are usually fixed at ~3 and 8 mm w.e. oC-1 day-1 respectively, but field observations show that these can vary by at least a factor of two depending on the albedo characteristics of the glacier surface (Hock, 2003). At odds with the assumption of constant ?m, it has been shown that temperature variability is reduced at temperatures close to or above the melting point, due to thermal (latent heat) buffering and the maximum temperature of 0oC for a melting snow/ice surface (e.g., Marshall and Sharp, 2009). Analysis of hourly temperature data from 22 GC-Net stations (Steffen and Box, 2001) spanning the period 1995-2010 shows that observed ?m follows a quadratic relationship with observed average monthly temperature. Comparisons of calculated and observed monthly PDD totals from GC-Net locations show that current assumptions of ?m = 4-5oC can overestimate monthly PDD totals by 25% on average, compared to ~3% for the new methodology using a spatially varying ?m. In the absence of extensive field measurements, 'theoretical' daily melt rates are calculated at several GC-Net locations using available field data to estimate the components of the daily surface energy budget (Net radiation, sensible and latent heat and subsurface energy flux). Subsequently, 'theoretical' DDFs are evaluated as a function of surface albedo. Our results suggest that future studies should consider DDFs for snow and ice of 3-7 mm w.e. oC-1 day-1 and > 9 mm w.e. oC-1 day-1 respectively, alongside the use of a spatially and temporally variable ?m, which can be parameterized as a function of monthly mean temperature. We demonstrate the impact of our new methodology and previous assumptions of fixed ?m on millennial-scale changes in Greenland Ice Sheet volume and resulting global and local RSL predictions using a 3D thermomechanical ice model where a spatially and temporally variable ?m acts to reduce the magnitude and variability associated with surface melt. These results demonstrate a need for additional empirical derivations of Degree-Day Factors in Greenland and their relationship with surface albedo in order to compliment the purely theoretical approach taken in this study.

  3. Ice melting and earthquake suppression in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivieri, M.; Spada, G.

    2015-03-01

    It has been suggested that the Greenland ice sheet is the cause of earthquake suppression in the region. With few exceptions, the observed seismicity extends only along the continental margins of Greenland, which almost coincide with the ice sheet margin. This pattern has been put forward as further validation of the earthquake suppression hypothesis. In this review, new evidence in terms of ice melting, post-glacial rebound and earthquake occurrence is gathered and discussed to re-evaluate the connection between ice mass unloading and earthquake suppression. In Greenland, the spatio-temporal distribution of earthquakes indicates that seismicity is mainly confined to regions where the thick layer of ice is absent and where significant ice melting is presently occurring. A clear correlation between seismic activity and ice melting in Greenland is not found. However, earthquake locations and corresponding depth distributions suggest two distinct governing mechanisms: post-glacial rebound promotes moderate-size crustal earthquakes at Greenland's regional scale, while current ice melting promotes shallow low magnitude seismicity locally.

  4. Greenland Ice Sheet Melt from MODIS and Associated Atmospheric Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Hall, Dorothy K.; Shuman, Christopher A.; Worthen, Denise L.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.

    2014-01-01

    Daily June-July melt fraction variations over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) derived from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) (2000-2013) are associated with atmospheric blocking forming an omega-shape ridge over the GIS at 500hPa height (from NCEPNCAR). Blocking activity with a range of time scales, from synoptic waves breaking poleward ( 5 days) to full-fledged blocks (5 days), brings warm subtropical air masses over the GIS controlling daily surface temperatures and melt. The temperature anomaly of these subtropical air mass intrusions is also important for melting. Based on the largest MODIS melt years (2002 and 2012), the area-average temperature anomaly of 2 standard deviations above the 14-year June-July mean, results in a melt fraction of 40 or more. Summer 2007 had the most blocking days, however atmospheric temperature anomalies were too small to instigate extreme melting.

  5. Floating ice-algal aggregates below melting arctic sea ice.

    PubMed

    Assmy, Philipp; Ehn, Jens K; Fernndez-Mndez, Mar; Hop, Haakon; Katlein, Christian; Sundfjord, Arild; Bluhm, Katrin; Daase, Malin; Engel, Anja; Fransson, Agneta; Granskog, Mats A; Hudson, Stephen R; Kristiansen, Svein; Nicolaus, Marcel; Peeken, Ilka; Renner, Angelika H H; Spreen, Gunnar; Tatarek, Agnieszka; Wiktor, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    During two consecutive cruises to the Eastern Central Arctic in late summer 2012, we observed floating algal aggregates in the melt-water layer below and between melting ice floes of first-year pack ice. The macroscopic (1-15 cm in diameter) aggregates had a mucous consistency and were dominated by typical ice-associated pennate diatoms embedded within the mucous matrix. Aggregates maintained buoyancy and accumulated just above a strong pycnocline that separated meltwater and seawater layers. We were able, for the first time, to obtain quantitative abundance and biomass estimates of these aggregates. Although their biomass and production on a square metre basis was small compared to ice-algal blooms, the floating ice-algal aggregates supported high levels of biological activity on the scale of the individual aggregate. In addition they constituted a food source for the ice-associated fauna as revealed by pigments indicative of zooplankton grazing, high abundance of naked ciliates, and ice amphipods associated with them. During the Arctic melt season, these floating aggregates likely play an important ecological role in an otherwise impoverished near-surface sea ice environment. Our findings provide important observations and measurements of a unique aggregate-based habitat during the 2012 record sea ice minimum year. PMID:24204642

  6. Floating Ice-Algal Aggregates below Melting Arctic Sea Ice

    PubMed Central

    Assmy, Philipp; Ehn, Jens K.; Fernndez-Mndez, Mar; Hop, Haakon; Katlein, Christian; Sundfjord, Arild; Bluhm, Katrin; Daase, Malin; Engel, Anja; Fransson, Agneta; Granskog, Mats A.; Hudson, Stephen R.; Kristiansen, Svein; Nicolaus, Marcel; Peeken, Ilka; Renner, Angelika H. H.; Spreen, Gunnar; Tatarek, Agnieszka; Wiktor, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    During two consecutive cruises to the Eastern Central Arctic in late summer 2012, we observed floating algal aggregates in the melt-water layer below and between melting ice floes of first-year pack ice. The macroscopic (1-15 cm in diameter) aggregates had a mucous consistency and were dominated by typical ice-associated pennate diatoms embedded within the mucous matrix. Aggregates maintained buoyancy and accumulated just above a strong pycnocline that separated meltwater and seawater layers. We were able, for the first time, to obtain quantitative abundance and biomass estimates of these aggregates. Although their biomass and production on a square metre basis was small compared to ice-algal blooms, the floating ice-algal aggregates supported high levels of biological activity on the scale of the individual aggregate. In addition they constituted a food source for the ice-associated fauna as revealed by pigments indicative of zooplankton grazing, high abundance of naked ciliates, and ice amphipods associated with them. During the Arctic melt season, these floating aggregates likely play an important ecological role in an otherwise impoverished near-surface sea ice environment. Our findings provide important observations and measurements of a unique aggregate-based habitat during the 2012 record sea ice minimum year. PMID:24204642

  7. Processes controlling surface, bottom and lateral melt of Arctic sea ice in a state of the art sea ice model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsamados, Michel; Feltham, Daniel; Petty, Alek; Schroder, David; Flocco, Daniela

    2015-04-01

    We present a modelling study of processes controlling the summer melt and disintegration of the Arctic sea ice cover. The CPOM sea ice model is a branch of the Los Alamos community code CICE, version 5.0, that includes recently developed new physics of halodynamics, melt ponds, anisotropic rheology, and the impact of sea ice topography on air-ice and ice-ocean flux exchange coefficients (momentum, sensible heat, latent heat). The CPOM model is modified to include a prognostic mixed layer and a three equation boundary condition for the salt and heat flux at the ice-ocean interface. The study focuses on the relative roles of lateral melt, basal melt and surface melt. Lateral melt is calculated based on a parameterized variable average floe perimeter and is modified to account for an observed power law floe size distribution. Basal melt is sensitive to the seasonal cycle of temperature, salinity and depth of the prognostic mixed layer as well as to the boundary condition at the ice-ocean interface. Surface melt utilises a model of melt ponds on sea ice and is also affected by halodynamics in the ice interior. This study assesses the seasonal and inter-annual model response of the Arctic sea ice cover to prescribed atmospheric and oceanic forcing in a stand-alone setting. Because it quantifies the relative importance of several new physical mechanisms in driving the summer melt of the sea ice this work can serve as a guide for future research priorities.

  8. Basal Terraces on Melting Ice Shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutrieux, P.; Stewart, C.; Jenkins, A.; Nicholls, K. W.; Corr, H. F. J.; Rignot, E. J.; Steffen, K.

    2014-12-01

    Ocean waters melt the margins of Antarctic and Greenland glaciers and individualglaciers' responses and the integrity of their ice shelves are expected to depend on thespatial distribution of melt. The bases of the ice shelves associated with Pine IslandGlacier (West Antarctica) and Petermann Glacier (Greenland) have similar geometries,including kilometers-wide, hundreds-of-meter-high channels oriented along and acrossthe direction of ice flow. The channels are enhanced by, and constrain, oceanic melt.New, meter-scale observations of basal topography reveal peculiar glaciated landscapes.Channel flanks are not smooth, but are instead stepped, with hundreds-of-meters-wideflat terraces separated by 5-50 m-high walls. Melting is shown to be modulated by thegeometry: constant across each terrace, changing from one terrace to the next, and greatlyenhanced on the ~45-inclined walls. Melting is therefore fundamentally heterogeneousand likely associated with stratification in the ice-ocean boundary layer, challengingcurrent models of ice shelf-ocean interactions.

  9. Indirect measurement of interfacial melting from macroscopic ice observations.

    PubMed

    Saruya, Tomotaka; Kurita, Kei; Rempel, Alan W

    2014-06-01

    Premelted water that is adsorbed to particle surfaces and confined to capillary regions remains in the liquid state well below the bulk melting temperature and can supply the segregated growth of ice lenses. Using macroscopic measurements of ice-lens initiation position in step-freezing experiments, we infer how the nanometer-scale thicknesses of premelted films depend on temperature depression below bulk melting. The interfacial interactions between ice, liquid, and soda-lime glass particles exhibit a power-law behavior that suggests premelting in our system is dominated by short-range electrostatic forces. Using our inferred film thicknesses as inputs to a simple force-balance model with no adjustable parameters, we obtain good quantitative agreement between numerical predictions and observed ice-lens thickness. Macroscopic observations of lensing behavior have the potential as probes of premelting behavior in other systems. PMID:25019705

  10. Greenland ice sheet melt from MODIS and associated atmospheric variability

    PubMed Central

    Hkkinen, Sirpa; Hall, Dorothy K; Shuman, Christopher A; Worthen, Denise L; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E

    2014-01-01

    Daily June-July melt fraction variations over the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) (20002013) are associated with atmospheric blocking forming an omega-shape ridge over the GIS at 500 hPa height. Blocking activity with a range of time scales, from synoptic waves breaking poleward (<5 days) to full-fledged blocks (?5 days), brings warm subtropical air masses over the GIS controlling daily surface temperatures and melt. The temperature anomaly of these subtropical air mass intrusions is also important for melting. Based on the years with the greatest melt (2002 and 2012) during the MODIS era, the area-average temperature anomaly of 2 standard deviations above the 14 year June-July mean results in a melt fraction of 40% or more. Though the summer of 2007 had the most blocking days, atmospheric temperature anomalies were too small to instigate extreme melting. Key Points Short-term atmospheric blocking over Greenland contributes to melt episodes Associated temperature anomalies are equally important for the melt Duration and strength of blocking events contribute to surface melt intensity PMID:25821277

  11. Islands uncovered by melting polar ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    Thawing glaciers north of Norway's Svalbard archipelago have revealed at least two unmapped and unclaimed islands, one roughly the size of a basketball court, according to a 20 August Reuters report. In addition, information released in August by the U.S. National Snow and Ice Data Center indicated that with one month left in the melting season, Arctic sea ice is already below the record minimum. "Reductions of snow and ice are happening at an alarming rate," said Norwegian Environment Minister Helen Bjoernoy. She suggested that these observations may indicate that the loss of sea ice is perhaps accelerating faster than predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which warned in February that summer sea ice could almost vanish by the end of this century.

  12. Using Melting Ice to Teach Radiometric Dating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Donald Underkofler

    1990-01-01

    Presented is an activity in which a mystery setting is used to motivate students to construct their own decay curves of melting ice used as an analogy to radioactive decay. Procedures, materials, apparatus, discussion topics, presentation, and thermodynamics are discussed. (CW)

  13. connecting the dots between Greenland ice sheet surface melting and ice flow dynamics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Box, J. E.; Colgan, W. T.; Fettweis, X.; Phillips, T. P.; Stober, M.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation is of a 'unified theory' in glaciology that first identifies surface albedo as a key factor explaining total ice sheet mass balance and then surveys a mechanistic self-reinforcing interaction between melt water and ice flow dynamics. The theory is applied in a near-real time total Greenland mass balance retrieval based on surface albedo, a powerful integrator of the competing effects of accumulation and ablation. New snowfall reduces sunlight absorption and increases meltwater retention. Melting amplifies absorbed sunlight through thermal metamorphism and bare ice expansion in space and time. By ';following the melt'; we reveal mechanisms linking existing science into a unified theory. Increasing meltwater softens the ice sheet in three ways: 1.) sensible heating given the water temperature exceeds that of the ice sheet interior; 2.) Some infiltrating water refreezes, transferring latent heat to the ice; 3.) Friction from water turbulence heats the ice. It has been shown that for a point on the ice sheet, basal lubrication increases ice flow speed to a time when an efficient sub-glacial drainage network develops that reduces this effect. Yet, with an increasing melt duration the point where the ice sheet glides on a wet bed increases inland to a larger area. This effect draws down the ice surface elevation, contributing to the ';elevation feedback'. In a perpetual warming scenario, the elevation feedback ultimately leads to ice sheet loss reversible only through much slower ice sheet growth in an ice age environment. As the inland ice sheet accelerates, the horizontal extension pulls cracks and crevasses open, trapping more sunlight, amplifying the effect of melt accelerated ice. As the bare ice area increases, the direct sun-exposed crevassed and infiltration area increases further allowing the ice warming process to occur more broadly. Considering hydrofracture [a.k.a. hydrofracking]; surface meltwater fills cracks, attacking the ice integrity. Because water is 'heavier' than ice, water-filled cracks have unlimited capacity to hydraulically ';jack' open fractures, penetrating, fracturing and disaggregating a solid ice body. This process promotes iceberg calving at more than 150, 1km wide marine terminating Greenland glacier fronts. Resulting from a rising trend of surface melting and sea water temperature, meltwater ejection at the underwater front of marine glaciers drives a an increasing turbulent heat exchange between the glacier front and relatively warm sea water melting it faster. Underwater melting promotes an undercutting of the glacier front leading to ice berg calving. Calving through hydrofracture or marine undercutting provide a direct and immediate ice flow speed response mechanism for surface meltwater production. Ice flow speed reacts because calving reduces flow resistance. The above physical processes interact. Cooling shuts these processes down. Negative feedbacks dampen the warming impulse. Live 21 June, 2013 is a new Danish Web site1 that exploits total mass balance rate of decline as a function of albedo to predict GRACE mass rate of change with 80% explained variance. While surface mass balance explains the mass rate of change slightly higher, surface albedo is an observable quantity as is gravity change.

  14. Onset of convective instabilities in under-ice melt ponds.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Slvia C; Goyeau, Benot; Gobin, Dominique

    2012-06-01

    The onset of double-diffusive natural convection in under-ice melt ponds is investigated through a linear stability analysis. The three-layer configuration is composed by a fluid layer (melt pond) overlying a saturated porous medium (ice matrix), which in turn overlies another fluid layer (under-ice melt pond). Water density inversion is taken into account by adopting a density profile with a quadratic temperature dependence and a linear concentration dependence. We show that the key parameter affecting stability is the depth of the ice matrix, while the depths of the upper and lower fluid layers play a marginal role. A Hopf bifurcation is observed in the whole range of parameters studied, and the size of the convection cells depends on ice permeability. The influence of the external temperature gradient is investigated by means of the definition of an extra thermal parameter accounting for the relative position of the density maximum. It is shown that convection is favored by larger temperature gradients, which occur during Arctic summer. PMID:23005205

  15. Formation of Propane Hydrate with Melting of Ice Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teraoka, Yoshikazu; Okada, Masashi; Kaji, Shunsuke

    Formation process of hydrate was studied experimentally using propane gas, where ice particles were set in a container and then filled with propane gas. In order to improve the hydrate production rate and conversion rate, the temperature in the container was raised over 0 °C after an initial formation process. The experiments were carried out under various temperatures in the container, using two mean diameters of ice particles. Effect of the time interval of the initial formation process on the hydrate production rate was investigated. It was found that a higher hydrate production rate and higher conversion rate were obtained by raising the temperature in the container over 0 °C and by using smaller ice particles and also found that there was a suitable time interval of the initial formation process. Moreover, the formation process of hydrate was observed by taking microscopic pictures of the hydrate in order to understand the phenomena of hydrate formation with melting ice particles.

  16. The pressure melting of ice under a body with flat base

    SciTech Connect

    Bejan, A. ); Tyvand, P.A.

    1992-05-01

    One of the anomalous thermodynamic properties of water is that the melting point of ice decreases as the pressure increases. This behavior was discovered independently by Kirchhoff and Thomson. It inspired Reynolds to speculate that the pressure-melting of ice and snow might be responsible for the low coefficient of friction experienced during skating and skiing. According to him, the pressure applied by the skate on the ice surface would cause superficial melting, which in turn would lubricate the relative motion between skate and ice. Although the pressure-melting phenomenon received some attention from early tribologists, this interest decreased after Bowden and Hughes' work, which showed that the superficial melting under the skate is due to friction (viscous dissipation) in the water film. In this note the authors consider a different fundamental aspect of the pressure-melting of ice, namely the indentation caused by a flat solid that is pressed against a block of ice. Unlike in the work referenced above, there is no lateral motion between the solid body and the ice block. The only motion that occurs is the normal progress that the solid body makes into the ice. This motion is made possible by the melting of the ice situated in front of the body. In this way, the pressure melting process is related to the contact melting process that occurs when a temperature difference ({Delta}T) is maintained between the solid body and the phase-change material.

  17. Duration of the Arctic sea ice melt season: Regional and interannual variability, 1979-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belchansky, G.I.; Douglas, D.C.; Platonov, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    Melt onset dates, freeze onset dates, and melt season duration were estimated over Arctic sea ice, 1979-2001, using passive microwave satellite imagery and surface air temperature data. Sea ice melt duration for the entire Northern Hemisphere varied from a 104-day minimum in 1983 and 1996, to a 124-day maximum in 1989. Ranges in melt duration were highest in peripheral seas, numbering 32, 42, 44, and 51 days in the Laptev, Barents-Kara, East Siberian and Chukchi Seas, respectively. In the Arctic Ocean, average melt duration varied from a 75-day minimum in 1987 to a 103-day maximum in 1989. On average, melt onset in annual ice began 10.6 days earlier than perennial ice, and freeze onset in perennial ice commenced 18.4 days earlier than annual ice. Average annual melt dates, freeze dates, and melt durations in annual ice were significantly correlated with seasonal strength of the Arctic Oscillation (AO). Following high-index AO winters (January-March), spring melt tended to be earlier and autumn freeze later, leading to longer melt season durations. The largest increases in melt duration were observed in the eastern Siberian Arctic, coincident with cyclonic low pressure and ice motion anomalies associated with high-index AO phases. Following a positive AO shift in 1989, mean annual melt duration increased 2-3 weeks in the northern East Siberian and Chukchi Seas. Decreasing correlations between consecutive-year maps of melt onset in annual ice during 1979-2001 indicated increasing spatial variability and unpredictability in melt distributions from one year to the next. Despite recent declines in the winter AO index, recent melt distributions did not show evidence of reestablishing spatial patterns similar to those observed during the 1979-88 low-index AO period. Recent freeze distributions have become increasingly similar to those observed during 1979-88, suggesting a recurrent spatial pattern of freeze chronology under low-index AO conditions.

  18. Projections of ice shelf basal melting in a global finite element sea ice - ice shelf - ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermann, R.; Hellmer, H. H.

    2012-04-01

    In the framework of the EU project Ice2sea we utilize a global finite element sea ice - ice shelf - ocean model (FESOM), focused on the Antarctic marginal seas, to quantify heat and freshwater fluxes in the Antarctic ice shelf cavities and to assess ice shelf basal melting in a warmer climate. Ice shelf - ocean interaction is described using a three-equation system with a diagnostic computation of temperature and salinity at the ice-ocean interface. A tetrahedral mesh with a minimum horizontal resolution of 4 minutes and hybrid vertical coordinates is used. Ice shelf draft, cavity geometry, and global ocean bathymetry have been derived from the RTopo-1 data set. Additional simulations were carried out with the circumpolar coarse-scale finite-difference model developed as part of the Bremerhaven Regional Ice Ocean Simulations (BRIOS). Simulations for present-day climate were forced with the NCEP reanalysis product and the atmospheric output from 20th century simulations of the Hadley Centre Climate Model (HadCM3). The projections for the period 2000-2199 use the output of HadCM3 simulations for the IPCC scenarios A1B and E1. Results from both models indicate a strong sensitivity of basal melting to increased ocean temperatures for the ice shelves in Amundsen Sea. An even stronger impact is found for warm water starting to pulse onto the southern Weddell Sea continental shelf in the middle of the 21st century, originating from a redirected coastal current. As these pulses propagate far into the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf (FRIS) cavity, basal melting increases significantly compared to the present value of about 100 Gt/yr. At the end of the 21st / beginning of the 22nd century both models suggest a stabilization of FRIS basal mass loss on a high level.

  19. Snow melt on sea ice surfaces as determined from passive microwave satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark R.

    1987-01-01

    SMMR data for the year 1979, 1980 and 1984 have been analyzed to determine the variability in the onset of melt for the Arctic seasonal sea ice zone. The results show melt commencing in either the Kara/Barents Seas or Chukchi Sea and progressing zonally towards the central Asian coast (Laptev Sea). Individual regions had interannual variations in melt onset in the 10-20 day range. To determine whether daily changes occur in the sea ice surface melt, the SMMR 18 and 37 GHz brightness temperature data are analyzed at day/night/twilight periods. Brightness temperatures illustrate diurnal variations in most regions during melt. In the East Siberian Sea, however, daily variations are observed in 1979, throughout the analysis period, well before any melt would usually have commenced. Understanding microwave responses to changing surface conditions during melt will perhaps give additional information about energy budgets during the winter to summer transition of sea ice.

  20. Melting of ice and liquid water transport in the ice shell of Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalousova, K.; Soucek, O.; Tobie, G.; Choblet, G.; Cadek, O.

    2012-12-01

    Europa, the smallest of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter, is very likely differentiated into a metallic core surrounded by a rock mantle and an icy outer layer. Its outermost part might contain liquid water, possibly decoupling the ice shell from the silicate mantle. Presence of liquid water at shallow depth is often used to explain formation of the so-called 'chaos' terrain, and may be also related with other tectonic features on Europa's strikingly young surface, such as fractures, ridges, etc. Despite the fact that the presence of liquid water and its transport within the ice may dramatically affect the state and properties of the ice layer, the problem of ice melting and water percolation in the outer shell of Europa has not yet been treated thoroughly. We attempt to overcome this deficiency by treating the system as a two-phase incompressible mixture of water ice and liquid water and by developing numerical model of a partially molten ice layer which captures both the water/heat transport and ice melting. Several scenarios of possible generation and evolution of a partially molten region are investigated. Locally, under certain conditions, relatively large melt fractions or even liquid water layers up to few kilometres thick may be obtained. Even though both the formation and time evolution of the molten water reservoir are quite sensitive to the particular physical set-up (water-ice permeability, initial temperature profile, heating scenario, etc.), our preliminary results indicate that most of the water produced at shallow depths by tidal/shear heating is transported downwards on timescales of few tens of kyrs. This implies that substantial water accumulation at shallow depths within the ice shell is possible but the duration of such event is relatively short (~101 kyrs).

  1. Melting beneath Greenland outlet glaciers and ice streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, David; Perrette, Mah; Beckmann, Johanna

    2015-04-01

    Basal melting of fast-flowing Greenland outlet glaciers and ice streams due to frictional heating at the ice-bed interface contributes significantly to total glacier mass balance and subglacial meltwater flux, yet modelling this basal melt process in Greenland has received minimal research attention. A one-dimensional dynamic ice-flow model is calibrated to the present day longitudinal profiles of 10 major Greenland outlet glaciers and ice streams (including the Jakobshavn Isbrae, Petermann Glacier and Helheim Glacier) and is validated against published ice flow and surface elevation measurements. Along each longitudinal profile, basal melt is calculated as a function of ice flow velocity and basal shear stress. The basal shear stress is dependent on the effective pressure (difference between ice overburden pressure and water pressure), basal roughness and a sliding parametrization. Model output indicates that where outlet glaciers and ice streams terminate into the ocean with either a small floating ice tongue or no floating tongue whatsoever, the proportion of basal melt to total melt (surface, basal and submarine melt) is 5-10% (e.g. Jakobshavn Isbrae; Daugaard-Jensen Glacier). This proportion is, however, negligible where larger ice tongues lose mass mostly by submarine melt (~1%; e.g. Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier). Modelled basal melt is highest immediately upvalley of the grounding line, with contributions typically up to 20-40% of the total melt for slippery beds and up to 30-70% for resistant beds. Additionally, modelled grounding line and calving front migration inland for all outlet glaciers and ice streams of hundreds of metres to several kilometres occurs. Including basal melt due to frictional heating in outlet glacier and ice stream models is important for more accurately modelling mass balance and subglacial meltwater flux, and therefore, more accurately modelling outlet glacier and ice stream dynamics and responses to future climate change.

  2. Quantification of Dead-ice Melting in Ice-Cored Moraines at the High-Arctic Glacier Holmströmbreen, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomacker, A.; Kjaer, K. H.

    2007-12-01

    An extensive dead-ice area has developed at the stagnant snout of the Holmströmbreen glacier on Svalbard following its Little Ice Age maximum. Dead-ice appears mainly as ice-cored moraines, ice-cored eskers and ice- cored kames. The most common dead-ice landform is sediment gravity flows on ice-cored slopes surrounding a large ice-walled, moraine-dammed lake. The lake finally receives the sediment from the resedimentation processes. Dead-ice melting is described and quantified through field studies and analyses of high-resolution, multi-temporal aerial photographs and satellite imagery. Field measurements of backwasting of ice-cored slopes indicate short-term melting rates of c. 9.2 cm/day. Long-term downwasting rates indicate a surface lowering of ice-cored moraines of c. 0.9 m/yr from 1984-2004. Different measures for dead-ice melting are assessed in relation to the temperature record from Svalbard since the termination of the Little Ice Age. The most prominent impact of dead-ice melting is the evolution of the ice-walled lake with an area increasing near-exponentially over the last 40 years. As long as backwasting and mass movement processes prevent build-up of an insulating debris-cover and expose ice-cores to melting, the de-icing continues even though the area is characterized by continuous permafrost.

  3. Deformation-induced melting in the margins of the West Antarctic ice streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suckale, Jenny; Platt, John D.; Perol, Thibaut; Rice, James R.

    2014-05-01

    Flow of glacial ice in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet localizes in narrow bands of fast-flowing ice streams bordered by ridges of nearly stagnant ice, but our understanding of the physical processes that generate this morphology is incomplete. Here we study the thermal and mechanical properties of ice-stream margins, where flow transitions from rapid to stagnant over a few kilometers. Our goal is to explore under which conditions the intense shear deformation in the margin may lead to deformation-induced melting. We propose a 2-D model that represents a cross section through the ice stream margin perpendicular to the downstream flow direction. We limit temperature to the melting point to estimate melt rates based on latent heat. Using rheology parameters as constrained by laboratory data and observations, we conclude that a zone of temperate ice is likely to form in active shear margins.

  4. Regional variability in sea ice melt in a changing Arctic.

    PubMed

    Perovich, Donald K; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline A

    2015-07-13

    In recent years, the Arctic sea ice cover has undergone a precipitous decline in summer extent. The sea ice mass balance integrates heat and provides insight on atmospheric and oceanic forcing. The amount of surface melt and bottom melt that occurs during the summer melt season was measured at 41 sites over the time period 1957 to 2014. There are large regional and temporal variations in both surface and bottom melting. Combined surface and bottom melt ranged from 16 to 294 cm, with a mean of 101 cm. The mean ice equivalent surface melt was 48 cm and the mean bottom melt was 53 cm. On average, surface melting decreases moving northward from the Beaufort Sea towards the North Pole; however interannual differences in atmospheric forcing can overwhelm the influence of latitude. Substantial increases in bottom melting are a major contributor to ice losses in the Beaufort Sea, due to decreases in ice concentration. In the central Arctic, surface and bottom melting demonstrate interannual variability, but show no strong temporal trends from 2000 to 2014. This suggests that under current conditions, summer melting in the central Arctic is not large enough to completely remove the sea ice cover. PMID:26032323

  5. Seasonal evolution of melt ponds on Arctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Melinda A.; Rigor, Ignatius G.; Perovich, Donald K.; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline A.; Polashenski, Christopher M.; Light, Bonnie

    2015-09-01

    The seasonal evolution of melt ponds has been well documented on multiyear and landfast first-year sea ice, but is critically lacking on drifting, first-year sea ice, which is becoming increasingly prevalent in the Arctic. Using 1 m resolution panchromatic satellite imagery paired with airborne and in situ data, we evaluated melt pond evolution for an entire melt season on drifting first-year and multiyear sea ice near the 2011 Applied Physics Laboratory Ice Station (APLIS) site in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas. A new algorithm was developed to classify the imagery into sea ice, thin ice, melt pond, and open water classes on two contrasting ice types: first-year and multiyear sea ice. Surprisingly, melt ponds formed 3 weeks earlier on multiyear ice. Both ice types had comparable mean snow depths, but multiyear ice had 0-5 cm deep snow covering 37% of its surveyed area, which may have facilitated earlier melt due to its low surface albedo compared to thicker snow. Maximum pond fractions were 53 3% and 38 3% on first-year and multiyear ice, respectively. APLIS pond fractions were compared with those from the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) field campaign. APLIS exhibited earlier melt and double the maximum pond fraction, which was in part due to the greater presence of thin snow and first-year ice at APLIS. These results reveal considerable differences in pond formation between ice types, and underscore the importance of snow depth distributions in the timing and progression of melt pond formation.

  6. Optical properties of melting first-year Arctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Light, Bonnie; Perovich, Donald K.; Webster, Melinda A.; Polashenski, Christopher; Dadic, Ruzica

    2015-11-01

    The albedo and transmittance of melting, first-year Arctic sea ice were measured during two cruises of the Impacts of Climate on the Eco-Systems and Chemistry of the Arctic Pacific Environment (ICESCAPE) project during the summers of 2010 and 2011. Spectral measurements were made for both bare and ponded ice types at a total of 19 ice stations in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. These data, along with irradiance profiles taken within boreholes, laboratory measurements of the optical properties of core samples, ice physical property observations, and radiative transfer model simulations are employed to describe representative optical properties for melting first-year Arctic sea ice. Ponded ice was found to transmit roughly 4.4 times more total energy into the ocean, relative to nearby bare ice. The ubiquitous surface-scattering layer and drained layer present on bare, melting sea ice are responsible for its relatively high albedo and relatively low transmittance. Light transmittance through ponded ice depends on the physical thickness of the ice and the magnitude of the scattering coefficient in the ice interior. Bare ice reflects nearly three-quarters of the incident sunlight, enhancing its resiliency to absorption by solar insolation. In contrast, ponded ice absorbs or transmits to the ocean more than three-quarters of the incident sunlight. Characterization of the heat balance of a summertime ice cover is largely dictated by its pond coverage, and light transmittance through ponded ice shows strong contrast between first-year and multiyear Arctic ice covers.

  7. In-Situ Biological Decontamination of an Ice Melting Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digel, Ilya

    A major concern in space and even many terrestrial missions is the forward contamination of the alien environment with microbes and biological molecules, transported on spacecraft from Earth. Furthermore, organisms and molecules can be brought to the sampling place from the surface. All this can lead to serious misinterpretations of the obtained data and more impor-tantly, could irreversibly alter the pristine nature of the extraterrestrial environments. These issues were addressed and are constantly updated in COSPAR planetary protection policy (20 October 2002; Amended 24 March 2005; 20 July 2008). The objective of our study was to investigate the efficacy of different in-situ decontamination protocols in the conditions of thermo-mechanical ice-melting. We evaluated survival rate of microorganisms on the melting probe as a function of both time and penetration depth. Special focus was made on deter-mination of the optimal concentration of chemical decontaminants (hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite) the peculiarities of their antimicrobial action at low temperatures (-80 to 0C) combined with constant dilution with melted ice and mechanical abrasion. Common, non-pathogenic microbial strains belonging to different morphological and metabolic groups (Pseudomonas, Micrococcus, Escherichia, Bacillus and others) were chosen as test objects for this study. The working part of the melting probe was first controllably contaminated by in-cubation in suspension of microbial cells. After appropriate sedimentation of microbial cells had been reached, the drilling-melting process was started using specially prepared sterile ice blocks. Every 2 minutes the samples were taken and analyzed. In the control tests, 1 mL of distilled water was injected into the penetration site at the onset of drilling. In the other tests, 1 mL of hydrogen peroxide (30Collected data suggest high efficacy of both used compounds in respect of all tested microbial groups. Typically, 99.9

  8. Antifreeze protein-induced superheating of ice inside Antarctic notothenioid fishes inhibits melting during summer warming.

    PubMed

    Cziko, Paul A; DeVries, Arthur L; Evans, Clive W; Cheng, Chi-Hing Christina

    2014-10-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) of polar marine teleost fishes are widely recognized as an evolutionary innovation of vast adaptive value in that, by adsorbing to and inhibiting the growth of internalized environmental ice crystals, they prevent death by inoculative freezing. Paradoxically, systemic accumulation of AFP-stabilized ice could also be lethal. Whether or how fishes eliminate internal ice is unknown. To investigate if ice inside high-latitude Antarctic notothenioid fishes could melt seasonally, we measured its melting point and obtained a decadal temperature record from a shallow benthic fish habitat in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. We found that AFP-stabilized ice resists melting at temperatures above the expected equilibrium freezing/melting point (eqFMP), both in vitro and in vivo. Superheated ice was directly observed in notothenioid serum samples and in solutions of purified AFPs, and ice was found to persist inside live fishes at temperatures more than 1 °C above their eqFMP for at least 24 h, and at a lower temperature for at least several days. Field experiments confirmed that superheated ice occurs naturally inside wild fishes. Over the long-term record (1999-2012), seawater temperature surpassed the fish eqFMP in most summers, but never exceeded the highest temperature at which ice persisted inside experimental fishes. Thus, because of the effects of AFP-induced melting inhibition, summer warming may not reliably eliminate internal ice. Our results expose a potentially antagonistic pleiotropic effect of AFPs: beneficial freezing avoidance is accompanied by melting inhibition that may contribute to lifelong accumulation of detrimental internal ice crystals. PMID:25246548

  9. Antifreeze protein-induced superheating of ice inside Antarctic notothenioid fishes inhibits melting during summer warming

    PubMed Central

    Cziko, Paul A.; DeVries, Arthur L.; Evans, Clive W.; Cheng, Chi-Hing Christina

    2014-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) of polar marine teleost fishes are widely recognized as an evolutionary innovation of vast adaptive value in that, by adsorbing to and inhibiting the growth of internalized environmental ice crystals, they prevent death by inoculative freezing. Paradoxically, systemic accumulation of AFP-stabilized ice could also be lethal. Whether or how fishes eliminate internal ice is unknown. To investigate if ice inside high-latitude Antarctic notothenioid fishes could melt seasonally, we measured its melting point and obtained a decadal temperature record from a shallow benthic fish habitat in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. We found that AFP-stabilized ice resists melting at temperatures above the expected equilibrium freezing/melting point (eqFMP), both in vitro and in vivo. Superheated ice was directly observed in notothenioid serum samples and in solutions of purified AFPs, and ice was found to persist inside live fishes at temperatures more than 1 °C above their eqFMP for at least 24 h, and at a lower temperature for at least several days. Field experiments confirmed that superheated ice occurs naturally inside wild fishes. Over the long-term record (1999–2012), seawater temperature surpassed the fish eqFMP in most summers, but never exceeded the highest temperature at which ice persisted inside experimental fishes. Thus, because of the effects of AFP-induced melting inhibition, summer warming may not reliably eliminate internal ice. Our results expose a potentially antagonistic pleiotropic effect of AFPs: beneficial freezing avoidance is accompanied by melting inhibition that may contribute to lifelong accumulation of detrimental internal ice crystals. PMID:25246548

  10. Methods for Melting Temperature Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Qi-Jun

    Melting temperature calculation has important applications in the theoretical study of phase diagrams and computational materials screenings. In this thesis, we present two new methods, i.e., the improved Widom's particle insertion method and the small-cell coexistence method, which we developed in order to capture melting temperatures both accurately and quickly. We propose a scheme that drastically improves the efficiency of Widom's particle insertion method by efficiently sampling cavities while calculating the integrals providing the chemical potentials of a physical system. This idea enables us to calculate chemical potentials of liquids directly from first-principles without the help of any reference system, which is necessary in the commonly used thermodynamic integration method. As an example, we apply our scheme, combined with the density functional formalism, to the calculation of the chemical potential of liquid copper. The calculated chemical potential is further used to locate the melting temperature. The calculated results closely agree with experiments. We propose the small-cell coexistence method based on the statistical analysis of small-size coexistence MD simulations. It eliminates the risk of a metastable superheated solid in the fast-heating method, while also significantly reducing the computer cost relative to the traditional large-scale coexistence method. Using empirical potentials, we validate the method and systematically study the finite-size effect on the calculated melting points. The method converges to the exact result in the limit of a large system size. An accuracy within 100 K in melting temperature is usually achieved when the simulation contains more than 100 atoms. DFT examples of Tantalum, high-pressure Sodium, and ionic material NaCl are shown to demonstrate the accuracy and flexibility of the method in its practical applications. The method serves as a promising approach for large-scale automated material screening in which the melting temperature is a design criterion. We present in detail two examples of refractory materials. First, we demonstrate how key material properties that provide guidance in the design of refractory materials can be accurately determined via ab initio thermodynamic calculations in conjunction with experimental techniques based on synchrotron X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis under laser-heated aerodynamic levitation. The properties considered include melting point, heat of fusion, heat capacity, thermal expansion coefficients, thermal stability, and sublattice disordering, as illustrated in a motivating example of lanthanum zirconate (La2Zr2O7). The close agreement with experiment in the known but structurally complex compound La2Zr 2O7 provides good indication that the computation methods described can be used within a computational screening framework to identify novel refractory materials. Second, we report an extensive investigation into the melting temperatures of the Hf-C and Hf-Ta-C systems using ab initio calculations. With melting points above 4000 K, hafnium carbide (HfC) and tantalum carbide (TaC) are among the most refractory binary compounds known to date. Their mixture, with a general formula TaxHf 1-xCy, is known to have a melting point of 4215 K at the composition Ta4HfC 5, which has long been considered as the highest melting temperature for any solid. Very few measurements of melting point in tantalum and hafnium carbides have been documented, because of the obvious experimental difficulties at extreme temperatures. The investigation lets us identify three major chemical factors that contribute to the high melting temperatures. Based on these three factors, we propose and explore a new class of materials, which, according to our ab initio calculations, may possess even higher melting temperatures than Ta-Hf-C. This example also demonstrates the feasibility of materials screening and discovery via ab initio calculations for the optimization of "higher-level" properties whose determination requires extensive sampling of atomic configuration space.

  11. Directional close-contact melting in glacier ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Julia; Schüller, Kai

    2015-04-01

    The Saturnian moon Enceladus shows incidence of liquid water underneath a thick ice sheet cover and is thought to be a potential candidate for extraterrestrial life. However, direct exploration of these subglacial aquatic ecosystems is very challenging. Within the scope of the joint research project 'Enceladus Explorer' (EnEx) (consisting of FH Aachen, RWTH Aachen, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Universität Bremen, TU Braunschweig und Bundeswehr Universität München), initiated by the German Space Agency, a maneuverable close-contact melting probe has been developed. The force-regulated and heater-controlled probe is able to melt against gravity or even on a curved trajectory. Hence, it offers additional degrees of freedom in its melting motion, e.g. for target oriented melting or obstacle avoidance strategies. General feasibility of the concept has been demonstrated in various field tests. However, in order to optimize its design and to adopt it to extraterrestrial missions a simulation model is needed, capable of determining melting velocity and efficiency at given environmental conditions and system configurations. Within this contribution, the physical situation is abstracted into a quasi-stationary mathematical model description, and a numerical solution strategy is developed to compute melting velocity and temperature distribution within the probe and the surrounding ice. We present an inverse solution approach, in which a background velocity field of the ice mimics the melting velocity. The fundamental balance laws are solved with the corresponding melting rate. Following Newton's laws, the resulting force acting on the probe has to balance the contact force exerted by the probe and can hence be used for convergence. We present both, analytical results to a simplified head geometry, as well as results from a simulation model implemented into the open source software Elmer for arbitrary head geometries. The latter can deal with the full 3d situation, which is demonstrated through various examples. We will conclude by discussing modeling results with respect to recent laboratory experiments and field tests conducted in Antarctica.

  12. Ice core evidence for extensive melting of the greenland ice sheet in the last interglacial.

    PubMed

    Koerner, R M

    1989-05-26

    Evidence from ice at the bottom of ice cores from the Canadian Arctic Islands and Camp Century and Dye-3 in Greenland suggests that the Greenland ice sheet melted extensively or completely during the last interglacial period more than 100 ka (thousand years ago), in contrast to earlier interpretations. The presence of dirt particles in the basal ice has previously been thought to indicate that the base of the ice sheets had melted and that the evidence for the time of original growth of these ice masses had been destroyed. However, the particles most likely blew onto the ice when the dimensions of the ice caps and ice sheets were much smaller. Ice texture, gas content, and other evidence also suggest that the basal ice at each drill site is superimposed ice, a type of ice typical of the early growth stages of an ice cap or ice sheet. If the present-day ice masses began their growth during the last interglacial, the ice sheet from the earlier (Illinoian) glacial period must have competely or largely melted during the early part of the same interglacial period. If such melting did occur, the 6-meter higher-than-present sea level during the Sangamon cannot be attributed to disintegration of the West Antarctic ice sheet, as has been suggested. PMID:17731883

  13. Melting of ice stuck on cylinders placed horizontally in a water flowing duct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Beer, H.

    2016-04-01

    Melting of ice stuck on seven in-lined cooling cylinders placed horizontally in a water flowing duct is investigated by means of a numerical analysis on the PHOENICS Code. The numerical results are validated compared with the experiment of an ice sphere melting. Parameters for calculations are inlet temperature, inlet velocity and clearance between the cylinders. The most concern of the melting is a finding of a curious behavior that is the melting in small inlet velocity on the long clearance between the cylinders.

  14. Climate variability, warming and ice melt on the Antarctic Peninsula over the last millennium (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abram, N.; Mulvaney, R.; Wolff, E. W.; Triest, J.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Trusel, L. D.; Vimeux, F.; Fleet, L.; Arrowsmith, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula has experienced rapid warming over the past 50 years, which has led to extensive summer ice melt, the collapse of ice shelves and the acceleration of glacial outflow. But the short observational records of Antarctic climate don't allow for an understanding of how unusual the recent conditions may be. We present reconstructions of temperature and melt history since 1000 AD from a highly resolved ice core record from James Ross Island on the northeastern Antarctic Peninsula. The spatial pattern of temperature variability across networks of palaeoclimate reconstructions demonstrates that the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) has been an important driver of Antarctic Peninsula climate variability over a range of time scales. Rapid warming of the Antarctic Peninsula since the mid-20th century is consistent with strengthening of the SAM by a combination of greenhouse and later ozone forcing. The rare reconstruction of summer melting, from visible melt layers in the ice core, demonstrates the non-linear response of ice melt to increasing summer temperatures. Melting in the region is now more intense than at any other time over the last 1000 years and suggests that the Antarctic Peninsula is now particularly susceptible to rapid increases in ice loss in response to relatively small increases in mean temperature.

  15. Stronger ocean circulation and increased melting under Pine Island Glacier ice shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Stanley S.; Jenkins, Adrian; Giulivi, Claudia F.; Dutrieux, Pierre

    2011-08-01

    In 1994, ocean measurements near Antarctica's Pine Island Glacier showed that the ice shelf buttressing the glacier was melting rapidly. This melting was attributed to the presence of relatively warm, deep water on the Amundsen Sea continental shelf. Heat, salt and ice budgets along with ocean modelling provided steady-state calving and melting rates. Subsequent satellite observations and modelling have indicated large system imbalances, including ice-shelf thinning and more intense melting, glacier acceleration and drainage basin drawdown. Here we combine our earlier data with measurements taken in 2009 to show that the temperature and volume of deep water in Pine Island Bay have increased. Ocean transport and tracer calculations near the ice shelf reveal a rise in meltwater production by about 50% since 1994. The faster melting seems to result mainly from stronger sub-ice-shelf circulation, as thinning ice has increased the gap above an underlying submarine bank on which the glacier was formerly grounded. We conclude that the basal melting has exceeded the increase in ice inflow, leading to the formation and enlargement of an inner cavity under the ice shelf within which sea water nearly 4C above freezing can now more readily access the grounding zone.

  16. Ice-sheet acceleration driven by melt supply variability.

    PubMed

    Schoof, Christian

    2010-12-01

    Increased ice velocities in Greenland are contributing significantly to eustatic sea level rise. Faster ice flow has been associated with ice-ocean interactions in water-terminating outlet glaciers and with increased surface meltwater supply to the ice-sheet bed inland. Observed correlations between surface melt and ice acceleration have raised the possibility of a positive feedback in which surface melting and accelerated dynamic thinning reinforce one another, suggesting that overall warming could lead to accelerated mass loss. Here I show that it is not simply mean surface melt but an increase in water input variability that drives faster ice flow. Glacier sliding responds to melt indirectly through changes in basal water pressure, with observations showing that water under glaciers drains through channels at low pressure or through interconnected cavities at high pressure. Using a model that captures the dynamic switching between channel and cavity drainage modes, I show that channelization and glacier deceleration rather than acceleration occur above a critical rate of water flow. Higher rates of steady water supply can therefore suppress rather than enhance dynamic thinning, indicating that the melt/dynamic thinning feedback is not universally operational. Short-term increases in water input are, however, accommodated by the drainage system through temporary spikes in water pressure. It is these spikes that lead to ice acceleration, which is therefore driven by strong diurnal melt cycles and an increase in rain and surface lake drainage events rather than an increase in mean melt supply. PMID:21150994

  17. Circulation and melting beneath the ross ice shelf.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, S S; Gordon, A L; Ardai, J L

    1979-02-01

    Thermohaline observations in the water column beneath the Ross Ice Shelf and along its terminal face show significant vertical stratification, active horizontal circulation, and net melting at the ice shelf base. Heat is supplied by seawater that moves southward beneath the ice shelf from a central warm core and from a western region of high salinity. The near-freezing Ice Shelf Water produced flows northward into the Ross Sea. PMID:17734137

  18. Ice shelf melt rates and 3D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Cameron Scott

    Ice shelves are sensitive indicators of climate change and play a critical role in the stability of ice sheets and oceanic currents. Basal melting of ice shelves plays an important role in both the mass balance of the ice sheet and the global climate system. Airborne- and satellite based remote sensing systems can perform thickness measurements of ice shelves. Time separated repeat flight tracks over ice shelves of interest generate data sets that can be used to derive basal melt rates using traditional glaciological techniques. Many previous melt rate studies have relied on surface elevation data gathered by airborne- and satellite based altimeters. These systems infer melt rates by assuming hydrostatic equilibrium, an assumption that may not be accurate, especially near an ice shelf's grounding line. Moderate bandwidth, VHF, ice penetrating radar has been used to measure ice shelf profiles with relatively coarse resolution. This study presents the application of an ultra wide bandwidth (UWB), UHF, ice penetrating radar to obtain finer resolution data on the ice shelves. These data reveal significant details about the basal interface, including the locations and depth of bottom crevasses and deviations from hydrostatic equilibrium. While our single channel radar provides new insight into ice shelf structure, it only images a small swatch of the shelf, which is assumed to be an average of the total shelf behavior. This study takes an additional step by investigating the application of a 3D imaging technique to a data set collected using a ground based multi channel version of the UWB radar. The intent is to show that the UWB radar could be capable of providing a wider swath 3D image of an ice shelf. The 3D images can then be used to obtain a more complete estimate of the bottom melt rates of ice shelves.

  19. Melt Pond Development on Arctic Land-Fast Sea Ice in Relation to Snow and Ice Properties During the Ice Growth Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrich, C.; Eicken, H.; Pringle, D.; Sturm, M.; Perovich, D.; Polashenski, C.; Finnegan, D.

    2008-12-01

    The dynamics of melt pond development on sea ice were studied on a well-defined patch of level land-fast sea ice off the coast of Barrow, Alaska in 2008. The pond development was correlated with both sea ice properties and the history of snow distribution during the ice growth season. In mid January, the ice was covered by an almost level snow layer of 4~cm thickness. We observed an increase in snow depth and development of snow dunes since February. At least some snow dunes stayed in place, and at the end of April ice thickness was negatively correlated with the thickness of compacted snow dunes. Snow salinity remained above 5~psu in the bottom 4 to 5~cm of the snow pack throughout the ice growth season. In comparison, snow more than 5~cm above the snow--ice interface was almost devoid of salt. The air temperature increased rapidly in early May and started to exceed 0C on May 15. From this day on, thermistor string data show that the sea ice temperature profile deviated from linear with the lowest temperature inside the body of ice rather than at the surface. Superimposed ice was present with certainty after May 24. The superimposed ice investigated in early June exhibited a rough texture consistent with meltwater percolation columns in the snow pack. It was found only under snow dunes; no superimposed ice was observed under thin snow (2~cm) or melt ponds. Meltwater collected at topographic low points that surrounded distinct ice islands. Aerial photography and surface LiDAR measurements at various times during the early melt season showed that the location of these ice islands coincided with the locations of wind packed snow dunes that had been tracked since February. The lateral movement of surface waters was relatively slow during the very early stages of melt pond formation. However, we observed a significant lateral redistribution of meltwater under the ice surface; this redistribution happened through distinct veins. The sea ice salinity profiles showed evidence of meltwater flushing during the period of increasing melt pond coverage. At the same time, a significant amount of meltwater appeared to have drained through natural flaws (seal holes) rather than ice. Over the course of a few days, the area covered by melt ponds shrank as the meltwater table dropped toward the freeboard level. However, patches of near-impermeable ice persisted beyond this point. Laser-level transects showed that isolated puddles of elevated water level remained. The ice islands that developed during the early stages of melt persisted throughout the mature stages of ice melt. They were surrounded by ponds that typically contained dark ice patches that were apparent in the early stage of melt. Our observations on melt pond evolution may be useful in the context of interpreting and modeling regional differences in sea ice albedo and assessing the sensitivity of spring and early-summer ice albedo to changing Arctic snow and sea ice conditions.

  20. Inorganic carbon system dynamics in landfast Arctic sea ice during the early-melt period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Kristina A.; Miller, Lisa A.; Mundy, C. J.; Papakyriakou, Tim; Francois, Roger; Gosselin, Michel; Carnat, Gauthier; Swystun, Kyle; Tortell, Philippe D.

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of a 6 week time series of carbonate system and stable isotope measurements investigating the effects of sea ice on air-sea CO2 exchange during the early melt period in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Our observations revealed significant changes in sea ice and sackhole brine carbonate system parameters that were associated with increasing temperatures and the buildup of chlorophyll a in bottom ice. The warming sea-ice column could be separated into distinct geochemical zones where biotic and abiotic processes exerted different influences on inorganic carbon and pCO2 distributions. In the bottom ice, biological carbon uptake maintained undersaturated pCO2 conditions throughout the time series, while pCO2 was supersaturated in the upper ice. Low CO2 permeability of the sea ice matrix and snow cover effectively impeded CO2 efflux to the atmosphere, despite a strong pCO2 gradient. Throughout the middle of the ice column, brine pCO2 decreased significantly with time and was tightly controlled by solubility, as sea ice temperature and in situ melt dilution increased. Once the influence of melt dilution was accounted for, both CaCO3 dissolution and seawater mixing were found to contribute alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon to brines, with the CaCO3 contribution driving brine pCO2 to values lower than predicted from melt-water dilution alone. This field study reveals a dynamic carbon system within the rapidly warming sea ice, prior to snow melt. We suggest that the early spring period drives the ice column toward pCO2 undersaturation, contributing to a weak atmospheric CO2 sink as the melt period advances.

  1. Dissociative melting of ice VII at high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, Alexander F.; Sanloup, Chrystele; Goldman, Nir; Crowhurst, Jonathan C.; Bastea, Sorin; Howard, W.M.; Fried, Laurence E.; Guignot, Nicolas; Mezouar, Mohamed; Meng, Yue

    2009-04-02

    We have used x-ray diffraction to determine the structure factor of water along its melting line to a static pressure of 57 GPa (570 kbar) and a temperature of more than 1500 K, conditions which correspond to the lower mantle of the Earth, and the interiors of Neptune and Uranus up to a depth of 7000 km. We have also performed corresponding first principles and classical molecular dynamics simulations. Above a pressure of 4 GPa the O-O structure factor is found to be very close to that of a simple soft sphere liquid, thus permitting us to determine the density of liquid water near the melting line. By comparing these results with the density of ice, also determined in this study, we find that the enthalpy of fusion ({Delta}H{sub f}) increases enormously along the melting line, reaching approximately 120 kJ/mole at 40 GPa (compared to 6 kJ/mole at 0 GPa), thus revealing significant molecular dissociation of water upon melting. We speculate that an extended two-phase region could occur in planetary processes involving the adiabatic compression of water.

  2. Dissociative melting of ice VII at high pressure.

    PubMed

    Goncharov, Alexander F; Sanloup, Chrystele; Goldman, Nir; Crowhurst, Jonathan C; Bastea, Sorin; Howard, W M; Fried, Laurence E; Guignot, Nicolas; Mezouar, Mohamed; Meng, Yue

    2009-03-28

    We have used x-ray diffraction to determine the structure factor of water along its melting line to a static pressure of 57 GPa (570 kbar) and a temperature of more than 1500 K, conditions which correspond to the lower mantle of the Earth, and the interiors of Neptune and Uranus up to a depth of 7000 km. We have also performed corresponding first principles and classical molecular dynamics simulations. Above a pressure of 4 GPa the O-O structure factor is found to be very close to that of a simple soft sphere liquid, thus permitting us to determine the density of liquid water near the melting line. By comparing these results with the density of ice, also determined in this study, we find that the enthalpy of fusion (DeltaH(f)) increases enormously along the melting line, reaching approximately 120 kJ/mole at 40 GPa (compared to 6 kJ/mole at 0 GPa), thus revealing significant molecular dissociation of water upon melting. We speculate that an extended two-phase region could occur in planetary processes involving the adiabatic compression of water. PMID:19334858

  3. The extreme melt across the Greenland ice sheet in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Hall, D. K.; Mote, T. L.; Tedesco, M.; Albert, M. R.; Keegan, K.; Shuman, C. A.; DiGirolamo, N. E.; Neumann, G.

    2012-10-01

    The discovery of the 2012 extreme melt event across almost the entire surface of the Greenland ice sheet is presented. Data from three different satellite sensors - including the Oceansat-2 scatterometer, the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder - are combined to obtain composite melt maps, representing the most complete melt conditions detectable across the ice sheet. Satellite observations reveal that melt occurred at or near the surface of the Greenland ice sheet across 98.6% of its entire extent on 12 July 2012, including the usually cold polar areas at high altitudes like Summit in the dry snow facies of the ice sheet. This melt event coincided with an anomalous ridge of warm air that became stagnant over Greenland. As seen in melt occurrences from multiple ice core records at Summit reported in the published literature, such a melt event is rare with the last significant one occurring in 1889 and the next previous one around seven centuries earlier in the Medieval Warm Period. Given its rarity, the 2012 extreme melt across Greenland provides an exceptional opportunity for new studies in broad interdisciplinary geophysical research.

  4. Strong sensitivity of Pine Island ice-shelf melting to climatic variability.

    PubMed

    Dutrieux, Pierre; De Rydt, Jan; Jenkins, Adrian; Holland, Paul R; Ha, Ho Kyung; Lee, Sang Hoon; Steig, Eric J; Ding, Qinghua; Abrahamsen, E Povl; Schrder, Michael

    2014-01-10

    Pine Island Glacier has thinned and accelerated over recent decades, significantly contributing to global sea-level rise. Increased oceanic melting of its ice shelf is thought to have triggered those changes. Observations and numerical modeling reveal large fluctuations in the ocean heat available in the adjacent bay and enhanced sensitivity of ice-shelf melting to water temperatures at intermediate depth, as a seabed ridge blocks the deepest and warmest waters from reaching the thickest ice. Oceanic melting decreased by 50% between January 2010 and 2012, with ocean conditions in 2012 partly attributable to atmospheric forcing associated with a strong La Nia event. Both atmospheric variability and local ice shelf and seabed geometry play fundamental roles in determining the response of the Antarctic Ice Sheet to climate. PMID:24385606

  5. Basal Melt Under the Interior of the Greenland Ice Sheet: Comparison of Models, Deep Ice Cores, and Radar Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezvanbehbahani, S.; Stearns, L. A.; van der Veen, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Basal ice temperature is a critical boundary condition for ice sheet models. It modulates the basal melt rate and sliding conditions, and also affects the ice hardness which alters the deformational velocity. Therefore, in order to obtain reliable estimates on the future mass loss of the ice sheets using numerical models, basal ice temperature is of paramount importance. In this study, the basal temperature and basal melt rate under the Greenland Ice Sheet are estimated using the Robin temperature solution. The analytical Robin solution is obtained by solving the heat conservation equation for steady state conditions, assuming that advection and diffusion are significant only in the vertical direction. In this study, the sensitivity of the basal temperature obtained from the Robin solution to changes in input parameters, including changes in atmospheric conditions, ice thickness, and geothermal heat flux is tested. Although the Robin solution is frequently used in glaciology, there has been no quantitative study to estimate the effect of neglecting the horizontal advection on basal temperatures in regions of higher velocity. Here, a two-dimensional model is applied to quantify the effect of horizontal heat advection on basal temperatures. Overall, horizontal heat advection lowers the basal temperature except in regions where surface mass balance gradients are negative along the flow. Comparing the results from the 2D temperature model to the Robin solution along multiple flowlines of the Greenland Ice Sheet suggest that the horizontal heat advection alters the basal temperatures by less than 3C up to 30-45% of the flow distance away from the ice divide; at greater distances this difference increases rapidly. All simulations using the Robin solution predict substantial basal melting under the northeast drainage basin of the ice sheet. Our 2D model results also show that because of the negative surface mass balance gradient, horizontal heat advection increases the basal temperatures in the northeast basin. Our obtained map of basal melting area matches well with the radar detected basal water under the north and northeast drainage basins. However, low basal temperatures estimated at the Camp Century ice core location in the northwest of the ice sheet is in contrast with the radar observations.

  6. The Impact of Refreezing of Melt Ponds on Arctic Sea Ice Thinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltham, D. L.; Flocco, D.; Schroeder, D.; Tsamados, M.

    2014-12-01

    The presence of melt ponds over the sea ice cover in the Arctic has a profound impact on the surface albedo inducing a positive feedback leading to sea ice thinning. At the end of summer the melt ponds, covering a large fraction of the sea ice, start freezing and get trapped between the sea ice beneath and a thin surface layer of ice. The pond water stores latent heat that is released as they freeze. Ponds trapped under a layer of refrozen ice have been observed in the Arctic and our model results, confirmed by observations, show that the latent heat stored in the ice due to their presence slows the basal sea ice growth for over a month after a sea ice lid appears on their surface. In this work we study the ice/water temperature profile in the trapped pond system and its evolution until the pond freezes and show the impact of the presence of a trapped pond on sea ice growth. We have carried out this study by developing a three layer, one-dimensional model of temperature and salinity evolution to study the refreezing process. We show some preliminary results obtained by including this new process in the CICE model and in particular, the impact that the increased pond salinity and the refrozen pond persistence have on the sea ice basal growth.

  7. Water isotopic ratios from a continuously melted ice core sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkinis, V.; Popp, T. J.; Blunier, T.; Bigler, M.; Schpbach, S.; Johnsen, S. J.

    2011-06-01

    A new technique for on-line high resolution isotopic analysis of liquid water, tailored for ice core studies is presented. We build an interface between an Infra Red Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer (IR-CRDS) and a Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) system. The system offers the possibility to perform simultaneuous water isotopic analysis of ?18O and ?D on a continuous stream of liquid water as generated from a continuously melted ice rod. Injection of sub ?l amounts of liquid water is achieved by pumping sample through a fused silica capillary and instantaneously vaporizing it with 100 % efficiency in a home made oven at a temperature of 170 C. A calibration procedure allows for proper reporting of the data on the VSMOW scale. We apply the necessary corrections based on the assessed performance of the system regarding instrumental drifts and dependance on humidity levels. The melt rates are monitored in order to assign a depth scale to the measured isotopic profiles. Application of spectral methods yields the combined uncertainty of the system at below 0.1 and 0.5 for ?18O and ?D, respectively. This performance is comparable to that achieved with mass spectrometry. Dispersion of the sample in the transfer lines limits the resolution of the technique. In this work we investigate and assess these dispersion effects. By using an optimal filtering method we show how the measured profiles can be corrected for the smoothing effects resulting from the sample dispersion. Considering the significant advantages the technique offers, i.e. simultaneuous measurement of ?18O and ?D, potentially in combination with chemical components that are traditionally measured on CFA systems, notable reduction on analysis time and power consumption, we consider it as an alternative to traditional isotope ratio mass spectrometry with the possibility to be deployed for field ice core studies. We present data acquired in the framework of the NEEM deep ice core drilling project in Greenland, during the 2010 field season.

  8. Numerical simulation of melting ice around a floating by microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakzian, Esmail; Parsian, Armin; Lakzian, Kazem

    2015-04-01

    In this paper a new method in using microwaves is provided for melting the ice around a floating equipment in a freezing condition in cold regions. The numerical simulation's results for validation are compared with the simple model's experimental data. Using microwave in melting the ice around a floating equipment is caused by lack of the mechanical wear, low energy dissipation factor and acceptable defrosting process speed in small lakes.

  9. Numerical simulation of melting ice around a floating by microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakzian, Esmail; Parsian, Armin; Lakzian, Kazem

    2016-03-01

    In this paper a new method in using microwaves is provided for melting the ice around a floating equipment in a freezing condition in cold regions. The numerical simulation's results for validation are compared with the simple model's experimental data. Using microwave in melting the ice around a floating equipment is caused by lack of the mechanical wear, low energy dissipation factor and acceptable defrosting process speed in small lakes.

  10. The melting of floating ice raises the ocean level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noerdlinger, Peter D.; Brower, Kay R.

    2007-07-01

    It is shown that the melting of ice floating on the ocean will introduce a volume of water about 2.6 per cent greater than that of the originally displaced sea water. The melting of floating ice in a global warming will cause the ocean to rise. If all the extant sea ice and floating shelf ice melted, the global sea level would rise about 4cm. The sliding of grounded ice into the sea, however, produces a mean water level rise in two parts; some of the rise is delayed. The first part, while the ice floats, is equal to the volume of displaced sea water. The second part, equal to 2.6 per cent of the first, is contributed as it melts. These effects result from the difference in volume of equal weights of fresh and salt water. This component of sea rise is apparently unrecognized in the literature to date, although it can be interpreted as a form of halosteric sea level change by regarding the displaced salt water and the meltwater (even before melting) as a unit. Although salinity changes are known to affect sea level, all existing analyses omit our calculated volume change. We present a protocol that can be used to calculate global sea level rise on the basis of the addition of meltwater from grounded and floating ice; of course thermosteric volume change must be added.

  11. Parameterizing Arctic sea-ice melt pond characteristics for radiation budgets and climate modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eicken, H.; Perovich, D. K.; Nghiem, S. V.; Harbeck, J. P.; Light, B.

    2006-12-01

    Solar heating in the Arctic atmosphere-ice-ocean system plays a key role in the recently observed decline of the Arctic sea-ice cover and is key to ice-albedo feedback. The summertime absorption and transmission of shortwave radiation by Arctic sea ice is strongly affected by the areal extent and optical properties of melt ponds. As part of an effort to arrive at an integrated assessment of the disposition of solar radiation in the Arctic atmosphere-ice-ocean system, we have examined the spatial and temporal evolution of melt ponds as a function of ice type and melt-season stage based on a combination of field measurements, a pond-hydrology model and remote sensing. Previous work has shown that the pond distribution is largely controlled by meltwater production at the ice surface, surface topography and the permeability of the underlying ice. Here, as a first step, meltwater production is parameterized as a simple function of initial snow depth, seasonal melt progression and latitude, with a focus on the impact of variations in surface topography and permeability on pond evolution. Ice permeability has been derived from an empirical porosity-permeability model, with temperature and salinity profiles determined by ice type and melt stage. We distinguish between four different ice types with different ponding characteristics: level and rough first-year and multi-year ice, respectively. Data on the surface topography and summary statistics of surface elevation or effective hydraulic head have been obtained from a range of field measurements in different sectors of the Arctic, employing both ground-based and airborne techniques. In summer, the evolution of ice surface topography is largely controlled by ablation processes and it is mostly the pooling and flow of surface meltwater during the first third to one half of the melt season that determine the ponds' distribution during the stagnant, latter stages of melt. In order to assess variations in pond evolution, the timing of onset and termination of melt have been derived from QuikScat Scatterometer data (determined through analysis of diurnal backscatter variations) for selected locations within the Arctic Ocean between 1999 and 2005. In conjunction with determinations of the ice and pond optical properties, the impact of ponds on total absorption of shortwave radiation by the ice-ocean system is assessed.

  12. Detecting ice lenses and melt-refreeze crusts using satellite passive microwaves (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montpetit, B.; Royer, A.; Roy, A.

    2013-12-01

    With recent winter climate warming in high latitude regions, rain-on-snow and melt-refreeze events are more frequent creating ice lenses or ice crusts at the surface or even within the snowpack through drainage. These ice layers create an impermeable ice barrier that reduces vegetation respiration and modifies snow properties due to the weak thermal diffusivity of ice. Winter mean soil temperatures increase due to latent heat being released during the freezing process. When ice layers freeze at the snow-soil interface, they can also affect the feeding habits of the northern wild life. Ice layers also significantly affect satellite passive microwave signals that are widely used to monitor the spatial and temporal evolution of snow. Here we present a method using satellite passive microwave brightness temperatures (Tb) to detect ice lenses and/or ice crusts within a snowpack. First the Microwave Emission Model for Layered Snowpacks (MEMLS) was validated to model Tb at 10.7, 19 and 37 GHz using in situ measurements taken in multiple sub-arctic environments where ice layers where observed. Through validated modeling, the effects of ice layer insertion were studied and an ice layer index was developed using the polarization ratio (PR) at all three frequencies. The developed ice index was then applied to satellite passive microwave signals for reported ice layer events.

  13. Rapid bottom melting widespread near Antarctic ice sheet grounding lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, E.; Jacobs, S.

    2002-01-01

    As continental ice from Antartica reaches the grounding line and begins to float, its underside melts into the ocean. Results obtained with satellite radar interferometry reveal that bottom melt rates experienced by large outlet glaciers near their grounding lines are far higher than generally assumed.

  14. Object-based Image Classification of Arctic Sea Ice and Melt Ponds through Aerial Photos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, X.; Xie, H.; Li, Z.; Lei, R.

    2013-12-01

    The last six years have marked the lowest Arctic summer sea ice extents in the modern era, with a new record summer minimum (3.4 million km2) set on 13 September 2012. It has been predicted that the Arctic could be free of summer ice within the next 25-30. The loss of Arctic summer ice could have serious consequences, such as higher water temperature due to the positive feedback of albedo, more powerful and frequent storms, rising sea levels, diminished habitats for polar animals, and more pollution due to fossil fuel exploitation and/ or increased traffic through the Northwest/ Northeast Passage. In these processes, melt ponds play an important role in Earth's radiation balance since they strongly absorb solar radiation rather than reflecting it as snow and ice do. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the ability of predicting the sea ice/ melt pond extents and space-time evolution, which is pivotal to prepare for the variation and uncertainty of the future environment, political, economic, and military needs. A lot of efforts have been put into Arctic sea ice modeling to simulate sea ice processes. However, these sea ice models were initiated and developed based on limited field surveys, aircraft or satellite image data. Therefore, it is necessary to collect high resolution sea ice aerial photo in a systematic way to tune up, validate, and improve models. Currently there are many sea ice aerial photos available, such as Chinese Arctic Exploration (CHINARE 2008, 2010, 2012), SHEBA 1998 and HOTRAX 2005. However, manually delineating of sea ice and melt pond from these images is time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this study, we use the object-based remote sensing classification scheme to extract sea ice and melt ponds efficiently from 1,727 aerial photos taken during the CHINARE 2010. The algorithm includes three major steps as follows. (1) Image segmentation groups the neighboring pixels into objects according to the similarity of spectral and texture information; (2) random forest ensemble classifier can distinguish the following objects: water, submerged ice, shadow, and ice/snow; and (3) polygon neighbor analysis can further separate melt ponds from submerged ice according to the spatial neighboring relationship. Our results illustrate the spatial distribution and morphological characters of melt ponds in different latitudes of the Arctic Pacific sector. This method can be applied to massive photos and images taken in past years and future years, in deriving the detailed sea ice and melt pond distribution and changes through years.

  15. Winter sea ice melting in the Atlantic Water subduction area, Svalbard Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tverberg, V.; Nst, O. A.; Lydersen, C.; Kovacs, K. M.

    2014-09-01

    Herein, we study a small area along the shelf west of Spitsbergen, near Prins Karls Forland, where warm, saline Atlantic Water of the West Spitsbergen Current currently first encounters sea ice. This sea ice is drifting in a coastal current that carries Arctic Water originating from the Barents Sea northward over the shelf. Our aim was to investigate whether melting of sea ice by Atlantic Water in this area might be a significant factor that could contribute to the formation of a cold halocline layer that isolates the sea ice from further melting from below. Observations of temperature and salinity profiles were collected during two winters, via CTD-SRDL instruments deployed on harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), and fed into a heat and freshwater budget box model in order to quantify the importance of melting relative to other processes that could transform the shelf water mass during winter. Cross-frontal exchange of Atlantic Water from the West Spitsbergen Current, driven by buoyancy forcing rather than Ekman upwelling, was determined to be the source of the heat that melted drift ice on the shelf. Some local sea ice formation did take place, but its importance in the total heat and freshwater budgets appeared to be minor. The data suggest that the production of a cold halocline layer was preceded by southerly winds and rapid drift ice melting.

  16. Observed anomalous atmospheric patterns in summers of unusual Arctic sea ice melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, Erlend M.; Orsolini, Yvan J.; Furevik, Tore; Hodges, Kevin I.

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic sea ice retreat has accelerated over the last decade. The negative trend is largest in summer, but substantial interannual variability still remains. Here we explore observed atmospheric conditions and feedback mechanisms during summer months of anomalous sea ice melt in the Arctic. Compositing months of anomalous low and high sea ice melt over 1979-2013, we find distinct patterns in atmospheric circulation, precipitation, radiation, and temperature. Compared to summer months of anomalous low sea ice melt, high melt months are characterized by anomalous high sea level pressure in the Arctic (up to 7 hPa), with a corresponding tendency of storms to track on a more zonal path. As a result, the Arctic receives less precipitation overall and 39% less snowfall. This lowers the albedo of the region and reduces the negative feedback the snowfall provides for the sea ice. With an anticyclonic tendency, 12 W/m2 more incoming shortwave radiation reaches the surface in the start of the season. The melting sea ice in turn promotes cloud development in the marginal ice zones and enhances downwelling longwave radiation at the surface toward the end of the season. A positive cloud feedback emerges. In midlatitudes, the more zonally tracking cyclones give stormier, cloudier, wetter, and cooler summers in most of northern Europe and around the Sea of Okhotsk. Farther south, the region from the Mediterranean Sea to East Asia experiences significant surface warming (up to 2.4C), possibly linked to changes in the jet stream.

  17. On the phase diagram of water with density functional theory potentials: the melting temperature of Ice I-h with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof and Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Soohaeng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2009-06-11

    The melting temperature (Tm) of ice Ih was determined from constant enthalphy (NPH) Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD) simulations to be 4173 K for the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) and 4114 K for the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (BLYP) density functionals using a coexisting ice (Ih)-liquid phase at constant pressures of P = 2,500 and 10,000 bar and a density ? = 1 g/cm3, respectively. This suggests that ambient condition simulations at ? = 1 g/cm3 will rather describe a supercooled state that is overstructured when compared to liquid water. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences program. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  18. Climate change and forest fires synergistically drive widespread melt events of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    PubMed Central

    Keegan, Kaitlin M.; Albert, Mary R.; McConnell, Joseph R.; Baker, Ian

    2014-01-01

    In July 2012, over 97% of the Greenland Ice Sheet experienced surface melt, the first widespread melt during the era of satellite remote sensing. Analysis of six Greenland shallow firn cores from the dry snow region confirms that the most recent prior widespread melt occurred in 1889. A firn core from the center of the ice sheet demonstrated that exceptionally warm temperatures combined with black carbon sediments from Northern Hemisphere forest fires reduced albedo below a critical threshold in the dry snow region, and caused the melting events in both 1889 and 2012. We use these data to project the frequency of widespread melt into the year 2100. Since Arctic temperatures and the frequency of forest fires are both expected to rise with climate change, our results suggest that widespread melt events on the Greenland Ice Sheet may begin to occur almost annually by the end of century. These events are likely to alter the surface mass balance of the ice sheet, leaving the surface susceptible to further melting. PMID:24843158

  19. Climate change and forest fires synergistically drive widespread melt events of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Kaitlin M; Albert, Mary R; McConnell, Joseph R; Baker, Ian

    2014-06-01

    In July 2012, over 97% of the Greenland Ice Sheet experienced surface melt, the first widespread melt during the era of satellite remote sensing. Analysis of six Greenland shallow firn cores from the dry snow region confirms that the most recent prior widespread melt occurred in 1889. A firn core from the center of the ice sheet demonstrated that exceptionally warm temperatures combined with black carbon sediments from Northern Hemisphere forest fires reduced albedo below a critical threshold in the dry snow region, and caused the melting events in both 1889 and 2012. We use these data to project the frequency of widespread melt into the year 2100. Since Arctic temperatures and the frequency of forest fires are both expected to rise with climate change, our results suggest that widespread melt events on the Greenland Ice Sheet may begin to occur almost annually by the end of century. These events are likely to alter the surface mass balance of the ice sheet, leaving the surface susceptible to further melting. PMID:24843158

  20. Melt Duration Variability and Sea Ice Conditions within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: 1979-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, S. E.; Duguay, C. R.; Markus, T.

    2008-12-01

    The links between melt duration and sea ice conditions within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) and its sub-regions were explored from 1979 to 2007. Melt duration was derived from passive microwave brightness temperatures and sea ice conditions were extracted from the Canadian Ice Service Digital Archive. Melt duration in the CAA is increasing at 6.0 days decade-1 which is statistically significant at the 99 percent confidence level. The longest melt durations within the CAA were 1998 (123 days), 2006 (118 days), and 1994 (115 days). All sub-regions within the CAA also exhibited positive slopes for melt duration and only the Western Arctic Waterway was not statistically significant. Minimum sea ice coverage with the CAA has decreased by -2.42x103km2year-1 (-6.6 percent decade-1) but this trend has yet to reach statistical significance at the 90 percent confidence level. The years with the minimum sea ice coverage within the CAA were 1998 (131x103km2), 2007 (169x103km2), and 1999 (216x103km2). All sub-regions within the CAA are experiencing negative slopes in sea ice coverage but only Baffin Inlet is statistically significant at the 95 percent confidence level. Results however show a clear shift between decreases in the amount of first-year ice promoted to multi-year ice (- 1.67x103km2year-1) within the CAA compared to increases in the amount of multi-year ice imported into the CAA (2.04x103km2year-1). Longer melt seasons within the CAA may not yet bring about substantial reductions sea ice conditions because the CAA acts as a drain-trap for multi-year ice. As the melt season length continues to increase, and the transition to a summer-time sea ice free Arctic continues, the supply of multi-year ice from the Arctic Ocean to the CAA may reduce but it is unlikely to stop. With respect to practical utilization of the Northwest Passage it is apparent that as the seasonal ice breaks-up earlier, multi-year ice then begins to flow and fill the open water gaps resulting in only a minor lengthening of the shipping season.

  1. Melting of the precipitated ice IV in LiCl aqueous solution and polyamorphism of water.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Osamu

    2011-12-01

    Melting of the precipitated ice IV in supercooled LiCl-H(2)O solution was studied in the range of 0-0.6 MPa and 160-270 K. Emulsified solution was used to detect this metastable transition. Ice IV was precipitated from the aqueous solution of 2.0 mol % LiCl (or 4.8 mol % LiCl) in each emulsion particle at low-temperature and high-pressure conditions, and the emulsion was decompressed at different temperatures. The melting of ice IV was detected from the temperature change of the emulsified sample during the decompression. There was an apparently sudden change in the slope of the ice IV melting curve (liquidus) in the pressure-temperature diagram. At the high-pressure and high-temperature side of the change, the solute-induced freezing point depression was observed. At the low-pressure and low-temperature side, ice IV transformed into ice Ih on the decompression, and the transition was almost unrelated to the concentration of LiCl. These experimental results were roughly explained by the presumed existence of two kinds of liquid water (low-density liquid water and high-density liquid water), or polyamorphism in water, and by the simple assumption that LiCl dissolved maily in high-density liquid water. PMID:21736291

  2. The impact of refreezing of melt ponds on Arctic sea ice thinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flocco, Daniela; Feltham, Daniel; Schroeder, David; Tsamados, Michel

    2015-04-01

    While the impact of melt ponds on the albedo-feedback mechanism of Arctic sea ice is well known, their impact in suppressing winter freeze up has been less studied. At the end of summer the melt ponds, covering a large fraction of the sea ice, start freezing and get trapped between the sea ice beneath and a thin surface layer of ice. The pond water stores latent heat that is released as they freeze. Ponds trapped under a layer of refrozen ice have been observed in the Arctic and our model results, confirmed by observations, show that the latent heat stored in the ice due to their presence slows the basal sea ice growth for over a month after a sea ice lid appears on their surface. We have developed a three layer, one-dimensional model of temperature and salinity evolution to study the refreezing process and conducted sensitivity studies to examine the factors affecting melt pond refreezing, including the presence of snow on a refreezing pond. We also show some preliminary results obtained by including this new process in the CICE model and in particular, the impact that the increased pond salinity and the refrozen pond persistence have on the sea ice basal growth.

  3. Arctic sea-ice ridges—Safe heavens for sea-ice fauna during periods of extreme ice melt?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradinger, Rolf; Bluhm, Bodil; Iken, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    The abundances and distribution of metazoan within-ice meiofauna (13 stations) and under-ice fauna (12 stations) were investigated in level sea ice and sea-ice ridges in the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas and Canada Basin in June/July 2005 using a combination of ice coring and SCUBA diving. Ice meiofauna abundance was estimated based on live counts in the bottom 30 cm of level sea ice based on triplicate ice core sampling at each location, and in individual ice chunks from ridges at four locations. Under-ice amphipods were counted in situ in replicate ( N=24-65 per station) 0.25 m 2 quadrats using SCUBA to a maximum water depth of 12 m. In level sea ice, the most abundant ice meiofauna groups were Turbellaria (46%), Nematoda (35%), and Harpacticoida (19%), with overall low abundances per station that ranged from 0.0 to 10.9 ind l -1 (median 0.8 ind l -1). In level ice, low ice algal pigment concentrations (<0.1-15.8 μg Chl a l -1), low brine salinities (1.8-21.7) and flushing from the melting sea ice likely explain the low ice meiofauna concentrations. Higher abundances of Turbellaria, Nematoda and Harpacticoida also were observed in pressure ridges (0-200 ind l -1, median 40 ind l -1), although values were highly variable and only medians of Turbellaria were significantly higher in ridge ice than in level ice. Median abundances of under-ice amphipods at all ice types (level ice, various ice ridge structures) ranged from 8 to 114 ind m -2 per station and mainly consisted of Apherusa glacialis (87%), Onisimus spp. (7%) and Gammarus wilkitzkii (6%). Highest amphipod abundances were observed in pressure ridges at depths >3 m where abundances were up to 42-fold higher compared with level ice. We propose that the summer ice melt impacted meiofauna and under-ice amphipod abundance and distribution through (a) flushing, and (b) enhanced salinity stress at thinner level sea ice (less than 3 m thickness). We further suggest that pressure ridges, which extend into deeper, high-salinity water, become accumulation regions for ice meiofauna and under-ice amphipods in summer. Pressure ridges thus might be crucial for faunal survival during periods of enhanced summer ice melt. Previous estimates of Arctic sea ice meiofauna and under-ice amphipods on regional and pan-Arctic scales likely underestimate abundances at least in summer because they typically do not include pressure ridges.

  4. Induced ice melting by the snow flea antifreeze protein from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Todde, Guido; Whitman, Christopher; Hovmöller, Sven; Laaksonen, Aatto

    2014-11-26

    Antifreeze proteins (AFP) allow different life forms, insects as well as fish and plants, to survive in subzero environments. AFPs prevent freezing of the physiological fluids. We have studied, through molecular dynamics simulations, the behavior of the small isoform of the AFP found in the snow flea (sfAFP), both in water and at the ice/water interface, of four different ice planes. In water at room temperature, the structure of the sfAFP is found to be slightly unstable. The loop between two polyproline II helices has large fluctuations as well as the C-terminus. Torsional angle analyses show a decrease of the polyproline II helix area in the Ramachandran plots. The protein structure instability, in any case, should not affect its antifreeze activity. At the ice/water interface the sfAFP triggers local melting of the ice surface. Bipyramidal, secondary prism, and prism ice planes melt in the presence of AFP at temperatures below the melting point of ice. Only the basal plane is found to be stable at the same temperatures, indicating an adsorption of the sfAFP on this ice plane as confirmed by experimental evidence. PMID:25353109

  5. Climatic warming and basal melting of large ice sheets: possible implications for East Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Saari, M.R.; Yuen, D.A.; Schubert, G.

    1987-01-01

    Climatic warming is shown to be capable of inducing shear heating instability and basal melting in a model ice sheet that is creeping slowly downslope. Growth times of the instability are calculated from a nonlinear analysis of temperature and flow in the model ice sheet whose surface undergoes a prescribed increase of temperature. The source of instability lies in the decrease of maximum ice thickness for steady downslope creep with increasing surface temperature. A surface temperature increase of 5 to 10 k can cause instability on a 10/sup 4/ year time scale for realistic ice rheology. The instability occurs suddenly after a prolonged period of dormancy. The instability might be relevant to the East Antarctic ice sheet. Warming associated with the Holocene interglacial epoch that heralded the end of the last ice age may have set the East Antarctic ice sheet on a course toward wide-spread instability some 10/sup 4/ years later. The present CO/sub 2/-induced climate warming is also a potential trigger for instability and basal melting of the East Antarctic ice sheet.

  6. The "blob of death", or how warm air advection causes rapid ice melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjernstrm, Michael; Shupe, Matthew; Achtert, Peggy; Brooks, Barbara; Brooks, Ian; Johnston, Paul; Persson, Ola; Prytherch, John; Salisbury, Dominic; Sedlar, Joseph; Sotiropoulou, Georgia; Wolfe, Dan

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic Clouds in Summer Experiment (ACSE) program obtained measurements of surface energy fluxes, boundary-layer structure, cloud macro- and micro-physical structure, and upper-ocean thermal and salinity structure from pack-ice and open-water regions in the eastern Arctic from early July to early October 2014. ACSE was divided into two legs. The first took a route from Troms, Norway, to Barrow, Alaska, during late summer (early July to late August) mostly on the Siberian Shelf, while the second leg was from traversed back mostly north of the shelf during September and early October. This paper will present ACSE and show examples of some results. Energy fluxes at the surface determine the annual summer melt and autumn freeze-up of Arctic sea ice, but are strongly modulated by interactions between atmospheric, ocean, and sea-ice processes. ACSE summer measurements showed energy flux surpluses leading to significant surface melt, while late August and September measurements showed deficits, leading to freeze-up of sea ice and the ocean surface. A weeklong episode with intensive melt resulting from warm air advection from continental Russia will be presented and discussed. During this episode, temperatures up to 20 C was observed aloft while near surface temperatures over the ice remained near melting. In the surface inversion dense fog formed that enhanced the downward longwave radiation. Together with a downward turbulent sensible heat flux this caused a rapid melt in this area.

  7. Distinguishing Ice from Snow for Melt Modeling Using Daily Observations from MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittger, K.; Brodzik, M. J.; Racoviteanu, A.; Barrett, A. P.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Painter, T. H.; Armstrong, R. L.; Burgess, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    In Earth's mountainous regions, melt from both seasonal snow and glacier ice contributes to streamflow. Few in-situ observations exist that can help distinguish between the two components of melt, particularly across large mountain ranges. In this study, we analyze daily time series of MODIS data products to distinguish ice from snow as the seasonal snowpack recedes revealing firn and glacier ice surfaces. We run a temperature index melt model for the Hunza, a sub-basin of the Upper Indus basin using the MODIS data to discriminate between glacier ice and snow and partition the corresponding streamflow. During the ablation period, this high elevation mid-latitude snowpack receives intense incoming solar radiation resulting in snow grain growth and surface albedo decreases. To explore snow grain growth, we use estimates of grain size from both the MODIS Snow Covered Area and Grain Size Model (MODSCAG) and MODIS Dust Radiative Forcing in Snow (MODDRFS). To explore albedo reduction we use 2 standard albedo products from MODIS, the Terra Daily Snow Cover algorithm (MOD10A1) and Surface Reflectance BRDF/Albedo (MOD43). We use a threshold on the grain size and albedo products to discriminate ice from snow. We test the ability of the 4 MODIS products to discriminate snow from glacier ice using higher resolution data from the Landsat 8 sensor from July 5th and July 21st, 2013 for a subset of the study area in the Karakoram region of the Himalaya that includes the Yazghil and Hopper Glaciers that drain north and northeast in the Shimshall Valley, part of the Hunza River basin. Snow and glacier ice are mapped using band ratio techniques, and are then separated on the basis of broadband albedo values calculated from Landsat bands for comparison with MODIS-derived snow and glacier ice pixels. We run a temperature index melt model that uses gap filled snow covered area from MODSCAG and interpolated station temperature data for the Hunza River basin. The model outputs daily melt volume from three surface classifications: area of snow over land, snow over glacier ice, and exposed glacier ice. The partitioning is done using a combination of MODICE and 1 of 4 MODIS products. Melt from glacier ice accounts for 25% of the combined melt on average across the 4 MODIS products for the Hunza basin, with fluctuations based on the seasonal variability of snowfall.

  8. The impact of refreezing of melt ponds on Arctic sea ice thinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flocco, Daniela; Feltham, Daniel; Bailey, Eleanor; Schroeder, David

    2014-05-01

    The presence of melt ponds over the sea ice cover in the Arctic has a profound impact on the surface albedo inducing a positive feedback leading to sea ice thinning. At the end of summer the melt ponds, covering a large sea ice, start freezing and get trapped between the sea ice beneath and a thin surface layer of ice. The pond water also stores latent heat that is released as they freeze. Ponds trapped under a layer of refrozen ice have been observed in the Arctic and our model results, confirmed by observations, show that they are present for a few months after the formation of the initial ice lid. In this work we study the ice/water temperature profile in the trapped pond system and its evolution until the pond freezes and show the impact of the presence of a trapped pond on sea ice growth. We show a number of sensitivity studies assessing the impact of varying the model's meteorological inputs, sea ice parameters and ocean salinity.

  9. Calorimetric study of crystal growth of ice in hydrated methemoglobin and of redistribution of the water clusters formed on melting the ice.

    PubMed Central

    Sartor, G; Mayer, E

    1994-01-01

    Calorimetric studies of the melting patterns of ice in hydrated methemoglobin powders containing between 0.43 and 0.58 (g water)/(g protein), and of their dependence on annealing at subzero temperatures and on isothermal treatment at ambient temperature are reported. Cooling rates were varied between approximately 1500 and 5 K min-1 and heating rate was 30 K min-1. Recrystallization of ice during annealing is observed at T > 228 K. The melting patterns of annealed samples are characteristically different from those of unannealed samples by the shifting of the melting temperature of the recrystallized ice fraction to higher temperatures toward the value of "bulk" ice. The "large" ice crystals formed during recrystallization melt on heating into "large" clusters of water whose redistribution and apparent equilibration is followed as a function of time and/or temperature by comparison with melting endotherms. We have also studied the effect of cooling rate on the melting pattern of ice with a methemoglobin sample containing 0.50 (g water)/(g protein), and we surmise that for this hydration cooling at rates of > or = approximately 150 K min-1 preserves on the whole the distribution of water molecules present at ambient temperature. PMID:7819504

  10. Water isotopic ratios from a continuously melted ice core sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkinis, V.; Popp, T. J.; Blunier, T.; Bigler, M.; Schpbach, S.; Kettner, E.; Johnsen, S. J.

    2011-11-01

    A new technique for on-line high resolution isotopic analysis of liquid water, tailored for ice core studies is presented. We built an interface between a Wavelength Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer (WS-CRDS) purchased from Picarro Inc. and a Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) system. The system offers the possibility to perform simultaneuous water isotopic analysis of ?18O and ?D on a continuous stream of liquid water as generated from a continuously melted ice rod. Injection of sub ?l amounts of liquid water is achieved by pumping sample through a fused silica capillary and instantaneously vaporizing it with 100% efficiency in a~home made oven at a temperature of 170 C. A calibration procedure allows for proper reporting of the data on the VSMOW-SLAP scale. We apply the necessary corrections based on the assessed performance of the system regarding instrumental drifts and dependance on the water concentration in the optical cavity. The melt rates are monitored in order to assign a depth scale to the measured isotopic profiles. Application of spectral methods yields the combined uncertainty of the system at below 0.1 and 0.5 for ?18O and ?D, respectively. This performance is comparable to that achieved with mass spectrometry. Dispersion of the sample in the transfer lines limits the temporal resolution of the technique. In this work we investigate and assess these dispersion effects. By using an optimal filtering method we show how the measured profiles can be corrected for the smoothing effects resulting from the sample dispersion. Considering the significant advantages the technique offers, i.e. simultaneuous measurement of ?18O and ?D, potentially in combination with chemical components that are traditionally measured on CFA systems, notable reduction on analysis time and power consumption, we consider it as an alternative to traditional isotope ratio mass spectrometry with the possibility to be deployed for field ice core studies. We present data acquired in the field during the 2010 season as part of the NEEM deep ice core drilling project in North Greenland.

  11. Satellite gravity measurements confirm accelerated melting of Greenland ice sheet.

    PubMed

    Chen, J L; Wilson, C R; Tapley, B D

    2006-09-29

    Using time-variable gravity measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission, we estimate ice mass changes over Greenland during the period April 2002 to November 2005. After correcting for the effects of spatial filtering and limited resolution of GRACE data, the estimated total ice melting rate over Greenland is -239 +/- 23 cubic kilometers per year, mostly from East Greenland. This estimate agrees remarkably well with a recent assessment of -224 +/- 41 cubic kilometers per year, based on satellite radar interferometry data. GRACE estimates in southeast Greenland suggest accelerated melting since the summer of 2004, consistent with the latest remote sensing measurements. PMID:16902089

  12. Synoptic and mesoscale climate forcing on Antarctic ice shelf surface melt dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmosky, Christopher

    Given that the polar regions, especially the Antarctic Peninsula, have experienced one of the largest temperature increases on Earth over the last few decades, an understanding of Antarctic climate has become more urgent. Ice shelves themselves are located at the intersection of the atmosphere, hydrosphere and the cryosphere---the air-ice-ocean boundary, and are sensitive to changes in any of these media. In addition to being particularly sensitive to changes in climate, ice shelves play an important role in controlling the flow of glaciers into the ocean, which has important implications for sea level changes. In a warming world, an increased understanding of how climate change is affecting Antarctic ice shelves is valuable for assessing vulnerable regions of the Antarctic that may be prone to further instability. This work focuses on determining the underlying climatic processes controlling energy and mass balance responsible for driving melting over ice shelves. A novel melt-magnitude retrieval method is presented that uses Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived near-IR reflectance coupled with ice surface temperature as a proxy for surface melt magnitude. This method has a higher spatial resolution than passive microwave melt detection, has the added benefit of retrieving melt magnitude rather than a binary melt occurrence or non-occurrence, but has a lower temporal resolution than either passive-microwave or microwave-scatterometry melt detection. This limitation is a result of the opacity of cloud cover to both visible and IR radiation, requiring more satellite overpasses to obtain spatially contiguous imagery. This work also examines several weather variables associated with a large-extent, long-duration surface melt event on the Ross Ice Shelf. It is shown that cloudy conditions coupled with increased sensible and latent heat flux to the surface were present during the event, and these conditions are consistent with those that induce surface melting. Finally, an analysis of co-occurring climate conditions and surface melting over a recent 15-year time period (1987-2002) is presented. This analysis examines surface melt extent in three regions: Ross Ice Shelf, Larsen Ice Shelf and the Amundsen-Bellingshausen Region. Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) are used to categorize weather patterns for each December and January day during the study period, and the average surface melt extent for each SOM pattern is computed. These values are compared to average December and January surface melt extents for each region to determine the SOM patterns associated with significantly greater or significantly less melt than the 15-year average. Over the Ross region, increases in sensible and latent heat fluxes are associated with greater surface melt extent, as is the presence of cyclonic circulation in the Ross Sea that drives mild maritime air poleward. In the Larsen and Amundsen-Bellingshausen regions, radiation fluxes appear to be more closely associated with surface melt extent, although the relationship for the geographically heterogeneous Amundsen-Bellingshausen region is less clear. These results can guide future mesoscale modeling studies that will be able to more precisely determine the causative role of each atmospheric variable in generating surface melting on West Antarctic ice shelves.

  13. Modeling the heating and melting of sea ice through light absorption by microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeebe, Richard E.; Eicken, Hajo; Robinson, Dale H.; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Dieckmann, Gerhard S.

    1996-01-01

    In sea ice of polar regions, high concentrations of microalgae are observed during the spring. Algal standing stocks may attain peak values of over 300 mg chl a m-2 in the congelation ice habitat. As of yet, the effect of additional heating of sea ice through conversion of solar radiation into heat by algae has not been investigated in detail. Local effects, such as a decrease in albedo, increasing melt rates, and a decrease of the physical strength of ice sheets may occur. To investigate the effects of microalgae on the thermal regime of sea ice, a time-dependent, one-dimensional thermodynamic model of sea ice was coupled to a bio-optical model. A spectral one-stream model was employed to determine spectral attenuation by snow, sea ice, and microalgae. Beer's law was assumed to hold for every wavelength. Energy absorption was obtained by calculating the divergence of irradiance in every layer of the model (?z = 1 cm). Changes in sea ice temperature profiles were calculated by solving the heat conduction equation with a finite difference scheme. Model results indicate that when algal biomass is concentrated at the bottom of congelation ice, melting of ice resulting from the additional conversion of solar radiation into heat may effectively destroy the algal habitat, thereby releasing algal biomass into the water column. An algal layer located in the top of the ice sheet induced a significant increase in sea ice temperature (?T > 0.3 K) for snow depths less than 5 cm and algal standing stocks higher than 150 mg chl a m-2. Furthermore, under these conditions, brine volume increased by 21% from 181 to 219 parts per thousand, which decreased the physical strength of the ice.

  14. A new approach to the study of interfacial melting of ice: infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadtchenko, V.; Ewing, G. E.

    2003-01-01

    Faraday observed in 1850 "that a particle of water which could retain the liquid state whilst touching ice on only one side, could not retain the liquid if it were touched by ice on both" (M. Faraday, Royal Institution Discourse, June 7, 1850; Experimental Researches in Chemistry and Physics (Taylor and Francis, New York, 1991)). Thus began the concept of interfacial melting, and the presence of a liquid water film on the surface of ice at temperatures of 0degreesC and below. Over the past few decades, there have been a number of measurements of interfacial melting. In some studies, the thickness of the thin film, variously called the quasi-liquid layer (QLL), liquid-like layer, surface melting layer, or premelting layer, has been determined. The results of these measurements demonstrate a striking variation depending on the experimental method and the nature of the ice samples. For example, at -0.1degreesC, the thickness values range over two orders of magnitude from around 1 to 100 nm. Although the disagreement can be partially explained by the differences in ice samples, the experimental techniques employed in measurements of the QLL thickness are based on different physical principals, and involve a web of assumptions for their deconvolution. We describe here the technique of infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy that has been directed to the study of interfacial melting of ice for the first time.

  15. Warm-air advection, air mass transformation and fog causes rapid ice melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjernström, Michael; Shupe, Matthew D.; Brooks, Ian M.; Persson, P. Ola G.; Prytherch, John; Salisbury, Dominic J.; Sedlar, Joseph; Achtert, Peggy; Brooks, Barbara J.; Johnston, Paul E.; Sotiropoulou, Georgia; Wolfe, Dan

    2015-07-01

    Direct observations during intense warm-air advection over the East Siberian Sea reveal a period of rapid sea-ice melt. A semistationary, high-pressure system north of the Bering Strait forced northward advection of warm, moist air from the continent. Air-mass transformation over melting sea ice formed a strong, surface-based temperature inversion in which dense fog formed. This induced a positive net longwave radiation at the surface while reducing net solar radiation only marginally; the inversion also resulted in downward turbulent heat flux. The sum of these processes enhanced the surface energy flux by an average of ~15 W m-2 for a week. Satellite images before and after the episode show sea-ice concentrations decreasing from > 90% to ~50% over a large area affected by the air-mass transformation. We argue that this rapid melt was triggered by the increased heat flux from the atmosphere due to the warm-air advection.

  16. Divergent trajectories of Antarctic ice shelf surface melt under 21st century climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trusel, L. D.; Frey, K. E.; Das, S. B.; Kuipers Munneke, P.; van Meijgaard, E.

    2014-12-01

    Antarctic ice shelves represent a critical interface between continental ice masses and the surrounding ocean. Breakup events of several ice shelves in recent decades have been linked to an increase in intense surface melting, and have in turn lead to cascading effects including accelerated glacier discharge into the ocean. In this study, we utilized sophisticated regional and global climate models (GCMs) to assess potential future surface melt trajectories across Antarctica under two climate scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). RACMO2.1, a polar-adapted regional atmospheric climate model, was forced by the ERA-Interim reanalysis (1980-2010) and by two GCMs, EC-EARTH and HadGEM2-ES (2007-2100). Using RACMO2.1, we observed an exponential growth function well represents the relationship between ice shelf surface meltwater production and mean summer (DJF) 2-meter air temperature (t2m). We employed this melt-t2m relationship to project melt using t2m output from an ensemble of five CMIP5-based GCMs incorporating the NCAR Community Land Model 4 (CLM4), following spatial downscaling and bias correction using t2m from ERA-Interim-forced RACMO2.1. Our resulting GCM-derived melt projections provide an independent and methodologically unique perspective into potential future melt pathways, complementary to those derived from RACMO2.1. Most notably, both RACMO2.1 and the CMIP5 ensemble reveal divergent trajectories of meltwater production beyond 2050 under the two climate scenarios. For many ice shelves in RCP4.5, meltwater production through 2100 remains at levels comparable to present. Conversely, under RCP8.5 all methods indicate non-linear melt intensification, resulting in a four-fold increase in the Antarctic-wide meltwater volume by the end of the 21st century. For some ice shelves, including Larsen C and Wilkins (Antarctic Peninsula), and Shackleton and West (Wilkes Land), spatially averaged end-of-century meltwater production within RCP8.5 approaches or surpasses levels historically associated with collapse of Antarctic Peninsula ice shelves (~600 mm w.e. a-1). While many factors influence ice shelf stability, these projections indicate a strong sensitivity of ice shelf melting to future climate pathways with potentially profound effects on future ice shelf stability.

  17. Sea ice melting in the marginal ice zone.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Josberger, E.G.

    1983-01-01

    The heat and salt flux boundary conditions together with the freezing curve relationship are a necessary component of any ice- sea water thermodynamic model. A neutral two-layer oceanic planetary boundary layer model that incorporates these boundary conditions is used. The results are discussed. -from Author

  18. Simulating Ice Particle Melting using Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Pelissier, Craig

    2015-04-01

    To measure precipitation from space requires an accurate estimation of the collective scattering properties of particles suspended in a precipitating column. It is well known that the complicated and typically unknowable shapes of the solid precipitation particles cause much uncertainty in the retrievals involving such particles. This remote-sensing problem becomes even more difficult with the "melting layer" containing partially melted ice particles, where both the geometric shape and liquid-solid fraction of the hydrometeors are variables.. For the scattering properties of these particles depend not only on their shapes, but also their melt-water fraction,and the spatial distribution of liquid and ice within. To obtain an accurate estimation thus requires a set of "realistic" particle geometries and a method to determine the melt-water distribution at various stages in the melting process. Once this is achieved, a suitable method can be used to compute the scattering properties. In previous work, the growth of a set of astoundingly realistic ice particles has been simulated using the "Snowfake" algorithm of Gravner and Griffeath. To simulate the melting process of these particles, the method of Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is used. SPH is a mesh-less particle-based approach where kinematic and thermal dynamics is controlled entirely through two-body interactions between neighboring SPH particles. An important property of SPH is that the interaction at boundaries between air/ice/water is implicitly taken care of. This is crucial for this work since those boundaries are complex and vary throughout the melting process. We present the SPH implementation and a simulation, using highly parallel Graphic Processing Units (GPUs), with ~1 million SPH particles to represent one of the generated ice particle geometries. We plan to use this method, especially its parallelized version, to simulate the melting of all the "Snowfake" particles (~10,000 of them) in our collection, to form the basis for the construction of an extensive scattering database of the melting particles. Such a database will be invaluable to the characterization of uncertainty for precipitation retrievals.

  19. Antarctic ice-sheet loss driven by basal melting of ice shelves.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, H D; Ligtenberg, S R M; Fricker, H A; Vaughan, D G; van den Broeke, M R; Padman, L

    2012-04-26

    Accurate prediction of global sea-level rise requires that we understand the cause of recent, widespread and intensifying glacier acceleration along Antarctic ice-sheet coastal margins. Atmospheric and oceanic forcing have the potential to reduce the thickness and extent of floating ice shelves, potentially limiting their ability to buttress the flow of grounded tributary glaciers. Indeed, recent ice-shelf collapse led to retreat and acceleration of several glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula. But the extent and magnitude of ice-shelf thickness change, the underlying causes of such change, and its link to glacier flow rate are so poorly understood that its future impact on the ice sheets cannot yet be predicted. Here we use satellite laser altimetry and modelling of the surface firn layer to reveal the circum-Antarctic pattern of ice-shelf thinning through increased basal melt. We deduce that this increased melt is the primary control of Antarctic ice-sheet loss, through a reduction in buttressing of the adjacent ice sheet leading to accelerated glacier flow. The highest thinning rates occur where warm water at depth can access thick ice shelves via submarine troughs crossing the continental shelf. Wind forcing could explain the dominant patterns of both basal melting and the surface melting and collapse of Antarctic ice shelves, through ocean upwelling in the Amundsen and Bellingshausen seas, and atmospheric warming on the Antarctic Peninsula. This implies that climate forcing through changing winds influences Antarctic ice-sheet mass balance, and hence global sea level, on annual to decadal timescales. PMID:22538614

  20. A meteorological experiment in the melting zone of the Greenland ice sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Oerlemans, J. ); Vugts, H.F. )

    1993-03-01

    Preliminary results are described from a glaciometeorological experiment carried out in the margin (melting zone) of the Greenland ice sheet in the summers of 1990 and 1991. This work was initiated within the framework of a Dutch research program on land ice and sea level change. Seven meteostations were operated along a transect running from the tundra well onto the ice sheet. At the ice edge, humidity, temperature, and wind profiles were obtained with a tethered balloon. On the ice sheet, 90 km from the edge, a boundary-layer research unit, including a sound detecting and ranging system (SODAR) and a radio acoustic sounding system (RASS), was established. Although focusing on the relation between surface energy balance, glacier mass balance, and ice flow, the experiment has also delivered a unique dataset on the dynamics of the atmospheric boundary layer around the warm tundra-cold ice sheet transition. Unexpected behavior was found for the surface albedo during the melt season. Lowest values are not found close to the ice edge, which is usual for glaciers, but higher on the ice sheet. Meltwater accumulation due to inefficient surface drainage was found to be the cause for this. The wind regime is dominated by katabatic flow from the ice sheet. The katabatic layer is typically 100-200 m thick. Close to the ice edge, the flow exhibits a very regular daily rhythm, with maximum wind speed in the afternoon. Farther on the ice sheet, the regime changes, and wind speed reaches maximum values in late night/early morning.

  1. When ice meets water: Sub-aqueous melt and its relevance in various settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truffer, M.; Motyka, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    The largest glacier changes are primarily observed in settings where ice flows into a proglacial water body. However, the responses to this interaction are not uniform. Rapidly retreating glaciers can occur in close vicinity to advancing ones. Calving styles and glacier morphologies vary greatly as well. Temperate lake-calving glaciers frequently exhibit floating tongues; but this is rarely observed on temperate tidewater glaciers. Calving styles range from mostly sub-aerial calving to full-thickness calving to slow detachment of large ice bergs. In addition to the more obvious mechanical calving, glaciers lose mass at their termini through sub-aqueous melting. Melt rates of submerged ice have been shown to vary over several orders of magnitudes, and can range up to several meters per day. This large range is a consequence of different proglacial water temperatures, and of different modes of water transport. Water convection in proglacial water bodies can be driven by winds and tides, but subglacial water discharge is commonly the strongest and most variable driver. Here we attempt to relate the variability of forcings and melt rates to the various morphologies and calving styles of different water-terminating glaciers. The highest melt rates are observed at low-latitude tidewater glaciers, where ocean water can be warm (7 - 10 deg C) and subglacial discharge high. In such settings, sub-aqueous melt can reach the same magnitude as ice flux delivered to the terminus and it can control ice terminus position. Polar tidewater glaciers, such as those in Greenland, often exhibit floating tongues. Although melt rates are likely much lower, they can have a large effect under a floating tongue because of the much larger exposure of ice to water. Changes in melt rates can therefore affect the stability of such floating tongues. Low melt rates occur at some ice shelves at high latitudes, where the temperature and freshwater forcings are small. This situation can also occur at temperate lake-calving glaciers, which often flow into lakes of near freezing temperatures. Due to the very small density differences between subglacial discharge and ambient lake water, convection below the floating tongue is minor or non-existent.. This is in great contrast to fresh water entering a saline environment.

  2. Update on the Greenland Ice Sheet Melt Extent: 1979-1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdalati, Waleed; Steffen, Konrad

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of melt extent on the Greenland ice sheet is updated to span the time period 1979-1999 is examined along with its spatial and temporal variability using passive microwave satellite data. In order to acquire the full record, the issue of continuity between previous passive microwave sensors (SMMR, SSM/I F-8, and SSM/I F-11), and the most recent SSM/I F-13 sensor is addressed. The F-13 Cross-polarized gradient ratio (XPGR) melt-classification threshold is determined to be -0.0154. Results show that for the 21-year record, an increasing melt trend of nearly 1 %/yr is observed, and this trend is driven by conditions on in the western portion of the ice sheet, rather than the east, where melt appears to have decreased slightly. Moreover, the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 is likely to have had some impact the melt, but not as much as previously suspected. The 1992 melt anomaly is 1.7 standard deviations from the mean. Finally, the relationship between coastal temperatures and melt extent suggest an increase in surface runoff contribution to sea level of 0.31 mm/yr for a 1 C temperature rise.

  3. Melting by temperature-modulated calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Wunderlich, B.; Okazaki, Iwao; Ishikiriyama, Kazuhiko; Boller, A. |

    1997-09-01

    Well-crystallized macromolecules melt irreversibly due to the need of molecular nucleation, while small molecules melt reversibly as long as crystal nuclei are present to assist crystallization. Furthermore, imperfect crystals of low-molar-mass polymers may have a sufficiently small region of metastability between crystallization and melting to show a reversing heat-flow component due to melting of poor crystals followed by crystallization of imperfect crystals which have insufficient time to perfect before the modulation switches to heating and melts the imperfect crystals. Many metals, in turn. melt sharply and reversibly as long as nuclei remain after melting for subsequent crystallization during the cooling cycle. Their analysis is complicated, however, due to thermal conductivity limitations of the calorimeters. Polymers of sufficiently high molar mass, finally, show a small amount of reversible. local melting that may be linked to partial melting of individual molecules. Experiments by temperature-modulated calorimetry and model calculations are presented. The samples measured included poly(ethylene terephthalate)s, poly(ethylene oxide)s, and indium. Two unsolved problems that arose from this research involve the origin of a high, seemingly stable, reversible heat capacity of polymers in the melting region, and a smoothing of melting and crystallization into a close-to-elliptical Lissajous figure in a heat-flow versus sample-temperature plot.

  4. Melting and Freezing of Ice in Relation to Iron Oxidation of Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hruba, J.; Kletetschka, G.

    2015-07-01

    Meteorites discovered in the Antarctic ice sheet are better preserved than specimens elsewhere as the ice protects them. But ice or snow adhering to their surfaces may melt or sublimate directly on them, which may cause their oxidation.

  5. Enhanced Sea Ice Concentration and Ice Temperature Algorithms for AMSR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.; Manning, Will; Gersten, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Accurate quantification of sea ice concentration and ice temperature from satellite passive microwave data is important because they provide the only long term, spatially detailed and consistent data set needed to study the climatology of the polar regions. Sea ice concentration data are used to derive large-scale daily ice extents that are utilized in trend analysis of the global sea ice cover. They are also used to quantify the amount of open water and thin ice in polynya and divergence regions which together with ice temperatures are in turn needed to estimate vertical heat and salinity fluxes in these regions. Sea ice concentrations have been derived from the NASA Team and Bootstrap algorithms while a separate technique for deriving ice temperature has been reported. An integrated technique that will utilizes most of the channels of AMSR (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer) has been developed. The technique uses data from the 6 GHz and 37 GHz channels at vertical polarization obtain an initial estimate of sea ice concentration and ice temperature. The derived ice temperature is then utilized to estimate the emissivities for the corresponding observations at all the other channels. A procedure for calculating the ice concentration similar to the Bootstrap technique is then used but with variables being emissivities instead of brightness temperatures to minimizes errors associated with spatial changes in ice temperatures within the ice pack. Comparative studies of ice concentration results with those from other algorithms, including the original Bootstrap algorithm and those from high resolution satellite visible and infrared data will be presented. Also, results from a simulation study that demonstrates the effectiveness of the technique in correcting for spatial variations in ice temperatures will be shown. The ice temperature results are likewise compared with satellite infrared and buoy data with the latter adjusted to account for the effects of the snow cover.

  6. Interactions between wind-blown snow redistribution and melt ponds in a coupled ocean-sea ice model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecomte, Olivier; Fichefet, Thierry; Flocco, Daniela; Schroeder, David; Vancoppenolle, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Introducing a parameterization of the interactions between wind-driven snow depth changes and melt pond evolution allows us to improve large scale models. In this paper we have implemented an explicit melt pond scheme and, for the first time, a wind dependant snow redistribution model and new snow thermophysics into a coupled ocean-sea ice model. The comparison of long-term mean statistics of melt pond fractions against observations demonstrates realistic melt pond cover on average over Arctic sea ice, but a clear underestimation of the pond coverage on the multi-year ice (MYI) of the western Arctic Ocean. The latter shortcoming originates from the concealing effect of persistent snow on forming ponds, impeding their growth. Analyzing a second simulation with intensified snow drift enables the identification of two distinct modes of sensitivity in the melt pond formation process. First, the larger proportion of wind-transported snow that is lost in leads directly curtails the late spring snow volume on sea ice and facilitates the early development of melt ponds on MYI. In contrast, a combination of higher air temperatures and thinner snow prior to the onset of melting sometimes make the snow cover switch to a regime where it melts entirely and rapidly. In the latter situation, seemingly more frequent on first-year ice (FYI), a smaller snow volume directly relates to a reduced melt pond cover. Notwithstanding, changes in snow and water accumulation on seasonal sea ice is naturally limited, which lessens the impacts of wind-blown snow redistribution on FYI, as compared to those on MYI. At the basin scale, the overall increased melt pond cover results in decreased ice volume via the ice-albedo feedback in summer, which is experienced almost exclusively by MYI.

  7. Observation of melt onset on multiyear Arctic sea ice using the ERS 1 synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winebrenner, D. P.; Nelson, E. D.; Colony, R.; West, R. D.

    1994-01-01

    We present nearly coincident observations of backscattering from the Earth Remote-Sensing Satellite (ERS) 1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and of near-surface temperature from six drifting buoys in the Beaufort Sea, showing that the onset of melting in snow on multiyear sea ice is clearly detectable in the SAR data. Melt onset is marked by a clean, steep decrease in the backscattering cross section of multiyear ice at 5.3 GHz and VV polarization. We investigate the scattering physics responsible for the signature change and find that the cross section decrease is due solely to the appearance of liquid water in the snow cover overlying the ice. A thin layer of moist snow is sufficient to cause the observed decrease. We present a prototype algorithm to estimate the date of melt onset using the ERS 1 SAR and apply the algorithm first to the SAR data for which we have corresponding buoy temperatures. The melt onset dates estimated by the SAR algorithm agree with those obtained independently from the temperature data to within 4 days or less, with the exception of one case in which temperatures oscillated about 0 C for several weeks. Lastly, we apply the algorithm to the entire ERS 1 SAR data record acquired by the Alaska SAR Facility for the Beaufort Sea north of 73 deg N during the spring of 1992, to produce a map of the dates of melt onset over an area roughly 1000 km on a side. The progression of melt onset is primarily poleward but shows a weak meridional dependence at latitudes of approximately 76 deg-77 deg N. Melting begins in the southern part of the study region on June 13 and by June 20 has progressed to the northermost part of the region.

  8. Experimental validation of a numerical model for an internal melt ice-on-coil thermal storage tank

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, J.H.M.; Krarti, M.

    1997-12-31

    An internal melt ice-on-coil thermal storage tank was instrumented and tested over various inlet conditions of secondary fluid temperature and flow rate in a full-scale heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) laboratory. Five charging/discharging cycle tests were performed. The measured data for one typical charging/discharging cycle were used to validate a numerical model developed for analyzing internal melt ice-on-coil ice storage tanks. The validation analysis was based on the secondary fluid temperature leaving the tank, the secondary fluid heat transfer rates, the inventory of ice, the temperature of the secondary fluid at four representative locations along the coil, the temperature of the water and the ice at three representative locations inside the tank, and secondary fluid pressure drop through the tank. In general, good agreement was found between the predicted and the measured data.

  9. The response of grounded ice to ocean temperature forcing in a coupled ice sheet-ice shelf-ocean cavity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, D. N.; Little, C. M.; Sergienko, O. V.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2010-12-01

    Ice shelves provide a pathway for the heat content of the ocean to influence continental ice sheets. Changes in the rate or location of basal melting can alter their geometry and effect changes in stress conditions at the grounding line, leading to a grounded ice response. Recent observations of ice streams and ice shelves in the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica have been consistent with this story. On the other hand, ice dynamics in the grounding zone control flux into the shelf and thus ice shelf geometry, which has a strong influence on the circulation in the cavity beneath the shelf. Thus the coupling between the two systems, ocean and ice sheet-ice shelf, can be quite strong. We examine the response of the ice sheet-ice shelf-ocean cavity system to changes in ocean temperature using a recently developed coupled model. The coupled model consists a 3-D ocean model (GFDL's Generalized Ocean Layered Dynamics model, or GOLD) to a two-dimensional ice sheet-ice shelf model (Goldberg et al, 2009), and allows for changing cavity geometry and a migrating grounding line. Steady states of the coupled system are found even under considerable forcing. The ice shelf morphology and basal melt rate patterns of the steady states exhibit detailed structure, and furthermore seem to be unique and robust. The relationship between temperature forcing and area-averaged melt rate is influenced by the response of ice shelf morphology to thermal forcing, and is found to be sublinear in the range of forcing considered. However, results suggest that area-averaged melt rate is not the best predictor of overall system response, as grounding line stability depends on local aspects of the basal melt field. Goldberg, D N, D M Holland and C G Schoof, 2009. Grounding line movement and ice shelf buttressing in marine ice sheets, Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surfaces, 114, F04026.

  10. Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves.

    PubMed

    Depoorter, M A; Bamber, J L; Griggs, J A; Lenaerts, J T M; Ligtenberg, S R M; van den Broeke, M R; Moholdt, G

    2013-10-01

    Iceberg calving has been assumed to be the dominant cause of mass loss for the Antarctic ice sheet, with previous estimates of the calving flux exceeding 2,000?gigatonnes per year. More recently, the importance of melting by the ocean has been demonstrated close to the grounding line and near the calving front. So far, however, no study has reliably quantified the calving flux and the basal mass balance (the balance between accretion and ablation at the ice-shelf base) for the whole of Antarctica. The distribution of fresh water in the Southern Ocean and its partitioning between the liquid and solid phases is therefore poorly constrained. Here we estimate the mass balance components for all ice shelves in Antarctica, using satellite measurements of calving flux and grounding-line flux, modelled ice-shelf snow accumulation rates and a regional scaling that accounts for unsurveyed areas. We obtain a total calving flux of 1,321??144?gigatonnes per year and a total basal mass balance of -1,454??174?gigatonnes per year. This means that about half of the ice-sheet surface mass gain is lost through oceanic erosion before reaching the ice front, and the calving flux is about 34 per cent less than previous estimates derived from iceberg tracking. In addition, the fraction of mass loss due to basal processes varies from about 10 to 90 per cent between ice shelves. We find a significant positive correlation between basal mass loss and surface elevation change for ice shelves experiencing surface lowering and enhanced discharge. We suggest that basal mass loss is a valuable metric for predicting future ice-shelf vulnerability to oceanic forcing. PMID:24037377

  11. Isotope thermometry in melt-affected ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, T.; Marshall, S. J.; Sharp, M. J.

    2011-06-01

    A statistically significant relationship is observed between stable water isotopes (?18O) and melt amounts in a melt-affected firn core (SSummit) taken from the Prince of Wales Icefield, Ellesmere Island, Canada. By contrast, a low-melt firn core taken from a higher-elevation, higher-latitude location on the same icefield shows no relationship between these variables. We interpret this as evidence for meltwater-induced isotopic enrichment at SSummit. A percent melt-based correction slope is applied to isotopic values from SSummit. Uncorrected and corrected temperature records derived from the raw and corrected ?18O values are compared to bias-corrected temperature data from the NCEP Reanalysis. Improvements are observed in the isotopic reconstruction of SSummit annual precipitation-weighted temperatures when we correct for meltwater enrichment, with a reduction from +0.6C to 0.0C in the mean annual error and a decrease in root-mean-square error from 1.8C to 1.6C. The correction factor appears to overcorrect isotopic modification during high melt years such as 1999, during which SSummit experienced nearly 70% more melt than the average from 1975 to 2000. Excluding 1999 data from the correction analysis results in a slight reduction in mean absolute error from 1.4C to 1.3C. These results suggest that melt-induced isotopic modification cannot be corrected in very high melt years.

  12. Sea ice melting increase in the eastern Barents Sea during the last ca. 500 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueda, G.; Rosell-Mel, A.; Mass, G.; Polyak, L.

    2012-04-01

    Climate conditions in the Arctic have changed considerably in the last decades. Sea ice cover is declining, temperatures are rising and the latest projections point to an ice free Arctic ocean at around 2040. To understand better climatic processes on such a sensitive and climatically significant region on the globe it is necessary to gain knowledge on the drivers of climate over time. Here we show a reconstruction of past sea ice and sea surface temperature (SST) variations in the eastern Barents Sea from sediment core PL96-126 (73 37.5' N, 50 43.0' E; 270m water depth) that spans the last ca. 4.400 years (Voronina et al. 2001). To achieve this goal, we used a recently developed biomarker based on highly branched isoprenoid lipid (IP25) synthesized by sea ice diatoms (Belt et al. 2007) to infer variations in past sea ice cover, together with the concentration of alkenones - algae synthesized lipids - from which we also estimated past SST (UK37' index) and fresh water mass variation (%C37:4). At lower resolution, we also analyzed the distributions of terrigenous lipids to obtain information on the origin of the organic matter, and finally the glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) which give an estimate of past sea surface temperature (TEX86) and air temperature (MBT/CBT indices). Three climatically distinct periods can be distinguished in the sediment record under study. A period from ca. 4.4 to 2.5 Kyr BP, had a generally stable sea ice cover and relatively short ice melting season, as inferred from the low IP25 and algal lipids concentrations, together with cold and freshened surface water. From ca. 2.5 to 1 Kyr BP there was a transition period with rather unstable conditions characterized by fluctuations in the biomarker indices. From ca. 1 Kyr BP until present, our data indicate a gradual increase in ice melting that accelerated during the last ca. 0.5 Kyr BP. This is in agreement with a previous reconstruction (Vare et al. 2010) suggesting a reduced sea ice cover for the last centuries. In contrast, a reconstruction for the last 7 Kyr BP from the central Canadian Arctic Archipelago (Belt et al. 2010) interpreted an increase in IP25 flux for the last 0.8 Kyr as higher sea ice occurrence. Here we interpret our IP25 data as suggested by Mller et al. (2011). The recent increase in IP25 represents an acceleration in ice melting during the last 500 years in the Barents Sea.

  13. Radar measurements of melt zones on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jezek, Kenneth C.; Gogineni, Prasad; Shanableh, M.

    1994-01-01

    Surface-based microwave radar measurements were performed at a location on the western flank of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Here, firn metamorphasis is dominated by seasonal melt, which leads to marked contrasts in the vertical structure of winter and summer firn. This snow regime is also one of the brightest radar targets on Earth with an average backscatter coefficient of 0 dB at 5.3 GHz and an incidence angle of 25 deg. By combining detailed observations of firn physical properties with ranging radar measurements we find that the glaciological mechanism associated with this strong electromagnetic response is summer ice lens formation within the previous winter's snow pack. This observation has important implications for monitoring and understanding changes in ice sheet volume using spaceborne microwave sensors.

  14. High geothermal heat flow, Basal melt, and the origin of rapid ice flow in central Greenland.

    PubMed

    Fahnestock, M; Abdalati, W; Joughin, I; Brozena, J; Gogineni, P

    2001-12-14

    Age-depth relations from internal layering reveal a large region of rapid basal melting in Greenland. Melt is localized at the onset of rapid ice flow in the large ice stream that drains north off the summit dome and other areas in the northeast quadrant of the ice sheet. Locally, high melt rates indicate geothermal fluxes 15 to 30 times continental background. The southern limit of melt coincides with magnetic anomalies and topography that suggest a volcanic origin. PMID:11743197

  15. ITRF2008, Glacial Isostatic Adjustment and Recent Ice Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metivier, Laurent; Collilieux, Xavier; Altamimi, Zuheir

    2013-04-01

    We investigate what information station vertical velocities of the ITRF2008 (GPS stations) provide on global deformations of the Earth and by extension on Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) and Recent Ice Melting (RIM) processes. We infer degree-2 spherical harmonic coefficients of the Earth figure change and the J2 gravity rate (J?2), which we compare with different GIA models based on ICE5G/ICE4G ice history. Our best solution shows a ?J2 to be close to zero. Because ITRF2008 has been constructed using GPS data younger than 20 years, our results are consistent with recent studies that propose a large J?2 change in the 1990s due to recent ice melting. It tends to favor models based on VM2 viscosity profile such as Peltier's or the GRACE Tellus GIA models (Peltier, 2004; Paulson et al., 2007). However, the spherical harmonic coefficients that are directly impacted by the GIA rotational feedback confirm with a good precision recent results from GRACE mission that initiated a debate on GIA rotational feedback. We find a coefficient consistent with most models but more than 7 times smaller than coefficients in Peltier's model. Two explanations are possible: (1) if the model of Peltier's IC5G/VM2 were to be correct, then the strong rotational feedback in the model must be counteracted by a strong rotational feedback in the opposite direction generated by current ice loss, (2) if the Tellus model were to be correct, therefore GIA and RIM separately induce negligible rotational feedbacks. Both answers are quite extreme and call for more investigation on GIA modeling and rotational feedback.

  16. Testing alternative parameterizations of lateral melting and upward basal heat flux in a thermodynamic sea ice model

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, L.D.D. )

    1990-05-15

    A zonally averaged, physically based sea ice model is coupled to an energy balance climate model with prescribed observed atmospheric temperatures and used to investigate the sea ice model sensitivity to alternative parameterizations of (1) the upward heat flux F{sub b} to the ice base, and (2) lateral melting of ice from open water. The parameterizations tested here are taken from the climate and sea ice modeling literature. The different parameterizations for each of these processes can lead to dramatically different results in simulated sea ice area, sea ice thickness, or both. Parameterizing F{sub b} by prescribing (or computing) an upward heat flux at the mixed layer base and either constraining the subice mixed layer temperature to equal the freezing point of seawater or parameterizing F{sub b} as a function of subice mixed layer temperature has the advantage of incorporating the effects on heat fluxes to the ice base of both convective overturning and meridional oceanic heat flux convergence. Parameterizing lateral melting as a function of lead temperature T{sub lead}, rather than making it depend on {partial derivative}T{sub lead}/{partial derivative}t, has relatively little impact on simulated winter ice extent, and no impact on summer ice extent.

  17. Surface melt-induced acceleration of Greenland ice-sheet flow.

    PubMed

    Zwally, H Jay; Abdalati, Waleed; Herring, Tom; Larson, Kristine; Saba, Jack; Steffen, Konrad

    2002-07-12

    Ice flow at a location in the equilibrium zone of the west-central Greenland Ice Sheet accelerates above the midwinter average rate during periods of summer melting. The near coincidence of the ice acceleration with the duration of surface melting, followed by deceleration after the melting ceases, indicates that glacial sliding is enhanced by rapid migration of surface meltwater to the ice-bedrock interface. Interannual variations in the ice acceleration are correlated with variations in the intensity of the surface melting, with larger increases accompanying higher amounts of summer melting. The indicated coupling between surface melting and ice-sheet flow provides a mechanism for rapid, large-scale, dynamic responses of ice sheets to climate warming. PMID:12052902

  18. Arctic sea ice melt in summer 2007: Surface and bottom ice ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perovich, D. K.; Richter-Menge, J. A.; Elder, B. C.; Claffey, K. J.

    2007-12-01

    Satellite observations indicate a record minimum in Arctic sea ice extent in September 2007, with a particularly large retreat in the East Siberian, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas. Insights on the nature of this retreat, and of the summer melt season, can be gleaned from 7 autonomous buoys that were monitoring the thermodynamic mass balance of the ice during the melt season. The buoys were located in the Beaufort Sea and near the North Pole. The total surface ablation over the summer was 0.5 m to 0.7 m at more southern buoys and 0.1 m to 0.3 m for the buoys further north. These values are comparable to observations made in other years. Bottom albation in the Beaufort Sea was extreme, ranging from 0.6 m to 1.2 m. At one site (75 N, 141 W), ice that was 3.2 m thick in May, had completely melted by the end of August, with a 8:5 ratio of bottom to surface melting. There was an anomalously large amount of bottom ablation for this region, requiring an average ocean heat flux of approximately 70 W m-2 from mid-June through August. These observations suggest that the ocean heat flux played a significant role in the dramatic reduction of the 2007 summer sea ice extent in the Beaufort Sea region.

  19. Impact-Induced Melting of Near-Surface Water Ice on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Sarah T.; Ahrens, Thomas J.; O'Keefe, John D.

    2004-07-01

    All fresh and many older Martian craters with diameters greater than a few km are surrounded by ejecta blankets which appear fluidized, with morphologies believed to form by entrainment of liquid water. We present cratering simulations investigating the outcome of 10 km s-1 impacts onto models of the Martian crust, a mixture of basalt and ice at an average temperature of 200 K. Because of the strong impedance mismatch between basalt and ice, the peak shock pressure and the pressure decay profiles are sensitive to the mixture composition of the surface. For typical impact events, about 50% of the excavated ground ice is melted by the impact-induced shock. Pre-existing subsurface liquid water is not required to form observed fluidized ejecta morphologies, and the presence of rampart craters on different age terranes is a useful probe of ground ice on Mars over time.

  20. Passive microwave-derived snow melt regions on the Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdalati, Waleed; Steffen, Konrad

    1995-01-01

    By comparing data from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) to field data, a melt threshold of the cross-polarized gradient ratio (XPGR), which is a normalized difference between the 19 GHz horizontally-polarized and 37 GHz vertically polarized brightness temperatures, is determined. This threshold, XPGR = -0.025, is used to classify dry and wet snow. The annual areal extent of melt is mapped for the years 1988 through 1991, and inter-annual variations of melt extent are examined. The results show that the melt extent varied from a low of 38.3% of the ice sheet (1990) to a high of 41.7% (1991) during the years 1988-1991.

  1. Changes of CDW on the Amundsen Sea Shelf as a major cause for Ice Sheet melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Michael; Hellmer, Hartmut; Wisotzki, Andreas; Jacobs, Stan

    2010-05-01

    From February to March 2010 a joint geophysical and oceanographic German expedition with RV Polarstern into the Amundsen Sea will provide an important contribution to the long-term monitoring of CDW characteristics on the Amundsen Sea continental shelf, continuously conducted by colleagues in the US (LDEO) and UK (BAS), as part of the international ASEP (Amundsen Sea Embayment Project). For the Amundsen Sea it is entirely plausible that ocean influence on the WAIS (West-Antarctic Ice Sheet) could increase from changes in ocean temperature, heat transport and vertical thermohaline structure, in response to altered atmospheric forcing, sea ice production, and ice shelf morphology. Previous work has revealed that the warm,' salty CDW gains access to the continental shelf near the sea floor, particularly in the eastern sector, and ponds in glacially scoured troughs that extend deep beneath the ice shelves. The oceanic heat drives basal ice shelf melting rates orders of magnitude faster than beneath the largest ice shelves. Substantial thermohaline variability is apparent in some of the repeated late summer observations, but little is yet known about the seasonal cycle or interannual variability. Heat transport from the continental shelf break to the ice shelf caverns may be influenced by mixing over the rough bottom topography, tidal currents, winds, sea ice production, icebergs, and meltwater impacts on the pycnocline. The talk will focus on first results form CTD measurements conducted during the just finished cruise and the comparison with previous hydrographic data.

  2. Field-calibrated model of melt, refreezing, and runoff for polar ice caps: Application to Devon Ice Cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Richard M.; Mair, Douglas W. F.; Nienow, Peter W.; Bell, Christina; Burgess, David O.; Wright, Andrew P.

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the controls on the amount of surface meltwater that refreezes, rather than becoming runoff, over polar ice masses is necessary for modeling their surface mass balance and ultimately for predicting their future contributions to global sea level change. We present a modified version of a physically based model that includes an energy balance routine and explicit calculation of near-surface meltwater refreezing capacity, to simulate the evolution of near-surface density and temperature profiles across Devon Ice Cap in Arctic Canada. Uniquely, our model is initiated and calibrated using high spatial resolution measurements of snow and firn densities across almost the entire elevation range of the ice cap for the summer of 2004 and subsequently validated with the same type of measurements obtained during the very different meteorological conditions of summer 2006. The model captures the spatial variability across the transect in bulk snowpack properties although it slightly underestimates the flow of meltwater into the firn of previous years. The percentage of meltwater that becomes runoff is similar in both years; however, the spatial pattern of this melt-runoff relationship is different in the 2 years. The model is found to be insensitive to variation in the depth of impermeable layers within the firn but is very sensitive to variation in air temperature, since the refreezing capacity of firn decreases with increasing temperature. We highlight that the sensitivity of the ice cap's surface mass balance to air temperature is itself dependent on air temperature.

  3. Recent Changes in Arctic Sea Ice Melt Onset, Freeze-Up, and Melt Season Length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markus, Thorsten; Stroeve, Julienne C.; Miller, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    In order to explore changes and trends in the timing of Arctic sea ice melt onset and freeze-up and therefore melt season length, we developed a method that obtains this information directly from satellite passive microwave data, creating a consistent data set from 1979 through present. We furthermore distinguish between early melt (the first day of the year when melt is detected) and the first day of continuous melt. A similar distinction is made for the freeze-up. Using this method we analyze trends in melt onset and freeze-up for 10 different Arctic regions. In all regions except for the Sea of Okhotsk, which shows a very slight and statistically insignificant positive trend (O.4 days/decade), trends in melt onset are negative, i.e. towards earlier melt. The trends range from -1.0day/decade for the Bering Sea to -7.3 days/decade for the East Greenland Sea. Except for the Sea of Okhotsk all areas also show a trend towards later autumn freeze onset. The Chukchi/Beaufort Seas and Laptev/East Siberian Seas observe the strongest trends with 7 days/decade. For the entire Arctic, the melt season length has increased by about 20 days over the last 30 years. Largest trends of over 1O days/decade are seen for Hudson Bay, the East Greenland Sea the Laptev/East Siberian Seas, and the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas. Those trends are statistically significant a1 the 99% level.

  4. Bacterial Communities of Surface Mixed Layer in the Pacific Sector of the Western Arctic Ocean during Sea-Ice Melting

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ho Kyung; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Ok-Sun; Lee, Bang Yong; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Hur, Hor-Gil; Lee, Yoo Kyung

    2014-01-01

    From July to August 2010, the IBRV ARAON journeyed to the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean to monitor bacterial variation in Arctic summer surface-waters, and temperature, salinity, fluorescence, and nutrient concentrations were determined during the ice-melting season. Among the measured physicochemical parameters, we observed a strong negative correlation between temperature and salinity, and consequently hypothesized that the melting ice decreased water salinity. The bacterial community compositions of 15 samples, includicng seawater, sea-ice, and melting pond water, were determined using a pyrosequencing approach and were categorized into three habitats: (1) surface seawater, (2) ice core, and (3) melting pond. Analysis of these samples indicated the presence of local bacterial communities; a deduction that was further corroborated by the discovery of seawater- and ice-specific bacterial phylotypes. In all samples, the Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria taxa composed the majority of the bacterial communities. Among these, Alphaproteobacteria was the most abundant and present in all samples, and its variation differed among the habitats studied. Linear regression analysis suggested that changes in salinity could affect the relative proportion of Alphaproteobacteria in the surface water. In addition, the species-sorting model was applied to evaluate the population dynamics and environmental heterogeneity in the bacterial communities of surface mixed layer in the Arctic Ocean during sea-ice melting. PMID:24497990

  5. Bacterial communities of surface mixed layer in the Pacific sector of the western Arctic Ocean during sea-ice melting.

    PubMed

    Han, Dukki; Kang, Ilnam; Ha, Ho Kyung; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Ok-Sun; Lee, Bang Yong; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Hur, Hor-Gil; Lee, Yoo Kyung

    2014-01-01

    From July to August 2010, the IBRV ARAON journeyed to the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean to monitor bacterial variation in Arctic summer surface-waters, and temperature, salinity, fluorescence, and nutrient concentrations were determined during the ice-melting season. Among the measured physicochemical parameters, we observed a strong negative correlation between temperature and salinity, and consequently hypothesized that the melting ice decreased water salinity. The bacterial community compositions of 15 samples, includicng seawater, sea-ice, and melting pond water, were determined using a pyrosequencing approach and were categorized into three habitats: (1) surface seawater, (2) ice core, and (3) melting pond. Analysis of these samples indicated the presence of local bacterial communities; a deduction that was further corroborated by the discovery of seawater- and ice-specific bacterial phylotypes. In all samples, the Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria taxa composed the majority of the bacterial communities. Among these, Alphaproteobacteria was the most abundant and present in all samples, and its variation differed among the habitats studied. Linear regression analysis suggested that changes in salinity could affect the relative proportion of Alphaproteobacteria in the surface water. In addition, the species-sorting model was applied to evaluate the population dynamics and environmental heterogeneity in the bacterial communities of surface mixed layer in the Arctic Ocean during sea-ice melting. PMID:24497990

  6. Heat-transfer analysis of the basal melting of Antarctic ice shelves

    SciTech Connect

    Minale, M.; Astarita, G.

    1993-12-01

    Basal melting of Antarctic ice shelves is an important element in the overall balance of Antarctic ice. A heat-transfer model for the basal melting of the Drygalski Ice Tongue is presented. The model does not contain any adjustable parameter. The calculated basal melting rate agrees very well with the value estimated from an overall ice balance on the ice tongue. It is concluded that relatively simple concepts of transport phenomena may be used to model some important features of the dynamics of the Antarctic ice sheet.

  7. Temporal Changes in Spatial Distribution of Basal Melting and Freezing in the Catchment Areas of Whillans Ice Stream and Ice Stream C, West Antarctica: Interplay of Climatic Changes and Ice Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, S. W.; Tulaczyk, S.; Joughin, I.

    2002-12-01

    Basal thermal regimen of West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) plays the key role in determining the dynamics and stability of this ice sheet. Basal melt water lubricates the ice base allowing fast ice streaming while basal freeze-on increases basal resistance to ice flow. Within WAIS, basal melting is dominant in the interior, where geothermal heat is trapped underneath ~2-to-4-km-thick layer of ice. Basal freeze-on is dominant beneath the slow moving, ~1-km-thick interstream ridges separating fast-moving ice streams. There, conductive heat escape through exceeds the geothermal flux and basal frictional heating is low. Using a time-dependent basal energy balance model (Vogel et al., in press) we examined spatial and temporal distribution of basal melting and freezing in the catchment areas of Whillans Ice Stream and Ice Stream C since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ~20,000 years ago). Model results indicate that basal melting peaked despite lower surface temperatures during late LGM (~15,000), due to a thickened ice sheet (Steig et al., 2001). This widespread and abundant basal lubrication may have initiated the retreat and thinning of the ice sheet that continued through the Holocene. However, the ice-sheet thinning itself caused gradually a general decrease in basal melting rates in spite of higher Holocene surface temperatures. This reduction in basal water production may be responsible for the recent stoppage of Ice Stream C and slow down of the Whillans Ice Stream. Our modeling results indicate that WAIS is still adjusting to the significant climate warming that marked the end of the LGM and the beginning of Holocene. Only the thinnest portions of the Whillans Ice Stream and Ice Stream C (<1 km) might have adjusted enough to cause locally significant basal freeze-on and to, at least temporarily, slow the ice sheet decay (Joughin and Tulaczyk, 2002). Basal thermal regimen of the rest of WAIS is changing in such a way as to favor increased basal melting, and presumably further ice-sheet decay, in the near future (e.g., Engelhardt, pers. communication). Evaluation of near-future contribution of WAIS to sea-level changes has to take into account the delayed response of the ice sheet to the large global warming that took place at the LGM-Holocene boundary.

  8. Ross ice shelf cavity circulation, residence time, and melting: Results from a model of oceanic chlorofluorocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Tasha E.; Holland, David M.; Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2010-04-01

    Despite their harmful effects in the upper atmosphere, anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbons dissolved in seawater are extremely useful for studying ocean circulation and ventilation, particularly in remote locations. Because they behave as a passive tracer in seawater, and their atmospheric concentrations are well-mixed, well-known, and have changed over time, they are ideal for gaining insight into the oceanographic characteristics of the isolated cavities found under Antarctic ice shelves, where direct observations are difficult to obtain. Here we present results from a modeling study of air-sea chlorofluorocarbon exchange and ocean circulation in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. We compare our model estimates of oceanic CFC-12 concentrations along an ice shelf edge transect to field data collected during three cruises spanning 16 yr. Our model produces chlorofluorocarbon concentrations that are quite similar to those measured in the field, both in magnitude and distribution, showing high values near the surface, decreasing with depth, and increasing over time. After validating modeled circulation and air-sea gas exchange through comparison of modeled temperature, salinity, and chlorofluorocarbons with field data, we estimate that the residence time of water in the Ross Ice Shelf cavity is approximately 2.2 yr and that basal melt rates for the ice shelf average 10 cm yr -1. The model predicts a seasonal signature to basal melting, with highest melt rates in the spring and also the fall.

  9. Influence of NaCl on ice VI and ice VII melting curves up to 6 GPa, implications for large icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Journaux, B.; Daniel, I.; Caracas, R.; Montagnac, G.; Cardon, H.

    2013-09-01

    The influence of sodium chloride salt on the liquidus of ice VI and ice VII has been measured for concentrations ranging between 0.01 and 4 mol kg-1 NaCl. Dissolved NaCl significantly increases the melting pressure or decreases the melting temperature as a function of the salt concentration and induces a density crossover between ice VI and the brine. For NaCl concentrations higher than 2.5 mol kg-1 ice VI is more buoyant than the brine. The liquidus points are fitted to a second order polynomial law and a model is provided to predict the melting pressures of ice VI and ice VII (Pm,VI and Pm,VII), respectively as a function of temperature T (K) and NaCl concentration XNaCl (mol kg-1): Pm,VI(T,XNaCl)=9.27+0.996XNaCl-(6.9910-2+7.610-3XNaCl)T+(1.41410-4+1.54110-5XNaCl)T2 Pm,VII(T,XNaCl)=-0.133+0.122XNaCl-(1.2810-4+4.1710-4XNaCl)T+(1.8610-5+8.5610-7XNaCl)T2 The temperature of the triple point between ice VI, ice VII and the brine shifts of -7 K/XNaCl along the 2.17 GPa isobar. The consequences of potentially dissolved NaCl for the internal structure of water rich planetary bodies are discussed. The density crossover between ice VI and brines suggests that migration of brines through a deep ice VI layer is enhanced for high thermal profiles and is unlikely for colder thermal conditions. It also suggests that patches of brines may actually be gravitationally stable at the interface between the bedrock and a deep ice VI basal layer allowing for a potential new class of exobiological habitat.

  10. The pressure melting of ice due to an embedded cylinder

    SciTech Connect

    Tyvand, P.A.; Bejan, A.

    1992-05-01

    In this note the authors consider the motion of a cylinder through a block of ice. The cylinder is pushed laterally through the ice block. The ice melts over the leading portion of the cylinder, the water films acts as lubricant (flows around the cylinder), and refreezes over the trailing portion of the cylinder. A cross section through the embedded cylinder is shown. The same problem was solved first by Nye, who proceeded from the assumption that the thickness of the water proceeded from the assumption that the thickness of the water film is constant. The objective in this note is to present a general and formal treatment, in which the film thickness is allowed to vary around the cylinder. In this way they arrive not only at Nye's constant-thickness results but also at the limiting conditions under which those results are valid. The authors then extend the analysis to a cylinder with an elliptical cross section, and report also the shape of the cylindrical cable that moves through a block of ice.

  11. Flow of Ice near a Large Melt Channel in the Ross Ice Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, H.; Hindmarsh, R. C. A.; Koutnik, M. R.; Stevens, C.; Winberry, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    There is increasing evidence for the existence of large channels incised beneath ice shelves in West Antarctica. However, the genesis of these channels is still not clear. Measurements from the floating tongue of Pine Island Glacier show that sub-shelf channels formed by localized melting (Stanton et al., 2013); oceanographic models of flow in sub-ice-shelf cavities are capable of producing sub-shelf channels through non-linear feed-back mechanisms (Gladish et al. 2012; Sergienko, 2013). On the other hand, other evidence suggests that sub-shelf channels can initiate at locations where melt water beneath grounded ice crosses the grounding line (Le Brocq et al. 2013). Here we use ground-based radar to map a channel incised into the base of the Ross Ice Shelf proximal to the grounding zone of Beardmore Glacier, West Antarctica. Results show that in the grounding zone (ice thickness is 1150m), the channel is 100m deep and 0.5 km wide. On the shelf, the channel widens and deepens down stream; 8km down from the grounding line (ice thickness is 600-800 m), the channel is 200m deep and 1 km wide (see Figure); apparently in this case, the channel originates from beneath the grounded ice. Although there is some indication of radar-detected internal stratigraphy dipping toward the channels indicative of meltin, the pattern of the stratigraphy suggests significant accumulated strain (see Figure). Further, vertical strain-rates calculated from repeat measurements using phase-sensitive radar (pRES), show a more complex pattern over melt-channels than is usually assumed for ice shelves. Specifically, 57 of the 69 pRES measurements exhibit a pattern of compression in the upper 75% of the ice column and extension in the lower 25%. This observation is important because such a pattern affects the ratio of surface- to mean-velocity, which is usually assumed to be unity in shelf-mass balance calculations. FIGURE CAPTION: Unmigrated, across-channel radar profile 8km downstream from the grounding line. The vertical reflector at km-2 comes from a shot hole drilled for a seismic survey. Here, the shelf is generally ~800m thick, but at km-2 a channel that is 200m deep and 1km wide is incised into the base of the shelf. The off-axis reflectors below 800m indicate that the ice-ocean interface is rough.

  12. In situ analysis of Europa ices by short-range melting probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biele, J.; Ulamec, S.; Hilchenbach, M.; Kmle, N. I.

    2011-08-01

    A key aspect for understanding the astrobiological potential of planets and moons in the Solar system is the analysis of material embedded in or underneath icy layers on the surface. In particular in case of the icy crust of Jupiters moon Europa such investigation would be of greatest interest. For a Europa lander to be launched in the 2020-2030 timeframe, we propose to use a simplified instrumented melting probe which is able to access and sample depths of a few meters without the necessity of heavy and complicated drilling equipment.While melting probes have successfully been used for terrestrial applications, e.g. in Antarctic ice, their behavior in vacuum and at very low temperatures is different and theory needs confirmation by tests. In an earlier work, the planetary simulation chamber at DLR in Cologne has been used to perform a series of melting tests in cold (LN2-cooled) water ice samples. The feasibility of the method could be demonstrated and the energy demand for a space mission was estimated. A simplified melting probe to access the uppermost meters of Europa's crust appears to be feasible yet very demanding in terms of energy.The melting probe needs to be equipped with a suite of scientific instruments that are capable of determining the chemical and isotopic composition of the embedded or dissolved materials and which are indicative of organic material. An overview of potential instrumentation is given.

  13. Processes controlling surface, bottom and lateral melt of Arctic sea ice in a state of the art sea ice model.

    PubMed

    Tsamados, Michel; Feltham, Daniel; Petty, Alek; Schroeder, David; Flocco, Daniela

    2015-10-13

    We present a modelling study of processes controlling the summer melt of the Arctic sea ice cover. We perform a sensitivity study and focus our interest on the thermodynamics at the ice-atmosphere and ice-ocean interfaces. We use the Los Alamos community sea ice model CICE, and additionally implement and test three new parametrization schemes: (i) a prognostic mixed layer; (ii) a three equation boundary condition for the salt and heat flux at the ice-ocean interface; and (iii) a new lateral melt parametrization. Recent additions to the CICE model are also tested, including explicit melt ponds, a form drag parametrization and a halodynamic brine drainage scheme. The various sea ice parametrizations tested in this sensitivity study introduce a wide spread in the simulated sea ice characteristics. For each simulation, the total melt is decomposed into its surface, bottom and lateral melt components to assess the processes driving melt and how this varies regionally and temporally. Because this study quantifies the relative importance of several processes in driving the summer melt of sea ice, this work can serve as a guide for future research priorities. PMID:26347538

  14. Melting and refreezing beneath Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf (East Antarctica) inferred from radar, GPS, and ice core data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattyn, F.; Matsuoka, K.; Callens, D.; Conway, H.; Depoorter, M.; Docquier, D.; Hubbard, B.; Samyn, D.; Tison, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Ice-penetrating radar profiles across the grounding line of a small ice-rise promontory located within the Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf in the Dronning Maud Land sector of East Antarctica show downward dipping englacial radar-detected reflectors. Model results indicate that this reflector pattern is best fit by including basal melting of at least 15 cm a-1. This rate of melting is low compared with rates observed on larger ice shelves in both West and East Antarctica. Ice cores extracted from a rift system close to the ice-rise promontory show several meters of marine ice accreted beneath the shelf. These observations of low rates of basal melting, and limited distribution of accreted marine ice suggest that either Antarctic surface water may reach the ice shelf base or that circulation beneath the shelf is likely dominated by the production of high salinity shelf water rather than the incursion of circumpolar deep water, implying a weak sub-shelf circulation system here. Many of the ice shelves located along the coast of Dronning Maud Land are, like Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, characterized by frequent ice rises and promontories. Therefore, it is highly likely that these are also of shallow bathymetry and are subject to similarly weak side-shelf basal melting and refreezing.

  15. Attribution of Recent Arctic Sea Ice Melting to Human Influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Joonghyeok; Min, Seung-Ki

    2014-05-01

    During recent three decades Arctic sea ice extent (SIE) has been decreasing with its rate accelerating. There have been, however, limited studies which have identified human influence on the Arctic sea ice using a formal detection approach. This study conducts an updated detection analysis of recent Arctic SIE during 1979-2012 by comparing observed changes with those from CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) multi-model simulations. We use the NSIDC (National Snow and Ice Data Center) sea ice index as observations. The simulated Arctic SIEs are calculated from available ensembles of CMIP5 multi-models which have been performed under natural plus anthropogenic forcing (ALL: historical combined with RCP4.5, 112 runs from 40 models), natural forcing only (NAT: historicalNat, 48 runs from 10 models) and greenhouse gas forcing only (GHG: historicalGHG, 35 runs from 9 models). Anthropogenic forcing (ANT) responses are estimated from differences between ALL and NAT. We apply an optimal fingerprinting method where observations are regressed onto model-simulated signals (multi-model means of ALL, NAT, and GHG). Here the internal variability noise is estimated from historical simulations after removing multi-model averages. The observations display decreasing trends across all months with stronger amplitude in summer than other seasons, which is reasonably reproduced by CMIP5 simulations. Results from one-signal analyses show that the ALL, ANT, and GHG signals are all detected when considering four months (Mar, Jun, Sep, and Dec) together and also from September to January when looking at individual months. Results from two-signal analyses show that ANT is separable from NAT and also that GHG is separable from other non-GHG forcings. Scaling factors of the detected ANT and GHG signals include unity, indicating that observed Arctic sea ice melting during the satellite period is largely attributable to human-induced increases in GHGs.

  16. Deterministic model for an internal melt ice-on-coil thermal storage tank

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, J.H.M.; Krarti, M.

    1997-12-31

    A deterministic numerical model, based on a quasi-steady-state approach, is developed for an internal melt ice-on-coil thermal storage tank with a built-in spiral coil tubing heat exchanger having a counterflow configuration and quiescent water around the coils. This model is able to simulate both charging and discharging modes, taking into account the overlapping phenomenon that occurs due to the superposition of the ice layers during freezing as well as the superposition of the water layers during melting. The developed model accounts for the cooldown of the water earlier during the charging period and the warm-up of the water later during the discharging period. The input parameters include the geometric dimensions of the tank, the secondary fluid temperature and its flow rate entering the tank, the number of segments along the coil, and the time step. The model determines the heat transfer rates, the inventory of the ice, and other output parameters such as temperatures and ice/water radius. This model can be used by manufacturers and engineers for design and simulation purposes.

  17. Modelling Antarctic ice shelf melting under LGM and doubled CO2 climate using ice shelf-ocean model and climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obase, T.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Kusahara, K.; Hasumi, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ice-ocean interaction is thought to be a responsible process on long-term Antarctic ice sheet variations, such as retreat of West Antarctic Ice Sheet during Eemian interglacial. Numerical simulation of Antarctic ice sheet require melt rate at ice shelf base as a boundary condition, but the relation between climate and melt rate is unclear. We calculate Antarctic ocean and basal melting of Antarctic ice shelves under Last Glacial Maximum(LGM) and doubled CO2(2xCO2) climate at equilibrium as well as present-day(CTL). We use circumpolar ice shelf-ocean general circulation model(OGCM, based on COCO) and outputs of climate model(MIROC). For the CTL case, we drive OGCM with surface atmospheric climatology based on reanalysis(OMIP) and present-day ocean temperature and salinity for restoration at northern boundary, placed at around latitude of 40S. The surface boundary conditions for LGM(or 2xCO2) is computed from the outputs from climate model simulations. Annual mean marine 2m air temperature anomaly averaged for south of 60S is -7.3? for LGM and +6.0? for 2xCO2. LGM (or 2xCO2) anomalies of surface atmospheric variables are superimposed to OMIP to make LGM (or 2xCO2) atmospheric boundary conditions. We modify the ocean temperature and salinity column for restoration at northern boundary by superimposing anomaly to present-day ocean climatology. Present-day geometry of ice sheet and ice shelf is used in all experiments to test the sensitivity to climate. We show that melting amount of Antarctic ice shelves show 23% reduction for the LGM and 3.5 times increase for the 2xCO2 compared to the CTL case. We perform a series of additional sensitivity experiments to investigate the role of surface change in sea surface atmospheric variables (temperature, wind) and ocean structures in the Southern Ocean on melt rate of ice shelves. Water mass, ocean circulation and sea ice production on continental shelf are analyzed.

  18. Observing the Arctic Ocean under melting ice - the UNDER-ICE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagen, Hanne; Ullgren, Jenny; Geyer, Florian; Bergh, Jon; Hamre, Torill; Sandven, Stein; Beszczynska-Mller, Agnieszka; Falck, Eva; Gammelsrd, Tor; Worcester, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The sea ice cover of the Arctic Ocean is gradually diminishing in area and thickness. The variability of the ice cover is determined by heat exchange with both the atmosphere and the ocean. A cold water layer with a strong salinity gradient insulates the sea ice from below, preventing direct contact with the underlying warm Atlantic water. Changes in water column stratification might therefore lead to faster erosion of the ice. As the ice recedes, larger areas of surface water are open to wind mixing; the effect this might have on the water column structure is not yet clear. The heat content in the Arctic strongly depends on heat transport from other oceans. The Fram Strait is a crucial pathway for the exchange between the Arctic and the Atlantic Ocean. Two processes of importance for the Arctic heat and freshwater budget and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation take place here: poleward heat transport by the West Spitzbergen Current and freshwater export by the East Greenland Current. A new project, Arctic Ocean under Melting Ice (UNDER-ICE), aims to improve our understanding of the ocean circulation, water mass distribution, fluxes, and mixing processes, sea ice processes, and net community primary production in ice-covered areas and the marginal ice zone in the Fram Strait and northward towards the Gakkel Ridge. The interdisciplinary project brings together ocean acoustics, physical oceanography, marine biology, and sea ice research. A new programme of observations, integrated with satellite data and state-of-the-art numerical models, will be started in order to improve the estimates of heat, mass, and freshwater transport between the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean. On this poster we present the UNDER-ICE project, funded by the Research Council of Norway and GDF Suez E&P Norge AS for the years 2014-2017, and place it in context of the legacy of earlier projects in the area, such as ACOBAR. A mooring array for acoustic tomography combined with "standard" oceanographic measurements of current velocity and water mass properties will be deployed in the Fram Strait in September 2014. The dynamic processes in the marginal ice zone, in particular internal waves, mesoscale eddies, and front instabilities, will be explored using model experiments and high temporal resolution measurements. The results of the observational data analysis and model simulations will be integrated and compared with global climate model simulations (CMIP5). Satellite-derived data products will also be included in the synthesis. As part of the UNDER-ICE project, a web portal for Arctic data will be developed, that will offer open access to metadata and observational and model data products to support studies of Arctic climate and climate change.

  19. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Growth melt asymmetry in ice crystals under the influence of spruce budworm antifreeze protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pertaya, Natalya; Celik, Yeliz; Di Prinzio, Carlos L.; Wettlaufer, J. S.; Davies, Peter L.; Braslavsky, Ido

    2007-10-01

    Here we describe studies of the crystallization behavior of ice in an aqueous solution of spruce budworm antifreeze protein (sbwAFP) at atmospheric pressure. SbwAFP is an ice binding protein with high thermal hysteresis activity, which helps protect Choristoneura fumiferana (spruce budworm) larvae from freezing as they overwinter in the spruce and fir forests of the north eastern United States and Canada. Different types of ice binding proteins have been found in many other species. They have a wide range of applications in cryomedicine and cryopreservation, as well as the potential to protect plants and vegetables from frost damage through genetic engineering. However, there is much to learn regarding the mechanism of action of ice binding proteins. In our experiments, a solution containing sbwAFP was rapidly frozen and then melted back, thereby allowing us to produce small single crystals. These maintained their hexagonal shapes during cooling within the thermal hysteresis gap. Melt-growth-melt sequences in low concentrations of sbwAFP reveal the same shape transitions as are found in pure ice crystals at low temperature (-22 °C) and high pressure (2000 bar) (Cahoon et al 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 255502) while both growth and melt shapes display faceted hexagonal morphology, they are rotated 30° relative to one another. Moreover, the initial melt shape and orientation is recovered in the sequence. To visualize the binding of sbwAFP to ice, we labeled the antifreeze protein with enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and observed the sbwAFP-GFP molecules directly on ice crystals using confocal microscopy. When cooling the ice crystals, facets form on the six primary prism planes (slowest growing planes) that are evenly decorated with sbwAFP-GFP. During melting, apparent facets form on secondary prism planes (fastest melting planes), leaving residual sbwAFP at the six corners of the hexagon. Thus, the same general growth-melt behavior of an apparently rotated crystal that is observed in pure ice under high pressure and low temperature is reproduced in ice under the influence of sbwAFP at ambient pressure and temperatures near 0 °C.

  20. Simulation of the melt season using a resolved sea ice model with snow cover and melt ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skyllingstad, Eric D.; Shell, Karen M.; Collins, Lee; Polashenski, Chris

    2015-07-01

    A three-dimensional sea ice model is presented with resolved snow thickness variations and melt ponds. The model calculates heating from solar radiative transfer and simulates the formation and movement of brine/melt water through the ice system. Initialization for the model is based on observations of snow topography made during the summer melt seasons of 2009, 2010, and 2012 from a location off the coast of Barrow, AK. Experiments are conducted to examine the importance of snow properties and snow and ice thickness by comparing observed and modeled pond fraction and albedo. One key process simulated by the model is the formation of frozen layers in the ice as relatively warm fresh water grid cells freeze when cooled by adjacent, cold brine-filled grid cells. These layers prevent vertical drainage and lead to flooding of melt water commonly observed at the beginning of the melt season. Flooding persists until enough heat is absorbed to melt through the frozen layer. The resulting long-term melt pond coverage is sensitive to both the spatial variability of snow cover and the minimum snow depth. For thin snow cover, initial melting results in earlier, reduced flooding with a small change in pond fraction after drainage of the melt water. Deeper snow tends to generate a delayed, larger peak pond fraction before drainage.

  1. Combining Modis and Quikscat Data to Delineate Surface and Near-Surface Melt on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Nghiem, Son V.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Neumann, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Over the last two decades, increasing melt has been measured on the Greenland Ice Sheet, along with mass loss as determined from satellite data, Monitoring the state of the Greenland Ice Sheet becomes critical especially because it is actively losing mass, and the ice sheet has a sea-level rise potential of 7 in. However measurement of the extent of surface melt varies depending on the sensor used, whether it is passive or active microwave or visible or thermal infrared. We have used remote-sensing data products to study surface and near-surface melt characteristics of the Greenland Ice Sheet. We present a blended MODIS-QS melt daily product for 2007 [1]. The products, including Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily land-surface temperature (LST) and a special daily melt product derived from the QuikSCAT (QS) scatterometer [2,3] show consistency in delineating the melt boundaries on a daily basis in the 2007 melt season [I], though some differences are identified. An assessment of maximum melt area for the 2007 melt shows that the QSCAT product detects a greater amount of melt (862,769 square kilometers) than is detected by the MODIS LST product (766,184 square kilometers). The discrepancy is largely because the QS product can detect both surface and near-surface melt and the QS product captures melt if it occurred anytime during the day while the MODIS product is obtained from a point in time on a given day. However on a daily bases, other factors influence the measurement of melt extent. In this work we employ the digital-elevation model of Bamber et al. [4] along with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) data to study some areas and time periods in detail during the 2007 melt season. We focus on times in which the QS and MODIS LST products do not agree exactly. We use NCEP and elevation data to analyze the atmospheric factors forcing the melt process, to gain an improved understanding of the conditions that lead to melt and melt persistence, and our ability to capture surface melt accurately using MODIS and QS data.

  2. Environmental impact of melting buried ice blocks (North Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, F.; Slowinski, M. M.; Blaszkiewicz, M.; Brauer, A.; Noryskiewicz, B.; Tyszkowski, S.

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the research was to decipher the impacts of the role of dead ice melting on landscape evolution in the Lateglacial and early Holocene Central Europe. Here, we present the paleoecological results from the middle section of the Wda river which is located in northern Poland (Central Europe), on the outwash plain formed during the Pomeranian phase of the last (Vistulian) glacial period ca 16,000 14C yrs BP. The Wda river has a typical polygenetic valley in young glacial areas of the northern central European lowlands. We reconstructed environmental changes using biotic proxies (plant macrofossil and pollen analyses) and geomorphological investigations. In this study we focused on a short terrestrial sediment core (48 cm) representing four phases of landscape evolution: telmatic, lacustrine, lacustrine-fluvial and alluvial. Abrupt changes in lithology and sediment structures show rapid changes and threshold processes in environmental conditions. The AMS 14C dating of terrestrial plant remains reveals an age for the basal sediments of 11 223 23 cal yr BP and thus falls within the Preboreal biozone. Our results showed that existence of buried ice blocks in northern Poland even at the beginning of the Holocene is clear evidence that locally discontinuous permafrost still was present at that time. The results of our study prove a strong influence of melting buried ice blocks on the geomorphological development, hydrological changes in the catchment, and the biotic environment even in the early Holocene. The research was supported by the National Science Centre Poland (grants No. NN 306085037 and NCN 2011/01/B/ST10/07367). This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution (ICLEA) of the Helmholtz Association. Financial support by the COST Action ES0907 INTIMATE is gratefully acknowledged.

  3. Documenting Melting Features of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedesco, M.

    2011-12-01

    There is an increasing interest in studying the Greenland Ice Sheet, its hydrology and dynamics over the short term and longer term because of the potential impact of a warming Arctic. Major studies concern about whether increased surface melting will lead to changes in production of supraglacial lakes and subglacial water pressures and hence , potentially, rates of ice movement. In this talk I will show movies recorded over the past three years form fieldwork activities carried out over the West Greenland ice sheet. In particular, I will project and comment movies concerning surface streams and supraglacial lakes, as the one at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QbuFphwJn4c. I will discuss the importance of observing such phenomena and how the recorded videos can be used to summarize scientific studies and communicate the relevance of scientific findings. I will also show, for the first time, the video of the drainage of a supraglacial lake, an event during which a lake ~ 6 m deep and ~ 1 km drained in ~ 1.5 hours. This section of the movie is under development as video material was collected during our latest expedition in June 2011.

  4. The melting sea ice of Arctic polar cap in the summer solstice month and the role of ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Yi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic sea ice is becoming smaller and thinner than climatological standard normal and more fragmented in the early summer. We investigated the widely changing Arctic sea ice using the daily sea ice concentration data. Sea ice data is generated from brightness temperature data derived from the sensors: Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)-F13 Special Sensor Microwave/Imagers (SSM/Is), the DMSP-F17 Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) instrument on the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua satellite. We tried to figure out appearance of arctic sea ice melting region of polar cap from the data of passive microwave sensors. It is hard to explain polar sea ice melting only by atmosphere effects like surface air temperature or wind. Thus, our hypothesis explaining this phenomenon is that the heat from deep undersea in Arctic Ocean ridges and the hydrothermal vents might be contributing to the melting of Arctic sea ice.

  5. Southern Ocean warming and increased ice shelf basal melting in the 21st and 22nd centuries based on coupled ice-ocean finite-element modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermann, Ralph; Hellmer, Hartmut

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of the EU project Ice2sea we utilize a global finite element sea ice - ice shelf - ocean model (FESOM), focused on the Antarctic marginal seas, to assess projections of ice shelf basal melting in a warmer climate. Ice shelf - ocean interaction is described using a three-equation system with a diagnostic computation of temperature and salinity at the ice-ocean interface. A tetrahedral mesh with a minimum horizontal resolution of 4 minutes and hybrid vertical coordinates is used. Ice shelf draft, cavity geometry, and global ocean bathymetry have been derived from the RTopo-1 data set. The model is forced with the atmospheric output from two climate models: (1) the Hadley Centre Climate Model (HadCM3) and (2) Max Planck Institute's ECHAM5/MPI-OM coupled climate model. Data from their 20th-century simulations are used to evaluate the modeled present-day ocean state. Sea-ice coverage is largely realistic in both simulations. Modeled ice shelf basal melt rates compare well with observations in both cases, but are consistently smaller for ECHAM5/MPI-OM. Projections for future ice shelf basal melting are computed using atmospheric output for IPCC scenarios E1 and A1B. Trends in sea ice coverage depend on the scenario chosen but are largely consistent between the two forcing models. In contrast to this, variations of ocean heat content and ice shelf basal melting are only moderate in simulations forced with ECHAM5/MPI-OM data, while a substantial shift towards a warmer regime is found in experiments forced with HadCM3 output. A strong sensitivity to salinity distribution at the continental shelf break is found for the Weddell Sea, where in the HadCM3-A1B experiment warm water starts to pulse onto the southern continental shelf during the 21st century. As these pulses reach deep into the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf (FRIS) cavity, basal melting increases by a factor of three to six compared to the present value of about 100 Gt/yr. By the middle of the 22nd century, FRIS becomes the largest contributor to total ice shelf basal mass loss in this simulation.

  6. Processes and imagery of first-year fast sea ice during the melt season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, B.; Digby, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    In June and July 1982, a field program was conducted in the Canadian Arctic on Prince Patrick Island to study sea ice during the melt season with in situ measurements and microwave instrumentation operated near the surface and from aircraft. The objective of the program was to measure physical characteristics together with microwave backscatter and emission coefficients of sea ice during this major period of transition. The present paper is concerned with a study of both surface measurements and imagery of first-year fast ice during the melt season. The melting process observed in first-year fast ice was found to begin with the gradual reduction of the snow cover. For a two- to three-day period in this melt stage, a layer of superimposed ice nodules formed at the snow/ice interface as meltwater froze around ice and snow grains.

  7. Real-time Non-contact Millimeter Wave Characterization of Water-Freezing and Ice-Melting Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaram, S. K.; Woskov, Paul P.

    2008-11-12

    We applied millimeter wave radiometry for the first time to monitor water-freezing and ice-melting dynamics in real-time non-contact. The measurements were completed at a frequency of 137 GHz. Small amounts (about 2 mL) of freshwater or saltwater were frozen over a Peltier cooler and the freezing and melting sequence was recorded. Saltwater was prepared in the laboratory that contained 3.5% of table salt to simulate the ocean water. The dynamics of freezing-melting was observed by measuring the millimeter wave temperature as well as the changes in the ice or water surface reflectivity and position. This was repeated using large amounts of freshwater and saltwater (800 mL) mimicking glaciers. Millimeter wave surface level fluctuations indicated as the top surface melted, the light ice below floated up indicating lower surface temperature until the ice completely melted. Our results are useful for remote sensing and tracking temperature for potentially large-scale environmental applications, e.g., global warming.

  8. Spatial and temporal variability in snow melt onset over Arctic sea ice and associated atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobot, Sheldon Dean

    The snow melt onset date represents an important transitional point in the Arctic energy balance, when the surface albedo decreases rapidly and surface energy absorption increases rapidly in response to the appearance of liquid water. An improved understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of melt onset is valuable for climate change detection, climate simulations, and model validation in the Arctic region. Passive microwave satellite data are indispensable in this task because they are relatively unaffected by cloud cover, not reliant on solar illumination, and have relatively high repeat coverage capabilities. In this study, snow melt onset dates are derived for 1979-1998 using horizontal polarizations at 18 and 37 GHz from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and 19 and 37 GHz from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) sensors. Trends towards earlier snow melt onset occur from 1979-1998 throughout much of the western Arctic, including areas of the Laptev, East Siberian, and Beaufort Seas. Correlation and principal component analyses further suggest significant spatial variability exists in the melt onset dates between geographic areas located approximately 180 of longitude apart. The underlying cause of the variations in the snow melt onset date over sea ice is a combination of high-frequency synoptic events and the larger atmospheric patterns, described by teleconnection indices, within which they occur. For instance, day to day variations in near surface air temperature and surface longwave radiation flux over two case study regions related to the progression of melt onset. On an annual time scale, positive phases of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) are related to earlier than average melt onset dates in the Kara, Laptev, and East Siberian Seas, the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and western portions of the Arctic Ocean, but are related to delayed melt onset in Baffin Bay. Positive phases of the North Pacific (NP) pattern are also related to earlier than average melt onset in the East Siberian Sea, but delayed melt onset in the Laptev Sea and Arctic Ocean. Positive phases of the Pacific- North American (PNA) anomaly are associated with later than average melt onset in the East Siberian and Beaufort Seas, and earlier than average melt onset in Baffin Bay. Analysis of the 500hPa height patterns suggests a combination of abnormally low heights and thermal advection are associated with earlier than average melt onset.

  9. Modelling Feedbacks between Ocean Stratification, Atmospheric Forcing, Sea-Ice Growth, and Glacier Terminus Melting in Fjords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, A.

    2013-12-01

    In many locations, ice sheets discharge into the ocean via marine-terminating glaciers. This provides a coupling where the ice-sheet mass balance can respond to changing ocean forcing, which is of interest for predictions of sea level rise. Models and observations suggest that the melting of a marine glacier terminus depends critically on the ocean temperature and salinity stratification. However, there is uncertainty about which processes provide the dominant control on the ocean conditions in fjords. I develop a simplified conceptual model of a fjord circulation coupled to a melting glacier terminus. This provides a tool to assess the impact of a range of processes on glacial melting, including the inflow of ocean waters at the fjord mouth, the estuarine circulation of glacial meltwater, vertical mixing driven by atmospheric forcing, and sea ice formation. The model describes the seasonal evolution of vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and velocity in the fjord, using a horizontally-averaged finite volume method. The temperature and salinity stratification control the glacial melting rate via a meltwater plume rising along the glacier terminus, which in turn drives an estuarine-style circulation in the fjord interior. Further advective transport and vertical mixing are driven by atmospheric forcing, via winds and surface buoyancy fluxes. Finally, modelled sea ice growth enhances the buoyancy-driven mixing as a result of brine rejection from growing sea ice, but reduces the transmission of wind stresses through fast ice into the ocean. A scaling analysis reveals the relative significance of each of these processes for transport and mixing in the fjord over a range of forcing conditions. The model is applied to simulate the seasonal evolution of glacial melting for several case studies that are representative of Greenland fjords, and the inherent coupled feedback mechanisms are explored. If the ocean is weakly stratified at the fjord mouth, then vertical mixing plays a significant role in modulating both the fjord stratification, and the vertical distribution and magnitude of glacier terminus melting.

  10. Summer melt rates on Penny Ice Cap, Baffin Island: Past and recent trends and implications for regional climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdanowicz, Christian; Smetny-Sowa, Anna; Fisher, David; Schaffer, Nicole; Copland, Luke; Eley, Joe; Dupont, Florent

    2012-06-01

    At latitude 67N, Penny Ice Cap on Baffin Island is the southernmost large ice cap in the Canadian Arctic, yet its past and recent evolution is poorly documented. Here we present a synthesis of climatological observations, mass balance measurements and proxy climate data from cores drilled on the ice cap over the past six decades (1953 to 2011). We find that starting in the 1980s, Penny Ice Cap entered a phase of enhanced melt rates related to rising summer and winter air temperatures across the eastern Arctic. Presently, 70 to 100% (volume) of the annual accumulation at the ice cap summit is in the form of refrozen meltwater. Recent surface melt rates are found to be comparable to those last experienced more than 3000 years ago. Enhanced surface melt, water percolation and refreezing have led to a downward transfer of latent heat that raised the subsurface firn temperature by 10C (at 10 m depth) since the mid-1990s. This process may accelerate further mass loss of the ice cap by pre-conditioning the firn for the ensuing melt season. Recent warming in the Baffin region has been larger in winter but more regular in summer, and observations on Penny Ice Cap suggest that it was relatively uniform over the 2000-m altitude range of the ice cap. Our findings are consistent with trends in glacier mass loss in the Canadian High Arctic and regional sea-ice cover reduction, reinforcing the view that the Arctic appears to be reverting back to a thermal state not seen in millennia.

  11. Evaluation of Surface and Near-Surface Melt Characteristics on the Greenland Ice Sheet using MODIS and QuikSCAT Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Nghiem, Son V.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.

    2009-01-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet has been the focus of much attention recently because of increasing melt in response to regional climate warming. To improve our ability to measure surface melt, we use remote-sensing data products to study surface and near-surface melt characteristics of the Greenland Ice Sheet for the 2007 melt season when record melt extent and runoff occurred. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily land-surface temperature (LST), MODIS daily snow albedo, and a special diurnal melt product derived from QuikSCAT (QS) scatterometer data, are all effective in measuring the evolution of melt on the ice sheet. These daily products, produced from different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, are sensitive to different geophysical features, though QS- and MODIS-derived melt generally show excellent correspondence when surface melt is present on the ice sheet. Values derived from the daily MODIS snow albedo product drop in response to melt, and change with apparent grain-size changes. For the 2007 melt season, the QS and MODIS LST products detect 862,769 square kilometers and 766,184 square kilometers of melt, respectively. The QS product detects about 11% greater melt extent than is detected by the MODIS LST product probably because QS is more sensitive to surface melt, and can detect subsurface melt. The consistency of the response of the different products demonstrates unequivocally that physically-meaningful melt/freeze boundaries can be detected. We have demonstrated that these products, used together, can improve the precision in mapping surface and near-surface melt extent on the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  12. The effect of basal friction on melting and freezing in ice shelf-ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwyther, David E.; Galton-Fenzi, Benjamin K.; Dinniman, Michael S.; Roberts, Jason L.; Hunter, John R.

    2015-11-01

    The ocean is an important control on the mass budget of the Antarctic ice sheet, through basal melting and refreezing underneath the floating extensions of the ice sheet known as ice shelves. The effect of the ice surface roughness (basal roughness) on melting and refreezing is investigated with idealised ice shelf-ocean numerical simulations. Both "hot" ocean forcing (e.g. Pine Island Glacier; high basal melting) and "cold" ocean forcing (e.g. Amery Ice Shelf; low basal melting, stronger refreezing) environments are investigated. The interaction between the ocean and ice shelf is further explored by examining the contributions to melt from heat exchange across the ice-ocean interface and across the boundary layer-ocean interior, with a varying drag coefficient. Simulations show increasing drag strengthens melting. Refreezing increases with drag in the cold cavity environment, while in the hot cavity environment, refreezing is small in areal extent and decreases with drag. Furthermore, melting will likely be focussed where there are strong boundary layer currents, rather than at the deep grounding line. The magnitude of the thermal driving of the basal melt decreases with increasing drag, except for in cold cavity refreeze zones where it increases. The friction velocity, a function of the upper layer ocean velocity and the drag coefficient, monotonically increases with drag. We find friction-driven mixing into the boundary layer is important for representing the magnitude and distribution of refreezing and without this effect, refreezing is underestimated. Including a spatially- and temporally-varying basal roughness (that includes a more realistic, rougher refreezing drag coefficient) alters circulation patterns and heat and salt transport. This leads to increased refreezing, altered melt magnitude and distribution, and a pattern of altered vertical flow across the entire ice shelf. These results represent a summary of melting and freezing beneath ice shelves and strongly motivate the inclusion of appropriate vertical mixing schemes and basal roughness values that vary spatially and temporally in ocean models of ice shelf cavities.

  13. Freshwater - the key to melt pond formation atop first year sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polashenski, C.; Golden, K. M.; Skyllingstad, E. D.; Perovich, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    Melt pond formation atop Arctic sea ice is a primary control of shortwave energy balance and light availability for photosynthesis in the upper Arctic Ocean. The initial formation process of melt ponds on first year ice typically requires that melt water be retained on the surface of ice several to tens of centimeters above sea level for several days. Albedo feedbacks during this time period create below-sea-level depressions which remain ponds later in summer. Both theory and observations, however, show that sea ice is so highly porous and permeable prior to the formation of melt ponds that retention of water tens of centimeters above hydraulic equilibrium for multiple days should not be possible. Here we present results of percolation test experiments that identify the mechanism allowing above-sea level melt pond formation. The infiltration of fresh water from snowmelt into the pore structure of the ice is responsible for plugging the pores with fresh ice, sealing the ice against further water percolation, and allowing water to pool above freeboard. Fresh meltwater availability and desalination processes, therefore, exert considerable influence over the formation of melt ponds. The findings demonstrate another mechanism through which changes in snowfall on sea ice, already being observed, are likely to alter ice mass balance and highlight the importance of efforts to improve treatment of ice salinity in models.

  14. Variability of ice sheet thickness and water temperature in Arctic major rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PARK, H.; Yoshikawa, Y.; Oshima, K.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing river discharge to the Arctic Ocean is a very significant change in the Arctic system. Increase in surface temperature in the Arctic over the past decades was exceptionally higher in the history of arctic observations. The increased temperature resulted in changes in ice freezing and melting and water temperature in Arctic rivers. However, there are significant knowledge gaps in our understanding of the river-ice dynamics and river water temperature. Therefore, we assessed changes in ice sheet thickness, the timing of ice freezing and melting, and water temperature in Arctic major rivers during the period 1979-2009, based on observations and a hydrological model. The model can estimate ice thickness and water temperature using air temperature, snow depth, and river discharge. The calculated ice thickness and water temperature were compared with observations, showing generally significant correlations. The observed and calculated maximum ice thickness indicated decreasing trends at the outlet and inner points of rivers. The timing of ice breakup was also advanced. These changes were mostly significant during the recent three decades when the increase in air temperature was significant. The model also estimated increasing water temperatures, which is consistent with the observations. The warming of water temperature suggests influences on heat budget in the Arctic Ocean. This study validated the applicability for river-ice calculation of the hydrological model, and the model simulation provided useful information relating to the changing river-ice environments in the Arctic rivers.

  15. Drag Moderation by the Melting of an Ice Surface in Contact with Water.

    PubMed

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Chan, Derek Y C; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2015-07-24

    We report measurements of the effects of a melting ice surface on the hydrodynamic drag of ice-shell-metal-core spheres free falling in water at a Reynolds of number Re~210^{4}-310^{5} and demonstrate that the melting surface induces the early onset of the drag crisis, thus reducing the hydrodynamic drag by more than 50%. Direct visualization of the flow pattern demonstrates the key role of surface melting. Our observations support the hypothesis that the drag reduction is due to the disturbance of the viscous boundary layer by the mass transfer from the melting ice surface. PMID:26252689

  16. Drag Moderation by the Melting of an Ice Surface in Contact with Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakarelski, Ivan U.; Chan, Derek Y. C.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2015-07-01

    We report measurements of the effects of a melting ice surface on the hydrodynamic drag of ice-shell-metal-core spheres free falling in water at a Reynolds of number Re 2 104- 3 105 and demonstrate that the melting surface induces the early onset of the drag crisis, thus reducing the hydrodynamic drag by more than 50%. Direct visualization of the flow pattern demonstrates the key role of surface melting. Our observations support the hypothesis that the drag reduction is due to the disturbance of the viscous boundary layer by the mass transfer from the melting ice surface.

  17. Seasonal variation of ice melting on varying layers of debris of Lirung Glacier, Langtang Valley, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, M. B.; Kayastha, R. B.; Parajuli, A.; Mool, P. K.

    2015-05-01

    Glaciers in the Himalayan region are often covered by extensive debris cover in ablation areas, hence it is essential to assess the effect of debris on glacier ice melt. Seasonal melting of ice beneath different thicknesses of debris on Lirung Glacier in Langtang Valley, Nepal, was studied during three seasons of 2013-14. The melting rates of ice under 5 cm debris thickness are 3.52, 0.09, and 0.85 cm d-1 during the monsoon, winter and pre-monsoon season, respectively. Maximum melting is observed in dirty ice (0.3 cm debris thickness) and the rate decreases with the increase of debris thickness. The energy balance calculations on dirty ice and at 40 cm debris thickness show that the main energy source of ablation is net radiation. The major finding from this study is that the maximum melting occurs during the monsoon season than rest of the seasons.

  18. Apparatus for single ice crystal growth from the melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zepeda, Salvador; Nakatsubo, Shunichi; Furukawa, Yoshinori

    2009-11-01

    A crystal growth apparatus was designed and built to study the effect of growth modifiers, antifreeze proteins and antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs), on ice crystal growth kinetics and morphology. We used a capillary growth technique to obtain a single ice crystal with well-defined crystallographic orientation grown in AFGP solution. The basal plane was readily observed by rotation of the capillary. The main growth chamber is approximately a 0.8ml cylindrical volume. A triple window arrangement was used to minimize temperature gradients and allow for up to 10mm working distance objective lens. Temperature could be established to within ±10mK in as little as 3.5min and controlled to within ±2mK after 15min for at least 10h. The small volume growth chamber and fast equilibration times were necessary for parabolic flight microgravity experiments. The apparatus was designed for use with inverted and side mount configurations.

  19. Melt pond fraction and spectral sea ice albedo retrieval from MERIS data - Part 2: Case studies and trends of sea ice albedo and melt ponds in the Arctic for years 2002-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istomina, L.; Heygster, G.; Huntemann, M.; Marks, H.; Melsheimer, C.; Zege, E.; Malinka, A.; Prikhach, A.; Katsev, I.

    2015-08-01

    The spatial and temporal dynamics of melt ponds and sea ice albedo contain information on the current state and the trend of the climate of the Arctic region. This publication presents a study on melt pond fraction (MPF) and sea ice albedo spatial and temporal dynamics obtained with the Melt Pond Detection (MPD) retrieval scheme for the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) satellite data. This study compares sea ice albedo and MPF to surface air temperature reanalysis data, compares MPF retrieved from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and examines albedo and MPF trends. Weekly averages of MPF for 2007 and 2011 showed different MPF dynamics while summer sea ice minimum was similar for both years. The gridded MPF and albedo products compare well to independent reanalysis temperature data and show melt onset when the temperature gets above zero; however MPD shows an offset at low MPFs of about 10 % most probably due to unscreened high clouds. Weekly averaged trends show pronounced dynamics of both, MPF and albedo: a negative MPF trend in the East Siberian Sea and a positive MPF trend around the Queen Elizabeth Islands. The negative MPF trend appears due to a change of the absolute MPF value in its peak, whereas the positive MPF trend is created by the earlier melt onset, with the peak MPF values unchanged. The MPF dynamics in the East Siberian Sea could indicate a temporal change of ice type prevailing in the region, as opposed to the Queen Elizabeth Islands, where MPF dynamics react to an earlier seasonal onset of melt.

  20. When glaciers and ice sheets melt: consequences for planktonic organisms

    PubMed Central

    SOMMARUGA, RUBEN

    2016-01-01

    The current melting of glaciers and ice sheets is a consequence of climatic change and their turbid meltwaters are filling and enlarging many new proglacial and ice-contact lakes around the world, as well as affecting coastal areas. Paradoxically, very little is known on the ecology of turbid glacier-fed aquatic ecosystems even though they are at the origin of the most common type of lakes on Earth. Here, I discuss the consequences of those meltwaters for planktonic organisms. A remarkable characteristic of aquatic ecosystems receiving the discharge of meltwaters is their high content of mineral suspensoids, so-called glacial flour that poses a real challenge for filter-feeding planktonic taxa such as Daphnia and phagotrophic groups such as heterotrophic nanoflagellates. The planktonic food-web structure in highly turbid meltwater lakes seems to be truncated and microbially dominated. Low underwater light levels leads to unfavorable conditions for primary producers, but at the same time, cause less stress by UV radiation. Meltwaters are also a source of inorganic and organic nutrients that could stimulate secondary prokaryotic production and in some cases (e.g. in distal proglacial lakes) also phytoplankton primary production. How changes in turbidity and in other related environmental factors influence diversity, community composition and adaptation have only recently begun to be studied. Knowledge of the consequences of glacier retreat for glacier-fed lakes and coasts will be crucial to predict ecosystem trajectories regarding changes in biodiversity, biogeochemical cycles and function. PMID:26869738

  1. High basal melting forming a channel at the grounding line of Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Oliver J.; Fricker, Helen A.; Siegfried, Matthew R.; Christianson, Knut; Nicholls, Keith W.; Corr, Hugh F. J.; Catania, Ginny

    2016-01-01

    Antarctica's ice shelves are thinning at an increasing rate, affecting their buttressing ability. Channels in the ice shelf base unevenly distribute melting, and their evolution provides insight into changing subglacial and oceanic conditions. Here we used phase-sensitive radar measurements to estimate basal melt rates in a channel beneath the currently stable Ross Ice Shelf. Melt rates of 22.2 0.2 m a-1 (>2500% the overall background rate) were observed 1.7 km seaward of Mercer/Whillans Ice Stream grounding line, close to where subglacial water discharge is expected. Laser altimetry shows a corresponding, steadily deepening surface channel. Two relict channels to the north suggest recent subglacial drainage reorganization beneath Whillans Ice Stream approximately coincident with the shutdown of Kamb Ice Stream. This rapid channel formation implies that shifts in subglacial hydrology may impact ice shelf stability.

  2. Variability of Basal Melt Beneath the Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf, West Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, Robert; Vaughan, David G.; Vornberger, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Observations from satellite and airborne platforms are combined with model calculations to infer the nature and efficiency of basal melting of the Pine Island Glacier ice shelf, West Antarctica, by ocean waters. Satellite imagery shows surface features that suggest ice-shelf-wide changes to the ocean s influence on the ice shelf as the grounding line retreated. Longitudinal profiles of ice surface and bottom elevations are analyzed to reveal a spatially dependent pattern of basal melt with an annual melt flux of 40.5 Gt/a. One profile captures a persistent set of surface waves that correlates with quasi-annual variations of atmospheric forcing of Amundsen Sea circulation patterns, establishing a direct connection between atmospheric variability and sub-ice-shelf melting. Ice surface troughs are hydrostatically compensated by ice-bottom voids up to 150m deep. Voids form dynamically at the grounding line, triggered by enhanced melting when warmer-than-average water arrives. Subsequent enlargement of the voids is thermally inefficient (4% or less) compared with an overall melting efficiency beneath the ice shelf of 22%. Residual warm water is believed to cause three persistent polynyas at the ice-shelf front seen in Landsat imagery. Landsat thermal imagery confirms the occurrence of warm water at the same locations.

  3. Object-Based Aerial Photos Analysis for Arctic Sea Ice Melt Ponds and Pressure Ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, X.; Xie, H.; Ke, C.; Lei, R.

    2014-12-01

    High resolution aerial photographs can provide detailed distribution of sea ice features so as to extract physical parameters to refine, validate, and improve climate models. For example, melt ponds play an important role in Earth's radiation balance since they strongly absorb solar radiation rather than reflecting it as snow and ice do. Furthermore, no previous studies have ever considered shadow in sea ice detection, which is ubiquitous in the aerial photographs especially in multi-year ice regions and during late melting phase. Based on our previous study, an object-based classification scheme is used to extract sea ice features including melt ponds and shadow from 163 selected aerial photographs taken during the Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition (CHINARE 2010). The classification algorithm includes three major steps as follows. (1) Image segmentation groups the neighboring pixels into objects according to the similarity of spectral and texture information; (2) random forest ensemble classifier can distinguish the following objects: water, general submerged ice, shadow, and ice/snow; and (3) polygon neighbor analysis can further separate melt ponds from general submerged ice according to the spatial neighboring relationship. Finally, the shadows are used to estimate the sea ice ridge distribution based on local solar illumination geometry. Our results illustrate the spatial distribution and morphological characters of melt ponds and ridges in different latitudes of the Arctic Pacific sector. This method can be applied to massive photos and images taken in past years and future years, in deriving the detailed sea ice feature distribution and changes through years.

  4. Measurement of Latent Heat of Melting of Thermal Storage Materials for Dynamic Type Ice Thermal Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Hisashi; Okada, Masashi; Nakagawa, Shinji

    In order to measure the latent heat of melting of ice slurries with various solute concentrations, an adiabatic calorimeter was constructed. Ice slurries were made from each aqueous solution of ethanol, ethylene glycol and silane coupling agent. The latent heat of melting of ice made from tap water was measured with the present calorimeter and the uncertainty of the result was one percent. Ice slurries were made both by mixing ice particles made from water with each aqueous solution and by freezing each aqueous solution with stirring in a vessel. The latent heat of melting of these ice slurries was measured with various concentrations of solution. The latent heat of melting decreased as the solute concentration or the freezing point depression increased. The latent heat of ice slurries made from ethanol or ethylene glycol aqueous solution agreed with that of ice made from pure water known already. The latent heat of melting of ice slurries made from silane coupling agent aqueous solution got smaller than that of ice made from pure water as the freezing point depression increased.

  5. How long has the central-northern Greenland Ice Sheet been melting at the base?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogozhina, Irina; Petrunin, Alexey G.; Johnson, Jesse V.; Vaughan, Alan P. M.

    2014-05-01

    Ice-penetrating radar studies (Fahnestock et al., 2001) and the deep ice core project NGRIP (Anderson et al., 2004) have identified extensive areas of rapid basal melt under the central-northern Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS). Our new reconstruction of the lithosphere structure in Greenland reveal that strong anomalies in geothermal heat flux are responsible for much of the estimated ice loss through basal melt. We use our coupled lithosphere-GIS model to study the history of basal ice conditions since the Pliocene period and find that the anomalous heat flow has been maintaining basal ice melt throughout the history of Greenland glaciation. Persistence of basal melt water over the course of ~3.5 million years and periodic development of paleo ice streams originating at the anomaly have likely caused considerable erosion of the subglacial bedrock. The erosion is revealed by ice-penetrating radar measurements, and now exerts a geometric control on ice sheet streaming in the eroded region, and possibly the overall geometry of the GIS. Anderson, K. K., et al. (2004), High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period, Nature, 431(7005), 147-151 Fahnestock, M., W. Abdalati, I. Joughin, J. Brozena, and P. Gogineni (2001), High geothermal heat flow, basal melt, and the origin of rapid ice flow in central Greenland, Science, 294, 2338-2342

  6. The effect of salt on the melting of ice: A molecular dynamics simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun Soo; Yethiraj, Arun

    2008-09-01

    The effect of added salt (NaCl) on the melting of ice is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The equilibrium freezing point depression observed in the simulations is in good agreement with experimental data. The kinetic aspects of melting are investigated in terms of the exchange of water molecules between ice and the liquid phase. The ice/liquid equilibrium is a highly dynamic process with frequent exchange of water molecules between ice and the liquid phase. The balance is disturbed when ice melts and the melting proceeds in two stages; the inhibition of the association of water molecules to the ice surface at short times, followed by the increased dissociation of water molecules from the ice surface at longer times. We also find that Cl- ions penetrate more deeply into the interfacial region than Na+ ions during melting. This study provides an understanding of the kinetic aspects of melting that could be useful in other processes such as the inhibition of ice growth by antifreeze proteins.

  7. How will melting of ice affect volcanic hazards in the twenty-first century?

    PubMed

    Tuffen, Hugh

    2010-05-28

    Glaciers and ice sheets on many active volcanoes are rapidly receding. There is compelling evidence that melting of ice during the last deglaciation triggered a dramatic acceleration in volcanic activity. Will melting of ice this century, which is associated with climate change, similarly affect volcanic activity and associated hazards? This paper provides a critical overview of the evidence that current melting of ice will increase the frequency or size of hazardous volcanic eruptions. Many aspects of the link between ice recession and accelerated volcanic activity remain poorly understood. Key questions include how rapidly volcanic systems react to melting of ice, whether volcanoes are sensitive to small changes in ice thickness and how recession of ice affects the generation, storage and eruption of magma at stratovolcanoes. A greater frequency of collapse events at glaciated stratovolcanoes can be expected in the near future, and there is strong potential for positive feedbacks between melting of ice and enhanced volcanism. Nonetheless, much further research is required to remove current uncertainties about the implications of climate change for volcanic hazards in the twenty-first century. PMID:20403841

  8. The Moulin Explorer: A Novel Instrument to Study Greenland Ice Sheet Melt-Water Flow.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behar, A.; Wang, H.; Elliott, A.; O'Hern, S.; Martin, S.; Lutz, C.; Steffen, K.; McGrath, D.; Phillips, T.

    2008-12-01

    Recent data shows that the Greenland ice sheet has been melting at an accelerated rate over the past decade. This melt water flows from the surface of the glacier to the bedrock below by draining into tubular crevasses known as moulins. Some believe these pathways eventually converge to nearby lakes and possibly the ocean. The Moulin Explorer Probe has been developed to traverse autonomously through these moulins. It uses in-situ pressure, temperature, and three-axis accelerometer sensors to log data. At the end of its journey, the probe will surface and send GPS coordinates using an Iridium satellite tracker so it may be retrieved via helicopter or boat. The information gathered when retrieved can be used to map the pathways and water flow rate through the moulins. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory- California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. Support was provided by the NASA Earth Science, Cryosphere program

  9. A High Resolution Sea-Ice Model with Variable Snow Cover and Resolved Melt Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skyllingstad, E. D.; Shell, K. M.; Polashenski, C.

    2014-12-01

    A three-dimensional sea ice model is presented capable of resolving spatial snow depth variations and melt ponds over an O(100 m) area. The model calculates a surface heat budget and internal heating from solar radiative transfer, and simulates the formation and movement of brine/melt water through the ice/snow system. Initialization for the model is based on observations of snow topography made during the summer melt seasons of 2009, 2010, and 2012 from a location off the coast of Barrow, AK. Experiments are conducted that examine the melting period from the middle of May through June. Key processes simulated by the model are the flooding and drainage of melt water from snow that is commonly observed at the beginning of the melt season. Results indicate that resulting long-term melt pond coverage is sensitive to both the spatial variability of snow cover and the minimum snow depth. For thin snow cover, initial melting results in extensive flooding that limits pond formation after drainage of the melt water. Deeper snow tends to delay flooding of the ice surface, and can lead to more ponds after the surface drains. Simulated pond albedo tends to be too high in comparison with measurements, suggesting that the radiative transfer scheme is not properly calibrated for first year ice or that the role of sediments in the ice is underestimated. Nevertheless, predicted pond fraction time series are in good agreement with observations for each of the study years.

  10. Melt-induced speed-up of Greenland ice sheet offset by efficient subglacial drainage.

    PubMed

    Sundal, Aud Venke; Shepherd, Andrew; Nienow, Peter; Hanna, Edward; Palmer, Steven; Huybrechts, Philippe

    2011-01-27

    Fluctuations in surface melting are known to affect the speed of glaciers and ice sheets, but their impact on the Greenland ice sheet in a warming climate remains uncertain. Although some studies suggest that greater melting produces greater ice-sheet acceleration, others have identified a long-term decrease in Greenland's flow despite increased melting. Here we use satellite observations of ice motion recorded in a land-terminating sector of southwest Greenland to investigate the manner in which ice flow develops during years of markedly different melting. Although peak rates of ice speed-up are positively correlated with the degree of melting, mean summer flow rates are not, because glacier slowdown occurs, on average, when a critical run-off threshold of about 1.4?centimetres a day is exceeded. In contrast to the first half of summer, when flow is similar in all years, speed-up during the latter half is 62??16 per cent less in warmer years. Consequently, in warmer years, the period of fast ice flow is three times shorter and, overall, summer ice flow is slower. This behaviour is at odds with that expected from basal lubrication alone. Instead, it mirrors that of mountain glaciers, where melt-induced acceleration of flow ceases during years of high melting once subglacial drainage becomes efficient. A model of ice-sheet flow that captures switching between cavity and channel drainage modes is consistent with the run-off threshold, fast-flow periods, and later-summer speeds we have observed. Simulations of the Greenland ice-sheet flow under climate warming scenarios should account for the dynamic evolution of subglacial drainage; a simple model of basal lubrication alone misses key aspects of the ice sheet's response to climate warming. PMID:21270891

  11. Analysis of Summer 2002 Melt Extent on the Greenland Ice Sheet using MODIS and SSM/I Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Steffen, Konrad; Chien, Y. L.; Foster, James L.; Robinson, David A.; Riggs, George A.

    2004-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the summer of 2002 had the greatest area of snow melt extent on the Greenland ice sheet ever recorded using passive-microwave data. In this paper, we compare the 0 degree isotherm derived from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument, with Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I)-derived melt, at the time of the maximum melt extent in 2002. To validate the MODIS-derived land-surface temperatures (LSTs), we compared the MODIS LSTs with air temperatures from nine stations (using 11 different data points) and found that they agreed to within 2.3 plus or minus 2.09 C, with station temperatures consistently lower than the MODIS LSTs. According to the MODIS LST, the maximum surface melt extended to approximately 2300 m in southern Greenland; while the SSM/I measurements showed that the maximum melt extended to nearly 2700 m in southeastern Greenland. The MODIS and SSM/I data are complementary in providing detailed information about the progression of surface and near-surface melt on the Greenland ice sheet.

  12. Analysis of Summer 2002 Melt Extent on the Greenland Ice Sheet using MODIS and SSM/I Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Williams, Richard S.; Steffen, Konrad; Chien, Janet Y. L.

    2004-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the summer of 2002 had the greatest area of snow melt extent on the Greenland ice sheet ever recorded using passive-microwave data. In this paper, we compare the 0 deg. isotherm derived from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument, with Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I)-derived melt, at the time of the maximum melt extent in 2002. To validate the MODIS derived land-surface temperatures (LSTs), we compared the MODIS LSTs with air temperatures from nine stations (using 11 different data points) and found that they agreed to within 2.3 +/- 2.09 C, with station temperatures consistently lower than the MODIS LSTs. According to the MODIS LST, the maximum surface melt extended to approx. 2300 m in southern Greenland; while the SSM/I measurements showed that the maximum melt extended to nearly 2700 m in southeastern Greenland. The MODIS and SSM/I data are complementary in providing detailed information about the progression of surface and near- surface melt on the Greenland ice sheet.

  13. Analysis of summer 2002 melt extent on the Greenland ice sheet using MODIS and SSM/I data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, D.K.; Williams, R.S., Jr.; Steffen, K.; Chien, J.Y.L.

    2004-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the summer of 2002 had the greatest area of snow melt extent on the Greenland ice sheet ever recorded using passive-microwave data. In this paper, we compare the 0?? isotherm derived from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument, with Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I)-derived melt, at the time of the maximum melt extent in 2002. To validate the MODIS-derived land-surface temperatures (LSTs), we compared the MODIS LSTs with air temperatures from nine stations (using 11 different data points) and found that they agreed to within 2.3??2.09??C, with station temperatures consistently lower than the MODIS LSTs. According to the MODIS LST, the maximum surface melt extended to ???2300 m in southern Greenland; while the SSM/I measurements showed that the maximum melt extended to nearly 2700 m in southeastern Greenland. The MODIS and SSM/I data are complementary in providing detailed information about the progression of surface and near-surface melt on the Greenland ice sheet.

  14. Determination of melting temperature and temperature melting range for DNA with multi-peak differential melting curves.

    PubMed

    Lando, Dmitri Y; Fridman, Alexander S; Chang, Chun-Ling; Grigoryan, Inessa E; Galyuk, Elena N; Murashko, Oleg N; Chen, Chun-Chung; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-06-15

    Many factors that change the temperature position and interval of the DNA helix-coil transition often also alter the shape of multi-peak differential melting curves (DMCs). For DNAs with a multi-peak DMC, there is no agreement on the most useful definition for the melting temperature, Tm, and temperature melting width, ?T, of the entire DNA transition. Changes in Tm and ?T can reflect unstable variation of the shape of the DMC as well as alterations in DNA thermal stability and heterogeneity. Here, experiments and computer modeling for DNA multi-peak DMCs varying under different factors allowed testing of several methods of defining Tm and ?T. Indeed, some of the methods give unreasonable "jagged" Tm and ?T dependences on varying relative concentration of DNA chemical modifications (rb), [Na(+)], and GC content. At the same time, Tm determined as the helix-coil transition average temperature, and ?T, which is proportional to the average absolute temperature deviation from this temperature, are suitable to characterize multi-peak DMCs. They give smoothly varying theoretical and experimental dependences of Tm and ?T on rb, [Na(+)], and GC content. For multi-peak DMCs, Tm value determined in this way is the closest to the thermodynamic melting temperature (the helix-coil transition enthalpy/entropy ratio). PMID:25640587

  15. Communication: Growing room temperature ice with graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdaguer, Albert; Segura, Juan Jos; Lpez-Mir, Laura; Sauthier, Guillaume; Fraxedas, Jordi

    2013-03-01

    Water becomes ordered in the form of hexagonal ice at room temperature under controlled humidity conditions upon confinement in the nanometer range between protective graphene sheets and crystalline (111) surfaces with hexagonal symmetry of the alkali earth fluoride BaF2. Interfacial water/substrate pseudoepitaxy turns out to be a critical parameter since ice is only formed when the lattice mismatch is small, an observation based on the absence of ice on (111) surfaces of isostructural CaF2

  16. Laurentide Ice Sheet Basal Temperatures at the Last Glacial Cycle As Inferred from Borehole Temperature Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickler, C.; Beltrami, H.; Mareschal, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Twelve temperature-depth profiles (>1500 m) located in Eastern to Central Canada were studied to determine the past ground surface temperature histories (GSTH) for the Last Glacial Cycle (LGC) and afterwards. The GSTHs were inferred using singular variable decomposition (SVD). Three locations (Sudbury, Manitouwadge, and Thompson) presented multiple boreholes. Here, simultaneous inversion was utilized to illustrate any regional trends present. For all studied sites, the inversion shows that ground surface temperatures throughout the LGC near the pressure melting point of ice, -1.41-2.51C. These ground surface temperatures are representative of the basal temperatures of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, which covered the region throughout the LGC. These temperatures allow for the possibility of basal flow and fast flowing ice streams, which have been inferred from geomorphological data and are consistent with modeling efforts. Regional variations in basal temperatures are observed. These could be attributed to fluctuations in ice sheet thickness and proximity to the edge of the ice sheet. No correlation between heat flow and the amplitude of the GSTH variations was observed, leading to the conclusion that the basal temperatures in this region are primarily driven by ice dynamics.

  17. Melt ponds on Arctic sea ice determined from MODIS satellite data using an artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rsel, A.; Kaleschke, L.; Birnbaum, G.

    2012-04-01

    Melt ponds on sea ice strongly reduce the surface albedo and accelerate the decay of Arctic sea ice. Due to different spectral properties of snow, ice, and water, the fractional coverage of these distinct surface types can be derived from multispectral sensors like the Moderate Resolution Image Spectroradiometer (MODIS) using a spectral unmixing algorithm. The unmixing was implemented using a multilayer perceptron to reduce computational costs. Arctic-wide melt pond fractions and sea ice concentrations are derived from the level 3 MODIS surface reflectance product. The validation of the MODIS melt pond data set was conducted with aerial photos from the MELTEX campaign 2008 in the Beaufort Sea, data sets from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) for 2000 and 2001 from four sites spread over the entire Arctic, and with ship observations from the trans-Arctic HOTRAX cruise in 2005. The root-mean-square errors range from 3.8 % for the comparison with HOTRAX data, over 10.7 % for the comparison with NSIDC data, to 10.3 % and 11.4 % for the comparison with MELTEX data, with coefficient of determination ranging from R2=0.28 to R2=0.45. The mean annual cycle of the melt pond fraction per grid cell for the entire Arctic shows a strong increase in June, reaching a maximum of 15 % by the end of June. The zonal mean of melt pond fractions indicates a dependence of the temporal development of melt ponds on the geographical latitude, and has its maximum in mid-July at latitudes between 80 and 88 N. Furthermore, the MODIS results are used to estimate the influence of melt ponds on retrievals of sea ice concentrations from passive microwave data. Results from a case study comparing sea ice concentrations from ARTIST Sea Ice-, NASA Team 2-, and Bootstrap-algorithms with MODIS sea ice concentrations indicate an underestimation of around 40 % for sea ice concentrations retrieved with microwave algorithms.

  18. Changes in Arctic Melt Season and Implications for Sea Ice Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroeve, J. C.; Markus, T.; Boisvert, L.; Miller, J.; Barrett, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Arctic-wide melt season has lengthened at a rate of 5 days dec-1 from 1979 to 2013, dominated by later autumn freeze-up within the Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi and Beaufort seas between 6 and 11 days dec(exp -1). While melt onset trends are generally smaller, the timing of melt onset has a large influence on the total amount of solar energy absorbed during summer. The additional heat stored in the upper ocean of approximately 752MJ m(exp -2) during the last decade, increases sea surface temperatures by 0.5 to 1.5 C and largely explains the observed delays in autumn freeze-up within the Arctic Ocean's adjacent seas. Cumulative anomalies in total absorbed solar radiation from May through September for the most recent pentad locally exceed 300-400 MJ m(exp -2) in the Beaufort, Chukchi and East Siberian seas. This extra solar energy is equivalent to melting 0.97 to 1.3 m of ice during the summer.

  19. Glaciation in the Late Noachian Icy Highlands: Ice accumulation, distribution, flow rates, basal melting, and top-down melting rates and patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fastook, James L.; Head, James W.

    2015-02-01

    Geological evidence for extensive non-polar ice deposits of Amazonian age indicates that the current cold and dry climate of Mars has persisted for several billion years. The geological record and climate history of the Noachian, the earliest period of Mars history, is less certain, but abundant evidence for fluvial channels (valley networks) and lacustrine environments (open-basin lakes) has been interpreted to represent warm and wet conditions, including rainfall and runoff. Alternatively, recent atmospheric modeling results predict a "cold and icy" Late Noachian Mars in which moderate atmospheric pressure accompanied by a full water cycle produce an atmosphere where temperature declines with elevation following an adiabatic lapse rate, in contrast to the current situation on Mars, where temperature is almost completely determined by latitude. These results are formulated in the Late Noachian Icy Highlands (LNIH) model, in which these cold and icy conditions lead to the preferential deposition of snow and ice at high elevations, such as the southern uplands. What is the fate of this snow and ice and the nature of glaciation in such an environment? What are the prospects of melting of these deposits contributing to the observed fluvial and lacustrine deposits? To address these questions, we report on a glacial flow-modeling analysis using a Mars-adapted ice sheet model with LNIH climate conditions. The total surface/near-surface water inventory is poorly known for the Late Noachian, so we explore the LNIH model in a "supply-limited" scenario for a range of available water abundances and a range of Late Noachian geothermal fluxes. Our results predict that the Late Noachian icy highlands (above an equilibrium line altitude of approximately +1 km) were characterized by extensive ice sheets of the order of hundreds of meters thick. Due to extremely cold conditions, the ice-flow velocities in general were very low, less than a few mm/yr, and the regional ice-flow pattern was disorganized and followed topography, with no radial flow pattern typical of an equilibrium ice sheet. Virtually the entire ice sheet is predicted to be cold-based, and thus the range of wet-based features typically associated with temperate glaciers (e.g., drumlins, eskers, etc.) is not predicted to occur. Wet-based conditions are predicted only locally in the thickest ice (on the floors of the deepest craters), where limited subglacial lakes may have formed. These LNIH regional ice-sheets provide a huge reservoir of potential meltwater as a source for forming the observed fluvial and lacustrine features and deposits. Top-down melting scenarios applied to our LNIH ice sheet model predict that periods of punctuated warming could lead to elevated temperatures sufficient to melt enough snow and ice to readily account for the observed fluvial and lacustrine features and deposits. Our model indicates that such melting should take place preferentially at the margins of the ice sheets, a prediction that can be tested with further analyses.

  20. Optical In-Process Temperature Monitoring of Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chivel, Y.

    Investigation of the melting of overhang layers has been conducted under full temperature monitoring. Mechanisms of the melt penetration into loose powder bed have been determined. Temperature regimes of the selective laser melting process of the 3D object from steel 316L powder also have been investigated.

  1. Sum-frequency spectroscopic studies: I. Surface melting of ice, II. Surface alignment of polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Xing

    2000-12-21

    Surface vibrational spectroscopy via infrared-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) has been established as a useful tool to study the structures of different kinds of surfaces and interfaces. This technique was used to study the (0001) face of hexagonal ice (Ih). SFG spectra in the O-H stretch frequency range were obtained at various sample temperatures. For the vapor(air)/ice interface, the degree of orientational order of the dangling OH bonds at the surface was measured as a function of temperature. Disordering sets in around 200 K and increases dramatically with temperature, which is strong evidence of surface melting of ice. For the other ice interfaces (silica/OTS/ice and silica/ice), a similar temperature dependence of the hydrogen bonded OH stretch peak was observed; the free OH stretch mode, however, appears to be different from that of the vapor (air)/ice interface due to interactions at the interfaces. The technique was also used to measure the orientational distributions of the polymer chains on a rubbed polyvinyl alcohol surface. Results show that the polymer chains at the surface appear to be well aligned by rubbing, and the adsorbed liquid crystal molecules are aligned, in turn, by the surface polymer chains. A strong correlation exists between the orientational distributions of the polymer chains and the liquid crystal molecules, indicating that the surface-induced bulk alignment of a liquid crystal film by rubbed polymer surfaces is via an orientational epitaxy-like mechanism. This thesis also contains studies on some related issues that are crucial to the above applications. An experiment was designed to measure SFG spectra in both reflection and transmission. The result confirms that SFG in reflection is generally dominated by the surface contribution. Another issue is the motional effect due to fast orientational motion of molecules at a surface or interface. Calculations show that the effect is significant if the molecular orientation varies over a broad range within the vibrational relaxation time. The stretch vibration of the free OH bonds at the vapor/water interface is used to illustrate the importance of the effect.

  2. Delineation of Surface and Near-Surface Melt on the Greenland Ice Sheet Using MODIS and QuikSCAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Nghiem, Son V.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Neumann, Gregory; Schaaf, Crystal B.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of MODIS and QuikSCAT data to measure the surface and sub-surface melting on the Greenland Ice Sheet. The project demonstrated the consistence of this technique for measuring the ice melt on the Greenland Ice Sheet. The blending of the two instruments data allows for determination of surface vs subsurface melting. Also, the use of albedo maps can provide information about the intensity of the melting.

  3. Melt ponds on Arctic sea ice determined from MODIS satellite data using an artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rsel, A.; Kaleschke, L.; Birnbaum, G.

    2011-10-01

    Melt ponds on sea ice strongly reduce the surface albedo and accelerate the decay of Arctic sea ice. Due to different spectral properties of snow, ice, and water, the fractional coverage of these distinct surface types can be derived from multispectral sensors like MODIS using a spectral unmixing algorithm. The unmixing was implemented using a multilayer perceptron (MLP) to reduce computational costs. Arctic-wide melt pond fractions and sea ice concentrations are derived from the level 3 MODIS surface reflectance product. The validation of the MODIS melt pond data set was conducted with aerial photos from the MELTEX campaign 2008 in the Beaufort Sea, data sets from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) for 2000 and 2001 from four sites spread over the entire Arctic, and with ship observations from the trans-Arctic HOTRAX cruise in 2005. The root-mean-square errors (RMSE) range from 3.8 % for the comparison with HOTRAX data, over 10.7 % for the comparison with NSIDC data, to 10.3 % and 11.4 % for the comparison with MELTEX data, with correlations coefficients ranging from R2 = 0.28 to R2 = 0.45. The mean annual cycle of the melt pond fraction for the entire Arctic shows a strong increase in June, reaching a maximum of 15 % by the end of June. The zonal mean of melt pond fractions indicates a dependence of the temporal development of melt ponds from the geographical latitude, and has its maximum in mid-July in latitudes between 80 and 88 N. Furthermore, the MODIS results are used to estimate the influence of melt ponds on retrievals of sea ice concentrations from passive microwave data. Results from a case study comparing sea ice concentrations from ASI-, NASA Team 2-, and Bootstrap-algorithms with MODIS sea ice concentrations indicate an underestimation of around 40 % for sea ice concentrations retrieved with microwave algorithms.

  4. Potassium-Rich Ices at High Pressures and Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, M. R.; Scott, H. P.; Aarestad, E.; Prakapenka, V.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate modeling of planetary interiors requires that the pressure-volume-temperature properties of phases present within the body be well understood. The high-pressure polymorphs of H2O have been studied extensively, due to the abundance of ice phases in icy moons and likely vast number of extra-solar planetary bodies, with only select studies evaluating impurity-laden ices. In this study, ice formed from a 1.6 mole percent KCl-bearing aqueous solution was studied up to 33 GPa and 650 K, and the incorporation of K+ and Cl- into the ice VII structure was documented. The compression data at 300 K were fit with a third order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state and yielded K, K/, and V0 of 24.70.9 GPa, 4.440.09, and 39.170.15 3, respectively. Thermal expansion coefficients were also determined for several isothermal compression curves at elevated temperatures, and a P-V-T equation of state will be presented. The melting of ice VII with incorporated K+ and Cl- was determined up to 625 K and 10.6 GPa and was fit by using a Simon-Glatzel equation. The melting curve is systematically depressed relative to the melting curve of pure H2O by approximately 45 K and 80 K at 4 and 11 GPa, respectively. Interestingly, a portion of the K+ and Cl- contained within the ice VII structure was observed to exsolve with increasing temperature and pressure. This suggests that an internal differentiating process could concentrate a K-rich phase deep within H2O-rich planets, and we speculate that this could supply an additional source of heat through the radioactive decay of 40K. Birch (1951; JGR, 56, 107-126) has estimated that 40K contributes 2.7 ?cal/g.year for each wt.% of K, and our results suggest at least 3.33 wt.% can be incorporated into the structure of ice VII, thus making it a source of heat rather than just a conductive layer. In conclusion, our data illustrate a mechanism that may concentrate K at depth and impact the supposed pressure and temperature within moderate to large sized H2O-rich planetary bodies.

  5. Changing sea ice melt parameters in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Implications for the future presence of multiyear ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Stephen E. L.; Tivy, Adrienne; Yackel, John J.; Else, Brent G. T.; Duguay, Claude R.

    2008-09-01

    Estimates of annual sea ice melt onset, freeze onset, and melt duration are made within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) using SeaWinds/QuikSCAT data from 2000 to 2007. The average date of melt onset occurred on day 150, the average freeze onset occurred on day 266, and the average number of days of melt was 116. Melt onset occurred first, and freeze onset occurred last within the Amundsen, Western Arctic Waterway, and Eastern Parry Channel regions, whereas the reverse occurred in the Queen Elizabeth Islands (QEI) and the M'Clure and Viscount-Melville regions. Multiyear sea ice (MYI) increases occurred from 2000 to 2004 because of dynamic import and first-year sea ice (FYI) being promoted to MYI, but this replenishment virtually stopped from 2005 to 2007, coincident with longer melt seasons. Only after two consecutive long melt seasons (2005-2006) and almost no replenishment were regions to the south of the QEI cleared of MYI. We argue that this is because MYI must slowly ablate on the underside while in transit within the CAA from the small oceanic heat flux and can therefore survive for several years in southern regions without replenishment. Net positive dynamic MYI import into the CAA was observed in 2007 following MYI removal during 2005-2006. Longer melt seasons will continue to reduce the inventory of FYI in the CAA following the melt season. Longer melt seasons within the CAA will likely not reduce MYI dynamic import, but it remains to be seen whether or not this MYI will be able to survive longer melt seasons as it migrates to the southern regions.

  6. Warm winds from the Pacific caused extensive Arctic sea-ice melt in summer 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graversen, Rune G.; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Drijfhout, Sybren; Tjernstrm, Michael; Mrtensson, Sebastian

    2011-06-01

    During summer 2007 the Arctic sea-ice shrank to the lowest extent ever observed. The role of the atmospheric energy transport in this extreme melt event is explored using the state-of-the-art ERA-Interim reanalysis data. We find that in summer 2007 there was an anomalous atmospheric flow of warm and humid air into the region that suffered severe melt. This anomaly was larger than during any other year in the data (1989-2008). Convergence of the atmospheric energy transport over this area led to positive anomalies of the downward longwave radiation and turbulent fluxes. In the region that experienced unusual ice melt, the net anomaly of the surface fluxes provided enough extra energy to melt roughly one meter of ice during the melting season. When the ocean successively became ice-free, the surface-albedo decreased causing additional absorption of shortwave radiation, despite the fact that the downwelling solar radiation was smaller than average. We argue that the positive anomalies of net downward longwave radiation and turbulent fluxes played a key role in initiating the 2007 extreme ice melt, whereas the shortwave-radiation changes acted as an amplifying feedback mechanism in response to the melt.

  7. Assessing Antarctica's Ice Shelves for Vulnerability to Surface-Melt-Induced Collapse Using Scatterometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, K. E.; Scambos, T. A.; Long, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    The disintegration of several ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula since 1995 initiated a rapid increase in ice flow, altering the regional mass balance. A key element of disintegration appears to be the formation of surface melt ponds, which can trigger a run-away hydrofracturing process. A shelf's firn layer must be saturated with ice for ponds to form at the surface. This study presents a comparison of wintertime satellite-derived active microwave backscatter and surface melt-day data, revealing a distinctive pattern that can be used to assess the state of ice shelf firn. Low melt areas (1 to 10 days of melting per year) have few refrozen meltwater lenses within the firn to serve as scatterers, so they have low backscatter values (-10 to -5 dB ?o). As the mean number of melt days and therefore the abundance of ice lenses in the firn increases, backscatter values rise significantly to a peak at approximately 30 to 50 days of melt and approximately -1 dB ?o. With increasing melt beyond this threshold, mean wintertime backscatter declines, reaching -5 dB ?o at 80 to 100 melt days/year. This drop in backscatter reflects an increase in specular reflections from an ice-saturated firn layer. All ice shelves that have previously collapsed plot above this threshold. This pattern mirrors the characteristics of snow facies as observed in these same data types for transects across the Greenland Ice Sheet. Backscatter values on Antarctic ice shelves are also sensitive to accumulation rate, with higher accumulation requiring more melt days to produce the same level of backscatter increase. We hypothesize that, as the atmosphere warms in the future, ice shelves will evolve upwards along this pattern until they reach the firn saturation threshold where collapse is imminent. Therefore, a comprehensive survey of Antarctic ice shelves using scatterometry indicates which shelves are presently most vulnerable to surface-melt-induced collapse, and which shelves are likely to be vulnerable in the relatively near future.

  8. Ocean Properties and Submarine Melt of Ice Shelves in a High-Arctic Fiord (Milne Fiord)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, A.; Mueller, D.; Laval, B.

    2014-12-01

    The role of ambient stratification, the vertical distribution of heat, and fiord circulation on submarine melt rates in glacial fiords in the Canadian Arctic are largely unknown despite recent widespread collapse of ice shelves in this region. A 3-year field study was conducted to investigate ocean influence on ice loss from an ice shelf and glacier tongue in Milne Fiord (82oN), Ellesmere Island. Direct ocean observations of the sub-ice cavities from through-ice profiles showed a vertically stratified water column consisting of a perennial fresh ice-dammed epishelf lake at the surface, above cold relatively fresh Polar Water, and warm saline waters from the upper halocline of the Atlantic layer at depth. The broad continental shelf and a topographic sill prevented the warmest waters of the Atlantic layer from entering the 450 m deep fiord. Meltwater concentrations were highest near the glacier grounding line, with meltwater exported at depth due to the strong ambient stratification. There was little evidence of increased buoyancy-driven melt in summer from subglacial discharge as observed in sub-Arctic fiords (e.g. southern Greenland), suggesting that circulation in high-latitude fiords is largely melt-driven convection with less pronounced seasonality. Basal melt rates estimated using three methods, meltwater flux, divergence of ice flux, and an ocean thermodynamic model, were broadly consistent. Average melt rates of 0.75 0.46 m a-1 and 1.14 0.83 m a-1 were found for the Milne Ice Shelf and Milne Glacier Tongue, respectively, although showed high spatial variability. The highest melt rates (~4 m a-1) were found near the glacier grounding line and were driven by warm upper halocline waters. Similar melt rates occurred in near-surface waters driven by solar heating of the epishelf lake, enhancing melt along the margins of the glacier tongue and the landward edge of the ice shelf. The Milne Ice Shelf and Milne Glacier Tongue are in a state of negative mass balance; with submarine ice melt accounting for the majority of mass loss over the duration of the study. Submarine melt rates in this region are influenced by the thickness (and presence) of the epishelf lake, and are sensitive to external changes in the Arctic Ocean, including variations in the depth of the upper halocline and the heat content of polar surface waters.

  9. Observations of Basal Melting Near The Grounding Line of An Antarctic Ice Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, A.; Corr, H.; Nicholls, K.; Doake, C.; Stewart, C.

    Perhaps the most important unknown in the dynamics of marine ice sheets is what controls the location of the grounding line, and how sensitive that location is to pertur- bations in ice flow or local mass balance. Most theories of grounding line motion focus on the ice dynamics and overlook the role played by basal melting in controlling the thinning rate immediately downstream of the grounding line. However, oceanographic theory suggests that melting near a deep grounding line could be higher than anywhere else on the ice shelf. Since most of the techniques used to date to quantify melting rely on the assumption that the ice shelf is in steady state, actual melt rates remain largely unknown and temporal changes are impossible to detect. In order to measure the mag- nitude and variability of basal melting, we have developed a new technique, which involves independent measurements of the total thinning rate and the horizontal diver- gence at points that are fixed with respect to the ice. The difference between the total thinning and the strain thinning gives the melt rate. We have applied the technique to Rutford Ice Stream, where we have made measurements along two sections 7.5 and 10.5 km long that start a little downstream of the grounding line. The interpretation of the measurements is made more complex by tidal flexing, which introduces consider- able temporal variability into the strain rates. Since our measurements are made along flowlines, we can also calculate the steady state melt rate and determine whether the ice shelf is locally in balance.

  10. September Arctic sea ice minimum predicted by spring melt pond fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltham, D. L.; Schroeder, D.; Flocco, D.; Tsamados, M.

    2014-12-01

    The area of Arctic September sea ice has diminished from about 7 million km2 in the 1990s to less than 5 million km2 in 5 of the last 7 years with a record minimum of 3.6 million km2 in 2012. The strength of this decrease is greater than expected by the scientific community, the reasons for this are not fully understood, and its simulation is an on-going challenge for existing climate models. With growing Arctic marine activity there is an urgent demand for forecasting Arctic summer sea ice. Previous attempts at seasonal forecasts of ice extent were of limited skill. However, here we show that the Arctic sea ice minimum can be accurately forecasted from melt pond area in spring. We developed a physical based melt pond model suitable for forecasting the evolution of melt ponds and incorporated this model into the Los Alamos sea ice model CICE. We find a strong correlation between the simulated spring pond fraction and the observed September sea ice extent for the period 1979 to 2013. This is explained by a positive feedback mechanism: more ponds reduce the albedo; a lower albedo causes more melting; more melting increases pond fraction. Our results help explain the acceleration of Arctic sea ice decrease during the last decade. We are able to predict the observed September ice area with a similar degree of skill as the observed ice extent. The choice of the applied SSM/I algorithm (NASA Team or bootstrap) does not materially affect our results. The inclusion of our new melt pond model promises to improve the skill of future forecast and climate models in Arctic regions and beyond.

  11. Near Ice Oceanographic Observations of the Breiamerkurjkull Glacier Melt Plume in Jkulsrln Lagoon, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, M. A.; Hodgkins, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Breiamerkurjkull glacier flows down from the Vatnajkull ice cap and it has a marine terminus in a lagoon connected to the North Atlantic Ocean. The lagoon waters have characteristics determined by the Atlantic water, subglacial run-off and the local melting of ice calved from the glacier. The lagoon is not a fjordic environment, but many similar physical processes are operating. We conducted four hydrographic sections within the lagoon to determine the effects of the ocean on the glacier. Three of the sections across the lagoon allow us to determine the pathway of Atlantic water towards the glacial ice. One hydrographic section of 16 stations along the Breiamerkurjkull glacier face was always within 3 to 30m from the ice face. This very near ice section showed both the warmest and coldest water sampled in the lagoon. The coldest water was close to the maximum depth of our measurements and was formed through contact with the ice. A heat and salt conservation model has enabled the relative contributions of the inflowing Atlantic derived saline water, the sub glacial fresh water run-off and the melt from the ice face to be determined. Overall the dominant freshwater contribution to the lagoon in the upper 20 m is from the sub-glacial freshwater. Beneath 20 m the dominant factor is modified North Atlantic water. The contribution from melting ice is observed below 10 m, and below 40 m depth this is in layers. Individual CTD measurements show that within the layers of higher ice melt there are strong peaks of increased melt, and so there is a 3 dimensional structure to the melt. The highest resolution data we obtained show that the water at these depths is in places statically unstable.

  12. MELTING, a flexible platform to predict the melting temperatures of nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Computing accurate nucleic acid melting temperatures has become a crucial step for the efficiency and the optimisation of numerous molecular biology techniques such as in situ hybridization, PCR, antigene targeting, and microarrays. MELTING is a free open source software which computes the enthalpy, entropy and melting temperature of nucleic acids. MELTING 4.2 was able to handle several types of hybridization such as DNA/DNA, RNA/RNA, DNA/RNA and provided corrections to melting temperatures due to the presence of sodium. The program can use either an approximative approach or a more accurate Nearest-Neighbor approach. Results Two new versions of the MELTING software have been released. MELTING 4.3 is a direct update of version 4.2, integrating newly available thermodynamic parameters for inosine, a modified adenine base with an universal base capacity, and incorporates a correction for magnesium. MELTING 5 is a complete reimplementation which allows much greater flexibility and extensibility. It incorporates all the thermodynamic parameters and corrections provided in MELTING 4.x and introduces a large set of thermodynamic formulae and parameters, to facilitate the calculation of melting temperatures for perfectly matching sequences, mismatches, bulge loops, CNG repeats, dangling ends, inosines, locked nucleic acids, 2-hydroxyadenines and azobenzenes. It also includes temperature corrections for monovalent ions (sodium, potassium, Tris), magnesium ions and commonly used denaturing agents such as formamide and DMSO. Conclusions MELTING is a useful and very flexible tool for predicting melting temperatures using approximative formulae or Nearest-Neighbor approaches, where one can select different sets of Nearest-Neighbor parameters, corrections and formulae. Both versions are freely available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/melting/and at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/compneur-srv/melting/under the terms of the GPL license. PMID:22591039

  13. Efficacy of sanitized ice in reducing bacterial load on fish fillet and in the water collected from the melted ice.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, Lizanel; Lee, Jaesung; Lopes, John A; Pascall, Melvin A

    2010-05-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of sanitized ice for the reduction of bacteria in the water collected from the ice that melted during storage of whole and filleted Tilapia fish. Also, bacterial reductions on the fish fillets were investigated. The sanitized ice was prepared by freezing solutions of PRO-SAN (an organic acid formulation) and neutral electrolyzed water (NEW). For the whole fish study, the survival of the natural microflora was determined from the water of the melted ice prepared with PRO-SAN and tap water. These water samples were collected during an 8 h storage period. For the fish fillet study, samples were inoculated with Escherichia coli K12, Listeria innocua, and Pseudomonas putida then stored on crushed sanitized ice. The efficacies of these were tested by enumerating each bacterial species on the fish fillet and in the water samples at 12 and 24 h intervals for 72 h, respectively. Results showed that each bacterial population was reduced during the test. However, a bacterial reduction of < 1 log CFU was obtained for the fillet samples. A maximum of approximately 2 log CFU and > 3 log CFU reductions were obtained in the waters sampled after the storage of whole fish and the fillets, respectively. These reductions were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the water from sanitized ice when compared with the water from the unsanitized melted ice. These results showed that the organic acid formulation and NEW considerably reduced the bacterial numbers in the melted ice and thus reduced the potential for cross-contamination. PMID:20546415

  14. Enhanced High-Temperature Ice Nucleation Ability of Crystallized Aerosol Particles after Pre-Activation at Low Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.; Moehler, O.; Saathoff, H.; Schnaiter, M.

    2014-12-01

    The term pre-activation in heterogeneous ice nucleation describes the observation that the ice nucleation ability of solid ice nuclei may improve after they have already been involved in ice crystal formation or have been exposed to a temperature lower than 235 K. This can be explained by the retention of small ice embryos in cavities or crevices at the particle surface or by the capillary condensation and freezing of supercooled water, respectively. In recent cloud chamber experiments with crystallized aqueous ammonium sulfate, oxalic acid, and succinic acid solution droplets, we have unraveled a further pre-activation mechanism under ice subsaturated conditions which does not require the preceding growth of ice on the seed aerosol particles (Wagner, R. et al., J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, doi: 10.1002/2014JD021741). First cloud expansion experiments were performed at a high temperature (267 - 244 K) where the crystallized particles did not promote any heterogeneous ice nucleation. Ice nucleation at this temperature, however, could be triggered by temporarily cooling the crystallized particles to a lower temperature. This is because upon crystallization, residuals of the aqueous solution are trapped within the crystals. These captured liquids can freeze when cooled below their respective homogeneous or heterogeneous freezing temperature, leading to the formation of ice pockets in the crystalline particles. When warmed again to the higher temperature, ice formation by the pre-activated particles occurred via depositional and deliquescence-induced ice growth, with ice active fractions ranging from 1 to 4% and 4 to 20%, respectively. Pre-activation disappeared above the eutectic temperature, which for the organic acids are close to the melting point of ice. This mechanism could therefore contribute to the very small fraction of atmospheric aerosol particles that are still ice active well above 263 K.

  15. Natural and human contribution to recent Arctic sea-ice melting patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Seung-Ki; Heo, Joonghyeok; Kim, Baek-Min; Kim, Seong-Joong

    2015-04-01

    Arctic sea-ice has declined sharply during recent three decades with seasonally and regionally different melting patterns. Identifying causes of the spatial patterns of Arctic sea-ice loss is critical to better understanding of global and regional impacts of Arctic cryosphere, but it remains uncertain. This study conducts a quantitative analysis of recent sea-ice melting by comparing observed and model-simulated trend patterns using an optimal fingerprinting technique. Satellite observations show overall decreasing trends across all seasons with stronger melting occurring over Kara-Laptev Seas, E. Siberia-Chukchi Seas, and Barents Seas during warm seasons. The CMIP5 multi-model simulations including greenhouse-gas forcings can largely capture the observed trend patterns, enabling detection of human influence, but with weaker amplitude. As natural factors of observed sea-ice melting, the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) are further considered. AMO exhibits a significant impact on regional variation of sea-ice melting patterns while AO impact is found very weak. Good agreement can be obtained between observed and model-simulated trend patterns when taking account of the AMO influence on observations. This result suggests contribution of both human and natural factors to the recent abrupt reduction in Arctic sea ice.

  16. Links Between Acceleration, Melting, and Supraglacial Lake Drainage of the Western Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, M. J.; Catania, G. A.; Neumann, T. A.; Andrews, L. C.; Rumrill, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of increasing summer melt on the dynamics and stability of the Greenland Ice Sheet is not fully understood. Mounting evidence suggests seasonal evolution of subglacial drainage mitigates or counteracts the ability of surface runoff to increase basal sliding. Here, we compare subdaily ice velocity and uplift derived from nine Global Positioning System stations in the upper ablation zone in west Greenland to surface melt and supraglacial lake drainage during summer 2007. Starting around day 173, we observe speedups of 6-41% above spring velocity lasting 40 days accompanied by sustained surface uplift at most stations, followed by a late summer slowdown. After initial speedup, we see a spatially uniform velocity response across the ablation zone and strong diurnal velocity variations during periods of melting. Most lake drainages were undetectable in the velocity record, and those that were detected only perturbed velocities for approx 1 day, suggesting preexisting drainage systems could efficiently drain large volumes of water. The dynamic response to melt forcing appears to (1) be driven by changes in subglacial storage of water that is delivered in diurnal and episodic pulses, and (2) decrease over the course of the summer, presumably as the subglacial drainage system evolves to greater efficiency. The relationship between hydrology and ice dynamics observed is similar to that observed on mountain glaciers, suggesting that seasonally large water pressures under the ice sheet largely compensate for the greater ice thickness considered here. Thus, increases in summer melting may not guarantee faster seasonal ice flow.

  17. Links Between Acceleration, Melting, and Supraglacial Lake Drainage of the Western Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, M. J.; Catania, G. A.; Newmann, T. A.; Andrews, L. C.; Rumrill, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of increasing summer melt on the dynamics and stability of the Greenland Ice Sheet is not fully understood. Mounting evidence suggests seasonal evolution of subglacial drainage mitigates or counteracts the ability of surface runoff to increase basal sliding. Here, we compare subdaily ice velocity and uplift derived from nine Global Positioning System stations in the upper ablation zone in west Greenland to surface melt and supraglacial lake drainage during summer 2007. Starting around day 173, we observe speedups of 6-41% above spring velocity lasting approximately 40 days accompanied by sustained surface uplift at most stations, followed by a late summer slowdown. After initial speedup, we see a spatially uniform velocity response across the ablation zone and strong diurnal velocity variations during periods of melting. Most lake drainages were undetectable in the velocity record, and those that were detected only perturbed velocities for approximately 1 day, suggesting preexisting drainage systems could efficiently drain large volumes of water. The dynamic response to melt forcing appears to 1) be driven by changes in subglacial storage of water that is delivered in diurnal and episodic pulses, and 2) decrease over the course of the summer, presumably as the subglacial drainage system evolves to greater efficiency. The relationship between hydrology and ice dynamics observed is similar to that observed on mountain glaciers, suggesting that seasonally large water pressures under the ice sheet largely compensate for the greater ice thickness considered here. Thus, increases in summer melting may not guarantee faster seasonal ice flow.

  18. Parametric analysis of an internal-melt ice-on-coil tank

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, J.H.M.; Krarti, M.

    1997-12-31

    In this paper, a parametric analysis is presented to evaluate the performance of an internal-melt ice-on-coil ice storage tank for various design configurations. In particular, the effects of variables such as thermal conductivity of the coil material, tank capacity, and longitudinal and transversal pitches are considered. In addition, an economic analysis is performed for different tank arrangements to determine optimum values for coil diameter and tank capacity. A numerical model based on a thermal network technique and validated experimentally is used to carry out the parametric analysis. The input parameters include secondary fluid inlet temperatures and flow rates of a 29% by weight concentration mixture of ethylene glycol and water. Among the model output parameters analyzed in this paper are the time variation of the secondary fluid heat transfer rates, the inventory of ice, and the secondary fluid pressure drop through the coils for both charging and discharging periods. It was found that the time required to charge and discharge the tanks can be reduced when optimal values of external coil diameters and thermal conductivities of the coil material--higher than those available commercially--are used.

  19. Snow Dunes: A Controlling Factor of Melt Pond Distribution on Arctic Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrich, Chris; Eicken, Hajo; Polashenski, Christopher M.; Sturm, Matthew; Harbeck, Jeremy P.; Perovich, Donald K.; Finnegan, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The location of snow dunes over the course of the ice-growth season 2007/08 was mapped on level landfast first-year sea ice near Barrow, Alaska. Landfast ice formed in mid-December and exhibited essentially homogeneous snow depths of 4-6 cm in mid-January; by early February distinct snow dunes were observed. Despite additional snowfall and wind redistribution throughout the season, the location of the dunes was fixed by March, and these locations were highly correlated with the distribution of meltwater ponds at the beginning of June. Our observations, including ground-based light detection and ranging system (lidar) measurements, show that melt ponds initially form in the interstices between snow dunes, and that the outline of the melt ponds is controlled by snow depth contours. The resulting preferential surface ablation of ponded ice creates the surface topography that later determines the melt pond evolution.

  20. Mechanisms and implications of ?-HCH enrichment in melt pond water on Arctic sea ice.

    PubMed

    Pu?ko, M; Stern, G A; Barber, D G; Macdonald, R W; Warner, K-A; Fuchs, C

    2012-11-01

    During the summer of 2009, we sampled 14 partially refrozen melt ponds and the top 1 m of old ice in the pond vicinity for ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH) concentrations and enantiomer fractions (EFs) in the Beaufort Sea. ?-HCH concentrations were 3 - 9 times higher in melt ponds than in the old ice. We identify two routes of ?-HCH enrichment in the ice over the summer. First, atmospheric gas deposition results in an increase of ?-HCH concentration from 0.07 0.02 ng/L (old ice) to 0.34 0.08 ng/L, or ~20% less than the atmosphere-water equilibrium partitioning concentration (0.43 ng/L). Second, late-season ice permeability and/or complete ice thawing at the bottom of ponds permit ?-HCH rich seawater (~0.88 ng/L) to replenish pond water, bringing concentrations up to 0.75 0.06 ng/L. ?-HCH pond enrichment may lead to substantial concentration patchiness in old ice floes, and changed exposures to biota as the surface meltwater eventually reaches the ocean through various drainage mechanisms. Melt pond concentrations of ?-HCH were relatively high prior to the late 1980-s, with a Melt pond Enrichment Factor >1 (MEF; a ratio of concentration in surface meltwater to surface seawater), providing for the potential of increased biological exposures. PMID:23039929

  1. Cumulates, Dykes and Pressure Solution in the Ice-Salt Mantle of Europa: Geological Consequences of Pressure Dependent Liquid Compositions and Volume Changes During Ice-Salt Melting Reactions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, S.; Asphaug, E.; Bruesch, L.

    2002-12-01

    Water-salt analogue experiments used to investigate cumulate processes in silicate magmas, along with observations of sea ice and ice shelf behaviour, indicate that crystal-melt separation in water-salt systems is a rapid and efficient process even on scales of millimetres and minutes. Squeezing-out of residual melts by matrix compaction is also predicted to be rapid on geological timescales. We predict that the ice-salt mantle of Europa is likely to be strongly stratified, with a layered structure predictable from density and phase relationships between ice polymorphs, aqueous saline solutions and crystalline salts such as hydrated magnesium sulphates (determined experimentally by, inter alia, Hogenboom et al). A surface layer of water ice flotation cumulate will be separated from denser salt cumulates by a cotectic horizon. This cotectic horizon will be both the site of subsequent lowest-temperature melting and a level of neutral buoyancy for the saline melts produced. Initial melting will be in a narrow depth range owing to increasing melting temperature with decreasing pressure: the phase relations argue against direct melt-though to the surface unless vesiculation occurs. Overpressuring of dense melts due to volume expansion on cotectic melting is predicted to lead to lateral dyke emplacement and extension above the dyke tips. Once the liquid leaves the cotectic, melting of water ice will involve negative volume change. Impact-generated melts will drain downwards through the fractured zones beneath crater floors. A feature in the complex crater Mannan'an, with elliptical ring fractures around a conical depression with a central pit, bears a close resemblance to Icelandic glacier collapse cauldrons produced by subglacial eruptions. Other structures resembling Icelandic cauldrons occur along Europan banded structures, while resurgence of ice rubble within collapse structures may produce certain types of chaos region. More general contraction of the ice mantle due to melting may be accommodated across banded structures by deformation and pressure solution. Expansion and contraction during different parts of a melting (and freezing) episode may account for the complexity of banded structures on Europa and inconsistent offsets of older structures across them.

  2. Circulation of modified Circumpolar Deep Water and basal melt beneath the Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herraiz-Borreguero, Laura; Coleman, Richard; Allison, Ian; Rintoul, Stephen R.; Craven, Mike; Williams, Guy D.

    2015-04-01

    Antarctic ice sheet mass loss has been linked to an increase in oceanic heat supply, which enhances basal melt and thinning of ice shelves. Here we detail the interaction of modified Circumpolar Deep Water (mCDW) with the Amery Ice Shelf, the largest ice shelf in East Antarctica, and provide the first estimates of basal melting due to mCDW. We use subice shelf ocean observations from a borehole site (AM02) situated 70 km inshore of the ice shelf front, together with open ocean observations in Prydz Bay. We find that mCDW transport into the cavity is about 0.22 0.06 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1). The inflow of mCDW drives a net basal melt rate of up to 2 0.5 m yr-1 during 2001 (23.9 6.52 Gt yr-1 from under about 12,800 km2 of the north-eastern flank of the ice shelf). The heat content flux by mCDW at AM02 shows high intra-annual variability (up to 40%). Our results suggest two main modes of subice shelf circulation and basal melt regimes: (1) the "ice pump"/high salinity shelf water circulation, on the western flank and (2) the mCDW meltwater-driven circulation in conjunction with the "ice pump," on the eastern flank. These results highlight the sensitivity of the Amery's basal melting to changes in mCDW inflow. Improved understanding of such ice shelf-ocean interaction is crucial to refining projections of mass loss and associated sea level rise.

  3. Comparison of DMSP SSM/I and Landsat 7 ETM+ Sea Ice Concentrations During Summer Melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, Donald J.; Markus, Thorsten; Ivanoff, Alvaro; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As part of NASA's EOS Aqua sea ice validation program for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E), Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) images were acquired to develop a sea ice concentration data set with which to validate AMSR-E sea ice concentration retrievals. The standard AMSR-E Arctic sea ice concentration product will be obtained with the enhanced NASA Team (NT2) algorithm. The goal of this study is to assess the accuracy to which the NT2 algorithm, using DMSP Special Sensor Microwave Imager radiances, retrieves sea ice concentrations under summer melt conditions. Melt ponds are currently the largest source of error in the determination of Arctic sea ice concentrations with satellite passive microwave sensors. To accomplish this goal, Landsat 7 ETM+ images of Baffin Bay were acquired under clear sky conditions on the 26th and 27th of June 2000 and used to generate high-resolution sea ice concentration maps with which to compare the NT2 retrievals. Based on a linear regression analysis of 116 25-km samples, we find that overall the NT2 retrievals agree well with the Landsat concentrations. The regression analysis yields a correlation coefficient of 0.98. In areas of high melt ponding, the NT2 retrievals underestimate the sea ice concentrations by about 12% compared to the Landsat values.

  4. Ikaite crystals in melting sea ice - implications for pCO2 and pH levels in Arctic surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rysgaard, S.; Glud, R. N.; Lennert, K.; Cooper, M.; Halden, N.; Leakey, R. J. G.; Hawthorne, F. C.; Barber, D.

    2012-08-01

    A major issue of Arctic marine science is to understand whether the Arctic Ocean is, or will be, a source or sink for air-sea CO2 exchange. This has been complicated by the recent discoveries of ikaite (a polymorph of CaCO36H2O) in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, which indicate that multiple chemical transformations occur in sea ice with a possible effect on CO2 and pH conditions in surface waters. Here, we report on biogeochemical conditions, microscopic examinations and x-ray diffraction analysis of single crystals from a melting 1.7 km2 (0.5-1 m thick) drifting ice floe in the Fram Strait during summer. Our findings show that ikaite crystals are present throughout the sea ice but with larger crystals appearing in the upper ice layers. Ikaite crystals placed at elevated temperatures disintegrated into smaller crystallites and dissolved. During our field campaign in late June, melt reduced the ice floe thickness by 0.2 m per week and resulted in an estimated 3.8 ppm decrease of pCO2 in the ocean surface mixed layer. This corresponds to an air-sea CO2 uptake of 10.6 mmol m-2 sea ice d-1 or to 3.3 ton km-2 ice floe week-1. This is markedly higher than the estimated primary production within the ice floe of 0.3-1.3 mmol m-2 sea ice d-1. Finally, the presence of ikaite in sea ice and the dissolution of the mineral during melting of the sea ice and mixing of the melt water into the surface oceanic mixed layer accounted for half of the estimated pCO2 uptake.

  5. Export of algal biomass from the melting Arctic sea ice.

    PubMed

    Boetius, Antje; Albrecht, Sebastian; Bakker, Karel; Bienhold, Christina; Felden, Janine; Fernndez-Mndez, Mar; Hendricks, Stefan; Katlein, Christian; Lalande, Catherine; Krumpen, Thomas; Nicolaus, Marcel; Peeken, Ilka; Rabe, Benjamin; Rogacheva, Antonina; Rybakova, Elena; Somavilla, Raquel; Wenzhfer, Frank

    2013-03-22

    In the Arctic, under-ice primary production is limited to summer months and is restricted not only by ice thickness and snow cover but also by the stratification of the water column, which constrains nutrient supply for algal growth. Research Vessel Polarstern visited the ice-covered eastern-central basins between 82 to 89N and 30 to 130E in summer 2012, when Arctic sea ice declined to a record minimum. During this cruise, we observed a widespread deposition of ice algal biomass of on average 9 grams of carbon per square meter to the deep-sea floor of the central Arctic basins. Data from this cruise will contribute to assessing the effect of current climate change on Arctic productivity, biodiversity, and ecological function. PMID:23413190

  6. Export of Algal Biomass from the Melting Arctic Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boetius, Antje; Albrecht, Sebastian; Bakker, Karel; Bienhold, Christina; Felden, Janine; Fernndez-Mndez, Mar; Hendricks, Stefan; Katlein, Christian; Lalande, Catherine; Krumpen, Thomas; Nicolaus, Marcel; Peeken, Ilka; Rabe, Benjamin; Rogacheva, Antonina; Rybakova, Elena; Somavilla, Raquel; Wenzhfer, Frank; aff1

    2013-03-01

    In the Arctic, under-ice primary production is limited to summer months and is restricted not only by ice thickness and snow cover but also by the stratification of the water column, which constrains nutrient supply for algal growth. Research Vessel Polarstern visited the ice-covered eastern-central basins between 82 to 89N and 30 to 130E in summer 2012, when Arctic sea ice declined to a record minimum. During this cruise, we observed a widespread deposition of ice algal biomass of on average 9 grams of carbon per square meter to the deep-sea floor of the central Arctic basins. Data from this cruise will contribute to assessing the effect of current climate change on Arctic productivity, biodiversity, and ecological function.

  7. Laurentide Ice Sheet basal temperatures during the last glacial cycle as inferred from borehole data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickler, C.; Beltrami, H.; Mareschal, J.-C.

    2016-01-01

    Thirteen temperature-depth profiles ( ? 1500 m) measured in boreholes in eastern and central Canada were inverted to determine the ground surface temperature histories during and after the last glacial cycle. The sites are located in the southern part of the region that was covered by the Laurentide Ice Sheet. The inversions yield ground surface temperatures ranging from -1.4 to 3.0 C throughout the last glacial cycle. These temperatures, near the pressure melting point of ice, allowed basal flow and fast flowing ice streams at the base of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Despite such conditions, which have been inferred from geomorphological data, the ice sheet persisted throughout the last glacial cycle. Our results suggest some regional trends in basal temperatures with possible control by internal heat flow.

  8. A Warmer Atmosphere on Mars Near the Noachian-Hesperian Boundary: Evidence from Basal Melting of the South Polar Ice Cap (Dorsa Argentea Formation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fastook, J. L.; Head, J. W.; Marchant, D. R.; Forget, F.; Madeleine, J.-B.

    2011-03-01

    Dorsa Argentea Formation (Noachian-Hesperian) eskers are evidence for basal melting. Ice-flow models show that the mean annual south polar temperature must be raised to -50 to -75C, providing an independent estimate of elevated lower latitude surface temperature.

  9. Thermohaline circulation below the Ross Ice Shelf - A consequence of tidally induced vertical mixing and basal melting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macayeal, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    The warmest water below parts of the Ross Ice Shelf resides in the lowest portion of the water column because of its high salinity. Vertical mixing caused by tidal stirring can thus induce ablation by lifting the warm but dense water into contact with the ice shelf. A numerical tidal simulation indicates that vertically well-mixed conditions predominate in the southeastern part of the sub-ice shelf cavity, where the water column thickness is small. Basal melting in this region is expected to be between 0.05 and 0.5 m/yr and will drive a thermohaline circulation having the following characteristics: high salinity shelf water (at - 1.8 C), formed by winter sea ice production in the open Ross Sea, flows along the seabed toward the tidal mixing fronts below the ice shelf; and meltwater (at -2.2 C), produced in the well-mixed region, flows out of the sub-ice shelf cavity along the ice shelf bottom. Sensitivity of this ablation process to climatic change is expected to be small because high salinity shelf water is constrained to have the sea surface freezing temperature.

  10. Ice Weathering Crust Development and the Contribution of Subsurface Melting to Glacier Ablation and Runoff in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, M. J.; Fountain, A. G.; Liston, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    In the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Victoria Land, East Antarctica, melting of glacial ice is the primary source of water to streams, lakes, and associated ecosystems. Ablation and runoff was investigated using a surface energy balance model applied to the glaciers of Taylor Valley using 14 years of meteorological data and calibrated to ablation measurements. Inclusion of transmission of solar radiation into the ice through a source term in a one-dimensional heat transfer equation was necessary to accurately model summer ablation and ice temperatures. Model results indicated that ablation was dominated by sublimation and melting was rare across the smooth surfaces of the glaciers, whereas subsurface melt between 5 and 15 cm depth was extensive and lasted for up to six weeks in some summers. The model was better able to predict ablation if some subsurface melt was assumed to drain, lowering ice density, consistent with observations of a low density weathering crust that forms over the course of the summer on Dry Valley glaciers. When applied spatially, the model successfully predicted proglacial streamflow at seasonal and daily time scales. Inclusion of subsurface melt as runoff improved predictions of runoff volume and timing, particularly for the recession of large flood peaks. Because overland flow was rarely observed over much of these glaciers, these model results suggest that runoff may be predominantly transported beneath the surface in a partially melted, permeable layer of weathered ice.

  11. Methane excess in Arctic surface water- triggered by sea ice formation and melting

    PubMed Central

    Damm, E.; Rudels, B.; Schauer, U.; Mau, S.; Dieckmann, G.

    2015-01-01

    Arctic amplification of global warming has led to increased summer sea ice retreat, which influences gas exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the atmosphere where sea ice previously acted as a physical barrier. Indeed, recently observed enhanced atmospheric methane concentrations in Arctic regions with fractional sea-ice cover point to unexpected feedbacks in cycling of methane. We report on methane excess in sea ice-influenced water masses in the interior Arctic Ocean and provide evidence that sea ice is a potential source. We show that methane release from sea ice into the ocean occurs via brine drainage during freezing and melting i.e. in winter and spring. In summer under a fractional sea ice cover, reduced turbulence restricts gas transfer, then seawater acts as buffer in which methane remains entrained. However, in autumn and winter surface convection initiates pronounced efflux of methane from the ice covered ocean to the atmosphere. Our results demonstrate that sea ice-sourced methane cycles seasonally between sea ice, sea-ice-influenced seawater and the atmosphere, while the deeper ocean remains decoupled. Freshening due to summer sea ice retreat will enhance this decoupling, which restricts the capacity of the deeper Arctic Ocean to act as a sink for this greenhouse gas. PMID:26553610

  12. Methane excess in Arctic surface water-triggered by sea ice formation and melting.

    PubMed

    Damm, E; Rudels, B; Schauer, U; Mau, S; Dieckmann, G

    2015-01-01

    Arctic amplification of global warming has led to increased summer sea ice retreat, which influences gas exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the atmosphere where sea ice previously acted as a physical barrier. Indeed, recently observed enhanced atmospheric methane concentrations in Arctic regions with fractional sea-ice cover point to unexpected feedbacks in cycling of methane. We report on methane excess in sea ice-influenced water masses in the interior Arctic Ocean and provide evidence that sea ice is a potential source. We show that methane release from sea ice into the ocean occurs via brine drainage during freezing and melting i.e. in winter and spring. In summer under a fractional sea ice cover, reduced turbulence restricts gas transfer, then seawater acts as buffer in which methane remains entrained. However, in autumn and winter surface convection initiates pronounced efflux of methane from the ice covered ocean to the atmosphere. Our results demonstrate that sea ice-sourced methane cycles seasonally between sea ice, sea-ice-influenced seawater and the atmosphere, while the deeper ocean remains decoupled. Freshening due to summer sea ice retreat will enhance this decoupling, which restricts the capacity of the deeper Arctic Ocean to act as a sink for this greenhouse gas. PMID:26553610

  13. Methane excess in Arctic surface water- triggered by sea ice formation and melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damm, E.; Rudels, B.; Schauer, U.; Mau, S.; Dieckmann, G.

    2015-11-01

    Arctic amplification of global warming has led to increased summer sea ice retreat, which influences gas exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the atmosphere where sea ice previously acted as a physical barrier. Indeed, recently observed enhanced atmospheric methane concentrations in Arctic regions with fractional sea-ice cover point to unexpected feedbacks in cycling of methane. We report on methane excess in sea ice-influenced water masses in the interior Arctic Ocean and provide evidence that sea ice is a potential source. We show that methane release from sea ice into the ocean occurs via brine drainage during freezing and melting i.e. in winter and spring. In summer under a fractional sea ice cover, reduced turbulence restricts gas transfer, then seawater acts as buffer in which methane remains entrained. However, in autumn and winter surface convection initiates pronounced efflux of methane from the ice covered ocean to the atmosphere. Our results demonstrate that sea ice-sourced methane cycles seasonally between sea ice, sea-ice-influenced seawater and the atmosphere, while the deeper ocean remains decoupled. Freshening due to summer sea ice retreat will enhance this decoupling, which restricts the capacity of the deeper Arctic Ocean to act as a sink for this greenhouse gas.

  14. Recalibration of Coupled Optical/Thermal MODIS Infrared Surface Melt Magnitude Retrieval During the Spatially-Extensive 2012 Greenland Ice Sheet Melt Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmosky, C. C.; Lampkin, D. J.; Reusch, D. B.; Reasons, J.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite based assessments of melt from passive microwave systems are typically used to detect the presence of surface melt on ice sheets and ice shelves, although they are limited in that they only provide an indication of melt occurrence and have coarse spatial resolution. This works further develops an algorithm for retrieving surface melt magnitude using coupled near-IR and thermal surface measurements from MODIS, calibrated by estimates of liquid water fraction (LWF) in the upper 1cm of the firn derived from a one-dimensional thermal snowmelt model (SNTHERM). SNTHERM was forced by hourly meteorological data from automatic weather station (AWS) data at several reference sites spanning a range of melt conditions across the Greenland Ice Sheet during the most extensive melt season in the MODIS satellite record, 2012. Effective melt magnitude or LWF was derived for 8-day composite periods covering the summer months of July and August at a 1km resolution over the entire ice sheet. This work represents a step forward in characterizing not only melt occurrence and duration but also melt magnitude, and at a higher spatial resolution than current passive microwave melt detection methods. Calibration using the 2012 melt season will allow detection of a wider range of surface melt conditions than prior assessments.

  15. Springtime melt onset on arctic sea ice from satellite observations and related atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliss, Angela C.

    The timing of snowmelt onset (MO) on Arctic sea ice derived from passive microwave satellite data is examined by determining the melting area (in km 2) on a daily basis for the spring and summer melt season months over the 1979 -- 2012 data record. The date of MO on Arctic sea ice has important implications for the amount of total solar energy absorbed by the ice-ocean system in a given year. Increasingly early mean MO dates have been recorded over the 34-year data record. Statistically significant trends indicate that MO is occurring 6.6 days decade-1 earlier in the year over all Arctic sea ice extent. Larger trends exist in sub-regions of the Arctic Ocean including the Barents, Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas and in the Central Arctic region. The Bering Sea is the only sub-region of the Arctic that has a positive trend in mean MO date indicating that melting is occurring later in the year. Temporal and spatial variability in melting events are examined in the time series of daily MO areas via the identification of several types of melting events. These melting events are characterized based on the magnitude of area melted and duration of the event. Daily maps of MO during melting events are compared with the atmospheric conditions from reanalysis data to investigate the nature of spatial variability in melting area. The occurrence of transient cyclones tends to produce large, contiguous areas of melting on sea ice located in the warm sector of the cyclone. By contrast, high pressure and attendant clear sky conditions tend to produce sporadic, discontinuous areas of melting area. Interannual variability in daily MO area is assessed using an annual accumulation of daily MO area for each melt season. Trends in mean MO dates are evident in the annual accumulations, however, regional variability is high and outlier events can occur. This work illustrates the need for a better understanding of the synoptic weather conditions leading to specific patterns in MO area to improve the predictability of early season Arctic sea ice response to a changing climate.

  16. Internal stress-induced melting below melting temperature at high-rate laser heating

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Yong Seok; Levitas, Valery I.

    2014-06-30

    In this Letter, continuum thermodynamic and phase field approaches (PFAs) predicted internal stress-induced reduction in melting temperature for laser-irradiated heating of a nanolayer. Internal stresses appear due to thermal strain under constrained conditions and completely relax during melting, producing an additional thermodynamic driving force for melting. Thermodynamic melting temperature for Al reduces from 933.67?K for a stress-free condition down to 898.1?K for uniaxial strain and to 920.8?K for plane strain. Our PFA simulations demonstrated barrierless surface-induced melt nucleation below these temperatures and propagation of two solid-melt interfaces toward each other at the temperatures very close to the corresponding predicted thermodynamic equilibrium temperatures for the heating rate Q?1.5110{sup 10}K/s. At higher heating rates, kinetic superheating competes with a reduction in melting temperature and melting under uniaxial strain occurs at 902.1?K for Q?=?1.51??10{sup 11?}K/s and 936.9?K for Q?=?1.46??10{sup 12?}K/s.

  17. Amplified melt and flow of the Greenland ice sheet driven by late-summer cyclonic rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Samuel H.; Hubbard, Alun; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.; Box, Jason E.; van As, Dirk; Scharrer, Kilian; Meierbachtol, Toby W.; Smeets, Paul C. J. P.; Harper, Joel T.; Johansson, Emma; Mottram, Ruth H.; Mikkelsen, Andreas B.; Wilhelms, Frank; Patton, Henry; Christoffersen, Poul; Hubbard, Bryn

    2015-08-01

    Intense rainfall events significantly affect Alpine and Alaskan glaciers through enhanced melting, ice-flow acceleration and subglacial sediment erosion, yet their impact on the Greenland ice sheet has not been assessed. Here we present measurements of ice velocity, subglacial water pressure and meteorological variables from the western margin of the Greenland ice sheet during a week of warm, wet cyclonic weather in late August and early September 2011. We find that extreme surface runoff from melt and rainfall led to a widespread acceleration in ice flow that extended 140 km into the ice-sheet interior. We suggest that the late-season timing was critical in promoting rapid runoff across an extensive bare ice surface that overwhelmed a subglacial hydrological system in transition to a less-efficient winter mode. Reanalysis data reveal that similar cyclonic weather conditions prevailed across southern and western Greenland during this time, and we observe a corresponding ice-flow response at all land- and marine-terminating glaciers in these regions for which data are available. Given that the advection of warm, moist air masses and rainfall over Greenland is expected to become more frequent in the coming decades, our findings portend a previously unforeseen vulnerability of the Greenland ice sheet to climate change.

  18. A data-constrained model for compatibility check of remotely sensed basal melting with the hydrography in front of Antarctic ice shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olbers, D.; Hellmer, H. H.; Buck, F. F. J. H.

    2014-02-01

    The ice shelf caverns around Antarctica are sources of cold and fresh water which contributes to the formation of Antarctic bottom water and thus to the ventilation of the deep basins of the World Ocean. While a realistic simulation of the cavern circulation requires high resolution, because of the complicated bottom topography and ice shelf morphology, the physics of melting and freezing at the ice shelf base is relatively simple. We have developed an analytically solvable box model of the cavern thermohaline state, using the formulation of melting and freezing as in Olbers and Hellmer (2010). There is high resolution along the cavern's path of the overturning circulation whereas the cross-path resolution is fairly coarse. The circulation in the cavern is prescribed and used as a tuning parameter to constrain the solution by attempting to match observed ranges for outflow temperature and salinity at the ice shelf front as well as of the mean basal melt rate. The method, tested for six Antarctic ice shelves, can be used for a quick estimate of melt/freeze rates and the overturning rate in particular caverns, given the temperature and salinity of the inflow and the above mentioned constrains for outflow and melting. In turn, the model can also be used for testing the compatibility of remotely sensed basal mass loss with observed cavern inflow characteristics.

  19. Contribution of glacial melt water to the recent Southern Ocean sea ice increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haid, Verena; Iovino, Dorotea

    2015-04-01

    In recent years climate change and global warming are topics that are discussed everywhere. Big concerns are the melting of land ice, the reduced summer sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean, and the general decline of the cryosphere. In contrast to those scenarios, the response of Antarctic sea ice to a warming climate is elaborate and puzzling: sea ice extent has been slightly increasing on a circumpolar scale during the last decades. Atmospheric data analysis ascribed this expansion to changes in the wind dynamics; simulations with climate-scale ocean model suggest that accelerated basal melting of ice shelves plays a major role. We investigate the influence of the glacial melt water on the sea ice of the Southern Ocean on the circumpolar and regional scales employing the ocean/sea ice NEMO-LIM coupled system at eddy-permitting resolution. The forcing of the sea ice-ocean model is supplied from the ERA-Interim data set. After a 25-year spin-up period the reference run supplies a realistic simulation of the period 2004-2013. Different volumes and distributions of melt water are applied in individual model runs spanning the same period and results are compared with the reference run. The results of this study will increase our understanding of the effect of climate change on the Southern Ocean at present and thus also of the future development. Questions like how long the increasing trend in sea ice will last or how fast it will be reversed once the tipping point is reached will be able to be addressed with more accuracy.

  20. The influence of coastal polynyas on the basal melting of ice shelves.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galton-Fenzi, Benjamin; Marsland, Simon; Meijers, Andrew; Fraser, Alex

    2010-05-01

    The dense water production from coastal polynyas can strongly modify local circulation patterns with implications for both net basal melting of ice shelves and dense water formation. Results are presented from two different ice-shelf/ocean models: one of the Amery Ice Shelf/Prydz Bay region; and one of the Mertz Glacier Ice Tongue region. The models are based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). Two important modifications have been made to improve the simulation of thermodynamic processes beneath ice shelves: the inclusion of direct basal melt/freeze processes; and the inclusion of frazil ice dynamics. The models are forced with tides and with a smoothy varying seasonal cycle of winds. Thermohaline and circulation fields are relaxed to a smoothly varying seasonal climatology at the lateral boundaries. The open ocean surface fluxes are modified by an imposed climatological sea-ice cover that includes the seasonal effect of polynyas. It was found that the Prydz Bay gyre and Mertz gyre are summertime features. Both the strength and direction of the gyres are controlled by the production of dense water from local coastal polynyas. The production of dense water creates a current that blocks the westward flowing coastal current and diverts it northward away from the coast. For the Amery region, the coastal current bypasses the Amery Ice Shelf and flows out of the Prydz Bay channel and westward along the slope front. During summer, when the polynyas in Prydz Bay are inactive, Modified Circumpolar Deep Water (MCDW) is entrained with the eastward flowing coastal current as part of the gyre circulation. Observations of sea-ice confirm the presence of the Prydz Bay gyre under these conditions. The melt rates are higher in winter (~0.8 m ice per year) compared with summer (~0.7 m ice per year). The melting is primarily driven by dense shelf waters, with sufficient negative bouyancy, that drain to the deepest parts of the ice shelf at ~2500m below mean sea level. Preliminary studies of the Mertz region show that times of highest basal melting correspond to the summertime movement of MCDW onto the shelf from the deep ocean. The model shows that the circulation in the Mertz depression is controlled seasonally by the formation of dense water that is formed in the polynya. The Mertz polynya also acts to block the movement of MCDW onto the shelf region and thus leads to lower melt rates during winter. Simulations that include a dynamic sea-ice model, without accounting for the effect of subgrid scale features, such as coastal polynyas, can potentially underestimate the production of dense shelf water, which has consequences for the basal melting of ice shelves. This research contributes to understanding how interaction between ice shelves and various forcing mechanisms can lead to changes in basal melt/freeze and dense water formation, which has major implications for the stability of ice shelves, sea level rise, and the salt budget of the global oceans.

  1. Channelized ice melting in the ocean boundary layer beneath Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Stanton, T P; Shaw, W J; Truffer, M; Corr, H F J; Peters, L E; Riverman, K L; Bindschadler, R; Holland, D M; Anandakrishnan, S

    2013-09-13

    Ice shelves play a key role in the mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheets by buttressing their seaward-flowing outlet glaciers; however, they are exposed to the underlying ocean and may weaken if ocean thermal forcing increases. An expedition to the ice shelf of the remote Pine Island Glacier, a major outlet of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet that has rapidly thinned and accelerated in recent decades, has been completed. Observations from geophysical surveys and long-term oceanographic instruments deployed down bore holes into the ocean cavity reveal a buoyancy-driven boundary layer within a basal channel that melts the channel apex by 0.06 meter per day, with near-zero melt rates along the flanks of the channel. A complex pattern of such channels is visible throughout the Pine Island Glacier shelf. PMID:24031016

  2. Physical Mechanisms Controlling Interannual and Seasonal Variations in Melt Pond Evolution on First-Year Sea Ice in the Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landy, J.; Ehn, J. K.; Shields, M.; Barber, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    At the transition between spring and summer, melt ponds form and evolve at the surface of Arctic sea ice, significantly modifying energy exchanges between the ice, atmosphere and ocean. Past observations have demonstrated that the fractional coverage of melt ponds on Arctic sea ice can vary widely over the course of a melt season, between years in the same location, and between regions. Here we present two years of melt pond observations from landfast, first-year sea ice in the Canadian Arctic, and analyze which physical mechanisms were responsible for considerable interannual variations in melt pond coverage. In general, the key factors affecting pond coverage were: (1) premelt surface topography, (2) the number of drainage features in the ice and locations of drainage channels, (3) the evolution of ice temperature, and (4) the surface energy balance. Terrestrial LiDAR measurements showed that the premelt topography was rougher in 2011 than in 2012, which led to interannual variations in maximum pond coverage and hydraulic head of 20 pp and 7 cm, respectively. A change in the meltwater balance (production minus drainage) caused the ponds to spread or recede over an area that was almost 90% larger in 2012 than in 2011. The LiDAR measurements also demonstrated that premelt topography was modified due to preferential melting under meltwater drainage channels. Some melt ponds in areas of low-lying premelt topography were unexpectedly drained as the ponds became elevated above deepening channels. Although the sea ice cover was 0.35 m thinner in 2012 than in 2011, ice interior temperatures remained colder later into June, delaying a transition in ice permeability that would allow vertical meltwater drainage from ponds. This permeability transition was observed in 2011 and contributed to a significant drop in pond coverage. For more information see: Landy, J., J. Ehn, M. Shields, and D. Barber (2014), Surface and melt pond evolution on landfast first-year sea ice in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119, doi:10.1002/2013JC009617.

  3. Can Arctic sea-ice melt be explained by atmospheric meridional transports? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjernstrom, M. K.; Graversen, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    The Arctic summer sea ice is melting away at an alarming rate, and it is now expected that an principally sea-ice free Arctic summer will occur much earlier than projected by the IPCC AR4 models. At the same time Arctic near-surface temperatures are rising at a rate much faster than the global average. The processes responsible for these changes are debated and many claim that local feedbacks, such as the surface albedo feedback, are the main culprits while other argue that remote effects, such as atmospheric circulation changes on synoptic and hemispheric scales, are the most important. We will explore the effects of the meridional transport by synoptic and larger scale atmospheric circulation on recent changes, using reanalysis data. It will be illustarated how this transport can contribute significant amounts of sensible heat, but also of atmospheric moisture such that local cloud feedbacks as well as the direct greenhouse effect of the water vapor contributes significantly to the surface energy balance over the Arctic polar cap.

  4. Melt anomalies on the Greenland Ice Sheet and large scale modes of atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, Russell

    The relationships between inter annual melt variability in Greenland and large scale atmospheric circulation are explored based on an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of melt in Greenland derived from passive microwave satellite observations. The first EOF of the melt anomalies was found to be highly representative of the spatial and temporal distribution of melt anomalies accounting for over 34% of the variability and the principal component (PC) time series is 98% correlated with the annual total melt extent time series. The leading melt PC is highly correlated with key features of the large scale atmospheric circulation both in the vicinity of Greenland and regions that are well removed. Some aspects of the atmospheric pressure anomaly fields related to melt in Greenland are congruent with the summer expression of the AO/NAO including the main center of action east of Greenland, however there are features of the melt related anomaly field that are not. During peak melt years there is a decrease in the pressure gradient between the Bearing Sea and more southerly latitudes resulting in a redistribution of the central Arctic low pressure toward the Pacific side of the Arctic basin. This pattern is expressed as a 50% correlation between melt in Greenland and the phase of planetary pressure wave #1 and #2 north of 50 N. The storm tracks related to increased melt in Greenland result in increased summer storm activity to the south and west of Greenland balanced by decreased cyclonic activity to the east and north. Comparison with the NAO related storm track highlights key differences relative to the melt related atmospheric circulation that lead to increased southerly flow directly into Greenland during years with increased melt. The pattern of summer sea ice concentration anomalies linked to the melt PC is remarkably similar to the spatial pattern of recent sea ice decline. The pattern of circulation anomalies associated with increased melt in Greenland likely accounts for some of the continued decline in sea ice concentrations in recent years particularly in the Beaufort Sea.

  5. Theoretical analysis for combined close-contact and natural convection melting in ice storage spherical capsule

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, T.S.; Kato, Hideki; Hoshina, Hidehiro

    1996-12-31

    Melting and freezing of water in a spherical capsule is of practical importance in ice storage system which is considered very promising to reduce peak electricity demand in the summer season. Heat transfer with melting and freezing of water in a capsule is quite complicated because of two heat transfer modes occurring within a capsule, i.e. one is close-contact melting mode between phase change material (PCM) and capsule material, and another is natural convection heat transfer in melt pool under the solid PCM. Owing to this complicated nature, there has been reported no detailed analysis up to date. In this article, the authors present mathematical formulation and numerical results on the transient melting (charging) heat transfer in a spherical ice storage capsule. In recent years, efforts have been devoted to clarify the mechanism of close-contact heat transfer for a single enclosure with various shapes. However, there is no theoretically exact numerical simulation considering both close-contact and natural convection melting processes within a spherical capsule. Two years ago, the world largest district heating and cooling (DHC) system was opened in Yokohama, near Tokyo, in which about six million spherical ice balls were installed in two vertical storage tanks with height of 28 meters. The results of the present analysis can be effectively applicable to that plant for a thermal design.

  6. Increased Arctic sea ice volume after anomalously low melting in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilling, Rachel L.; Ridout, Andy; Shepherd, Andrew; Wingham, Duncan J.

    2015-08-01

    Changes in Arctic sea ice volume affect regional heat and freshwater budgets and patterns of atmospheric circulation at lower latitudes. Despite a well-documented decline in summer Arctic sea ice extent by about 40% since the late 1970s, it has been difficult to quantify trends in sea ice volume because detailed thickness observations have been lacking. Here we present an assessment of the changes in Northern Hemisphere sea ice thickness and volume using five years of CryoSat-2 measurements. Between autumn 2010 and 2012, there was a 14% reduction in Arctic sea ice volume, in keeping with the long-term decline in extent. However, we observe 33% and 25% more ice in autumn 2013 and 2014, respectively, relative to the 2010-2012 seasonal mean, which offset earlier losses. This increase was caused by the retention of thick sea ice northwest of Greenland during 2013 which, in turn, was associated with a 5% drop in the number of days on which melting occurred--conditions more typical of the late 1990s. In contrast, springtime Arctic sea ice volume has remained stable. The sharp increase in sea ice volume after just one cool summer suggests that Arctic sea ice may be more resilient than has been previously considered.

  7. Distinguishing ice from snow for melt modeling using daily observations from MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittger, Karl; Bryant, Anne C.; Brodzik, Mary J.; Painter, Thomas H.; Armstrong, Richard

    2014-05-01

    In high mountainous regions of the Earth during melt periods, both seasonal snow and glacier ice melt may contribute to surface water and ground water feeding streams. In these regions there are often few in-situ observations that can help distinguish between the two components of melt, particularly across large mountain ranges. Understanding the contribution of melt water from the seasonal snow and glacier ice sources informs us about the current state of the water cycle and how a changing climate may alter the water cycle. In this study, we analyze daily time series of MODIS data products to distinguish ice from snow as the seasonal snowpack recedes, revealing melt over glacier ice surfaces. Broadband albedo increases as ice is exposed because of larger grain sizes and dust/debris on the glacier surface. To investigate the grain sizes we use estimates from the MODIS Snow Covered Area and Grain Size Model (MODSCAG) and MODIS Dust Radiative Forcing in Snow (MODDRFS) derived from MODIS surface reflectance (MOD09GA). MODSCAG uses the shape of the spectrum selected by a spectral mixture analysis model while MODDRFS uses the Normalized Difference Grain Size Index (NDGSI). Comparison of the grain sizes with grain sizes derived from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer have demonstrated higher accuracy for the NDGSI approach. In addition to analysis of grain sizes, we use 2 standard albedo products from the MODIS, the Terra Daily Snow Cover algorithm (MOD10A1) that uses a narrow-to-broadband conversion scheme to create an integrated broadband albedo and Surface Reflectance BRDF/Albedo (MOD43) product that provides albedo in three broad bands. We focus on the Hunza River basin, in the Upper Indus located in Northern Pakistan. We use the annual minimum ice and snow from the MODICE Persistent Ice and Snow (MODICE) algorithm to identify glaciated regions for analysis. The methods (MODSCAG, MODDRFS, MOD10A1, MOD43) all show sensitivity to exposed glacier surfaces. Further work will use a time series of melt modeling in this region to determine the contributions from seasonal snow versus glacier ice melt.

  8. New insights into ice growth and melting modifications by antifreeze proteins.

    PubMed

    Bar-Dolev, Maya; Celik, Yeliz; Wettlaufer, J S; Davies, Peter L; Braslavsky, Ido

    2012-12-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) evolved in many organisms, allowing them to survive in cold climates by controlling ice crystal growth. The specific interactions of AFPs with ice determine their potential applications in agriculture, food preservation and medicine. AFPs control the shapes of ice crystals in a manner characteristic of the particular AFP type. Moderately active AFPs cause the formation of elongated bipyramidal crystals, often with seemingly defined facets, while hyperactive AFPs produce more varied crystal shapes. These different morphologies are generally considered to be growth shapes. In a series of bright light and fluorescent microscopy observations of ice crystals in solutions containing different AFPs, we show that crystal shaping also occurs during melting. In particular, the characteristic ice shapes observed in solutions of most hyperactive AFPs are formed during melting. We relate these findings to the affinities of the hyperactive AFPs for the basal plane of ice. Our results demonstrate the relation between basal plane affinity and hyperactivity and show a clear difference in the ice-shaping mechanisms of most moderate and hyperactive AFPs. This study provides key aspects associated with the identification of hyperactive AFPs. PMID:22787007

  9. New insights into ice growth and melting modifications by antifreeze proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Dolev, Maya; Celik, Yeliz; Wettlaufer, J. S.; Davies, Peter L.; Braslavsky, Ido

    2012-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) evolved in many organisms, allowing them to survive in cold climates by controlling ice crystal growth. The specific interactions of AFPs with ice determine their potential applications in agriculture, food preservation and medicine. AFPs control the shapes of ice crystals in a manner characteristic of the particular AFP type. Moderately active AFPs cause the formation of elongated bipyramidal crystals, often with seemingly defined facets, while hyperactive AFPs produce more varied crystal shapes. These different morphologies are generally considered to be growth shapes. In a series of bright light and fluorescent microscopy observations of ice crystals in solutions containing different AFPs, we show that crystal shaping also occurs during melting. In particular, the characteristic ice shapes observed in solutions of most hyperactive AFPs are formed during melting. We relate these findings to the affinities of the hyperactive AFPs for the basal plane of ice. Our results demonstrate the relation between basal plane affinity and hyperactivity and show a clear difference in the ice-shaping mechanisms of most moderate and hyperactive AFPs. This study provides key aspects associated with the identification of hyperactive AFPs. PMID:22787007

  10. Investigation of SMOS Sea Ice Thickness Retrieval with respect to the Ice Temperature Gradient within an Ice Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian-Kunze, X.; Maass, N.; Kaleschke, L.

    2014-12-01

    Following the launch of European Space Agency's (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission, it has been shown that brightness temperatures at a low microwave frequency of 1.4 GHz (about 21 cm wave length) are sensitive to sea ice properties. In contrast to the higher frequencies at which previous microwave sensors have been operated, the radiation over sea ice measured at L-band originates not only from the surface but also from the deeper parts of the ice, thus contains information of sea ice thickness. An iterative retrieval algorithm has been developed, based on a thermodynamic sea ice model and a three-layer radiative transfer model. The algorithm explicitly takes variations of ice temperature and ice salinity into account. Furthermore, ice thickness variations within a SMOS footprint are considered through a statistical thickness distribution function. This algorithm has been used for the continuous operational production of SMOS-based sea ice thickness data set from 2010 on at the University of Hamburg. In the current operational retrieval algorithm, the emissivity model does not correctly account for vertical gradients of ice temperature and salinity. The invalid assumption of a vertically homogeneous ice layer could introduce uncertainties because the relative brine volume and thus the permittivity depends on ice temperature and salinity. A first investigation of the influence of ice temperature gradient on the ice permittivity, and thus the retrieval of SMOS ice thickness will be shown.

  11. EOS Aqua AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice Validation Program: Intercomparison Between Modeled and Measured Sea Ice Brightness Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroeve, J.; Markus, T.; Cavalieri, D. J.; Maslanik, J.; Sturm, M.; Henrichs, J.; Gasiewski, A.; Klein, M.

    2004-01-01

    During March 2003, an extensive field campaign was conducted near Barrow, Alaska to validate AQUA Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) sea ice products. Field, airborne and satellite data were collected over three different types of sea ice: 1) first year ice with little deformation, 2) first year ice with various amounts of deformation and 3) mixed first year ice and multi-year ice with various degrees of deformation. The validation plan relies primarily on comparisons between satellite, aircraft flights and ground-based measurements. Although these efforts are important, key aspects such as the effects of atmospheric conditions, snow properties, surface roughness, melt processes, etc on the sea ice algorithms are not sufficiently well understood or documented. To improve our understanding of these effects, we combined the detailed, in-situ data collection from the 2003 field campaign with radiance modeling using a radiative transfer model to simulate the top of the atmosphere AMSR brightness temperatures. This study reports on the results of the simulations for a variety of snow and ice types and compares the results with the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (NOAA) (ETL) (PSR) microwave radiometer that was flown on the NASA P-3.

  12. Sensitive response of the Greenland Ice Sheet to surface melt drainage over a soft bed.

    PubMed

    Bougamont, M; Christoffersen, P; Hubbard, A L; Fitzpatrick, A A; Doyle, S H; Carter, S P

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic response of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) depends on feedbacks between surface meltwater delivery to the subglacial environment and ice flow. Recent work has highlighted an important role of hydrological processes in regulating the ice flow, but models have so far overlooked the mechanical effect of soft basal sediment. Here we use a three-dimensional model to investigate hydrological controls on a GrIS soft-bedded region. Our results demonstrate that weakening and strengthening of subglacial sediment, associated with the seasonal delivery of surface meltwater to the bed, modulates ice flow consistent with observations. We propose that sedimentary control on ice flow is a viable alternative to existing models of evolving hydrological systems, and find a strong link between the annual flow stability, and the frequency of high meltwater discharge events. Consequently, the observed GrIS resilience to enhanced melt could be compromised if runoff variability increases further with future climate warming. PMID:25262753

  13. Sensitive response of the Greenland Ice Sheet to surface melt drainage over a soft bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougamont, M.; Christoffersen, P.; Hubbard, A. L.,; Fitzpatrick, A. A.; Doyle, S. H.; Carter, S. P.

    2014-09-01

    The dynamic response of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) depends on feedbacks between surface meltwater delivery to the subglacial environment and ice flow. Recent work has highlighted an important role of hydrological processes in regulating the ice flow, but models have so far overlooked the mechanical effect of soft basal sediment. Here we use a three-dimensional model to investigate hydrological controls on a GrIS soft-bedded region. Our results demonstrate that weakening and strengthening of subglacial sediment, associated with the seasonal delivery of surface meltwater to the bed, modulates ice flow consistent with observations. We propose that sedimentary control on ice flow is a viable alternative to existing models of evolving hydrological systems, and find a strong link between the annual flow stability, and the frequency of high meltwater discharge events. Consequently, the observed GrIS resilience to enhanced melt could be compromised if runoff variability increases further with future climate warming.

  14. Method For Synthesizing Extremely High-Temperature Melting Materials

    DOEpatents

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise (Chicago, IL); Glorieux, Benoit (Perpignan, FR)

    2005-11-22

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as borides, carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an Aerodynamic Levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  15. Method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials

    DOEpatents

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise (Chicago, IL); Glorieux, Benoit (Perpignan, FR)

    2007-11-06

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an aerodynamic levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  16. Method for Synthesizing Extremeley High Temperature Melting Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise and Glorieux, Benoit

    2005-11-22

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as borides, carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an Aerodynamic Levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  17. Direct Observations of Melt-Water Lake Drainage and the Establishment of an Efficient Surface to Basal Water Connection on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S. B.; Joughin, I.; Behn, M. D.; Howat, I.; King, M. A.; Lizarralde, D.; Bhatia, M. P.

    2007-12-01

    Melt water lakes are recurrent features on the surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet margin that collect a large fraction of the annual surface melt across the ablation region. Many of these lakes fill and drain seasonally and are hypothesized to be a significant source of surface melt water to the ice sheet bed. We present results from field campaigns during the summers of 2006 and 2007 to investigate the filling and draining of two lakes, and the dynamic response of the ice sheet to drainage events. Measurements include air temperature, lake-water level, seismicity and local ice motion. One of the instrumented lakes was observed to be actively discharging water through a meltwater-cut channel in the side of the lake basin, which followed a deeply incised (5-10 m) supraglacial stream for nearly a kilometer before cascading into a moulin. The second instrumented lake drained catastrophically through a series of fractures and moulins that opened beneath the lake and that were subsequently mapped in the field following drainage. At this site, the 2.7-km-diameter lake, holding on the order of 0.03 km3 of water, drained entirely through 1 km of ice thickness in less than 2 hours. The peak rate of water flow during this event exceeds the average flow over Niagara Falls. This drainage event coincided with increased seismicity as well as rapid glacier uplift (1.2 m) and horizontal acceleration to nearly 8 km/yr as measured on the ice surface near the lake shoreline. Subsequent subsidence and deceleration of the ice sheet occurred over the following 24 hours. These observations provide evidence for the injection of surface melt water directly to the ice sheet bed, and also indicate the presence of an efficient basal drainage system that can quickly disperse large inputs of surface melt water.

  18. Heat sources for glacial ice melt in a west Greenland tidewater outlet glacier fjord: The role of subglacial freshwater discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendtsen, Jrgen; Mortensen, John; Lennert, Kunuk; Rysgaard, Sren

    2015-05-01

    The melting of tidewater outlet glaciers from the Greenland Ice Sheet contributes significantly to global sea level rise. Accelerated mass loss is related to melt processes in front of calving glaciers, yet the role of ocean heat transports is poorly understood. Here we present the first direct measurements from a subglacial plume in front of a calving tidewater outlet glacier. Surface salinity in the plume corresponded to a meltwater content of 7%, which is indicative of significant entrainment of warm bottom water and, according to plume model calculations, significant ice melt. Energy balance of the area near the glacier showed that ice melt was mainly due to ocean heat transport and that direct plume-associated melt was only important in periods with high meltwater discharge rates of ~100 m3 s-1. Ocean mixing outside of the plume area was thus the primary heat source for melting glacier ice.

  19. Empirical Retrieval of Surface Melt Magnitude from Coupled MODIS Optical and Thermal Measurements over the Greenland Ice Sheet during the 2001 Ablation Season

    PubMed Central

    Lampkin, Derrick; Peng, Rui

    2008-01-01

    Accelerated ice flow near the equilibrium line of west-central Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) has been attributed to an increase in infiltrated surface melt water as a response to climate warming. The assessment of surface melting events must be more than the detection of melt onset or extent. Retrieval of surface melt magnitude is necessary to improve understanding of ice sheet flow and surface melt coupling. In this paper, we report on a new technique to quantify the magnitude of surface melt. Cloud-free dates of June 10, July 5, 7, 9, and 11, 2001 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily reflectance Band 5 (1.230-1.250?m) and surface temperature images rescaled to 1km over western Greenland were used in the retrieval algorithm. An optical-thermal feature space partitioned as a function of melt magnitude was derived using a one-dimensional thermal snowmelt model (SNTHERM89). SNTHERM89 was forced by hourly meteorological data from the Greenland Climate Network (GC-Net) at reference sites spanning dry snow, percolation, and wet snow zones in the Jakobshavn drainage basin in western GIS. Melt magnitude or effective melt (E-melt) was derived for satellite composite periods covering May, June, and July displaying low fractions (0-1%) at elevations greater than 2500m and fractions at or greater than 15% at elevations lower than 1000m assessed for only the upper 5 cm of the snow surface. Validation of E-melt involved comparison of intensity to dry and wet zones determined from QSCAT backscatter. Higher intensities (> 8%) were distributed in wet snow zones, while lower intensities were grouped in dry zones at a first order accuracy of ? 2%.

  20. Effect of Frozen Storage Temperature on the Quality of Premium Ice Cream.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Hee; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Chun, Ji-Yeon; Hong, Geun-Pyo; Davaatseren, Munkhtugs; Choi, Mi-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The market sales of premium ice cream have paralleled the growth in consumer desire for rich flavor and taste. Storage temperature is a major consideration in preserving the quality attributes of premium ice cream products for both the manufacturer and retailers during prolonged storage. We investigated the effect of storage temperature (-18℃, -30℃, -50℃, and -70℃) and storage times, up to 52 wk, on the quality attributes of premium ice cream. Quality attributes tested included ice crystal size, air cell size, melting resistance, and color. Ice crystal size increased from 40.3 μm to 100.1 μm after 52 wk of storage at -18℃. When ice cream samples were stored at -50℃ or -70℃, ice crystal size slightly increased from 40.3 μm to 57-58 μm. Initial air cell size increased from 37.1 μm to 87.7 μm after storage at -18℃ for 52 wk. However, for storage temperatures of -50℃ and -70℃, air cell size increased only slightly from 37.1 μm to 46-47 μm. Low storage temperature (-50℃ and -70℃) resulted in better melt resistance and minimized color changes in comparison to high temperature storage (-18℃ and -30℃). In our study, quality changes in premium ice cream were gradually minimized according to decrease in storage temperature up to-50℃. No significant beneficial effect of -70℃ storage was found in quality attributes. In the scope of our experiment, we recommend a storage temperature of -50℃ to preserve the quality attributes of premium ice cream. PMID:26877639

  1. Effect of Frozen Storage Temperature on the Quality of Premium Ice Cream

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Hee; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Chun, Ji-Yeon; Hong, Geun-Pyo

    2015-01-01

    The market sales of premium ice cream have paralleled the growth in consumer desire for rich flavor and taste. Storage temperature is a major consideration in preserving the quality attributes of premium ice cream products for both the manufacturer and retailers during prolonged storage. We investigated the effect of storage temperature (−18℃, −30℃, −50℃, and −70℃) and storage times, up to 52 wk, on the quality attributes of premium ice cream. Quality attributes tested included ice crystal size, air cell size, melting resistance, and color. Ice crystal size increased from 40.3 μm to 100.1 μm after 52 wk of storage at −18℃. When ice cream samples were stored at −50℃ or −70℃, ice crystal size slightly increased from 40.3 μm to 57-58 μm. Initial air cell size increased from 37.1 μm to 87.7 μm after storage at −18℃ for 52 wk. However, for storage temperatures of −50℃ and −70℃, air cell size increased only slightly from 37.1 μm to 46-47 μm. Low storage temperature (−50℃ and −70℃) resulted in better melt resistance and minimized color changes in comparison to high temperature storage (−18℃ and −30℃). In our study, quality changes in premium ice cream were gradually minimized according to decrease in storage temperature up to−50℃. No significant beneficial effect of −70℃ storage was found in quality attributes. In the scope of our experiment, we recommend a storage temperature of −50℃ to preserve the quality attributes of premium ice cream. PMID:26877639

  2. Aragonite undersaturation in the Arctic Ocean: effects of ocean acidification and sea ice melt.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Kawai, Michiyo; McLaughlin, Fiona A; Carmack, Eddy C; Nishino, Shigeto; Shimada, Koji

    2009-11-20

    The increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and attendant increase in ocean acidification and sea ice melt act together to decrease the saturation state of calcium carbonate in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean. In 2008, surface waters were undersaturated with respect to aragonite, a relatively soluble form of calcium carbonate found in plankton and invertebrates. Undersaturation was found to be a direct consequence of the recent extensive melting of sea ice in the Canada Basin. In addition, the retreat of the ice edge well past the shelf-break has produced conditions favorable to enhanced upwelling of subsurface, aragonite-undersaturated water onto the Arctic continental shelf. Undersaturation will affect both planktonic and benthic calcifying biota and therefore the composition of the Arctic ecosystem. PMID:19965425

  3. Spatial and temporal evolution of melt pond area and depth based on Arctic sea ice simulations from 1990 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, D.; Feltham, D. L.; Flocco, D.

    2012-12-01

    Melt ponds form on Arctic sea ice during the melting season and their presence affects the heat and mass balances of the ice cover, mainly by decreasing the value of the surface albedo by up to 20%. We have developed a melt pond model suitable for forecasting the presence of melt ponds based on sea ice conditions. This model has been incorporated into the Los Alamos CICE sea ice model, the sea ice component of several IPCC climate models. Simulations for the period 1990 to 2012 are in good agreement with observed ice concentration. The maximum pond area occurs in the beginning of July with an Arctic mean of 25% (fraction of sea ice). The inter-annual variability is strong with the lowest maximum fraction of 15% in 1996 and the highest maximum fraction of 38% in 2011. In 2007, the melt pond area is exceptionally high in the early season (June). Spatial distributions show variation of pond fraction between 5% and 70%. The reasons for the inhomogeneity are analyzed with respect to driving factors: melt rate, sea ice topography, loss of melt water (e.g. due to leads and ridging).

  4. Towards Estimate of Present Day Ice Melting in Polar Regions From Altimetry, Gravity, Ocean Bottom Pressure and GPS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y.; Wu, X.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Munneke, P. K.; Simonsen, S. B.; van der Wal, W.; Vermeersen, B. L.

    2013-12-01

    The ice sheet in Polar Regions stores the largest freshwater bodies on Earth, sufficient to elevate global sea level by more than 65 meters if melted. The earth may have entered an intensive ice-melting episode, possibly due to anthropogenic global warming rather than natural orbit variations. Determining present-day ice mass balance, however, is complicated by the fact that most observations contain both present day ice melting signal and residual signals from past glacier melting. Despite decades of progress in geodynamic modeling and new observations, significant uncertainties remain in both. The key to separate present-day ice mass change and signals from past melting is to include data of different physical characteristics. We conducted a new global kinematic inversion scheme to estimate both present-day ice melting and past glacier signatures simultaneously and assess their contribution to current and future global mean sea level change. Our approach is designed to invert and separate present-day melting signal in the spherical harmonic domain using a globally distributed interdisciplinary data with distinct physical information. Interesting results with unprecedented precisions have been achieved so far. We will present our results of the estimated present-day ice mass balance trend in both Greenland and Antarctica ice sheet as well as other regions where significant mass change occurs.

  5. Non-equilibrium melting processes of silicate melts with different silica content at low-temperature plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasov, V.; Volokitin, G.; Skripnikova, N.; Volokitin, O.; Shekhovtsov, V.; Pfuch, A.

    2015-11-01

    This article is devoted to research the possibility of high-temperature silicate melts producing from different silica content at low-temperature plasma taking into account nonequilibrium melting processes.

  6. The influence of double-diffusive processes on the melting of ice in the Arctic Ocean: laboratory analogue experiments and their interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, J. S.; Veronis, G.

    2004-03-01

    This study has been motivated by two oceanographic observations: an increased rate of melting of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean, and the advance of an anomalously warm tongue of Atlantic water across the Arctic below the halocline over the last few decades. A series of laboratory experiments has been carried out in order to explore the physical principles underlying these phenomena, and the possibility that the extra heating at depth is responsible for the enhanced melting rate. A tank was filled with salt solution having various constant vertical density gradients. A block of ice one third of the length of the tank was floated on the surface at one end, and the rest of the surface and the walls of the tank were insulated. When no extra heat was supplied the melting rate (loss of weight of the ice in 1 h) systematically decreased as the stratification was changed from homogeneous fluid to increasingly large density gradients, while keeping the salinity of the solution in contact with the ice constant. An analogue of the intruding Atlantic water was produced by heating the lower portion of the vertical end wall at the end of the tank opposite to the ice end, keeping its temperature constant, and using the same range of salinity gradients as in the unheated experiments. Again the melting rate decreased as the density gradient was increased, but for low gradients it was larger than that in the unheated experiments. Above a certain intermediate gradient there was no significant difference in melting rate between the unheated and heated runs. The melting data were supplemented by photographs and vertical temperature and salinity profiles. The upward transfer of heat from the body of the fluid to melt the ice was clearly double-diffusive: overturning layers, separated by 'diffusive' interfaces, were visible on shadowgraphs, and the thickness of the layers decreased as the density gradient increased. The mean thickness of the layers through the depth of the tank also systematically decreased as the density gradient increased. With weak gradients an extra heat flux to the ice came from the intruding heated layer, but at large gradients this tongue of warm water at depth did not add to the flux near the surface. Though they were obtained in a simple, arbitrary and fixed geometry, we believe that the results of these experiments can be used as the basis for a better physical understanding of the melting rates of ice in the Arctic under various conditions.

  7. Ikaite crystals in melting sea ice - implications for pCO2 and pH levels in Arctic surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rysgaard, S.; Glud, R. N.; Lennert, K.; Cooper, M.; Halden, N.; Leakey, R. J. G.; Hawthorne, F. C.; Barber, D.

    2012-03-01

    A major issue of Arctic marine science is to understand whether the Arctic Ocean is, or will be, a source or sink for air-sea CO2 exchange. This has been complicated by the recent discoveries of ikaite (CaCO36H2O) in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, which indicate that multiple chemical transformations occur in sea ice with a possible effect on CO2 and pH conditions in surface waters. Here we report on biogeochemical conditions, microscopic examinations and x-ray diffraction analysis of single crystals from an actively melting 1.7 km2 (0.5-1 m thick) drifting ice floe in the Fram Strait during summer. Our findings show that ikaite crystals are present throughout the sea ice but with larger crystals appearing in the upper ice layers. Ikaite crystals placed at elevated temperatures gradually disintegrated into smaller crystallites and dissolved. During our field campaign in late June, melt reduced the ice flow thickness by ca. 0.2 m per week and resulted in an estimated 1.6 ppm decrease of pCO2 in the ocean surface mixed layer. This corresponds to an air-sea CO2 uptake of 11 mmol m-2 sea ice d-1 or to 3.5 ton km-2 ice floe week-1.

  8. Surface and basal sea ice melt from autonomous buoy arrays during the 2014 sea ice retreat in the Beaufort/Chukchi Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksym, T. L.; Wilkinson, J.; Hwang, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    As the Arctic continues its transition to a seasonal ice cover, the nature and role of the processes driving sea ice retreat are expected to change. Key questions revolve around how the coupling between dynamics and thermodynamic processes and potential changes in the role of melt ponds contribute to an accelerated seasonal ice retreat. To address these issues, 44 autonomous platforms were deployed in four arrays in the Beaufort Sea in March, 2014, with an additional array deployed in August in the Chukchi Sea to monitor the evolution of ice conditions during the seasonal sea ice retreat. Each "5-dice" array included four or five co-sited ice mass balance buoys (IMB) and wave buoys with digital cameras, and one automatic weather station (AWS) at the array center. The sensors on these buoys, combined with satellite imagery monitoring the large-scale evolution of the ice cover, provide a near-complete history of the processes involved in the seasonal melt of sea ice. We present a preliminary analysis of the contributions of several key processes to the seasonal ice decay. The evolution of surface ponding was observed at several sites with differing ice types and surface morphologies. The records of surface melt and ice thickness demonstrate a key role of ice type in driving the evolution of the ice cover. Analysis of the surface forcing and estimates of solar energy partitioning between the surface and upper ocean is compared to the surface and basal mass balance from the IMBs. The role of ice divergence and deformation in driving sea ice decay - in particular its role in accelerating thermodynamic melt processes - is discussed.

  9. The Effects of Freezing, Melting and Partial Ice Cover on Gas Transport in Laboratory Seawater Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loose, B.; McGillis, W.; Schlosser, P.; Perovich, D.; Takahashi, T.

    2008-12-01

    Sea ice physico-chemical processes affect gas dynamics, which may be relevant to polar ocean budgets of climatically-active gases. We used SF6 and O2 as inert gas tracers in a tank experiment to observe the transport of gases between water, ice and air during freezing/melting and partial ice cover. The results show that during ice growth, the rejection of O2 and SF6 was greater than the rejection of salt per unit of ambient concentration in seawater. Unconsolidated ice crystal growth produced an increase in dissolved O2 concentration, indicating that the water-air gradient may favor gas evasion during the early stages of sea-ice formation. Measurements of the gas transfer velocity (k), using SF6 and O2 during conditions of partial ice cover exceed the proportionality between the fraction of open water and k determined between 0% and 100% open water conditions. At 15% open water, k equals 35% of k during ice-free conditions, indicating the importance of under-ice turbulence for gas exchange. In our experiments most of this turbulence was produced by pumps installed for circulation of the water in the tank to avoid density stratification. Varying the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) delivered to the water by these pumps produced a correspondent variation in k. Measurements of TKE using particle velocimetry suggest that turbulence in the ice-water boundary layer dominated the convection driven by heat loss through the open water, and the magnitude of net TKE production was similar to that measured beneath drifting ice in the field.

  10. Volume dependence of the melting temperature for aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. K.; Sharma, B. K.

    2010-08-01

    We present a simple and straightforward relationship for evaluating the volume dependence of melting temperature based on the Lindemann's melting equation (F.A. Lindemann, Z. Phys. 11 (1910) 609) and the Al'tshular et al. model for the volume dependence of the Gruneisen parameter (L.V. Al'tshuler, S.E. Brusnikin, E.A. Kuz' menkov, J. Appl. Mech. Tech. Phys. 28 (1987) 129). The formula for the volume dependence of melting temperature obtained in the present study has been used to determine the results for aluminium up to a pressure range of 77 GPa. The results obtained for the melting temperature present a good agreement with the available experimental data.

  11. Impact of melt ponds on decrease of Arctic summer sea ice based on simulations from 1980 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, David; Feltham, Daniel; Flocco, Daniela

    2013-04-01

    Melt ponds form on Arctic sea ice during the melting season and their presence affects the heat and mass balances of the ice cover, mainly by decreasing the value of the surface albedo by up to 20%. We have developed a melt pond model suitable for forecasting the presence of melt ponds based on sea ice conditions. This model has been incorporated into the Los Alamos CICE sea ice model, the sea ice component of several IPCC climate models. Simulations for the period 1980 to 2012 are in good agreement with observed ice concentration. The maximum pond area occurs in the beginning of July with an Arctic mean of 25% (fraction of sea ice). The inter-annual variability is strong with the lowest maximum fraction of 15% occurring in years with the largest September ice extent and the highest maximum fraction of nearly 40% in years with the lowest September ice extent. Can the pond fraction in July be used to predict the following September ice extent? Based on our 33 year long time series the connection and correlation of pond fraction and minimum sea ice extent will be quantified.

  12. Unusually loud ambient noise in tidewater glacier fjords: a signal of ice melt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettit, Erin C.; Lee, Kevin M.; Brann, Joel P.; Nystuen, Jeffrey A.; Wilson, Preston S.; O'Neel, Shad

    2015-01-01

    In glacierized fjords, the ice-ocean boundary is a physically and biologically dynamic environment that is sensitive to both glacier flow and ocean circulation. Ocean ambient noise offers insight into processes and change at the ice-ocean boundary. Here we characterize fjord ambient noise and show that the average noise levels are louder than nearly all measured natural oceanic environments (significantly louder than sea ice and non-glacierized fjords). Icy Bay, Alaska has an annual average sound pressure level of 120 dB (re 1 μPa) with a broad peak between 1000 and 3000 Hz. Bubble formation in the water column as glacier ice melts is the noise source, with variability driven by fjord circulation patterns. Measurements from two additional fjords, in Alaska and Antarctica, support that this unusually loud ambient noise in Icy Bay is representative of glacierized fjords. These high noise levels likely alter the behavior of marine mammals.

  13. Unusually loud ambient noise in tidewater glacier fjords: A signal of ice melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettit, Erin Christine; Lee, Kevin Michael; Brann, Joel Palmer; Nystuen, Jeffrey Aaron; Wilson, Preston Scot; O'Neel, Shad

    2015-04-01

    In glacierized fjords, the ice-ocean boundary is a physically and biologically dynamic environment that is sensitive to both glacier flow and ocean circulation. Ocean ambient noise offers insight into processes and change at the ice-ocean boundary. Here we characterize fjord ambient noise and show that the average noise levels are louder than nearly all measured natural oceanic environments (significantly louder than sea ice and nonglacierized fjords). Icy Bay, Alaska, has an annual average sound pressure level of 120 dB (referenced to 1 ?Pa) with a broad peak between 1000 and 3000 Hz. Bubble formation in the water column as glacier ice melts is the noise source, with variability driven by fjord circulation patterns. Measurements from two additional fjords, in Alaska and Antarctica, support that this unusually loud ambient noise in Icy Bay is representative of glacierized fjords. These high noise levels likely alter the behavior of marine mammals.

  14. Estimating the time of melt onset and freeze onset over Arctic sea-ice area using active and passive microwave data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belchansky, G.I.; Douglas, D.C.; Mordvintsev, I.N.; Platonov, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate calculation of the time of melt onset, freeze onset, and melt duration over Arctic sea-ice area is crucial for climate and global change studies because it affects accuracy of surface energy balance estimates. This comparative study evaluates several methods used to estimate sea-ice melt and freeze onset dates: (1) the melt onset database derived from SSM/I passive microwave brightness temperatures (Tbs) using Drobot and Anderson's [J. Geophys. Res. 106 (2001) 24033] Advanced Horizontal Range Algorithm (AHRA) and distributed by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC); (2) the International Arctic Buoy Program/Polar Exchange at the Sea (IABP/POLES) surface air temperatures (SATs); (3) an elaborated version of the AHRA that uses IABP/POLES to avoid anomalous results (Passive Microwave and Surface Temperature Analysis [PMSTA]); (4) another elaborated version of the AHRA that uses T b variance to avoid anomalous results (Mean Differences and Standard Deviation Analysis [MDSDA]); (5) Smith's [J. Geophys. Res. 103 (1998) 27753] vertically polarized Tb algorithm for estimating melt onset in multiyear (MY) ice (SSM/I 19V-37V); and (6) analyses of concurrent backscattering cross section (????) and brightness temperature (T b) from OKEAN-01 satellite series. Melt onset and freeze onset maps were created and compared to understand how the estimates vary between different satellite instruments and methods over different Arctic sea-ice regions. Comparisons were made to evaluate relative sensitivities among the methods to slight adjustments of the Tb calibration coefficients and algorithm threshold values. Compared to the PMSTA method, the AHRA method tended to estimate significantly earlier melt dates, likely caused by the AHRA's susceptibility to prematurely identify melt onset conditions. In contrast, the IABP/POLES surface air temperature data tended to estimate later melt and earlier freeze in all but perennial ice. The MDSDA method was least sensitive to small adjustments of the SMMR-SSM/I inter-satellite calibration coefficients. Differences among methods varied by latitude. Freeze onset dates among methods were most disparate in southern latitudes, and tended to converge northward. Surface air temperatures (IABP/POLES) indicated freeze onset well before the MDSDA method, especially in southern peripheral seas, while PMSTA freeze estimates were generally intermediate. Surface air temperature data estimated latest melt onset dates in southern latitudes, but earliest melt onset in northern latitudes. The PMSTA estimated earliest melt onset dates in southern regions, and converged with the MDSDA northward. Because sea-ice melt and freeze are dynamical transitional processes, differences among these methods are associated with differing sensitivities to changing stages of environmental and physical development. These studies contribute to the growing body of documentation about the levels of disparity obtained when Arctic seasonal transition parameters are estimated using various types of microwave data and algorithms. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Simulation of snow and ice melt discharge into the Gepatsch reservoir (Kaunertal/Austrian Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanzer, Florian; Helfricht, Kay; Schneider, Katrin; Marke, Thomas; Kuhn, Michael; Strasser, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    We present an enhanced method to simulate snow and ice melt discharge into an Alpine reservoir (Gepatsch reservoir, tztal Alps, Tyrol/Austria) by combining a process based snow model with sophisticated data assimilation techniques. Within the frame of the alpS project MUSICALS (MUltiscale Snow/ICemelt Discharge Simulation into ALpine ReservoirS), snow cover distribution is analysed based on a set of high-resolution surface elevation datasets acquired from airborne laserscan (ALS) flights over the entire catchments (approx. 580 km, 23% glacierized) contributing directly or by diversion to discharge into the Gepatsch reservoir. The resulting maps of spatially distributed snow water equivalent (SWE) are compared to SWE maps produced by the snow model AMUNDSEN, a distributed physically based energy balance model specifically designed for high mountain regions. AMUNDSEN distinguishes between different types of snow and ice (new snow, old snow, firn and glacier ice) and accounts for their distinct properties. The initial ice thickness distribution is modeled based on digital elevation models and glacier outlines from the Austrian glacier inventory. This is required to account for changing runoff generated from glacier melt under conditions of glacier retreat. Discharge generation from calculated meltwater production and precipitation is simulated in AMUNDSEN using a linear reservoir model with five parallel reservoir cascades considering the distinct storage properties of snow, firn, ice, unglacierized areas and soil. Calibration of the recession coefficients is done separately for each subcatchment. MUSICALS aims to model discharge generated by spatially differentiated snow and ice melt more realistically and to develop a robust simulation tool that is able to calculate short-, middle- and long-term forecasts of reservoir inflow based on weather predictions and climate scenarios.

  16. Arctic warming: nonlinear impacts of sea-ice and glacier melt on seabird foraging.

    PubMed

    Grémillet, David; Fort, Jérôme; Amélineau, Françoise; Zakharova, Elena; Le Bot, Tangi; Sala, Enric; Gavrilo, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Arctic climate change has profound impacts on the cryosphere, notably via shrinking sea-ice cover and retreating glaciers, and it is essential to evaluate and forecast the ecological consequences of such changes. We studied zooplankton-feeding little auks (Alle alle), a key sentinel species of the Arctic, at their northernmost breeding site in Franz-Josef Land (80°N), Russian Arctic. We tested the hypothesis that little auks still benefit from pristine arctic environmental conditions in this remote area. To this end, we analysed remote sensing data on sea-ice and coastal glacier dynamics collected in our study area across 1979-2013. Further, we recorded little auk foraging behaviour using miniature electronic tags attached to the birds in the summer of 2013, and compared it with similar data collected at three localities across the Atlantic Arctic. We also compared current and historical data on Franz-Josef Land little auk diet, morphometrics and chick growth curves. Our analyses reveal that summer sea-ice retreated markedly during the last decade, leaving the Franz-Josef Land archipelago virtually sea-ice free each summer since 2005. This had a profound impact on little auk foraging, which lost their sea-ice-associated prey. Concomitantly, large coastal glaciers retreated rapidly, releasing large volumes of melt water. Zooplankton is stunned by cold and osmotic shock at the boundary between glacier melt and coastal waters, creating new foraging hotspots for little auks. Birds therefore switched from foraging at distant ice-edge localities, to highly profitable feeding at glacier melt-water fronts within <5 km of their breeding site. Through this behavioural plasticity, little auks maintained their chick growth rates, but showed a 4% decrease in adult body mass. Our study demonstrates that arctic cryosphere changes may have antagonistic ecological consequences on coastal trophic flow. Such nonlinear responses complicate modelling exercises of current and future polar ecosystem dynamics. PMID:25639886

  17. Modelling the impact of submarine frontal melting and ice mlange on glacier dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krug, J.; Durand, G.; Gagliardini, O.; Weiss, J.

    2015-01-01

    Two mechanisms are generally proposed to explain seasonal variations in the calving front of tidewater glaciers: submarine melting of the calving face and the mechanical back-force applied by the ice mlange. However, the way these processes affect the calving rate and the glacier dynamics remains uncertain. In this study, we used the finite element model Elmer/Ice to simulate the impact of these forcings on more than 200 two dimensional theoretical flowline glacier configurations. The model, which includes calving processes, suggests that frontal melting affects the position of the terminus only slightly (< a few hundred meters) and does not affect the pluriannual glacier mass balance at all. However, the ice mlange has a greater impact on the advance and retreat cycles of the glacier front (more than several 1000 m) and its consequences for the mass balance are not completely negligible, stressing the need for better characterization of forcing properties. We also show that ice mlange forcing against the calving face can mechanically prevent crevasse propagation at sea level and hence prevent calving. Results also revealed different behaviors in grounded and floating glaciers: in the case of a floating extension, the heaviest forcings can disrupt the glacier equilibrium by modifying its buttressing and ice flux at the grounding line.

  18. Polycrystalline methane hydrate: Synthesis from superheated ice, and low-temperature mechanical properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.; Durham, W.B.

    1998-01-01

    We describe a new and efficient technique to grow aggregates of pure methane hydrate in quantities suitable for physical and material properties testing. Test specimens were grown under static conditions by combining cold, pressurized CH4 gas with granulated H2O ice, and then warming the reactants to promote the reaction CH4(g) + 6H2O(s???1) ??? CH4??6H2O (methane hydrate). Hydrate formation evidently occurs at the nascent ice/liquid water interface on ice grain surfaces, and complete reaction was achieved by warming the system above the ice melting point and up to 290 K, at 25-30 MPa, for approximately 8 h. The resulting material is pure, cohesive, polycrystalline methane hydrate with controlled grain size and random orientation. Synthesis conditions placed the H2O ice well above its melting temperature while reaction progressed, yet samples and run records showed no evidence for bulk melting of the unreacted portions of ice grains. Control experiments using Ne, a non-hydrate-forming gas, showed that under otherwise identical conditions, the pressure reduction and latent heat associated with ice melting are easily detectable in our fabrication apparatus. These results suggest that under hydrate-forming conditions, H2O ice can persist metastably to temperatures well above its ordinary melting point while reacting to form hydrate. Direct observations of the hydrate growth process in a small, high-pressure optical cell verified these conclusions and revealed additional details of the hydrate growth process. Methane hydrate samples were then tested in constant-strain-rate deformation experiments at T = 140-200 K, Pc = 50-100 MPa, and ?? = 10-4 10-6 s-1. Measurements in both the brittle and ductile fields showed that methane hydrate has measurably different strength than H2O ice, and work hardens to an unusually high degree compared to other ices as well as to most metals and ceramics at high homologous temperatures. This work hardening may be related to a changing stoichiometry under pressure during plastic deformation; X-ray analyses showed that methane hydrate undergoes a process of solid-state disproportionation or exsolution during deformation at conditions well within its conventional stability field.

  19. Melting probes as a means to access the subsurface of Mars' polar caps and Jupiter's ice moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biele, J.; Ulamec, S.; Funke, O.; Engelhardt, M.

    There is a high scientific interest in exploring certain planetary icy environments in the solar system (Mars' polar caps, Europa and other icy satellites) motivated by the search for traces of life in these extreme environments as well as interest in planetary climate history as in the case of Mars. A promising technique to penetrate thick ice layers with small and reliable probes which do not require the heavy, complex and expensive equipment of a drilling rig is by melting. Contamination avoidance with respect to planetary protection requirements can be fulfilled using melting probes, since the melting channel refreezes behind the probe and shuts off the contact to the surface; also, in-situ decontamination of the probe is possible. Melting probes can be equipped with a suite of scientific instruments that are capable e.g. of determining the chemical and isotopic composition of the embedded or dissolved materials, of the ices themselves, of the dust content and possible traces of indigenous biological activity. Due to the still rather high energy demand to overcome the melting enthalpy, in case of extraterrestrial application (e.g. Europa or polar caps of Mars), only heating with radioactive isotopes seems feasible for reaching greater depths. The necessary power is driven by the desired penetration velocity (linearly) and the dimensions of the probe (proportional to the cross section). On Mars, however, solar cells could be used to power small tethered melting probes in polar summer. While such probes have successfully been used for terrestrial applications, e.g., in Antarctica in the 1990ies, the technology is not yet mature for space applications; for example, the behaviour in vacuum (below the triple point pressure of water, i.e., 611 Pa) needs to be assessed. We will report briefly on our laboratory tests with melting probes in vacuum and under very low temperatures to this end. Practical issues (impact of dust on the performance, gravity dependence, prevention of blocking, attitude control, power supply, communications) and engineering concepts will be discussed. For future missions to Europa (in particular in view of the ESA Cosmic Vision Programme), if planned to include a Surface Package, a melting probe may be the most adequate (and most easily realized) way to access the subsurface areas, protected from the intense ionising radiation in the Jovian system and most interesting from a biochemical and biological point of view.

  20. Low melting temperature alloy deployment mechanism and recent experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the concept of a low melting temperature alloy deployment mechanism, U.S. Patent 4,842,106. It begins with a brief history of conventional dimethyl-silicone fluid damped mechanisms. Design fundamentals of the new melting alloy mechanism are then introduced. Benefits of the new over the old are compared and contrasted. Recent experiments and lessons learned complete this paper.

  1. Substrate effect on the melting temperature of thin polyethylenefilms

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; Rafailovich, M.; Sokolov, J.; Gersappe, D.; Araki, T.; Zou, Y.; Kilcoyne, A.D.L.; Ade, H.; Marom, G.; Lustiger, A.

    2006-01-17

    Strong dependence of the crystal orientation, morphology,and melting temperature (Tm) on the substrate is observed in thesemicrystalline polyethylene thin films. The Tm decreases with the filmthickness when the film is thinner that a certain critical thickness andthe magnitude of the depression increases with increasing surfaceinteraction. We attribute the large Tm depression to the decrease in theoverall free energy on melting, which is caused by the substrateattraction force to the chains that competes against the interchain forcewhich drives the chains to crystallization.

  2. Fuel Rod Melt Progression Simulation Using Low-Temperature Melting Metal Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Seung Dong Lee; Suh, Kune Y.; GoonCherl Park; Un Chul Lee

    2002-07-01

    The TMI-2 accident and various severe fuel damage experiments have shown that core damage is likely to proceed through various states before the core slumps into the lower head. Numerous experiments were conducted to address when and how the core can lose its original geometry, what geometries are formed, and in what processes the core materials are transported to the lower plenum of the reactor pressure vessel. Core degradation progresses along the line of clad ballooning, clad oxidation, material interaction, metallic blockage, molten pool formation, melt progression, and relocation to the lower head. Relocation into the lower plenum may occur from the lateral periphery or from the bottom of the core depending upon the thermal and physical states of the pool. Determining the quantities and rate of molten material transfer to the lower head is important since significant amounts of molten material relocated to the lower head can threaten the vessel integrity by steam explosion and thermal and mechanical attack of the melt. In this paper the focus is placed on the melt flow regime on a cylindrical fuel rod utilizing the LAMDA (Lumped Analysis of Melting in Degrading Assemblies) facility at the Seoul National University. The downward relocation of the molten material is a combination of the external film flow and the internal pipe flow. The heater rods are 0.8 m long and are coated by a low-temperature melting metal alloy. The electrical internal heating method is employed during the test. External heating is adopted to simulate the exothermic Zircaloy-steam reaction. Tests are conducted in several quasi-steady-state conditions. Given the variable boundary conditions including the heat flux and the water level, observation is made for the melting location, progression, and the mass of molten material. Finally, the core melt progression model is developed from the visual inspection and quantitative analysis of the experimental data. As the core material relocates downwards a blockage may be formed and grow both radially and axially. The velocity of the melt can be calculated from a force balance between the gravity and frictional losses at the melt-rod interface. When the heater rod is uncovered completely, the melt progression is initiated at the mid-point, which is the hot spot in the rod. However, the melting location is elevated as the water level rises because of the downward heat transfer. Considering the melt flow as a film, the steady-state film thickness on the cylindrical heater rod and the average velocity are computed. The steady-state film flow rate is determined in terms of the density, film thickness, and film velocity. (authors)

  3. Scanning electron microscopy investigations of laboratory-grown gas clathrate hydrates formed from melting ice, and comparison to natural hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.; Circone, S.; Durham, W.B.

    2004-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate grain texture and pore structure development within various compositions of pure sI and sII gas hydrates synthesized in the laboratory, as well as in natural samples retrieved from marine (Gulf of Mexico) and permafrost (NW Canada) settings. Several samples of methane hydrate were also quenched after various extents of partial reaction for assessment of mid-synthesis textural progression. All laboratory-synthesized hydrates were grown under relatively high-temperature and high-pressure conditions from rounded ice grains with geometrically simple pore shapes, yet all resulting samples displayed extensive recrystallization with complex pore geometry. Growth fronts of mesoporous methane hydrate advancing into dense ice reactant were prevalent in those samples quenched after limited reaction below and at the ice point. As temperatures transgress the ice point, grain surfaces continue to develop a discrete "rind" of hydrate, typically 5 to 30 ??m thick. The cores then commonly melt, with rind microfracturing allowing migration of the melt to adjacent grain boundaries where it also forms hydrate. As the reaction continues under progressively warmer conditions, the hydrate product anneals to form dense and relatively pore-free regions of hydrate grains, in which grain size is typically several tens of micrometers. The prevalence of hollow, spheroidal shells of hydrate, coupled with extensive redistribution of reactant and product phases throughout reaction, implies that a diffusion-controlled shrinking-core model is an inappropriate description of sustained hydrate growth from melting ice. Completion of reaction at peak synthesis conditions then produces exceptional faceting and euhedral crystal growth along exposed pore walls. Further recrystallization or regrowth can then accompany even short-term exposure of synthetic hydrates to natural ocean-floor conditions, such that the final textures may closely mimic those observed in natural samples of marine origin. Of particular note, both the mesoporous and highly faceted textures seen at different stages during synthetic hydrate growth were notably absent from all examined hydrates recovered from a natural marine-environment setting.

  4. Computer simulation study of metastable ice VII and amorphous phases obtained by its melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slovk, Jan; Tanaka, Hideki

    2005-05-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of metastable ice VII and cubic ice Ic are carried out in order to examine (1) the ability of commonly used water interaction potentials to reproduce the properties of ices, and (2) the possibility of generating low-density amorphous (LDA) structures by heating ice VII, which is known to transform to LDA at 135K at normal pressure [S. Klotz, J. M. Besson, G. Hamel, R. J. Nelmes, J. S. Loveday, and W. G. Marshall, Nature (London) 398, 681 (1999)]. We test four simple empirical interaction potentials of water: TIP4P [W. L. Jorgensen, J. Chandrasekhar, J. D. Madura, R. W. Impey, and M. L. Klein, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 926 (1983)], SPC/E [H. J. C. Berendsen, J. R. Grigera, and T. P. Straatsma, J. Phys. Chem. B 91, 6269 (1987)], TIP5P [M. W. Mahoney and W. L. Jorgensen, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 8910 (2000)], and ST2 [F. H. Stillinger and A. Rahman, J. Chem. Phys. 60, 1545 (1974)]. We have found that TIP5P ice VII melts at 210 K, TIP4P at 90 K, and SPC/E at 70 K. Only TIP5P water after transition has a structure similar to that of LDA. TIP4P and SPC/E have almost identical structures, dissimilar to any known water or amorphous phases, but upon heating both slowly evolve towards LDA-like structure. ST2 ice VII is remarkably stable up to 430 K. TIP4P and SPC/E predict correctly the cubic ice collapse into a high-density amorphous ice (HDA) at 1GPa whereas TIP5P remains stable up to 5GPa. The densities of the simulated ice phases differ significantly, depending on the potential used, and are generally higher than experimental values. The importance of proper treatment of long-range electrostatic interactions is also discussed.

  5. Estimating the time of melt onset and freeze onset over Arctic sea-ice area using active and passive microwave data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belchansky, G.I.; Douglas, D.C.; Mordvintsev, I.N.; Platonov, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate calculation of the time of melt onset, freeze onset, and melt duration over Arctic sea-ice area is crucial for climate and global change studies because it affects accuracy of surface energy balance estimates. This comparative study evaluates several methods used to estimate sea-ice melt and freeze onset dates: (1) the melt onset database derived from SSM/I passive microwave brightness temperatures (Tbs) using Drobot and Anderson's [J. Geophys. Res. 106 (2001) 24033] Advanced Horizontal Range Algorithm (AHRA) and distributed by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC); (2) the International Arctic Buoy Program/Polar Exchange at the Sea (IABP/POLES) surface air temperatures (SATs); (3) an elaborated version of the AHRA that uses IABP/POLES to avoid anomalous results (Passive Microwave and Surface Temperature Analysis [PMSTA]); (4) another elaborated version of the AHRA that uses Tb variance to avoid anomalous results (Mean Differences and Standard Deviation Analysis [MDSDA]); (5) Smith's [J. Geophys. Res. 103 (1998) 27753] vertically polarized Tb algorithm for estimating melt onset in multiyear (MY) ice (SSM/I 19V - 37V); and (6) analyses of concurrent backscattering cross section (rj) and brightness temperature (Tb) from OKEAN-01 satellite series. Melt onset and freeze onset maps were created and compared to understand how the estimates vary between different satellite instruments and methods over different Arctic seaice regions. Comparisons were made to evaluate relative sensitivities among the methods to slight adjustments of the Tb calibration coefficients and algorithm threshold values. Compared to the PMSTA method, the AHRA method tended to estimate significantly earlier melt dates, likely caused by the AHRA's susceptibility to prematurely identify melt onset conditions. In contrast, the IABP/POLES surface air temperature data tended to estimate later melt and earlier freeze in all but perennial ice. The MDSDA method was least sensitive to small adjustments of the SMMR-SSM/I inter-satellite calibration coefficients. Differences among methods varied by latitude. Freeze onset dates among methods were most disparate in southern latitudes, and tended to converge northward. Surface air temperatures (IABP/POLES) indicated freeze onset well before the MDSDA method, especially in southern peripheral seas, while PMSTA freeze estimates were generally intermediate. Surface air temperature data estimated latest melt onset dates in southern latitudes, but earliest melt onset in northern latitudes. The PMSTA estimated earliest melt onset dates in southern regions, and converged with the MDSDA northward. Because sea-ice melt and freeze are dynamical transitional processes, differences among these methods are associated with differing sensitivities to changing stages of environmental and physical development. These studies contribute to the growing body of documentation about the levels of disparity obtained when Arctic seasonal transition parameters are estimated using various types of microwave data and algorithms.

  6. Local effects of ice floes and leads on skin sea surface temperature, mixing and gas transfer in the marginal ice zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappa, Christopher; Brumer, Sophia; Brown, Scott; LeBel, Deborah; McGillis, Wade; Schlosser, Peter; Loose, Brice

    2014-05-01

    Recent years have seen extreme changes in the Arctic. Marginal ice zones (MIZ), or areas where the "ice-albedo feedback" driven by solar warming is highest and ice melt is extensive, may provide insights into the extent of these changes. Furthermore, MIZ play a central role in setting the air-sea CO2 balance making them a critical component of the global carbon cycle. Incomplete understanding of how the sea-ice modulates gas fluxes renders it difficult to estimate the carbon budget in MIZ. Here, we investigate the turbulent mechanisms driving gas exchange in leads, polynyas and in the presence of ice floes using both field and laboratory measurements. Here, we present measurements of visible and IR imagery of melting ice floes in the marginal ice zone north of Oliktok Point AK in the Beaufort Sea made during the Marginal Ice Zone Ocean and Ice Observations and Processes EXperiment (MIZOPEX) in July-August 2013. The visible and IR imagery were taken from the unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) ScanEagle. The visible imagery clearly defines the scale of the ice floes. The IR imagery show distinct cooling of the skin sea surface temperature (SST) as well as an intricate circulation and mixing pattern that depends on the surface current, wind speed, and near-surface vertical temperature/salinity structure. Individual ice floes develop turbulent wakes as they drift and cause transient mixing of an influx of colder surface (fresh) melt water. We capture a melting and mixing event that explains the changing pattern observed in skin SST and is substantiated using laboratory experiments. The Gas Transfer through Polar Sea Ice experiment was performed at the US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (Hanover, NH) under varying ice coverage, winds speed, fetch and currents. Supporting measurements were made of air and water temperature, humidity, salinity and wave height. Air-side profiling provided momentum, heat, and CO2 fluxes. Transfer velocities are also estimated via the active controlled flux technique. Surface turbulence statistics derived from PIV and optical flow applied to infrared imagery are linked to subsurface turbulence and used to investigate how turbulent mechanisms at the ice-water boundary including shear and buoyancy contribute to the magnitude of the transfer. Gas exchange variability with lead size and enhancement near floes will be examined. Thanks are due to the entire MIZOPEX Team.

  7. Ice melt, sea level rise and superstorms: evidence from paleoclimate data, climate modeling, and modern observations that 2 °C global warming is highly dangerous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Hearty, P.; Ruedy, R.; Kelley, M.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Russell, G.; Tselioudis, G.; Cao, J.; Rignot, E.; Velicogna, I.; Kandiano, E.; von Schuckmann, K.; Kharecha, P.; Legrande, A. N.; Bauer, M.; Lo, K.-W.

    2015-07-01

    There is evidence of ice melt, sea level rise to +5-9 m, and extreme storms in the prior interglacial period that was less than 1 °C warmer than today. Human-made climate forcing is stronger and more rapid than paleo forcings, but much can be learned by combining insights from paleoclimate, climate modeling, and on-going observations. We argue that ice sheets in contact with the ocean are vulnerable to non-linear disintegration in response to ocean warming, and we posit that ice sheet mass loss can be approximated by a doubling time up to sea level rise of at least several meters. Doubling times of 10, 20 or 40 years yield sea level rise of several meters in 50, 100 or 200 years. Paleoclimate data reveal that subsurface ocean warming causes ice shelf melt and ice sheet discharge. Our climate model exposes amplifying feedbacks in the Southern Ocean that slow Antarctic bottom water formation and increase ocean temperature near ice shelf grounding lines, while cooling the surface ocean and increasing sea ice cover and water column stability. Ocean surface cooling, in the North Atlantic as well as the Southern Ocean, increases tropospheric horizontal temperature gradients, eddy kinetic energy and baroclinicity, which drive more powerful storms. We focus attention on the Southern Ocean's role in affecting atmospheric CO2 amount, which in turn is a tight control knob on global climate. The millennial (500-2000 year) time scale of deep ocean ventilation affects the time scale for natural CO2 change, thus the time scale for paleo global climate, ice sheet and sea level changes. This millennial carbon cycle time scale should not be misinterpreted as the ice sheet time scale for response to a rapid human-made climate forcing. Recent ice sheet melt rates have a doubling time near the lower end of the 10-40 year range. We conclude that 2 °C global warming above the preindustrial level, which would spur more ice shelf melt, is highly dangerous. Earth's energy imbalance, which must be eliminated to stabilize climate, provides a crucial metric.

  8. Basal Melt and Thickness Change of the Antarctic Ice Shelves Revealed by the Lagrangian Elevation Measurement from Satellite Laser Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.; Seo, K.; Scambos, T.

    2012-12-01

    We present a novel method for estimating the elevation change on the Antarctic ice shelves using laser altimetry data from the Ice Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat; 2003-2009). Unlike the conventional crossover or repeat-track analysis fixed on the geodetic position, we estimate the elevation change rate at points fixed on the surface of moving ice, i.e. in the Lagrangian coordinate system. The ICESat ground tracks are relocated into the Lagrangian coordinate system based on the velocity field from the interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and then the elevation change rate is measured from their crossover differences. The thickness change rates converted from the elevation change rates through a hydrostatic formula are applied to the mass conservation equation in the Lagrangian coordinate system, in order to derive the basal melt rate. In Lagrangian approach, the crossover difference is less affected by the small-scale surface relief on the moving ice, which causes the large uncertainty of elevation change rate in the conventional (Eulerian) crossover analysis. The basal melt derived from the mass conservation equation is also less sensitive to the noises of gridded ice thicknesses in the Largrangian approach than in the Eulerian approach. Our analysis provides a reliable map of basal melt rate and thickness change rate in the Antarctic ice shelves, which is a snapshot for the ICESat period. The highest ice thinning rates, accompanying strongest basal melts, are observed in the small ice shelves along the Amundsen Sea coast. In the Ross Ice Shelf, the ice thickness change is mainly controlled by the shutdown of Kamb Ice Stream. The ice thinning is dominant in the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf and strong within 150 km from the ice front.

  9. Early Mars climate near the Noachian-Hesperian boundary: Independent evidence for cold conditions from basal melting of the south polar ice sheet (Dorsa Argentea Formation) and implications for valley network formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fastook, James L.; Head, James W.; Marchant, David R.; Forget, Francois; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste

    2012-05-01

    Currently, and throughout much of the Amazonian, the mean annual surface temperatures of Mars are so cold that basal melting does not occur in ice sheets and glaciers and they are cold-based. The documented evidence for extensive and well-developed eskers (sediment-filled former sub-glacial meltwater channels) in the south circumpolar Dorsa Argentea Formation is an indication that basal melting and wet-based glaciation occurred at the South Pole near the Noachian-Hesperian boundary. We employ glacial accumulation and ice-flow models to distinguish between basal melting from bottom-up heat sources (elevated geothermal fluxes) and top-down induced basal melting (elevated atmospheric temperatures warming the ice). We show that under mean annual south polar atmospheric temperatures (-100 C) simulated in typical Amazonian climate experiments and typical Noachian-Hesperian geothermal heat fluxes (45-65 mW/m2), south polar ice accumulations remain cold-based. In order to produce significant basal melting with these typical geothermal heat fluxes, the mean annual south polar atmospheric temperatures must be raised from today's temperature at the surface (-100 C) to the range of -50 to -75 C. This mean annual polar surface atmospheric temperature range implies lower latitude mean annual temperatures that are likely to be below the melting point of water, and thus does not favor a "warm and wet" early Mars. Seasonal temperatures at lower latitudes, however, could range above the melting point of water, perhaps explaining the concurrent development of valley networks and open basin lakes in these areas. This treatment provides an independent estimate of the polar (and non-polar) surface temperatures near the Noachian-Hesperian boundary of Mars history and implies a cold and relatively dry Mars climate, similar to the Antarctic Dry Valleys, where seasonal melting forms transient streams and permanent ice-covered lakes in an otherwise hyperarid, hypothermal climate.

  10. Contributions of sub-debris melt and ice face retreat to the rapid deflation of the debris-covered Kennicott Glacier Terminus, Wrangell Mountains, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, L. S.; Anderson, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    Debris covered glaciers are common in tectonically active or highly erodible ranges such as the Himalaya, Tien Shan, Alps, Southern Alps, and the Wrangell Mountains. Debris cover has a variable effect on the mass balance profile depending on its thermal conductivity, albedo, and thickness. Although debris cover generally reduces melt, melt within debris covered zones is complicated by the presence of bare ice faces which retreat at high rates relative to melt beneath debris. As the need to extrapolate individual glacier mass balance into regional trends grows under a changing climate and rising sea level, it is imperative that we develop a full understanding of the factors that alter glacier mass balance, in this case: debris-cover and ice face retreat. In order to understand the influence of debris-cover on the retreat and deflation of glaciers, we completed a field campaign on the 43km long Kennicott Glacier in south-central Alaska from June to mid-August 2011. This valley glacier supports a 26km2 debris-covered terminus with a high concentration of exposed ice faces relative to other debris covered glaciers. The debris covered zone exhibits extensive thermokarst and the distribution of ice cliffs is influenced by the presence of large sinuous supraglacial streams. Previous laser altimetry research on Kennicott glacier reveals that surface elevations have decreased in the debris-covered terminus at a rate of 0.34m/yr (1957-2000), and Precipitation-Temperature Area Altitude modeling shows monotonic ice loss from 1957-2008. Rapid deflation in the debris-covered terminus is likely the result of reduced ice advection from up glacier or increased melt in the debris-covered portion of the glacier over the last half century. As a first step to understanding this rapid surface elevation reduction, we document melt beneath debris of variable thickness at 60 locations using ablation stakes, the horizontal retreat of 62 ice faces, and debris depth and surface temperature at 200 sites in the debris covered zone. We collected air temperature at three locations and temperature profiles through the debris at eight locations. We will document the orientation and concentration of ice faces using IKONOS imagery and then use a positive degree melt method with these temperature measurements to determine the contributions of melt beneath debris and ice face retreat to the total melt at the terminus. Debris surface temperature data will be used to validate 30m resolution Landsat infrared data for the Kennicott Glacier and provide a necessary check on the infrared imagery often used in debris-covered glacier research. Thermal conductivity, derived from our profiles of temperature through the debris, in conjunction with our debris thickness data will be used to model the melt produced under the debris covered terminus of the glacier and be compared to our empirical results. In further research, we will employ the feature tracking method to reveal spatial and temporal changes in advection and its effect on the elevation and extent of the debris-covered terminus of the Kennicott Glacier.

  11. Real time thermal imaging of high temperature semiconductor melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wargo, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    A real time thermal imaging system with temperature resolution better than + or - 1 C and spatial resolution of better than 0.5 mm was developed and applied to the analysis of melt surface thermal field distributions in both Czochralski and liquid encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) growth configurations. The melt is viewed in near normal incidence by a high resolution charge coupled device camera to which is attached a very narrow bandpass filter. The resulting image is digitized and processed using a pipelined pixel processor operating at an effective 40 million operations per second thus permitting real time high frequency spatial and temporal filtering of the high temperature scene. A multi-pixel averaging algorithm was developed which permits localized, low noise sensing of temperature variations at any location in the hot zone as a function of time. This signial is used to implement initial elements of a feedforward growth control scheme which is aimed at reducing disturbances to the melt caused by the batch nature of the growth process. The effect of magnetic melt stabilization on radial melt temperature distributions was measured using this technique. Problems associated with residual internal reflections and non-optimized path geometry are discussed.

  12. Quantum Melting of Charge Ice and Non-Fermi-Liquid Behavior: An Exact Solution for the Extended Falicov-Kimball Model in the Ice-Rule Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udagawa, Masafumi; Ishizuka, Hiroaki; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2010-06-01

    An exact solution is obtained for a model of itinerant electrons coupled to ice-rule variables on the tetrahedron Husimi cactus, an analogue of the Bethe lattice of corner-sharing tetrahedra. It reveals a quantum critical point with the emergence of non-Fermi-liquid behavior in melting of the charge ice insulator. The electronic structure is compared with the numerical results for the pyrochlore-lattice model to elucidate the physics of electron systems interacting with the tetrahedron ice rule.

  13. Ice melting and downward transport of meltwater by two-phase flow in Europa's ice shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalousová, Klára; Souček, Ondřej; Tobie, Gabriel; Choblet, Gaël.; Čadek, Ondřej

    2014-03-01

    With its young surface, very few impact craters, and the abundance of tectonic and cryovolcanic features, Europa has likely been subjected to relatively recent endogenic activity. Morphological analyses of chaos terrains and double ridges suggest the presence of liquid water within the ice shell a few kilometers below the surface, which may result from enhanced tidal heating. A major issue concerns the thermal/gravitational stability of these water reservoirs. Here we investigate the conditions under which water can be generated and transported through Europa's ice shell. We address particularly the downward two-phase flow by solving the equations for a two-phase mixture of water ice and liquid water in one-dimensional geometry. In the case of purely temperate ice, we show that water is transported downward very efficiently in the form of successive porosity waves. The time needed to transport the water from the subsurface region to the underlying ocean varies between ˜1 and 100 kyr, depending mostly on the ice permeability. We further show that water produced in the head of tidally heated hot plumes never accumulates at shallow depths and is rapidly extracted from the ice shell (within less than a few hundred kiloyears). Our calculations indicate that liquid water will be largely absent in the near subsurface, with the possible exception of cold conductive regions subjected to strong tidal friction. Recently active double ridges subjected to large tidally driven strike-slip motions are perhaps the most likely candidates for the detection of transient water lenses at shallow depths on Europa.

  14. Significant melting of ice-wedges and formation of thermocirques on hill-slopes of thermokarst lakes in Central Yakutia (Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjourn, Antoine; Costard, Franois; Gargani, Julien; Fedorov, Alexander; Skorve, Johnny

    2013-04-01

    On Earth, permafrost containing a high ice volume (referred as ice-rich) are sensible to climate change, they have been regionally degraded (thermokarst) during the early Holocene climatic optimum forming numerous thermokarst lakes in Central Yakutia (eastern Siberia). Recent temperature increases in the Arctic and Subarctic have been significantly greater than global averages. The frequency and magnitude of terrain disturbances associated with thawing permafrost are increasing in these regions and are thought to intensify in the future. Therefore, understand how is the current development of thermokarst is a critical question. Here, we describe the significant melting of ice-wedges on slopes of thermokarst lakes that leads to formation of amphitheatrical hollows referred as thermocirques. The evolution of thermocirques in Central Yakutia has been little studied and analyzing their formation could help to understand the recent thermokarst in relation to climate change in Central Yakutia. We studied the thermocirques at two scales: (i) field surveys of different thermocirques in July 2009-2010 and October 2012 to examine the processes and origin of melting of ice-wedges and; (ii) photo-interpretation of time series of satellite images (KH-9 Hexagon images of 6-9 m/pixel and GeoEye images of 50 cm/pixel) to study the temporal evolution of thermocirques. The melting of ground-ice on the scarp of thermocirque triggers falls and small mud-flows that induce the retreat of the scarp parallel to itself. Based on field studies and on GeoEye image comparison, we show that their rate of retrogressive growth is 1-2 m/year. On the hill-slopes of lakes, the thermokarst could be initiated by different processes that lead to the uncover and then melting of ice-wedges: thermal erosion by the waves of the ice-rich bluff; active-layer detachment (a form of slope failure linked to detachment of the seasonally thawed upper ground); flowing of water on the slope (precipitation) or; increase of near-surface temperature (insolation, summer temperature). We suggest that the preferential occurrence of thermocirques on south-facing slopes of lakes could emphasize the role of insolation as a factor controlling the preferential melting of ice-wedges. The air temperatures are shown to have increased in Central Yakutia over years and deciphering if ongoing climate warming could lead to an increased development of thermocirques along lake slopes in Central Yakutia is a question that we will address in future study.

  15. A Phenomenological Model for Predicting Melting Temperatures of DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Garima; Bhyravabhotla, Jayaram

    2010-01-01

    We report here a novel method for predicting melting temperatures of DNA sequences based on a molecular-level hypothesis on the phenomena underlying the thermal denaturation of DNA. The model presented here attempts to quantify the energetic components stabilizing the structure of DNA such as base pairing, stacking, and ionic environment which are partially disrupted during the process of thermal denaturation. The model gives a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r) of ?0.98 between experimental and predicted melting temperatures for over 300 sequences of varying lengths ranging from 15-mers to genomic level and at different salt concentrations. The approach is implemented as a web tool (www.scfbio-iitd.res.in/chemgenome/Tm_predictor.jsp) for the prediction of melting temperatures of DNA sequences. PMID:20865157

  16. A phenomenological model for predicting melting temperatures of DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Garima; Bhyravabhotla, Jayaram

    2010-01-01

    We report here a novel method for predicting melting temperatures of DNA sequences based on a molecular-level hypothesis on the phenomena underlying the thermal denaturation of DNA. The model presented here attempts to quantify the energetic components stabilizing the structure of DNA such as base pairing, stacking, and ionic environment which are partially disrupted during the process of thermal denaturation. The model gives a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r) of approximately 0.98 between experimental and predicted melting temperatures for over 300 sequences of varying lengths ranging from 15-mers to genomic level and at different salt concentrations. The approach is implemented as a web tool (www.scfbio-iitd.res.in/chemgenome/Tm_predictor.jsp) for the prediction of melting temperatures of DNA sequences. PMID:20865157

  17. Liquidus Temperature Depression in Cryolitic Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solheim, Asbjørn

    2012-08-01

    The electrolyte in Hall-Héroult cells for the manufacture of primary aluminum nominally contains only cryolite (Na3AlF6) with additions of AlF3, CaF2, and Al2O3. However, impurities are present, entering the process with the feedstock. The effect on the liquidus temperature by the impurities cannot be calculated correctly by the well-known equation for freezing-point depression in binary systems simply because the electrolyte cannot be regarded as a binary system. By extending the equation for freezing-point depression to the ternary system NaF-AlF3-B, it appeared that the acidity of the impurity B plays a major role. Some calculations were made using an ideal Temkin model, and for most types of impurities, the effect on the liquidus temperature will be larger in an industrial electrolyte than what can be estimated from the equation for freezing-point depression in cryolite. Experimental data on the liquidus temperature in the system Na3AlF6-AlF3-Al2O3-CaF2-MgF2 show that the effect of MgF2 on the liquidus temperature increases strongly with decreasing NaF/AlF3 molar ratio, and it is suggested that MgF2 forms an anion complex, probably MgF{4/2-}.

  18. Correlation Studies of Sea Ice Concentration with Surface Temperature and Meltponding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, J. C.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of sea ice concentrations derived from passive microwave data is studied in conjunction with co-registered high resolution infrared and visible satellite data. Cloud free infrared and visible data provide surface temperature and large scale surface characteristics, respectively, that can be used to better understand regional and seasonal fluctuations in ice concentrations. Results from correlation analysis of ice concentration versus surface temperature data show the intuitively expected negative relationship but the strength in the relationship is unexpectedly very strong. In the Antarctic, the correlation is consistently very high spatially when yearly anomalies are used, and not so high in some areas when seasonal anomalies are used, especially during spring and summer. In the monthly anomalies, the correlation is also good, especially in dynamically active regions. The expanse in the anomalies in surface temperature are shown to go way beyond the sea ice regions into the open ocean and continental areas, suggesting strong atmospheric forcing. Weak correlations are normally found in highly consolidated areas, where large changes in temperature do not cause large changes in ice concentration on a short term, and in open ocean polynya areas, where the change in ice concentration may be cause by melt from the underside of the ice. In the Arctic, strong correlations between surface temperature and ice concentration are evident for all seasons except during the summer. In the summer, factors such as meltponding, surface wetness, and ice breakup, as detected by high resolution visible data, contributes to larger uncertainties in the determination of ice concentration and the lack of good correlation of the variables.

  19. Research Spotlight: Climate response to melting of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-03-01

    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) could collapse in the future as the rising sea level and warming climate destabilize the sheet. Previous studies have shown that melting of WAIS could contribute to several meters of global sea level rise over the next few centuries. Some studies have pointed to evidence that WAIS has collapsed in the past during previous interglacial periods, which could give clues to what might happen in the future. To gain additional insight into how the Earth's climate would respond to a collapse of WAIS, Menviel et al. simulated the effects on global climate and the carbon cycle of a massive meltwater discharge from the collapse of the ice sheet. They found that a large meltwater discharge into the Southern Ocean would lead to a substantial cooling of the Southern Ocean, causing a northward expansion of the sea ice margin. Southern Hemisphere westerly winds would intensify. Furthermore, the formation of cold Antarctic Bottom Water would be suppressed, and subsurface warming would take place in areas where Antarctic Bottom Water is formed under present-day conditions. This subsurface warming would lead to positive feedback that would accelerate the melting of the ice sheet. (Paleoceanography, doi:10.1029/2009PA001892, 2010)

  20. Eutectic melting temperature of the lowermost Earth's mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrault, D.; Lo Nigro, G.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Bouhifd, M.; Garbarino, G.; Mezouar, M.

    2009-12-01

    Partial melting of the Earth's deep mantle probably occurred at different stages of its formation as a consequence of meteoritic impacts and seismology suggests that it even continues today at the core-mantle boundary. Melts are important because they dominate the chemical evolution of the different Earth's reservoirs and more generally the dynamics of the whole planet. Unfortunately, the most critical parameter, that is the temperature profile inside the deep Earth, remains poorly constrained accross the planet history. Experimental investigations of the melting properties of materials representative of the deep Earth at relevant P-T conditions can provide anchor points to refine past and present temperature profiles and consequently determine the degree of melting at the different geological periods. Previous works report melting relations in the uppermost lower mantle region, using the multi-anvil press [1,2]. On the other hand, the pyrolite solidus was determined up to 65 GPa using optical observations in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LH-DAC) [3]. Finally, the melting temperature of (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 olivine is documented at core-mantle boundary (CMB) conditions by shock wave experiments [4]. Solely based on these reports, experimental data remain too sparse to draw a definite melting curve for the lower mantle in the relevant 25-135 GPa pressure range. We reinvestigated melting properties of lower mantle materials by means of in-situ angle dispersive X-ray diffraction measurements in the LH-DAC at the ESRF [5]. Experiments were performed in an extended P-T range for two starting materials: forsterite and a glass with chondrite composition. In both cases, the aim was to determine the onset of melting, and thus the eutectic melting temperatures as a function of pressure. Melting was evidenced from drastic changes of diffraction peak shape on the image plate, major changes in diffraction intensities in the integrated pattern, disappearance of diffraction rings, and changes in the relation between sample-temperature and laser-power. In this work, we show that temperatures higher than 4000 K are necessary for melting mean mantle at the 135 GPa pressure found at the core mantle boundary (CMB). Such temperature is much higher than that from estimated actual geotherms. Therefore, melting at the CMB can only occur if (i) pyrolitic mantle resides for a very long time in contact with the outer core, (ii) the mantle composition is severely affected by additional elements depressing the solidus such as water or (iii) the temperature gradient in the D" region is amazingly steep. Other implications for the temperature state and the lower mantle properties will be presented. References (1) Ito et al., Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 143-144, 397-406, 2004 (2) Ohtani et al., Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 100, 97-114, 1997 (3) Zerr et al., Science, 281, 243-246, 1998 (4) Holland and Ahrens, Science, 275, 1623-1625, 1997 (5) Schultz et al., High Press. Res., 25, 1, 71-83, 2005.

  1. Communication: The Effect of Dispersion Corrections on the Melting Temperature of Liquid Water

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Soohaeng; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2011-03-28

    We report the results of the melting temperature (Tm) of liquid water for the Becke-Lee- Yang-Parr (BLYP) density functional including Dispersion corrections (BLYP-D) and the TTM3-F ab-initio based classical potential via constant pressure and constant enthalpy (NPH) ensemble molecular dynamics simulations of an ice Ih-liquid coexisting system. The inclusion of dispersion corrections to BLYP lowers the melting temperature of liquid water to Tm=360 K, which is a large improvement over the value of Tm > 400 K obtained with the original BLYP functional. The ab-initio based flexible, polarizable Thole-type model (TTM3-F) produces Tm=248 K from classical molecular dynamics simulations.

  2. Clathrates: Computer programs to calculate fluid inclusion V- X properties using clathrate melting temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, Ronald J.

    1997-02-01

    Knowledge of final clathrate melting temperatures is essential for estimates of salinity, bulk composition and density in H 2O-gas-rich fluid inclusions by nondestructive methods. The salinities calculated strongly depend on the thermodynamic model used, which involves many independent intensive properties and related parameters, such as osmotic coefficients, fugacity coefficients, gas solubilities. Four programs have been developed ( DENSITY, ICE, Q2, and NOSALT) using Turbo C++ version 3.0 to handle clathrate melting temperatures with several initiation procedures. These programs allow the calculation of bulk densities and compositions ( V- X properties) for H 2O-CO 2-CH 4-N 2-NaCl-KCl-CaCl 2-rich fluid inclusions using the clathrate melting temperature in combnation with liquidvapour equilibria, data from Raman spectroscopic analysis of the nonaqueous phases, and volume fraction estimates of the phases present. Calculations are restricted to fluid compositions less than eutectic salinities. If volume estimates are not provided, the programs calculate only the properties of the individual phases present in fluid inclusions during clathrate melting, including the salinity. Errors in measured parameters and in volume fraction estimates, which may be relatively large, are also handled by the programs.

  3. Thermal expansivity, bulk modulus, and melting curve of H2O-ice VII to 20 GPa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fei, Yingwei; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Hemley, Russell J.

    1993-01-01

    Equation of state properties of ice VII and fluid H2O at high pressures and temperatures have been studied experimentally from 6 to 20 GPa and 300-700 K. The techniques involve direct measurements of the unit-cell volume of the solid using synchrotron X-ray diffraction with an externally heated diamond-anvil cell. The pressure dependencies of the volume and bulk modulus of ice VII at room temperature are in good agreement with previous synchrotron X-ray studies. The thermal expansivity was determined as a function of pressure and the results fit to a newly proposed phenomenological relation and to a Mie-Gruneisen equation of state formalism. The onset of melting of ice VII was determined directly by X-ray diffraction at a series of pressures and found to be in accord with previous volumetric determinations. Thermodynamic calculations based on the new data are performed to evaluate the range of validity of previously proposed equations of state for fluid water derived from static and shock-wave compression experiments and from simulations.

  4. Mixing of the immiscible: hydrocarbons in water-ice near the ice crystallization temperature.

    PubMed

    Lignell, Antti; Gudipati, Murthy S

    2015-03-19

    Structural changes in hydrocarbon-doped water-ice during amorphous to crystalline phase conversion are investigated using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as probes. We show that aggregation of impurity molecules occurs due to the amorphous-crystalline transition in ice, especially when they are hydrophobic molecules such as PAHs. Using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), Fourier-transform Infrared (FTIR), and laser-induced-fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopic techniques, we show that, although ice infrared absorption features change from a broad structureless band corresponding to amorphous ice to a sharp structured crystalline ice bands, simultaneously, sharper isolated PAH UV absorption features measured in the amorphous ice host turn broad upon ice crystallization. A simultaneous decrease in the monomer fluorescence and increase in the excimer emission band is observed, a clear indication for the formation of PAH molecular aggregates when amorphous ice is converted to crystalline ice at higher temperatures. Similar to the irreversible amorphous-crystalline phase transitions, the UV, fluorescence, and excimer emissions indicate that PAHs undergo irreversible aggregation. Our studies suggest that organic impurities exist as aggregates rather than monomers trapped in crystalline water-ice when cycled through temperatures that convert amorphous ice to crystalline ice, rendering a better insight into phenomena such as the formation of cometary crust. This aggregate formation also may significantly change the secondary reaction pathways and rates in impurity-doped ices in the lab, on Earth, in the solar system, and in the interstellar medium. PMID:25302532

  5. Forecasting method of ice blocks fall by logistic model and melting degree-days calculation: a case study in northern Gaspésie, Québec, Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Francis; Hétu, Bernard; Allard, Michel

    2013-04-01

    Ice blocks fall is a serious natural hazard that frequently happens in mountainous cold region. The ice blocks result from the melting and collapse of rockwall icings (ice walls or frozen waterfalls). Environment Canada weather data were analysed for 440 cases of ice blocks fall events reported in northern Gaspésie by the "Ministère des Transports du Québec" (M.T.Q.). The analysis shows that the ice blocks fall are mainly controlled by an increase of the air temperature above 0oC. The melting degree-days (DDmelt) can be used to follow the temperature variations and the heat transfer into the ice bodies. Furthermore, large daily temperature changes, especially drastic drops of temperatures and freeze-thaw cycles, can induce enough mechanical stress to favour the opening of cracks and possibly cause the collapse of unstable ice structures such as freestanding ice formations. By following the evolution of the DDmelt and the best logistic model, it is possible to forecast the collapse of some of the most problematic rockwall icings and target the most hazardous periods along the northern Gaspésie roads.

  6. Revisiting the Potential of Melt Pond Fraction as a Predictor for the Seasonal Arctic Sea Ice Extent Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jiping; Song, Mirong; Horton, Radley M.; Hu, Yongyun

    2015-01-01

    The rapid change in Arctic sea ice in recent decades has led to a rising demand for seasonal sea ice prediction. A recent modeling study that employed a prognostic melt pond model in a stand-alone sea ice model found that September Arctic sea ice extent can be accurately predicted from the melt pond fraction in May. Here we show that satellite observations show no evidence of predictive skill in May. However, we find that a significantly strong relationship (high predictability) first emerges as the melt pond fraction is integrated from early May to late June, with a persistent strong relationship only occurring after late July. Our results highlight that late spring to mid summer melt pond information is required to improve the prediction skill of the seasonal sea ice minimum. Furthermore, satellite observations indicate a much higher percentage of melt pond formation in May than does the aforementioned model simulation, which points to the need to reconcile model simulations and observations, in order to better understand key mechanisms of melt pond formation and evolution and their influence on sea ice state.

  7. Revisiting the potential of melt pond fraction as a predictor for the seasonal Arctic sea ice extent minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiping; Song, Mirong; Horton, Radley M.; Hu, Yongyun

    2015-05-01

    The rapid change in Arctic sea ice in recent decades has led to a rising demand for seasonal sea ice prediction. A recent modeling study that employed a prognostic melt pond model in a stand-alone sea ice model found that September Arctic sea ice extent can be accurately predicted from the melt pond fraction in May. Here we show that satellite observations show no evidence of predictive skill in May. However, we find that a significantly strong relationship (high predictability) first emerges as the melt pond fraction is integrated from early May to late June, with a persistent strong relationship only occurring after late July. Our results highlight that late spring to mid summer melt pond information is required to improve the prediction skill of the seasonal sea ice minimum. Furthermore, satellite observations indicate a much higher percentage of melt pond formation in May than does the aforementioned model simulation, which points to the need to reconcile model simulations and observations, in order to better understand key mechanisms of melt pond formation and evolution and their influence on sea ice state.

  8. Optical Measurements and Analysis of Sea Ice in the Chukchi Sea during the Onset of 2014 Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arntsen, A. E.; Stwertka, C.; Polashenski, C.; Perovich, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    Partitioning of solar radiation by the sea ice-ocean system controls sea ice melt and light availability for primary production in the upper ocean. Morphological changes occurring as the Chukchi Sea transitions to a first year ice cover with a higher melt pond fraction are likely altering the surface radiation budget and thereby impacting physical and biological systems. Field observations were conducted from the onset of snowmelt to the formation of melt ponds at several locations in the Chukchi Sea from May 18 to June 17, 2014. The state and variability of incident, reflected, and transmitted spectral irradiance as well as vector and scalar photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were measured coincident with snow depth and ice thickness. These in situ observations were combined with coincident satellite imagery to describe the radiation budget and solar partitioning at an aggregate scale. Results show decreasing albedo and increasing transmission as melt progressed with trends interrupted by a late season snowfall. Albedo declined steadily from a high of 85% to a low of 53%, while transmitted light available for primary production remained well below 1% prior to snow melt and when highly absorbing algae was present at the bottom of the ice. Comparison of our solar partitioning observations with similar observations in multiyear ice highlights the profound impact changing ice morphology has on solar partitioning of the Chukchi Sea.

  9. Radar attenuation and temperature within the Greenland Ice Sheet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacGregor, Joseph A; Li, Jilu; Paden, John D; Catania, Ginny A; Clow, Gary D.; Fahnestock, Mark A; Gogineni, S. Prasad; Grimm, Robert E.; Morlighem, Mathieu; Nandi, Soumyaroop; Seroussi, Helene; Stillman, David E

    2015-01-01

    The flow of ice is temperature-dependent, but direct measurements of englacial temperature are sparse. The dielectric attenuation of radio waves through ice is also temperature-dependent, and radar sounding of ice sheets is sensitive to this attenuation. Here we estimate depth-averaged radar-attenuation rates within the Greenland Ice Sheet from airborne radar-sounding data and its associated radiostratigraphy. Using existing empirical relationships between temperature, chemistry, and radar attenuation, we then infer the depth-averaged englacial temperature. The dated radiostratigraphy permits a correction for the confounding effect of spatially varying ice chemistry. Where radar transects intersect boreholes, radar-inferred temperature is consistently higher than that measured directly. We attribute this discrepancy to the poorly recognized frequency dependence of the radar-attenuation rate and correct for this effect empirically, resulting in a robust relationship between radar-inferred and borehole-measured depth-averaged temperature. Radar-inferred englacial temperature is often lower than modern surface temperature and that of a steady state ice-sheet model, particularly in southern Greenland. This pattern suggests that past changes in surface boundary conditions (temperature and accumulation rate) affect the ice sheet's present temperature structure over a much larger area than previously recognized. This radar-inferred temperature structure provides a new constraint for thermomechanical models of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  10. Radar attenuation and temperature within the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, Joseph A.; Li, Jilu; Paden, John D.; Catania, Ginny A.; Clow, Gary D.; Fahnestock, Mark A.; Gogineni, S. Prasad; Grimm, Robert E.; Morlighem, Mathieu; Nandi, Soumyaroop; Seroussi, Hélène; Stillman, David E.

    2015-06-01

    The flow of ice is temperature-dependent, but direct measurements of englacial temperature are sparse. The dielectric attenuation of radio waves through ice is also temperature-dependent, and radar sounding of ice sheets is sensitive to this attenuation. Here we estimate depth-averaged radar-attenuation rates within the Greenland Ice Sheet from airborne radar-sounding data and its associated radiostratigraphy. Using existing empirical relationships between temperature, chemistry, and radar attenuation, we then infer the depth-averaged englacial temperature. The dated radiostratigraphy permits a correction for the confounding effect of spatially varying ice chemistry. Where radar transects intersect boreholes, radar-inferred temperature is consistently higher than that measured directly. We attribute this discrepancy to the poorly recognized frequency dependence of the radar-attenuation rate and correct for this effect empirically, resulting in a robust relationship between radar-inferred and borehole-measured depth-averaged temperature. Radar-inferred englacial temperature is often lower than modern surface temperature and that of a steady state ice-sheet model, particularly in southern Greenland. This pattern suggests that past changes in surface boundary conditions (temperature and accumulation rate) affect the ice sheet's present temperature structure over a much larger area than previously recognized. This radar-inferred temperature structure provides a new constraint for thermomechanical models of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  11. Pink marine sediments reveal rapid ice melt and Arctic meltwater discharge during Dansgaard-Oeschger warmings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Tine L.; Thomsen, Erik

    2013-11-01

    The climate of the last glaciation was interrupted by numerous abrupt temperature fluctuations, referred to as Greenland interstadials and stadials. During warm interstadials the meridional overturning circulation was active transferring heat to the north, whereas during cold stadials the Nordic Seas were ice-covered and the overturning circulation was disrupted. Meltwater discharge, from ice sheets surrounding the Nordic Seas, is implicated as a cause of this ocean instability, yet very little is known regarding this proposed discharge during warmings. Here we show that, during warmings, pink clay from Devonian Red Beds is transported in suspension by meltwater from the surrounding ice sheet and replaces the greenish silt that is normally deposited on the north-western slope of Svalbard during interstadials. The magnitude of the outpourings is comparable to the size of the outbursts during the deglaciation. Decreasing concentrations of ice-rafted debris during the interstadials signify that the ice sheet retreats as the meltwater production increases.

  12. Pink marine sediments reveal rapid ice melt and Arctic meltwater discharge during Dansgaard-Oeschger warmings.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Tine L; Thomsen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The climate of the last glaciation was interrupted by numerous abrupt temperature fluctuations, referred to as Greenland interstadials and stadials. During warm interstadials the meridional overturning circulation was active transferring heat to the north, whereas during cold stadials the Nordic Seas were ice-covered and the overturning circulation was disrupted. Meltwater discharge, from ice sheets surrounding the Nordic Seas, is implicated as a cause of this ocean instability, yet very little is known regarding this proposed discharge during warmings. Here we show that, during warmings, pink clay from Devonian Red Beds is transported in suspension by meltwater from the surrounding ice sheet and replaces the greenish silt that is normally deposited on the north-western slope of Svalbard during interstadials. The magnitude of the outpourings is comparable to the size of the outbursts during the deglaciation. Decreasing concentrations of ice-rafted debris during the interstadials signify that the ice sheet retreats as the meltwater production increases. PMID:24264767

  13. Shock Melting of Permafrost on Mars: Water Ice Multiphase Equation of State for Numerical Modeling and Its Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, B. A.

    2005-01-01

    The presence of water/ice/brine in upper layers of Martian crust affects many processes of impact cratering. Modeling of these effects promises better understanding of Martian cratering records. We present here the new ANEOS-based multiphase equation of state for water/ice constructed for usage in hydrocodes and first numerical experiments on permafrost shock melting. Preliminary results show that due to multiple shock compression of ice inclusions in rocks the entropy jump in shocked ice is smaller than in pure ice for the same shock pressure. Hence previous estimates of ice melting during impact cratering on Mars should be re-evaluated. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  14. Effects of locust bean gum and mono- and diglyceride concentrations on particle size and melting rates of ice cream.

    PubMed

    Cropper, S L; Kocaoglu-Vurma, N A; Tharp, B W; Harper, W J

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how varying concentrations of the stabilizer, locust bean gum (LBG), and different levels of the emulsifier, mono- and diglycerides (MDGs), influenced fat aggregation and melting characteristics of ice cream. Ice creams were made containing MDGs and LBG singly and in combination at concentrations ranging between 0.0% to 0.14% and 0.0% to 0.23%, respectively. Particle size analysis, conducted on both the mixes and ice cream, and melting rate testing on the ice cream were used to determine fat aggregation. No significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between particle size values for experimental ice cream mixes. However, higher concentrations of both LBG and MDG in the ice creams resulted in values that were larger than the control. This study also found an increase in the particle size values when MDG levels were held constant and LBG amounts were increased in the ice cream. Ice creams with higher concentrations of MDG and LBG together had the greatest difference in the rate of melting than the control. The melting rate decreased with increasing LBG concentrations at constant MDG levels. These results illustrated that fat aggregation may not only be affected by emulsifiers, but that stabilizers may play a role in contributing to the destabilization of fat globules. PMID:23772704

  15. Polarimetric C-/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar Observations of Melting Sea Ice in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, J. A.; Beckers, J. F.; Brossier, E.; Haas, C.

    2013-12-01

    Operational ice information services rely heavily on space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data for the production of ice charts to meet their mandate of providing timely and accurate sea ice information to support safe and efficient marine operations. During the summer melt period, the usefulness of SAR data for sea ice monitoring is limited by the presence of wet snow and melt ponds on the ice surface, which can mask the signature of the underlying ice. This is a critical concern for ice services whose clients (e.g. commercial shipping, cruise tourism, resource exploration and extraction) are most active at this time of year when sea ice is at its minimum extent, concentration and thickness. As a result, there is a need to further quantify the loss of ice information in SAR data during the melt season and to identify what information can still be retrieved about ice surface conditions and melt pond evolution at this time of year. To date the majority of studies have been limited to analysis of single-polarization C-band SAR data. This study will investigate the potential complimentary and unique sea ice information that polarimetric C- and X-band SAR data can provide to supplement the information available from traditional single co-polarized C-band SAR data. A time-series of polarimetric C- and X-band SAR data was acquired over Jones Sound in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, in the vicinity of the Grise Fiord, Nunavut. Five RADARSAT-2 Wide Fine Quad-pol images and 11 TerraSAR-X StripMap dual-pol (HH/VV) images were acquired. The time-series begins at the onset of melt in early June and extends through advanced melt conditions in late July. Over this period several ponding and drainage events and two snowfall events occurred. Field observations of sea ice properties were collected using an Ice Mass Balance (IMB) buoy, hourly photos from a time-lapse camera deployed on a coastal cliff, and manual in situ measurements of snow thickness and melt pond depth. Where available, clear-sky data from optical sensors (MODIS, Landsat-8, and WorldView) are also used to provide supplementary information on melt pond coverage and evolution. Meteorological data are available from an Environment Canada weather station in Grise Fiord. In this presentation we will discuss the sea ice information provided by each polarization and frequency and evaluate the impact of melt pond evolution on SAR backscatter. Results to date indicate that C- and X-band provide predominantly redundant information, and cross-polarized backscatter (only acquired at C-band) is often very low and near the system noise floor. Early in the melt season a thick wet snow pack is present and both frequencies provide very little ice information. This is attributed to the strong attenuation of the microwave signal by the wet snow. At this time the underlying ice is effectively obscured. During heavily ponded periods backscatter is highly variable, attributed to changing winds and thus variable melt pond surface roughness. In the final week of observations the fast ice in the region is breaking up and open water is present in some images. In these images C-band appears to provide greater contrast between the melting ice and open water than X-band. Analysis of polarimetric parameters is ongoing.

  16. Communication: The effect of dispersion corrections on the melting temperature of liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Soohaeng; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2011-03-01

    The melting temperature (Tm) of liquid water with the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (BLYP) density functional including dispersion corrections (BLYP-D) and the Thole-type, version 3 (TTM3-F) ab-initio based flexible, polarizable classical potential is reported via constant pressure and constant enthalpy (NPH) molecular dynamics simulations of an ice Ih-liquid coexisting system. Dispersion corrections to BLYP lower Tm to about 360 K, a large improvement over the value of Tm > 400 K previously obtained with the original BLYP functional under the same simulation conditions. For TTM3-F, Tm = 248 K from classical molecular dynamics simulations.

  17. Use and Limitations of a Climate-Quality Data Record to Study Temperature Trends on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, D. K.; Comiso, J. C.; Shuman, C. A.; Koenig, L.; DiGirolamo, N. E.

    2011-12-01

    Enhanced melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been documented in recent literature along with surface-temperature increases measured using infrared satellite data since 1981. Using a recently-developed climate-quality data record, 11- and 12-year trends in the clear-sky ice-surface temperature (IST) of the Greenland Ice Sheet have been studied using the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) IST product. Daily and monthly MODIS ISTs of the Greenland Ice Sheet beginning on 1 March 2000 and continuing through 31 December 2010 are now available at 6.25-km spatial resolution on a polar stereographic grid as described in Hall et al. (submitted). This record will be elevated in status to a climate-data record (CDR) when more years of data become available either from the MODIS on the Terra or Aqua satellites, or from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) to be launched in October 2011. Maps showing the maximum extent of melt for the entire ice sheet and for the six major drainage basins have been developed from the MODIS IST dataset. Twelve-year trends in the extent of melt and duration of the melt season on the ice sheet vary in different drainage basins with some basins melting progressively earlier over the course of the study period. Some (but not all) of the basins also show a progressively-longer duration of melt. Twelve-year trends in IST are compared with in-situ data, and climate data from the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Reanalysis. Hall, D.K., J.C. Comiso, N.E. DiGirolamo, C.A. Shuman, J. Key and L.S. Koenig, submitted for journal publication: A Satellite-Derived Climate-Quality Data Record of the Clear-Sky Surface Temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  18. Formation of recent martian debris flows by melting of near-surface ground ice at high obliquity.

    PubMed

    Costard, F; Forget, F; Mangold, N; Peulvast, J P

    2002-01-01

    The observation of small gullies associated with recent surface runoff on Mars has renewed the question of liquid water stability at the surface of Mars. The gullies could be formed by groundwater seepage from underground aquifers; however, observations of gullies originating from isolated peaks and dune crests question this scenario. We show that these landforms may result from the melting of water ice in the top few meters of the martian subsurface at high obliquity. Our conclusions are based on the analogy between the martian gullies and terrestrial debris flows observed in Greenland and numerical simulations that show that above-freezing temperatures can occur at high obliquities in the near surface of Mars, and that such temperatures are only predicted at latitudes and for slope orientations corresponding to where the gullies have been observed on Mars. PMID:11729267

  19. Deformation-induced melting in the margin of Whillans ice stream (B2), Siple Coast, Antarctica, and implications for ice-stream dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suckale, J.; Perol, T.; Platt, J. D.; Rice, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The mass balance of the West Antarctic ice sheet depends primarily on the location and flow speed of arterial drainage routes called ice streams, which represent localized zones of rapid ice flow separated by ridges of comparatively stagnant ice. One main challenge in current models of ice streams is the treatment of the shear margin, which plays an important role in the force balance. The goal of this study is to shed new light on the interplay between mechanical deformation and deformation-induced melting in ice-stream margins and explore to what degree the processes in the shear margins affect ice-stream dynamics. To compare our modeling results with observational data, we specifically address the margin of Whillans ice stream B2, but argue that our insights may apply to ice streams more generally. We propose a 2D anti-plane-strain model representing a cross-section through the ice-stream margin perpendicular to the downstream flow direction. Our approximation neglects small components of non-anti-plane deformation that must accompany the marginal melting and drainage that we infer. By coupling heat and mass flow and taking into account that ice deforms through Glen's law, we are able to show that a temperate zone is likely to form above the margin, where the heat production from lateral shear is most intense. We study the properties of the temperate zone through a conjunction of analytical and numerical techniques. Mathematically, the transition from a slipping ice stream to a locked ridge takes the form of a crack problem, for which the near-tip field is amenable to analytical solutions, yielding an estimate for the dissipation and melt production in the vicinity of the margin singularity. We complement these analytical results with a numerical solution of the problem, which provides less accuracy in the immediate vicinity of the singularity, but allows to capture and study the effect of strain-heating throughout the full depth-extent of the deformation zone at the margin. Our numerical results, based on the Glen's-law parameterization recommended by Cuffey and Paterson (2010), are in excellent agreement with available observational data for the transverse profile of surface velocities across Whillans ice stream B2 measured by Echelmeyer et al., 1994. The numerical solution also enables us to test how the extent of the temperate zone and the amount of melt water produced depends on the assumed model parameters, in particular the latent heat of melting, the vertical advection of cold surface ice, and the ice-stream width. Based on our modeling we conclude that deformation-induced melting produces a significant amount of melt water in the margin of Whillans ice stream B2. Assuming a simplistic percolation of melt water based on Darcy's law, we find that the amount of water produced would be sufficient to create a channelized drainage of Rthlisberger type (like in Perol and Rice, submitted, 2012). This result suggests that the width of ice streams might be controlled by the width necessary to create sufficient lateral shearing and thereby sufficient internal melting to create a channel, which generates reduced nearby pore pressures in the temperate ice and till which are expected to increase locking to the bed.

  20. An Experimental Investigation of Ice Melting and Heat Transfer Characteristics from Submerged Jets of Hot Water, Implications for Subglacial Volcanic Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamshidnia, H.; Gudmundsson, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    The rates and processes of energy transfer in water-filled cavities formed under glaciers by geothermal and volcanic activity has been investigated by designing, developing, and using an experimental setup in which hot water jets can impinge on an ice block. Systematic sets of experimental runs typically lasting 60-90 seconds with water jet temperatures in the range 10 - 90C have been performed with initial ice block temparature. It is quantitatively found that heat flux from flowing water to ice is linearly dependent on temperature of the jet flow. The hot water jet meltes out a cavity into the ice block during the process. The cavities had steep to vertical sides with a doming roof. Some of the ice blocks used had trapped air bubbles. In these cases melting of the ice lead to the trapping of air at the top of the cavity, partially insulating the roof from the hot water jet. Such cavities had lower aspect ratios (height/width) and flatter and less dome shaped roofs than did cavities in ice blocks with little or no air bubbles. The overall heat transfer rate in cavity formation varied with jet temperature from <100 kW m-2 to ~900 kW m-2 while melting rates in the vertical direction yield heat transfer rates of 200-1200 kW m-2. The observed experimental heat transfer rates can be compared to data on subglacial melting observed for ice cauldrons in various settings in Iceland. For the lowest experimental temperatures the numbers are comparable to those found for geothermal water in cool, subglacial water bodies and above subglacial flowpaths of jkulhlaups. However, the highest experimental rates for 80-90C jets are 3-10 times less than inferred from observations of recent subglacial eruptions (2000-4000 kW m-2). This can indicate that single phase liquid water convection alone is not sufficient to explain the rates seen in recent subglacial eruptions in Iceland, suggesting that during such eruptions forced two-phase (liquid and steam) or three phase (liquid, steam and pyroclasts) convection is common. Further recommendations may also be presented for future research in this field.

  1. Physical and ecological processes in the marginal ice zone of the northern Barents Sea during the summer melt period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk-Petersen, Stig; Hop, Haakon; Budgell, W. Paul; Hegseth, Else N.; Korsnes, Reinert; Lyning, Terje B.; Brre rbk, Jon; Kawamura, Toshiyuki; Shirasawa, Kunio

    2000-12-01

    The main physical and ecological processes associated with the summer melt period in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) were investigated in a multidisciplinary research programme (ICE-BAR), which was carried out in the northern Barents Sea during June-August 1995-1996. This study provided simultaneous observations of a wide range of physical and chemical factors of importance for the melting processes of sea ice, from its southernmost margins at about 77.5N to the consolidated Arctic pack ice at 81.5N. This paper includes a description of the oceanographic processes, ice-density packing and structures in cores, optical properties of water masses and the ice, characteristics of the incident spectral radiation and chlorophyll leading to primary production. Large seasonal and inter-annual variations in ice cover in the MIZ were evident from satellite images as well as ship observations. Even if the annual variation in ice extent may be large, the inter-annual variations may be even larger. The minimum observed ice extent in March, for example, can be smaller than the maximum observed ice extent in September. Oceanographic phenomena such as the semi-permanent lee polynyas found west and south-west of Kvitya and Franz Josef Land and the bay of open water, the "Whalers Bay", north of the Spitsbergen are structures which can change with time intervals of hours to decades. For example, the polynya south of Franz Josef Land was clearly evident in 1995 but was only seen for a short period in 1996. The observed variability in physical conditions directly affects the primary production in the MIZ. From early spring, solar radiation penetrates both leads and the ice itself, initiating algal production under the ice. Light measurements showed that the melt ponds act as windows, permitting the transmission of incoming solar radiation through to the underlying sea ice, thus, accelerating the melting process and enhancing the under-ice primary production. In June 1995, the N-S transect went through a pre-bloom area well inside the ice-covered part of the Barents Sea to a post-bloom phase in the open waters south of the ice edge. The biological conditions in the later season (August) of 1996 were considerably more variable. The longer N-S transect in August 1996 passed through areas with variable ice and oceanographic conditions, and different developmental stages of phytoplankton blooms were encountered. The previously adapted picture of a plankton bloom following the retreating ice edge northwards was not seen.

  2. Antarctic Sea ice variations and seasonal air temperature relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weatherly, John W.; Walsh, John E.; Zwally, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    Data through 1987 are used to determine the regional and seasonal dependencies of recent trends of Antarctic temperature and sea ice. Lead-lag relationships involving regional sea ice and air temperature are systematically evaluated, with an eye toward the ice-temperature feedbacks that may influence climatic change. Over the 1958-1087 period the temperature trends are positive in all seasons. For the 15 years (l973-l987) for which ice data are available, the trends are predominantly positive only in winter and summer, and are most strongly positive over the Antarctic Peninsula. The spatially aggregated trend of temperature for this latter period is small but positive, while the corresponding trend of ice coverage is small but negative. Lag correlations between seasonal anomalies of the two variables are generally stronger with ice lagging the summer temperatures and with ice leading the winter temperatures. The implication is that summer temperatures predispose the near-surface waters to above-or below-normal ice coverage in the following fall and winter.

  3. A Shift to Melted Sea Ice From Runoff as the Major Component of Chukchi Shelf Open Water Freshwater Fractions, 1993-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, L. W.; Frey, K. E.; Logvinova, C. L.; Biasatti, D. M.; Grebmeier, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The freshwater fraction of water that is derived from melted sea ice has increased significantly on the Chukchi shelf relative to runoff within the past decade, based upon analysis of salinity and ?18O mixing lines from a number of research cruises from 1993-2013. The shift to summertime dominance of melted sea ice (freshwater end-member ?18O >-10 per mil) relative to runoff occurred within the past ten years with a transition primarily observed from runoff dominance to sea ice melt after 2004. This shift is localized to the Chukchi shelf and does not reflect large amounts of melted sea ice flowing north through Bering Strait, which still largely transports a freshwater component with runoff origins (freshwater end-member ?18O ~-20 per mil). These observations have implications for understanding high latitude shelf biogeochemical cycling as melted sea ice carries much lower fractions of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) than runoff, allowing for greater light penetration, including through melt ponds in sea ice, and potential changes in productivity. Lower alkalinity and buffering capacity in melted sea ice compared to runoff will also increase the vulnerability of shelf organisms to water column acidification. Melted sea ice, with low DOC relative to runoff can dominate the freshwater budget in Chukchi shelf waters even under apparently continuous ice coverage. The higher transmission of light through melted sea ice with low DOC may be in part responsible for recent reported under-ice blooms on the Chukchi shelf. Since these blooms occur in waters with the freshwater budget dominated by melted sea ice, they can reasonably interpreted as being part of a continuum with other ice melt-associated blooms and not independent of sea ice retreat and dissolution.

  4. Modeling the dependence of alumina solubility on temperature and melt composition in cryolite-based melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunshu; Rapp, Robert A.

    2004-06-01

    The solubility of alumina in NaF-AlF3 melts was calculated and modeled thermodynamically for the temperature range of 1240 to 1300 K (967 °C to 1027 °C). The solute complexes of alumina in the cryolite melts were identified to be Na2Al2OF6 (acidic solute), Na2Al2O2F4 (neutral solute), and Na4Al2O2F6 (basic solute). The assumption that the oxygen-free solute species in solution were Na3AlF6 and NaAlF4 was supported by the modeling results. The equilibrium constants for the formation reactions of the solutes were calculated and the corresponding Δ G {/f 0} values were evaluated as a function of temperature. The interaction derivatives (∂ ln a NaF/∂ x add, ∂ ln a NaF/∂ x add, and ∂ ln a AlF3/∂ x add) for small additions of LiF, CaF2, and MgF2 to the NaF-AlF3-Al2O3 ternary system were also estimated as a function of temperature and melt composition.

  5. Destruction of polychlorinated naphthalenes by a high-temperature melting treatment (GeoMelt process).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Kai, Yasufumi; Nakauchi, Hiroaki; Abuku, Toshiaki; Noma, Yukio

    2014-06-01

    A series of treatment experiments were carried out to evaluate the applicability of a high-temperature melting treatment (GeoMelt process) to the destruction of polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) formulation. We started with 10-kg-scale experiments in which a small melting furnace was used and then scaled up to a 1-t-scale experiment in which a melting furnace that resembled an actual treatment system was used. These runs were evaluated whether destruction efficiency (DE) of total PCNs was more than 99.999% and whether concentrations of PCNs and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/DFs) in vitrified materials, emission gas, and scrubber water were below the target levels. Because DE values and the target levels of PCNs and PCDDs/DFs in these runs were satisfactory, then we carried out a demonstrative experiment using the actual treatment system and confirmed destruction of PCNs. Based on good results of the demonstrative experiment, stock of PCN formulation was successfully treated continuously. PMID:24595750

  6. Ice-melt rates by steam condensation during explosive subglacial eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcock, D. C.; Gilbert, J. S.; Lane, S. J.

    2015-02-01

    Subglacial volcanism melts cavities in the overlying ice. These cavities may be flooded with meltwater or they may be fully or partially drained. We quantify, for the first time, heat transfer rates by condensation of steam on the walls and roof of a fully or partially drained subglacial eruption cavity. Our calculations indicate that heat fluxes of up to 1 MW m-2 may be obtained when the bulk vapor in the cavity is in free convection. This is considerably smaller than heat fluxes inferred from ice penetration rates in recent subglacial eruptions. Forcing of the convection by momentum transfer from an eruption jet may allow heat fluxes of up to 2 MW m-2, consistent with values inferred for the Gjlp 1996 subglacial eruption. Vapor-dominated cavities in which vapor-liquid equilibrium is maintained have thermal dynamic responses that are an order of magnitude faster than the equivalent flooded cavities.

  7. Large and rapid melt-induced velocity changes in the ablation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

    PubMed

    van de Wal, R S W; Boot, W; van den Broeke, M R; Smeets, C J P P; Reijmer, C H; Donker, J J A; Oerlemans, J

    2008-07-01

    Continuous Global Positioning System observations reveal rapid and large ice velocity fluctuations in the western ablation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Within days, ice velocity reacts to increased meltwater production and increases by a factor of 4. Such a response is much stronger and much faster than previously reported. Over a longer period of 17 years, annual ice velocities have decreased slightly, which suggests that the englacial hydraulic system adjusts constantly to the variable meltwater input, which results in a more or less constant ice flux over the years. The positive-feedback mechanism between melt rate and ice velocity appears to be a seasonal process that may have only a limited effect on the response of the ice sheet to climate warming over the next decades. PMID:18599784

  8. Atmospheric moisture transport: the bridge between ocean evaporation and Arctic ice melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno, L.; Vzquez, M.; Nieto, R.; Trigo, R. M.

    2015-09-01

    Changes in the atmospheric moisture transport have been proposed as a vehicle for interpreting some of the most significant changes in the Arctic region. The increasing moisture over the Arctic during the last decades is not strongly associated with the evaporation that takes place within the Arctic area itself, despite the fact that the sea ice cover is decreasing. Such an increment is consistent and is more dependent on the transport of moisture from the extratropical regions to the Arctic that has increased in recent decades and is expected to increase within a warming climate. This increase could be due either to changes in circulation patterns which have altered the moisture sources, or to changes in the intensity of the moisture sources because of enhanced evaporation, or a combination of these two mechanisms. In this short communication we focus on the more objective assessment of the strong link between ocean evaporation trends and Arctic Sea ice melting. We will critically analyse several recent results suggesting links between moisture transport and the extent of sea ice in the Arctic, this being one of the most distinct indicators of continuous climate change both in the Arctic and on a global scale. To do this we will use a sophisticated Lagrangian approach to develop a more robust framework on some of these previous disconnecting results, using new information and insights. Results reached in this study stress the connection between two climate change indicators, namely an increase in evaporation over source regions (mainly the Mediterranean Sea, the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean in the paths of the global western boundary currents and their extensions) and Arctic ice melting precursors.

  9. A Climate-Data Record (CDR) of the "Clear-Sky" Surface Temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Comiso, Josefino C.; DiGirolamo, Nocolo E.; Shuman, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a climate-data record (CDR) of "clear-sky" ice-surface temperature (IST) of the Greenland Ice Sheet using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. The CDR provides daily and monthly-mean IST from March 2000 through December 2010 on a polar stereographic projection at a resolution of 6.25 km. The CDR is amenable to extension into the future using Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data. Regional "clear-sky" surface temperature increases since the early 1980s in the Arctic, measured using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) infrared data, range from 0.57 +/- 0.02 to 0.72 +/- 0.1 c per decade. Arctic warming has important implications for ice-sheet mass balance because much of the periphery of the Greenland Ice Sheet is already near O C during the melt season, and is thus vulnerable to rapid melting if temperatures continue to increase. An increase in melting of the ice sheet would accelerate sea-level rise, an issue affecting potentially billions of people worldwide. The IST CDR will provide a convenient data set for modelers and for climatologists to track changes of the surface temperature of the ice sheet as a whole and of the individual drainage basins on the ice sheet. The daily and monthly maps will provide information on surface melt as well as "clear-sky" temperature. The CDR will be further validated by comparing results with automatic-weather station data and with satellite-derived surface-temperature products.

  10. Viscosity and Density Measurements of High Temperature Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yuzuru

    Since the viscosity and density are most fundamental properties for any fluids, many efforts to obtain reliable values have been made. However, the measurements are not so easy, especially at high temperature in molten state. The high temperature melts are typically classified into molten metals, molten salts, and molten oxides. They appear in many industrial processes, for example, steelmaking, nonferrous metallurgy, aluminum smelting, foundry, glass making, etc. The adaptable methods for the measurements should be chosen carefully by considering some physical and chemical properties of the melt. Iida published the review on the properties including viscosity and density of molten metals [1], and the comparison among the viscosities of molten iron reported by many researchers showed considerable difference of several dozen percent. The viscosity value is in considerably wide range depending on the groups of the melts, for example, in general low for molten metals and high for molten silicates, including slag and glass, and the difference reaches more than ten orders by reflecting the difference in the melt structure. On the other hand, density is mainly depending on atomic mass and not so different to each other because of not so big difference in molar volumes of the components. Various methods for viscosity and density measurement were also introduced [2] and also the viscometries were summarized [3].

  11. Melting behavior of H[subscript 2]O at high pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Gregoryanz, Eugene; Struzhkin, Viktor V.; Somayazulu, Maddury; Mao, H.-K.; Hemley, R.J.

    2010-07-19

    Water plays an important role in the physics and chemistry of planetary interiors. In situ high pressure-temperature Raman spectroscopy and synchrotron x-ray diffraction have been used to examine the phase diagram of H{sub 2}O. A discontinuous change in the melting curve of H{sub 2}O is observed at approximately 35 GPa and 1040 K, indicating a triple point on the melting line. The melting curve of H{sub 2}O increases significantly above the triple point and may intersect the isentropes of Neptune and Uranus. Solid ice could therefore form in stratified layers at depth within these icy planets. The extrapolated melting curve may also intersect with the geotherm of Earth's lower mantle above 60 GPa. The presence of solid H{sub 2}O would result in a jump in the viscosity of the mid-lower mantle and provides an additional explanation for the observed higher viscosity of the mid-lower mantle.

  12. Al20(+) does melt, albeit above the bulk melting temperature of aluminium.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Udbhav; Steenbergen, Krista G; Gaston, Nicola

    2015-02-01

    Employing first principles parallel tempering molecular dynamics in the microcanonical ensemble, we report the presence of a clear solid-liquid-like melting transition in Al20(+) clusters, not found in experiments. The phase transition temperature obtained from the multiple histogram method is 993 K, 60 K above the melting point of aluminium. Root mean squared bond length fluctuation, the velocity auto-correlation function and the corresponding power spectrum further confirm the phase transition from a solid-like to liquid-like phase. Atoms-In-Molecules analysis shows a strong charge segregation between the internal and surface atoms, with negatively charged internal atoms and positive charge at the surface. Analysis of the calculated diffusion coefficients indicates different mobilities of the internal and surface atoms in the solid-like phase, and the differences between the environment of the internal atoms in these clusters with that of the bulk atoms suggest a physical picture for the origin of greater-than-bulk melting temperatures. PMID:25556528

  13. Modeling Regolith Temperatures and Volatile Ice Processes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellon, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    Surface and subsurface temperatures are an important tool for exploring the distribution and dynamics of volatile ices on and within planetary regoliths. I will review thermal-analysis approaches and recent applications in the studies of volatile ice processes. Numerical models of regolith temperatures allow us to examine the response of ices to periodic and secular changes in heat sources such as insolation. Used in conjunction with spatially and temporally distributed remotely-sensed temperatures, numerical models can: 1) constrain the stability and dynamics of volatile ices; 2) define the partitioning between phases of ice, gas, liquid, and adsorbate; and 3) in some instances be used to probe the distribution of ice hidden from view beneath the surface. The vapor pressure of volatile ices (such as water, carbon dioxide, and methane) depends exponentially on temperature. Small changes in temperature can result in transitions between stable phases. Cyclic temperatures and the propagation of thermal waves into the subsurface can produce a strong hysteresis in the population and partitioning of various phases (such as between ice, vapor, and adsorbate) and result in bulk transport. Condensation of ice will also have a pronounced effect on the thermal properties of otherwise loose particulate regolith. Cementing grains at their contacts through ice deposition will increase the thermal conductivity, and may enhance the stability of additional ice. Likewise sintering of grains within a predominantly icy regolith will increase the thermal conductivity. Subsurface layers that result from ice redistribution can be discriminated by remote sensing when combined with numerical modeling. Applications of these techniques include modeling of seasonal carbon dioxide frosts on Mars, predicting and interpreting the subsurface ice distribution on Mars and in Antarctica, and estimating the current depth of ice-rich permafrost on Mars. Additionally, understanding cold trapping ices in regions of the regolith of airless bodies, such as Mercury and the Moon, are aided by numerical modeling of regolith temperatures. Thermally driven sublimation of volatiles (water ice on Mars and more exotic species on icy moons in the outer solar system) can result in terrain degradation and collapse.

  14. Temperature and composition dependencies of trace element partitioning - Olivine/melt and low-Ca pyroxene/melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colson, R. O.; Mckay, G. A.; Taylor, L. A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic thermodynamic analysis of the effects of temperature and composition on olivine/melt and low-Ca pyroxene/melt partitioning. Experiments were conducted in several synthetic basalts with a wide range of Fe/Mg, determining partition coefficients for Eu, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Sm, Cd, Y, Yb, Sc, Al, Zr, and Ti and modeling accurately the changes in free energy for trace element exchange between crystal and melt as functions of the trace element size and charge. On the basis of this model, partition coefficients for olivine/melt and low-Ca pyroxene/melt can be predicted for a wide range of elements over a variety of basaltic bulk compositions and temperatures. Moreover, variations in partition coeffeicients during crystallization or melting can be modeled on the basis of changes in temperature and major element chemistry.

  15. High Resolution Estimates of Sea Ice Melt-Freeze Transitions in the Northern Canadian Arctic Archipelago from Radarsat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, M. S.; Yackel, J.; Howell, S.

    2014-12-01

    The northern Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) historically contains high concentration of multi-year ice (MYI). Previous research has shown that this region receives a continuous supply of MYI from the Arctic Ocean that is subsequently flushed southward into the Western Perry Channel during the summer melt season. This amount has never been quantified and the controls on southward advection have only been crudely investigated using coarse spatial resolution passive microwave observations that do not provide sufficient information regarding dynamics and thermodynamics for the sea ice in the northern CAA. This paper evaluates the utility of high spatial resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to better understand the controls on sea ice dynamics within the northern CAA. SAR data was acquired from RADARSAT-1 between April and October, 2005, with an average temporal resolution of 3 days and spatial resolution of 100 m. A melt-freeze transition algorithm was developed to estimate the melt onset date. This is based on the temporal evolution of the backscatter coefficient (?o), which can be thresholded into melt onset for both seasonal first year ice (FYI) and MYI. The amount of sea ice flowing through the northern CAA was determined using the Canadian Ice Service Automated Ice Tracking System. Results indicate that melt onset dates for FYI are observed approximately two weeks earlier than MYI. The earlier melt onset date for FYI resulted in an increased open water area within the CAA, which provided more leeway for southward flow of MYI from the Arctic Ocean, via the northern CAA; leading to earlier than expected MYI flushed into the Western Parry Channel.

  16. Skin Temperature Processes in the Presence of Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumer, S. E.; Zappa, C. J.; Brown, S.; McGillis, W. R.; Loose, B.

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring the sea-ice margins of polar oceans and understanding the physical processes at play at the ice-ocean-air interface is essential in the perspective of a changing climate in which we face an accelerated decline of ice caps and sea ice. Remote sensing and in particular InfraRed (IR) imaging offer a unique opportunity not only to observe physical processes at sea-ice margins, but also to measure air-sea exchanges near ice. It permits monitoring ice and ocean temperature variability, and can be used for derivation of surface flow field allowing investigating turbulence and shearing at the ice-ocean interface as well as ocean-atmosphere gas transfer. Here we present experiments conducted with the aim of gaining an insight on how the presence of sea ice affects the momentum exchange between the atmosphere and ocean and investigate turbulence production in the interplay of ice-water shear, convection, waves and wind. A set of over 200 high resolution IR imagery records was taken at the US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL, Hanover NH) under varying ice coverage, fan and pump settings. In situ instruments provided air and water temperature, salinity, subsurface currents and wave height. Air side profiling provided environmental parameters such as wind speed, humidity and heat fluxes. The study aims to investigate what can be gained from small-scale high-resolution IR imaging of the ice-ocean-air interface; in particular how sea ice modulates local physics and gas transfer. The relationship between water and ice temperatures with current and wind will be addressed looking at the ocean and ice temperature variance. Various skin temperature and gas transfer parameterizations will be evaluated at ice margins under varying environmental conditions. Furthermore the accuracy of various techniques used to determine surface flow will be assessed from which turbulence statistics will be determined. This will give an insight on how ice presence may affect the dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy.

  17. Syntheses of neptunium trichloride and measurements of its melting temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Hirokazu; Takano, Masahide; Kurata, Masaki; Minato, Kazuo

    2013-09-01

    Neptunium trichloride (NpCl3) of high purity was synthesized by the solid state reaction of neptunium nitride with cadmium chloride. Lattice parameters of hexagonal NpCl3 were determined from the powder X-ray diffraction pattern to be a = 0.7428 ± 0.0001 nm and c = 0.4262 ± 0.0003 nm, which fairly agree with the reported values. The melting temperature of NpCl3 was measured on a sample of about 1 mg, hermetically encapsulated in a gold crucible with a differential thermal analyzer. The value determined was 1070 ± 3 K which is close to the recommended value (1075 ± 30 K) derived from the mean value of the melting temperature of UCl3 and of PuCl3.

  18. BINARY: an optical freezing array for assessing temperature and time dependence of heterogeneous ice nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budke, C.; Koop, T.

    2015-02-01

    A new optical freezing array for the study of heterogeneous ice nucleation in microliter-sized droplets is introduced, tested and applied to the study of immersion freezing in aqueous Snomax® suspensions. In the Bielefeld Ice Nucleation ARraY (BINARY) ice nucleation can be studied simultaneously in 36 droplets at temperatures down to -40 C (233 K) and at cooling rates between 0.1 and 10 K min-1. The droplets are separated from each other in individual compartments, thus preventing a Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen type water vapor transfer between droplets as well as avoiding the seeding of neighboring droplets by formation and surface growth of frost halos. Analysis of freezing and melting occurs via an automated real-time image analysis of the optical brightness of each individual droplet. As an application ice nucleation in water droplets containing Snomax® at concentrations from 1 ng mL-1 to 1 mg mL-1 was investigated. Using different cooling rates, a small time dependence of ice nucleation induced by two different classes of ice nucleators (INs) contained in Snomax® was detected and the corresponding heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficient was quantified. The observed time dependence is smaller than those of other types of INs reported in the literature, suggesting that the BINARY setup is suitable for quantifying time dependence for most other INs of atmospheric interest, making it a useful tool for future investigations.

  19. Deposition Ice Nuclei Concentration at Different Temperatures and Supersaturations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lpez, M. L.; Avila, E.

    2013-05-01

    Ice formation is one of the main processes involved in the initiation of precipitation. Some aerosols serve to nucleate ice in clouds. They are called ice nuclei (IN) and they are generally solid particles, insoluble in water. At temperatures warmer than about -36C the only means for initiation of the ice phase in the atmosphere involves IN, and temperature and supersaturation required to activate IN are considered as key information for the understanding of primary ice formation in clouds. The objective of this work is to quantify the IN concentration at ground level in Crdoba City, Argentina, under the deposition mode, that is to say that ice deposits on the IN directly from the vapor phase. It happens when the environment is supersaturated with respect to ice and subsaturated with respect to liquid water. Ice nuclei concentrations were measured in a cloud chamber placed in a cold room with temperature control down to -35C. The operating temperature was varied between -15C and -30C. Ice supersaturation was ranged between 2 and 20 %. In order to quantify the number of ice particles produced in each experiment, a dish containing a supercooled solution of cane sugar, water and glycerol was placed on the floor of the cloud chamber. The activated IN grew at the expense of vapor until ice crystals were formed and these then fell down onto the sugar solution. Once there, these crystals could grow enough to be counted easily with a naked eye after a period of about three minutes, when they reach around 2 mm in diameter. In order to compare the present results with previously reported results, the data were grouped in three different ranges of supersaturation: the data with supersaturations between 2 and 8 %, the data with supersaturations between 8 and 14% and the data with supersaturations between 14 and 20 %. In the same way, in order to analize the behavior of IN concentration with supersaturation, the data were grouped for three different temperatures, the data with temperatures between -15C and -20C, the data with temperatures between -20C and -25C and the data with temperatures between -25C and -30C. The results confirm that for each temperature range, the concentration of IN increases at higher supersaturation, and show the tendency of the IN concentration to increase with increasing ice supersaturation. Based on previous parameterizations, a combination of IN concentration in relation with temperature and ice supersaturation is proposed in this work. As far as we know, this is among the first work to measure and parameterize the concentration of deposition ice nuclei in the Southern Hemisphere.

  20. Making High-Temperature Superconductors By Melt Sintering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golben, John P.

    1992-01-01

    Melt-sintering technique applied to YBa2Cu3O7-x system and to Bi/Ca/Sr/Cu-oxide system to produce highly oriented bulk high-temperature-superconductor materials extending to macroscopically usable dimensions. Processing requires relatively inexpensive and simple equipment. Because critical current two orders of magnitude greater in crystal ab plane than in crystal c direction, high degree of orientation greatly enhances critical current in these bulk materials, making them more suitable for many proposed applications.

  1. Potential methane emission from north-temperate lakes following ice melt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michmerhuizen, C.M.; Striegl, R.G.; McDonald, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    Methane, a radiatively active 'greenhouse' gas, is emitted from lakes to the atmosphere throughout the open-water season. However, annual lake CH4 emissions calculated solely from open-water measurements that exclude the time of spring ice melt may substantially underestimate the lake CH4 source strength. We estimated potential spring CH4 emission at the time of ice melt for 19 lakes in northern Minnesota and Wisconsin. Lakes ranged in area from 2.7 to 57,300 ha and varied in littoral zone sediment type. Regression analyses indicated that lake area explained 38% of the variance in potential CH4 emission for relatively undisturbed lakes; as lake area increases potential CH4 emission per unit area decreases. Inclusion of a second term accounting for the presence or absence of soft organic-rich littoral-zone sediments explained 83% of the variance in potential spring CH4 emission. Total estimated spring CH4 emission for 1993 for all Minnesota lakes north of 45?? with areas ???4 ha was 1.5 x 108 mol CH4 assuming a 1 : 1 ratio of soft littoral sediment to hard littoral sediment lakes. Emission estimates ranged from 5.3 x 107 tool assuming no lakes have soft organic-rich littoral sediments to 4.5 x 108 mol assuming all lakes have soft organic-rich littoral sediments. This spring CH4 pulse may make up as much as 40% of the CH4 annually emitted to the atmosphere by small lakes.

  2. Pitted rock surfaces on Mars: A mechanism of formation by transient melting of snow and ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, James W.; Kreslavsky, Mikhail A.; Marchant, David R.

    2011-09-01

    Pits in rocks on the surface of Mars have been observed at several locations. Similar pits are observed in rocks in the Mars-like hyperarid, hypothermal stable upland zone of the Antarctic Dry Valleys; these form by very localized chemical weathering due to transient melting of small amounts of snow on dark dolerite boulders preferentially heated above the melting point of water by sunlight. We examine the conditions under which a similar process might explain the pitted rocks seen on the surface of Mars (rock surface temperatures above the melting point; atmospheric pressure exceeding the triple point pressure of H2O; an available source of solid water to melt). We find that on Mars today each of these conditions is met locally and regionally, but that they do not occur together in such a way as to meet the stringent requirements for this process to operate. In the geological past, however, conditions favoring this process are highly likely to have been met. For example, increases in atmospheric water vapor content (due, for example, to the loss of the south perennial polar CO2 cap) could favor the deposition of snow, which if collected on rocks heated to above the melting temperature during favorable conditions (e.g., perihelion), could cause melting and the type of locally enhanced chemical weathering that can cause pits. Even when these conditions are met, however, the variation in heating of different rock facets under Martian conditions means that different parts of the rock may weather at different times, consistent with the very low weathering rates observed on Mars. Furthermore, as is the case in the stable upland zone of the Antarctic Dry Valleys, pit formation by transient melting of small amounts of snow readily occurs in the absence of subsurface active layer cryoturbation.

  3. Landscape transformation under influence of melting buried ice blocks (North Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S?owi?ski, Micha?; B?aszkiewicz, Miros?aw; Brauer, Achim; Nory?kiewicz, Bo?ena; Ott, Florian; Tyszkowski, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the research was to decipher impacts, how dead ice melting can influence landscape transformation in the Lateglacial and early Holocene in Central Europe. Here, we present the paleoecological results from the middle section of the Wda river located in northern Poland (Central Europe), on the outwash plain formed during the Pomeranian phase of the last (Vistulian) glacial period ca 16,000 14C yrs BP. The Wda river has a typical polygenetic valley in young glacial areas of the northern central European lowlands. We reconstructed environmental changes using biotic proxies (plant macrofossil and pollen analyses) and geomorphological investigations. Abrupt changes in lithology and sediment structures show rapid changes and threshold processes in environmental conditions. The AMS 14C dating of terrestrial plant remains reveals an age for the basal sediments of 11 223 23 cal yr BP coinciding with the Preboreal biozone. The results show the existence of buried ice blocks in northern Poland even at the beginning of the Holocene proving that locally discontinuous permafrost was still present at that time. Our study demonstrates a strong influence of melting buried ice blocks on the geomorphological development, hydrological changes in the catchment, and the biotic environment even in the early Holocene. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution (ICLEA) of the Helmholtz Association. Financial support by the COST Action ES0907 INTIMATE is gratefully acknowledged. The research was supported by the National Science Centre Poland (grants No. NN 306085037 and NCN 2011/01/B/ST10/07367).

  4. Light absorption and partitioning in Arctic Ocean surface waters: impact of multi year ice melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanger, S.; Cizmeli, S. A.; Ehn, J.; Matsuoka, A.; Doxaran, D.; Hooker, S.; Babin, M.

    2013-03-01

    Ice melting in the Arctic Ocean exposes the surface water to more radiative energy with poorly understood effects on photo-biogeochemical processes and heat deposition in the upper ocean. In August 2009, we documented the vertical variability of light absorbing components at 37 stations located in the southeastern Beaufort Sea including both Mackenzie river-influenced waters and polar mixed layer waters. We found that melting multi-year ice released significant amount of non-algal particulates (NAP) near the sea surface relative to sub-surface waters. NAP absorption coefficients at 440 nm (aNAP(440)) immediately below the sea surface (0-) were on average 3-fold (up to 10-fold) higher compared to sub-surface values measured at 2-3 m depth. The impact of this unusual feature on the light transmission and remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) was further examined using a radiative transfer model. A 10-fold particle enrichment homogeneously distributed in the first meter of the water column slightly reduced photosynthetically available and usable radiation (PAR and PUR) by ~6% and ~8%, respectively, relative to a fully homogenous water column with low particles concentration. In terms of Rrs, the particle enrichment significantly flattered the spectrum by reducing the Rrs by up to 20% in the blue-green spectral region (400-550 nm). These results highlight the impact of melt water on the concentration of particles at sea surface, and the need for considering nonuniform vertical distribution of particles in such systems when interpreting remotely sensed ocean color. Spectral slope of aNAP spectra calculated in the UV domain decreased with depth suggesting that this parameter is sensitive to detritus composition and/or diagenesis state (e.g., POM photobleaching).

  5. Parameterization and testing of a surface melt and water routing model for the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banwell, A. F.; Willis, I. C.; Arnold, N. S.; Tedesco, M.; Messerli, A.; Ahlstrom, A. P.

    2011-12-01

    Rapid supraglacial lake drainages are thought to cause temporary spikes in subglacial water pressure, reductions in basal friction and transient ice sheet accelerations. In order to model potential lake drainage events of the correct magnitude and timing, it is necessary to accurately model: i) the temporal and spatial variability of surface melt; and ii) the surface routing of this water to lakes / moulins. This study is focussed on the Paakitsoq region of western Greenland and is composed of two key components. First, we parameterize a high resolution surface energy / mass balance model by comparing modelled accumulation, melt and albedo against measurements made at the GC-NET stations JAR 1, JAR 2 and Swiss Camp; and modelled snowline position against measurements derived from Landsat 7 ETM+ imagery. Snowline position is obtained from the satellite imagery using a combination of Normalised Difference Snow Index (NDSI) calculations and image thresholding. Second, we parameterize a surface routing and lake filling model using field data collected in June 2011. We focus on the filling of two supraglacial lakes in the Paakitsoq region: 'Lake Ponting' and 'Lake Half Moon'. Using the parameterized distributed surface energy balance model we generate hourly melt output per DEM cell for a 100 km2 area containing these two lakes. Using the Darcian equation for flow at the bottom of a saturated snow pack and the Manning Strickler equation for flow over a bare ice surface, hourly discharge hydrographs into each lake are calculated. These are used in conjunction with the DEM to calculate the temporal changes in lake depths and compared to pressure sensor data from both lakes.

  6. Amundsen Sea sector ice shelf thickness, melt rates, and inland response from annual high-resolution DEM mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shean, D. E.; Joughin, I. R.; Smith, B. E.; Alexandrov, O.; Moratto, Z.; Porter, C. C.; Morin, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Significant grounding line retreat, acceleration, and thinning have occurred along the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica in recent decades. These changes are driven primarily by ice-ocean interaction beneath ice shelves, but existing observations of the spatial distribution, timing, and magnitude of ice shelf melt are limited. Using the NASA Ames Stereo Pipeline, we generated digital elevation models (DEMs) with ~2 m posting from all ~450 available WorldView-1/2 along-track stereopairs for the Amundsen Sea sector. A novel iterative closest point algorithm was used to coregister DEMs to filtered Operation IceBridge ATM/LVIS data and ICESat-1 GLAS data, offering optimal sub-meter horizontal/vertical accuracy. The corrected DEMs were used to produce annual mosaics for the entire ~500x700 km region with focused, sub-annual products for ice shelves and grounding zones. These mosaics provide spatially-continuous measurements of ice shelf topography with unprecedented detail. Using these data, we derive estimates of ice shelf thickness for regions in hydrostatic equilibrium and map networks of sub-shelf melt channels for the Pine Island (PIG), Thwaites, Crosson, and Dotson ice shelves. We also document the break-up of the Thwaites ice shelf and PIG rift evolution leading up to the 2013 calving event. Eulerian difference maps document 2010-2014 thinning over fast-flowing ice streams and adjacent grounded ice. These data reveal the greatest thinning rates over the Smith Glacier ice plain and slopes beyond the margins of the fast-flowing PIG trunk. Difference maps also highlight the filling of at least two subglacial lakes ~30 km upstream of the PIG grounding line in 2011. Lagrangian difference maps reveal the spatial distribution of ice shelf thinning, which can primarily be attributed to basal melt. Preliminary results show focused ice shelf thinning within troughs and large basal channels, especially along the western margin of the Dotson ice shelf. These new data provide critical observations that will improve our understanding ice-ocean interaction and mass loss for the Amundsen Sea sector on local and regional scales.

  7. Warming, Contraction, and Freshening of Antarctic Bottom Water since the 1990s, with a Potential Ice-Sheet Melt Feedback.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Gregory; Purkey, Sarah; Rintoul, Stephen; Swift, James

    2013-04-01

    We analyze changes in Antarctic Bottom Waters (AABW) around the deep Southern Ocean using repeat section data collected between 1981 and 2012. The international World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Hydrographic Program collected a global high-quality baseline of full-depth, accurate oceanographic transects in the 1980s and 1990s. Since the 2000s, some of these transects are being reoccupied, again through international collaboration, as part of GO-SHIP (The Global Ocean Ship-Based Hydrographic Investigations Program). The average dates of the first and last data used to estimate these trends are circa 1991 and 2008. Temperature analyses reveal a nearly global-scale signature of warming in the abyssal ocean ventilated from the Antarctic. In the deep basins around Antarctica, AABW warmed at a rate of 0.02 to 0.05 C per decade below 4000 m. In addition, the waters between 1000 and 4000 m within and south of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current warmed at a rate of about 0.03 C per decade. With this warming, cold, deep isotherms are sinking in the Southern Ocean. The 0 C potential isotherm sinking rate is around 100 m per decade, implying a 8.2 (2.6) Sv contraction rate of AABW, about 7% per decade. In addition to this contraction, AABW freshening is observed within the Indian and Pacific sectors of the Southern Ocean. The freshening signal is stronger closer to AABW sources. Its spatial pattern implies recent changes in AABW formation, perhaps partly owing to freshening of the shelf waters, which has been linked to increases in glacial ice sheet melt. The observed rate of water-mass freshening for AABW colder than 0C in the Indian and Pacific Sectors of the Southern Ocean is about half of the estimated increase in mass lost by glacial ice sheets there in recent years. A positive feedback loop might link the AABW contraction and ice sheet melt-influenced freshening as follows: Increased ocean heat flux drives enhanced basal melt of floating ice shelves. Increased meltwater freshens shelf waters, increasing their buoyancy and reducing the formation rate and/or density of AABW. The contraction of AABW results in expansion of relatively warm Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). If expansion of CDW increases the ocean heat flux to the base of the ice shelf, a positive feedback loop is completed. Such a feedback would imply a stronger sensitivity of both AABW formation and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet to ocean warming than in the absence of such a process. Deep ocean warming makes a significant contribution to global energy and sea-level rise budgets and influences the rate and magnitude of climate change in response to a given greenhouse gas forcing. Better understanding the potential mechanisms for effecting such deep warming, such as the one proposed here, may aid the goal of improved climate change projections, based on coupled climate models that better represent these processes.

  8. Dynamic and static equilibrium sea level effects of Greenland Ice Sheet melt: An assessment of partially-coupled idealized water hosing experiments (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, R. E.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Griffies, S. M.; Yin, J.; Hay, C. C.; Stouffer, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    Regional sea level can deviate from mean global sea level because of both dynamic sea level (DSL) effects, resulting from oceanic and atmospheric circulation and temperature and salinity distributions, and changes in the static equilibrium (SE) sea level configuration, produced by the gravitational, elastic, and rotational effects of mass redistribution. Both effects will contribute to future sea level change, but because they are studied by two different subdisciplines -- climate modeling and glacial rebound modeling -- projections that attempt to combine both have to date been scarce. To compare their magnitude, we simulated the effects of Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) melt by conducting idealized North Atlantic "water-hosing" experiments in a climate model unidirectionally coupled to a SE sea level model. At current rates of GIS melt, freshwater hosing experiments in fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) do not yield clear DSL trends but do generate DSL variability; comparing that variability to expected static equilibrium "fingerprints" suggests that at least about 40 years of observations are needed to detect the "fingerprints" of ice sheet melt at current Greenland melt rates of about 0.3 mm equivalent sea level (esl)/year. Accelerated melt rates of about 2--6 mm esl/y, as may occur later in the century, should be detectable above background DSL variability within less than a decade of their onset. At these higher melt rates, AOGCMs do yield clear DSL trends. In the GFDL CM 2.1 model, DSL trends are strongest in the western North Atlantic, while SE effects come to dominate in most of the ocean when melt exceeds about 20 cm esl.

  9. Seasonal sea ice melt pond fraction and pond freezing estimation using dual-polarisation C-band synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharien, R. K.; Landy, J.; Howell, S.; Warner, K.; Barber, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    Sea ice melt ponds play an important role in spring-summer radiation absorption and upper ocean warming, light transmittance and under-ice primary production, and biogeochemical exchanges. With a larger portion of Arctic first-year sea ice (FYI) compared to multiyear ice observed in recent years comes the expectation of greater melt pond fraction due to the absence of topographical controls on FYI. Despite progress in our understanding and modelling of pond fraction evolution and coupled processes at the local scale, a reliable means for monitoring variations at regional or greater scales, uninhibited by cloud cover, is lacking. In this study we demonstrate the ability of dual-polarisation C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for estimating pond fraction and freezing conditions on level FYI in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. We use a combination of in situ C-band scatterometer and radar-scale surface roughness observations to study the dual-polarisation channel (VV+HH and HV+HH) and channel ratio characteristics of individual melt ponds and ice patches. Aerial surveys of pond fraction are used to evaluate retrieval approaches from Radarsat-2 SAR fine quad-polarisation mode imagery. Accurate retrievals of pond fraction are found using the VV/HH polarisation ratio during melting conditions. Results demonstrate the potential of dual-polarisation SAR for regional scale observations with temporal frequency suitable for contributing to process-scale studies and improvements to model parameterizations.

  10. Spatially Distributed Temperature-index Melt Modelling of Glaciers in the Donjek Range, St. Elias Mountains, Yukon Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheler, B. A.; Flowers, G. E.

    2008-12-01

    We apply both classical and enhanced spatially-distributed temperature-index melt models to two small valley glaciers in the Donjek Range of the St. Elias Mountains (Yukon, Canada) in an effort to accurately model glacier melt in this region. The enhanced model is an extension of the classical approach with the addition of potential clear-sky direct solar radiation as developed by Hock (1999). The two study glaciers are located ~10 km apart and are of similar size (~5 km2), but different aspect (north/south) and dynamic regime (normal/surge-type). We calibrate the melt models on one glacier in 2007 and evaluate the models on the same glacier in 2006 and the second glacier in 2007, providing insight into the potential for model extension in both time and space. To drive the melt models we use four to seven temperature records from distal and proximal automatic weather stations (AWS), including AWS located on the glacier surfaces. Model output consists of hourly simulated melt rates at 30 m spatial resolution across each glacier surface. Model skill is examined through comparisons with cumulative surface lowering measured at ablation stakes, as well as with hourly measured surface lowering and hourly melt simulated by an energy balance model at AWS locations on each glacier. Results show that although air temperature lapse rates vary in time and space, daily air temperature over the glaciers can be estimated from off-ice temperature records with reasonable accuracy (maximum r2 = 0.97) when constant lapse rates are applied. With the enhanced model, high model skill in simulating both daily and seasonal melt rates can be achieved even in the absence of accurate estimates of air temperature. Off-ice temperature records generally yield higher model skill than on-ice records. Optimized model parameters (i.e. melt factors) are similar for the two glaciers in 2007, but differ significantly from 2006 to 2007. As a result, the models show greater skill in predicting cumulative melt on the second glacier than predicting melt on the calibration glacier in a different year: mean absolute errors (MAE) are 18 and 23%, respectively. This difference in model skill is partly explained by the surface energy balance computed at the glacier AWS locations: the energy balance is similarly partitioned on the two glaciers in 2007 but shows higher net radiative flux and lower turbulent fluxes in 2006 compared to 2007 on the calibration glacier. The classical 'degree-day' approach matches the skill of the enhanced temperature- index model for cumulative melt simulation during model calibration, but the enhanced model exhibits superior performance in the model evaluation (MAE 11 to 14% lower than classical model) and for daily and sub- daily melt-rate simulations. The spatial transferability of enhanced temperature-index model parameters in this study suggests the potential for reasonable estimation of distributed glacier melt within the study region with minimal data input.

  11. An 800-kyr Record of Global Surface Ocean ?18Osw and Implications for Ice Volume-Temperature Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakun, J. D.; Lea, D. W.; Lisiecki, L. E.; Raymo, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    We use 49 paired sea surface temperature (SST)-planktonic ?18O records to extract the mean ?18O of surface ocean seawater (?18Osw) over the past 800 kyr, which we interpret to dominantly reflect global ice volume, and compare it to SST variability on the same stratigraphy. This analysis suggests that ice volume and temperature contribute to the marine isotope record in ~60/40 proportions, but they show consistently different patterns over glacial cycles. Global temperature cools early during each cycle while major ice sheet growth occurs later, suggesting that ice volume may have exhibited a threshold response to cooling and also had relatively little feedback on it. Multivariate regression analysis suggests that the rate of ice volume change through time is largely determined by the combined influence of orbital forcing, global temperature, and ice volume itself (r2 = 0.70 at zero-lag for 0-400 ka), with sea level rising faster with stronger insolation and warmer temperatures and when there is more ice available to melt. Indeed, cross-spectral analysis indicates that ice volume exhibits a smaller phase lag and larger gain relative to SST at the 41 and 23 kyr periods than at the 100 kyr period, consistent with additional forcing from insolation at the obliquity and precession time scales. Removing the surface ocean ?18Osw signal from the global benthic ?18O stack produces a reconstruction of deep ocean temperature that bears considerable similarity to the Antarctic ice core temperature record (r2 = 0.80 for 0-400 ka), including cooler interglacials before 400 ka. Overall, we find a close association between global surface temperature, deep ocean temperature, and atmospheric CO2. Additionally, we find that rapid cooling precedes the gradual buildup of large continental ice sheets, which may then be instrumental in terminating the cycle.

  12. The Melting Temperature of Liquid Water with the Effective Fragment Potential.

    PubMed

    Brorsen, Kurt R; Willow, Soohaeng Yoo; Xantheas, Sotiris S; Gordon, Mark S

    2015-09-17

    The direct simulation of the solid-liquid water interface with the effective fragment potential (EFP) via the constant enthalpy and pressure (NPH) ensemble was used to estimate the melting temperature (Tm) of ice-Ih. Initial configurations and velocities, taken from equilibrated constant pressure and temperature (NPT) simulations at P = 1 atm and T = 305 K, 325 K and 399 K, respectively, yielded corresponding Tm values of 378 16 K, 382 14 K and 384 15 K. These estimates are consistently higher than experiment, albeit to the same degree as previously reported estimates using density functional theory (DFT)-based Born-Oppenheimer simulations with the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr functional plus dispersion corrections (BLYP-D). PMID:26722723

  13. Changes in viral and bacterial communities during the ice-melting season in the coastal Arctic (Kongsfjorden, Ny-lesund).

    PubMed

    De Corte, Daniele; Sintes, Eva; Yokokawa, Taichi; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2011-07-01

    Microbial communities in Arctic coastal waters experience dramatic changes in environmental conditions during the spring to summer transition period, potentially leading to major variations in the relationship between viral and prokaryotic communities. To document these variations, a number of physico-chemical and biological parameters were determined during the ice-melting season in the coastal Arctic (Kongsfjorden, Ny-lesund, Spitsbergen). The bacterial and viral abundance increased during the spring to summer transition period, probably associated to the increase in temperature and the development of a phytoplankton bloom. The increase in viral abundance was less pronounced than the increase in prokaryotic abundance; consequently, the viral to prokaryotic abundance ratio decreased. The bacterial and viral communities were stratified as determined by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis and Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR respectively. Both the bacterial and viral communities were characterized by a relatively low number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Despite the apparent low complexity of the bacterial and viral communities, the link between these two communities was weak over the melting season, as suggested by the different trends of prokaryotic and viral abundance during the sampling period. This weak relationship between the two communities might be explained by UV radiation and suspended particles differently affecting the viruses and prokaryotes in the coastal Arctic during this period. Based on our results, we conclude that the viral and bacterial communities in the Arctic were strongly affected by the variability of the environmental conditions during the transition period between spring and summer. PMID:21554518

  14. A new spatially and temporally variable sigma parameter in degree-day melt modelling of the Greenland Ice Sheet 1870-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jowett, A. E.; Hanna, E.; Ng, F.; Huybrechts, P.; Janssens, I.

    2015-10-01

    The degree-day based method of calculating ice-/snow-melt across the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) commonly includes the temperature parameter sigma (σ) accounting for temperature variability on short (sub-monthly down to hourly) timescales, in order to capture melt in months where the mean temperature is below 0 °C. Sigma is typically assumed to be constant in space and time, with values ranging from ~ 2.5 to 5.5 °C. It is unclear in many cases how these values were derived and little sensitivity analysis or validation has been conducted. Here we determine spatially and temporally varying monthly values of σ for the unique, extended 1870-2013 timescale based on downscaled, corrected European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim (ERA-I) and Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) meteorological reanalysis 2 m air temperatures on a 5 km × 5 km polar stereographic grid for the GrIS. The resulting monthly σ values reveal a distinct seasonal cycle. The mean summer σ value for the study period is ~ 3.2 °C, around 1 °C lower than the value of 4.2 °C commonly used in the literature. Sigma values for individual summers range from 1.7 to 5.9 °C. Since the summer months dominate the melt calculation, use of the new variable σ parameter would lead to a smaller melt area and a more positive surface mass balance for the GrIS. Validation of our new variable σ dataset shows good agreement with standard deviations calculated from automatic weather station observations across the ice sheet. Trend analysis shows large areas of the ice sheet exhibit statistically significant increasing temperature variability from 1870-2013 in all seasons, with notable exceptions around Summit in spring, and Summit and South Dome in winter. More recently, since 1990, σ has been decreasing, significantly so in the north-west during July. These interannual σ trends reflect climate change and variability processes operating across the ice sheet, several mechanisms of which are briefly discussed.

  15. Melt-Triggered Seismic Response in Hydraulically-Active Polar Ice: Observations and Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmichael, Joshua D.

    Glacier ice responds to environmental forcing through changes in its sliding speed and mass balance. While these changes often occur on daily time scales or longer, they are initiated by brittle deformation events that establish hydrological pathways in hours or seconds and allow meltwater access to englacial or subglacial depths to facilitate ice motion. In this thesis, we (various contributing authors including myself) use seismic monitoring to detect and locate the creation and growth of some of these hydraulic pathways by monitoring their seismic emissions, or icequakes. More specifically, we address (1) what seismic observables, unavailable from other sensing methods, indicate an initial glaciogenic response to melt- water input and (2) if these comprise evidence of feedbacks that may destabilize polar ice under a warming climate. Supplemental to our scientific contributions, we advance statistical processing methods that demonstrably improve the capability of digital detectors at discriminating icequakes from astationary noise. We begin by interpreting geophysical observations collected from a dry-based, sub-freezing (--17 C), polar glacier environment (Taylor Glacier, ANT). By implementing a calibrated surface energy balance model, we estimate the timing and volume of surface meltwater generated during the collection of seismic data from a six-receiver geophone network. We proceed by contrasting these response characteristics with geophysical observations following an early (spring) supraglacial lake drainage within the lake-forming ablation zone of the Western Greenland Ice Sheet. Using measurements from a 5km-aperture geophone network, we find that the anticipated post-drainage icequakes are diurnally responsive, largely surficial in origin, and indicative of tensile fracturing from shallow cracks in the ice. The creation of the lake-drainage moulin appears to coincide with a shift in mean icequake source locations, and an increase in icequake occurrence at night relative to that in the day. Contrary to our expectations, we find that the timing of GPS-derived surface speeds do not clearly indicate this seismic activity on any given day. Rather, these icequakes are best explained by peaks in localized strain gradients that develop at night when decreased subglacial water flux likely increases variability in basal traction. Additionally, our results appear comprise the first detailed seismic observations targeted at an actively draining lake. Our last study addresses the apparent deficiency in observed basal icequakes detected from Greenland lake site. To explain the lack of deep icequakes, we compute thresholds on the magnitude of detectable basal events within the network and thereby illustrate that surficial icequakes with similar magnitudes and spectral content are more likely to be observed. By restricting our attention to seismic events that produce lower frequency waveforms, we find a population of nearly monochromatic, sub-1Hz, large magnitude ( M w ? 3) seismic events borne from remote glaciogenic sources. In contrast to surficial icequakes, these events occur without significant bias between day and/or night periods and are best explained as glacial earthquakes generated by sliding episodes or iceberg calving events in the vicinity of Jakobshavn Glacier. These events occur daily and not correlate with the presence of local, surficial seismicity. We conclude with three general assertions regarding melt-triggered response characteristics of polar ice. First, hydraulic connections established by fracture events do not necessarily result in seismogenic basal stick slip, and therefore cannot necessarily be observed with conventional GPS monitoring. This was demonstrated at Taylor Glacier. Here, meltwater input to a hydraulic pathway led to fracture growth deep within a cold glacier without any change in surface speed. Second, the presence of melt-triggered basal sliding does not necessarily induce a clear seismogenic basal response in the lakes regions. This was demonstrated on the Greenland Ice Sheet. Seismogenesis may instead be more clearly reflected by surficial strain gradients established by variability in basal traction, suggesting these feedbacks are secondary rather than primary. The response is therefore not clearly indicated from day-to-day timing of GPS-observations. Third, the absence of an observed local response does not necessarily indicate the absence of a local physical response. This was also illustrated in Greenland. Here, deep local icequakes are likely muted by noise, waveform-attenuating ice, and viscous basal rheology. Magnitude thresholds suggest that M w ? 2 for consistent recording of local, basal sources. In contrast, remote, low frequency seismic events were clearly observed, and attributed to activity within ice catchments along the western edge of the ice sheet or Jacobshavn glacier. Finally, we assert that early-indicators of melt-triggered glacial response include components of spatially localized, brittle deformation that is most suitable to seismic observation. Critically-stable regions along mass-balance equilibrium lines constitute potential sites for newly forming surface-to-bed hydraulic connections in a warming climate, and likewise, a potential target for future seismic experiments.

  16. Using singlet molecular oxygen to probe the solute and temperature dependence of liquid-like regions in/on ice.

    PubMed

    Bower, Jonathan P; Anastasio, Cort

    2013-08-01

    Liquid-like regions (LLRs) are found at the surfaces and grain boundaries of ice and as inclusions within ice. These regions contain most of the solutes in ice and can be (photo)chemically active hotspots in natural snow and ice systems. If we assume all solutes partition into LLRs as a solution freezes, freezing-point depression predicts that the concentration of a solute in LLRs is higher than its concentration in the prefrozen (or melted) solution by the freeze-concentration factor (F). Here we use singlet molecular oxygen production to explore the effects of total solute concentration ([TS]) and temperature on experimentally determined values of F. For ice above its eutectic temperature, measured values of F agree well with freezing-point depression when [TS] is above ?1 mmol/kg; at lower [TS] values, measurements of F are lower than predicted from freezing-point depression. For ice below its eutectic temperature, the influence of freezing-point depression on F is damped; the extreme case is with Na2SO4 as the solute, where F shows essentially no agreement with freezing-point depression. In contrast, for ice containing 3 mmol/kg NaCl, measured values of F agree well with freezing-point depression over a range of temperatures, including below the eutectic. Our experiments also reveal that the photon flux in LLRs increases in the presence of salts, which has implications for ice photochemistry in the lab and, perhaps, in the environment. PMID:23841666

  17. Melt trends above the equilibrium line of the Greenland Ice Sheet during the period of 2003-2012 (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Pea, S.; Howat, I. M.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Price, S. F.; Nienow, P. W.; Mosley-Thompson, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    Warming in the Arctic has raised concern about the effects that increased fresh water input from Greenland and other ice caps into the oceans could have on sea level rise and on the thermohaline ocean circulation. Melt over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) has been increasing steadily over the last 20 years, and although mass loss has been limited to the margins, the departure from the 1979-1999 mean melt rate in the last decade has become particularly large in the interior. This has resulted in variable conditions that make ice volume changes derived from remote sensing measurements difficult to interpret, and an equilibrium line that is continuously migrating. We present a combined analysis of field measurements obtained in western Greenland and results from the Regional Atmospheric Climate Model to estimate trends in melt and refreezing rates over the interior of the Greenland ice sheet. The combined dataset show the evolution of melt intensity in regions with little or no meltwater runoff during the last 20 years. We estimated a threefold increase in the total area experiencing significant melt in the last decade, and an amount of refrozen meltwater larger than the total mass balance of the ice sheet. Conditions observed after the extreme melt event of July 2012 at and above the 2000 m elevation line contrast sharply with previous studies, and illustrate the current and future state of the Greenland interior if warming trends continue. We will discuss changes during the last decade in surface mass balance conditions, and the melting and refreezing processes occurring above the equilibrium line of the GIS. Additionally, we will summarize some implications these processes may have in estimating mass balance from altimetry techniques, and how in-situ data and models can help improving altimetry-derived results. The intensity of melt and the huge ice reservoirs found in the field are an indication that percolation facies are no longer just an interesting feature with no real relevance other than their effects in radar altimetry signals, but rather the result of an intense melting process of at least the same scale as the total mass imbalance of the GIS.

  18. Liquidus Temperatures of Cryolite Melts With Low Cryolite Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apisarov, Alexei; Dedyukhin, Alexander; Nikolaeva, Elena; Tinghaev, Pavel; Tkacheva, Olga; Redkin, Alexander; Zaikov, Yurii

    2011-02-01

    The effect of calcium fluoride on liquidus temperatures of the cryolite melts with a low cryolite ratio (CR) was studied. The systems KF-NaF-AlF3 and KF-LiF-AlF3 with CRs of 1.3, 1.5, and 1.7 have been investigated. The liquidus curves of systems containing CaF2 are different and depend on the K/(K + Na) and K/(K + Li) ratios. In potassium cryolite with CRs of 1.3 and 1.5, the calcium fluoride solubility is low and increases with NaF (LiF) concentration.

  19. Use and Limitations of a Climate-Quality Data Record to Study Temperature Trends on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Comiso, Josefino C.; Shuman, Christopher A.; Koenig, Lora S.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been documented in recent literature along with surface-temperature increases measured using infrared satellite data since 1981. Using a recently-developed climate-quality data record, 11- and 12-year trends in the clear-sky ice-surface temperature (IST) of the Greenland Ice Sheet have been studied using the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) IST product. Daily and monthly MODIS ISTs of the Greenland Ice Sheet beginning on 1 March 2000 and continuing through 31 December 2010 are now available at 6.25-km spatial resolution on a polar stereographic grid as described in Hall et al. (submitted). This record will be elevated in status to a climate-data record (CDR) when more years of data become available either from the MODIS on the Terra or Aqua satellites, or from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) to be launched in October 2011. Maps showing the maximum extent of melt for the entire ice sheet and for the six major drainage basins have been developed from the MODIS IST dataset. Twelve-year trends of the duration of the melt season on the ice sheet vary in different drainage basins with some basins melting progressively earlier over the course of the study period. Some (but not all) of the basins also show a progressively-longer duration of melt. IST 12-year trends are compared with in-situ data, and climate data from the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Reanalysis.

  20. Equations of state of ice VI and ice VII at high pressure and high temperature.

    PubMed

    Bezacier, Lucile; Journaux, Baptiste; Perrillat, Jean-Philippe; Cardon, Herv; Hanfland, Michael; Daniel, Isabelle

    2014-09-14

    High-pressure H2O polymorphs among which ice VI and ice VII are abundant in the interiors of large icy satellites and exo-planets. Knowledge of the elastic properties of these pure H2O ices at high-temperature and high-pressure is thus crucial to decipher the internal structure of icy bodies. In this study we assess for the first time the pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) relations of both polycrystalline pure ice VI and ice VII at high pressures and temperatures from 1 to 9 GPa and 300 to 450 K, respectively, by using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The PVT data are adjusted to a second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state and give V0 = 14.17(2) cm(3)?mol(-1), K0 = 14.05(23) GPa, and ?0 = 14.6(14) 10(-5) K(-1) for ice VI and V0 = 12.49(1) cm(3)?mol(-1), K0 = 20.15(16) GPa, and ?0 = 11.6(5) 10(-5) K(-1) for ice VII. PMID:25217935

  1. Equations of state of ice VI and ice VII at high pressure and high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Bezacier, Lucile; Hanfland, Michael; Journaux, Baptiste; Perrillat, Jean-Philippe; Cardon, Hervé; Daniel, Isabelle

    2014-09-14

    High-pressure H{sub 2}O polymorphs among which ice VI and ice VII are abundant in the interiors of large icy satellites and exo-planets. Knowledge of the elastic properties of these pure H{sub 2}O ices at high-temperature and high-pressure is thus crucial to decipher the internal structure of icy bodies. In this study we assess for the first time the pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) relations of both polycrystalline pure ice VI and ice VII at high pressures and temperatures from 1 to 9 GPa and 300 to 450 K, respectively, by using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The PVT data are adjusted to a second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state and give V{sub 0} = 14.17(2) cm{sup 3} mol{sup −1}, K{sub 0} = 14.05(23) GPa, and α{sub 0} = 14.6(14) × 10{sup −5} K{sup −1} for ice VI and V{sub 0} = 12.49(1) cm{sup 3} mol{sup −1}, K{sub 0} = 20.15(16) GPa, and α{sub 0} = 11.6(5) × 10{sup −5} K{sup −1} for ice VII.

  2. Light absorption and partitioning in Arctic Ocean surface waters: impact of multiyear ice melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanger, S.; Cizmeli, S. A.; Ehn, J.; Matsuoka, A.; Doxaran, D.; Hooker, S.; Babin, M.

    2013-10-01

    Ice melting in the Arctic Ocean exposes the surface water to more radiative energy with poorly understood effects on photo-biogeochemical processes and heat deposition in the upper ocean. In August 2009, we documented the vertical variability of light absorbing components at 37 stations located in the southeastern Beaufort Sea including both Mackenzie River-influenced waters and polar mixed layer waters. We found that melting multiyear ice released significant amount of non-algal particulates (NAP) near the sea surface relative to subsurface waters. NAP absorption coefficients at 440 nm (aNAP(440)) immediately below the sea surface were on average 3-fold (up to 10-fold) higher compared to subsurface values measured at 2-3 m depth. The impact of this unusual feature on the light transmission and remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) was further examined using a radiative transfer model. A 10-fold particle enrichment homogeneously distributed in the first meter of the water column slightly reduced photosynthetically available and usable radiation (PAR and PUR) by ∼6 and ∼8%, respectively, relative to a fully homogenous water column with low particle concentration. In terms of Rrs, the particle enrichment significantly flattered the spectrum by reducing the Rrs by up to 20% in the blue-green spectral region (400-550 nm). These results highlight the impact of meltwater on the concentration of particles at sea surface, and the need for considering non-uniform vertical distribution of particles in such systems when interpreting remotely sensed ocean color. Spectral slope of aNAP spectra calculated in the UV (ultraviolet) domain decreased with depth suggesting that this parameter is sensitive to detritus composition and/or diagenesis state (e.g., POM (particulate organic matter) photobleaching).

  3. A Self-consistent Estimation Method of Melting Condition Based on Major Elements in Volcanic Rocks: Degree of Melting, Pressure, H2O Content and Melting Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogitsu, I.; Ozawa, K.

    2008-12-01

    Estimation of magma generation conditions, including degree of partial melting, melting pressure, H2O content, and melting temperature, is a key step to better understand the magmatism of various tectonic settings including mid ocean ridges, hot spots, and subduction zones. There are many studies that estimated magma generation conditions on the basis of chemical compositions of volcanic rocks, but the most of them are neither comprehensive nor self-consistent in that a part of melting conditions was estimated or assumed to estimate the rest. Moreover, they are mostly applicable only to a specific tectonic setting and are not universal. Chemical compositions of volcanic rocks are results of integration of various magmatic processes that take place in the upper mantle and the crust. Therefore, estimation of melting condition in the mantle is inevitably coupled with estimation of magma evolution during fractional crystallization in the crust. In other words, conditions for melting and fractional crystallization must be determined all together by dealing with all the relevant magmatic processes. Based on this idea, a rigorous least-squares approach to estimate melting conditions in the upper mantle from major element composition of a single volcanic rock, in which crystallization and melting parameters are simultaneously and consistently determined, is proposed. Melting in the mantle was modeled based on the batch melting experiments of KLB-1 peridotite (Takahashi, 1986; Hirose and Kushiro, 1993), and fractional crystallization in the crust was modeled by MELTS program (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995). Unknown parameters are degree of partial melting, melting pressure, and H2O content for mantle melting, and pressure and final temperature of crystallization for fractional crystallization in the crust. The melting temperature is estimated from the relationships among degree of melting, melting pressure, and H2O content. In optimization of these parameters, not only olivine but also plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and orthopyroxene are considered as fractionated phases. This approach is applicable to more differentiated rocks, which are not suitable for olivine addition methods widely used in estimation of primary magmas. Because the amounts and compositions of fractionated phases and degree of partial meting are determined without using trace element data, we can estimate trace element abundances in the source mantle from those of a volcanic rock basically without any assumptions. This method is very general and applicable to wider compositional range of volcanic rocks irrespective of their tectonic settings. Application of this method to several sets of multiple rock samples from a volcano gave consistent melting conditions, substantiating robustness of this approach. If this method is applied to volcanoes distributed in a volcanic region, it is possible to investigate two- or three-dimensional variation of melting conditions, which are strong constraints to understand melting mechanisms, thermal structure, and material transport in the mantle. This method was applied to a frontal volcano of the Izu arc, Aogashima Volcano, and volcanoes distributed in its back arc region in order to understand the across arc variation of magma generation conditions. The melting conditions of the Izu arc shows increases in melting temperature and melting pressure toward the volcanic front from the back-arc side.

  4. Tectonics of icy satellites driven by melting and crystallization of water bodies inside their ice shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Stephanie Ann

    Enceladus and Europa are icy satellites that currently support bodies of liquid water in the outer solar system Additionally, they show signs of being geologically active. Developing numerical models informed by observations of these icy satellites allows for the development of additional constraints and an improved understanding of the tectonics and evolution of icy satellites. The formation mechanisms for both chaos and ridges on Europa are thought to involve water as albedo changes observed in association with them imply the deposition of salt-rich water near these features. Ridges are the most ubiquitous feature on Europa and are described as central troughs flanked by two raised edifices, range in height from tens to hundreds of meters. Europan ridges can extend hundreds of km continuously along strike but are only about 2 km across. A model of a crystallizing dike--like water intrusion is able to match the overall morphology of ridges, and is consistent the long continuous strike. However, the intrusion of a large volume of water is required to match the most common heights of the ridges. Chaos on Europa is defined as a large area of disrupted ice that contain blocks of pre-existing material separated by a hummocky matrix. A proposed mechanism for the formation of Chaos is that a region of heterogeneous ice within the shell is melted and then recrystallizes. Comparing the model results with the geology of Thera Macula, a region where it has been proposed that Chaos is currently forming, suggests that additional processes may be needed to fully understand the development of Chaos. Water-rich plumes erupt from the south pole of Enceladus, suggesting the presence of a pressurized water reservoir. If a pressurized sea is located beneath the south polar terrain, its geometry and size in the ice shell would contribute to the stress state in the ice shell. The geometry and location of such an ocean, as well as the boundary conditions and thickness of an ice shell have important implications for the faulting and tectonic deformation anticipated at the surface.

  5. Development of a Climate-Data Record (CDR) of the Surface Temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorthy K.; Comiso, Josefino C.; Shuman, Christopher A.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Stock, Larry V.

    2010-01-01

    Regional "clear sky" surface temperature increases since the early 1980s in the Arctic, measured using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) infrared data, range from 0.57+/-0.02 deg C to 72+/-0.10 deg C per decade. Arctic warming has important implications for ice-sheet mass balance because much of the periphery of the Greenland Ice Sheet is already near 0 deg C during the melt season, and is thus vulnerable to rapid melting if temperatures continue to increase. An increase in melting of the ice sheet would accelerate sea-level rise, an issue affecting potentially billions of people worldwide. To quantify the ice-surface temperature (IST) of the Greenland Ice Sheet, and to provide an IST dataset of Greenland for modelers that provides uncertainties, we are developing a climate-data record (CDR) of daily "clear-sky" IST of the Greenland Ice Sheet, from 1982 to the present using AVHRR (1982 - present) and Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data (2000 - present) at a resolution of approximately 5 km. Known issues being addressed in the production of the CDR are: time-series bias caused by cloud cover (surface temperatures can be different under clouds vs. clear areas) and cross-calibration in the overlap period between AVHRR instruments, and between AVHRR and MODIS instruments. Because of uncertainties, mainly due to clouds, time-series of satellite IST do not necessarily correspond with actual surface temperatures. The CDR will be validated by comparing results with automatic-weather station data and with satellite-derived surface-temperature products and biases will be calculated.

  6. Using Digital Imagery from a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to Estimate Arctic Melt Pond Coverage on Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulac, B. L.; Tschudi, M. A.; Maslanik, J. A.; Holland, G. J.

    2004-12-01

    Photo mapping of melt pond coverage on sea ice was undertaken in the Arctic during the summer of 2004 using an Aerosonde. Aerosondes are small, long endurance UAV designed to undertake a wide range of operations in a highly flexible and inexpensive mode. The Aerosonde conducts a defined mission in a completely autonomous mode. All flights are under the command of a ground controller who can change missions and respond to air traffic control requests, etc. An NSF-funded effort (Office of Polar Programs' Long Term Observations [LTO]) is now underway to deploy Aerosondes for routine mapping and atmospheric sounding missions in the Arctic. Aerosondes were deployed at Barrow, AK, during June, 2004 as part of the LTO effort. During this deployment, several flights were dedicated to examining the fractional coverage of melt ponds over sea ice in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, as part of a study funded by NASA. Melt ponds have been identified as a key feature in determining the amount of solar insulation absorbed by sea ice, and hence is a primary controller of the melt rate of the ice through the summer. Sea ice models have, to date, crudely parameterized ponds, due in part to a lack of large-scale observations of their temporal and spatial evolution. The NASA-funded study uses observations from the EOS sensor MODIS to estimate pond fraction over a large portion of the Beaufort and Chukchi, by examining several spectral (visible and near-infrared) MODIS bands and deducing melt pond coverage from the known spectral properties of ponds. The Aerosonde flights dedicated to the melt pond study were necessary to test the validity of the pond coverage estimated using the MODIS data. A downward-looking Olympus C-3030 digital camera was mounted within the Aerosonde to photograph the sea ice. The digital photos are analyzed to classify each photo according to the percentage cover of melt ponds, unponded ice, and open water. These estimates are compared to the values retrieved using MODIS for the same area of coverage. To enhance these comparisons, missions were flown with 10 km x 10 km grid patterns, with overlapping (along-track and cross-track) digital photos, which allow for comparison with 400 MODIS pixels (500 m resolution). Additional missions were designed to examine the evolution of pond coverage over sea ice off the coast of Point Barrow, Alaska. The sea ice in this area of interest was fast ice (i.e. not drifting ice) and served as an area where melt ponds can be observed during formation and their evolution through the summer. The Aerosonde team flew several flights paralleling Point Barrow and overlapping in a pattern that provided contiguous digital camera images of the fast ice from shore to a few km off the coast. These flights were repeated several times during June, providing imagery that will assist investigators in determining how pond fraction changes over this period. The technique and results of pond coverage estimation from airborne digital photography will be presented, as will comparisons to estimates retrieved using MODIS.

  7. Correlations between Inter-Annual Variations in Arctic Sea Ice Extent, Greenland Surface Melt, and Boreal Snow Cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markus, Thorstena; Stroeve, Julienne C.; Armstrong, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Intensification of global warming in recent decades has caused a rise of interest in year-to-year and decadal-scale climate variability in the Arctic. This is because the Arctic is believed to be one of the most sensitive and vulnerable regions to climatic changes. For over two decades satellite passive microwave observations have been utilized to continuously monitor the Arctic environment. Derived parameters include sea ice cover, snow cover and snow water equivalent over land, and Greenland melt extent and length of melt season. Most studies have primarily concentrated on trends and variations of individual variables. In this study we investigated how variations in sea ice cover, Greenland surface melt, and boreal snow cover are correlated. This was done on hemispheric as well as on regional scales. Latest results will be presented including data from the summer of 2004.

  8. Regional melt-pond fraction and albedo of thin Arctic first-year drift ice in late summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divine, D. V.; Granskog, M. A.; Hudson, S. R.; Pedersen, C. A.; Karlsen, T. I.; Divina, S. A.; Renner, A. H. H.; Gerland, S.

    2015-02-01

    The paper presents a case study of the regional (?150 km) morphological and optical properties of a relatively thin, 70-90 cm modal thickness, first-year Arctic sea ice pack in an advanced stage of melt. The study combines in situ broadband albedo measurements representative of the four main surface types (bare ice, dark melt ponds, bright melt ponds and open water) and images acquired by a helicopter-borne camera system during ice-survey flights. The data were collected during the 8-day ICE12 drift experiment carried out by the Norwegian Polar Institute in the Arctic, north of Svalbard at 82.3 N, from 26 July to 3 August 2012. A set of > 10 000 classified images covering about 28 km2 revealed a homogeneous melt across the study area with melt-pond coverage of ? 0.29 and open-water fraction of ? 0.11. A decrease in pond fractions observed in the 30 km marginal ice zone (MIZ) occurred in parallel with an increase in open-water coverage. The moving block bootstrap technique applied to sequences of classified sea-ice images and albedo of the four surface types yielded a regional albedo estimate of 0.37 (0.35; 0.40) and regional sea-ice albedo of 0.44 (0.42; 0.46). Random sampling from the set of classified images allowed assessment of the aggregate scale of at least 0.7 km2 for the study area. For the current setup configuration it implies a minimum set of 300 images to process in order to gain adequate statistics on the state of the ice cover. Variance analysis also emphasized the importance of longer series of in situ albedo measurements conducted for each surface type when performing regional upscaling. The uncertainty in the mean estimates of surface type albedo from in situ measurements contributed up to 95% of the variance of the estimated regional albedo, with the remaining variance resulting from the spatial inhomogeneity of sea-ice cover.

  9. A synthetic ice core approach to estimate ion relocation in an ice field site experiencing periodical melt; a case study on Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, C. P.; Pohjola, V. A.; Beaudon, E.; Claremar, B.; van Pelt, W. J. J.; Pettersson, R.; Isaksson, E.; Martma, T.; Schwikowski, M.; Bggild, C. E.

    2015-09-01

    Physical and chemical properties of four different ice cores (LF-97, LF-08, LF-09 and LF-11) drilled at Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard, were compared to investigate the effects of meltwater percolation on the chemical and physical stratigraphy of these records. A synthetic ice core approach was employed as reference record to estimate the ionic relocation and meltwater percolation length at this site during the period 2007-2010. Using this method, the ion elution sequence obtained for Lomonosovfonna was SO42- > NO3- > NH4+ > Mg2+ > Cl-, K+ > Na+ > Ca2+, with acidic ions being the most mobile within the snowpack. The relocation length of most of the ions was in the order of 1 m, with the exception of SO42- showing relocation lengths > 2 m during this period. In addition, by using both a positive degree day (PDD) and a snow-energy model approaches to estimate the percentage of melt at Lomonosovfonna, we have calculated a melt percentage (MP) of the total annual accumulation within the range between 48 and 70 %, for the period between 2007 and 2010 which is above the MP range suggested by the ion relocation evidenced in the LF-syn core (i.e. MP = 30 %). Using a firn-densification model to constrain the melt range, a MP of 30 % was found over the same period which is consistent with the results of the synthetic ice core approach, and a 45 % of melt for the last 60 years. Considering the ionic relocation lengths and annual melt percentages, we estimate that the atmospheric ionic signal remains preserved in recently drilled Lomonosovfonna ice cores at an annual or bi-annual resolution.

  10. Effect of gravity wave temperature variations on homogeneous ice nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Tra; Podglajen, Aurlien; Hertzog, Albert; Legras, Bernard; Plougonven, Riwal

    2015-04-01

    Observations of cirrus clouds in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) have shown various ice number concentrations (INC) (e.g., Jensen et al. 2013), which has lead to a puzzle regarding their formation. In particular, the frequently observed low numbers of ice crystals seemed hard to reconcile with homogeneous nucleation knowing the ubuquity of gravity waves with vertical velocity of the order of 0.1 m/s. Using artificial time series, Spichtinger and Krmer (2013) have illustrated that the variation of vertical velocity during a nucleation event could terminate it and limit the INC. However, their study was limited to constructed temperature time series. Here, we carry out numerical simulations of homogeneous ice nucleation forced by temperature time series data collected by isopycnic balloon flights near the tropical tropopause. The balloons collected data at high frequency (30 s), so gravity wave signals are well resolved in the temperature time series. With the observed temperature time series, the numerical simulations with homogeneous freezing show a full range of ice number concentrations (INC) as previously observed in the tropical upper troposphere. The simulations confirm that the dynamical time scale of temperature variations (as seen from observations) can be shorter than the nucleation time scale. They show the existence of two regimes for homogeneous ice nucleation : one limited by the depletion of water vapor by the nucleated ice crystals (those we name vapor events) and one limited by the reincrease of temperature after its initial decrease (temperature events). Low INC may thus be obtained for temperature events when the gravity wave perturbations produce a non-persistent cooling rate (even with large magnitude) such that the absolute change in temperature remains small during nucleation. This result for temperature events is explained analytically by a dependence of the INC on the absolute drop in temperature (and not on the cooling rate). This work supports the hypothesis that even acting alone homogeneous ice nucleation is not necessarily inconsistent with observations of low INC. Spichtinger, P. and Krmer, M.: Tropical tropopause ice clouds: a dynamic approach to the mystery of low crystal numbers, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9801-9818, doi:10.5194/acp-13-9801-2013, 2013. Jensen, E. J., Diskin, G., Lawson, R. P., Lance, S., Bui, T. P., Hlavka, D., McGill, M., Pfister, L., Toon, O. B., and Gao, R.: Ice nucleation and dehydration in the Tropical Tropopause Layer, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 110, 2041-2046, doi:10.1073/pnas.1217104110, 2013.

  11. Extremophilic fungi in arctic ice: a relationship between adaptation to low temperature and water activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunde-Cimerman, N.; Sonjak, S.; Zalar, P.; Frisvad, J. C.; Diderichsen, B.; Plemenita, A.

    Little is known about fungal diversity in extremely cold regions. Low temperatures induce the formation of ice crystals and therefore also the creation of low water activity ( aw). These are the dominant factors in external chemistry that influence microbial biota in cold regions. Therefore, we have used selective low water activity media plus low incubation temperatures for the isolation of fungi from an Arctic environment. In comparison with the highest values of colony forming units (CFU) obtained on mesophilic media, considerably higher fungal CFU per litre of water were detected on low aw media, ranging from 1000 to 3000 l -1 in seawater, 6000 to 7000 l -1 in melted sea ice and up to 13,000 l -1 in melted glacier ice. The dominant taxa were ascomycetous and basidiomycetous yeasts, melanized fungi, mainly represented by the genera Cladosporium and Aureobasidium plus different species of the genus Penicillium. Preliminary taxonomic analyses revealed several new species and varieties. Further characterisations are needed to determine whether this diversity is due to geographic isolation, ecological conditions or independent evolutionary origin.

  12. BINARY: an optical freezing array for assessing temperature and time dependence of heterogeneous ice nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budke, C.; Koop, T.

    2014-09-01

    A new optical freezing array for the study of heterogeneous ice nucleation in microliter-sized droplets is introduced, tested and applied to the study of immersion freezing in aqueous Snomax suspensions. In the Bielefeld Ice Nucleation ARraY (BINARY) ice nucleation can be studied simultaneously in 36 droplets at temperatures down to -40 C (233 K) and at cooling rates between 0.1 K min-1 and 10 K min-1. The droplets are separated from each other in individual compartments, thus preventing a Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen type water vapor transfer between droplets as well as avoiding the seeding of neighboring droplets by formation and surface growth of frost halos. Analysis of freezing and melting occurs via an automated real time image analysis of the optical brightness of each individual droplet. As an application ice nucleation in water droplets containing Snomax at concentrations from 1 ng mL-1 to 1 mg mL-1 was investigated. Using different cooling rates a minute time dependence of ice nucleation induced by Class A and Class C ice nucleators contained in Snomax was detected. For the Class A IN a very strong increase of the heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficient with decreasing temperature of ? ≡ -dln(jhet)/dT = 8.7 K-1 was observed emphasizing the capability of the BINARY device. This value is larger than those of other types of IN reported in the literature, suggesting that the BINARY setup is suitable for quantifying time dependence for most other IN of atmospheric interest, making it a useful tool for future investigations.

  13. Destabilisation of an Arctic ice cap triggered by a hydro-thermodynamic feedback to summer-melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunse, T.; Schellenberger, T.; Kb, A.; Hagen, J. O.; Schuler, T. V.; Reijmer, C. H.

    2014-05-01

    Mass loss from glaciers and ice sheets currently accounts for two-thirds of the observed global sea-level rise and has accelerated since the 1990s, coincident with strong atmospheric warming in the Polar Regions. Here we present continuous GPS measurements and satellite synthetic aperture radar based velocity maps from the Austfonna ice cap, Svalbard, that demonstrate strong links between surface-melt and multiannual ice-flow acceleration. We identify a hydro-thermodynamic feedback that successively mobilizes stagnant ice regions, initially frozen to their bed, thereby facilitating fast basal motion over an expanding area. By autumn 2012, successive destabilization of the marine terminus escalated in a surge of the ice cap's largest drainage basin, Basin-3. The resulting iceberg discharge of 4.2 1.6 Gt a-1 over the period April 2012 to May 2013 triples the calving loss from the entire ice cap. After accounting for the terminus advance, the related sea-level rise contribution of 7.2 2.6 Gt a-1 matches the recent annual ice-mass loss from the entire Svalbard archipelago. Our study highlights the importance of dynamic glacier wastage and illuminates mechanisms that may trigger a sustained increase in dynamic glacier wastage or the disintegration of ice-sheets in response to climate warming, which is acknowledged but not quantified in global projections of sea-level rise.

  14. The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Stability Influenced by the Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet under Various Warming Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierz, P.; Lohmann, G.; Wei, W.; Barbi, D.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we aim to model melting processes of the Greenland ice sheet over the next 1000 years using the Earth system model COSMOS with a dynamic ice sheet module. Of primary interest is the resulting impact on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (GMOC/AMOC), which is expected to slow in response to a large freshwater (eg melt water) input. Six warming scenarios will be considered, one set corresponding to the IPCC's RPC Scenario 6, and another set corresponding to RPC Scenario 4.5, each time with 0.5, 1, and 2% increase of greenhouse gas concentration per year. It is expected that the freshwater input will slow down the AMOC overturning; each scenario producing a unique braking signal corresponding to how rapidly the Greenland ice sheet is forced to melt. It will be interesting to see if there is a CO2 threshold level at which the slowdown of the AMOC begins and the melting phenomena becomes unstable and positively reinforces itself or instead, as previous studies have demonstrated with a prescribed amount of melting, if the freshwater input always allows for an eventual recovery of the AMOC to a stable state regardless of the rapidity with which the salinity anomalies develop. The primary difference between this set of experiments and those in previous studies shall be the dynamic nature of the ice sheet model, as we will allow the Greenland ice sheet to melt solely based upon atmospheric conditions rather than prescribing a salinity change directly into the ocean model. It is expected that higher levels of greenhouse gases will result in more rapid melting, which in turn will have a stronger braking affect on the AMOC, possibly with longer recovery times to the starting equilibrium point. It will additionally be of interest to see if it is possible to create a shift in this equilibrium, suggesting that the rapidity with which density anomalies are introduced may create a new stable deep water formation rate. PRELIMINARY RESULTS - AMOC downwelling strength with changes in dynamically modeled Ice Sheet volume. AMOC seems to decrease with varying magnitudes depending upon the rate of carbon dioxide release and the amount of meltwater generated.

  15. On the melting temperatures of low-temperature phases of polymorphic metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohsaka, K.; Trinh, E. H.

    1992-01-01

    An improved analytical formula for determining the melting temperatures of the low-temperature phases of polymorphic metals is proposed which uses the specific heat differences at the equilibrium transition temperatures. The formula is solved by an iterative method, with no more than one iteration necessary to converge. The results obtained using the formula proposed here are generally in good agreement with the analytical solution.

  16. LWC and Temperature Effects on Ice Accretion Formation on Swept Wings at Glaze Ice Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Mario; Reshotko, Eli

    2000-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of liquid water content and temperature on the critical distance in ice accretion formation on swept wings at glaze ice conditions. The critical distance is defined as the distance from the attachment line to tile beginning of the zone where roughness elements develop into glaze ice feathers. A baseline case of 150 mph, 25 F, 0.75 g/cu m. Cloud Liquid Water Content (LWC) and 20 micrometers in Water Droplet Median Volume Diameter (MVD) was chosen. Icing runs were performed on a NACA 0012 swept wing tip at 150 mph and MVD of 20 micrometers for liquid water contents of 0.5 g/cu m, 0.75 g/cu m, and 1.0 g/cu m, and for total temperatures of 20 F, 25 F and 30 F. At each tunnel condition, the sweep angle was changed from 0 deg to 45 deg in 5 deg increments. Casting data, ice shape tracings, and close-up photographic data were obtained. The results showed that decreasing the LWC to 0.5 g/cu m decreases the value of the critical distance at a given sweep angle compared to the baseline case, and starts the formation of complete scallops at 30 sweep angle. Increasing the LWC to 1.0 g/cu m increases the value of the critical distance compared to the baseline case, the critical distance remains always above 0 millimeters and complete scallops are not formed. Decreasing the total temperature to 20 F decreases the critical distance with respect to the baseline case and formation of complete scallops begins at 25 deg sweep angle. When the total temperature is increased to 30 F, bumps covered with roughness elements appear on the ice accretion at 25 deg and 30 deg sweep angles, large ice structures appear at 35 deg and 40 deg sweep angles, and complete scallops are formed at 45 deg sweep angle.

  17. Subglacial drainage of surface melt water affects ice motion: Application of a modeling study to West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, W.; Creyts, T. T.; Bell, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    Subglacial hydrology is one of the main controlling factors in the spatial and temporal evolution of ice flow. The distribution of effective pressure and the form of subglacial drainage networks have important implications on basal sliding. However, subglacial melt water drainage is dynamic in space and time and varies in a complicated manner coupled to surface hydrology. Despite recent conceptual advances, relatively little is known about how the surface hydrology interacts with the subglacial drainage system and how it affects effective pressure and ice flow. Here, we build a 2D numerical model of subglacial drainage to investigate the coupling between drainage of surface melt water and glacier motion. A synthetic glacier geometry is used to obtain the steady-state solutions for effective pressure and subglacial conduit sizes on a rectangular grid. The model has channels and distributed linked cavities that occupy the grid centers and exchange water along the grid edges. The numerical procedure uses Newton's method to compute water pressure and conduit cross-sectional area. The water pressure solution is applied to a sliding law to calculate ice flow speed. We then applied the water model to a 6000 km2 catchment south of Jakobshavn Isbrae along the western margin of Greenland. The water model is forced with surface melt input from the Polar MM5 regional climate model. Surface melt is supplied at discrete locations through supraglacial lakes. The location of supraglacial lakes are identified from satellite imagery. We compare modeled output of ice speed to satellite derived measurements of ice flow and discuss their agreements and discrepancies.

  18. Temperature effects on atomic pair distribution functions of melts

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, J. Ma, E.; Xu, M.; Guan, P. F.; Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100086 ; Deng, S. W.; Department of Chemistry, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 ; Cheng, Y. Q.

    2014-02-14

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the temperature-dependent evolution of the first peak position/shape in pair distribution functions of liquids. For metallic liquids, the peak skews towards the left (shorter distance side) with increasing temperature, similar to the previously reported anomalous peak shift. Making use of constant-volume simulations in the absence of thermal expansion and change in inherent structure, we demonstrate that the apparent shift of the peak maximum can be a result of the asymmetric shape of the peak, as the asymmetry increases with temperature-induced spreading of neighboring atoms to shorter and longer distances due to the anharmonic nature of the interatomic interaction potential. These findings shed light on the first-shell expansion/contraction paradox for metallic liquids, aside from possible changes in local topological or chemical short-range ordering. The melts of covalent materials are found to exhibit an opposite trend of peak shift, which is attributed to an effect of the directionality of the interatomic bonds.

  19. Short Communication: Atmospheric moisture transport, the bridge between ocean evaporation and Arctic ice melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno, L.; Vzquez, M.; Nieto, R.; Trigo, R. M.

    2015-06-01

    If we could choose a region where the effects of global warming are likely to be pronounced and considerable, and at the same time one where the changes could affect the global climate in similarly asymmetric way with respect to other regions, this would unequivocally be the Arctic. The atmospheric branch of the hydrological cycle lies behind the linkages between the Arctic system and the global climate. Changes in the atmospheric moisture transport have been proposed as a vehicle for interpreting the most significant changes in the Arctic region. This is because the transport of moisture from the extratropical regions to the Arctic has increased in recent decades, and is expected to increase within a warming climate. This increase could be due either to changes in circulation patterns which have altered the moisture sources, or to changes in the intensity of the moisture sources because of enhanced evaporation, or a combination of these two mechanisms. In this short communication we focus on the assessing more objectively the strong link between ocean evaporation trends and Arctic Sea ice melting. We will critically analyze several recent results suggesting links between moisture transport and the extent of sea-ice in the Arctic, this being one of the most distinct indicators of continuous climate change both in the Arctic and on a global scale. To do this we will use a sophisticated Lagrangian approach to develop a more robust framework on some of these previous disconnect ng results, using new information and insights. Among the many mechanisms that could be involved are hydrological (increased Arctic river discharges), radiative (increase of cloud cover and water vapour) and meteorological (increase in summer storms crossing the Arctic, or increments in precipitation).

  20. Correlation of river water and local sea-ice melting on the Laptev Sea shelf (Siberian Arctic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauch, Dorothea; HöLemann, Jens A.; Nikulina, Anna; Wegner, Carolyn; Janout, Markus A.; Timokhov, Leonid A.; Kassens, Heidemarie

    2013-01-01

    Hydrographic and stable isotope (δ18O) data from four summer surveys in the Laptev Sea are used to derive fractions of sea-ice meltwater and river water. Sea-ice meltwater fractions are found to be correlated to river water fractions. While initial heat of river discharge is too small to melt the observed 0-158 km3 of sea-ice meltwater, arctic rivers contain suspended particles and colored dissolved organic material that preferentially absorb solar radiation. Accordingly, heat content in surface waters is correlated to river water fractions. But in years when river water is largely absent within the surface layer, absolute heat content values increase to considerably higher values with extended exposure time to solar radiation and sensible heat. Nevertheless, no net sea-ice melting is observed on the shelf in years when river water is largely absent within the surface layer. The total freshwater volume of the central-eastern Laptev Sea (72-76°N, 122-140°E) varies between ~1000 and 1500 km3 (34.92 reference salinity). It is dominated by varying river water volumes (~1300-1800 km3) reduced by an about constant freshwater deficit (~350-400 km3) related to sea-ice formation. Net sea-ice melt (~109-158 km3) is only present in years with high river water budgets. Intermediate to bottom layer (>25 salinities) contain ~60% and 30% of the river budget in years with low and high river budgets, respectively. The average mean residence time of shelf waters was ~2-3 years during 2007-2009.

  1. Impact experiments in low-temperature ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, M. A.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1987-03-01

    Cubic and cylindrical water ice targets at 257 and 81 K have been subjected to impact velocities between 0.1 and 0.64 km/sec and impact energies of 10 to the 9th-10 to the 10th ergs, yielding craters that are 2-3 times larger than those obtained through equal energy impacts in basaltic targets. On the basis of a similarity analysis, general scaling laws are derived for strength-controlled crater formation and applied in a consideration of crater formation on the icy Galilean and Saturnian satellites. Surface ages are predicted by the analysis to appear greater than those for a silicate crust experiencing the same impact history, on the basis of icy crust impact crater statistics.

  2. Characterizing the sea ice algae chlorophyll a-snow depth relationship over Arctic spring melt using transmitted irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, K.; Mundy, C. J.; Barber, D. G.; Gosselin, M.

    2015-07-01

    The bottom ice algae chlorophyll a (chl a)-snow depth (HS) relationship was investigated for first-year sea ice in Allen Bay, Nunavut, from 27 April to 13 June 2011. A transmitted irradiance technique was used to estimate ice algae chl a throughout the period at time series locations covered and cleared of snow. Furthermore, chl a was estimated along transects perpendicular to dominant snowdrift orientation, and at short-term snow clear experimental sites. The association between chl a and most snow depths was characterized by four phases over the spring; light limitation (negative relationship), a transitional period (no relationship), chl a decline associated with higher transmitted irradiance (positive relationship), and a final phase of chl a decline independent from HS (no relationship). Algal chl a under areas cleared of snow was lower, reached zero chl a earlier and declined faster than snow-covered control sites. Results indicated that snow removal caused these chl a responses through photoinhibition, as well as ice melt later in the spring. Based on this research we propose that weather events that can rapidly melt the snowpack could significantly deplete bottom ice chl a and cause early termination of the bloom if they occur late in the spring.

  3. Calculation of the Melting Process of a Quartz Particle Under Low-Temperature Plasma Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasov, V. A.; Volokitin, O. G.; Volokitin, G. G.; Skripnikova, N. K.; Shekhovtsov, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    The melting process of a quartz particle under low-temperature plasma conditions has been considered. The melting stages of the quartz particle in an experimental electroplasma plant have been modelled mathematically, and the value of the limiting melting radius of particles has been established.

  4. Joule heating effects on quartz particle melting in high-temperature silicate melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasov, V.; Volokitin, G.; Skripnikova, N.; Volokitin, O.; Shekhovtsov, V.

    2015-10-01

    This work is mostly focused on the melting process model simulation of quartz particles having the radius within the range of 10-6-10-3 m. The melting process is simulated accounting for the heat generation at an electric current passage through a quartz particle.

  5. Solving the riddle of interglacial temperatures over the last 1.5 million years with a future IPICS "Oldest Ice" ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Hubertus

    2014-05-01

    The sequence of the last 8 glacial cycles is characterized by irregular 100,000 year cycles in temperature and sea level. In contrast, the time period between 1.5-1.2 million years ago is characterized by more regular cycles with an obliquity periodicity of 41,000 years. Based on a deconvolution of deep ocean temperature and ice volume contributions to benthic δ18O (Elderfield et al., Science, 2012), it is suggested that glacial sea level became progressively lower over the last 1.5 Myr, while glacial deep ocean temperatures were very similar. At the same time many interglacials prior to the Mid Brunhes event showed significantly cooler deep ocean temperatures than the Holocene, while at the same time interglacial ice volume remained essentially the same. In contrast, interglacial sea surface temperatures in the tropics changed little (Herbert et al., Science,2010) and proxy reconstructions of atmospheric CO2 using δ11B in planktic foraminifera (Hönisch et al., Science, 2009) suggest that prior to 900,000 yr before present interglacial CO2 levels did not differ substantially from those over the last 450,000 years. Accordingly, the conundrum arises how interglacials can differ in deep ocean temperature without any obvious change in ice volume or greenhouse gas forcing and what caused the change in cyclicity of glacial interglacial cycles over the Mid Pleistocene Transition. Probably the most important contribution to solve this riddle is the recovery of a 1.5 Myr old ice core from Antarctica, which among others would provide an unambiguous, high-resolution record of the greenhouse gas history over this time period. Accordingly, the international ice core community, as represented by the International Partnership for Ice Core Science (IPICS), has identified such an 'Oldest Ice' ice core as one of the most important scientific targets for the future (http://www.pages.unibe.ch/ipics/white-papers). However, finding stratigraphically undisturbed ice, which covers this time period in Antarctica, is not an easy task. Based on a simple ice and heat flow model and glaciological observations (Fischer et al., Climate of the Past, 2013), we conclude that sites in the vicinity of major domes and saddle positions on the East Antarctic Plateau will most likely have such old ice in store and represent the best study areas for dedicated reconnaissance studies in the near future. In contrast to previous ice core drill site selections, however, significantly reduced ice thickness is required to avoid bottom melting. The most critical parameter is the largely unknown geothermal heat flux at the bottom of the ice sheet. For example for the geothermal heat flux and accumulation conditions at Dome C, an ice thickness lower than but close to about 2500 m would be required to find 1.5 My old ice. If sites with lower geothermal heat flux can be found, also a higher ice thickness is allowed, alleviating the problem of potential flow disturbances in the bottom-most ice to affect a 1.5 Myr climate record.

  6. Two decades of ice melt reconstruction in Greenland and Antarctica from time-variable gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talpe, M.; Nerem, R. S.; Lemoine, F. G.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we present a record of ice-sheet melt derived from space-borne gravity that spans over two decades—beyond the time-frame of the GRACE mission. GRACE fields are merged with conventional tracking data (SLR/DORIS) spanning 1992 to the present. They are provided as weekly global fields of degree and order five without C50 and S50 but with C61 and S61. Their multi-decade timespan complements the monthly fields of GRACE of degree and order 60 that start in 2003 and will end when the GRACE mission terminates. The two datasets are combined via an empirical orthogonal function analysis, whereby the conventional tracking data temporal modes are obtained by fitting the SLR/DORIS coefficients to the GRACE spatial modes via linear least squares. Combining those temporal modes with GRACE spatial modes yields the reconstructed global gravity fields. The error budget of the reconstructions is composed of three components: the SLR/DORIS covariances, the errors estimated from the assumption that GRACE spatial modes can be mapped over the SLR/DORIS timeframe, and the covariances from the least squares fit applied to obtain the SLR/DORIS temporal modes. The reconstructed surface mass changes in Greenland and Antarctica, predominantly captured in the first mode, show a rate of mass loss that is increasing since 1992. The trend of mass changes in Greenland over various epochs match with an overarching study assembling altimetry, gravimetry, and interferometry estimates of ice-sheet balance over a 1992-2011 time-frame [Shepherd et al., 2012]. Antarctica shows a trend that is different because of updated GIA models [A et al., 2013] compared to the other studies. We will also show regional mass changes over various other basins, as well as the influence of each SLR/DORIS coefficient on the reconstructions. The consistency of these results underscores the possibility of using low-resolution SLR/DORIS time-variable gravity solutions as a way to continuously monitor the behavior of the polar ice-sheets in the absence of GRACE. Shepherd, A., et al. (2012), Science 338, 1183. A, G., J. Wahr, and S. Zhong (2013), GJI 192, 557.

  7. Pressure dependence of the melting temperature of solids - Rare-gas solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlosser, Herbert; Ferrante, John

    1991-01-01

    A method presented by Schlosser et al. (1989) for analyzing the pressure dependence of experimental melting-temperature data is applied to rare-gas solids. The plots of the logarithm of the reduced melting temperature vs that of the reduced pressure are straight lines in the absence of phase transitions. The plots of the reduced melting temperatures for Ar, Kr, and Xe are shown to be approximately straight lines.

  8. Correlation between average melting temperature and glass transition temperature in metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhibin; Li, Jiangong

    2009-02-01

    The correlation between average melting temperature (?Tm?) and glass transition temperature (Tg) in metallic glasses (MGs) is analyzed. A linear relationship, Tg=0.385?Tm?, is observed. This correlation agrees with Egami's suggestion [Rep. Prog. Phys. 47, 1601 (1984)]. The prediction of Tg from ?Tm? through the relationship Tg=0.385?Tm? has been tested using experimental data obtained on a large number of MGs. This relationship can be used to predict and design MGs with a desired Tg.

  9. Sensitivity of Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance to perturbations in sea surface temperature and sea ice cover: a study with the regional climate model MAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nol, B.; Fettweis, X.; van de Berg, W. J.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Erpicum, M.

    2014-10-01

    During recent summers (2007-2012), several surface melt records were broken over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). The extreme summer melt resulted in part from a persistent negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), favoring warmer atmospheric conditions than normal over the GrIS. Simultaneously, large anomalies in sea ice cover (SIC) and sea surface temperature (SST) were observed in the North Atlantic, suggesting a possible connection. To assess the direct impact of 2007-2012 SIC and SST anomalies on GrIS surface mass balance (SMB), a set of sensitivity experiments was carried out with the regional climate model MAR forced by ERA-Interim. These simulations suggest that perturbations in SST and SIC in the seas surrounding Greenland do not considerably impact GrIS SMB, as a result of the katabatic wind blocking effect. These offshore-directed winds prevent oceanic near-surface air, influenced by SIC and SST anomalies, from penetrating far inland. Therefore, the ice sheet SMB response is restricted to coastal regions, where katabatic winds cease. A topic for further investigation is how anomalies in SIC and SST might have indirectly affected the surface melt by changing the general circulation in the North Atlantic region, hence favoring more frequent warm air advection towards the GrIS.

  10. Aureimonas glaciistagni sp. nov., isolated from a melt pond on Arctic sea ice.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yirang; Lee, Inae; Yang, Yoon Y; Baek, Kiwoon; Yoon, Soo J; Lee, Yung M; Kang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Hong K; Hwang, Chung Y

    2015-10-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, motile, aerobic and rod-shaped bacterial strain, PAMC 27157T, was isolated from a melt pond on sea ice in the Chukchi Sea. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain PAMC 27157T revealed an affiliation to the genus Aureimonas with the closest sequence similarity (96.2 %) to that of Aureimonas phyllosphaerae. Strain PAMC 27157T grew optimally at 30 °C and pH 7.0 in the presence of 3.5 % (w/v) NaCl. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol and an unidentified aminolipid. The major cellular fatty acid was summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c, 83.1 %) and the major respiratory quinone was Q-10. The genomic DNA G+C content was 69.1 mol%. The combined phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data showed that strain PAMC 27157T could be clearly distinguished from species of the genus Aureimonas with validly published names. Thus, strain PAMC 27157T should be classified as representing a novel species in the genus Aureimonas, for which the name Aureimonas glaciistagni sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PAMC 27157T ( = KCCM 43049T = JCM 30183T). PMID:26296341

  11. Melt pond fraction and spectral sea ice albedo retrieval from MERIS data - Part 1: Validation against in situ, aerial, and ship cruise data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istomina, L.; Heygster, G.; Huntemann, M.; Schwarz, P.; Birnbaum, G.; Scharien, R.; Polashenski, C.; Perovich, D.; Zege, E.; Malinka, A.; Prikhach, A.; Katsev, I.

    2015-08-01

    The presence of melt ponds on the Arctic sea ice strongly affects the energy balance of the Arctic Ocean in summer. It affects albedo as well as transmittance through the sea ice, which has consequences for the heat balance and mass balance of sea ice. An algorithm to retrieve melt pond fraction and sea ice albedo from Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) data is validated against aerial, shipborne and in situ campaign data. The results show the best correlation for landfast and multiyear ice of high ice concentrations. For broadband albedo, R2 is equal to 0.85, with the RMS (root mean square) being equal to 0.068; for the melt pond fraction, R2 is equal to 0.36, with the RMS being equal to 0.065. The correlation for lower ice concentrations, subpixel ice floes, blue ice and wet ice is lower due to ice drift and challenging for the retrieval surface conditions. Combining all aerial observations gives a mean albedo RMS of 0.089 and a mean melt pond fraction RMS of 0.22. The in situ melt pond fraction correlation is R2 = 0.52 with an RMS = 0.14. Ship cruise data might be affected by documentation of varying accuracy within the Antarctic Sea Ice Processes and Climate (ASPeCt) protocol, which may contribute to the discrepancy between the satellite value and the observed value: mean R2 = 0.044, mean RMS = 0.16. An additional dynamic spatial cloud filter for MERIS over snow and ice has been developed to assist with the validation on swath data.

  12. Effect of sea-ice melt on inherent optical properties and vertical distribution of solar radiant heating in Arctic surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granskog, Mats A.; Pavlov, Alexey K.; Sagan, S?awomir; Kowalczuk, Piotr; Raczkowska, Anna; Stedmon, Colin A.

    2015-10-01

    The inherent optical properties (IOPs) of Polar Waters (PW) exiting the Arctic Ocean in the East Greenland Current (EGC) and of the inflowing Atlantic waters (AW) in the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC) were studied in late summer when surface freshening due to sea-ice melt was widespread. The absorption and attenuation coefficients in PW were significantly higher than previous observations from the western Arctic. High concentrations of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) resulted in 50-60% more heat deposition in the upper meters relative to clearest natural waters. This demonstrates the influence of terrigenous organic material inputs on the optical properties of waters in the Eurasian basin. Sea-ice melt in CDOM-rich PW decreased CDOM absorption, but an increase in scattering nearly compensated for lower absorption, and total attenuation was nearly identical in the sea-ice meltwater layer. This suggests a source of scattering material associated with sea-ice melt, relative to the PW. In the AW, melting sea-ice forms a stratified surface layer with lower absorption and attenuation, than well-mixed AW waters in late summer. It is likely that phytoplankton in the surface layer influenced by sea-ice melt are nutrient limited. The presence of a more transparent surface layer changes the vertical radiant heat absorption profile to greater depths in late summer both in EGC and WSC waters, shifting accumulation of solar heat to greater depths and thus this heat is not directly available for ice melt during periods of stratification.

  13. Arctic ice surface temperature retrieval from AVHRR thermal channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, J.; Haeflinger, M.

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between AVHRR thermal radiances and the surface (skin) temperature of Arctic snow-covered sea ice is examined through forward calculations of the radiative transfer equation, providing an ice/snow surface temperature retrieval algorithm for the central Arctic Basin. Temperature and humidity profiles with cloud observations collected on an ice island during 1986-1987 are used. Coefficients that correct for atmospheric attenuation are given for three Arctic clear sky 'seasons', as defined through statistical analysis of the daily profiles, for the NOAA 7, 9, and 11 satellites. Modeled directional snow emissivities, different in the two split-window (11 and 12 micron) channels, are used. While the sensor scan angle is included explicitly in the correction equation, its effect in the dry Arctic atmosphere is small, generally less than 0.1 K. Using the split-window channels and scan angle, the rms error in the estimated ice surface temperature is less than 0.1 K in all seasons. Inclusion channel 3(3.7 microns) during the winter decreases the rms error by less than 0.003

  14. Martian north pole summer temperatures - Dirty water ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, H. H.; Martin, T. Z.; Chase, S. C., Jr.; Miner, E. D.; Palluconi, F. D.

    1976-01-01

    Broadband thermal and reflectance observations of the Martian north polar region in late summer yield temperatures for the residual polar cap near 205 K with albedos near 43 percent. The residual cap and several outlying smaller deposits are water ice with included dirt; there is no evidence for any permanent carbon dioxide polar cap.

  15. Martian north pole summer temperatures: dirty water ice.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, H H; Chase, S C; Martin, T Z; Miner, E D; Palluconi, F D

    1976-12-11

    Broadband thermal and reflectance observations of the martian north polar region in late summer yield temperatures for the residual polar cap near 205 K with albedos near 43 percent. The residual cap and several outlying smaller deposits are water ice with included dirt; there is no evidence for any permanent carbon dioxide polar cap. PMID:17797097

  16. Carbon dioxide partial pressure and 13C content of north temperate and boreal lakes at spring ice melt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Striegl, R.G.; Kortelainen, P.; Chanton, J.P.; Wickland, K.P.; Bugna, G.C.; Rantakari, M.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulates under lake ice in winter and degasses to the atmosphere after ice melt. This large springtime CO2 pulse is not typically considered in surface-atmosphere flux estimates, because most field studies have not sampled through ice during late winter. Measured CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) of lake surface water ranged from 8.6 to 4,290 Pa (85-4,230 ??atm) in 234 north temperate and boreal lakes prior to ice melt during 1998 and 1999. Only four lakes had surface pCO2 less than or equal to atmospheric pCO2, whereas 75% had pCO2 >5 times atmospheric. The ??13CDIC (DIC = ??CO2) of 142 of the lakes ranged from -26.28??? to +0.95.???. Lakes with the greatest pCO2 also had the lightest ??13CDIC, which indicates respiration as their primary CO2 source. Finnish lakes that received large amounts of dissolved organic carbon from surrounding peatlands had the greatest pCO2. Lakes set in noncarbonate till and bedrock in Minnesota and Wisconsin had the smallest pCO2 and the heaviest ??13CDIC, which indicates atmospheric and/or mineral sources of C for those lakes. Potential emissions for the period after ice melt were 2.36 ?? 1.44 mol CO2 m-2 for lakes with average pCO2 values and were as large as 13.7 ?? 8.4 mol CO2 m-2 for lakes with high pCO2 values.

  17. Antarctic Glaciological Data at NSIDC: field data, temperature, and ice velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, R.; Bohlander, J.; Scambos, T.; Berthier, E.; Raup, B.; Scharfen, G.

    2003-12-01

    An extensive collection of many Antarctic glaciological parameters is available for the polar science community upon request. The National Science Foundation's Office of Polar Programs funds the Antarctic Glaciological Data Center (AGDC) at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) to archive and distribute Antarctic glaciological and cryospheric system data collected by the U.S. Antarctic Program. AGDC facilitates data exchange among Principal Investigators, preserves recently collected data useful to future research, gathers data sets from past research, and compiles continent-wide information useful for modeling and field work planning. Data sets are available via our web site, http://nsidc.org/agdc/. From here, users can access extensive documentation, citation information, locator maps, derived images and references, and the numerical data. More than 50 Antarctic scientists have contributed data to the archive. Among the compiled products distributed by AGDC are VELMAP and THERMAP. THERMAP is a compilation of over 600 shallow firn temperature measurements ('10-meter temperatures') collected since 1950. These data provide a record of mean annual temperature, and potentially hold a record of climate change on the continent. The data are represented with maps showing the traverse route, and include data sources, measurement technique, and additional measurements made at each site, i.e., snow density and accumulation. VELMAP is an archive of surface ice velocity measurements for the Antarctic Ice Sheet. The primary objective of VELMAP is to assemble a historic record of outlet glaciers and ice shelf ice motion over the Antarctic. The collection includes both PI-contributed measurements and data generated at NSIDC using Landsat and SPOT satellite imagery. Tabular data contain position, speed, bearing, and data quality information, and related references. Two new VELMAP data sets are highlighted: the Mertz Glacier and the Institute Ice Stream. Mertz Glacier ice velocity provides an upper limit for change in velocity for this glacier over the past decade. Two pairs of Landsat images were used to compare velocities from 2000-2001 to 1989-2000. No significant change in velocity is observed. A new ice discharge flux of 17.8 km3a-1 was determined, and basal melting at the grounding line was re-calculated at 11 m per year (Berthier et al., 2003, in press). Velocity data for the Institute Ice Stream was compiled at NSIDC using a Landsat images from 1986, 1989, and 1997. The data were recently used in a study outlining the velocity, mass balance, and morphology of the Institute ice stream and nearby Ronne ice shelf area. (Scambos et al., 2003, in review). The study indicates the Institute has regions with flow and morphology characteristics similar to the Ross Embayment ice streams. Ice velocity research contributes to understanding the mass balance and overall stability of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. The archiving of velocity data has proven to be a useful tool to the Antarctic science community, and VELMAP continues to grow as a valuable resource through PI contributions. If you have velocity data that you would like to contribute to the VELMAP archive please contact agdc@nsidc.org. The velocity data used in the two studies presented here can be accessed on the VELMAP web site at http://nsidc.org/data/velmap.

  18. Sea-ice melt CO2-carbonate chemistry in the western Arctic Ocean: meltwater contributions to air-sea CO2 gas exchange, mixed-layer properties and rates of net community production under sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, N. R.; Garley, R.; Frey, K. E.; Shake, K. L.; Mathis, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    The carbon dioxide (CO2)-carbonate chemistry of sea-ice melt and co-located, contemporaneous seawater has rarely been studied in sea-ice-covered oceans. Here, we describe the CO2-carbonate chemistry of sea-ice melt (both above sea-ice as "melt ponds" and below sea-ice as "interface waters") and mixed-layer properties in the western Arctic Ocean in the early summer of 2010 and 2011. At 19 stations, the salinity (∼0.5 to <6.5), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC; ∼20 to <550 ?mol kg-1) and total alkalinity (TA; ∼30 to <500 ?mol kg-1) of above-ice melt pond water was low compared to the co-located underlying mixed layer. The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in these melt ponds was highly variable (∼<10 to >1500 ?atm) with the majority of melt ponds acting as potentially strong sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. The pH of melt pond waters was also highly variable ranging from mildly acidic (6.1 to 7) to slightly more alkaline than underlying seawater (>8.2 to 10.8). All of the observed melt ponds had very low (<0.1) saturation states (?) for calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals such as aragonite (?aragonite). Our data suggest that sea-ice generated alkaline or acidic type melt pond water. This melt water chemistry dictates whether the ponds are sources of CO2 to the atmosphere or CO2 sinks. Below-ice interface water CO2-carbonate chemistry data also indicated substantial generation of alkalinity, presumably owing to dissolution of CaCO3 in sea-ice. The interface waters generally had lower pCO2 and higher pH/?aragonite than the co-located mixed layer beneath. Sea-ice melt thus contributed to the suppression of mixed-layer pCO2, thereby enhancing the surface ocean's capacity to uptake CO2 from the atmosphere. Our observations contribute to growing evidence that sea-ice CO2-carbonate chemistry is highly variable and its contribution to the complex factors that influence the balance of CO2 sinks and sources (and thereby ocean acidification) is difficult to predict in an era of rapid warming and sea-ice loss in the Arctic Ocean.

  19. Aerosolization of two strains (ice+ and ice-) of Pseudomonas syringae in a Collison nebulizer at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietsch, Renee; David, Ray; Marr, Linsey; Vinatzer, Boris; Schmale, David

    2015-04-01

    The aerosolization of microorganisms from aquatic environments is understudied. In this study, an ice nucleation active (ice+) strain and a non-ice nucleation active (ice-) strain of the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae were aerosolized from aqueous suspensions under artificial laboratory conditions using a Collison nebulizer. The aerosolization of P. syringae was not influenced by water temperatures between 5° and 30°C. In general, the culturability (viability) of P. syringae in aerosols increased with temperature between 5 and 30°C. The ice+ strain was aerosolized in greater numbers than the ice- strain at all temperatures studied, suggesting a possible connection between the ice nucleation phenotype and aerosol production. Together, our results suggest that P. syringae has the potential to be aerosolized from natural aquatic environments, such as streams, rivers, ponds, and lakes; known reservoirs of P. syringae. Future work is needed to elucidate the mechanisms of aerosolization of P. syringae from natural aquatic systems.

  20. Thermophysical Property Measurements of High Temperature Melts Using an Electrostatic Levitation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Takehiko; Okada, Junpei T.; Paradis, Paul-Franois; Watanabe, Yuki

    2011-11-01

    Thermophysical properties of high temperature melts are important to better understand material processes such as casting, welding, and crystal growth. Containerless processing techniques combined with non-contact diagnostic methods play significant roles in thermophysical property measurements of high temperature melts because these methods can circumvent problems which arise from a reaction between container and melts. The electrostatic levitation method can measure density, surface tension, and viscosity of high temperature materials. Most of refractory metals including tungsten have been melted and their thermophysical data have been taken with this method. This paper briefly explains the technique and discusses the future measurements using microgravity environment in space.

  1. Coexisting methane and oxygen excesses in nitrate-limited polar water (Fram Strait) during ongoing sea ice melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damm, E.; Thoms, S.; Kattner, G.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; Nöthig, E. M.; Stimac, I.

    2011-05-01

    Summer sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean has undergone a reduction in the last decade exposing the sea surface to unforeseen environmental changes. Melting sea ice increases water stratification and induces nutrient limitation, which is also known to play a crucial role in methane formation in oxygenated surface water. We report on a hotspot of methane formation in the marginal ice zone in the western Fram Strait. Our study is based on measurements of oxygen, methane, DMSP, nitrate and phosphate concentrations as well as on phytoplankton composition and light transmission, conducted along the 79° N oceanographic transect. We show that between the eastern Fram Strait, where Atlantic water enters from the south and the western Fram Strait, where Polar water enters from the north, different nutrient limitation occurs and consequently different bloom conditions were established. Ongoing sea ice melting enhances the environmental differences and initiates regenerated production in the western Fram Strait. In a unique biogeochemical feedback process, methane production occurs despite an oxygen excess. We postulate that DMSP (dimethylsulfoniopropionate) released from sea ice may serve as a precursor for methane formation. Thus, feedback effects on cycling pathways of methane are likely, with DMSP catabolism in high latitudes possibly contributing to a warming effect on the earth's climate. This process could constitute an additional component in biogeochemical cycling in a seasonal ice-free Arctic Ocean. The metabolic activity (respiration) of unicellular organisms explains the presence of anaerobic conditions in the cellular environment. Therefore we present a theoretical model which explains the maintenance of anaerobic conditions for methane formation inside bacterial cells, despite enhanced oxygen concentrations in the environment.

  2. Sea Ice and Ice Temperature Variability as Observed by Microwave and Infrared Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Recent reports of a retreating and thinning sea ice cover in the Arctic have pointed to a strong suggestion of significant warming in the polar regions. It is especially important to understand what these reports mean in light of the observed global warning and because the polar regions are expected to be most sensitive to changes in climate. To gain insight into this phenomenon, co-registered ice concentrations and surface temperatures derived from two decades of satellite microwave and infrared data have been processed and analyzed. While observations from meteorological stations indicate consistent surface warming in both regions during the last fifty years, the last 20 years of the same data set show warming in the Arctic but a slight cooling in the Antarctic. These results are consistent with the retreat in the Arctic ice cover and the advance in the Antarctic ice cover as revealed by historical satellite passive microwave data. Surface temperatures derived from satellite infrared data are shown to be consistent within 3 K with surface temperature data from the limited number of stations. While not as accurate, the former provides spatially detailed changes over the twenty year period. In the Arctic, for example, much of the warming occurred in the Beaufort Sea and the North American region in 1998 while slight cooling actually happened in parts of the Laptev Sea and Northern Siberia during the same time period. Big warming anomalies are also observed during the last five years but a periodic cycle of about ten years is apparent suggesting a possible influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation. In the Antarctic, large interannual and seasonal changes are also observed in the circumpolar ice cover with regional changes showing good coherence with surface temperature anomalies. However, a mode 3 is observed to be more dominant than the mode 2 wave reported in the literature. Some of these spatial and temporal changes appear to be influenced by the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave (ACW) and changes in coastal polynya activities.

  3. Copper Partitioning between Amphibole and Silicate Melts: the Effects of Temperature, Melt Compositions, Oxygen Fugacity and Water Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Y. J.; Zajacz, Z.; Ulmer, P.; Heinrich, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Porphyry copper deposits commonly occur in arc-related settings where ore-metals are transported by magmas from the mantle wedge to shallow depths, and subsequently partition into the exsolving volatile phase. The partitioning of Cu between crystallizing silicate, oxide and sulfide minerals, sulfide melts and magmatic volatiles will determine the efficiency of Cu transfer into the magmatic-hydrothermal system. Understanding the Cu partitioning behavior between crystallizing mineral phases and silicate melt during crystallization fractionation is therefore fundamentally important. Among the crystallizing phases, amphibole is stable across a wide pressure (P) - temperature (T) range in hydrous arc magmas. Therefore, if the partition coefficients of Cu between amphibole and silicate melts are well constrained, the measured variation of Cu concentrations in natural amphibole crystals can be used to reconstruct the evolution of the Cu concentration in the silicate melt. In this study, a series of experiments were conducted by piston cylinder apparatus over a wide range of melt compositions (andesitic to rhyolitic) to determine the amphibole/melt partition coefficient of Cu. The experiments were run at T = 740 - 990 C, P = 0.7 GPa, and oxygen fugacity (fO2) between NNO +0.75 and NNO +2. The metal activities were imposed by using Au97Cu3 and Au92Cu8 alloy capsules. The apparent Cu solubilities in both the silicate melt and amphibole phases decrease with decreasing temperature. The Cu concentrations in a dacite melt increase approximately by factor of 3 while fO2 increases from NNO +0.75 to NNO +2. However, the amphibole/melt partition coefficient of Cu remains nearly constant at a value of 0.067 0.013 (1 ?), indicating that the partitioning of Cu is not significantly affected by melt composition, fO2 and water concentrations. Therefore, determination of Cu concentrations in amphiboles may be a suitable tool to monitor the evolution of the Cu budget of ore-related magma reservoirs during magma evolution in porphyry cooper systems. In addition, our results showed that Cu is always incompatible in amphibole; therefore, occasionally measured high Cu concentrations in amphibole are likely an artifact of the presence of submicroscopic sulfide inclusions.

  4. A Thermal Melt Probe System for Extensive, Low-Cost Instrument Deployment Within and Beneath Ice Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winebrenner, D. P.; Elam, W. T.; Carpenter, M.; Kintner, P., III

    2014-12-01

    More numerous observations within and beneath ice sheets are needed to address a broad variety of important questions concerning ice sheets and climate. However, emplacement of instruments continues to be constrained by logistical burdens, especially in cold ice a kilometer or more thick. Electrically powered thermal melt probes are inherently logistically light and efficient, especially for reaching greater depths in colder ice. They therefore offer a means of addressing current measurement problems, but have been limited historically by a lack of technology for reliable operation at the necessary voltages and powers. Here we report field tests in Greenland of two new melt probes. We operated one probe at 2.2 kilowatts (kW) and 1050 volts (V), achieving a depth of 400 m in the ice in ~ 120 hours, without electrical failure. That depth is the second greatest achieved thus far with a thermal melt probe, exceeded only by one deployment to 1005 m in Greenland in 1968, which ended in an electrical failure. Our test run took place in two intervals separated by a year, with the probe frozen at 65 m depth during the interim, after which we re-established communication, unfroze the probe, and proceeded to the greater depth. During the second field test we operated a higher-power probe, initially at 2.5 kW and 1500 V and progressing to 4.5 kW and 2000 V. Initial data indicate that this probe achieved a descent rate of 8 m/hr, which if correct would be the fastest rate yet achieved for such probes. Moreover, we observed maintenance of vertical probe travel using pendulum steering throughout both tests, as well as autonomous descent without operator-intervention after launch. The latter suggests potential for crews of 1-2 to operate several melt probes concurrently. However, the higher power probe did suffer electrical failure of a heating element after 7 hours of operation at 2000 V (24 hours after the start of the test), contrary to expectations based on laboratory component and system testing. We are therefore revising the probe heaters using a newer but more development-intensive technology. With probe systems now validated in our tests, this will result in a reliable means to emplace instruments for studies of subglacial hydrology, ice dynamics, and possible subglacial ecologies.

  5. The influence of sea ice aerosol deposition and melt ponds on the Arctic surface heat budget and surface albedo feedback in CCSM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, M. M.; Briegleb, B.; Bailey, D. A.; Light, B.; Hunke, E. C.

    2011-12-01

    The Community Climate System Model, 4 incorporates a new sea ice shortwave radiative transfer scheme, which uses inherent optical properties to define scattering and absorption characteristics of snow, ice and included shortwave absorbers. This explicitly allows for melt pond and aerosol radiative impacts on sea ice. As such, the deposition and cycling of aerosols in sea ice is now included and a new parameterization derives ponded water from the surface meltwater flux. Taken together, this provides a more sophisticated, accurate, and complete treatment of sea ice radiative transfer, shortwave heat budgets, and surface albedo. We discuss the radiative impacts of ponds and aerosols on Arctic sea ice in equilibrated simulations with different atmospheric CO2 levels and in transient 20th century runs. We find that the presence of melt ponds enhances the surface albedo feedback as more surface melting in a warming climate leads to more ponding and a lower surface albedo. In simulations with constant aerosol deposition but higher atmospheric CO2, the aerosol radiative forcing is reduced as more melt-out of aerosols occurs. This acts to weaken the surface albedo feedback. However, diagnosis of a 20th century simulation, with changing aerosol deposition, indicates an increased radiative forcing from aerosols and melt ponds, which could play a role in the simulated 20th century Arctic sea ice reductions.

  6. Understanding changes in the Arctic basin sea ice mass budget as simulated by CCSM4: Implications from melt season characteristics and the surface albedo feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollak, D. A.; Holland, M. M.; Bailey, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    Observations reveal alarming drops in Arctic sea ice extent, and climate models project that further changes will occur that could have global repercussions. An important aspect of this change is the surface albedo feedback, driven by the contrast between the albedos of snow/ice and the open ocean. In response to warming, this feedback enhances ice melt and amplifies surface warming in the Arctic. The newly released, fully coupled Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) is used to assess long-term changes in the Arctic sea ice mass budget. Analysis of monthly-averaged mass budget time series from the 20th and 21st centuries revealed drastic changes from 1980-2050, the focus years of this study. While numerous factors determine the Arctic sea ice mass budget, we focus on the surface melt terms as they are most closely related to the surface albedo feedback. During the study period, annually averaged difference plots of sea ice thickness and area both revealed substantial decreases across the entire Arctic domain. Helping to clarify these long-term changes, new daily output data from this model allowed for the examination of melt season characteristics such as melt onset and cessation dates as well as season duration. One of the most interesting aspects was the shift to earlier melt onset dates throughout the Arctic Basin. This shift, coupled with the seasonal solar cycle has substantial implications. Earlier onset dates imply an earlier decrease of albedo that overlaps with the seasonal maximum of downward shortwave radiation. This leads to increases in shortwave absorption and results in amplified ice melt that directly impacts the strength of the surface albedo feedback. The strong relationship between earlier melt onset dates and increased absorbed radiation therefore is a key factor influencing Arctic amplification. This figure is created from daily model output and displays changes in melt season duration, end date, and onset date from the first and last 20 years of the study period. The most interesting feature is the onset date change which trends to nearly uniformly earlier onset dates basin-wide. This has large implications to the surface albedo feedback especially since these onset dates are during the regions peak solar input. End dates are changing towards earlier in the season in the outer Arctic basin as a result from complete melt through of sea ice. Areas in the central Arctic see a later end date due to the fact that more ice is melting and that there is still ice to melt. This is indicative of the season duration change.

  7. Perchlorate Found by Phoenix Could Provide a Mobile Brine Sludge at the Bed of Mars Northern Ice Cap that Would Allow Flow with Very Low Basal Temperatures: Possible Mechanism for Water Table Re-Charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, D. A.; Hecht, M.; Kounaves, S.; Catling, D.

    2009-03-01

    The north cap of Mars has basal temperature that precludes the flow of ice. Phoenix discovered polar soils contain perchlorate salts. These salts depress the melting point so it could form a sludge that provides a mobile bed that moves the ice outwards.

  8. Regional scale albedo of first year Arctic drift ice during summer melt estimated from synthesis of in situ measurements and airborne imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divine, Dmitry; Granskog, Mats A.; Hudson, Stephen R.; Pedersen, Christina A.; Karlsen, Tor I.; Gerland, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    The paper presents the results of analysis of the radiative properties of first year sea ice in advanced stages of melt. The presented technique is based on the upscaling in situ point measurements of surface albedo to the regional (150 km) spatial scale using aerial photographs of sea ice captured by a helicopter borne camera setup. The sea ice imagery as well as in situ snow and ice data were collected during the eight day ICE12 drift experiment carried out by the Norwegian Polar Institute in the Arctic north of Svalbard at 83.5 N during 27 July-03 August 2012. In total some 100 ground albedo measurements were made on melting sea ice in locations representative of the four main types of sea ice surface identified using the discriminant analysis -based classification technique. Some 11000 images from a total of six ice survey flights adding up to some 770 km of flight tracks covering about 28 km2 of sea ice surface were classified to yield the along-track distributions of four major surface classes: bare ice, dark melt ponds, bright melt ponds and open water. Results demonstrated a relative homogeneity of sea ice cover in the study area allowing for upscaling the local optical measurements to the regional scale. For the typical 10% open water fraction and 25% melt pond coverage, with a ratio of dark to bright ponds of 2 identified from selected images, the aggregate scale surface albedo of the area was estimated to be 0.42(0.40;0.44). The confidence intervals on the estimate were derived using the moving block bootstrap approach applied to the sequences of classified sea ice images and albedo of the four surface classes treated as random variables. Uncertainty in the mean estimates of local albedo from in situ measurements contributed some 65% to the variance of the estimated regional albedo with the remaining variance to be associated with the spatial inhomogeneity of sea ice cover. The results of the study are of relevance for the modeling of sea ice processes in climate simulations. It particularly concerns the period of summer melt when the optical properties of sea ice undergo substantial changes which the existing sea ice models experience most difficulties to accurately reproduce. That phase of a season is especially crucial for climate and ecosystem processes in the polar regions.

  9. The influence of surface boundary conditions on the phonon contribution to the melting temperature of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Kang, Kai; Qin, Shaojing

    2016-01-01

    The phonon thermal contribution to the melting temperature of nano-particles is inspected. Unlike in periodic boundary condition, under a general boundary condition the integration volume of low energy phonon for a nano-particle is more complex. We estimate the size-dependent melting temperature through the phase shift of the low energy phonon mode acquired by its scattering on boundary surface. A nano-particle can have either a rising or a decreasing melting temperature due to the boundary condition effect, and we found that an upper melting temperature bound exists for a nano-particle in various environments. Moreover, the melting temperature under a fixed boundary condition sets this upper bound.

  10. Sea surface temperature control on the distribution of far-traveled Southern Ocean ice-rafted detritus during the Pliocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, C. P.; Hill, D. J.; Flierdt, Tina; Williams, T.; Hemming, S. R.; Dolan, A. M.; Pierce, E. L.; Escutia, C.; Harwood, D.; Cortese, G.; Gonzales, J. J.

    2014-06-01

    The flux and provenance of ice-rafted detritus (IRD) deposited in the Southern Ocean can reveal information about the past instability of Antarctica's ice sheets during different climatic conditions. Here we present a Pliocene IRD provenance record based on the 40Ar/39Ar ages of ice-rafted hornblende grains from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1165, located near Prydz Bay in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean, along with the results of modeled sensitivity tests of iceberg trajectories and their spatial melting patterns under a range of sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Our provenance results reveal that IRD and hence icebergs in the Prydz Bay area were mainly sourced from (i) the local Prydz Bay region and (ii) the remote Wilkes Land margin located at the mouth of the low-lying Aurora Subglacial Basin. A series of IRD pulses, reaching up to 10 times background IRD flux levels, were previously identified at Site 1165 between 3.3 and 3.0 Ma. Our new results reveal that the average proportion of IRD sourced from distal Wilkes Land margin doubles after 3.3 Ma. Our iceberg trajectory-melting models show that slower iceberg melting under cooling SSTs over this middle Pliocene interval allowed Wilkes Land icebergs to travel farther before melting. Hence, declining SSTs can account for a large part of the observed IRD provenance record at Site 1165. In early Pliocene IRD layers, sampled at suborbital resolution around 4.6 Ma, we find evidence for significant increases in icebergs derived from Wilkes Land during very warm interglacials. This is suggestive of large-scale destabilization of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet in the Aurora Subglacial Basin, as far-traveled icebergs would have to overcome enhanced melting in warmer SSTs. Our results highlight the importance of considering SSTs when interpreting IRD flux and provenance records in distal locations.

  11. Spatio-temporal Variability of Melt Intensity over the Greenland ice sheet from 2000-2005 using coupled MODIS Optical and Thermal Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampkin, D.

    2008-12-01

    Increased ice sheet velocity in the equilibrium zone of western Greenland Ice Sheet coincident with periods of summer melting has been demonstrated and attributed to infiltrated melt water that enhances glacial sliding. The assessment of surface melting beyond a binary classification of melt and no-melt events using passive microwave techniques, has been demonstrated using a liquid water fraction (LWF) retrieval model applied to higher resolution, cloud-free, composited MODIS optical and thermal data. Estimates of LWF were derived for composited periods from May through August for 2000 through 2005. An increase in the areal distribution of estimated LWF varies from (0-1%) during May to upwards of 15% later in the season inter- annually. A comparison to QuikSCAT derived melt zones indicate low LWF amounts associated with dry snow zones and higher LWF amounts with wet snow zones. This relationship holds spatially and temporally during the analysis period.

  12. Subpixel variability of MODIS albedo retrievals and its importance for ice sheet surface melting in southwestern Greenland's ablation zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustafa, S.; Rennermalm, A. K.; Roman, M. O.; Koenig, L.; Smith, L. C.; Schaaf, C.; Wang, Z.; Mioduszewski, J.

    2013-12-01

    On the Greenland ice sheet, albedo declined across 70% of its surface since 2000, with the greatest reduction in the lower 600 m of the southwestern ablation zone. Because albedo plays a prominent role in the ice sheet surface energy balance, its decline has resulted in near doubling of meltwater production. To characterize ice sheet albedo, Moderate Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) surface albedo products are typically used. However, it is unclear how the spatial variability of albedo within a MODIS pixel influences surface melting and whether it can be considered a linear function of albedo. In this study, high spatiotemporal resolution measurements of spectral albedo and ice sheet surface ablation were collected along a ~ 1.3 km transect during June 2013 within the Akuliarusiarsuup Kuua (AK) River watershed in southwest Greenland. Spectral measurements were made at 325-1075 nm using a Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) spectroradiometer, fitted with a Remote Cosine Receptor (RCR). In situ albedo measurements are compared with the daily MODIS albedo product (MCD43A) to analyze how space, time, surface heterogeneity, atmospheric conditions, and solar zenith angle geometry govern albedo at different scales. Finally, analysis of sub-pixel albedo and ablation reveal its importance on meltwater production in the lower parts of the ice sheet margin.

  13. The melting temperature of liquid water with the effective fragment potential

    SciTech Connect

    Brorsen, Kurt R.; Willow, Soohaeng Y.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Gordon, Mark S.

    2015-09-17

    Direct simulation of the solid-liquid water interface with the effective fragment potential (EFP) via the constant enthalpy and pressure (NPH) ensemble was used to estimate the melting temperature (Tm) of ice-Ih. Initial configurations and velocities, taken from equilibrated constant pressure and temperature (NPT) simulations at T = 300 K, 350 K and 400 K, respectively, yielded corresponding Tm values of 378±16 K, 382±14 K and 384±15 K. These estimates are consistently higher than experiment, albeit to the same degree with previously reported estimates using density functional theory (DFT)-based Born-Oppenheimer simulations with the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr functional plus dispersion corrections (BLYP-D). KRB was supported by a Computational Science Graduate Fellowship from the Department of Energy. MSG was supported by a U.S. National Science Foundation Software Infrastructure (SI2) grant (ACI – 1047772). SSX acknowledges support from the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle.

  14. Melting Temperature and Partial Melt Chemistry of H2O-Saturated Mantle Peridotite to 11 Gigapascals

    PubMed

    Kawamoto; Holloway

    1997-04-11

    The H2O-saturated solidus of a model mantle composition (Kilborne Hole peridotite nodule, KLB-1) was determined to be just above 1000°C from 5 to 11 gigapascals. Given reasonable H2O abundances in Earth's mantle, an H2O-rich fluid could exist only in a region defined by the wet solidus and thermal stability limits of hydrous minerals, at depths between 90 and 330 kilometers. The experimental partial melts monotonously became more mafic with increasing pressure from andesitic composition at 1 gigapascal to more mafic than the starting peridotite at 10 gigapascals. Because the chemistry of the experimental partial melts is similar to that of kimberlites, it is suggested that kimberlites may be derived by low-temperature melting of an H2O-rich mantle at depths of 150 to 300 kilometers. PMID:9092469

  15. A Comparison of Sea Ice Type, Sea Ice Temperature, and Snow Thickness Distributions in the Arctic Seasonal Ice Zones with the DMSP SSM/I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.Germain, Karen; Cavalieri, Donald J.; Markus, Thorsten

    1997-01-01

    Global climate studies have shown that sea ice is a critical component in the global climate system through its effect on the ocean and atmosphere, and on the earth's radiation balance. Polar energy studies have further shown that the distribution of thin ice and open water largely controls the distribution of surface heat exchange between the ocean and atmosphere within the winter Arctic ice pack. The thickness of the ice, the depth of snow on the ice, and the temperature profile of the snow/ice composite are all important parameters in calculating surface heat fluxes. In recent years, researchers have used various combinations of DMSP SSMI channels to independently estimate the thin ice type (which is related to ice thickness), the thin ice temperature, and the depth of snow on the ice. In each case validation efforts provided encouraging results, but taken individually each algorithm gives only one piece of the information necessary to compute the energy fluxes through the ice and snow. In this paper we present a comparison of the results from each of these algorithms to provide a more comprehensive picture of the seasonal ice zone using passive microwave observations.

  16. Regional albedo of Arctic first-year drift ice in advanced stages of melt from the combination of in situ measurements and aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divine, D. V.; Granskog, M. A.; Hudson, S. R.; Pedersen, C. A.; Karlsen, T. I.; Divina, S. A.; Gerland, S.

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents a case study of the regional (? 150 km) broadband albedo of first year Arctic sea ice in advanced stages of melt, estimated from a combination of in situ albedo measurements and aerial imagery. The data were collected during the eight day ICE12 drift experiment carried out by the Norwegian Polar Institute in the Arctic north of Svalbard at 82.3 N from 26 July to 3 August 2012. The study uses in situ albedo measurements representative of the four main surface types: bare ice, dark melt ponds, bright melt ponds and open water. Images acquired by a helicopter borne camera system during ice survey flights covered about 28 km2. A subset of > 8000 images from the area of homogeneous melt with open water fraction of ? 0.11 and melt pond coverage of ? 0.25 used in the upscaling yielded a regional albedo estimate of 0.40 (0.38; 0.42). The 95% confidence interval on the estimate was derived using the moving block bootstrap approach applied to sequences of classified sea ice images and albedo of the four surface types treated as random variables. Uncertainty in the mean estimates of surface type albedo from in situ measurements contributed some 95% of the variance of the estimated regional albedo, with the remaining variance resulting from the spatial inhomogeneity of sea ice cover. The results of the study are of relevance for the modeling of sea ice processes in climate simulations. It particularly concerns the period of summer melt, when the optical properties of sea ice undergo substantial changes, which existing sea ice models have significant diffuculty accurately reproducing.

  17. Dependence of Eemian Greenland temperature reconstructions on the ice sheet topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merz, Niklaus; Born, Andreas; Raible, Christoph; Fischer, Hubertus; Stocker, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The impact of a reduced Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) on Greenland's surface climate during the Eemian interglacial is investigated employing the CCSM4 climate model. We find a distinct impact of changes in the GrIS topography on Greenland's surface air temperatures (SAT) even when correcting for changes in surface elevation which influences SAT through the lapse rate effect. The resulting lapse rate corrected SAT anomalies are driven by changes in the surface energy balance. In winter, the variable reacting strongest to changes in the topography is the sensible heat flux (SHFLX). The reason is its dependence on surface winds, which themselves are controlled to a large extent by the shape of the GrIS. Hence, regions where a receding GrIS causes higher surface wind velocities also experience anomalous warming through increased SHFLX. Vice-versa, regions that become flat and ice-free are characterized by low wind speeds, low SHFLX and anomalous cold winter temperatures. In summer, we find surface warming induced by a decrease in surface albedo in deglaciated areas and regions which experience surface melting. The results have implications for the interpretation of Eemian temperature reconstructions based on Greenland proxy archives such as the NEEM ice core. Changing the GrIS topography acts as a local forcing for Greenland's climate, whereas the effect on the climate outside of Greenland is small and mostly negligible. For the NEEM ice core site, our model suggests that up to 3.2 C of the annual mean Eemian warming can be attributed to these topography-related processes and hence is not linked to large-scale climate variations.

  18. A Simple Scheme for Estimating Turbulent Heat Flux over Landfast Arctic Sea Ice from Dry Snow to Advanced Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddatz, R. L.; Papakyriakou, T. N.; Else, B. G.; Swystun, K.; Barber, D. G.

    2015-05-01

    We describe a dynamic-parameter aggregation scheme to estimate hourly turbulent heat fluxes over landfast sea ice during the transition from winter to spring. Hourly albedo measurements are used to track the morphology of the surface as it evolved from a fairly smooth homogeneous dry snow surface to a rougher heterogeneous surface with spatially differential melting and melt ponds. The estimates of turbulent heat fluxes for 928 h are compared with eddy-covariance measurements. The model performance metrics (W m) for sensible heat flux were found to be: mean bias , root-mean-square error 6 and absolute accuracy 4, and for latent heat flux near zero, 3 and 2, respectively. The correlation coefficient between modelled and measured sensible heat fluxes was 0.82, and for latent heat fluxes 0.88. The turbulent heat fluxes were estimated more accurately without adjustments than with adjustments for atmospheric stability based on the bulk Richardson number. Overall, and across all metrics for both sensible and latent heat fluxes, the dynamic-parameter aggregation scheme outperformed the static Community Ice (C-ICE) scheme, part of the Community Climate System model, applied to the same winter-to-spring transition period.

  19. Basal drainage system response to increasing surface melt on the Greenland ice sheet.

    PubMed

    Meierbachtol, T; Harper, J; Humphrey, N

    2013-08-16

    Surface meltwater reaching the bed of the Greenland ice sheet imparts a fundamental control on basal motion. Sliding speed depends on ice/bed coupling, dictated by the configuration and pressure of the hydrologic drainage system. In situ observations in a four-site transect containing 23 boreholes drilled to Greenland's bed reveal basal water pressures unfavorable to water-draining conduit development extending inland beneath deep ice. This finding is supported by numerical analysis based on realistic ice sheet geometry. Slow meltback of ice walls limits conduit growth, inhibiting their capacity to transport increased discharge. Key aspects of current conceptual models for Greenland basal hydrology, derived primarily from the study of mountain glaciers, appear to be limited to a portion of the ablation zone near the ice sheet margin. PMID:23950535

  20. High Strain-Rate Response of High Purity Aluminum at Temperatures Approaching Melt

    SciTech Connect

    Grunschel, S E; Clifton, R J; Jiao, T

    2010-01-28

    High-temperature, pressure-shear plate impact experiments were conducted to investigate the rate-controlling mechanisms of the plastic response of high-purity aluminum at high strain rates (10{sup 6} s{sup -1}) and at temperatures approaching melt. Since the melting temperature of aluminum is pressure dependent, and a typical pressure-shear plate impact experiment subjects the sample to large pressures (2 GPa-7 GPa), a pressure-release type experiment was used to reduce the pressure in order to measure the shearing resistance at temperatures up to 95% of the current melting temperature. The measured shearing resistance was remarkably large (50 MPa at a shear strain of 2.5) for temperatures this near melt. Numerical simulations conducted using a version of the Nemat-Nasser/Isaacs constitutive equation, modified to model the mechanism of geometric softening, appear to capture adequately the hardening/softening behavior observed experimentally.

  1. Sudden sea-level change from melting Antarctic ice: How likely?

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, C.R.

    1995-12-31

    There has been concern that the West Antarctic marine ice sheet could collapse catastrophically, leading to a 5-meter rise in sea level in a single century. However, that idea was based on a modeled instability at the grounding line that reflected a discontinuity between the mathematical models used for the grounded and floating parts of the ice sheet, respectively. Improved knowledge about ice streams, the active portions of the marine ice sheet, reveals that in the Ross Sea sector, at least, there is in reality a broad, gradual transition zone, rather than a discontinuity, between the inland ice and the ice shelf. Consequently, there probably is no instability; total disappearance of the ice sheet would take a millenium or more. The resulting average contribution to sea-level rise thus would be only a few millimeters per year, comparable to the present rate of rise (from all sources). Furthermore, dynamic response to present-day climate change would not even begin in less than a century. It is still uncertain whether the Antarctic ice sheet is making a positive or negative contribution to sea-level rise now. Whichever the case, however, during the next century or two the effect of climatic warming almost surely will be to increase the mass input to the ice sheet, thus yielding a negative contribution to sea-level rise of the order of a millimeter per year.

  2. Analysis of Temperature Gradients during Simultaneous Laser Beam Melting of Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laumer, Tobias; Stichel, Thomas; Amend, Philipp; Roth, Stephan; Schmidt, Michael

    By simultaneous laser beam melting (SLBM), different polymer powders can be processed to multi-material parts, which offers the potential to enlarge the field of application for conventional LBM. In a SLBM process, a powder bed consisting of different polymers and therefore with different melting and crystallization temperatures is deposited. Besides the use of infrared emitters for preheating the lower melting polymer, a CO2 laser distributes the necessary preheating temperature of the higher melting polymer. In the last step, a thulium fibre laser distributes the energy necessary for melting the two preheated powders simultaneously. In order to analyze the temperature gradients of the process on the powder surface and in deeper layers, a high-resolution thermal imaging system and thermocouples are used.

  3. Potential positive feedback between Greenland Ice Sheet melt and Baffin Bay heat content on the west Greenland shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro de la Guardia, Laura; Hu, Xianmin; Myers, Paul G.

    2015-06-01

    Greenland ice sheet meltwater runoff has been increasing in recent decades, especially in the southwest and the northeast. To determine the impact of this accelerating meltwater flux on Baffin Bay, we examine eight numerical experiments using an ocean-sea ice model: Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean. Enhanced runoff causes shoreward increasing sea surface height and strengthens the stratification in Baffin Bay. The changes in sea surface height reduces the southward transport through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and strengthens the gyre circulation within Baffin Bay. The latter leads to further freshening of surface waters as it produces a larger northward surface freshwater transport across Davis Strait. Increasing the meltwater runoff leads to a warming and shallowing of the west Greenland Irminger water on the northwest Greenland shelf. These warmer waters can now more easily enter fjords on the Greenland coast and thus provide additional heat to accelerate the melting of marine-terminating glaciers.

  4. Temperature profile for glacial ice at the South Pole: implications for life in a nearby subglacial lake.

    PubMed

    Price, P Buford; Nagornov, Oleg V; Bay, Ryan; Chirkin, Dmitry; He, Yudong; Miocinovic, Predrag; Richards, Austin; Woschnagg, Kurt; Koci, Bruce; Zagorodnov, Victor

    2002-06-11

    Airborne radar has detected approximately 100 lakes under the Antarctic ice cap, the largest of which is Lake Vostok. International planning is underway to search in Lake Vostok for microbial life that may have evolved in isolation from surface life for millions of years. It is thought, however, that the lakes may be hydraulically interconnected. If so, unsterile drilling would contaminate not just one but many of them. Here we report measurements of temperature vs. depth down to 2,345 m in ice at the South Pole, within 10 km from a subglacial lake seen by airborne radar profiling. We infer a temperature at the 2,810-m deep base of the South Pole ice and at the lake of -9 degrees C, which is 7 degrees C below the pressure-induced melting temperature of freshwater ice. To produce the strong radar signal, the frozen lake must consist of a mix of sediment and ice in a flat bed, formed before permanent Antarctic glaciation. It may, like Siberian and Antarctic permafrost, be rich in microbial life. Because of its hydraulic isolation, proximity to South Pole Station infrastructure, and analog to a Martian polar cap, it is an ideal place to test a sterile drill before risking contamination of Lake Vostok. From the semiempirical expression for strain rate vs. shear stress, we estimate shear vs. depth and show that the IceCube neutrino observatory will be able to map the three-dimensional ice-flow field within a larger volume (0.5 km(3)) and at lower temperatures (-20 degrees C to -35 degrees C) than has heretofore been possible. PMID:12060731

  5. Airborne Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Temperature Using the Ball Experimental Sea Surface Temperature (BESST) Radiometer With A Discussion of the 2013 Marginal Ice Zone Observation Processes EXperiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tooth, M.; Emery, W. J.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne remote sensing has opened up new possibilities for scientists to study oceanic and atmospheric problems that are relevant to industry, environmental groups, and the scientific community as a whole. Data obtained from these platforms can provide much higher resolution imagery in comparison to satellite observations that allow for more detailed analyses of important regions. Sea surface temperature (SST) data obtained from instruments like the BESST radiometer can be used to provide more insight into issues like natural disasters and oceanographic problems of interest; such as the influence of melting sea ice on SST. During the 2013 Marginal Ice Zone Observation Processes EXperiment (MIZOPEX), BESST was flown on a Scan Eagle UAS in the Alaskan Marginal Ice Zone to acquire SST data. These observations will be discussed, along with possible future uses for the BESST radiometer.

  6. A Two-Dimensional Liquid Structure Explains the Elevated Melting Temperatures of Gallium Nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Steenbergen, Krista G; Gaston, Nicola

    2016-01-13

    Melting in finite-sized materials differs in two ways from the solid-liquid phase transition in bulk systems. First, there is an inherent scaling of the melting temperature below that of the bulk, known as melting point depression. Second, at small sizes changes in melting temperature become nonmonotonic and show a size-dependence that is sensitive to the structure of the particle. Melting temperatures that exceed those of the bulk material have been shown to occur for a very limited range of nanoclusters, including gallium, but have still never been ascribed a convincing physical explanation. Here, we analyze the structure of the liquid phase in gallium clusters based on molecular dynamics simulations that reproduce the greater-than-bulk melting behavior observed in experiments. We observe persistent nonspherical shape distortion indicating a stabilization of the surface, which invalidates the paradigm of melting point depression. This shape distortion suggests that the surface acts as a constraint on the liquid state that lowers its entropy relative to that of the bulk liquid and thus raises the melting temperature. PMID:26624938

  7. Comparative study on size dependence of melting temperatures of pure metal and alloy nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C. L.; Lee, J.-G.; Arakawa, K.; Mori, H.

    2011-07-04

    A comparative study on the size dependence of the melting temperatures of pure metal and alloy nanoparticles has been carried out. It was found that the melting temperatures of Bi-Sn, In-Sn, and Pb-Sn alloy nanoparticles decreased more rapidly with decreasing particle size than those of the constituent metal nanoparticles (Bi, In, Pb, Sn). Namely, the size dependence of the melting temperature was stronger for the alloy nanoparticles than that for the constituent metal nanoparticles. Results calculated with a thermodynamic model were in good agreement with the experimental observations.

  8. Dependence of Eemian Greenland temperature reconstructions on the ice sheet topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merz, N.; Born, A.; Raible, C. C.; Fischer, H.; Stocker, T. F.

    2014-06-01

    The influence of a reduced Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) on Greenland's surface climate during the Eemian interglacial is studied using a set of simulations with different GrIS realizations performed with a comprehensive climate model. We find a distinct impact of changes in the GrIS topography on Greenland's surface air temperatures (SAT) even when correcting for changes in surface elevation, which influences SAT through the lapse rate effect. The resulting lapse-rate-corrected SAT anomalies are thermodynamically driven by changes in the local surface energy balance rather than dynamically caused through anomalous advection of warm/cold air masses. The large-scale circulation is indeed very stable among all sensitivity experiments and the Northern Hemisphere (NH) flow pattern does not depend on Greenland's topography in the Eemian. In contrast, Greenland's surface energy balance is clearly influenced by changes in the GrIS topography and this impact is seasonally diverse. In winter, the variable reacting strongest to changes in the topography is the sensible heat flux (SHF). The reason is its dependence on surface winds, which themselves are controlled to a large extent by the shape of the GrIS. Hence, regions where a receding GrIS causes higher surface wind velocities also experience anomalous warming through SHF. Vice-versa, regions that become flat and ice-free are characterized by low wind speeds, low SHF, and anomalous low winter temperatures. In summer, we find surface warming induced by a decrease in surface albedo in deglaciated areas and regions which experience surface melting. The Eemian temperature records derived from Greenland proxies, thus, likely include a temperature signal arising from changes in the GrIS topography. For the Eemian ice found in the NEEM core, our model suggests that up to 3.1 C of the annual mean Eemian warming can be attributed to these topography-related processes and hence is not necessarily linked to large-scale climate variations.

  9. Dependence of Eemian Greenland temperature reconstructions on the ice sheet topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merz, N.; Born, A.; Raible, C. C.; Fischer, H.; Stocker, T. F.

    2013-12-01

    The influence of a reduced Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) on Greenland's surface climate during the Eemian interglacial is studied using a comprehensive climate model. We find a distinct impact of changes in the GrIS topography on Greenland's surface air temperatures (SAT) even when correcting for changes in surface elevation which influences SAT through the lapse rate effect. The resulting lapse rate corrected SAT anomalies are thermodynamically driven by changes in the local surface energy balance rather than dynamically caused through anomalous advection of warm/cold air masses. The large-scale circulation is indeed very stable among all sensitivity experiments and the NH flow pattern does not depend on Greenland's topography in the Eemian. In contrast, Greenland's surface energy balance is clearly influenced by changes in the GrIS topography and this impact is seasonally diverse. In winter, the variable reacting strongest to changes in the topography is the sensible heat flux (SHFLX). The reason is its dependence on surface winds, which themselves are controlled to a large extent by the shape of the GrIS. Hence, regions where a receding GrIS causes higher surface wind velocities also experience anomalous warming through SHFLX. Vice-versa, regions that become flat and ice-free are characterized by low wind speeds, low SHFLX and anomalous cold winter temperatures. In summer, we find surface warming induced by a decrease in surface albedo in deglaciated areas and regions which experience surface melting. The Eemian temperature records derived from Greenland proxies, thus, likely include a temperature signal arising from changes in the GrIS topography. For the NEEM ice core site, our model suggests that up to 3.2 C of the annual mean Eemian warming can be attributed to these topography-related processes and hence is not necessarily linked to large-scale climate variations.

  10. Enthalpy balance methods versus temperature models in ice sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Natividad; Durany, Jos; Vzquez, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we propose and numerically solve an original enthalpy formulation for the problem governing the thermal behaviour of polythermal ice sheets. Although the modelling follows some ideas introduced in Aschwanden and Blatter (2009), nonlinear basal boundary conditions in both cold and temperate regions are also considered, thus including the sliding effects in the frame of a fully coupled shallow ice approximation (SIA) model. One of the main novelties of this work comes from the introduction of the Heaviside multivalued operator to take into account the discontinuity of the thermal diffusion function at the cold-temperate transition surface (CTS) free boundary. Moreover, we propose a duality method for maximal monotone operators to solve simultaneously the nonlinear diffusive term and the free boundary. Some numerical simulation examples with real data from Antarctica are presented and illustrate the small differences between the computed results from the enthalpy formulation here proposed and the alternative formulation in terms of the temperature (Calvo et al., 2001).

  11. Investigation of plasma-sprayed laminates for high-temperature melting operations

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, E.L.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.

    1991-12-06

    Melting of reactive metals, such as zirconium (Zr), is normally accomplished either by vacuum-arc skull melting using consumable electrodes or by vaccum-induction melting, which is limited to small castings using water-cooled copper crucibles. An alternate process is being proposed to vacuum-induction melt large castings in a coated graphite crucible. The laminated coating would consist of plasma-sprayed layers of metal and ceramic that are designed to withstand temperatures approaching 2000{degrees}C while maintaining enough integrity to prevent contamination of the melt with carbon (C). This paper describes the selection process, experimental results, and feasibility of using laminated coatings that are plasma sprayed on graphite crucibles for melting Zr.

  12. Impacts of sea ice retreat, thinning, and melt-pond proliferation on the summer phytoplankton bloom in the Chukchi Sea, Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Molly A.; Saenz, Benjamin T.; Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2014-07-01

    In 2011, a massive phytoplankton bloom was observed in the Chukchi Sea under first-year sea ice (FYI), an environment in which primary productivity (PP) has historically been low. In this paper, we use a 1-D biological model of the Chukchi shelf ecosystem, in conjunction with in situ chemical and physiological data, to better understand the conditions that facilitated the development of such an unprecedented bloom. In addition, to assess the effects of changing Arctic environmental conditions on net PP (NPP), we perform model runs with varying sea ice and snow thickness, timing of melt, melt ponds, and biological parameters. Results from model runs with conditions similar to 2011 indicate that first-year ice (FYI) with at least 10% melt pond coverage transmits sufficient light to support the growth of shade-adapted Arctic phytoplankton. Increasing pond fraction by 20% enhanced peak under-ice NPP by 26% and produced rates more comparable to those measured during the 2011 bloom, but there was no effect of further increasing pond fraction. One of the important consequences of large under-ice blooms is that they consume a substantial fraction of surface nutrients such that NPP is greatly diminished in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) following ice retreat, where NPP has historically been the highest. In contrast, in model runs with <10% ponds, no under-ice bloom formed, and although peak MIZ NPP increased by 18-30%, this did not result in higher total annual NPP. This suggests that under-ice blooms contribute importantly to total annual NPP. Indeed, in all runs exhibiting under-ice blooms, total annual NPP was higher than in runs with the majority of NPP based in open water. Consistent with this, in model runs where ice melted one month earlier, peak under-ice NPP decreased 30%, and annual NPP was lower as well. The only exception was the case with no sea ice in the region: a weak bloom in early May was followed by low but sustained NPP throughout the entire growth season (almost all of which occurred in deep, subsurface layers), resulting in higher total annual NPP than in cases with sea ice present. Our results also show that both ultraviolet radiation and zooplankton grazers reduce peak open water NPP but have little impact on under-ice NPP, which has important implications for the relative proportion of NPP concentrated in pelagic vs. benthic food webs. Finally, the shift in the relative amount of NPP occurring in under-ice vs. open-water environments may affect total ecosystem productivity.

  13. Arctic sea ice melt, the Polar vortex, and mid-latitude weather: Are they connected?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vihma, Timo; Overland, James; Francis, Jennifer; Hall, Richard; Hanna, Edward; Kim, Seong-Joong

    2015-04-01

    The potential of recent Arctic changes to influence broader hemispheric weather is a difficult and controversial topic with considerable skepticism, as time series of potential linkages are short (<10 years) and the signal-to-noise ratio relative to chaotic weather events is small. A way forward is through further understanding of potential atmospheric dynamic mechanisms. Although not definitive of change in a statistical or in a causality sense, the exceptionally warm Arctic winters since 2007 do contain increased variability according to some climate indices, with six negative (and two positive) Arctic Oscillation atmospheric circulation index events that created meridional flow reaching unusually far north and south. High pressure anomalies developed east of the Ural Mountains in Russia in response to sea-ice loss in the Barents/Kara Seas, which initiated eastward-propagating wave trains of high and low pressure that advected cold air over central and eastern Asia. Increased Greenland blocking and greater geopotential thickness related to low-level temperatures increases led to northerly meridional flow into eastern North America, inducing persistent cold periods. Arctic connections in Europe and western North America are less clear. The quantitative impact of potential Arctic change on mid-latitude weather will not be resolved within the foreseeable future, yet new approaches to high-latitude atmospheric dynamics can contribute to improved extended range forecasts as outlined by the WMO/Polar Prediction Program and other international activities.

  14. Evaluation of the effectiveness of wet ice, dry ice, and cryogenic packs in reducing skin temperature.

    PubMed

    Belitsky, R B; Odam, S J; Hubley-Kozey, C

    1987-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate and compare the ability of wet ice (WI), dry ice (DI), and cryogenic packs (CGPs) to reduce and maintain the reduction of skin temperature directly under the cooling agent and to determine whether the cooling effect on skin extended beyond the surface area in contact with the cooling agent. Ten female volunteers participated in the study, and each of the three cold modalities was applied randomly to the skin overlying the right triceps surae muscle. After 15 minutes of cold application, mean skin temperatures recorded under WI, DI, and CGP decreased 12 degrees, 9.9 degrees, and 7.3 degrees C, respectively. The only significant differences in cooling were between WI and DI and between WI and CGP. Fifteen minutes after removal of the cold modalities, no significant differences were found in mean skin temperature between WI, DI, and CGP. The residual mean decrease in skin temperature between the pretreatment rest interval (time 0) and 15 minutes after removal of the cold modality (time 30) was significant for WI only. No cooling was demonstrated 1 cm proximal or distal to any of the cooling agents after 15 minutes of cold application. These findings provide valuable information for the use of cryotherapy in the clinical setting. PMID:3602101

  15. Liquid structure and temperature invariance of sound velocity in supercooled Bi melt

    SciTech Connect

    Emuna, M.; Mayo, M.; Makov, G.; Greenberg, Y.; Caspi, E. N.; Yahel, E.; Beuneu, B.

    2014-03-07

    Structural rearrangement of liquid Bi in the vicinity of the melting point has been proposed due to the unique temperature invariant sound velocity observed above the melting temperature, the low symmetry of Bi in the solid phase and the necessity of overheating to achieve supercooling. The existence of this structural rearrangement is examined by measurements on supercooled Bi. The sound velocity of liquid Bi was measured into the supercooled region to high accuracy and it was found to be invariant over a temperature range of ∼60°, from 35° above the melting point to ∼25° into the supercooled region. The structural origin of this phenomenon was explored by neutron diffraction structural measurements in the supercooled temperature range. These measurements indicate a continuous modification of the short range order in the melt. The structure of the liquid is analyzed within a quasi-crystalline model and is found to evolve continuously, similar to other known liquid pnictide systems. The results are discussed in the context of two competing hypotheses proposed to explain properties of liquid Bi near the melting: (i) liquid bismuth undergoes a structural rearrangement slightly above melting and (ii) liquid Bi exhibits a broad maximum in the sound velocity located incidentally at the melting temperature.

  16. In-situ temperature measurement of the McMurdo Ice Shelf and ice shelf cavity using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobs, S.; Tyler, S. W.; Holland, D. M.; Zagorodnov, V.; Stern, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean-ice interactions in ice shelf cavities have great potential to affect ice shelf mass balance and stability. In-situ temperature of the ice shelf and ocean water column at Windless Bight, Antarctica, was remotely monitored using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS). Fiber-optic cables were installed in two boreholes completed using a combination of electromechanical and hot point drilling. Between November 2011 and January 2013 a set of moorings, comprising of fiber-optic cables for distributed temperature sensing, an independent thermistor string and pressure-temperature transducers were monitored. Data presented summarizes the field deployment of the system between November 2011 and January 2013. Heat serves as natural tracer in e