Science.gov

Sample records for ice storm damage

  1. Monitoring and mapping eastern Ontario's 1998 forest ice storm damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olthof, Ian

    Between January 4--9, 1998, a severe ice storm struck northeastern North America. Ice loading and high winds contributed to forest damage in Eastern Ontario, a region whose economy and identity depends on an intact forest resource for maple syrup production and other activities. This thesis was a component of a larger study by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR) to address the needs of the maple syrup industry resulting from the ice storm, including temporal monitoring of forest response to damage to assess forest treatment effects, and mapping local to regional scale forest damage for economic impact assessment and compensation. This work is divided into two parts to address each of these needs separately. Part I uses field measured optical instrument-based Leaf Area Index (LAI) as a damage indicator for local monitoring, while Part II applies pre and post-storm Landsat satellite imagery and environmental data, and interpolation of plot-based damage estimates to produce two separate forest damage maps. LAI and post storm LAI change were determined to be suitable damage indicators, being significantly related to initial visual damage estimates while changing through time to reflect LAI recovery in the majority of plots that were measured. Neural network modeling with Landsat and environmental data was 69.3% accurate in classifying low-to-moderate and high damage with 50% crown loss as the threshold between these two classes. Interpolation produced slightly higher mapping accuracies, but lower Kappa statistics due to a reduced number of plots used for validation. These maps were compared with aerial sketch and freezing precipitation maps produced by the OMNR and Environment Canada, respectively. Overall, there was little agreement among maps due to the patchy nature of forest damage and differences among assessment scales.

  2. Fertilization increases the risk of loblolly pine to ice storm damage.

    SciTech Connect

    Aubrey, D.P.; Coleman, M.D.; Coyle D.R.

    2005-08-01

    Winter storms resulting in substantial ice accumulation occur with periodic frequency in the southeastern United States and they have potential to severely damage softwood plantations. Loblolly pine is one of the most important crop tree species in this region and a combined understanding of initial damage and subsequent growth and recovery may allow for more productive utilization of these stands following severe ice storms. In January 2004 a severe ice storm deposited approximately 2 cm of ice on an intensively managed four-year old loblolly pine plantation in South Carolina . The existing treatments within this plantation presented an opportunity to examine the effects of irrigation and fertilization on ice damage and recovery.

  3. Historic and Future Ice Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klima, K.; Morgan, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Ice storm losses from business interruption as well as transportation and health damages can range into billions of dollars. For instance, the December 2008 New England and Upstate New York ice storm caused four deaths and monetary damages between 2.5 and 3.7 billion, and the 2008 Chinese winter storms resulted in over 130 deaths and over 20 billion in damages. Informal discussions with ice storm experts indicate that due to competing temperature and precipitation effects as well as local topographic effects, it is unclear how exactly climate change will affect ice storms. Here we ask how incident frequencies might change in a future climate at four weather stations prone to ice storms. Using historical atmospheric soundings, we conduct a thought experiment where we perturb the temperatures as might be expected in a future climate. We then discuss changes in monthly frequency of ice storms.

  4. Ice storm damage and early recovery in an old-growth forest.

    PubMed

    Duguay, S M; Arii, K; Hooper, M; Lechowicz, M J

    2001-01-01

    We quantified the damage caused by a major ice storm to individual trees in two 1-ha permanent plots located at Mont St. Hilaire in southwestern Québec, Canada. The storm, which occurred in January 1998, is the worst on record in eastern North America; glaze ice on the order of 80-100 mm accumulated at our study site. All but 3% of the trees (DBH > or = 10 cm) lost at least some crown branches, and 35% lost more than half their crown. Damage to trees increased in the order: Tsuga canadensis, Betula alleghaniensis, Ostrya virginiana, Acer saccharum, Fagus grandifolia, Quercus rubra, Betula papyrifera, Acer rubrum, Tilia americana, and Fraxinus americana. Only 22% of the saplings and small trees (4 cm < DBH < 10 cm) escaped being broken or pinned to the ground by falling material. Levels of damage generally were greater in an exposed ridge top forest than in a cove protected from wind. By August 1999 only 53% of the trees had new shoots developing from the trunk or broken branches; among the more dominant canopy trees, Fagus grandifolia had the least sprouting and Acer saccharum and Quercus rubra the most. We anticipate and will monitor both significant turnover in the tree community and some shift in composition of the canopy dominants. PMID:11339708

  5. Ice Storm Supercomputer

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-28

    "A new Idaho National Laboratory supercomputer is helping scientists create more realistic simulations of nuclear fuel. Dubbed 'Ice Storm,' this 2048-processor machine allows researchers to model and predict the complex physics behind nuclear reactor behavior. And with a new visualization lab, the team can see the results of its simulations on the big screen." For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  6. Synoptic Patterns Associated with Northeast and Southeast Ice Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, R., Jr.; Booth, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Wintertime storms that produce precipitation events such as snow, freezing rain, and ice pellets cause significant damage to utility services and disrupt travel. These synoptic systems involve deep isothermal regions where warm, moist air over-runs surface sub-freezing air. However, little else is known about the synoptic evolution of the storms. Therefore this study analyzes the dynamic and thermodynamic conditions of ice events along the east coast. The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) Storm Events Database is used to pull the dates of ice events from the Northeast and Southeast climate regions for 1996-2013. We find that Southeast ice storms often cover a large geographical region, while Northeast ice storms tend to be much smaller but more frequent. We utilize Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to relate the spatial coverage of our ice events to population density in order to compare the impacts of the events in the two regions. Next, we analyze the synoptic control of ice storms from both regions in an effort to explain what causes the size differences. For the ice storms gathered from the Storm Events Database, composites are generated for sea level pressure, 2-meter temperatures, 850-hPa temperature and 850-500 hPa thickness, and vorticity parameters, from reanalysis data. A comparison of the composites for the Southeast and Northeast storms suggests that the size differences relate in part to the thermal structure produced by cold air damming. The ice events are also associated with objectively identified cyclone tracks, and we find that cyclone forward speed is inversely proportional to the size of the ice storm produced.

  7. Post storm damage assessment survey. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Milgram, D.

    1997-12-01

    The authors discuss and summarize preliminary data collected from a survey sent to representatives in the electrical power generating and distribution industry. The goal of the survey is to produce basic statistics that drive technical requirement for a service to support utility companies in the event of major disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes, and wind storms. Hypothetically, a Post Storm Damage Assessment (PSDA) service would provide time critical reports to customers about potential damage to power distribution facilities (e.g., poles, wires, and transformers).

  8. The effects of ice storm on seed rain and seed limitation in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in east China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yanjun; Mi, Xiangcheng; Liu, Xiaojuan; Ma, Keping

    2012-02-01

    Extreme climatic events almost universally play a major role in influencing the composition and structure of plant and animal communities, and thus could influence seed production, seed dispersal and seedling recruitment. We explored the effects of ice storm damage on seed rain and seed limitation in a 24-ha permanent forest plot in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in east China. We compared seed production before and after the storm in 2008. We evaluated the following hypotheses: 1) seed production after the ice storm was less than that before the storm; 2) seed limitation after the storm was more severe than before the storm. The results showed that seeds from one species, Eurya muricata, dominated the seed rain after the storm, accounting for more than half of the total seeds. Post-ice storm seed production of species other than E. muricata was only one fifth of that before the storm. Seed production in the second year after the ice storm recovered to pre-storm levels. The results indicate large inter-specific variation in response to the ice storm. Disturbance caused by the ice storm greatly increased seed diversity. The Jaccard similarity of species before and after the ice storm was 58%. There was no significant difference in seed limitation or dispersal limitation before and after the storm, but there was a significant difference in source limitation. Neither seed limitation nor dispersal limitation was correlated with dispersal modes. Only source limitation for rodent dispersed species increased after the ice storm.

  9. Sea ice near-inertial response to atmospheric storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoudt, Chase A.

    A moored oceanographic array was deployed on the Beaufort Sea continental slope from August 2008-August 2009 to measure Arctic sea ice near-inertial motion in response to rapidly changing wind stress. Upward looking Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers detected sea ice and measured ice drift using a combination of bottom track and error velocity. An analysis of in-situ mooring data in conjunction with data from National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis suggest that many high and low pressure systems cross the Beaufort in winter, but not all of these create a near-inertial ice response. Two unusually strong low pressure systems that passed near the array in December 2008 and February/March 2009 were accompanied by elevated levels of near-inertial kinetic energy in the ice. The analysis suggests pressure systems which have a diameter to ground track velocity ratio close to 3/4 of the local inertial period can excite a large near-inertial response in the sea ice. It is conjectured that this results from the combined effect of resonance arising from similar intrinsic timescales of the storm and the local inertial period and from stresses that are able to overcome the damping of sea ice arising from ice-mechanics and damping in the ice-ocean boundary layer. Those systems whose intrinsic times scales do not approach resonance with the local inertial period did not excite a large near- inertial response in the sea ice. From an analysis of two storms in February 2009, and two in December 2008, it appears that wind stresses associated with previous low pressure systems preconditioned the ice pack, allowing for larger near-inertial response during subsequent events.

  10. Impact of the 2008 Ice Storm on Moso Bamboo plantations in southeast China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Dr. Benzhi; Li, Zhengcai; Cao, Yonghui; An, Yanfei; Deng, Dr. Zongfu; Wang, Gang; Gu, Lianhong

    2011-01-01

    A massive ice and snow storm occurred in early 2008 in South China and caused extensive damage to forests. Thirty-six plots of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) plantation were established following the ice storm in the central growth area of moso bamboo, Fenyi, Jiangxi province, China. The topographical condition and stand attributes, and the ice storm impact on moso bamboo plantations were investigated. We found that an average of 54.48% ( 17.58%) bamboo culms was damaged. The damage patterns included bending, snapping and uprooting, which accounted for 17.01% ( 7.28%), 22.37% ( 11.58%) and 15.11% ( 11.54%) of the total respectively. An average of 16.42 ( 7.09) tons per hectare dead dry biomass was produced, accounting for 37.73% ( 14.41%) of total aboveground biomass. A mean value of 8.21 ( 3.55) Mg C per hectare was shifted from living biomass to dead. Stand level analysis showed a significant increase in damage level and dead biomass production at north-oriented slopes, and with high stand density (between 3000 and 4500 culm/ha). High altitude caused a higher proportion of snapped culms but a lower proportion of uprooted. Analysis at individual culm level suggested that the susceptibility for a culm to break or uproot due to ice storm would rise as its diameter increased, while the susceptibility to bend would decline. The young (one year old) culm was more susceptible to snapping or bending while over-mature (>5 years old) culm was more susceptible to uprooting, implying it is a good managing practice to harvest mature culm timely.

  11. 98. DETAIL VIEW OF STORM DAMAGE AND EXPOSED SUBSTRUCTURE, NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. DETAIL VIEW OF STORM DAMAGE AND EXPOSED SUBSTRUCTURE, NORTHWEST SIDE OF 4TH TEE, LOOKING WEST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  12. Coastal Storm Events and Property Damages Associated with Winter Storms in the Tri-State Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimkus, C.; Ting, M.; Adamo, S. B.; Madajewicz, M.; Kushnir, Y.; Booth, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Winter storms pose a number of hazards to coastal communities in the U.S. Northeast including heavy rain and/or snow, strong wind, cold temperatures, as well as coastal and fresh water flooding. In combination and as separate "events", these hazards threaten infrastructure and can cause millions of dollars of property damage in one state from one storm alone. A study of the impacts of several recent winter storms from 2005-2012 on 4 coastal counties in Connecticut, 15 in New Jersey, and 13 in New York underscores the significant economic consequences the climate can have on private and public property. Data on events and associated property damage from the National Climatic Data Center Storm Events Database indicates that flood and wind events were documented most frequently for these winter storms and were responsible for the highest damages overall. Although New Jersey experienced the most events and property damage, there is no discernable connection between the number of events that afflict a county or state and the level of damage they face. For example, the data shows that a low number of flood events, both coastal and freshwater, accounted for the largest losses. Furthermore, the study reveals that winter storms may affect suburban property more than urban infrastructure since suburban New Jersey suffered the most property damage while urban counties in New York sustained little to no costs in comparison. An examination of the relationship between property damage from the recent storms and each county's coastal land area and population below 3 meters suggests that the amount of damage reported is related to the land area at lower elevations but there is no direct link between losses and the population density below 3 meters.

  13. Storm-induced sea-ice breakup and the implications for ice extent.

    PubMed

    Kohout, A L; Williams, M J M; Dean, S M; Meylan, M H

    2014-05-29

    The propagation of large, storm-generated waves through sea ice has so far not been measured, limiting our understanding of how ocean waves break sea ice. Without improved knowledge of ice breakup, we are unable to understand recent changes, or predict future changes, in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice. Here we show that storm-generated ocean waves propagating through Antarctic sea ice are able to transport enough energy to break sea ice hundreds of kilometres from the ice edge. Our results, which are based on concurrent observations at multiple locations, establish that large waves break sea ice much farther from the ice edge than would be predicted by the commonly assumed exponential decay. We observed the wave height decay to be almost linear for large waves--those with a significant wave height greater than three metres--and to be exponential only for small waves. This implies a more prominent role for large ocean waves in sea-ice breakup and retreat than previously thought. We examine the wider relevance of this by comparing observed Antarctic sea-ice edge positions with changes in modelled significant wave heights for the Southern Ocean between 1997 and 2009, and find that the retreat and expansion of the sea-ice edge correlate with mean significant wave height increases and decreases, respectively. This includes capturing the spatial variability in sea-ice trends found in the Ross and Amundsen-Bellingshausen seas. Climate models fail to capture recent changes in sea ice in both polar regions. Our results suggest that the incorporation of explicit or parameterized interactions between ocean waves and sea ice may resolve this problem. PMID:24870546

  14. Detection of Storm Damage Tracks with EOS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Nair, Udaysankar; Haines, Stephanie L.

    2006-01-01

    The damage surveys conducted by the NWS in the aftermath of a reported tornadic event are used to document the location of the tornado ground damage track (pathlength and width) and an estimation of the tornado intensity. This study explores the possibility of using near-real-time medium and high spatial resolution satellite imagery from the NASA Earth Observing System satellites to provide additional information for the surveys. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data were used to study the damage tracks from three tornadic storms: the La Plata, Maryland, storm of 28 April 2002 and the Ellsinore and Marquand, Missouri, storms of 24 April 2002. These storms varied in intensity and occurred over regions with significantly different land cover. It was found that, depending on the nature of the land cover, tornado damage tracks from intense storms (F1 or greater) and hail storms may be evident in ASTER, Landsat, and MODIS satellite imagery. In areas where the land cover is dominated by forests, the scar patterns can show up very clearly, while in areas of grassland and regions with few trees, scar patterns are not as obvious or cannot be seen at all in the satellite imagery. The detection of previously unidentified segments of a damage track caused by the 24 April 2002 Marquand, Missouri, tornado demonstrates the utility of satellite imagery for damage surveys. However, the capability to detect tornado tracks in satellite imagery depends on the ability to observe the ground without obstruction from space and appears to be as much dependent on the nature of the underlying surface and land cover as on the severity of the tornadic storm.

  15. Mangroves can provide protection against wind damage during storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Saudamini; Crépin, Anne-Sophie

    2013-12-01

    Research has established that mangroves can protect lives and property from storms by buffering the impacts of storm surges. However, their effects in attenuating wind velocity and providing protection from wind damage during storms are not known. This study examined whether mangroves attenuate damage from cyclonic winds and found that they provide substantial protection to properties, even relatively far away from mangroves and the coast. We devised a theoretical model of wind protection by mangroves and calibrated and applied this model using data from the 1999 cyclone in the Odisha region of India. The model predicted and quantified the actual level of damage reasonably accurately and showed that mangroves reduced wind damage to houses. The wind protection value of mangroves in reducing house damage amounted to approximately US$177 per hectare at 1999 prices. This provides additional evidence of the storm protection ecosystem services that mangroves supply in the region and an additional reason to invest in mangrove ecosystems to provide better adaptability to coastal disasters such as storms.

  16. Numerical simulation of the Valentine's day storm during the 1990 winter icing and storms project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, P. A.; Chern, J.-D.; Sun, W.-Y.

    1997-10-01

    This paper discusses numerical simulation of the first day of the 1990 winter icing and storms project's (WISP) Valentine's day storm (VDS) case with the Purdue mesoscale model (PMM) and comparison of the results to aircraft, satellite, radiometer and other observations. This situation is marked by many observations of supercooled liquid water (SLW) contents of 0.2 g m-3 to 0.3 g m-3 by the WISP research aircraft. The PMM was initialized with the ECMWF analysis for 13 February 1990 at 0000 GMT and used to make an 18-h forecast with output every 6h. This paper focuses on comparison of the forecast to observations made at about 1800 GMT since the aircraft encountered significant amounts of SLW during its flight between 1723 GMT and 1928 GMT. Dual channel radiometer, satellite visible imagery, and other observational data sources are also utilized. For this study, the PMM includes a new stable cloud parameterization that is discussed here. In it, cloud water and ice are explicitly calculated while rain and snow are implicitly handled. Between 0 and -40°C, cloud water and cloud ice can coexist; the conversion of cloud water to cloud ice is governed by the depositional growth rate of ice crystals whose concentration is diagnosed on the basis of temperature. After accounting for precipitation, a saturation adjustment is done to remove either supersaturated vapor or subsaturation in the presence of cloud drops. In mixed phase conditions, both saturation vapor pressure and the apportionment of condensate into ice or liquid are on a mass-weighted basis according to the existing amounts of ice and liquid or on the basis of temperature if there is neither.

  17. Hurricane Risk Assessment: Wind Damage and Storm Surge (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, N.; Vanmarcke, E. H.; Emanuel, K.

    2010-12-01

    Hurricanes present major hazards for the United States. Associated with extreme winds, heavy rainfall, and storm surge, landfalling hurricanes often cause enormous structural damage to coastal regions. Risk assessment of hurricane-induced wind damage and storm surge is discussed. First, an innovative windborne debris risk model is presented. It is integrated into a next-generation structural vulnerability analysis to predict cumulative wind damage in residential developments, accounting for the interaction between debris damage and wind-pressure damage during storm passage, a major mechanism leading to structural failures during hurricanes. Second, a risk assessment model is introduced to estimate hurricane storm surge risk along the coast, particularly for data-scarce regions. It couples a statistical/deterministic hurricane model and the Advanced Circulation (ADCIRC) model with grids of various resolutions to simulate large numbers of synthetic surge events for statistical analysis. Basic properties of Poisson random measures are applied to develop the mathematical frameworks for both of these risk models, which can be applied to investigate climate change impact and provide the basis for policy-making related to loss mitigation.

  18. Detecting Dust Storms and Water Ice Clouds Onboard THEMIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagstaff, K. L.; Bandfield, J. L.; Castano, R.; Chien, S.; Smith, M. D.; Stough, T. M.

    2006-05-01

    We are developing and testing the first data analysis algorithms to be used onboard a spacecraft in Mars orbit. In particular, these algorithms will be uploaded to the Mars Odyssey spacecraft, where they will analyze data collected by the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) instrument. In order of increasing sophistication, they can detect thermal anomalies (which could be indicators of geothermal activity), track the movements of the seasonal polar caps, detect dust storms, and detect water ice clouds in the atmosphere. The benefit of estimating atmospheric constituents in an onboard setting is that we can then detect features or events of interest and use them to prioritize data for transmission back to Earth. Rather than collecting only a pre-specified list of target images, THEMIS can use a more continuous operating mode and only return images that successfully capture events of interest, such as the onset of a dust storm or particularly dense water ice clouds. We will present recent results obtained by our dust and water ice cloud detection algorithms when applied to raw data that was collected by THEMIS. To estimate the dust and water ice content of the atmosphere, we trained a support vector machine (SVM) to perform regression based on previous analyses of a combination of fully calibrated TES and THEMIS data by Smith et al. (JGR 108, 2003). We find that both algorithms are, on average, able to estimate optical depth to within the same level of the uncertainty associated with the values computed by Smith et al. We conclude that these algorithms are performing at a level suitable for use onboard THEMIS. We will also report on the status of onboard infusion of these methods.

  19. Forest greenness after the massive 2008 Chinese ice storm: integrated effects of natural processes and human intervention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ying; Gu, Lianhong; Dickinson, Robert E.; Zhou, Benzhi

    2012-09-01

    About 10% of China’s forests were impacted by a destructive ice storm and subsequently subjected to poorly planned salvage logging in 2008. We used the remote-sensing products of Enhanced Vegetation Indexes (EVI) corroborated with information gathered from ground visits to examine the spatial patterns and temporal trajectories of greenness of these nearly 20 million hectares of forests. We found (1) the EVI of about 50% of the impacted forests returned to normal status (i.e., within the 95% confidence interval of the long-term mean) within five months, and about 80% within one year after the storm, (2) the higher the pre-storm EVI (relative to the long-term mean), the slower the rebound of post-storm EVI, and (3) the rebound of greenness was slowest in forests that were moderately impacted by the ice storm only (i.e. before the occurrences of logging), resulting in a nonlinear relationship between greenness rebound time (GRT) and ice storm impact severity (IS). Ground visits suggested a hypothesis that the region-wide rebound in greenness was a consequence of resprouting of physically damaged trees and growth of understory plants including shrub, herbaceous and epiphytic species. These processes were facilitated by the rapid increase in temperature and ample moisture after the ice storm. Gap-phase dynamics could be responsible for the counterintuitive relationship between IS and GRT that was obtained. However, a more parsimonious explanation appears to be biased salvage logging, which may have selectively targeted lightly to moderately impacted forests for economic and accessibility reasons and thus adversely affected the GRT of these forests. Although a purely natural disturbance may result in forest greenness patterns different than those reported here, we suggest that remote-sensing-based dynamic analyses of greenness can play a major role in evaluating disturbance theories and in developing testable hypotheses to guide ground-based studies of the integrated effects of large extreme events and human intervention on forest ecosystems.

  20. ICE DAMAGE IN A CHRONOSEQUENCE OF AGROFORESTRY PINE PLANTATIONS IN ARKANSAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acute (broken and leaning) and transient (bending) damage to loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were assessed in a case study of experimental agroforestry plantations following a December 2000 ice storm. Stand ages were 7-, 9-, and 17-years-old and tree density ranged from 150 to 3,360 trees ha-1 in re...

  1. The impact of ice microphysical processes on the life span of a midlatitude supercell storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pao K.; Lin, Hsin-Mu; Su, Shih-Hao

    2010-09-01

    The impact of ice microphysical processes on the life span of a US Midwest supercell thunderstorm is studied using a cloud resolving model equipped with explicit cloud microphysical processes. The 2 August 1981 CCOPE supercell is chosen as the model storm to be tested. Three different runs are performed: a control run FPR with full physics (including ice physics), a normal liquid-only run NLR with all ice processes suppressed, and another liquid-only run ELR with artificially enhanced latent heat release to test the impact of thermodynamics versus ice microphysics on the storm's life cycle. The results show that the FPR storm evolves into a quasi-steady supercell whereas both NLR and ELR storms dissipate after 100 min. The ELR storm dissipates even earlier than the NLR storm, demonstrating that the enhanced latent heat release does not help lengthening the storm's life span. Analysis confirms our previous finding that the presence of lower density ice particles enables the storm to develop a circulation that can sustain the quasi-steady storm structure. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  2. Interaction of ice storms and management practices on current carbon sequestration in forests with potential mitigation under future CO2 atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Heather R.; Oren, Ram; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Johnsen, Kurt H.; Maier, Chris; Pritchard, Seth G.; Davis, Micheal A.

    2006-08-01

    Ice storms are disturbance events with potential impacts on carbon sequestration. Common forest management practices, such as fertilization and thinning, can change wood and stand properties and thus may change vulnerability to ice storm damage. At the same time, increasing atmospheric CO2 levels may also influence ice storm vulnerability. Here we show that a nonintensively managed pine plantation experienced a ˜250 g C m-2 reduction in living biomass during a single storm, equivalent to ˜30% of the annual net ecosystem carbon exchange of this ecosystem. Drawing on weather and damage survey data from the entire storm cell, the amount of C transferred from the living to the dead biomass pool (26.5 ± 3.3 Tg C), 85% of which will decompose within 25 years, was equivalent to ˜10% of the estimated annual sequestration in conterminous U.S. forests. Conifer trees were more than twice as likely to be killed as leafless deciduous broadleaf trees. In the Duke Forest case study, nitrogen fertilization had no effect on storm-induced carbon transfer from the living to detrital pool while thinning increased carbon transfer threefold. Elevated CO2 (administered with the free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) system) reduced the storm-induced carbon transfer to a third. Because of the lesser leaf area reduction, plots growing under elevated CO2 also exhibited a smaller reduction in biomass production the following year. These results suggest that forests may suffer less damage during each ice storm event of similar severity in a future with higher atmospheric CO2.

  3. Tree Species Traits but Not Diversity Mitigate Stem Breakage in a Subtropical Forest following a Rare and Extreme Ice Storm

    PubMed Central

    Nadrowski, Karin; Pietsch, Katherina; Baruffol, Martin; Both, Sabine; Gutknecht, Jessica; Bruelheide, Helge; Heklau, Heike; Kahl, Anja; Kahl, Tiemo; Niklaus, Pascal; Kröber, Wenzel; Liu, Xiaojuan; Mi, Xiangcheng; Michalski, Stefan; von Oheimb, Goddert; Purschke, Oliver; Schmid, Bernhard; Fang, Teng; Welk, Erik; Wirth, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Future climates are likely to include extreme events, which in turn have great impacts on ecological systems. In this study, we investigated possible effects that could mitigate stem breakage caused by a rare and extreme ice storm in a Chinese subtropical forest across a gradient of forest diversity. We used Bayesian modeling to correct stem breakage for tree size and variance components analysis to quantify the influence of taxon, leaf and wood functional traits, and stand level properties on the probability of stem breakage. We show that the taxon explained four times more variance in individual stem breakage than did stand level properties; trees with higher specific leaf area (SLA) were less susceptible to breakage. However, a large part of the variation at the taxon scale remained unexplained, implying that unmeasured or undefined traits could be used to predict damage caused by ice storms. When aggregated at the plot level, functional diversity and wood density increased after the ice storm. We suggest that for the adaption of forest management to climate change, much can still be learned from looking at functional traits at the taxon level. PMID:24879434

  4. Tree species traits but not diversity mitigate stem breakage in a subtropical forest following a rare and extreme ice storm.

    PubMed

    Nadrowski, Karin; Pietsch, Katherina; Baruffol, Martin; Both, Sabine; Gutknecht, Jessica; Bruelheide, Helge; Heklau, Heike; Kahl, Anja; Kahl, Tiemo; Niklaus, Pascal; Kröber, Wenzel; Liu, Xiaojuan; Mi, Xiangcheng; Michalski, Stefan; von Oheimb, Goddert; Purschke, Oliver; Schmid, Bernhard; Fang, Teng; Welk, Erik; Wirth, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Future climates are likely to include extreme events, which in turn have great impacts on ecological systems. In this study, we investigated possible effects that could mitigate stem breakage caused by a rare and extreme ice storm in a Chinese subtropical forest across a gradient of forest diversity. We used Bayesian modeling to correct stem breakage for tree size and variance components analysis to quantify the influence of taxon, leaf and wood functional traits, and stand level properties on the probability of stem breakage. We show that the taxon explained four times more variance in individual stem breakage than did stand level properties; trees with higher specific leaf area (SLA) were less susceptible to breakage. However, a large part of the variation at the taxon scale remained unexplained, implying that unmeasured or undefined traits could be used to predict damage caused by ice storms. When aggregated at the plot level, functional diversity and wood density increased after the ice storm. We suggest that for the adaption of forest management to climate change, much can still be learned from looking at functional traits at the taxon level. PMID:24879434

  5. Use of Remote Sensing Data to Enhance NWS Storm Damage Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedlovec, G.; Molthan, A.; White, K.; Burks, J.; Stellman, K.; Smith, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    In the wake of a natural disaster such as a tornado, the National Weather Service (NWS) is required to provide a very detailed and timely storm damage assessment to local, state and federal homeland security officials. The Post-Storm Data Acquisition (PSDA) procedure involves the acquisition and assembly of highly perishable data necessary for accurate post-event analysis and potential integration into a geographic information system (GIS) available to its end users and associated decision makers. Information gained from the process also enables the NWS to increase its knowledge of extreme events, learn how to better use existing equipment, improve NWS warning programs, and provide accurate storm intensity and damage information to the news media and academia. To help collect and manage all of this information, forecasters in NWS Southern Region are currently developing a Storm Damage Assessment Toolkit (SDAT), which incorporates GIS-capable phones and laptops into the PSDA process by tagging damage photography, location, and storm damage details with GPS coordinates for aggregation within the GIS database. However, this tool alone does not fully integrate radar and ground based storm damage reports nor does it help to identify undetected storm damage regions. In many cases, information on storm damage location (beginning and ending points, swath width, etc.) from ground surveys is incomplete or difficult to obtain. Geographic factors (terrain and limited roads in rural areas), manpower limitations, and other logistical constraints often prevent the gathering of a comprehensive picture of tornado or hail damage, and may allow damage regions to go undetected. Molthan et al. (2011) have shown that high resolution satellite data can provide additional valuable information on storm damage tracks to augment this database. This paper presents initial development to integrate satellite-derived damage track information into the SDAT for near real-time use by forecasters and decision makers.

  6. Use of Remote Sensing Data to Enhance NWS Storm Damage Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlove, Gary J.; Molthan, Andrew L.; White, Kris; Burks, Jason; Stellman, Keith; Smith, Mathew

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of a natural disaster such as a tornado, the National Weather Service (NWS) is required to provide a very detailed and timely storm damage assessment to local, state and federal homeland security officials. The Post ]Storm Data Acquisition (PSDA) procedure involves the acquisition and assembly of highly perishable data necessary for accurate post ]event analysis and potential integration into a geographic information system (GIS) available to its end users and associated decision makers. Information gained from the process also enables the NWS to increase its knowledge of extreme events, learn how to better use existing equipment, improve NWS warning programs, and provide accurate storm intensity and damage information to the news media and academia. To help collect and manage all of this information, forecasters in NWS Southern Region are currently developing a Storm Damage Assessment Toolkit (SDAT), which incorporates GIS ]capable phones and laptops into the PSDA process by tagging damage photography, location, and storm damage details with GPS coordinates for aggregation within the GIS database. However, this tool alone does not fully integrate radar and ground based storm damage reports nor does it help to identify undetected storm damage regions. In many cases, information on storm damage location (beginning and ending points, swath width, etc.) from ground surveys is incomplete or difficult to obtain. Geographic factors (terrain and limited roads in rural areas), manpower limitations, and other logistical constraints often prevent the gathering of a comprehensive picture of tornado or hail damage, and may allow damage regions to go undetected. Molthan et al. (2011) have shown that high resolution satellite data can provide additional valuable information on storm damage tracks to augment this database. This paper presents initial development to integrate satellitederived damage track information into the SDAT for near real ]time use by forecasters and decision makers.

  7. Continuum damage modeling of ice shelves: inversion of surface velocities for a state damage variable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borstad, C.; Larour, E.; Morlighem, M.; Seroussi, H.; Rignot, E.

    2012-04-01

    Continuum damage mechanics is a promising alternative to fracture mechanics for representing rifting, crevassing and calving processes in ice sheet models. The constitutive relations describing ice rheology can be modified using state variables which describe the effects of cracking and damage without explicitly seeking to resolve individual cracks. The challenge in formulating a damage model for application in a large-scale ice sheet model is in the computational cost associated with the increase in model complexity and the addition of a differential equation describing the evolution of damage. We present an investigation of the spatial distribution of damage for the Larsen C ice shelf using a scalar isotropic damage model implemented in the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM). The representation of damage using a single scalar is a simple but numerically efficient approach to accounting for the effects of fractures on ice flow. InSAR-derived surface velocities are used to invert for the scalar damage variable, leading to a spatial map of damage analogous to that produced by inverting for the ice rigidity itself. The key distinction in inverting for the damage variable is that thermal and mechanical components of the constitutive relation are formally separated in the inversion. This spatial mapping of damage is a key first step in forward modeling of the stability of ice shelves using damage mechanics, and we discuss ongoing work to implement a transient damage model in ISSM to project the mechanical integrity of ice shelves in a warming climate.

  8. 75 FR 17132 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Hurricane and Storm Damage Reduction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Hurricane and Storm Damage Reduction for South Ponte Vedra Beach, Vilano Beach, and Summer Haven Beach... storm damage reduction (HSDR), and related purposes to the shores of St. Johns County, Florida....

  9. Automatic Detection of Storm Damages Using High-Altitude Photogrammetric Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litkey, P.; Nurminen, K.; Honkavaara, E.

    2013-05-01

    The risks of storms that cause damage in forests are increasing due to climate change. Quickly detecting fallen trees, assessing the amount of fallen trees and efficiently collecting them are of great importance for economic and environmental reasons. Visually detecting and delineating storm damage is a laborious and error-prone process; thus, it is important to develop cost-efficient and highly automated methods. Objective of our research project is to investigate and develop a reliable and efficient method for automatic storm damage detection, which is based on airborne imagery that is collected after a storm. The requirements for the method are the before-storm and after-storm surface models. A difference surface is calculated using two DSMs and the locations where significant changes have appeared are automatically detected. In our previous research we used four-year old airborne laser scanning surface model as the before-storm surface. The after-storm DSM was provided from the photogrammetric images using the Next Generation Automatic Terrain Extraction (NGATE) algorithm of Socet Set software. We obtained 100% accuracy in detection of major storm damages. In this investigation we will further evaluate the sensitivity of the storm-damage detection process. We will investigate the potential of national airborne photography, that is collected at no-leaf season, to automatically produce a before-storm DSM using image matching. We will also compare impact of the terrain extraction algorithm to the results. Our results will also promote the potential of national open source data sets in the management of natural disasters.

  10. Living with a Chronic Disabling Illness and Then Some: Data from the 1998 Ice Storm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gignac, Monique A. M.; Cott, Cheryl A.; Badley, Elizabeth M.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the 1998 Canadian ice storm on the physical and psychological health of older adults (age greater than 55 years) living with a chronic physical illness, namely osteoarthritis and/or osteoporosis. Although disasters are relatively rare, they are a useful means of examining the impact of a single stressor on a group…

  11. Living with a Chronic Disabling Illness and Then Some: Data from the 1998 Ice Storm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gignac, Monique A. M.; Cott, Cheryl A.; Badley, Elizabeth M.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the 1998 Canadian ice storm on the physical and psychological health of older adults (age greater than 55 years) living with a chronic physical illness, namely osteoarthritis and/or osteoporosis. Although disasters are relatively rare, they are a useful means of examining the impact of a single stressor on a group

  12. Observations of ice nuclei and heterogeneous freezing in a Western Pacific extratropical storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stith, J. L.; Twohy, C. H.; Demott, P. J.; Baumgardner, D.; Campos, T.; Gao, R.; Anderson, J.

    2011-07-01

    In situ airborne sampling of refractory black carbon (rBC) particles and Ice Nuclei (IN) was conducted in and near an extratropical cyclonic storm in the western Pacific Ocean during the Pacific Dust Experiment, PACDEX, in the spring of 2007. Airmass origins were from Eastern Asia. Clouds associated primarily with the warm sector of the storm were sampled at various locations and altitudes. Cloud hydrometeors were evaporated by a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) and the residuals were sampled by a single particle soot photometer (SP2) instrument, a continuous flow diffusion chamber ice nucleus detector (CFDC) and collected for electron microscope analysis. In clouds containing large ice particles, multiple residual particles were observed downstream of the CVI for each ice particle sampled on average. The fraction of rBC compared to total particles in the residual particles increased with decreasing condensed water content, while the fraction of IN compared to total particles did not, suggesting that the scavenging process for rBC is different than for IN. In the warm sector storm midlevels at temperatures where heterogeneous freezing is expected to be significant (here -24 to -29 °C), IN concentrations from ice particle residuals generally agreed with simultaneous measurements of total ice concentrations or were higher in regions where aggregates of crystals were found, suggesting heterogeneous freezing as the dominant ice formation process in the mid levels of these warm sector clouds. Lower in the storm, at warmer temperatures, ice concentrations were affected by aggregation and were somewhat less than measured IN concentrations at colder temperatures. The results are consistent with ice particles forming at storm mid-levels by heterogeneous freezing on IN, followed by aggregation and sedimentation to lower altitudes. Compositional analysis of the aerosol and back trajectories of the air in the warm sector suggested a possible biomass burning source for much of the aerosol. Comparison of the particles from the CFDC with the other aerosol in the residuals of ice particles suggested that the largest portion of IN had similar inferred origins (from biomass burning with minor amounts of rBC) as the other aerosol, but contained slightly elevated amounts of calcium and less influence from sea salt.

  13. Legacies of an ice storm on the long-term carbon exchange of a temperate forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, A. L.; Morgan, K.

    2010-12-01

    Atmosphere-biosphere exchange of carbon is governed by processes operating on a variety of timescales, from diurnal to seasonal to decadal and beyond. Disturbance events, such as fire, insect outbreaks, and ice storms, are infrequent but exert an impact on atmosphere-biosphere exchanges that may persist for many years. Quantification of the role of these biophysical pulses on carbon exchange is therefore critical to accurately model the global carbon cycle. In this study, we investigate the long-term effect of an ice storm on forest-atmosphere carbon exchange. In December 2008, an ice storm affected Harvard Forest, a temperate forest located in north-central Massachusetts. As a result of this ice storm, tree mortality rates were elevated above the background mortality rate of 0.6 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 measured by Barford et al. (2001). Mortality rates in the year of the ice storm in the study area ranged from 1.1 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 in a 19-year-old forest stand to 8.7 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 in an 84-year-old red pine plantation. The woody debris generated by this disturbance event represented a significant increase in the pool of respirable aboveground carbon. The woody debris respiration model of Liu et al (2006) is used to estimate the legacy of this disturbance event on fluxes of carbon to the atmosphere in future years. Results from this study have implications for modeling carbon cycle response to infrequent, large-scale disturbance events.

  14. Review Article: Storm Britta in 2006: offshore damage and large waves in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettle, A. J.

    2015-09-01

    The Britta storm of 31 October-1 November 2006 was a severe autumn storm that was particularly damaging for shipping and coastal flooding from storm surge effects along the southern North Sea. The main low pressure of the storm propagated from Scotland to southern Norway on 31 October, leading to a system of strong north winds that moved southward across North Sea over an 18 h period. A progression of ship and offshore platform difficulties were registered from the northern part of the North Sea from late on 31 October and culminated near the coasts of Germany and the Netherlands early on 1 November with a series of ship emergencies linked with large waves. In two separate incidents, unusually high waves broke the bridge windows of ships and necessitated emergency rescues, and a Dutch motor lifeboat experienced a triple capsize. In the southern North Sea, several gas production and research platforms experienced wave impact damage. The FINO1 offshore research platform, near the Dutch-German border, experienced some of the worst storm conditions with some structural damage. Its meteorological and oceanographic instrumentation give a unique profile of the severe met-ocean conditions during the storm. Two Waverider buoys at FINO1 and the nearby Dutch coastal site of Schiermonnikoog recorded groups of large waves at different times during the storm. These reports give insight into a little-reported rogue wave phenomenon that sometimes accompanies the "ground sea" conditions of the worst storms of the area.

  15. Storm-induced damages along the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean) during the period 1958-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, José A.; Sancho-García, Amanda; Bosom, Eva; Valdemoro, Herminia I.; Guillén, Jorge

    2012-03-01

    The temporal and spatial patterns of storm-induced damage along the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean) during the last 50 years have been analyzed to identify main climatic and non-climatic forcings. In the absence of systematic data, a storm-induced damage database compiled from press news has been built, which together with an intensity scale has allowed us to characterize the frequency and intensity of damage. Although no temporal trend has been detected in storm-induced hazards, coastal damage has increased at a rate of about 40% per decade during the last 50 years along the Catalan coast. The main non-climatic factors identified controlling this trend were the urban growth along the coastal fringe and the generalized erosive behavior of beaches. The first one increased values at risk and the second one increased their exposure to storm-induced hazards. In spite of the importance of non-climatic factors to modulate coastal damage, an exponential dependence of damages on storm-induced inundation and erosion was detected. In addition to this, storm-induced geomorphic changes along the Ebro delta coast have also been analyzed. During the period analyzed, "harmful" storms seem to be clustered, with most of the events being present in the late 1990s and especially from 2001 to 2004, resulting in frequent events of intense beach/barrier breaching, massive overwash and flooding. They are mainly expressed in sensitive areas which are subject to long-term erosional processes and comprise a low-lying profile and a narrow beach. This reflects the role of coastal morphology in controlling the intensity of storm-induced hazards along the deltaic coast. Shoreline evolution rates calculated during this period were significantly larger than the previously recorded ones, reflecting a pulsating erosion behavior where large pulses occur during stormy periods and are reduced during post-storm periods. Under the present scenario of maximum coastal development, storm-induced damage has been reported almost every year which could indicate that the present overall beach configuration status along the Catalan coast has reached its limit for protecting the hinterland against storms.

  16. Case-based damage assessment of storm events in near real-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möhrle, Stella; Mühr, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    Damage assessment in times of crisis is complex due to a highly dynamic environment and uncertainty in respect of available information. In order to assess the extent of a disaster in near real-time, historic events and their consequences may facilitate first estimations. Events of the past, which are in the same category or which have similar frame conditions like imminent or just occurring storms, might give preliminary information about possible damages. The challenge here is to identify useful historic events based on little information regarding the current event. This work investigates the potential of drawing conclusions about a current event based on similar historic disasters, exemplarily for storm events in Germany. Predicted wind speed and area affected can be used for roughly classifying a storm event. For this purpose, a grid of equidistant points can be used to split up the area of Germany. In combination with predicted wind speed at these points and the predicted number of points affected, respectively, a storm can be categorized in a fast manner. In contrast to investigate only data taken by the observation network, the grid approach is more objective, since stations are not equally distributed. Based on model data, the determined storm class provides one key factor for identifying similar historic events. Further aspects, such as region or specific event characteristics, complete knowledge about the potential storm scale and result in a similarity function, which automatically identifies useful events from the past. This work presents a case-based approach to estimate damages in the event of an extreme storm event in Germany. The focus in on the similarity function, which is based on model storm classes, particularly wind speed and area affected. In order to determine possible damages more precisely, event specific characteristics and region will be included. In the frame of determining similar storm events, neighboring storm classes will be considered as well. The aim is to estimate upper and lower limits for damaged buildings and direct loss. The research activities are part of CEDIM's Forensic Disaster Analysis (FDA), which is concerned with near real-time analyses of disasters and their impacts.

  17. 112. Photocopied August 1978. DAMAGED ICE RACK, SEPTEMBER 27, 1917. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. Photocopied August 1978. DAMAGED ICE RACK, SEPTEMBER 27, 1917. THIS RACK, INSTALLED TO INTERCEPT FLOTAGE BEFORE IT COULD REACH THE TURBINES, WAS A CONSTANT HEADACHE. ITS RESISTANCE TO THE FLOW OF WATER COST THE COMPANY AROUND 0.2 FEET OF HEAD, AND WHEN LARGE AMOUNTS OF FLOTAGE DID ENTER THE CANAL, THE RACK WAS OFTEN SERIOUSLY DAMAGED. THE DAMAGE ILLUSTRATED HERE OCCURRED WHEN LARGE AMOUNTS OF PULP WOOD ENTERED THE CANAL IN 1916. THE PLANT WAS SHUT DOWN BRIEFLY IN 1917 TO REPAIR THE DAMAGE. (862) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  18. Monitoring Forest Change and Ice Storm Disturbance to Forest Structure Using Echidna° Ground-Based Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, T.; Strahler, A. H.; Schaaf, C.; Yang, X.; zhao, F.; Woodcock, C. E.; Jupp, D. L.; Culvenor, D.; Lovell, J.; Newnham, G.; Li, X.; Wang, J.

    2011-12-01

    The ground-based, upward-scanning, near-infrared (1064 nm), full-waveform lidar, the Echidna° Validation Instrument (EVI), built by CSIRO Australia, is used to monitor forest change over a 2- or 3-year time period through changes in retrievals of mean stem diameter, stem density, basal area, above-ground standing biomass, leaf area index, foliage profile, and canopy height. The changes were validated by comparison with direct field measurements, or in the case of canopy height, with data from the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS). Site-level EVI-retrieved values of mean DBH, stem count density, basal area and above-ground biomass matched the field measurements well, with R2 values of 0.84, 0.97, 0.96 and 0.98 respectively. Furthermore, the changes in EVI retrievals had the same trend as the change in field measurements over these 2-3 year periods. Based on five scans within each 1-ha plot, we focused on detecting forest change over a 2- or 3-year period at three New England forest stands: a second-growth conifer stand thinned as a shelterwood, an aging hemlock plantation, and a young second-growth hardwood stand. The first stand provided the opportunity to look for change in a stand containing many co-dominant and intermediate trees recently released by removal of selected over-story trees, while the other two stands suffered significant damage in an ice storm during the change period. At the shelterwood conifer site at Howland Experimental Forest, mean DBH, aboveground biomass, and leaf area index (LAI) all increased between 2007 and 2009. An ice storm struck the Harvard Forest in December, 2008, providing the opportunity to detect damage between 2007 and 2009 or 2010 with EVI scans at two sites : hemlock and hardwood. Retrieved leaf area index (LAI) was 13 percent lower in the hemlock site in 2009 and 10 percent lower in the hardwood site in 2010 as compared to 2007. The decrease of LAI quantifies a loss of biomass from the canopy, and broken tops were both recorded by the field teams and visible in the Echidna scans in the 2010 data. Stem density decreased and mean DBH increased at both sites, as smaller and weaker trees were felled by the ice. Canopy heights derived from the EVI-retrieved foliage profile closely matched those derived from the airborne Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS).

  19. The benefits of emergency rescue and reanalysis data in decadal storm damage assessment studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokinen, P.; Vajda, A.; Gregow, H.

    2015-06-01

    Studying changes in storm-induced forest damage in Finland has not been possible previously due to the lack of continuous, long series of impact data. We overcome this by combining emergency rescue data from the Finnish rescue services "PRONTO" (2011-) with ERA-Interim reanalysis data of wind gusts and soil temperatures to define exceedance thresholds for potential forest damage days. These thresholds were applied as a proxy for the period 1979-2013 in order to study the spatial and decadal characteristics of forest damage in Finland due to windstorms. The results indicated that the area most impacted by potential forest damage was the south-western part of Finland along the coast, with 1-10 damaging storm cases per year. A decadal examination highlighted a lull period in the number of potential forest damage days during the 1990s compared to the 1980s and 2000s, albeit no trend was evident. The inclusion of emergency rescue data allowed us for the first time to estimate the spatial distribution and decadal variations of potential forest damage days due to windstorms in Finland. The results achieved will encourage further development of thresholds for potential forest damage by including additional data sources and applying them to future climate scenarios.

  20. DNA Methylation Signatures Triggered by Prenatal Maternal Stress Exposure to a Natural Disaster: Project Ice Storm

    PubMed Central

    Cao-Lei, Lei; Massart, Renaud; Suderman, Matthew J.; Machnes, Ziv; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P.; Szyf, Moshe; King, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Background Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) predicts a wide variety of behavioral and physical outcomes in the offspring. Although epigenetic processes may be responsible for PNMS effects, human research is hampered by the lack of experimental methods that parallel controlled animal studies. Disasters, however, provide natural experiments that can provide models of prenatal stress. Methods Five months after the 1998 Quebec ice storm we recruited women who had been pregnant during the disaster and assessed their degrees of objective hardship and subjective distress. Thirteen years later, we investigated DNA methylation profiling in T cells obtained from 36 of the children, and compared selected results with those from saliva samples obtained from the same children at age 8. Results Prenatal maternal objective hardship was correlated with DNA methylation levels in 1675 CGs affiliated with 957 genes predominantly related to immune function; maternal subjective distress was uncorrelated. DNA methylation changes in SCG5 and LTA, both highly correlated with maternal objective stress, were comparable in T cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and saliva cells. Conclusions These data provide first evidence in humans supporting the conclusion that PNMS results in a lasting, broad, and functionally organized DNA methylation signature in several tissues in offspring. By using a natural disaster model, we can infer that the epigenetic effects found in Project Ice Storm are due to objective levels of hardship experienced by the pregnant woman rather than to her level of sustained distress. PMID:25238154

  1. Alaskan Ice Core Shows Relationship Between Asian Dust Storm And The Stratosphere Troposphere Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasunari, T. J.; Shiraiwa, T.; Kanamori, S.; Fujii, Y.; Igarashi, M.; Yamazaki, K.; Benson, C. S.; Hondoh, T.

    2005-12-01

    Atmospheric dust absorbs and scatters solar radiation, and affects global radiative balance. Dust storm in arid and semi-arid regions in East Asia is main dust source in the northern hemisphere. Asian dust has large effect on radiative balance in the northern hemisphere and its long range transport to Alaskan region frequently occurs in springtime. On the other hand, the stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) is a important phenomenon for material exchange among the spheres. Some parameters such as tritium, ozone and beryllium can be transferred from the stratosphere into the troposphere under some conditions such as tropopause folding outbreaks, cut-off low developing and cyclonic activities. STE has a seasonal exchange with maximum in springtime. In June 2003, a 50m ice core was drilled at the summit of Mount Wrangell volcano (60N, 144W, 4100 m), Alaska. Dust particle concentration, tritium content and ratio of stable hydrogen isotope were analyzed. Tritium is the stratospheric tracer recently because the effect of nuclear tests in 1960s has faded these days, and its concentration is highest north of 30th parallel. Therefore, the ice core drilled here is ideal to assess both the Asian dust transport and STE. The core covers 1992-2002 with divided four seasons (winter, spring, late-spring and summer). Fine dust less than one micro meter generally represents long range transport increased in springtime every year. The drastic fine and coarse dust flux increases after 2000 correspond to recent increase of Asian Dust outbreaks. These indicate that Asian dust storm largely affects Mount Wrangell every year. Here we show the fact that highest positive correlation between tritium and fine dust fluxes was seen in the term from late-spring to summer (also high correlation between tritium and coarse dust fluxes in this term), suggesting that the stratosphere-troposphere exchange was most intensified by Asian dust storms in this transient season from spring to summer. Asian dust and STE are dominant in springtime. However, our results showed that these activities related each other the most from late-spring to summer. Asian dust storm and STE are not active in summer. Hence, our results are assumed to mainly reflect late-spring relationship between Asian dust storm and STE. Asian dust outbreaks with severe weather would impact on vertical and horizontal material circulation from the stratosphere to the troposphere. Further studies for Asian dust and STE especially focused on late-spring may lead to elucidate the mechanism of material circulation and assess the radiative forcing of Asian dust in springtime.

  2. Propagation of continuum damage in a viscoelastic ice bar

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, J.G. . Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering); Karr, D.G. . Dept. of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering)

    1994-05-01

    An initial value problem of a semi-infinite nonlinear viscoelastic bar is solved with continuum damage evolution. The evolution law of the continuum damage for a viscoelastic material is used in order to explore the propagation of two crushing mechanisms: grain boundary cracking and transgranular cracking. Using the method of characteristics, the speed of propagation is found to be dependent on the continuum damage. On the wave front, the delayed elastic strain is zero, and only the continuum damage due to the transgranular cracking evolves. A finite difference method is developed to solve the governing equations on the obtained characteristic lines, and gives a stable solution for the propagation of the stress, strain, and damage. Numerical results are obtained and discussed using the material properties of polycrystalline ice.

  3. Devices prevent ice damage to trusses of semi

    SciTech Connect

    Marthinsen, A.

    1985-04-01

    Much exploration drilling is done in subarctic waters around the world, and this will be important in the future. Special demands will be made on the drilling structures to enable them to withstand collisions with drifting ice. A Newfoundland Certificate of Fitness, for example, says a vessel must be able to tolerate collision with the largest iceberg that can be undetectable by radar, with out the danger of platform collapse. The iceberg in this case is defined as having a weight of 5000 tons and a drifting velocity of 2 meters/second. Devices to prevent ice damage to the trusses of semisubmersibles are discussed.

  4. Saturn's Great Storm of 2010-2011: Cloud particles containing ammonia and water ices indicate a deep convective origin. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sromovsky, L. A.; Baines, K. H.; Fry, P.

    2013-12-01

    Saturn's Great Storm of 2010-2011 was first detected by amateur astronomers in early December 2010 and later found in Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) images taken on 5 December, when it took the form of a 1000 km wide bright spot. Within a week the head of the storm grew by a factor of ten in width and within a few months created a wake that encircled the planet. This is the sixth Great Saturn Storm in recorded history, all having appeared in the northern hemisphere, and most near northern summer solstice at intervals of roughly 30 years (Sanchez-Lavega et al. 1991, Nature 353, 397-401). That the most recent storm appeared 10 years early proved fortunate because Cassini was still operating in orbit around Saturn and was able to provide unique observations from which we could learn much more about these rare and enormous events. Besides the dramatic dynamical effects displayed at the visible cloud level by high-resolution imaging observations (Sayanagi et al. 2013, Icarus 223, 460-478), dramatic thermal changes also occurred in the stratosphere above the storm (Fletcher et al. 2011, Science 332, 1413), and radio measurements of lightning (Fischer et al., 2011, Nature 475, 75-77) indicated strong convective activity at deeper levels. Numerical models of Saturn's Giant storms (Hueso and Sanchez-Lavega 2004, Icarus 172, 255-271) suggest that they are fueled by water vapor condensation beginning at the 10-12 bar level, some 250 km below the visible cloud tops. That idea is also supported by our detection of water ice near the cloud tops (Sromovsky et al. 2013, Icarus 226, 402-418). From Cassini VIMS spectral imaging taken in February 2011, we learned that the storm's cloud particles are strong absorbers of sunlight at wavelengths from 2.8 to 3.1 microns. Such absorption is not seen on Saturn outside of storm regions, implying a different kind of cloud formation process as well as different cloud composition inside the storm region. We found compelling evidence that the storm cloud contains a multi-component aerosol population. We needed at least three different materials to obtain good spectral fits. The most obvious contributor is ammonia ice, with water ice the best-defined secondary component. The most likely third component is ammonium hydrosulfide or some weakly absorbing material similar to what dominates visible clouds outside the storm region. Horizontally heterogeneous cloud models favor ammonium hydrosulfide as the third component, while horizontally uniform models favor the weak absorber. Both models rely on water ice absorption to compensate for residual spectral gradients produced by ammonia ice from 3.0 microns to 3.1 microns and need the relatively conservative third component to fill in the sharp ammonia ice absorption peak near 2.96 microns. The best heterogeneous model has spatial coverage fractions of 55% ammonia ice, 22% water ice, and 23% ammonium hydrosulfide. The best homogeneous model has an optically thin layer of weakly absorbing particles above an optically thick layer of water ice particles coated by ammonia ice. These Cassini data provide the first spectroscopic evidence of water ice in Saturn's atmosphere. This research was supported by NASA's Outer Planets Research Program under grant NNX11AM58G.

  5. Creep deformation and buttressing capacity of damaged ice shelves: theory and application to Larsen C ice shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borstad, C. P.; Rignot, E.; Mouginot, J.; Schodlok, M. P.

    2013-07-01

    Around the perimeter of Antarctica, much of the ice sheet discharges to the ocean through floating ice shelves. The buttressing provided by ice shelves is critical for modulating the flux of ice into the ocean, and the presently observed thinning of ice shelves is believed to be reducing their buttressing capacity and contributing to the acceleration and thinning of the grounded ice sheet. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the role that fractures play in the flow and stability of ice shelves and their capacity to buttress the flow of grounded ice. Here, we develop an analytical framework for describing the role that fractures play in the creep deformation and buttressing capacity of ice shelves. We apply principles of continuum damage mechanics to derive a new analytical relation for the creep of an ice shelf as a function of ice thickness, temperature, material properties, resistive backstress and damage. By combining this analytical theory with an inverse method solution for the spatial rheology of an ice shelf, both backstress and damage can be calculated. We demonstrate the applicability of this new theory using satellite remote sensing and Operation IceBridge data for the Larsen C ice shelf, finding damage associated with known crevasses and rifts. We find that increasing thickness of mélange between rift flanks correlates with decreasing damage, with some rifts deforming coherently with the ice shelf as if completely healed. We quantify the stabilizing backstress caused by ice rises and lateral confinement, finding high backstress associated with two ice rises that likely stabilize the ice front in its current configuration. Though overall the ice shelf appears stable at present, the ice in contact with the Bawden ice rise is weakened by fractures, and additional damage or thinning in this area could portend significant change for the shelf. Using this new approach, field and remote sensing data can be utilized to monitor the structural integrity of ice shelves, their ability to buttress the flow of ice at the grounding line, and thus their indirect contribution to ice sheet mass balance and global sea level.

  6. Project Ice Storm: Prenatal Maternal Stress Affects Cognitive and Linguistic Functioning in 5 1/2-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laplante, David P.; Brunet, Alain; Schmitz, Norbert; Ciampi, Antonio; King, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    The study used data from Project Ice Storm to determine the extent to which exposure to prenatal maternal stress due to a natural disaster can explain variance in the intellectual and language performance of offspring at age 5 1/2.

  7. Creep deformation and buttressing capacity of damaged ice shelves: theory and application to Larsen C ice shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borstad, C. P.; Rignot, E.; Mouginot, J.; Schodlok, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    Around the perimeter of Antarctica, much of the ice sheet discharges to the ocean through floating ice shelves. The buttressing provided by ice shelves is critical for modulating the flux of ice into the ocean, and the presently observed thinning of ice shelves is believed to be reducing their buttressing capacity and contributing to the acceleration and thinning of the grounded ice sheet. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the role that fractures play in the ability of ice shelves to sustain and transmit buttressing stresses. Here, we present a new framework for quantifying the role that fractures play in the creep deformation and buttressing capacity of ice shelves. We apply principles of continuum damage mechanics to derive a new analytical relation for the creep of an ice shelf that accounts for the softening influence of fractures on longitudinal deformation using a state damage variable. We use this new analytical relation, combined with a temperature calculation for the ice, to partition an inverse method solution for ice shelf rigidity into independent solutions for softening damage and stabilizing backstress. Using this new approach, field and remote sensing data can be utilized to monitor the structural integrity of ice shelves, their ability to buttress the flow of ice at the grounding line, and thus their indirect contribution to ice sheet mass balance and global sea level. We apply this technique to the Larsen C ice shelf using remote sensing and Operation IceBridge data, finding damage in areas with known crevasses and rifts. Backstress is highest near the grounding line and upstream of ice rises, in agreement with patterns observed on other ice shelves. The ice in contact with the Bawden ice rise is weakened by fractures, and additional damage or thinning in this area could diminish the backstress transmitted upstream. We model the consequences for the ice shelf if it loses contact with this small ice rise, finding that flow speeds would increase by 25% or more over an area the size of the former Larsen B ice shelf. Such a perturbation could potentially destabilize the northern part of Larsen C along pre-existing lines of weakness, highlighting the importance of the feedback between buttressing and fracturing in an ice shelf.

  8. The Great 2008 Chinese ice storm, its socioeconomic-ecological impact, and sustainability lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Dr. Benzhi; Gu, Lianhong; Ding, Yihui; Wu, Zhongmin; Shao, Lan; An, Yanfei; Cao, Yonghui; Duan, Aiguo; Kong, Weijian; Li, Changzhu; Li, Zhengcai; Sun, Honggang; Wang, Shengkun; Wang, Xiaoming; Wang, Xu; Yang, Xiaosheng; Yu, Mukui; Zeng, Bingshan

    2011-01-01

    . Extreme events often expose vulnerabilities of socioeconomic infrastructures and point to directions of much-needed policy change. Integrated impact assessment of such events can lead to finding of sustainability principles. Southern and central China has for decades been undergoing a breakneck pace of socioeconomic development. In early 2008, a massive ice storm struck this region, immobilizing millions of people. The storm was a consequence of sustained convergence between tropical maritime and continental polar air masses, caused by an anomalously stable atmospheric general circulation pattern in both low and high latitudes. Successive waves of freezing rain occurred during a month period, coating southern and central China with a layer of ice 50 to 160mm in thickness. We conducted an integrated impact assessment of this event to determine whether and how the context of socioeconomic and human-disturbed natural systems may affect the transition of natural events into human disasters. We found: 1) without contingency plans, advanced technologies dependent on interrelated energy supplies can create worse problems during extreme events, 2) the weakest link in disaster response lies between science and decision making, 3) biodiversity is a form of long-term insurance for sustainable forestry against extreme events, 4) sustainable extraction of non-timber goods and services is essential to risk planning for extreme events in forest resources use, 5) extreme events can cause food shortage directly by destroying crops and indirectly by disrupting food distribution channels, 6) concentrated economic development increases societal vulnerability to extreme events, and 7) formalized institutional mechanisms are needed to ensure that unexpected opportunities to learn lessons from weather disasters are not lost in distracting circumstances.

  9. Prenatal maternal stress predicts autism traits in 6½ year-old children: Project Ice Storm.

    PubMed

    Walder, Deborah J; Laplante, David P; Sousa-Pires, Alexandra; Veru, Franz; Brunet, Alain; King, Suzanne

    2014-10-30

    Research implicates prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) as a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders; however few studies report PNMS effects on autism risk in offspring. We examined, prospectively, the degree to which objective and subjective elements of PNMS explained variance in autism-like traits among offspring, and tested moderating effects of sex and PNMS timing in utero. Subjects were 89 (46F/43M) children who were in utero during the 1998 Quebec Ice Storm. Soon after the storm, mothers completed questionnaires on objective exposure and subjective distress, and completed the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) for their children at age 6½. ASSQ scores were higher among boys than girls. Greater objective and subjective PNMS predicted higher ASSQ independent of potential confounds. An objective-by-subjective interaction suggested that when subjective PNMS was high, objective PNMS had little effect; whereas when subjective PNMS was low, objective PNMS strongly affected ASSQ scores. A timing-by-objective stress interaction suggested objective stress significantly affected ASSQ in first-trimester exposed children, though less so with later exposure. The final regression explained 43% of variance in ASSQ scores; the main effect of sex and the sex-by-PNMS interactions were not significant. Findings may help elucidate neurodevelopmental origins of non-clinical autism-like traits from a dimensional perspective. PMID:24907222

  10. Investigation of Stinson Beach Park storm damage and evaluation of alternative shore protection measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ecker, R.M.; Whelan, G.

    1984-07-01

    An investigation was made of storm damage during the winter of 1982-83 to the National Park Service's Stinson Beach Park. The investigation included an assessment of the storm damage, evaluation of physical processes contributing to the damage, subsequent beach recovery, and the feasibility of implementing shoreline protection measure to reduce future risk. During the winter of 1982-83, the beach was almost completely denuded of sand, wave overwash damaged the foredune, vegetation on the foredune was destroyed, and backshore flooding occurred. Two structures and a parking lot were endangered as the shoreline receded. Subsequent recovery of the park beach was rapid. By January 1982 sand had moved back onshore and a beach berm was beginning to reform. The foredune and dune vegetation received the only permanent damage. Four shoreline protection alternatives were evaluated. These include no action, dune development/enhancement, construction of a rock riprap revetment, and offshore installation of artificial seaweed. The first costs (estimated costs, excluding maintenance) range from about $90,000 to $475,000. The least-cost protection measure is riprap revetment, which protects the two structures and parking lot endangered during the 1982-83 winter storms. Construction of a foredune along the entire park beach is the highest cost protection measure. If no shore protection action measures are implemented, wave overwash of the foredune can be expected to occur on the average of every 2 to 3 years, and beach degradation, similar to that during the 1982-83 winter, can be expected to occur on the average of every 10 to 12 years. 12 references, 19 figures, 18 tables.

  11. Modelling the wind damage probability in forests in Southwestern Germany for the 1999 winter storm 'Lothar'.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Dirk; Grebhan, Karin; Albrecht, Axel; Schnborn, Jochen

    2009-11-01

    The wind damage probability (P (DAM)) in the forests in the federal state of Baden-Wuerttemberg (Southwestern Germany) was calculated using weights of evidence (WofE) methodology and a logistic regression model (LRM) after the winter storm 'Lothar' in December 1999. A geographic information system (GIS) was used for the area-wide spatial prediction and mapping of P (DAM). The combination of the six evidential themes forest type, soil type, geology, soil moisture, soil acidification, and the 'Lothar' maximum gust field predicted wind damage best and was used to map P (DAM) in a 50 x 50 m resolution grid. GIS software was utilised to produce probability maps, which allowed the identification of areas of low, moderate, and high P (DAM) across the study area. The highest P (DAM) values were calculated for coniferous forest growing on acidic, fresh to moist soils on bunter sandstone formations-provided that 'Lothar' maximum gust speed exceeded 35 m s(-1) in the areas in question. One of the most significant benefits associated with the results of this study is that, for the first time, there is a GIS-based area-wide quantification of P (DAM) in the forests in Southwestern Germany. In combination with the experience and expert knowledge of local foresters, the probability maps produced can be used as an important tool for decision support with respect to future silvicultural activities aimed at reducing wind damage. One limitation of the P (DAM)-predictions is that they are based on only one major storm event. At the moment it is not possible to relate storm event intensity to the amount of wind damage in forests due to the lack of comprehensive long-term tree and stand damage data across the study area. PMID:19562383

  12. Agricultural damages and losses from ARkStorm scenario flooding in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wein, Anne; David Mitchell; Peters, Jeff; John Rowden; Johnny Tran; Alessandra Corsi; Dinitz, Laura B.

    2015-01-01

    Scientists designed the ARkStorm scenario to challenge the preparedness of California communities for widespread flooding with a historical precedence and increased likelihood under climate change. California is an important provider of vegetables, fruits, nuts, and other agricultural products to the nation. This study analyzes the agricultural damages and losses pertaining to annual crops, perennial crops, and livestock in California exposed to ARkStorm flooding. Statewide, flood damage is incurred on approximately 23% of annual crop acreage, 5% of perennial crop acreage, and 5% of livestock, e.g., dairy, feedlot, and poultry, acreage. The sum of field repair costs, forgone income, and product replacement costs span $3.7 and $7.1 billion (2009) for a range of inundation durations. Perennial crop loss estimates dominate, and the vulnerability of orchards and vineyards has likely increased with recent expansion. Crop reestablishment delays from levee repair and dewatering more than double annual crop losses in the delta islands, assuming the fragile system does not remain permanently flooded. The exposure of almost 200,000 dairy cows to ARkStorm flooding poses livestock evacuation challenges. Read More: http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/%28ASCE%29NH.1527-6996.0000174

  13. Altered dynamics of broad-leaved tree species in a Chinese subtropical montane mixed forest: the role of an anomalous extreme 2008 ice storm episode

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jielin; Xiong, Gaoming; Wang, Zhixian; Zhang, Mi; Zhao, Changming; Shen, Guozhen; Xu, Wenting; Xie, Zongqiang

    2015-01-01

    Extreme climatic events can trigger gradual or abrupt shifts in forest ecosystems via the reduction or elimination of foundation species. However, the impacts of these events on foundation species' demography and forest dynamics remain poorly understood. Here we quantified dynamics for both evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved species groups, utilizing a monitoring permanent plot in a subtropical montane mixed forest in central China from 2001 to 2010 with particular relevance to the anomalous 2008 ice storm episode. We found that both species groups showed limited floristic alterations over the study period. For each species group, size distribution of dead individuals approximated a roughly irregular and flat shape prior to the ice storm and resembled an inverse J-shaped distribution after the ice storm. Furthermore, patterns of mortality and recruitment displayed disequilibrium behaviors with mortality exceeding recruitment for both species groups following the ice storm. Deciduous broad-leaved species group accelerated overall diameter growth, but the ice storm reduced evergreen small-sized diameter growth. We concluded that evergreen broad-leaved species were more susceptible to ice storms than deciduous broad-leaved species, and ice storm events, which may become more frequent with climate change, might potentially threaten the perpetuity of evergreen-dominated broad-leaved forests in this subtropical region in the long term. These results underscore the importance of long-term monitoring that is indispensible to elucidate causal links between forest dynamics and climatic perturbations. PMID:25897387

  14. Altered dynamics of broad-leaved tree species in a Chinese subtropical montane mixed forest: the role of an anomalous extreme 2008 ice storm episode.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jielin; Xiong, Gaoming; Wang, Zhixian; Zhang, Mi; Zhao, Changming; Shen, Guozhen; Xu, Wenting; Xie, Zongqiang

    2015-04-01

    Extreme climatic events can trigger gradual or abrupt shifts in forest ecosystems via the reduction or elimination of foundation species. However, the impacts of these events on foundation species' demography and forest dynamics remain poorly understood. Here we quantified dynamics for both evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved species groups, utilizing a monitoring permanent plot in a subtropical montane mixed forest in central China from 2001 to 2010 with particular relevance to the anomalous 2008 ice storm episode. We found that both species groups showed limited floristic alterations over the study period. For each species group, size distribution of dead individuals approximated a roughly irregular and flat shape prior to the ice storm and resembled an inverse J-shaped distribution after the ice storm. Furthermore, patterns of mortality and recruitment displayed disequilibrium behaviors with mortality exceeding recruitment for both species groups following the ice storm. Deciduous broad-leaved species group accelerated overall diameter growth, but the ice storm reduced evergreen small-sized diameter growth. We concluded that evergreen broad-leaved species were more susceptible to ice storms than deciduous broad-leaved species, and ice storm events, which may become more frequent with climate change, might potentially threaten the perpetuity of evergreen-dominated broad-leaved forests in this subtropical region in the long term. These results underscore the importance of long-term monitoring that is indispensible to elucidate causal links between forest dynamics and climatic perturbations. PMID:25897387

  15. Study in use and management of de/anti-icing constituents with regard to new storm water legislation. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, D.P.; Willing, B.L.

    1992-09-01

    This research identified management practices of airfield and aircraft de/anti-icing constituents which may be implemented to deal with new storm water legislation. Storm water regulations require that deicing operations obtain a NPDES permit for discharges into storm water runoff which may mandate the use of Best Management Practices. An FAA civilian airport survey and a USAF survey were used, with a literature search, to identify practices of de/anti-icing constituents. Four major constituents are used-glycol, urea, calcium magnesium acetate, and sodium formate. Concerns of uncontrolled release of the constituents include high BOD rates, nitrate and nitrite enrichment, impaired aesthetic water quality, ammonia formation from the degradation of urea, and the toxicity of such chemicals to aquatic life. Several options that exist for managing the runoff of de/anti-icing constituents include alternative constituents such as potassium acetate; alternative application procedures such as centralized facilities and greater use of anti-icing operations; collection alternatives using porous surface materials, drainage systems, and holding tanks; and treatment alternatives such as a mobile recovery unit to recycle deicing fluids for re-use.... Aircraft, Runways, Deicing systems, Deicing materials, Runoff, Water pollution, Urea, Glycols, Biochemical oxygen demand.

  16. Storm-damaged saline-contaminated boreholes as a means of aquifer contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, D.A.; Van Biersel, T. P.; Milner, L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Saline water from a storm surge can flow down storm-damaged submerged water supply wells and contaminate boreholes and surrounding aquifers. Using data from conventional purging techniques, aquifer test response analysis, chemical analysis, and regression analysis of chloride/silica (Cl/Si) ratio, equations were derived to estimate the volume of saline water intrusion into a well and a porous media aquifer, the volume of water needed to purge a well shortly following an intrusion event, and the volume of water needed after delay of several or more months, when the saline plume has expanded. Purging time required is a function of volume of water and pumping rate. The study site well is located within a shoreline community of Lake Pontchartrain, St. Tammany Parish, in southeastern Louisiana, United States, which was impacted by two hurricane storm surges and had neither been rehabilitated nor chlorinated prior to our study. Chemical analysis of water samples in fall 2005 and purging of well and aquifer in June 6, 2006, indicated saline water had intruded the well in 2005 and the well and aquifer in 2006. The volume of water needed to purge the study well was approximately 200 casing volumes, which is significantly greater than conventionally used during collection of water samples for water quality analyses. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  17. Modeling fresh water lens damage and recovery on atolls after storm-wave washover.

    PubMed

    Chui, Ting Fong May; Terry, James P

    2012-01-01

    The principal natural source of fresh water on scattered coral atolls throughout the tropical Pacific Ocean is thin unconfined groundwater lenses within islet substrates. Although there are many threats to the viability of atoll fresh water lenses, salinization caused by large storm waves washing over individual atoll islets is poorly understood. In this study, a mathematical modeling approach is used to examine the immediate responses, longer-term behavior, and subsequent (partial) recovery of a Pacific atoll fresh water lens after saline damage caused by cyclone-generated wave washover under different scenarios. Important findings include: (1) the saline plume formed by a washover event mostly migrates downward first through the top coral sand and gravel substrate, but then exits the aquifer to the ocean laterally through the more permeable basement limestone; (2) a lower water table position before the washover event, rather than a longer duration of storm washover, causes more severe damage to the fresh water lens; (3) relatively fresher water can possibly be found as a preserved horizon in the deeper part of an aquifer after disturbance, especially if the fresh water lens extends into the limestone under normal conditions; (4) post-cyclone accumulation of sea water in the central depression (swamp) of an atoll islet prolongs the later stage of fresh water lens recovery. PMID:21883195

  18. Critical storm thresholds for significant morphological changes and damage along the Emilia-Romagna coastline, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armaroli, Clara; Ciavola, Paolo; Perini, Luisa; Calabrese, Lorenzo; Lorito, Samantha; Valentini, Andrea; Masina, Marinella

    2012-03-01

    The definition of storm morphological thresholds along the coast of the Emilia-Romagna Region strictly depends on its configuration and variability. The region is located in northern Italy, facing the Adriatic Sea. The coastline is characterised by very different levels of economic development, ranging from natural zones with dunes to highly developed stretches protected by breakwaters and groynes. The Integrated Coastal Zone Management effort is mainly concentrated on preserving urban areas that generate significant income for the regional economy. Natural areas, while small in comparison to the urbanised zone, are important for environment preservation. Because of such a multiplicity of issues at stake, it was decided to produce two different thresholds: one for the morphological impact on natural sectors and another for inundation and damage to structures along urbanised zones. The "forcing" component of the threshold definition for natural areas was calculated by summing the effects of surge + tide + waves (run-up elevation) to find the Maximum Water Level (MWL) reached by the sea during one, ten and one-hundred year storm return periods. For urbanised zones, historical storm information was collected starting from the 1960s in order to identify the forcing conditions causing real damages. Each storm was classified in terms of wave height, period, direction and surge level. Morphological information were obtained from Lidar flights performed in 2003 and 2004 and from direct surveys undertaken in September 2008 and February 2009 as part of the monitoring programme for the MICORE Project. The computed MWL for each return period was then compared to beach elevations along natural areas in order to calculate the Dune Stability Factor (DSF), an index that accounts for the eroded sediment volume above the MWL during a storm. Based on analysis along 41 profile lines at a 500 m spacing, it was found that the 1-in-1 year return period wave height + 1-in-1 year return period surge are able to erode and/or overwash 2/3 of the dunes. The historical storm hydrodynamic information was used to estimate which wave and surge conditions are able to inundate at least 2/3 of the beach profiles. The MWL was again compared to beach elevations, this time along 63 anthropogenic profiles spaced 500 m apart (or 1/3 of the urbanised coastline). It was found that a wave heights >= 2 m and surge + tide levels >= 0.7 m are able to flood between 18% and 36% of the built-up coast. The defined thresholds are related to the present coastal characteristics and are not "static", meaning that they are likely to change according to future evolution of the coastline. They are very important because they can be used as thresholds to issue warnings and alert the Civil Protection. Moreover they are the first thresholds defined for the Emilia-Romagna coastline and will be used as starting values to generate "dynamic" thresholds based on numerical model predictions of morphological change for a given wave and surge level.

  19. A Storm-by-Storm Analysis of Alpine and Regional Precipitation Dynamics at the Mount Hunter Ice Core Site, Denali National Park, Central Alaska Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, P. L.; Osterberg, E. C.; Kreutz, K. J.; Wake, C. P.; Winski, D.

    2014-12-01

    In May-June 2013, an NSF-funded team from Dartmouth College and the Universities of Maine and New Hampshire collected two 1000-year ice cores to bedrock from the summit plateau of Mount Hunter in Denali National Park, Alaska (62.940291, -151.087616, 3912 m). The snow accumulation record from these ice cores will provide key insight into late Holocene precipitation variability in central Alaska, and compliment existing precipitation paleorecords from the Mt. Logan and Eclipse ice cores in coastal SE Alaska. However, correct interpretation of the Mt. Hunter accumulation record requires an understanding of the relationships between regional meteorological events and micrometeorological conditions at the Mt. Hunter ice core collection site. Here we analyze a three-month window of snow accumulation and meteorological conditions recorded by an Automatic Weather Station (AWS) at the Mt. Hunter site during the summer of 2013. Snow accumulation events are identified in the Mt. Hunter AWS dataset, and compared on a storm-by-storm basis to AWS data collected from the adjacent Kahiltna glacier 2000 m lower in elevation, and to regional National Weather Service (NWS) station data. We also evaluate the synoptic conditions associated with each Mt. Hunter accumulation event using NWS surface maps, NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis data, and the NOAA HYSPLIT back trajectory model. We categorize each Mt. Hunter accumulation event as pure snow accumulation, drifting, or blowing snow events based on snow accumulation, wind speed and temperature data using the method of Knuth et al (2009). We analyze the frequency and duration of events within each accumulation regime, in addition to the overall contribution of each event to the snowpack. Preliminary findings indicate that a majority of Mt. Hunter accumulation events are of pure accumulation nature (55.5%) whereas drifting (28.6%) and blowing (15.4%) snow events play a secondary role. Our results will characterize the local accumulation dynamics on Mt. Hunter and quantify the relationship between alpine micrometeorological and regional precipitation dynamics, providing key insights into the interpretation of the Mt. Hunter paleoprecipitation record.

  20. Avian responses to an extreme ice storm are determined by a combination of functional traits, behavioural adaptations and habitat modifications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Hong, Yongmi; Zou, Fasheng; Zhang, Min; Lee, Tien Ming; Song, Xiangjin; Rao, Jiteng

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which species' traits, behavior and habitat synergistically determine their response to extreme weather events (EWE) remains poorly understood. By quantifying bird and vegetation assemblages before and after the 2008 ice storm in China, combined with interspecific interactions and foraging behaviours, we disentangled whether storm influences avian reassembly directly via functional traits (i.e. behavioral adaptations), or indirectly via habitat variations. We found that overall species richness decreased, with 20 species detected exclusively before the storm, and eight species detected exclusively after. These shifts in bird relative abundance were linked to habitat preferences, dietary guild and flocking behaviours. For instance, forest specialists at higher trophic levels (e.g. understory-insectivores, woodpeckers and kingfishers) were especially vulnerable, whereas open-habitat generalists (e.g. bulbuls) were set to benefit from potential habitat homogenization. Alongside population fluctuations, we found that community reassembly can be rapidly adjusted via foraging plasticity (i.e. increased flocking propensity and reduced perching height). And changes in preferred habitat corresponded to a variation in bird assemblages and traits, as represented by intact canopy cover and high density of large trees. Accurate predictions of community responses to EWE are crucial to understanding ecosystem disturbances, thus linking species-oriented traits to a coherent analytical framework. PMID:26929387

  1. Avian responses to an extreme ice storm are determined by a combination of functional traits, behavioural adaptations and habitat modifications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Hong, Yongmi; Zou, Fasheng; Zhang, Min; Lee, Tien Ming; Song, Xiangjin; Rao, Jiteng

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which species’ traits, behavior and habitat synergistically determine their response to extreme weather events (EWE) remains poorly understood. By quantifying bird and vegetation assemblages before and after the 2008 ice storm in China, combined with interspecific interactions and foraging behaviours, we disentangled whether storm influences avian reassembly directly via functional traits (i.e. behavioral adaptations), or indirectly via habitat variations. We found that overall species richness decreased, with 20 species detected exclusively before the storm, and eight species detected exclusively after. These shifts in bird relative abundance were linked to habitat preferences, dietary guild and flocking behaviours. For instance, forest specialists at higher trophic levels (e.g. understory-insectivores, woodpeckers and kingfishers) were especially vulnerable, whereas open-habitat generalists (e.g. bulbuls) were set to benefit from potential habitat homogenization. Alongside population fluctuations, we found that community reassembly can be rapidly adjusted via foraging plasticity (i.e. increased flocking propensity and reduced perching height). And changes in preferred habitat corresponded to a variation in bird assemblages and traits, as represented by intact canopy cover and high density of large trees. Accurate predictions of community responses to EWE are crucial to understanding ecosystem disturbances, thus linking species-oriented traits to a coherent analytical framework. PMID:26929387

  2. No damage to bulk storage but entire customer bases wiped out in storm

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This paper reports that interviews with key LP-gas industry spokesmen in hurricane-ravaged South Florida following Andrew's terrifying visit presented a picture of unimaginable destruction and nearly immeasurable losses of property but miraculously, not a single significant incident involving leaks or the loss of bulk storage. In the worst reports of damage to propane company facilities, Homestead Gas loss at least one building and the Suburban/Petrolane office building in Homestead no longer exists. (Temporary office arrangements were established by Suburban/Petrolane.) The customer base of these companies has been hit very had. For a while, it appeared that one Suburban/Petrolane employee was unaccounted for but that report turned out to be false. Shortly after the storm, crews were out securing gas systems in whatever locations they could reach. In one instance in which regular travel proved impossible, the gas company was forced to travel the long way around-pulling resources out of its Key West district and going north to Homestead. It became necessary in many cases for personnel to purchase cellular phones in order to maintain contact between the office and field crew.

  3. A nonlocal continuum damage mechanics approach to simulation of creep fracture in ice sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duddu, Ravindra; Waisman, Haim

    2013-06-01

    We present a Lagrangian finite element formulation aimed at modeling creep fracture in ice-sheets using nonlocal continuum damage mechanics. The proposed formulation is based on a thermo-viscoelastic constitutive model and a creep damage model for polycrystalline ice with different behavior in tension and compression. In this paper, mainly, we detail the nonlocal numerical implementation of the constitutive damage model into commercial finite element codes (e.g. Abaqus), wherein a procedure to handle the abrupt failure (rupture) of ice under tension is proposed. Then, we present numerical examples of creep fracture under four-point bending, uniaxial tension, and biaxial tension in order to illustrate the viability of the current approach. Finally, we present simulations of creep crack propagation in idealized rectangular ice slabs so as to estimate calving rates at low deformation rates. The examples presented demonstrate the mesh size and mesh directionality independence of the proposed nonlocal implementation.

  4. Studies of images of short-lived events using ERTS data. [forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschman, W. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Detection of short-lived events has continued. Forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods have been detected and analyzed.

  5. Root damage analysis of aircraft engine blade subject to ice impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, E. S.; Abumeri, G. H.; Chamis, C. C.; Murthy, P. L. N.

    1992-01-01

    The blade root response due to ice impact on an engine blade is simulated using the NASA in-house code BLASIM. The ice piece is modeled as an equivalent spherical object impacting on the leading edge of the blade and has the velocity opposite to that of the aircraft with direction parallel to the engine axis. The effect of ice impact is considered to be an impulse load on the blade with its amplitude computed based on the momentum transfer principle. The blade response due to the impact is carried out by modal superposition using the first three modes. The maximum dynamic stresses at the blade root are computed at the quarter cycle of the first natural frequency. A combined stress failure function based on modified distortion energy is used to study the spanwise bending damage response at the blade root. That damage function reaches maximum value for very low ice speeds and increases steeply with increases in engine speed.

  6. A continuum damage mechanics approach to simulation of creep and fracture in ice sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duddu, R.; Bassis, J. N.; Waisman, H.; Tuminaro, R.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate iceberg calving from grounded tidewater and outlet glaciers using a novel creep continuum damage model for polycrystalline ice, which is valid for low stresses or strain rates. The proposed three-dimensional model is based on a thermo-viscoelastic constitutive law for ice creep and a local damage accumulation law for tension, compression and shear loadings. The model has been validated by published experimental data and is implemented in the commercially available finite element code ABAQUS by adopting a strain-based algorithm in a Lagrangian description. The model is then used to investigate conditions that enable surface, englacial and basal crevasse formation resulting from different boundary conditions applied to an idealized rectangular slab of ice in contact with the ocean. Preliminary simulations, based on imposed stress fields, suggest that a low tensile stress is required for crevasse (crack) opening and propagation to the bottom of the ice slab. In all the subsequent simulations the internal stress field is explicitly calculated. Basal boundary condition of the ice slab is varied from free slip to Newtonian frictional slip to study its effect on crack growth. The simulation results suggest that in the case of deeper (thicker) ice sheets compression failure of ice at the bottom is a possible mode of failure and that the height of the sea water level influences the depth of the crevasses.

  7. Damage and fracture of brittle viscoelastic solids with application to ice load models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jing

    1997-12-01

    In this work a multiaxial constitutive theory for brittle, viscoelastic materials is presented based on viscoelasticity, continuum damage theory and fracture mechanics. The microstructural nature of the material and micromechanical processes have been modelled by damage mechanics using averaging procedures with a finite collection of state variables. The change in the state variable is directly related to the individual deformation process. The constitutive model includes the effects of damage including microcracking, dynamic recrystallization and pressure melting on the reduction in elastic modulus and the enhancement in creep deformation. Damage evolution is based on Schapery's approach using the generalized J integral theory. The influence of confining pressure on damage progress is included. Volumetric deformation under compression is also investigated which is mostly dilatation due to microstructural changes (damage). A triaxial test program has been carried out in the laboratory at Memorial University. A description of the test program, specimen preparation, test equipment and procedure used has been presented. The experimental observations and results have been discussed and are summarized. Triaxial tests were designed to investigate the deformation of ice and the influence of damage on the mechanical properties of ice. These tests have also served to verify the constitutive modelling. The theoretical model provides good agreement with test results. The role of fracture and spalling in ice-structure interaction has been investigated. Fracture analysis, using the J-integral, has been carried out in the numerical scheme, which is based on finite elements and the computer program ABAQUS. This analysis is consistent with the damage mechanics and has been carried out on the basis of plane strain assumptions and the direction of crack propagation was calculated by maximizing the strain energy release rate. The direction of maximum tensile stress was also considered. Available data for ice on the tensile and shearing modes (I and II) of crack propagation were taken into account. Analysis showed that localization of damage occurs if the geometry leads to stress concentration at the structure-ice interface. Calculations indicate that the load on a structure would be high if the failure in the ice was by distributed damage only. Initial analysis showed that a small crack near the interface would propagate at loads about one-half of those found using damage analysis only. The analysis included crack propagation and removal of material. These initial results are very promising for a realistic analysis of ice-structure interaction. Load oscillations induced by ice crushing failure against a structure have also been investigated. Evidence of pressure melting has been reported from both laboratory and medium-scale field indentatation tests. Possible effects of pressure melting on ice-induced vibrations are presented. A simplified damage model using only one Maxwell unit is proposed for the highly damaged materials. Two trial test cases are carried out using the simplified damage model to simulate the extrusion of crushed ice in the laboratory and field indentation tests. Preliminary analyses have shown results in the light of experimental programs where load oscillations have been observed.

  8. Comparisons Between Total Lightning Data, Mesocyclone Strength, and Storm Damage Associated with the Florida Tornado Outbreak of February 23, 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodanish, S; Sharp, D.; Williams, E.; Boldi, B.; Goodman, Steven J.; Raghavan, R.; Matlin, A.; Weber, M.

    1998-01-01

    During the early morning hours of February 23 1998, the worst tornado outbreak ever recorded occurred over the central Florida peninsula. At least 7 confirmed tornadoes, associated with 4 supercells, developed, with 3 of the tornadoes reaching F3 intensity. Many of the tornadoes where on the ground for tens of miles, uncommon for the state of Florida. A total of 42 people were killed, with over 250 people injured. During the outbreak, National Weather Service Melbourne, in collaboration with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology was collecting data from a unique lightning observing system called Lightning Imaging Sensor Data Applications Display (LISDAD, Boldi et.al., this conference). This system marries radar data collected from the KMLB WSR-88D, cloud to ground data collected from the National Lightning Detection Network, and total lightning data collected from NASKs Lightning Detection And Ranging system. This poster will display, concurrently, total lightning data (displayed in 1 minute increments), time/height storm relative velocity products from the KMLB WSR-88D, and damage information (tornado/hail/wind) from each of the supercell thunderstorms. The primary objective of this poster presentation is to observe how total lightning activity changes as the convective storm intensifies, and how the lightning activity changes with respect to mesocyclone strength (vortex stretching) and damaging weather on the ground.

  9. Calcification, Storm Damage and Population Resilience of Tabular Corals under Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Madin, Joshua S.; Hughes, Terry P.; Connolly, Sean R.

    2012-01-01

    Two facets of climate change–increased tropical storm intensity and ocean acidification–are expected to detrimentally affect reef-building organisms by increasing their mortality rates and decreasing their calcification rates. Our current understanding of these effects is largely based on individual organisms’ short-term responses to experimental manipulations. However, predicting the ecologically-relevant effects of climate change requires understanding the long-term demographic implications of these organism-level responses. In this study, we investigate how storm intensity and calcification rate interact to affect population dynamics of the table coral Acropora hyacinthus, a dominant and geographically widespread ecosystem engineer on wave-exposed Indo-Pacific reefs. We develop a mechanistic framework based on the responses of individual-level demographic rates to changes in the physical and chemical environment, using a size-structured population model that enables us to rigorously incorporate uncertainty. We find that table coral populations are vulnerable to future collapse, placing in jeopardy many other reef organisms that are dependent upon them for shelter and food. Resistance to collapse is largely insensitive to predicted changes in storm intensity, but is highly dependent on the extent to which calcification influences both the mechanical properties of reef substrate and the colony-level trade-off between growth rate and skeletal strength. This study provides the first rigorous quantitative accounting of the demographic implications of the effects of ocean acidification and changes in storm intensity, and provides a template for further studies of climate-induced shifts in ecosystems, including coral reefs. PMID:23056379

  10. Pregnant women's cognitive appraisal of a natural disaster affects DNA methylation in their children 13 years later: Project Ice Storm

    PubMed Central

    Cao-Lei, L; Elgbeili, G; Massart, R; Laplante, D P; Szyf, M; King, S

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) can impact a variety of outcomes in the offspring throughout childhood and persisting into adulthood as shown in human and animal studies. Many of the effects of PNMS on offspring outcomes likely reflect the effects of epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, to the fetal genome. However, no animal or human research can determine the extent to which the effects of PNMS on DNA methylation in human offspring is the result of the objective severity of the stressor to the pregnant mother, or her negative appraisal of the stressor or her resulting degree of negative stress. We examined the genome-wide DNA methylation profile in T cells from 34 adolescents whose mothers had rated the 1998 Québec ice storm's consequences as positive or negative (that is, cognitive appraisal). The methylation levels of 2872 CGs differed significantly between adolescents in the positive and negative maternal cognitive appraisal groups. These CGs are affiliated with 1564 different genes and with 408 different biological pathways, which are prominently featured in immune function. Importantly, there was a significant overlap in the differentially methylated CGs or genes and biological pathways that are associated with cognitive appraisal and those associated with objective PNMS as we reported previously. Our study suggests that pregnant women's cognitive appraisals of an independent stressor may have widespread effects on DNA methylation across the entire genome of their unborn children, detectable during adolescence. Therefore, cognitive appraisals could be an important predictor variable to explore in PNMS research. PMID:25710121

  11. Pregnant women's cognitive appraisal of a natural disaster affects DNA methylation in their children 13 years later: Project Ice Storm.

    PubMed

    Cao-Lei, L; Elgbeili, G; Massart, R; Laplante, D P; Szyf, M; King, S

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) can impact a variety of outcomes in the offspring throughout childhood and persisting into adulthood as shown in human and animal studies. Many of the effects of PNMS on offspring outcomes likely reflect the effects of epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, to the fetal genome. However, no animal or human research can determine the extent to which the effects of PNMS on DNA methylation in human offspring is the result of the objective severity of the stressor to the pregnant mother, or her negative appraisal of the stressor or her resulting degree of negative stress. We examined the genome-wide DNA methylation profile in T cells from 34 adolescents whose mothers had rated the 1998 Québec ice storm's consequences as positive or negative (that is, cognitive appraisal). The methylation levels of 2872 CGs differed significantly between adolescents in the positive and negative maternal cognitive appraisal groups. These CGs are affiliated with 1564 different genes and with 408 different biological pathways, which are prominently featured in immune function. Importantly, there was a significant overlap in the differentially methylated CGs or genes and biological pathways that are associated with cognitive appraisal and those associated with objective PNMS as we reported previously. Our study suggests that pregnant women's cognitive appraisals of an independent stressor may have widespread effects on DNA methylation across the entire genome of their unborn children, detectable during adolescence. Therefore, cognitive appraisals could be an important predictor variable to explore in PNMS research. PMID:25710121

  12. The May 25-27 2005 Mount Logan Storm: Implications for the reconstruction of the climate signal contained in Gulf of Alaska Ice Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, K.; Holdsworth, G.

    2006-12-01

    In late May 2005, 3 climbers were immobilized at 5400 m on Mount Logan, Canada`s highest mountain, by the high impact weather associated with an extratropical cyclone over the Gulf of Alaska. Rescue operations were hindered by the high winds, cold temperatures, and heavy snowfall associated with the storm. Ultimately, the climbers were rescued after the weather cleared. Just prior to the storm, two automated weather stations had been deployed on the mountain as part of a research program aimed at interpreting the climate signal contained in summit ice cores. These data provide a unique and hitherto unobtainable record of the high elevation meteorological conditions associated with a severe extratropical cyclone. In this talk, data from these weather stations along with surface and sounding data from the nearby town of Yakutat Alaska, satellite imagery and the NCEP reanalysis are used to characterize the synoptic-scale conditions associated with this storm. Particular emphasis is placed on the water vapor transport associated with this storm. The authors show that during this event, subtropical moisture was transported northwards towards the Mount Logan region. The magnitude of this transport into the Gulf of Alaska was exceeded only 1% of the time during the months of May and June over the period 1948-2005. As a result, the magnitude of the precipitable water field in the Gulf of Alaska region attained values usually found in the tropics. An atmospheric moisture budget analysis indicates that most of the moisture advected into the Mount Logan region was pre-existing water vapor already in the subtropical atmosphere and was not water vapor evaporated from the surface during the evolution of the storm. Implications of this moisture source for our understanding of the water isotopic climate signal in the Mount Logan ice cores will be discussed.

  13. Use of Remote Sensing Data to Enhance the National Weather Service (NWS) Storm Damage Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary; Molthan, Andrew; White, Kris; Burks, Jason; Stellman, Keith; Smith, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    SPoRT is improving the use of near real-time satellite data in response to severe weather events and other diasters. Supported through NASA s Applied Sciences Program. Planned interagency collaboration to support NOAA s Damage Assessment Toolkit, with spinoff opportunities to support other entities such as USGS and FEMA.

  14. Building resilient power grids from integrated risk governance perspective: A lesson learned from china's 2008 Ice-Snow Storm disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Qian

    2014-10-01

    In the past three decades, the electric energy industry made great contribution to support rapid social and economic development in China, and meanwhile has been grown at the highest rate in the human history owing to the economic reform. In its new national development plan, more investment has been put into installation of both electricity generating capacity and transmitting capacity in order to meet fast growing demand of electric energy. However, energy resources, both fossil fuel and renewable types, and energy consumption and load centers in China are not evenly distributed in both spatial and temporal dimensions. Moreover, dominated by coal as its primary energy source, the whole eastern China is now entering an environmental crisis in which pollutants emitted by coal power plants contribute a large part. To balance the regional differences in energy sources and energy consumption while meeting the steadily increasing demands for electric energy for the whole country, in addition to increase electric generating capacity, building large-scale, long-distance ultra high voltage power grids is the top priority for next five years. China is a country prone to almost all kinds of natural disasters due to its vast, complex geographical and climatic conditions. In recent years, frequent natural disasters, especially extreme weather and climate events, have threatened the safety, reliability and stability of electric energy system in China. Unfortunately, with fast growth rate but lacking of risk assessing and prevention mechanism, many infrastructure constructions, including national power grids, are facing integrated and complex economic, social, institutional and ecological risks. In this paper, based on a case analysis of the Great Ice Storm in southern China in January 2008, risks of building a resilient power grid to deal with increasing threats from extreme weathers are discussed. The paper recommends that a systematic approach based on the social-ecological system framework should be applied to assess the risk factors associated with the power grid, and the tools to deal with complex dynamic systems need to be applied to deal with constant changes in the whole social-ecological system.

  15. Force Criterion Prediction of Damage for Carbon/Epoxy Composite Panels Impacted by High Velocity Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhymer, Jennifer D.

    The use of advanced fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites in load-bearing aircraft structures is increasing, as evident by the various composites-intensive transport aircraft presently under development. A major impact source of concern for these structures is hail ice, which affects design and skin-sizing (skin thickness determination) at various locations of the aircraft. Impacts onto composite structures often cause internal damage that is not visually detectable due to the high strength and resiliency of the composite material (unlike impacts onto metallic structures). This internal damage and its effect on the performance of the structure are of great concern to the aircraft industry. The prediction of damage in composite structures due to SHI impact has been accomplished via experimental work, explicit dynamic nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) and the definition of design oriented relationships. Experiments established the critical threshold and corresponding analysis provided contact force results not readily measurable in high velocity SHI impact experiments. The design oriented relationships summarize the FEA results and experimental database into contact force estimation curves that can be easily applied for damage prediction. Failure thresholds were established for the experimental conditions (panel thickness ranging from 1.56 to 4.66 mm and ice diameters from 38.1 to 61.0 mm). Additionally, the observations made by high-speed video during the impact event, and ultrasonic C-scan post-impact, showed how the ice failed during impact and the overall shape and location of the panel damage. Through analysis, the critical force, the force level where damage occurs above but not below, of a SHI impact onto the panel was found to be dependent only on the target structure. However, the peak force generated during impact was dependent on both the projectile and target. Design-oriented curves were generated allowing the prediction of the allowable velocity for given SHI diameter impact onto a known panel in order to estimated damage. Finally, a scaling relationship was established to predict the peak force developed onto composite panels impacted by SHI. This is useful in reducing the amount of experimental investigations, or computationally expensive simulation work, that would otherwise need to be performed to obtain these results.

  16. Numerical Simulation on the Damage Characteristics of Ice Targets by Projectile Hypervelocity Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhang; Gang, Wei; Zhong-Cheng, Mu; Chang, Liu

    2009-12-01

    Interpretation of cratering records on planetary surfaces including the Earth has primarily been concerned with rocky surfaces, most notably the lunar surface and more recently Mars and Venus. Recently, the survey of craters on icy surfaces in the Solar System has been augmented by data from spacecraft close encounters, such as the Galileo mission to the Jovian system. To fully understand these cratering records, the physics of hypervelocity impacts needs to be understood. The numerical simulation on the damage characteristics of ice targets by projectile normal hypervelocity impact has been performed using the hydro-code AUTODYN. The 1 mm spherical projectile is aluminum 2017 alloy. The targets are water ice. The simulation velocities were in the range of 1 km/s-10 km/s. The damage characteristics include peak ejection angle, maximum crater depth and diameter etc. The simulation results are given and compared with the experimental results of Shrine et al. 2002. The simulation results are consistent with the experimental results.

  17. Numerical Simulation on the Damage Characteristics of Ice Targets by Projectile Hypervelocity Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Wei, Gang; Mu, Zhong-Cheng

    2009-06-01

    Interpretation of cratering records on planetary surfaces including the Earth has primarily been concerned with rocky surfaces, most notably the lunar surface and more recently Mars and Venus. Recently, the survey of craters on icy surfaces in the Solar System has been augmented by data from spacecraft close encounters, such as the Galileo mission to the jovian system. To fully understand these cratering records, the physics of hypervelocity impacts needs to be understood. The numerical simulation on the damage characteristics of ice targets by projectile normally hypervelocity impact has been performed using the hydro-code AUTODYN. The 1mm spherical projectile is aluminum 2017 alloy. The targets are water ice. The simulation velocities were in the range of 1km/s-10km/s. The material models are consisted of Tillotson and Polynomial equation of state, Mohr-Coulomb and Johnson-Holmqiust strength model and Johnson-Holmqiust and principle stress failure model. The damage characteristics include peak ejection angle, peak temperature and pressure, maximum crater depth and diameter etc. The simulation results are given and compared with the experimental results of Burchell 2002. The simulation results are consistent very well with the experimental results.

  18. Contribution of insurance data to cost assessment of coastal flood damage to residential buildings: insights gained from Johanna (2008) and Xynthia (2010) storm events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, C.; Monfort, D.; Bouzit, M.; Vinchon, C.

    2013-03-01

    There are a number of methodological issues involved in assessing damage caused by natural hazards. The first is the lack of data, due to the rarity of events and the widely different circumstances in which they occur. Thus, historical data, albeit scarce, should not be neglected when seeking to build ex-ante risk management models. This article analyses the input of insurance data for two recent severe coastal storm events, to examine what causal relationships may exist between hazard characteristics and the level of damage incurred by residential buildings. To do so, data was collected at two levels: from lists of about 4000 damage records, 358 loss adjustment reports were consulted, constituting a detailed damage database. The results show that for flooded residential buildings, over 75% of reconstruction costs are associated with interior elements, damage to structural components remaining very localised and negligible. Further analysis revealed a high scatter between costs and water depth, suggesting that uncertainty remains high in drawing up damage functions with insurance data alone. Due to the paper format of the loss adjustment reports and the lack of harmonisation between their contents, the collection stage called for a considerable amount of work. For future events, establishing a standardised process for archiving damage information could significantly contribute to the production of such empirical damage functions. Nevertheless, complementary sources of data on hazards and asset vulnerability parameters, will definitely still be necessary for damage modelling and multivariate approaches, crossing insurance data with external material, should also be deeper investigated.

  19. Contribution of insurance data to cost assessment of coastal flood damage to residential buildings: insights gained from Johanna (2008) and Xynthia (2010) storm events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, C.; Monfort, D.; Bouzit, M.; Vinchon, C.

    2013-08-01

    There are a number of methodological issues involved in assessing damage caused by natural hazards. The first is the lack of data, due to the rarity of events and the widely different circumstances in which they occur. Thus, historical data, albeit scarce, should not be neglected when seeking to build ex-ante risk management models. This article analyses the input of insurance data for two recent severe coastal storm events, to examine what causal relationships may exist between hazard characteristics and the level of damage incurred by residential buildings. To do so, data was collected at two levels: from lists of about 4000 damage records, 358 loss adjustment reports were consulted, constituting a detailed damage database. The results show that for flooded residential buildings, over 75% of reconstruction costs are associated with interior elements, with damage to structural components remaining very localised and negligible. Further analysis revealed a high scatter between costs and water depth, suggesting that uncertainty remains high in drawing up damage functions with insurance data alone. Due to the paper format of the loss adjustment reports, and the lack of harmonisation between their contents, the collection stage called for a considerable amount of work. For future events, establishing a standardised process for archiving damage information could significantly contribute to the production of such empirical damage functions. Nevertheless, complementary sources of data on hazards and asset vulnerability parameters will definitely still be necessary for damage modelling; multivariate approaches, crossing insurance data with external material, should also be investigated more deeply.

  20. Thyroid storm

    MedlinePlus

    Thyrotoxic storm; Hyperthyroid storm; Accelerated hyperthyroidism ... Thyroid storm occurs in people with untreated hyperthyroidism. It is usually brought on by a major stress such as trauma, heart attack, or infection. Thyroid storm is very rare.

  1. Contribution of insurance data to cost assessment of coastal flood damage to residential buildings: insights gained from Johanna (2008) and Xynthia (2010) storm events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Camille; Monfort, Daniel; Bouzit, Madjid; Vinchon, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    There are a number of methodological issues involved in assessing damage caused by natural hazards. The first is the lack of data, due to the rarity of events and the widely different circumstances in which they occur. Thus, historical data, albeit scarce, should not be neglected when seeking to build ex-ante risk management models. We analysed the input of insurance data for two recent severe coastal storm events, Johanna and Xynthia, which struck the French coasts in 2008 and 2010, respectively, to examine what causal relationships may exist between hazard characteristics and the level of damage incurred by residential buildings. To do so, data was collected at two levels: from lists of about 4,000 damage records, 358 loss adjustment reports were consulted, constituting a detailed damage database. A damage typology was developed, and linked to the different damage processes at the building scale (i.e. water depth, duration and speed, waves shocks and scour). The results show that over 75% of reconstruction costs in residential buildings are associated with interior elements, damage to structural components remaining very localised and negligible. Further analysis revealed no clear trend between costs and water depth, suggesting that uncertainty remains high in drawing up damage functions with insurance data alone. Due to the paper format of the loss adjustment reports and the lack of harmonisation between their contents, the collection stage called for a considerable amount of work. For future events, establishing a standardised process for archiving damage information could significantly contribute to the production of such empirical damage functions. In all events, complementary sources of data on hazards and asset vulnerability parameters, including field data, will definitely still be necessary for risk analysis and damage modelling at a micro-scale.

  2. Ice crystal damage and radiation effects in relation to microscopy and analysis at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Echlin, P

    1991-01-01

    There are several limitations to the low-temperature techniques which are currently being used for the preparation, examination and analysis of biological and organic samples by means of high-energy beam instrumentation. The low thermal conductivity of samples and the inadequacy of rapid cooling techniques means that, with the exception of thin-film suspensions and the surface of impact-cooled bulk specimens which may be vitrified, ice crystals of varying sizes will be present in nearly all samples which are quench cooled. Data are presented which indicate the depth to which adequate cryo-fixation may be achieved for both morphological and analytical studies. Although dynamic processes may be time resolved in the outer parts of quench-cooled samples, the decreased freezing rate below the surface makes resolution of these processes much less certain. The quality of information which may be obtained from quench-cooled samples is limited by radiation damage. Low-dose microscopy of vitrified thin-film suspensions of macromolecules continues to provide valid structural information at the molecular level. The increased doses needed for X-ray microanalysis present serious problems with the high spatial resolution analysis of thin frozen-hydrated sections although much less damage is observed in dried samples. A case is presented for using the outer fracture faces of frozen-hydrated bulk samples for low-resolution analysis of cells and tissues. PMID:2016734

  3. Evolution of Martian polar landscapes - Interplay of long-term variations in perennial ice cover and dust storm intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, J. A.; Blasius, K. R.; Roberts, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    The discovery of a new type of Martian polar terrain, called undulating plain, is reported and the evolution of the plains and other areas of the Martian polar region is discussed in terms of the trapping of dust by the perennial ice cover. High-resolution Viking Orbiter 2 observations of the north polar terrain reveal perennially ice-covered surfaces with low relief, wavelike, regularly spaced, parallel ridges and troughs (undulating plains) occupying areas of the polar terrain previously thought to be flat, and associated with troughs of considerable local relief which exhibit at least partial annual melting. It is proposed that the wavelike topography of the undulating plains originates from long-term periodic variations in cyclical dust precipitation at the margin of a growing or receding perennial polar cap in response to changes in insolation. The troughs are proposed to originate from areas of steep slope in the undulating terrain which have lost their perennial ice cover and have become incapable of trapping dust. The polar landscape thus appears to record the migrations, expansions and contractions of the Martian polar cap.

  4. Short-Term Responses of Ground-Dwelling Beetles to Ice Storm-Induced Treefall Gaps in a Subtropical Broad-Leaved Forest in Southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Chong-Ling; Lü, Liang; Luo, Tian-Hong; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Periodic natural disturbances shape the mosaic character of many landscapes and influence the distribution and abundance of organisms. In this study, we tested the effect of ice storm-induced treefall gaps on ground-dwelling beetle assemblages in different-aged successional stands of subtropical broad-leaved forest in southeastern China. We evaluated the relative importance of gap-phase microhabitat type (within gap, gap edge, and interior shaded) within different stand ages (regenerating stands and mature stands) as determinants of changes in beetle diversity and community structure. At 18 replicate sites sampled during 2009-2010, no significant differences were found in species richness and the abundances of the most common beetle species captured in pitfall traps among the three gap-phase microhabitat types, but the abundances of total beetles, as well as fungivorous and phytophagous species groups, were significantly lower in gap microhabitats than in interior shaded microhabitats in mature stands. Beetle assemblage composition showed no significant differences among the three microhabitat types, and only the fauna of gap plots slightly diverged from those of edge and shaded plots in mature stands. Cover of shrubs and stand age significantly affected beetle assemblage structure. Our results suggest that beetle responses to gap-phase dynamics in early successional forests are generally weak, and that effects are more discernible in the mature stands, perhaps due to the abundance responses of forest-specialist species. PMID:26377249

  5. DNA methylation mediates the impact of exposure to prenatal maternal stress on BMI and central adiposity in children at age 13½ years: Project Ice Storm

    PubMed Central

    Cao-Lei, Lei; Dancause, Kelsey N; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Massart, Renaud; Szyf, Moshe; Liu, Aihua; Laplante, David P; King, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) in animals and humans predicts obesity and metabolic dysfunction in the offspring. Epigenetic modification of gene function is considered one possible mechanism by which PNMS results in poor outcomes in offspring. Our goal was to determine the role of maternal objective exposure and subjective distress on child BMI and central adiposity at 13½ years of age, and to test the hypothesis that DNA methylation mediates the effect of PNMS on growth. Mothers were pregnant during the January 1998 Quebec ice storm. We assessed their objective exposure and subjective distress in June 1998. At age 13½ their children were weighed and measured (n = 66); a subsample provided blood samples for epigenetic studies (n = 31). Objective and subjective PNMS correlated with central adiposity (waist-to-height ratio); only objective PNMS predicted body mass index (BMI). Bootstrapping analyses showed that the methylation level of genes from established Type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus pathways showed significant mediation of the effect of objective PNMS on both central adiposity and BMI. However, the negative mediating effects indicate that, although greater objective PNMS predicts greater BMI and adiposity, this effect is dampened by the effects of objective PNMS on DNA methylation, suggesting a protective role of the selected genes from Type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus pathways. We provide data supporting that DNA methylation is a potential mechanism involved in the long-term adaptation and programming of the genome in response to early adverse environmental factors. PMID:26098974

  6. Prenatal maternal stress predicts reductions in CD4+ lymphocytes, increases in innate-derived cytokines, and a Th2 shift in adolescents: Project Ice Storm.

    PubMed

    Veru, Franz; Dancause, Kelsey; Laplante, David P; King, Suzanne; Luheshi, Giamal

    2015-05-15

    The relationship between psychological stress and immunity is well established, but it is not clear if prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) affects the development of the immune system in humans. Our objective was to determine the extent of this influence in a sample of teenagers whose mothers were pregnant during the 1998 Quebec ice storm. As part of a longitudinal study of PNMS, we measured the objective stress exposure and subjective distress of the women soon after the disaster. We obtained blood samples from 37 of their children when they were 13years old to measure cell population percentages and mitogen-induced cytokine production. We found that the mothers' objective degree of PNMS exposure significantly predicted reductions in total and CD4+ lymphocyte proportions, increases in TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels, and an enhancement of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. Sex and timing of PNMS exposure during gestation were also associated with some outcomes. These results show that PNMS is a programming factor that can produce long-lasting consequences on immunity, potentially explaining non-genetic variability in immune-related disorders. This information contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the influence of PNMS on immune-mediated disorders in humans. PMID:25777498

  7. Meteorology, Macrophysics, Microphysics, Microwaves, and Mesoscale Modeling of Mediterranean Mountain Storms: The M8 Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David O. (Technical Monitor); Smith, Eric A.

    2002-01-01

    Comprehensive understanding of the microphysical nature of Mediterranean storms can be accomplished by a combination of in situ meteorological data analysis and radar-passive microwave data analysis, effectively integrated with numerical modeling studies at various scales, from synoptic scale down through the mesoscale, the cloud macrophysical scale, and ultimately the cloud microphysical scale. The microphysical properties of and their controls on severe storms are intrinsically related to meteorological processes under which storms have evolved, processes which eventually select and control the dominant microphysical properties themselves. This involves intense convective development, stratiform decay, orographic lifting, and sloped frontal lifting processes, as well as the associated vertical motions and thermodynamical instabilities governing physical processes that affect details of the size distributions and fall rates of the various types of hydrometeors found within the storm environment. Insofar as hazardous Mediterranean storms, highlighted in this study by three mountain storms producing damaging floods in northern Italy between 1992 and 2000, developing a comprehensive microphysical interpretation requires an understanding of the multiple phases of storm evolution and the heterogeneous nature of precipitation fields within a storm domain. This involves convective development, stratiform transition and decay, orographic lifting, and sloped frontal lifting processes. This also involves vertical motions and thermodynamical instabilities governing physical processes that determine details of the liquid/ice water contents, size disi:ributions, and fall rates of the various modes of hydrometeors found within hazardous storm environments.

  8. Radiation damage and associated phase change effect on photodesorption rates from ices—Lyα studies of the surface behavior of CO{sub 2}(ice)

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Chunqing; Yates, John T. Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Photodesorption from a crystalline film of CO{sub 2}(ice) at 75 K has been studied using Lyα (10.2 eV) radiation. We combine quantitative mass spectrometric studies of gases evolved and transmission IR studies of species trapped in the ice. Direct CO desorption is observed from the primary CO{sub 2} photodissociation process, which occurs promptly for CO{sub 2} molecules located on the outermost surface of the ice (Process I). As the fluence of Lyα radiation increases to ∼5.5 × 10{sup 17} photons cm{sup –2}, extensive damage to the crystalline ice occurs and photo-produced CO molecules from deeper regions (Process II) are found to desorb at a rapidly increasing rate, which becomes two orders of magnitude greater than Process I. It is postulated that deep radiation damage to produce an extensive amorphous phase of CO{sub 2} occurs in the 50 nm ice film and that CO (and CO{sub 2}) diffusive transport is strongly enhanced in the amorphous phase. Photodesorption in Process II is a combination of electronic and thermally activated processes. Radiation damage in crystalline CO{sub 2} ice has been monitored by its effects on the vibrational line shapes of CO{sub 2}(ice). Here the crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition has been correlated with the occurrence of efficient molecular transport over long distances through the amorphous phase of CO{sub 2}(ice). Future studies of the composition of the interstellar region, generated by photodesorption from ice layers on grains, will have to consider the significant effects of radiation damage on photodesorption rates.

  9. A Double-Moment Multiple-Phase Four-Class Bulk Ice Scheme. Part II: Simulations of Convective Storms in Different Large-Scale Environments and Comparisons with other Bulk Parameterizations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenberg Ferrier, Brad; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne

    1995-04-01

    Part I of this study described a detailed four-class bulk ice scheme (4ICE) developed to simulate the hydro-meteor profiles of convective and stratiform precipitation associated with mesoscale convective systems. In Part II, the 4ICE scheme is incorporated into the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model and applied without any `tuning' to two squall lines occurring in widely different environments, namely, one over the `Pica) ocean in the Global Atmospheric Research Program's (GARP) Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) and the other over a midlatitude continent in the Cooperative Huntsville Meteorological Experiment (COHMEX). Comparisons were made both with earlier three-class ice formulations and with observations. In both cases, the 4ICE scheme interacted with the dynamics so as to resemble the observations much more closely than did the model runs with either of the three-class ice parameterizations. The following features were well simulated in the COHMEX case: a lack of stratiform rain at the surface ahead of the storm, reflectivity maxima near 60 dBZ in the vicinity of the melting level, and intense radar echoes up to near the tropopause. These features were in strong contrast with the GATE simulation, which showed extensive trailing stratiform precipitation containing a horizontally oriented radar bright band. Peak reflectivities were below the melting level, rarely exceeding 50 dBz, with a steady decrease in reflectivity with height above. With the other bulk formulations, the large stratiform rain areas were not reproduced in the GATE conditions.The microphysical structure of the model clouds in both environments were more realistic than that of earlier modeling efforts. Number concentrations of ice of O(100 L1) occurred above 6 km in the GATE model clouds as a result of ice enhancement and rime splintering in the 4ICE runs. These processes were more effective in the GATE simulation, because near the freezing level the weaker updrafts were comparable in magnitude to the fall speeds of newly frozen drops. Many of the ice crystals initiated at relatively warm temperatures (above 15°C) grew rapidly by deposition into sizes large enough to be converted to snow. In contrast, in the more intense COHMEX updrafts, very large numbers of small ice crystals were initiated at colder temperatures (below 15°C) by nucleation and stochastic freezing of droplets, such that relatively few ice crystals grew by deposition to sizes large enough to be converted to snow. In addition, the large number of frozen drops of O(5 L1) in the 4ICE run am consistent with airborne microphysical data in intense COHMEX updrafts.Numerous sensitivity experiments were made with the four-class and three-class ice schemes, varying fall speed relationships, particle characteristics, and ice collection efficiencies. These tests provide strong support to the conclusion that the 4ICE scheme gives improved resemblance to observations despite present uncertainties in a number of important microphysical parameters.

  10. Defining Coastal Storm and Quantifying Storms Applying Coastal Storm Impulse Parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudpour, Nader

    2014-05-01

    What defines a storm condition and what would initiate a "storm" has not been uniquely defined among scientists and engineers. Parameters that have been used to define a storm condition can be mentioned as wind speed, beach erosion and storm hydrodynamics parameters such as wave height and water levels. Some of the parameters are storm consequential such as beach erosion and some are not directly related to the storm hydrodynamics such as wind speed. For the purpose of the presentation, the different storm conditions based on wave height, water levels, wind speed and beach erosion will be discussed and assessed. However, it sounds more scientifically to have the storm definition based on the hydrodynamic parameters such as wave height, water level and storm duration. Once the storm condition is defined and storm has initiated, the severity of the storm would be a question to forecast and evaluate the hazard and analyze the risk in order to determine the appropriate responses. The correlation of storm damages to the meteorological and hydrodynamics parameters can be defined as a storm scale, storm index or storm parameter and it is needed to simplify the complexity of variation involved developing the scale for risk analysis and response management. A newly introduced Coastal Storm Impulse (COSI) parameter quantifies storms into one number for a specific location and storm event. The COSI parameter is based on the conservation of linear, horizontal momentum to combine storm surge, wave dynamics, and currents over the storm duration. The COSI parameter applies the principle of conservation of momentum to physically combine the hydrodynamic variables per unit width of shoreline. This total momentum is then integrated over the duration of the storm to determine the storm's impulse to the coast. The COSI parameter employs the mean, time-averaged nonlinear (Fourier) wave momentum flux, over the wave period added to the horizontal storm surge momentum above the Mean High Water (MHW) integrated over the storm duration. The COSI parameter methodology has been applied to a 10-year data set from 1994 to 2003 at US Army Corps of Engineers, Field Research Facility (FRF) located on the Atlantic Ocean in Duck, North Carolina. The storm duration was taken as the length of time (hours) that the spectral significant wave heights were equal or greater than 1.6 meters for at least a 12 hour, continuous period. Wave heights were measured in 8 meters water depth and water levels measured at the NOAA/NOS tide gauge at the end of the FRF pier. The 10-year data set were analyzed applying the aforementioned storm criteria and produced 148 coastal events including Hurricanes and Northeasters. The results of this analysis and application of the COSI parameter to determine "Extra Ordinary" storms in Federal Projects for the Gulf of Mexico, 2012 hurricane season will be discussed at the time of presentation.

  11. Managing storm water at airports

    SciTech Connect

    Halm, M.J.

    1996-09-01

    Airports are active facilities with numerous on-going operations at their sites. The following operations may adversely affect the water quality of nearby aquatic environments: De-icing runways; de-icing taxiways; de-icing and anti-icing aircraft; aircraft maintenance; and salt de-icer application. Until the amendments to the Clean Water Act of 1972, referred to as the Water Quality Act of 1987, were passed by Congress, the majority of storm water discharges in the US were unregulated. The Water Quality Act of 1987 was promulgated as an effort to manage the pollution resulting from storm water runoff. Many industrial facilities, especially airports, were faced with complex problems in attempting to comply with these new federal regulations. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for airports with more than 50,000 flight operations per year require periodic monitoring of receiving waters and storm sewer outfalls. The federal government has given states jurisdiction in issuing NPDES permits for storm water discharges. States may require composite or grab samples.

  12. On extreme geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cid, Consuelo; Palacios, Judith; Saiz, Elena; Guerrero, Antonio; Cerrato, Yolanda

    2014-10-01

    Extreme geomagnetic storms are considered as one of the major natural hazards for technology-dependent society. Geomagnetic field disturbances can disrupt the operation of critical infrastructures relying on space-based assets, and can also result in terrestrial effects, such as the Quebec electrical disruption in 1989. Forecasting potential hazards is a matter of high priority, but considering large flares as the only criterion for early-warning systems has demonstrated to release a large amount of false alarms and misses. Moreover, the quantification of the severity of the geomagnetic disturbance at the terrestrial surface using indices as Dst cannot be considered as the best approach to give account of the damage in utilities. High temporal resolution local indices come out as a possible solution to this issue, as disturbances recorded at the terrestrial surface differ largely both in latitude and longitude. The recovery phase of extreme storms presents also some peculiar features which make it different from other less intense storms. This paper goes through all these issues related to extreme storms by analysing a few events, highlighting the March 1989 storm, related to the Quebec blackout, and the October 2003 event, when several transformers burnt out in South Africa.

  13. Magnetic Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Gonzalez, Walter D.

    1998-01-01

    One of the oldest mysteries in geomagnetism is the linkage between solar and geomagnetic activity. The 11-year cycles of both the numbers of sunspots and Earth geomagnetic storms were first noted by Sabine. A few years later, speculation on a causal relationship between flares and storms arose when Carrington reported that a large magnetic storm followed the great September 1859 solar flare. However, it was not until this century that a well-accepted statistical survey on large solar flares and geomagnetic storms was performed, and a significant correlation between flares and geomagnetic storms was noted. Although the two phenomena, one on the Sun and the other on the Earth, were statistically correlated, the exact physical linkage was still an unknown at this time. Various hypotheses were proposed, but it was not until interplanetary spacecraft measurements were available that a high-speed plasma stream rich in helium was associated with an intense solar flare. The velocity of the solar wind increased just prior to and during the helium passage, identifying the solar ejecta for the first time. Space plasma measurements and Skylab's coronagraph images of coronal mass elections (CMES) from the Sun firmly established the plasma link between the Sun and the Earth. One phenomenon associated with magnetic storms is brilliant "blood" red auroras, as shown.

  14. Effects of ice storm on forest ecosystem of southern China in 2008 Shaoqiang Wang1, Lei Zhou1, Weimin Ju2, Kun Huang1 1Key Lab of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Beijing, 10010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shaoqiang

    2014-05-01

    Evidence is mounting that an increase in extreme climate events has begun to occur worldwide during the recent decades, which affect biosphere function and biodiversity. Ecosystems returned to its original structures and functions to maintain its sustainability, which was closely dependent on ecosystem resilience. Understanding the resilience and recovery capacity of ecosystem to extreme climate events is essential to predicting future ecosystem responses to climate change. Given the overwhelming importance of this region in the overall carbon cycle of forest ecosystems in China, south China suffered a destructive ice storm in 2008. In this study, we used the number of freezing day and a process-based model (Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator, BEPS) to characterize the spatial distribution of ice storm region in southeastern China and explore the impacts on carbon cycle of forest ecosystem over the past decade. The ecosystem variables, i.e. Net primary productivity (NPP), Evapotranspiration (ET), and Water use efficiency (WUE, the ratio of NPP to ET) from the outputs of BEPS models were used to detect the resistance and resilience of forest ecosystem in southern China. The pattern of ice storm-induced forest productivity widespread decline was closely related to the number of freezing day during the ice storm period. The NPP of forest area suffered heavy ice storm returned to normal status after five months with high temperature and ample moisture, indicated a high resilience of subtropical forest in China. The long-term changes of forest WUE remain stable, behaving an inherent sensitivity of ecosystem to extreme climate events. In addition, ground visits suggested that the recovery of forest productivity was attributed to rapid growth of understory. Understanding the variability and recovery threshold of ecosystem following extreme climate events help us to better simulate and predict the variability of ecosystem structure and function under current and future climate change.

  15. Magnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Kamide, Yohsuke

    This talk provides a brief summary of the first conference devoted entirely to magnetic storms. The conference was held in Pasadena, California, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 12-16 February 1996. Topics covered the relevant time-varying phenomena at the sun/corona, propagation of these structures through interplanetary space, the response of the magnetosphere from its interaction with these interplanetary structures, the formation of the storm- time ring-current (in particular the oxygen content of the ring-current), and storm ionospheric effects and ground based effects. A complementary summary is provided by Gonzalez et al. in EOS, 1996. The full set of review articles will be published in an AGU monograph and many of the contributed articles will appear in a special section of the Journal of Geophysical Research, Space Physics.

  16. Research on Historical Records of Geomagnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhina, G. S.; Alex, S.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Gonzalez, W. D.

    In recent times, there has been keen interest in understanding Sun-Earth connection events, such as solar flares, CMEs and concomitant magnetic storms. Magnetic storms are the most dramatic and perhaps important component of space weather effects on Earth. Super-intense magnetic storms (defined here as those with Dst < -500 nT, where Dst stands for the disturbance storm time index that measures the strength of the magnetic storm) although relatively rare, have the largest societal and technological relevance. Such storms can cause life-threatening power outages, satellite damage, communication failures and navigational problems. However, the data for such magnetic storms is rather scarce. For example, only one super-intense magnetic storm has been recorded (Dst=-640 nT, March 13, 1989) during the space-age (since 1958), although such storms may have occurred many times in the last 160 years or so when the regular observatory network came into existence. Thus, research on historical geomagnetic storms can help to create a good data base for intense and super-intense magnetic storms. From the application of knowledge of interplanetary and solar causes of storms gained from the spaceage observations applied to the super-intense storm of September 1-2, 1859, it has been possible to deduce that an exceptionally fast (and intense) magnetic cloud was the interplanetary cause of this geomagnetic storm with a Dst -1760 nT, nearly 3 times as large as that of March 13, 1989 super-intense storm. The talk will focus on super-intense storms of September 1-2, 1859, and also discuss the results in the context of some recent intense storms.

  17. Magnetic Storms in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, K.; Siqueira, F.

    2013-05-01

    Magnetic storms result from atypical processes generated in the Sun, the interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere and the energization of particles in the magnetosphere. As consequence, magnetic storms may cause problems on radio communication, in satellites, GPS imprecision and induce geomagnetic induced currents that my cause saturation and damage of transformers. Magnetic storms are measured in magnetic observatories, where it is possible to observe large variations in the horizontal magnetic field. These variations are most visible in equatorial or low-latitude magnetograms. In this work, we use low latitude dataset from three magnetic observatories in Brazil: Vassouras (Rio de Janeiro) that presents data since 1915, Tatuoca (Pará) since 1957 and data from a new magnetic observatory that was installed in Pantanal (Brazil) on the 22nd October 2012. Vassouras and Pantanal observatories are in the region of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. External magnetic field interactions in this region are poorly known due to the lack of magnetic data. Tatuoca observatory is located in another important geomagnetic region: the equatorial electrojet. In this work we present the data processing of the recent geomagnetic time series in Pantanal Observatory and its comparison with Vassouras and Tatuoca observatories in Brazil. We analyse the main characteristics of magnetic storms in these observatories, as the sudden commencement and their duration.

  18. Dust Storm

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title: Massive Dust Storm over Australia View ... winds and dry conditions caused a massive blanket of dust from Australia's Outback to spread eastward across Queensland and New ... data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center in Hampton, VA. Image credit: ...

  19. Hubble Tracks Jupiter Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope is following dramatic and rapid changes in Jupiter's turbulent atmosphere that will be critical for targeting observations made by the Galileo space probe when it arrives at the giant planet later this year.

    This Hubble image provides a detailed look at a unique cluster of three white oval-shaped storms that lie southwest (below and to the left) of Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The appearance of the clouds, as imaged on February 13, 1995 is considerably different from their appearance only seven months earlier. Hubble shows these features moving closer together as the Great Red Spot is carried westward by the prevailing winds while the white ovals are swept eastward. (This change in appearance is not an effect of last July's comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 collisions with Jupiter.)

    The outer two of the white storms formed in the late 1930s. In the centers of these cloud systems the air is rising, carrying fresh ammonia gas upward. New, white ice crystals form when the upwelling gas freezes as it reaches the chilly cloud top level where temperatures are -200 degrees Fahrenheit (- 130 degrees Centigrade).

    The intervening white storm center, the ropy structure to the left of the ovals, and the small brown spot have formed in low pressure cells. The white clouds sit above locations where gas is descending to lower, warmer regions. The extent of melting of the white ice exposes varied amounts of Jupiter's ubiquitous brown haze. The stronger the down flow, the less ice, and the browner the region.

    A scheduled series of Hubble observations will help target regions of interest for detailed scrutiny by the Galileo spacecraft, which will arrive at Jupiter in early December 1995. Hubble will provide a global view of Jupiter while Galileo will obtain close-up images of structure of the clouds that make up the large storm systems such as the Great Red Spot and white ovals that are seen in this picture.

    This color picture is assembled from a series of images taken by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, in planetary camera mode, when Jupiter was at a distance of 519 million miles (961 million kilometers) from Earth. These images are part of a set of data obtained by a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) team headed by Reta Beebe of New Mexico State University.

    This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  20. Storm Surge Sensor During Hurricane Irene

    During hurricanes the USGS deploys storm-surge monitoring instruments along the coasts, sounds, and bays in impacted areas to gauge how high hurricanes push water in rivers, bays and other areas. The sensors are crucial for forecasting future storms and assessing hurricane damage. They are strapped ...

  1. Springtime North Polar Dust Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-321, 12 December 2002

    As on the Earth, many severe storms brew in the martian polar regions. Here, temperature contrasts between the cold carbon dioxide ('dry ice') seasonal frost cap and the warm ground adjacent to it--combined with a flow of cool polar air evaporating off the cap--sweeps up dust and funnels it into swirling dust storms along the cap edge. The dust storms shown here were observed during the recent northern spring by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) in May 2002. The picture is a mosaic of daily global images from the MOC wide angle cameras. The north polar cap is the bright, frosty surface at the top.

  2. The effects of multiple daily applications of ice to the hamstrings on biochemical measures, signs, and symptoms associated with exercise-induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Elizabeth T; Pardeiro, Rafael B; Powell, Joseph W; Millar, Audrey L

    2013-10-01

    There is inconclusive evidence for the effectiveness of cryotherapy for the treatment of exercised-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Small sample sizes and treatment applications that did not correspond to evidence-based practice are limitations in previous studies that may have contributed to these equivocal findings. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of daily multiple applications of ice on EIMD throughout the 72-hour recovery period, an icing protocol that more closely resembles current clinical practice. Thirty-three subjects were assigned to either the cryotherapy group (n = 23) or control group (n = 10). The EIMD was induced through repeated isokinetic eccentric contractions of the right hamstring muscle group. The experimental group received ice immediately after induction of EIMD and continued to ice thrice a day for 20 minutes throughout the 72 hours; the control group received no intervention. Isometric torque, hamstring length, pain, and biochemical markers (creatine kinase [CK], alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase [AST]) were assessed at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Both groups demonstrated a significant change (p < 0.05) in all dependent variables compared with that at baseline, but there was no difference between groups except for pain. The cryotherapy group had significantly (p = 0.048) less pain (3.0 ± 2.1 cm) compared with the control (5.35 ± 2.5 cm) at 48 hours. Although not statistically significant, the cryotherapy group had a greater range of motion and lower CK and AST means at 72 hours compared with that of the control group. Repeated applications of ice can decrease the pain associated with EIMD significantly at 48 hours post EIMD. Although the results may not be unique, the methodology in this study was distinctive in that we used a larger sample size and an icing protocol similar to current recommended treatment practice. PMID:23364294

  3. Severe storm identification with satellite microwave radiometry: An initial investigation with Nimbus-7 SMMR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, R. W.; Howland, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    The severe weather characteristics of convective storms as observed by the Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) are investigated. Low 37 GHz brightness temperatures (due to scattering of upwelling radiation by precipitation size ice) are related to the occurrence of severe weather (large hail, strong winds or wind damage, tornadoes and funnel clouds) within one hour of the satellite observation time. During 1979 and 1980 over the United States there were 263 storms which had very cold 37 GHz signatures. Of these storms 15% were severe. The SMMR detected hail, wind, and tornadic storms equally well. Critical Success Indices (CSI's) of 0.32, 0.48, and 0.38 are achieved for the thresholding of severe vs. nonsevere low brightness temperature events during 1979, 1980, and the two years combined, respectively. Such scores are comparable to skill scores for early radar detection methods. These results suggest that a future geostationary passive microwave imaging capability at 37 GHz, with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution, would allow the detection of severe convective storms. This capability would provide a useful complement to radar, especially in areas not covered by radar.

  4. Development and Evaluation of Storm Surge Ensemble Forecasting for the Philippines Using JMA Storm Surge Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapidez, J. P. B.; Tablazon, J. P.; Lagmay, A. M. F. A.; Suarez, J. K. B.; Santiago, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Philippines is one of the countries most vulnerable to storm surge. It is located in the North-western Pacific basin which is the most active basin in the planet. An average of 20 tropical cyclones enters the Philippine area of responsibility (PAR) every year. The archipelagic nature of the country with regions having gently sloping coasts and shallow bays also contribute to the formation of extreme surges. Last November 2013, storm surge brought by super typhoon Haiyan severely damaged several coastal regions in the Visayan Islands. Haiyan left more than 6 300 casualties and damages amounting to more than $ 2 billion. Extreme storm surge events such as this highlight the need to establish a storm surge early warning system for the country. This study explores the development and evaluation of storm surge ensemble forecasting for the Philippines using the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) storm surge model. 36-hour, 24-hour, and 12-hour tropical cyclone forecasts are used to generate an ensemble storm surge forecast to give the most probable storm surge height at a specific point brought by an incoming tropical cyclone. The result of the storm surge forecast is compared to tide gauge record to evaluate the accuracy. The total time of computation and dissemination of forecast result is also examined to assess the feasibility of using the JMA storm surge model for operational purposes.

  5. Sources of Data on Freezing Rain and Resulting Damages.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changnon, Stanley A.; Creech, Tamara G.

    2003-10-01

    Freezing rain produces major damages each year in the United States, and various affected groups continue to seek data on the incidence and losses produced by freezing rain. The various kinds of data available about freezing rain and related damages have been identified and assessed as part of a project to develop long-term databases. Data include long-term records of the occurrences of freezing rain, 50-yr records of insured property losses, and measures and estimates of ice loading on wires and structures. Many years of interactions with affected and interested groups and individuals, such as the insurance industry and design engineers, led to the preparation of this summary that describes the various sources of data on freezing-rain and ice-storm damages. The benefits and limitations of each form of data are presented to help to guide potential data users.

  6. Sea ice protects the embryos of the Antarctic sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri from oxidative damage due to naturally enhanced levels of UV-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Lister, Kathryn N; Lamare, Miles D; Burritt, David J

    2010-06-01

    The 'ozone hole' has caused an increase in ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B, 280-320 nm) penetrating Antarctic coastal marine ecosystems, however the direct effect of this enhanced UV-B on pelagic organisms remains unclear. Oxidative stress, the in vivo production of reactive oxygen species to levels high enough to overcome anti-oxidant defences, is a key outcome of exposure to solar radiation, yet to date few studies have examined this physiological response in Antarctic marine species in situ or in direct relation to the ozone hole. To assess the biological effects of UV-B, in situ experiments were conducted at Cape Armitage in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica (77.06 degrees S, 164.42 degrees E) on the common Antarctic sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri Meissner (Echinoidea) over two consecutive 4-day periods in the spring of 2008 (26-30 October and 1-5 November). The presence of the ozone hole, and a corresponding increase in UV-B exposure, resulted in unequivocal increases in oxidative damage to lipids and proteins, and developmental abnormality in embryos of S. neumayeri growing in open waters. Results also indicate that embryos have only a limited capacity to increase the activities of protective antioxidant enzymes, but not to levels sufficient to prevent severe oxidative damage from occurring. Importantly, results show that the effect of the ozone hole is largely mitigated by sea ice coverage. The present findings suggest that the coincidence of reduced stratospheric ozone and a reduction in sea ice coverage may produce a situation in which significant damage to Antarctic marine ecosystems may occur. PMID:20472784

  7. Major coastal impact induced by a 1000-year storm event

    PubMed Central

    Fruergaard, Mikkel; Andersen, Thorbjørn J.; Johannessen, Peter N.; Nielsen, Lars H.; Pejrup, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Extreme storms and storm surges may induce major changes along sandy barrier coastlines, potentially causing substantial environmental and economic damage. We show that the most destructive storm (the 1634 AD storm) documented for the northern Wadden Sea within the last thousand years both caused permanent barrier breaching and initiated accumulation of up to several metres of marine sand. An aggradational storm shoal and a prograding shoreface sand unit having thicknesses of up to 8 m and 5 m respectively were deposited as a result of the storm and during the subsequent 30 to 40 years long healing phase, on the eroded shoreface. Our results demonstrate that millennial-scale storms can induce large-scale and long-term changes on barrier coastlines and shorefaces, and that coastal changes assumed to take place over centuries or even millennia may occur in association with and be triggered by a single extreme storm event.

  8. Arctic Cyclone Breaks Up Sea Ice - Duration: 33 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    A powerful storm wreaked havoc on the Arctic sea ice cover in August 2012. This visualization shows the strength and direction of the winds and their impact on the ice: the red vectors represent th...

  9. Cyclone Gonu storm surge in Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Hermann M.; Blount, Christopher D.; Albusaidi, Fawzi B.; Al-Harthy, Ahmed Hamoud Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Super Cyclone Gonu is the strongest tropical cyclone on record in the Arabian Sea. Gonu caused coastal damage due to storm surge and storm wave impact as well as wadi flooding. High water marks, overland flow depths, and inundation distances were measured in the coastal flood zones along the Gulf of Oman from 1 to 4 August 2007. The high water marks peaked at Ras al-Hadd at the eastern tip of Oman exceeding 5 m. The storm surge of Gonu is modeled using the Advanced Circulation Model (ADCIRC). The multi-hazard aspect is analyzed by comparing observations from Cyclone Gonu with the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami.

  10. Bacterial Ice Crystal Controlling Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lorv, Janet S. H.; Rose, David R.; Glick, Bernard R.

    2014-01-01

    Across the world, many ice active bacteria utilize ice crystal controlling proteins for aid in freezing tolerance at subzero temperatures. Ice crystal controlling proteins include both antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins. Antifreeze proteins minimize freezing damage by inhibiting growth of large ice crystals, while ice nucleation proteins induce formation of embryonic ice crystals. Although both protein classes have differing functions, these proteins use the same ice binding mechanisms. Rather than direct binding, it is probable that these protein classes create an ice surface prior to ice crystal surface adsorption. Function is differentiated by molecular size of the protein. This paper reviews the similar and different aspects of bacterial antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins, the role of these proteins in freezing tolerance, prevalence of these proteins in psychrophiles, and current mechanisms of protein-ice interactions. PMID:24579057

  11. Effects of the exxon valdez oil spill on fork-tailed storm-petrels breeding in the Barren Islands, Alaska. Bird study number 7. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimoto, M.; Byrd, G.V.

    1993-04-01

    We evaluated fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata) at East Amatuli Island, Barren Islands, the largest storm-petrel breeding colony within the trajectory of the oil slick, to determine whether there was evidence of adverse effects, following the 1989 Exxon Valdex oil spill. Although we were unable to measure all possible indicators, we found insufficient evidence to conclude that there were significant adverse impacts to breeding storm-petrels in 1989.

  12. Aerial rapid assessment of hurricane damages to northern Gulf coastal habitats: Chapter 5A in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michot, Thomas C.; Wells, Christopher J.; Chadwick, Paul C.

    2007-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina made landfall in southeast Louisiana on August 29, 2005, and Hurricane Rita made landfall in southwest Louisiana on September 24, 2005. Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) flew aerial surveys to assess damages to natural resources and to lands owned and managed by the U.S. Department of the Interior and other agencies. Flights were made on eight dates from August 27 through October 4, including one pre-Katrina, three post-Katrina, and four post-Rita surveys. The geographic area surveyed extended from Galveston, Tex., to Gulf Shores, Ala., and from the Gulf of Mexico shoreline inland 5-75 mi (8-121 km). Impacts to barrier island habitats were severe, especially at the Chandeleur Islands, which were reduced in land area by roughly 50 percent. Marsh impacts varied but were greatest in St. Bernard and Cameron Parishes, where much emergent vegetation was scoured or killed. Forested wetlands were impacted heavily, especially in the Pearl River basin and on the cheniers of southwest Louisiana.

  13. Components of the ice age circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, D.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of ice age boundary conditions on atmospheric dynamics and regional climate patterns are investigated using four GCM simulations. Particular consideration is given to sea surface temperature-sea ice distribution, the appearance of land ice, and the increased elevation of land ice. It is observed that the ice-age sea surface temperature stabilizes the atmosphere over the oceans, increases the frequency of storm tracking through central North America, and amplifies transient eddy energy without increasing baroclinic generation. It is detected that low-elevation ice generates low pressure over eastern North America and southern Europe in winter, while increasing cloud cover and cooling the land in summer. Elevation of the ice sheets cools the land in winter, further intensifies storms off northeastern North America, induces subsidence warming downstream of the European ice sheets in summer, and increases the transient and stationary eddy energy through increased baroclinicity.

  14. Storms in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, John W.

    2012-11-01

    Introduction; The cast of characters; Vignettes of the storm; 1. Two kinds of weather; 2. The saga of the storm; 3. Weather stations in space; 4. Lights in the night: the signature of the storm; 5. A walking tour of the magnetosphere; 6. The sun: where it all begins; 7. Nowcasting and forecasting storms in space; 8. Technology and the risks from storms in space; 9. A conversation with Joe Allen; 10. Manned exploration and space weather hazards; 11. The present and future of space weather forecasting; Mathematical appendix. A closer look; Glossary; Figure captions.

  15. Dust storm off Western Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The impacts of Saharan dust storms reach far beyond Africa. Wind-swept deserts spill airborne dust particles out over the Atlantic Ocean where they can enter trade winds bound for Central and North America and the Caribbean. This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows a dust storm casting an opaque cloud of cloud across the Canary Islands and the Atlantic Ocean west of Africa on June 30, 2002. In general it takes between 5 and 7 days for such an event to cross the Atlantic. The dust has been shown to introduce foreign bacteria and fungi that have damaged reef ecosystems and have even been hypothesized as a cause of increasing occurrences of respiratory complaints in places like Florida, where the amount of Saharan dust reaching the state has been increasing over the past 25 years.

  16. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 1

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-15

    Severe wind and snow storms hit the Pacific Northwest region on December 14 – 15, 2006, following severe flooding during the past few days. The severe weather resulted in major power outages through the region. At peak there were 1.8 million customers without power which included BC Hydro in Canada. Currently, there are over 1.5 million outages in the region as a result of the Pacific Northwest Storms. This represents about 42 percent of customers in affected utility service areas in Oregon and Washington. See table below. Because the current wind and snow storms are coming on the heels of extensive flooding in the region, electric utilities are experiencing damage. Wind gusts reached close to 100 mph in some areas of the region. The storm is expected to bring its strong winds and heavy snow into Idaho, Montana and Wyoming Friday and into the weekend. There are currently no reported major impacts to the petroleum and natural gas infrastructure.

  17. Subtropical Storm Andrea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The circling clouds of an intense low-pressure system sat off the southeast coast of the United States on May 8, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image. By the following morning, the storm developed enough to be classified as a subtropical storm, a storm that forms outside of the tropics, but has many of the characteristics--hurricane-force winds, driving rains, low pressure, and sometimes an eye--of a tropical storm. Although it arrived several weeks shy of the official start of the hurricane season (June 1), Subtropical Storm Andrea became the first named storm of the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm has the circular shape of a tropical cyclone in this image, but lacks the tight organization seen in more powerful storms. By May 9, the storm's winds reached 75 kilometers per hour (45 miles per hour), and the storm was not predicted to get any stronger, said the National Hurricane Center. Though Subtropical Storm Andrea was expected to remain offshore, its strong winds and high waves pummeled coastal states, prompting a tropical storm watch. The winds fueled wild fires (marked with red boxes) in Georgia and Florida. The wind-driven flames generated thick plumes of smoke that concentrated in a gray-brown mass over Tampa Bay, Florida. Unfortunately for Georgia and Florida, which are experiencing moderate to severe drought, Subtropical Storm Andrea was not predicted to bring significant rain to the region right away, according to reports on the Washington Post Website.

  18. Mechanisms of ice gouging

    SciTech Connect

    Kioka, Shinji; Saeki, Hiroshi

    1995-12-31

    Sea ice is carried to the cost of Hokkaido by wind and water currents every year. In low pressure systems or when there is much sea ice, it drifts out toward the Pacific Ocean. When sea ice moves in shallow water areas, the sandy subgrade on the sea bottom is gouged by the sea ice. This phenomenon is generally called ``ice gouging``. Substantial damage to sea food i.e. (shellfish) and to structures embedded in the seabed is reported every year. However, the mechanisms and behavior of ice gouging is not known sufficiently enough for discussion. Therefore, the authors have conducted a suitable experiment to clarify this phenomenon and have suggested formulas to measure ice gouging.

  19. Arctic Summer Ice Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to estimate the flux of heat and freshwater resulting from sea ice melt in the polar seas. The approach taken is to examine the decay of sea ice in the summer months primarily through the use of spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery. The improved understanding of the dynamics of the melt process can be usefully combined with ice thermodynamic and upper ocean models to form more complete models of ice melt. Models indicate that more heat is absorbed in the upper ocean when the ice cover is composed of smaller rather than larger floes and when there is more open water. Over the course of the summer, floes disintegrate by physical forcing and heating, melting into smaller and smaller sizes. By measuring the change in distribution of floes together with open water over a summer period, we can make estimates of the amount of heating by region and time. In a climatic sense, these studies are intended to improve the understanding of the Arctic heat budget which can then be eventually incorporated into improved global climate models. This work has two focus areas. The first is examining the detailed effect of storms on floe size and open water. A strong Arctic low pressure storm has been shown to loosen up the pack ice, increase the open water concentration well into the pack ice, and change the distribution of floes toward fewer and smaller floes. This suggests episodic melting and the increased importance of horizontal (lateral) melt during storms. The second focus area is related to an extensive ship-based experiment that recently took place in the Arctic called Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA). An icebreaker was placed purposely into the older pack ice north of Alaska in September 1997. The ship served as the base for experimenters who deployed extensive instrumentation to measure the atmosphere, ocean, and ice during a one-year period. My experiment will be to derive similar measurements (floe size, open water, temporal change) using spaceborne SAR data obtained during the summer of 1998, and compare these results with an ocean and ice model of summer melt. Additional information is contained in the original.

  20. De-Icing Salts and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Audubon Society, Lincoln.

    Reported is an examination of the use and effects of chlorides as de-icing products for removal of snow and ice from roads immediately following storms. Increasing evidence of detrimental side effects led to a closer look and more careful evaluation of the overall significance of the so-called "bare pavement maintenance." The side effects include…

  1. De-Icing Salts and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Audubon Society, Lincoln.

    Reported is an examination of the use and effects of chlorides as de-icing products for removal of snow and ice from roads immediately following storms. Increasing evidence of detrimental side effects led to a closer look and more careful evaluation of the overall significance of the so-called "bare pavement maintenance." The side effects include

  2. Influence of resolution on storm studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokinen, Pauli; Gregow, Hilppa; Venäläinen, Ari; Laaksonen, Ari

    2014-05-01

    The risk of wind-induced damage to infrastructure as well as forests is projected to increase in western, central, and northern Europe due to anthropogenic warming of climate and concurrent increase in the frequency of strong storms. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of resolution in capturing small scale features such as tropical storms and hurricanes as well as mesoscale features embedded in larger extratropical storms. Because reanalyses are good homogeneous datasets of the current climate, they are of help when studying storms and extreme winds as well as the influence of resolution. To know more about the resolution impact on modelled storms and extreme wind speeds we have in our work concentrated on two European reanalyses: ERA-40 (1957-2002) and ERA-Interim (1979-current). We have analyzed parameterized surface wind gusts and geostrophic and ageostrophic isallobaric wind speeds to see how storm intensity and movement are captured depending on the dataset used. We have also done up-scaling of the datasets to daily resolution to find out how much information is lost when the temporal resolution given to the end-user is low. This is important, because daily temporal resolution is often used in climate research for example in ensemble studies when the focus is on defining uncertainties due to the choice of model. Our preliminary results show that with high spatial and temporal resolution, the reanalysis datasets placed the rapidly moving storms spatially more correctly than with lower resolutions. In the storm cases, the wind speeds in ERA-40 and its lower spatial resolution were, for instance, 15% smaller than those from ERA-Interims higher spatial resolution. Using a 1.125° grid instead of a 0.7° grid shifted the location of storm Anatol's maximum winds by several hundred kilometers. Additionally decreasing the temporal resolution from three hours to 24 hours reduced the estimate of the maximum storm wind speeds by 40-70% and also placed the area of maximum winds in a different location along the track. Due to such examples, we presume that projections of storms under climate change may have large uncertainties. This is due to the varying spatial resolution employed and also the temporal resolution available for the end-users. Focusing on the effects of different resolutions may help to minimize the uncertainties in the results.

  3. Interaction of ice binding proteins with ice, water and ions.

    PubMed

    Oude Vrielink, Anneloes S; Aloi, Antonio; Olijve, Luuk L C; Voets, Ilja K

    2016-03-01

    Ice binding proteins (IBPs) are produced by various cold-adapted organisms to protect their body tissues against freeze damage. First discovered in Antarctic fish living in shallow waters, IBPs were later found in insects, microorganisms, and plants. Despite great structural diversity, all IBPs adhere to growing ice crystals, which is essential for their extensive repertoire of biological functions. Some IBPs maintain liquid inclusions within ice or inhibit recrystallization of ice, while other types suppress freezing by blocking further ice growth. In contrast, ice nucleating proteins stimulate ice nucleation just below 0 °C. Despite huge commercial interest and major scientific breakthroughs, the precise working mechanism of IBPs has not yet been unraveled. In this review, the authors outline the state-of-the-art in experimental and theoretical IBP research and discuss future scientific challenges. The interaction of IBPs with ice, water and ions is examined, focusing in particular on ice growth inhibition mechanisms. PMID:26787386

  4. Hazards of geomagnetic storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herzog, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    Geomagnetic storms are large and sometimes rapid fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field that are related to disturbances on the Sun's surface. Although it is not widely recognized, these transient magnetic disturbances can be a significant hazard to people and property. Many of us know that the intensity of the auroral lights increases during magnetic storms, but few people realize that these storms can also cause massive power outages, interrupt radio communications and satellite operations, increase corrosion in oil and gas pipelines, and lead to spuriously high rejection rates in the manufacture of sensitive electronic equipment. 

  5. Winter 1994 Weather and Ice Conditions for the Laurentian Great Lakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assel, Raymond A.; Janowiak, John E.; Young, Sharolyn; Boyce, Daron

    1996-01-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes developed their most extensive ice cover in over a decade during winter 1994 [December-February 1993/94 (DJF 94)]. Extensive midlake ice formation started the second half of January, about 2 weeks earlier than normal. Seasonal maximal ice extent occurred in early February, again about 2 weeks earlier than normal. Winter 1994 maximum (normal) ice coverages on the Great Lakes are Lake Superior 96% (75%), Lake Michigan 78% (45%), Lake Huron 95% (68%), Lake Erie 97% (90%), and Lake Ontario 67% (24%). Relative to the prior 31 winters (1963-93), the extent of seasonal maximal ice cover for winter 1994 for the Great Lakes taken as a unit is exceeded by only one other winter (1979); however, other winters for individual Great Lakes had similar maximal ice covers.Anomalously strong anticyclonic circulation over the central North Pacific (extending to the North Pole) and an abnormally strong polar vortex centered over northern Hudson Bay combined to produce a circulation pattern that brought frequent air masses of Arctic and polar origin to the eastern third of North America. New records were set for minimum temperatures on 19 January 1994 at many locations in the Great Lakes region. A winter severity index consisting of the average November-February air temperatures averaged over four sites on the perimeter of the Great Lakes (Duluth, Minnesota; Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan; Detroit, Michigan; and Buffalo, New York) indicates that winter 1994 was the 21st coldest since 1779. The unseasonably cold air temperatures produced much-above-normal ice cover over the Great Lakes and created problems for lake shipping. Numerous fatalities and injuries were attributed to the winter weather, which included several ice and snow storms. The much-below-normal air temperatures resulted in enhanced lake-effect snowfall along downwind lake shores, particularly during early to midwinter, prior to extensive ice formation in deeper lake areas. The low air temperatures were also responsible for record 1-day electrical usage and multimillion dollar costs associated with snow removal, U.S. and Canadian Coast Guard operational assistance to ships beset in ice, damage to ships by ice, damage to public and private property by river ice jams and associated flooding, frozen underground water pipes, and damage to fruit trees.

  6. Decameter storm radiation. I. [solar radio bursts and noise storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gergely, T. E.; Erickson, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of the evolution of six decametric storms which took place during the period from January to August, 1971. The storms described were observed with a swept frequency interferometer. The array consists of sixteen log-periodic antennas, equally spaced on a two mile east-west baseline. The association of storms with optical activity and photospheric fields is considered along with the relation of decametric storms to coronal magnetic fields and the association of storms with decimeter and meter wavelength activity. It is shown that decametric storms are always associated with storms at the meter and decimeter wavelengths.

  7. Nowcasting of a supercell storm with VERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Stefan; Chimani, Barbara; Kaufmann, Hildegard; Bica, Benedikt; Lotteraner, Christoph; Tschannett, Simon; Steinacker, Reinhold

    2008-11-01

    On 13th May 2003, a severe weather event took place in Vienna, located in the eastern part of Austria at the foothills of the Alps. A supercell storm was reported by storm chasers, including a tornado, large hail and flash floods due to heavy precipitation, causing damage to both people and to goods in parts of Vienna downtown, which is a rather rare event in this region. For this reason, the development of the thunderstorm has been analysed from the synoptic scale down to the storm scale using different data sources, including, e.g. ground measurements, radio soundings and remote sensing data, for a better understanding of the onset and evolution of such a severe weather event. Furthermore, VERA (Vienna Enhanced Resolution Analysis), a real-time analysis system for surface data, was tested on this case study. Measurements which were available during the event have been used to reanalyse the pre-storm situation, testing the possibility of nowcasting such a storm.

  8. Late-summer Martian Dust Storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is an image of Mars taken from orbit by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Mars Color Imager (MARCI). The Red Planet's polar ice-cap is in the middle of the image. Captured in this image is a 37,000 square-kilometer (almost 23,000 miles) dust storm that moved counter-clockwise through the Phoenix landing site on Oct 11, 2008, or Sol 135 of the mission.

    Viewing this image as if it were the face of a clock, Phoenix is shown as a small white dot, located at about 10 AM. The storm, which had already passed over the landing site earlier in the day, is located at about 9:30 AM.

  9. Ice, Ice, Baby!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) has developed an outreach program based on hands-on activities called "Ice, Ice, Baby". These lessons are designed to teach the science principles of displacement, forces of motion, density, and states of matter. These properties are easily taught through the interesting topics of glaciers, icebergs, and sea level rise in K-8 classrooms. The activities are fun, engaging, and simple enough to be used at science fairs and family science nights. Students who have participated in "Ice, Ice, Baby" have successfully taught these to adults and students at informal events. The lessons are based on education standards which are available on our website www.cresis.ku.edu. This presentation will provide information on the activities, survey results from teachers who have used the material, and other suggested material that can be used before and after the activities.

  10. Storm morphology and electrification from CHUVA-GLM Vale do Paraiba field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, R. I.; Morales, C.; Lima, W. F.; Biscaro, T. S.; Mello, I. B.

    2013-12-01

    CHUVA [Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)] Project is a series of itinerant field campaigns with the objective of characterizing the main precipitating systems observed in Brazil as a support for Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. The fourth field campaign was conducted at Vale do Paraiba in So Paulo, Brazil, from 1 November 2011 to 31 March 2012. For this specific field experiment, several lightning location systems (LLS) were deployed as part of GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and MTG Lightning Imager (LI) pre-launch activities, resulting in a joint effort between INPE, USP, NOAA, NASA, EUMETSAT and several vendors of operational LLS for network intercomparison and GLM and LI proxy data generation. Among these networks, 4 of them detect total (intra-cloud and cloud-to-ground) lightning, including a Lightning Mapping Array (LMA), allowing a detailed description of the cloud electrification. To depict precipitating weather systems, CHUVA uses a mobile XPOL Doppler Radar, micro-rain radars, disdrometers, rain gauges, microwave radiometer, Lidar, and a GPS network for water vapor retrievals. Also, Vale do Paraba and So Paulo are covered by 3 operational S-band radars. The precipitation data collected by these radars and the lightning detected by the LLS were grouped in a structure of storm features built by tracking the precipitating systems and its associated lightning. This storm feature database makes it easier to group similar convective systems and compare them in terms of area, lifetime, rainfall and convection intensity, lightning activity, and more. During this field experiment a large variety of cloud systems were sampled: cold fronts, squall lines, the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) and local convective systems. Microphysical characteristics (such as hydrometeor identification and ice/water mass) of these summer 2011-2012 precipitating systems can be inferred from the X-Pol and 3 operational S-band radars, and the LLS provide detailed information about the storms electrical activity (such as charge centers and lighting propagation processes). We will summarize the results from this experiment providing an in-depth study of the relationship between the storm type and its microphysical-electrical characteristics by presenting the role of storm morphology on cloud electrification, rainfall and severe weather (hail and damaging winds) production. Also, this storm feature database will provide an easy access to CHUVA data for case studies and GLM and LI activities.

  11. Storm Surge Simulation and Ensemble Forecast for Hurricane Irene (2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, N.; Emanuel, K.

    2012-12-01

    Hurricane Irene, raking the U.S. East Coast during the period of 26-30 August 2011, caused widespread damage estimated at $15.8 billion and was responsible for 49 direct deaths (Avila and Cangialosi, 2011). Although the most severe impact in the northeastern U.S. was catastrophic inland flooding, with its unusually large size, Irene also generated high waves and storm surges and caused moderate to major coastal flooding. The most severe surge damage occurred between Oregon Inlet and Cape Hatteras in North Carolina (NC). Significant storm surge damage also occurred along southern Chesapeake Bay, and moderate and high surges were observed along the coast from New Jersey (NJ) northward. A storm surge of 0.9-1.8 m caused hundreds of millions of dollars in property damage in New York City (NYC) and Long Island, despite the fact that the storm made landfall to the west of NYC with peak winds of no more than tropical storm strength. Making three U.S. landfalls (in NC, NJ, and NY), Hurricane Irene provides a unique case for studying storm surge along the eastern U.S. coastline. We apply the hydrodynamic model ADCIRC (Luettich et al. 1992) to conduct surge simulations for Pamlico Sound, Chesapeake Bay, and NYC, using best track data and parametric wind and pressure models. The results agree well with tidal-gauge observations. Then we explore a new methodology for storm surge ensemble forecasting and apply it to Irene. This method applies a statistical/deterministic hurricane model (Emanuel et al. 2006) to generate large numbers of storm ensembles under the storm environment described by the 51 ECMWF ensemble members. The associated surge ensembles are then generated with the ADCIRC model. The numerical simulation is computationally efficient, making the method applicable to real-time storm surge ensemble forecasting. We report the results for NYC in this presentation. The ADCIRC simulation using the best track data generates a storm surge of 1.3 m and a storm tide of 2.1 m at the Battery, NYC, which agree well with the observed storm surge of 1.33 m and storm tide of 2.12 m, although the simulated surge arrives about 2 hours earlier than the observed. Based on the surge climatology estimated by Lin et al. (2012), Hurricane Irene's storm surge is approximately a 60-year event for NYC, but its storm tide, with the surge happening right at the high astronomical tide, is a 100-year event. Lin et al. (2012) also projected that such 100-year storm tide events might occur on average every 3-20 years by the end of the century, under the IPCC A1B emission scenario and a 1-m sea level rise. The ensemble forecasting, starting from two and one days (each with 1000 ensembles) before Irene's first landfall in NC, shows that Irene's actual storm surge at the Battery had a chance of about 9% and 10% to be exceeded, respectively. The largest surges among the two ensemble sets are 2.28 m and 2.05 m, respectively. If happening at the high tide, as with Hurricane Irene, the worst-case storm tides would be about 3-3.2 m, similar to the highest historical water level at the Battery due to a hurricane in 1821. Lin et al. (2012) estimated that such a storm tide of about 3.1 m had a return period of about 500 years under current climate conditions, but the return period might become 25-240 years by the end of the century, under the IPCC A1B emission scenario and a 1-m sea level rise.

  12. Reducing uncertainty - responses for electricity utilities to severe solar storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaunt, Charles Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, electricity utilities in mid- and low-latitude regions believed that solar storms had no (or only insignificant) effect on their power systems. Then it was noticed that the onset of damage in several large transformers, leading to their failure, correlated very closely with the Halloween storm of 2003. Since then engineers have started to appreciate that a very severe storm could have serious consequences outside the high-latitude regions. There are many uncertainties in predicting the effects of solar storms on electrical systems. The severity and time of arrival of a storm are difficult to model; so are the geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) expected to flow in the power networks. Published information about the responses of different types of transformers to GICs is contradictory. Measurements of the abnormal power flows in networks during solar storms generally do not take into account the effects of the current distortion and unbalance, potentially giving misleading signals to the operators. The normal requirement for optimum system management, while allowing for the possibility of faults caused by lightning, birds and other causes, limits the capacity of system operators to respond to the threats of GICs, which are not assessed easily by the N - 1 reliability criterion. A utility's response to the threat of damage by GICs depends on the expected frequency and magnitude of solar storms. Approaches to formulating a response are located in a system model incorporating space physics, network analysis, transformer engineering, network reliability and decision support and the benefits are identified. Approaches adopted in high-latitude regions might not be appropriate where fewer storms are expected to reach damaging levels. The risks of an extreme storm cannot be ignored, and understanding the response mechanisms suitable for low-latitude regions has the capacity to inform and reduce the uncertainty for power systems planners and operators worldwide.

  13. European Winter Storms in the ECMWF Ensemble Prediction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinski, Robert; Lorenz, Philip; Kruschke, Tim; Leckebusch, Gregor C.; Ulbrich, Uwe

    2013-04-01

    As European winter storms can provoke very large damages, estimations of the probability of occurrence are of economical and sociological importance. The estimations of return periods for the strongest events underlie large uncertainties, which arise from the limited available data, available from historical meteorological records or reanalysis data. A gain of information can be obtained from ensemble forecasts. In this work the Ensemble Prediction System (EPS) from the European Center of Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) is analyzed for its suitability to improve the estimates of return periods of very rare and severe events. The EPS dataset contains up to 51 ensemble members, starting twice a day and each integrated over 10 days. The storm systems are identified and characterized using a wind field tracking algorithm developed by Leckebusch et al. (2008). Exceedances of the local 98th percentile of 10m wind speed are used, and calculating the cube of these exceedances, accumulated spatially and temporally, an objective storm severity measure (SSI) is determined. Taking the distribution of values into account, the measure of storm severity relates to storm damages. Using ERA-Interim as a reference dataset, it is shown that the general distributions of storm properties in the EPS are realistic. The EPS representations of a single ERA-Interim storm show a wide range of variability in terms of size, duration and severity. Hence better estimations of return periods of winter storms are possible using the EPS, as well as studies of general aspects of storms, like the correlation between intensification and storm duration. Nevertheless for an estimation of return periods, it must be taken into account, that the simulated events in the EPS are not independent of each other.

  14. Facilitating Adaptation to Changing Storm Surge Patterns in Western Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, K. A.; Holman, A.; Reynolds, J.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal regions of North America are already experiencing the effects of climate change and the consequences of new storm patterns and sea level rise. These climate change effects are even more pronounced in western Alaska where the loss of sea ice in early winter and spring are exposing the coast to powerful winter storms that are visibly altering the landscape, putting coastal communities at risk, and are likely impacting important coastal wildlife habitat in ways we don't yet understand. The Western Alaska Landscape Conservation Cooperative has funded a suite of projects to improve the information available to assist managers and communities to adapt changes in coastal storms and their impacts. Projects range from modeling tide, wave and storm surge patters, to ShoreZone and NHD mapping, to bathymetry mapping, community vulnerability assessments and risks to important wildlife habitat. This group of diverse projects has helped stimulate momentum among partners which will lead to better tools for communities to respond to dangerous storms. For example, the State of Alaska and NOAA are working together to compile a series of community-scale maps that utilize best-available datasets to streamline communication about forecasted storm surges, local elevations and potentially impacted infrastructure during storm events that may lead to coastal flooding.

  15. Total Lightning and Radar Storm Characteristics Associated with Severe Storms in Central Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J; Raghavan, R.; Buechler, Dennis; Hodanish, S.; Sharp, D.; Williams, E.; Boldi, B.; Matlin, A.; Weber, M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the three dimensional characteristics of lightning flashes and severe storms observed in Central Florida during 1997-1998. The lightning time history of severe and tornadic storms were captured during the on-going ground validation campaign supporting the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) experiment on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The ground validation campaign is a collaborative experiment that began in 1997 and involves scientists at the Global Hydrology and Climate Center, MIT/Lincoln Laboratories, and the NWS Forecast Office at Melbourne, FL. Lightning signatures that may provide potential early warning of severe storms are being evaluated by the forecasters at the NWS/MLB office. Severe storms with extreme flash rates sometimes exceeding 300 per minute and accompanying rapid increases in flash rate prior to the onset of the severe weather (hall, damaging winds, tornadoes) have been reported by Hodanish et al. and Williams et al. (1998-this conference). We examine the co-evolving changes in storm structure (mass, echo top, shear, latent heat release) and kinematics associated with these extreme and rapid flash rate changes over time. The flash frequency and density are compared with the three dimensional radar reflectivity structure of the storm to help interpret the possible mechanisms producing the extreme and rapidly increasing flash rates. For two tornadic storms examined thus far, we find the burst of lightning is associated with the development of upper level rotation in the storm. In one case, the lightning burst follows the formation of a bounded weak echo region (BWER). The flash rates diminish with time as the rotation develops to the ground in conjunction with the decent of the reflectivity core. Our initial findings suggest the dramatic increase of flash rates is associated with a sudden and dramatic increase in storm updraft intensity which we hypothesize is stretching vertical vorticity as well as enhancing the development of the mixed phase region of the storm. We discuss the importance of these factors in producing both the observed extreme flash rates and the severe weather that follows in these storms and others to be presented.

  16. Mobile intercept of storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    The primary goal was to acquire lightning data to serve as ground truth for U2 overflights. Researchers were successful in instrumenting the Univ. of Mississippi/National Severe Storms Lab. (UM/NSSL) mobile laboratory and in coordinating storm intercept through communication to the U2 provided by airplane guidance at NSSL and through direct communication with the U2 pilot from a portable transceiver in the mobile lab. A demonstration showed that a mobile laboratory can be directed within a large geographical area and used to collect ground truth data for comparison with airborne data on a routine basis with proper utilization of forecasts, nowcasts, and communication among all participants. After the U2 flights, researchers turned their attention solely to intercepting severe storms within the area of Oklahoma with good Doppler radar coverage. They incorporated a second vehicle, which followed the mobile lab and from which they released instrumented balloons. This project utilized a standard meteorological rawinsonde and a balloon-borne electric field meter. They were successful in flying, tracking, and receiving data from mobily launched balloons on several days. Researchers believe that they have demonstrated the ability to obtain meteorological and electrical data in severe storms using instrumented balloons. This also includes the capability to launch into the mesocyclone region and for multiple launches in the same storm.

  17. Assessment of Storm Surge Forecasting Methods Used During Typhoon Haiyan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo; Malano, Vicente

    2014-05-01

    On 8 November 2013, Super Typhoon Haiyan made landfall in the central part of the Philippines. Considered one of the most powerful typhoons ever to make landfall in recorded history with 315 kph one-minute maximum sustained winds according to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), Haiyan brought widespread devastation in its path. Strong winds, heavy rainfall, and storm surges caused massive loss of lives and extensive damage to property. Storm surges were primarily responsible for the 6,201 dead, 1,785 missing and 28,626 injured in Haiyan's aftermath. This study documents the Haiyan storm surge simulations which were used as basis for the warnings provided to the public. The storm tide -- storm surge added to astronomical tide levels -- forecasts were made using the Japan Meteorological Agency's (JMA) Storm Surge Model and WXTide software. Storm surge maps for the entire Philippines and time series plots for observation points in areas along the path of the typhoon were produced. Storm tide heights between one and five meters were also predicted for 68 coastal areas two days prior to Haiyan's landfall. A storm surge inundation map showing the extent of coastal flooding for Tacloban City, Leyte, one of the most severely affected areas by the typhoon, was generated using FLO-2D software. This was validated using field data such as high water marks, eyewitness accounts from locals, and information from media coverage. This map can be used as reference to determine danger zones and safe evacuation sites during similar events. Typhoon Haiyan generated one of the biggest and most devastating storm surge events in several decades, exacting a high death toll despite its early prediction. Lessons learned from this calamity and information contained in this work may serve as useful reference to mitigate the heavy impact of future storm surge events in the Philippines and elsewhere.

  18. Overview of the ARkStorm scenario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, Keith; Wein, Anne; Alpers, Charles; Baez, Allan; Barnard, Patrick L.; Carter, James; Corsi, Alessandra; Costner, James; Cox, Dale; Das, Tapash; Dettinger, Mike; Done, James; Eadie, Charles; Eymann, Marcia; Ferris, Justin; Gunturi, Prasad; Hughes, Mimi; Jarrett, Robert; Johnson, Laurie; Le-Griffin, Hanh Dam; Mitchell, David; Morman, Suzette; Neiman, Paul; Olsen, Anna; Perry, Suzanne; Plumlee, Geoffrey; Ralph, Martin; Reynolds, David; Rose, Adam; Schaefer, Kathleen; Serakos, Julie; Siembieda, William; Stock, Jonathan; Strong, David; Wing, Ian Sue; Tang, Alex; Thomas, Pete; Topping, Ken; Wills, Chris; Jones, Lucile

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Multi Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) uses hazards science to improve resiliency of communities to natural disasters including earthquakes, tsunamis, wildfires, landslides, floods and coastal erosion. The project engages emergency planners, businesses, universities, government agencies, and others in preparing for major natural disasters. The project also helps to set research goals and provides decision-making information for loss reduction and improved resiliency. The first public product of the MHDP was the ShakeOut Earthquake Scenario published in May 2008. This detailed depiction of a hypothetical magnitude 7.8 earthquake on the San Andreas Fault in southern California served as the centerpiece of the largest earthquake drill in United States history, involving over 5,000 emergency responders and the participation of over 5.5 million citizens. This document summarizes the next major public project for MHDP, a winter storm scenario called ARkStorm (for Atmospheric River 1,000). Experts have designed a large, scientifically realistic meteorological event followed by an examination of the secondary hazards (for example, landslides and flooding), physical damages to the built environment, and social and economic consequences. The hypothetical storm depicted here would strike the U.S. West Coast and be similar to the intense California winter storms of 1861 and 1862 that left the central valley of California impassible. The storm is estimated to produce precipitation that in many places exceeds levels only experienced on average once every 500 to 1,000 years. Extensive flooding results. In many cases flooding overwhelms the state's flood-protection system, which is typically designed to resist 100- to 200-year runoffs. The Central Valley experiences hypothetical flooding 300 miles long and 20 or more miles wide. Serious flooding also occurs in Orange County, Los Angeles County, San Diego, the San Francisco Bay area, and other coastal communities. Windspeeds in some places reach 125 miles per hour, hurricane-force winds. Across wider areas of the state, winds reach 60 miles per hour. Hundreds of landslides damage roads, highways, and homes. Property damage exceeds $300 billion, most from flooding. Demand surge (an increase in labor rates and other repair costs after major natural disasters) could increase property losses by 20 percent. Agricultural losses and other costs to repair lifelines, dewater (drain) flooded islands, and repair damage from landslides, brings the total direct property loss to nearly $400 billion, of which $20 to $30 billion would be recoverable through public and commercial insurance. Power, water, sewer, and other lifelines experience damage that takes weeks or months to restore. Flooding evacuation could involve 1.5 million residents in the inland region and delta counties. Business interruption costs reach $325 billion in addition to the $400 property repair costs, meaning that an ARkStorm could cost on the order of $725 billion, which is nearly 3 times the loss deemed to be realistic by the ShakeOut authors for a severe southern California earthquake, an event with roughly the same annual occurrence probability. The ARkStorm has several public policy implications: (1) An ARkStorm raises serious questions about the ability of existing federal, state, and local disaster planning to handle a disaster of this magnitude. (2) A core policy issue raised is whether to pay now to mitigate, or pay a lot more later for recovery. (3) Innovative financing solutions are likely to be needed to avoid fiscal crisis and adequately fund response and recovery costs from a similar, real, disaster. (4) Responders and government managers at all levels could be encouraged to conduct risk assessments, and devise the full spectrum of exercises, to exercise ability of their plans to address a similar event. (5) ARkStorm can be a reference point for application of Federal Emergency Ma

  19. Historically Great Magnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliver, E. W.

    2012-12-01

    What was the largest geomagnetic storm ever recorded? The question is of interest for both theoretical and practical reasons. The available records of magnetic activity indicate that three of the largest storms (in 1859, 1909, and 1921) occurred before the epoch of systematic high-time-resolution indices initiated by Bartels in 1932. Recent efforts to extend such indices back in time enable us to compare the 1909 and 1921 storms with modern giants such as the March 1989 event. Comparisons are made between early reports of auroras at mid-latitudes and magnetic activity. Overhead aurora are associated with particularly strong magnetic disturbances, e.g., the 3000 nT deflection recorded for the 1859 event in Rome.

  20. Storms and Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) took this 2-millisecond exposure of Jupiter at 04:41:04 UTC on January 24, 2007. The spacecraft was 57 million kilometers (35.3 million miles) from Jupiter, closing in on the giant planet at 41,500 miles (66,790 kilometers) per hour. At right are the moons Io (bottom) and Ganymede; Ganymede's shadow creeps toward the top of Jupiter's northern hemisphere.

    Two of Jupiter's largest storms are visible; the Great Red Spot on the western (left) limb of the planet, trailing the Little Red Spot on the eastern limb, at slightly lower latitude. The Great Red Spot is a 300-year old storm more than twice the size of Earth. The Little Red Spot, which formed over the past decade from the merging of three smaller storms, is about half the size of its older and 'greater' counterpart.

  1. TWINS Geomagnetic Storm Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, J. D.; Buzulukova, N.; Fok, M. C. H.; Goldstein, J.; McComas, D. J.; Valek, P. W.; Wood, K. D.

    2014-12-01

    Results from TWINS 1 & 2 observations and CIMI simulations have been cataloged for geomagnetic storms with Dst or SYM/H below -100 nT in the years 2008-2013. TWINS (Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers) provides ENA (Energetic Neutral Atom) images on a nearly continuous basis over a broad energy range (1-100 keV/amu). CIMI (Comprehensive Inner-Magnetosphere Ionosphere) model combines the ability to simulate ringcurrent dynamics solving for particle distributions and corresponding ENA fluxes with the ability to calculate radiation belt particle fluxes and inner plasma sheet electron precipitation. For each storm, the TWINS Storm Catalog provides 1-hour-samples ENA images, corresponding deconvolved 2D equatorial ion number flux and pitch angle anisotropy, and the energy spectrum and pitch angle distribution at the position of the peak of the number flux. Also included for direct comparison are results from CIMI simulations for the same quantities. The catalog is available to all interested parties. It will be shown how users of the Catalog will have the opportunity to perform a number of studies related to the dynamics of the ring current during geomagnetic storms. For example, the storms cataloged to date show trends in changes of the energy spectrum from high energy tails deficient in ions as compared to a Maxwellian, to a high energy tail and finally approaching a Maxwellian. Likewise, pitch angle distributions are shown to evolve from having more perpendicular than parallel ions to a nearly isotropic distribution. It is also possible to investigate differences in ring current behavior for CIR and ICME driven storms.It is to be noted that in this context, opportunities for results from the measurements and simulations on a finer time scale, for spectra as a function of equatorial position, and similarly for pitch angle distributions are available by request.

  2. Dust Storms: Why Are Dust Storms a Concern

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditions are extremely dry. Powered by intense ground heating, thunderstorms can produce strong downdrafts. These downdrafts blow up loose sand on the desert floor, creating a dust storm. Dust storms can contain ...

  3. Storm Warning Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A Huntsville meteorologist of Baron Services, Inc. has formed a commercial weather advisory service. Weather information is based on data from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) collected from antennas in Alabama and Tennessee. Bob Baron refines and enhances MSFC's real time display software. Computer data is changed to audio data for radio transmission, received by clients through an antenna and decoded by computer for display. Using his service, clients can monitor the approach of significant storms and schedule operations accordingly. Utilities and emergency management officials are able to plot a storm's path. A recent agreement with two other companies will promote continued development and marketing.

  4. Principles of major geomagnetic storms forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagnetko, Alexander; Applbaum, David; Dorman, Lev; Pustil'Nik, Lev; Sternlieb, Abraham; Zukerman, Igor

    According to NOAA Space Weather Scales, geomagnetic storms of scales G5 (3-hour index of geomagnetic activity Kp=9), G4 (Kp=8) and G3 (Kp=7) are dangerous for people technology and health (influence on power systems, on spacecraft operations, on HF radio-communications and others). To prevent these serious damages will be very important to forecast dangerous geomagnetic storms. In many papers it was shown that in principle for this forecasting can be used data on CR intensity and CR anisotropy changing before SC of major geomagnetic storms accompanied by sufficient Forbush-decreases (e.g., Dorman et al., 1995, 1999). In this paper we consider all types of observed precursor effects in CR what can be used for forecasting of great geomagnetic storms and possible mechanisms of these precursor effects origin. REFERENCES: Dorman L.I., et al. "Cosmic-ray forecasting features for big Forbush-decreases". Nuclear Physics B, 49A, 136-144 (1995). L.I.Dorman, et al, "Cosmic ray Forbush-decrease as indicators of space dangerous phenomenon and possible use of cosmic ray data for their pre-diction", Proc. of 26-th Intern. Cosmic Ray Conference, Salt Lake City, 6, 476-479 (1999).

  5. Characterization of ice binding proteins from sea ice algae.

    PubMed

    Bayer-Giraldi, Maddalena; Jin, EonSeon; Wilson, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    Several polar microalgae are able to live and thrive in the extreme environment found within sea ice, where growing ice crystals may cause mechanical damage to the cells and reduce the organisms' living space. Among the strategies adopted by these organisms to cope with the harsh conditions in their environment, ice binding proteins (IBPs) seem to play a key role and possibly contribute to their success in sea ice. IBPs have the ability to control ice crystal growth. In nature they are widespread among sea ice microalgae, and their mechanism of function is of interest for manifold potential applications. Here we describe methods for a classical determination of the IBP activity (thermal hysteresis, recrystallization inhibition) and further methods for protein characterization (ice pitting assay, determination of the nucleating temperature). PMID:24852640

  6. Investigating the marginal ice zone on the Newfoundland Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Peter C.; Tang, C. L.; MacPherson, J. Ian; McKenna, Richard F.

    From the ice and current data collected over the Newfoundland Shelf by the second Canadian Atlantic Storms Program (CASP II), it is evident that ice motion is affected by wind-generated ocean current. This points to the importance of coupled ice-ocean response to wind forcing in the study of shortterm ice motion and operational ice forecasting. The mutual influence of ice and the ocean can also be seen in the water properties.To study the mature stages of explosive cyclogenesis in east coast winter storms and to investigate their influence on the circulation and sea ice properties on the Newfoundland continental shelf and Grand Banks, CASP II was conducted by scientists from the Bedford Institute of Oceanography (BIO), the Atmospheric Environment Service (AES), the National Research Council (NRC), and many universities, private companies, and other government agencies.

  7. California's Perfect Storm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, David

    2010-01-01

    The United States today faces an economic crisis worse than any since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Nowhere is it sharper than in the nation's schools. Last year, California saw a perfect storm of protest in virtually every part of its education system. K-12 teachers built coalitions with parents and students to fight for their jobs and their…

  8. Weathering the storm

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, M.T.

    1993-02-01

    When Hurricane Andrew struck, thousands were displaced from their homes in Florida and Louisiana. Now, months after the winds ceased blowing, the storm is causing hardship once again. Insurance companies sustaining large losses in recent months from a number of natural disasters - including the hurricane - are now passing those losses on to their customers. Independent power companies are no exception.

  9. Stories from the Storm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smoczynski, Carol

    2007-01-01

    For four months, St. Paul's Episcopal School in the Lakeview neighborhood of New Orleans, Louisiana remained closed after Hurricane Katrina ravaged the entire city in August 2005. The storm left St. Paul's campus under nine feet of water for two weeks, destroying many buildings and the entire first floor of the campus. As the only remaining art…

  10. Meteorology: dusty ice clouds over Alaska.

    PubMed

    Sassen, Kenneth

    2005-03-24

    Particles lofted into the atmosphere by desert dust storms can disperse widely and affect climate directly through aerosol scattering and absorption. They can also affect it indirectly by changing the scattering properties of clouds and, because desert dusts are particularly active ice-forming agents, by affecting the formation and thermodynamic phase of clouds. Here I show that dust storms that occurred in Asia early in 2004 created unusual ice clouds over Alaska at temperatures far warmer than those expected for normal cirrus-cloud formation. PMID:15791245

  11. Wind damage and salinity effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on coastal baldcypress forests of Louisiana: Chapter 6F in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, Thomas W.; Conner, William H.; Day, Richard H.; Krauss, Ken W.; Swarzenski, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    The frequency of hurricane landfall in a given coastal stretch may play a more important role in the ecology of coastal forests than previously thought because of direct and indirect impacts of fallen trees and the introduction of salt water that lingers long after the storm passes. Findings show that surge events can inundate interior freshwater forests many miles from the coast and elevate soil salinities twofold to threefold. These elevated salinities may contribute to delayed mortality of certain tree species and set the stage for eventual forest decline and dieback.

  12. Icing rate meter estimation of in-cloud cable icing

    SciTech Connect

    McComber, P.; Druez, J.; Laflamme, J.

    1994-12-31

    In many northern countries, the design and reliability of power transmission lines are closely related to atmospheric icing overloads. It is becoming increasingly important to have reliable instrument systems to warn of icing conditions before icing loads become sufficient to damage the power transmission network. Various instruments are presently being developed to provide better monitoring of icing conditions. One such instrument is the icing rate meter (IRM) which counts icing and de-icing cycles per unit time on a standard probe and can be used to estimate the icing rate on nearby cables. The calibration presently used was originally based on experiments conducted in a cold room. Even though this calibration has shown that the IRM estimation already offers an improvement over model prediction based on standard meteorological parameters, it can certainly be improved further with appropriate field data. For this purpose, the instrument was tested on an icing test site at Mt. Valin (altitude 902 m) Quebec, Canada. In this paper measurements from twelve in-cloud icing events during the 1991--92 winter are divided into one hour periods of icing to provide the experimental icing rate data. The icing rates measured on a 12.5 mm and a 35 mm cables are then compared with the number of IRM signals, also for one hour periods, in relation to initial ice load, temperature, wind velocity and direction. From this analysis, a better calibration for the IRM instrument is suggested. The improvement of the IRM estimation is illustrated by making a comparison with measurements, of the icing load estimation with the old and new calibrations for two complete icing events.

  13. Layered Ice

    An ice jam on the East Branch Wesserunsett Stream in Athens, Maine in January 2014 left 3-5 ft ice walls on the riverbanks. On a January 21, 2014 site visit Nick Stasulis and Charlie Culbertson chisled away some of the ice wall so a discharge measurement could be made. The ice walls showed the ...

  14. The Value of Wetlands in Protecting Southeast Louisiana from Hurricane Storm Surges

    PubMed Central

    Barbier, Edward B.; Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Enchelmeyer, Brian; Reed, Denise J.

    2013-01-01

    The Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004 and Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 have spurred global interest in the role of coastal wetlands and vegetation in reducing storm surge and flood damages. Evidence that coastal wetlands reduce storm surge and attenuate waves is often cited in support of restoring Gulf Coast wetlands to protect coastal communities and property from hurricane damage. Yet interdisciplinary studies combining hydrodynamic and economic analysis to explore this relationship for temperate marshes in the Gulf are lacking. By combining hydrodynamic analysis of simulated hurricane storm surges and economic valuation of expected property damages, we show that the presence of coastal marshes and their vegetation has a demonstrable effect on reducing storm surge levels, thus generating significant values in terms of protecting property in southeast Louisiana. Simulations for four storms along a sea to land transect show that surge levels decline with wetland continuity and vegetation roughness. Regressions confirm that wetland continuity and vegetation along the transect are effective in reducing storm surge levels. A 0.1 increase in wetland continuity per meter reduces property damages for the average affected area analyzed in southeast Louisiana, which includes New Orleans, by $99-$133, and a 0.001 increase in vegetation roughness decreases damages by $24-$43. These reduced damages are equivalent to saving 3 to 5 and 1 to 2 properties per storm for the average area, respectively. PMID:23536815

  15. The value of wetlands in protecting southeast louisiana from hurricane storm surges.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Edward B; Georgiou, Ioannis Y; Enchelmeyer, Brian; Reed, Denise J

    2013-01-01

    The Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004 and Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 have spurred global interest in the role of coastal wetlands and vegetation in reducing storm surge and flood damages. Evidence that coastal wetlands reduce storm surge and attenuate waves is often cited in support of restoring Gulf Coast wetlands to protect coastal communities and property from hurricane damage. Yet interdisciplinary studies combining hydrodynamic and economic analysis to explore this relationship for temperate marshes in the Gulf are lacking. By combining hydrodynamic analysis of simulated hurricane storm surges and economic valuation of expected property damages, we show that the presence of coastal marshes and their vegetation has a demonstrable effect on reducing storm surge levels, thus generating significant values in terms of protecting property in southeast Louisiana. Simulations for four storms along a sea to land transect show that surge levels decline with wetland continuity and vegetation roughness. Regressions confirm that wetland continuity and vegetation along the transect are effective in reducing storm surge levels. A 0.1 increase in wetland continuity per meter reduces property damages for the average affected area analyzed in southeast Louisiana, which includes New Orleans, by $99-$133, and a 0.001 increase in vegetation roughness decreases damages by $24-$43. These reduced damages are equivalent to saving 3 to 5 and 1 to 2 properties per storm for the average area, respectively. PMID:23536815

  16. Weathering a Perfect Storm from Space

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Extreme space-weather events — intense solar and geomagnetic storms — have occurred in the past: most recently in 1859, 1921 and 1989. So scientists expect that, sooner or later, another extremely intense spaceweather event will strike Earth again. Such storms have the potential to cause widespread interference with and damage to technological systems. A National Academy of Sciences study projects that an extreme space-weather event could end up costing the American economy more than $1 trillion. The question now is whether or not we will take the actions needed to avoid such expensive consequences. Let’s assume that we do. Below is an imagined scenario of how, sometime in the future, an extreme space-weather event might play out.

  17. Enhanced seasonality of storm track intensity under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Jascha; Coumou, Dim; Frieler, Katja; Eliseev, Alexey; Levermann, Anders

    2013-04-01

    The seasonal cycle of extratropical storms is an important determinant of climatic conditions in regions along mid-latitude storm tracks. Severe storms during winter can cause severe damages over continents, whereas summer storms can actually bring relief to continents subject to prolonged hot and dry periods. It is thus of crucial importance to gain greater insight into the underlying mechanisms driving the seasonal cycle, as well as to assess future scenarios. Here we analyze the seasonality of extratropical storms in 20th and 21st century climates using CMIP5 model runs, based on different greenhouse gas emission scenarios. The synoptic-scale kinetic energy is derived for each individual month using a 2-6 day bandpass filter on daily wind fields. Intra-seasonal variations in storm track intensity are investigated using t-test analysis. The results indicate an enhanced seasonality in storm intensity under all future emission scenarios over both the Atlantic and Pacific region. Moreover, the amplification is significantly stronger for higher emissions. Differences in seasonality trends between the Northern and Southern Hemisphere as well as the underlying mechanisms will be discussed.

  18. Mapping Hurricane Inland-Storm Tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, M.; East, J. W.; Dorsey, M. E.; McGee, B. D.; McCallum, B. E.; Pearman, J. L.; Sallenger, A. H.; Holmes, R. R.; Berembrock, C. E.; Turnipseed, D. P.; Mason, R. R.

    2008-12-01

    Historically, hurricane-induced storm-tides were documented through analysis of structural or vegetative damage and high-water marks. However, these sources rarely provided quantitative information about the timing of the flooding, the sequencing of multiple paths by which the storm-surge waters arrived, or the magnitude of waves and wave run-up comprising floodwaters. In response to these deficiencies, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed and deployed an experimental mobile storm-surge network to provide detailed time-series data for selected hurricane landfalls. The USGS first deployed the network in September 2005 as Hurricane Rita approached the Texas and Louisiana coasts. The network for Rita consisted of 32 water-level and 14 barometric-pressure monitoring sites. Sensors were located at distances ranging from a few hundred feet to approximately 30 miles inland and sampled 4,000 square miles. Deployments have also occurred for Hurricanes Wilma, Gustav, and Ike. For Hurricane Gustav, more than 100 water level sensors were deployed. Analysis of the water-level data enable construction of maps depicting surge topography through time and space, essentially rendering elements of a 3-dimensional view of the storm-surge dome as it moves on- shore, as well as a map of maximum water-level elevations. The USGS also acquired LIDAR topographic data from coasts impacted by hurricanes. These data reveal extreme changes to the beaches and barrier islands that arise from hurricane storm surge and waves. By better understanding where extreme changes occur along our coasts, we will be able to position coastal structures away from hazards.

  19. Observed and Simulated Radiative and Microphysical Properties of Tropical Convective Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelGenio, Anthony D.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Increases in the ice content, albedo and cloud cover of tropical convective storms in a warmer climate produce a large negative contribution to cloud feedback in the GISS GCM. Unfortunately, the physics of convective upward water transport, detrainment, and ice sedimentation, and the relationship of microphysical to radiative properties, are all quite uncertain. We apply a clustering algorithm to TRMM satellite microwave rainfall retrievals to identify contiguous deep precipitating storms throughout the tropics. Each storm is characterized according to its size, albedo, OLR, rain rate, microphysical structure, and presence/absence of lightning. A similar analysis is applied to ISCCP data during the TOGA/COARE experiment to identify optically thick deep cloud systems and relate them to large-scale environmental conditions just before storm onset. We examine the statistics of these storms to understand the relative climatic roles of small and large storms and the factors that regulate convective storm size and albedo. The results are compared to GISS GCM simulated statistics of tropical convective storms to identify areas of agreement and disagreement.

  20. Storm water pollution prevention plans

    SciTech Connect

    Rossmiller, R.L. )

    1993-03-01

    National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) general permit applications for industrial storm water discharge were to have been filed by October 1992. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies are now issuing permits based on these applications. One compliance aspect of the permits is the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3). The plan must identify the facility's potential sources of storm water pollution and develop and implement best management practices (BMPs) to reduce pollutants in storm water runoff. The objectives of the NPDES storm water program are to eliminate illegal dumping and illicit connections, and to reduce pollutants in industrial storm water discharge. These regulations require industry to develop detailed facility site maps, and describe the types, amounts and locations of potential pollutants. Based on this information, industry can develop and implement best management practices to reduce pollutants in storm water runoff.

  1. Extreme Geomagnetic Storms - 1868 - 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennerstrom, S.; Lefevre, L.; Dumbović, M.; Crosby, N.; Malandraki, O.; Patsou, I.; Clette, F.; Veronig, A.; Vršnak, B.; Leer, K.; Moretto, T.

    2016-05-01

    We present the first large statistical study of extreme geomagnetic storms based on historical data from the time period 1868 - 2010. This article is the first of two companion papers. Here we describe how the storms were selected and focus on their near-Earth characteristics. The second article presents our investigation of the corresponding solar events and their characteristics. The storms were selected based on their intensity in the aa index, which constitutes the longest existing continuous series of geomagnetic activity. They are analyzed statistically in the context of more well-known geomagnetic indices, such as the Kp and Dcx/Dst index. This reveals that neither Kp nor Dcx/Dst provide a comprehensive geomagnetic measure of the extreme storms. We rank the storms by including long series of single magnetic observatory data. The top storms on the rank list are the New York Railroad storm occurring in May 1921 and the Quebec storm from March 1989. We identify key characteristics of the storms by combining several different available data sources, lists of storm sudden commencements (SSCs) signifying occurrence of interplanetary shocks, solar wind in-situ measurements, neutron monitor data, and associated identifications of Forbush decreases as well as satellite measurements of energetic proton fluxes in the near-Earth space environment. From this we find, among other results, that the extreme storms are very strongly correlated with the occurrence of interplanetary shocks (91 - 100 %), Forbush decreases (100 %), and energetic solar proton events (70 %). A quantitative comparison of these associations relative to less intense storms is also presented. Most notably, we find that most often the extreme storms are characterized by a complexity that is associated with multiple, often interacting, solar wind disturbances and that they frequently occur when the geomagnetic activity is already elevated. We also investigate the semiannual variation in storm occurrence and confirm previous findings that geomagnetic storms tend to occur less frequently near solstices and that this tendency increases with storm intensity. However, we find that the semiannual variation depends on both the solar wind source and the storm level. Storms associated with weak SSC do not show any semiannual variation, in contrast to weak storms without SSC.

  2. Severe storm electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, W. D.; Macgorman, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    During FY-85, Researchers conducted a field program and analyzed data. The field program incorporated coordinated measurements made with a NASA U2. Results include the following: (1) ground truth measurements of lightning for comparison with those obtained by the U2; (2) analysis of dual-Doppler radar and dual-VHF lightning mapping data from a supercell storm; (3) analysis of synoptic conditions during three simultaneous storm systems on 13 May 1983 when unusually large numbers of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) flashes occurred; (4) analysis of extremely low frequency (ELF) wave forms; and (5) an assessment of a cloud -ground strike location system using a combination of mobile laboratory and fixed-base TV video data.

  3. Dust Storm, Aral Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Aral Sea has shrunk to less than half its size since 1985. The Aral Sea receives little water (sometimes no water) from the two major rivers that empty into it-the Syr Darya and Amu Darya. Instead, the river water is diverted to support irrigation for the region's extensive cotton fields. Recently, water scarcity has increased due to a prolonged drought in Central Asia. As the Aral Sea recedes, its former sea bed is exposed. The Aral's sea bed is composed of fine sediments-including fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals-that are easily picked up by the region's strong winds, creating thick dust storms. The International Space Station crew observed and recorded a large dust storm blowing eastward from the Aral Sea in late June 2001. This image illustrates the strong coupling between human activities (water diversions and irrigation), and rapidly changing land, sea and atmospheric processes-the winds blow across the

  4. Severe storm electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, R. T.; Rust, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Successful ground truth support of U-2 overflights was been accomplished. Data have been reduced for 4 June 1984 and some of the results have been integrated into some of MSFC's efforts. Staccato lightning (multiply branched, single stroke flash with no continuing current) is prevalent within the rainfree region around the main storm updraft and this is believed to be important, i.e., staccato flashes might be an important indicator of severe storm electrification. Results from data analysis from two stations appear to indicate that charge center heights can be estimated from a combination of intercept data with data from the fixed laboratory at NSSL. An excellent data base has been provided for determining the sight errors and efficiency of NSSL's LLP system. Cloud structures, observable in a low radar reflectivity region and on a scale smaller than is currently resolved by radar, which appear to be related to electrical activity are studied.

  5. Morphology of Magnetic Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vestine, E. H.

    1961-01-01

    This publication is a product of the continuing study of the properties of charged particles and fields in space being conducted by The RAND Corporation under contract No. NAS5-276 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Magnetic storms, revealed by world-wide changes in the intensity of the earth's magnetic field, and emphasized by disturbances in electromagnetic communication channels, form detectable patterns on the surface of the earth and above it. The author draws together data from various times, places, and altitudes and, coupling these with what is known or inferred about the aurora, the ionosphere, and the relationship between them and the earth's radiation belts, creates a picture of what is believed to occur during a magnetic storm.

  6. Storm Surge Flood Hazards of Hurricane Katrina 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Daneshvaran, S.; Jakubowski, S.

    2008-05-01

    . Flooding due to hurricane storm surge is one of the most damaging natural disasters in tropical and sub-tropical coastal regions. Storm surge peril can cause catastrophic loss to coastal properties and loss of life. Estimated hurricane flood risk is often statistically-based and relies on historical data. It provides catastrophic loss and risk information for the event as a whole, but lacks geographical detail. The purpose of this study is to analyze hurricane-induced storm surge flood damage using a grid-based numerical model. Storm surge flood damage due to Hurricane Katrina 2005 is presented as a case study. In order to analyze the resulting hazard from Hurricane Katrina, the United States National Weather Service's operational storm surge model, SLOSH (Sea, Lake and Overland Surges from Hurricanes) was used to predict the maximum storm surge surface using track data from meteorological observations. Local inundation is computed using the flood water depth with the ground elevation above the mean sea level. Residential exposure is estimated using total number of housing units damaged by flood water in each US census block in a grid of 0.01 by 0.01 degrees for hurricane Katrina in 2005. The modeled results for the storm surge inundation and the estimated number of housing units damaged by hurricane Katrina are compared with the extensive field observations by US Geological Survey and FEMA in the counties along the Gulf Coast in the three impacted states of Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana. The modeled surge results are compared and contrasted with high water mark observations, where available. Storm surge losses in residential construction are highly sensitive to location and are best evaluated at a fine spatial resolution. This paper presents the analysis of the catastrophic flood risk based on the magnitude of hurricane storm surge flood depth on a local scale of US census blocks. The framework presented here is analytically-derived and can be used to provide future hurricane flood information with geographic details for other regions along the US Gulf and Atlantic coastal line.

  7. Development in the STORM

    PubMed Central

    Kamiyama, Daichi; Huang, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The recent invention of super-resolution microscopy has brought up much excitement in the biological research community. Here, we will focus on Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy/Photoactivated Localization Microscopy (STORM/PALM) to discuss the challenges in applying super-resolution microscopy to the study of developmental biology, including tissue imaging, sample preparation artifacts, and image interpretation. We will also summarize new opportunities that super-resolution microscopy could bring to the field of developmental biology. PMID:23237944

  8. Watershed Evaluation and Habitat Response to Recent Storms : Annual Report for 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Huntington, Charles W.

    1999-01-01

    Large and powerful storm systems moved through the Pacific Northwest during the wet season of 1995-96, triggering widespread flooding, mass erosion, and, possibly altering salmon habitats in affected watersheds. This project study was initiated to assess whether watershed conditions are causing damage, triggered by storm events, to salmon habitat on public lands in the Snake River basin.

  9. September 2013 Storm and Flood Assessment Report

    SciTech Connect

    Walterscheid, J. C.

    2015-12-21

    Between September 10 and 17, 2013, New Mexico and Colorado received a historically large amount of precipitation (Figure 1). This report assesses the damage caused by flooding along with estimated costs to repair the damage at Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) on the Pajarito Plateau. Los Alamos County, New Mexico, received between 200% and 600% of the normal precipitation for this time period (Figure 2), and the Laboratory received approximately 450% percent of its average precipitation for September (Figure 3). As a result, the Laboratory was inundated with rain, including the extremely large, greater-than-1000-yr return period event that occurred between September 12 and 13 (Table 1). With saturated antecedent soil conditions from the September 10 storm, when the September 12 to September 13 storm hit, the flooding was disastrous to the Laboratory’s environmental infrastructure, including access roads, gage stations, watershed controls, control measures installed under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit (hereafter, the Individual Permit), and groundwater monitoring wells (Figures 4 through 21). From September 16 to October 1, 2013, the Laboratory completed field assessments of environmental infrastructure and generated descriptions and estimates of the damage, which are presented in spreadsheets in Attachments 1 to 4 of this report. Section 2 of this report contains damage assessments by watershed, including access roads, gage stations, watershed controls, and control measures installed under the Individual Permit. Section 3 contains damage assessments of monitoring wells by the groundwater monitoring groups as established in the Interim Facility-Wide Groundwater Monitoring Plan for Monitoring Year 2014. Section 4 addresses damage and loss of automated samplers. Section 5 addresses sediment sampling needs, and Section 6 is the summary of estimated recovery costs from the significant rain and flooding during September 2013.

  10. Winds, Condensation Clouds, Dust Storms, and Polar Caps of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingersoll, A. P.

    2001-05-01

    Using the wide angle images from the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), we have constructed daily global maps in color (from the red and violet filters) at 7 km per pixel resolution. The maps have been made into movies that show dust storms and condensate clouds as well as the positions of the seasonal polar caps. From the dust and condensate clouds, we can measure winds and can monitor the climatology of these features. We can measure the spreading rate of the dust storms, and we can observe the relation between dust storms and the polar caps. Using the narrow angle images from the MOC, we have monitored features within the South Polar residual cap -- the so-called Swiss cheese features. These are circular depressions tens of meters deep and hundreds of meters in diameter that are only found in the south and only where the frost remains throughout the summer. The obvious inference is that they form spontaneously in carbon dioxide ice. A key question is whether the South Polar residual cap is made entirely of carbon dioxide, or whether it could be a veneer of carbon dioxide over a much thicker mass of water ice. The circular depressions may provide the answer. Preliminary modeling of depressions in pure carbon dioxide frost suggests that the frost heals itself and the depressions disappear. Putting water ice underneath the carbon dioxide leads to a long lived depression that grows slowly outward and resembles those observed.

  11. Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    2005-01-01

    Sea ice covers vast areas of the polar oceans, with ice extent in the Northern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 7 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September to approximately 15 x 10(exp 6) sq km in March and ice extent in the Southern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km in February to approximately 18 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September. These ice covers have major impacts on the atmosphere, oceans, and ecosystems of the polar regions, and so as changes occur in them there are potential widespread consequences. Satellite data reveal considerable interannual variability in both polar sea ice covers, and many studies suggest possible connections between the ice and various oscillations within the climate system, such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and Antarctic Oscillation, or Southern Annular Mode. Nonetheless, statistically significant long-term trends are also apparent, including overall trends of decreased ice coverage in the Arctic and increased ice coverage in the Antarctic from late 1978 through the end of 2003, with the Antarctic ice increases following marked decreases in the Antarctic ice during the 1970s. For a detailed picture of the seasonally varying ice cover at the start of the 21st century, this chapter includes ice concentration maps for each month of 2001 for both the Arctic and the Antarctic, as well as an overview of what the satellite record has revealed about the two polar ice covers from the 1970s through 2003.

  12. Severe Coastal Erosion During an El Niño Storm

    Severe coastal bluff erosion, along the southern end of Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California. This storm damage occurred during the 2009-2010 El Niño, which, on average, eroded the shoreline 55 meters that winter....

  13. On the Storm Surge and Sea Level Rise Projections for Infrastructure Risk Analysis and Adaptation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Storm surge can cause coastal hydrology changes, flooding, water quality changes, and even inundation of low-lying terrain. Strong wave actions and disruptive winds can damage water infrastructure and other environmental assets (hazardous and solid waste management facilities, w...

  14. Lightning location relative to storm structure in a supercell storm and a multicell storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Peter S.; Macgorman, Donald R.; Rust, W. David; Taylor, William L.; Rasmussen, Lisa Walters

    1987-01-01

    Relationships between lightning location and storm structure are examined for one radar volume scan in each of two mature, severe storms. One of these storms had characteristics of a supercell storm, and the other was a multicell storm. Data were analyzed from dual-Doppler radar and dual-VHF lightning-mapping systems. The distributions of VHF impulse sources were compared with radar reflectivity, vertical air velocity, and their respective gradients. In the supercell storm, lightning tended to occur along streamlines above and down-shear of the updraft and reflectivity cores; VHF impulse sources were most concentrated in reflectivities between 30 and 40 dBZ and were distributed uniformly with respect to updraft speed. In the multicell storm, on the other hand, lightning tended to coincide with the vertical reflectivity and updraft core and with the diverging streamlines near the top of the storm. The results suggest that the location of lightning in these severe storms were most directly associated with the wind field structure relative to updraft and reflectivity cores. Since the magnitude and vertical shear of the environmental wind are fundamental in determining the reflectivity and wind field structure of a storm, it is suggested that these environmental parameters are also fundamental in determining lightning location.

  15. Thresholds for storm impacts on an exposed sandy coastal area in southern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, L. P.; Vousdoukas, M. V.; Ferreira, Ó.; Rodrigues, B. A.; Matias, A.

    2012-03-01

    Storms are one of the most important phenomena responsible for coastal erosion. Their destructive power presents major challenges for coastal management, and knowledge of their characteristics and associated consequences is therefore of paramount importance. In this study, thresholds for storm impacts are defined for a sandy coast in southern Portugal (Faro beach, Ria Formosa) using two different approaches: i) hydrodynamic conditions associated with historical storm impacts (i.e., infrastructural damage); and (ii) computed maximum wave run-up values (RHIGH) compared with beach morphology. Damage thresholds are defined as limits above which the action of a storm exceeds beach front response capability and starts to act directly on human infrastructures. According to method (i), four different thresholds were defined. For individual storms directed from the SW the threshold is a significant wave height of 4.7 m with a storm duration of 2 days, and for storms directed from the SE is a significant wave height of 6 m with a storm duration of at least 2 days. Regarding storm groups, for those directed from the SW the threshold is 2 storms lasting at least 2 days each with significant wave heights greater than 3.5 m, whilst for those directed from the SE the threshold is 3 short storms (lasting 1 day each) with significant wave height over 3.9 m. The return period for the SW storm group threshold is just 1.7 years. For method (ii), beach morphological parameters (DHIGH — highest elevation of the frontal dune; DLOW — elevation of the dune base; and tanβf — foreshore slope) were determined for five chosen cross-shore profiles along the study area, and RHIGH computed for different hydrodynamic conditions. Results were validated through field observations of storm impacts. The lowest thresholds for overwash are along the central part of the study area where a dune crest is absent due to human occupation. The highest thresholds for overwash are on those profiles where a frontal dune is well developed or a foredune ridge is present (western and eastern parts of the study area). This study presents a methodological strategy to compute realistic thresholds for storm impacts along Faro beach based on historical datasets of hydrodynamics and storm impacts information. The approach could be implemented in other coastal areas to provide a comprehensive assessment of the storm impact, requiring only simple information like offshore storm hydrodynamics characteristics, beach morphology and reports of coastal infrastructure damage.

  16. In situ quantification of experimental ice accretion on tree crowns using terrestrial laser scanning.

    PubMed

    Nock, Charles A; Greene, David; Delagrange, Sylvain; Follett, Matt; Fournier, Richard; Messier, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In the eastern hardwood forests of North America ice storms are an important disturbance event. Ice storms strongly influence community dynamics as well as urban infrastructure via catastrophic branch failure; further, the severity and frequency of ice storms are likely to increase with climate change. However, despite a long-standing interest into the effects of freezing rain on forests, the process of ice accretion and thus ice loading on branches remains poorly understood. This is because a number of challenges have prevented in situ measurements of ice on branches, including: 1) accessing and measuring branches in tall canopies, 2) limitations to travel during and immediately after events, and 3) the unpredictability of ice storms. Here, utilizing a novel combination of outdoor experimental icing, manual measurements and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), we perform the first in situ measurements of ice accretion on branches at differing heights in a tree crown and with increasing duration of exposure. We found that TLS can reproduce both branch and iced branch diameters with high fidelity, but some TLS instruments do not detect ice. Contrary to the expectations of ice accretion models, radial accretion varied sharply within tree crowns. Initially, radial ice accretion was similar throughout the crown, but after 6.5 hours of irrigation (second scanning) radial ice accretion was much greater on upper branches than on lower (∼factor of 3). The slope of the change in radial ice accretion along branches increased with duration of exposure and was significantly greater at the second scanning compared to the first. We conclude that outdoor icing experiments coupled with the use of TLS provide a robust basis for evaluation of models of ice accretion and breakage in tree crowns, facilitating estimation of the limiting breaking stress of branches by accurate measurements of ice loads. PMID:23741409

  17. In Situ Quantification of Experimental Ice Accretion on Tree Crowns Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    PubMed Central

    Nock, Charles A.; Greene, David; Delagrange, Sylvain; Follett, Matt; Fournier, Richard; Messier, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In the eastern hardwood forests of North America ice storms are an important disturbance event. Ice storms strongly influence community dynamics as well as urban infrastructure via catastrophic branch failure; further, the severity and frequency of ice storms are likely to increase with climate change. However, despite a long-standing interest into the effects of freezing rain on forests, the process of ice accretion and thus ice loading on branches remains poorly understood. This is because a number of challenges have prevented in situ measurements of ice on branches, including: 1) accessing and measuring branches in tall canopies, 2) limitations to travel during and immediately after events, and 3) the unpredictability of ice storms. Here, utilizing a novel combination of outdoor experimental icing, manual measurements and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), we perform the first in situ measurements of ice accretion on branches at differing heights in a tree crown and with increasing duration of exposure. We found that TLS can reproduce both branch and iced branch diameters with high fidelity, but some TLS instruments do not detect ice. Contrary to the expectations of ice accretion models, radial accretion varied sharply within tree crowns. Initially, radial ice accretion was similar throughout the crown, but after 6.5 hours of irrigation (second scanning) radial ice accretion was much greater on upper branches than on lower (∼factor of 3). The slope of the change in radial ice accretion along branches increased with duration of exposure and was significantly greater at the second scanning compared to the first. We conclude that outdoor icing experiments coupled with the use of TLS provide a robust basis for evaluation of models of ice accretion and breakage in tree crowns, facilitating estimation of the limiting breaking stress of branches by accurate measurements of ice loads. PMID:23741409

  18. Empirical STORM-E Model. [I. Theoretical and Observational Basis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Xu, Xiaojing; Bilitza, Dieter; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Russell, James M., III

    2013-01-01

    Auroral nighttime infrared emission observed by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument onboard the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite is used to develop an empirical model of geomagnetic storm enhancements to E-region peak electron densities. The empirical model is called STORM-E and will be incorporated into the 2012 release of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI). The proxy for characterizing the E-region response to geomagnetic forcing is NO+(v) volume emission rates (VER) derived from the TIMED/SABER 4.3 lm channel limb radiance measurements. The storm-time response of the NO+(v) 4.3 lm VER is sensitive to auroral particle precipitation. A statistical database of storm-time to climatological quiet-time ratios of SABER-observed NO+(v) 4.3 lm VER are fit to widely available geomagnetic indices using the theoretical framework of linear impulse-response theory. The STORM-E model provides a dynamic storm-time correction factor to adjust a known quiescent E-region electron density peak concentration for geomagnetic enhancements due to auroral particle precipitation. Part II of this series describes the explicit development of the empirical storm-time correction factor for E-region peak electron densities, and shows comparisons of E-region electron densities between STORM-E predictions and incoherent scatter radar measurements. In this paper, Part I of the series, the efficacy of using SABER-derived NO+(v) VER as a proxy for the E-region response to solar-geomagnetic disturbances is presented. Furthermore, a detailed description of the algorithms and methodologies used to derive NO+(v) VER from SABER 4.3 lm limb emission measurements is given. Finally, an assessment of key uncertainties in retrieving NO+(v) VER is presented

  19. Empirical STORM-E model: I. Theoretical and observational basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Xu, Xiaojing; Bilitza, Dieter; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Russell, James M.

    2013-02-01

    Auroral nighttime infrared emission observed by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument onboard the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite is used to develop an empirical model of geomagnetic storm enhancements to E-region peak electron densities. The empirical model is called STORM-E and will be incorporated into the 2012 release of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI). The proxy for characterizing the E-region response to geomagnetic forcing is NO+(v) volume emission rates (VER) derived from the TIMED/SABER 4.3 μm channel limb radiance measurements. The storm-time response of the NO+(v) 4.3 μm VER is sensitive to auroral particle precipitation. A statistical database of storm-time to climatological quiet-time ratios of SABER-observed NO+(v) 4.3 μm VER are fit to widely available geomagnetic indices using the theoretical framework of linear impulse-response theory. The STORM-E model provides a dynamic storm-time correction factor to adjust a known quiescent E-region electron density peak concentration for geomagnetic enhancements due to auroral particle precipitation. Part II of this series describes the explicit development of the empirical storm-time correction factor for E-region peak electron densities, and shows comparisons of E-region electron densities between STORM-E predictions and incoherent scatter radar measurements. In this paper, Part I of the series, the efficacy of using SABER-derived NO+(v) VER as a proxy for the E-region response to solar-geomagnetic disturbances is presented. Furthermore, a detailed description of the algorithms and methodologies used to derive NO+(v) VER from SABER 4.3 μm limb emission measurements is given. Finally, an assessment of key uncertainties in retrieving NO+(v) VER is presented.

  20. Storm Tracks Across Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, Mathieu; Son, Seok-Woo; Gyakum, John; Kevin, Grise

    2013-04-01

    The global storm tracks patterns across the Northern Hemisphere are well documented, but their regional impact on populations has yet to be characterized, as very few studies took a local perspective on storm tracks. In this study, a Lagrangian tracking algorithm is applied to the 850 hPa relative vorticity field to characterize extratropical storm tracks that pass through major cities in Canada. Storm tracks are first classified in reference to the metropolitan cities that they impact, such as Toronto, Montreal, Halifax and St-John's. They are then subjected to several analyses, including but not limited to the identification of main development regions, typical tracks, mean growth rate, intensity and typical regions of decay. We found that the preferential development regions are the lee of the Rockies, the Great Lakes and the Western Atlantic. The collection of storm tracks across each city is composed of storms developing not from a single development region, but from several. Results show that the storm track variability at a city is dominated by the storm track variability of its predominant development region. Among others, we found that the ensembles of storms crossing East coast cities (Halifax, St-John's) are dominated by Atlantic storms that are most frequent during the winter. Storms passing through Montreal and Toronto travel primarily from the Great Lakes and the mid-latitude Rockies. In eastern Canada, storms from the southernmost part of the Rockies are much less frequent, but this development region is the main source of extreme storms, and is thus important in terms of impacts on metropolitan areas. The relationship between storm tracks and modes of atmospheric variability are also examined with an emphasis on the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Northern Annular Mode (NAM). We found that teleconnection shifts storm tracks differently in different development regions. The anomalous storm track densities are presented, as well as their direct impact on specific metropolitan areas. Results show that the combination of these shifts impact cities differently according to their geographic location.

  1. Storm impact for barrier islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger,, Asbury H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    A new scale is proposed that categorizes impacts to natural barrier islands resulting from tropical and extra-tropical storms. The proposed scale is fundamentally different than existing storm-related scales in that the coupling between forcing processes and the geometry of the coast is explicitly included. Four regimes, representing different levels of impact, are defined. Within each regime, patterns and relative magnitudes of net erosion and accretion are argued to be unique. The borders between regimes represent thresholds defining where processes and magnitudes of impacts change dramatically. Impact level 1 is the 'swash' regime describing a storm where runup is confined to the foreshore. The foreshore typically erodes during the storm and recovers following the storm; hence, there is no net change. Impact level 2 is the 'collision' regime describing a storm where the wave runup exceeds the threshold of the base of the foredune ridge. Swash impacts the dune forcing net erosion. Impact level 3 is the 'overwash' regime describing a storm where wave runup overtops the berm or, if present, the foredune ridge. The associated net landward sand transport contributes to net migration of the barrier landward. Impact level 4 is the 'inundation' regime describing a storm where the storm surge is sufficient to completely and continuously submerge the barrier island. Sand undergoes net landward transport over the barrier island; limited evidence suggests the quantities and distance of transport are much greater than what occurs during the 'overwash' regime.

  2. A Perfect Storm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Bill

    2009-01-01

    The present state of adult education is perilous, as all readers of "Adults Learning" will know well. All sectors are damagingly affected by funding decisions, as witnessed by the large numbers of organisations and providers represented at the recent Parliamentary lobby by the Campaigning Alliance for Lifelong Learning (CALL). The damage to adult…

  3. Anticipating Future Sea Level Rise and Coastal Storms in New York City (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, R. M.; Gornitz, V.; Bader, D.; Little, C. M.; Oppenheimer, M.; Patrick, L.; Orton, P. M.; Rosenzweig, C.; Solecki, W.

    2013-12-01

    Hurricane Sandy caused 43 fatalities in New York City and 19 billion in damages. Mayor Michael Bloomberg responded by convening the second New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC2), to provide up-to-date climate information for the City's Special Initiative for Rebuilding and Resiliency (SIRR). The Mayor's proposed 20 billion plan aims to strengthen the City's resilience to coastal inundation. Accordingly, the NPCC2 scientific and technical support team generated a suite of temperature, precipitation, and sea level rise and extreme event projections through the 2050s. The NPCC2 sea level rise projections include contributions from ocean thermal expansion, dynamic changes in sea surface height, mass changes in glaciers, ice caps, and ice sheets, and land water storage. Local sea level changes induced by changes in ice mass include isostatic, gravitational, and rotational effects. Results are derived from CMIP5 model-based outputs, expert judgment, and literature surveys. Sea level at the Battery, lower Manhattan, is projected to rise by 7-31 in (17.8-78.7cm) by the 2050s relative to 2000-2004 (10 to 90 percentile). As a result, flood heights above NAVD88 for the 100-year storm (stillwater plus waves) would rise from 15.0 ft (0.71 m) in the 2000s to 15.6-17.6 ft (4.8-5.4 m) by the 2050s (10-90 percentile). The annual chance of today's 100-year flood would increase from 1 to 1.4-5.0 percent by the 2050s.

  4. Intercomparison of mid latitude storm diagnostics (IMILAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neu, U.

    2009-04-01

    Diagnostics of the observed and projection of the future changes of extratropical storms are a key issue e.g. for insurance companies, risk management and adaptation planning. Storm-associated damages are amongst the highest losses due to natural disasters in the mid-latitudes. Therefore the knowledge of the future variability and change in extratropical cyclone frequency, intensity and track locations is crucial for the strategic planning and minimization of the disaster impacts. Future changes in the total number of storms might be small but major signals could occur in the characteristics of cyclone life cycle such as intensity, life time, track locations. The quantification of such trends is not independent from the methodologies for storm track detection applied to observational data and models. Comparison of differences in cyclone characteristics obtained using different methods from a single data set may be as large as or even exceed the differences between the results derived from different data sets using a single methodology. Even more, the metrics used become particularly sensitive, resulting in the fact that scientific studies may find seemingly contradictory results based on the same datasets. For users of storm track analyses and projections the results are very difficult to interprete. Thus, it would be very helpful if the research community would provide information in a kind of "handbook" which contains definitions and a description of the available different identification and tracking schemes as well as of the parameters used for the quantification of cyclone activity. It cannot be expected that there is an optimum or standard scheme that fulfills all needs. Rather, a proper knowledge about advantages and restrictions of different schemes must be obtained to be able to provide a synthesis of results rather than puzzling the scientific and the general public with apparently contradicing statements. The project IMILAST aims at providing a systematic intercomparison of different methodologies and a comprehensive assessment of all types of uncertainties inherent in the mid-latitudinal storm tracking by comparing different methodologies with respect to data of different resolution (time and space) and limited areas, for both cyclone identification and cyclone tracking respectively.

  5. Impacts on Coralligenous Outcrop Biodiversity of a Dramatic Coastal Storm

    PubMed Central

    Teixidó, Núria; Casas, Edgar; Cebrián, Emma; Linares, Cristina; Garrabou, Joaquim

    2013-01-01

    Extreme events are rare, stochastic perturbations that can cause abrupt and dramatic ecological change within a short period of time relative to the lifespan of organisms. Studies over time provide exceptional opportunities to detect the effects of extreme climatic events and to measure their impacts by quantifying rates of change at population and community levels. In this study, we show how an extreme storm event affected the dynamics of benthic coralligenous outcrops in the NW Mediterranean Sea using data acquired before (2006–2008) and after the impact (2009–2010) at four different sites. Storms of comparable severity have been documented to occur occasionally within periods of 50 years in the Mediterranean Sea. We assessed the effects derived from the storm comparing changes in benthic community composition at sites exposed to and sheltered from this extreme event. The sites analyzed showed different damage from severe to negligible. The most exposed and impacted site experienced a major shift immediately after the storm, represented by changes in the species richness and beta diversity of benthic species. This site also showed higher compositional variability immediately after the storm and over the following year. The loss of cover of benthic species resulted between 22% and 58%. The damage across these species (e.g. calcareous algae, sponges, anthozoans, bryozoans, tunicates) was uneven, and those with fragile forms were the most impacted, showing cover losses up to 50 to 100%. Interestingly, small patches survived after the storm and began to grow slightly during the following year. In contrast, sheltered sites showed no significant changes in all the studied parameters, indicating no variations due to the storm. This study provides new insights into the responses to large and rare extreme events of Mediterranean communities with low dynamics and long-lived species, which are among the most threatened by the effects of global change. PMID:23326496

  6. Solar radio continuum storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, K.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reviews the current status of research on solar radio continuum emissions from metric to hectometric wave frequencies, emphasizing the role of energetic electrons in the 10-100 keV range in these emissions. It is seen that keV-energy electrons generated in active sunspot groups must be the sources of radio continuum storm emissions for wide frequency bands. These electrons excite plasma oscillations in the medium, which in turn are converted to electromagnetic radiation. The radio noise continuum sources are usually associated with type III burst activity observed above these sources. Although the mechanism for the release of the energetic electrons is not known, it seems they are ejected from storm source regions in association with rapid variation of associated sunspot magnetic fields due to their growth into complex types. To explain some of the observed characteristics, the importance of two-stream instability and the scattering of ambient plasma ions on energetic electron streams is pointed out.

  7. Severe storm electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, W. D.; Macgorman, D. R.; Taylor, W.; Arnold, R. T.

    1984-01-01

    Severe storms and lightning were measured with a NASA U2 and ground based facilities, both fixed base and mobile. Aspects of this program are reported. The following results are presented: (1) ground truth measurements of lightning for comparison with those obtained by the U2. These measurements include flash type identification, electric field changes, optical waveforms, and ground strike location; (2) simultaneous extremely low frequency (ELF) waveforms for cloud to ground (CG) flashes; (3) the CG strike location system (LLP) using a combination of mobile laboratory and television video data are assessed; (4) continued development of analog-to-digital conversion techniques for processing lightning data from the U2, mobile laboratory, and NSSL sensors; (5) completion of an all azimuth TV system for CG ground truth; (6) a preliminary analysis of both IC and CG lightning in a mesocyclone; and (7) the finding of a bimodal peak in altitude lightning activity in some storms in the Great Plains and on the east coast. In the forms on the Great Plains, there was a distinct class of flash what forms the upper mode of the distribution. These flashes are smaller horizontal extent, but occur more frequently than flashes in the lower mode of the distribution.

  8. A study of severe storm electricity via storm intercept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Roy T.; Horsburgh, Steven D.; Rust, W. David; Burgess, Don

    1985-01-01

    Storm electricity data, radar data, and visual observations were used both to present a case study for a supercell thunderstorm that occurred in the Texas Panhandle on 19 June 1980 and to search for insight into how lightning to ground might be related to storm dynamics in the updraft/downdraft couplet in supercell storms. It was observed that two-thirds of the lightning ground-strike points in the developing and maturing stages of a supercell thunderstorm occurred within the region surrounding the wall cloud (a cloud feature often characteristic of a supercell updraft) and on the southern flank of the precipitation. Electrical activity in the 19 June 1980 storm was atypical in that it was a right-mover. Lightning to ground reached a peak rate of 18/min and intracloud flashes were as frequent as 176/min in the final stages of the storm's life.

  9. Aerodynamic investigations to determine possible ice flight paths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgsmueller, W.; Frenz, H.; May, P.; Anders, G.

    1982-01-01

    After flights with the VFW 614 under severe icing conditions, damage to the engine was found. In wind tunnel tests a determination of the origin of this ice was made; it is supposed that the damage was caused by this ice. On the modified flight test model of the VFW 614 on a 1:15 scale, measurements were conducted in the VFW-Fokker wind tunnel with exposed particles which represented the free ice. The results of this testing are presented.

  10. Stability of a coral reef fish community following a catastrophic storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, William J.

    1983-08-01

    In January 1980, a severe 3 day storm struck the normally protected leeward coral reefs of Kona, Hawaii. Waves generated by the storm, which was estimated to be a once in 20 40 year occurrence, were in excess of 6 m and caused extensive reef destruction and shoreline alteration. Shallow nearshore areas were denuded of most bottom cover and marine life. Damage to corals was extensive with broken colonies of the coral Porites compressa occurring down to depths of 27 m. Pronounced algal blooms occurred in a clearly defined sequence subsequent to the storm. The patterns of both coral destruction and algal succession were similar to those described on other storm damaged reefs. Fish mortality directly attributable to the storm was slight and the few dead fishes noted were either surge zone or tide pool species. After the storm the shallow reef flat was devoid of resident fishes while deeper areas contained many fishes which had moved from shallower water. This habitat shift substantially reduced the immediate impact of the storm on the fish community. Despite considerable habitat destruction that resulted from the storm, there were no decreases in species or population abundances on five 25 m2 quadrats monitored for 23 months before and 16 months after the storm. Similarly, the numbers of triggerfish sheltering within an area increased even though the storm reduced the number of available shelter holes. The shelter and space-related carrying capacity of these areas prior to the storm may therefore not have been reached. Recolonization of evacuated areas by fishes began shortly after the storm and within 16 months many areas had regained their prestorm appearances. Large numbers of individuals remained however, in their shifted locations.

  11. Interannual Behavior of Large Regional Dust Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kass, D. M.; Kleinboehl, A.; McCleese, D. J.; Schofield, J. T.; Smith, M. D.

    2014-07-01

    We examine large regional dust storms in MCS and TES retrieved temperature profiles. There is significant repeatability with three regional storms (A, B and C) each Mars year. Each type of storm is distinct seasonally and in its behavior.

  12. Ionospheric redistribution during geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immel, T. J.; Mannucci, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    The abundance of plasma in the daytime ionosphere is often seen to grow greatly during geomagnetic storms. Recent reports suggest that the magnitude of the plasma density enhancement depends on the UT of storm onset. This possibility is investigated over a 7year period using global maps of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) produced at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The analysis confirms that the American sector exhibits, on average, larger storm time enhancement in ionospheric plasma content, up to 50% in the afternoon middle-latitude region and 30% in the vicinity of the high-latitude auroral cusp, with largest effect in the Southern Hemisphere. We investigate whether this effect is related to the magnitude of the causative magnetic storms. Using the same advanced Dst index employed to sort the TEC maps into quiet and active (Dst<-100 nT) sets, we find variation in storm strength that corresponds closely to the TEC variation but follows it by 3-6h. For this and other reasons detailed in this report, we conclude that the UT-dependent peak in storm time TEC is likely not related to the magnitude of external storm time forcing but more likely attributable to phenomena such as the low magnetic field in the South American region. The large Dst variation suggests a possible system-level effect of the observed variation in ionospheric storm response on the measured strength of the terrestrial ring current, possibly connected through UT-dependent modulation of ion outflow.

  13. Automated dust storm detection using satellite images. Development of a computer system for the detection of dust storms from MODIS satellite images and the creation of a new dust storm database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ossta, Esam Elmehde Amar

    Dust storms are one of the natural hazards, which have increased in frequency in the recent years over Sahara desert, Australia, the Arabian Desert, Turkmenistan and northern China, which have worsened during the last decade. Dust storms increase air pollution, impact on urban areas and farms as well as affecting ground and air traffic. They cause damage to human health, reduce the temperature, cause damage to communication facilities, reduce visibility which delays both road and air traffic and impact on both urban and rural areas. Thus, it is important to know the causation, movement and radiation effects of dust storms. The monitoring and forecasting of dust storms is increasing in order to help governments reduce the negative impact of these storms. Satellite remote sensing is the most common method but its use over sandy ground is still limited as the two share similar characteristics. However, satellite remote sensing using true-colour images or estimates of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and algorithms such as the deep blue algorithm have limitations for identifying dust storms. Many researchers have studied the detection of dust storms during daytime in a number of different regions of the world including China, Australia, America, and North Africa using a variety of satellite data but fewer studies have focused on detecting dust storms at night. The key elements of this present study are to use data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers on the Terra and Aqua satellites to develop more effective automated method for detecting dust storms during both day and night and generate a MODIS dust storm database..

  14. Identification of storm surge vulnerable areas in the Philippines through the simulation of Typhoon Haiyan-induced storm surge levels over historical storm tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapidez, J. P.; Tablazon, J.; Dasallas, L.; Gonzalo, L. A.; Cabacaba, K. M.; Ramos, M. M. A.; Suarez, J. K.; Santiago, J.; Lagmay, A. M. F.; Malano, V.

    2015-07-01

    Super Typhoon Haiyan entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) on 7 November 2013, causing tremendous damage to infrastructure and loss of lives mainly due to the storm surge and strong winds. Storm surges up to a height of 7 m were reported in the hardest hit areas. The threat imposed by this kind of natural calamity compelled researchers of the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards (Project NOAH) which is the flagship disaster mitigation program of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) of the Philippine government to undertake a study to determine the vulnerability of all Philippine coastal communities to storm surges of the same magnitude as those generated by Haiyan. This study calculates the maximum probable storm surge height for every coastal locality by running simulations of Haiyan-type conditions but with tracks of tropical cyclones that entered PAR from 1948-2013. One product of this study is a list of the 30 most vulnerable coastal areas that can be used as a basis for choosing priority sites for further studies to implement appropriate site-specific solutions for flood risk management. Another product is the storm tide inundation maps that the local government units can use to develop a risk-sensitive land use plan for identifying appropriate areas to build residential buildings, evacuation sites, and other critical facilities and lifelines. The maps can also be used to develop a disaster response plan and evacuation scheme.

  15. Identification of storm surge vulnerable areas in the Philippines through the simulation of Typhoon Haiyan-induced storm surge levels over historical storm tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapidez, J. P.; Tablazon, J.; Dasallas, L.; Gonzalo, L. A.; Cabacaba, K. M.; Ramos, M. M. A.; Suarez, J. K.; Santiago, J.; Lagmay, A. M. F.; Malano, V.

    2015-02-01

    Super Typhoon Haiyan entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) 7 November 2013, causing tremendous damage to infrastructure and loss of lives mainly due to the storm surge and strong winds. Storm surges up to a height of 7 m were reported in the hardest hit areas. The threat imposed by this kind of natural calamity compelled researchers of the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards (Project NOAH), the flagship disaster mitigation program of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), Government of the Philippines, to undertake a study to determine the vulnerability of all Philippine coastal communities to storm surges of the same magnitude as those generated by Haiyan. This study calculates the maximum probable storm surge height for every coastal locality by running simulations of Haiyan-type conditions but with tracks of tropical cyclones that entered PAR from 1948-2013. One product of this study is a list of the 30 most vulnerable coastal areas that can be used as basis for choosing priority sites for further studies to implement appropriate site-specific solutions for flood risk management. Another product is the storm tide inundation maps that the local government units can use to develop a risk-sensitive land use plan for identifying appropriate areas to build residential buildings, evacuation sites, and other critical facilities and lifelines. The maps can also be used to develop a disaster response plan and evacuation scheme.

  16. Flash Rate, Electrical, Microphysical, and Dynamical Relationships Across a Simulated Storm Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macgorman, D. R.; Cohen, A.; Mansell, T.; Ziegler, C.

    2008-12-01

    Many studies have suggested relationships between intracloud flash rates and microphyiscal variables, both from an observational perspective and for specific storm intensity and morphology. These relationships are necessary for any analytic approach to forecasting lightning activity or for inferring storm properties from lightning observations. This study provides an analysis of the relationships between flash rates and several microphysical quantities across a wide spectrum of simulated storms. Some of these quantities include electric field, graupel volume, updraft mass flux, rain mass, ice crystal mass flux, updraft volume, maximum updraft, and cloud ice mass. Eleven unique storms were simulated using the Collaborative Model for Multiscale Atmospheric Simulation (COMMAS) to maximize the temporal and spatial resolution of the analysis. Modifications to surface moisture and bulk shear depth and magnitude yielded a wide range of storm intensity and morphology, from weak, unicell storms, to strong squall lines and supercells. Each case was run with two different noninductive graupel-ice charge separation schemes, for a total of 22 simulations. Results show that the relationships of total flash rates with rain mass, ice crystal mass flux, and graupel volume are significant, while the relationships are weak with maximum electric field and maximum updraft. For cases in which convection remained isolated (i.e., one cell in the model domain for most of the 120 minutes), the correlations between detrended total flash rate and graupel volume were also found to be significant. Furthermore, by translating flash rate time series backwards in time, the correlation coefficients between flash rates and some of the microphysical variables were found to increase. Understanding these relationships can provide the foundation for future work in predicting flash rates across a wide range of storms based on observational information, including radar data.

  17. Revisiting ice nucleation from precipitation samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petters, M. D.; Wright, T. P.

    2015-10-01

    An emerging and unsolved question is the sensitivity of cloud processes, precipitation, and climate to the atmospheric ice nucleus spectrum. This work revisits estimation of atmospheric ice-nucleating particle concentration derived from cloud water and precipitation samples representing a wide range of geographical locations, seasons, storm systems, precipitation types, instruments, concentrations, and temperatures. Concentrations of ice-nucleating particles are shown to vary over 10 orders of magnitude. High variability is observed in the -5°C to -12°C range which is suggested to be biologically derived nuclei whose life cycle is associated with intermittent source and efficient sink processes. The highest ever observed nucleus concentrations at -8°C are 3 orders of magnitude lower than observed ice crystal concentrations in tropical cumuli at the same temperature. The observed upper and lower limits of the nucleus spectrum provide a possible constraint on minimum enhancement factors for secondary ice formation processes.

  18. Gulf Coast Disaster Management: Forest Damage Detection and Carbon Flux Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maki, A. E.; Childs, L. M.; Jones, J.; Matthews, C.; Spindel, D.; Batina, M.; Malik, S.; Allain, M.; Brooks, A. O.; Brozen, M.; Chappell, C.; Frey, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    Along the Gulf Coast and Eastern Seaboard, tropical storms and hurricanes annually cause defoliation and deforestation amongst coastal forests. After a severe storm clears, there is an urgent need to assess impacts on timber resources for targeting state and national resources to assist in recovery. It is important to identify damaged areas following the storm, due to their increased probability of fire risk, as well as the effect upon the carbon budget. Better understanding and management of the immediate and future effects on the carbon cycle in the coastal forest ecosystem is especially important. Current methods of detection involve assessment through ground-based field surveys, aerial surveys, computer modeling of meteorological data, space-borne remote sensing, and Forest Inventory and Analysis field plots. Introducing remotely-sensed data from NASA and NASA-partnered Earth Observation Systems (EOS), this project seeks to improve the current methodology and focuses on a need for methods that are more synoptic than field surveys and more closely linked to the phenomenology of tree loss and damage than passive remote sensing methods. The primary concentration is on the utilization of Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) data products to detect changes in forest canopy height as an indicator of post-hurricane forest disturbances. By analyzing ICESat data over areas affected by Hurricane Katrina, this study shows that ICESsat is a useful method of detecting canopy height change, though further research is needed in mixed forest areas. Other EOS utilized in this study include Landsat, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the NASA verified and validated international Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) sensor. This study addresses how NASA could apply ICESat data to contribute to an improved method of detecting hurricane-caused forest damage in coastal areas; thus to pinpoint areas more susceptible to fire damage and subsequent loss of carbon sequestration.

  19. Waterway Ice Thickness Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The ship on the opposite page is a U. S. Steel Corporation tanker cruising through the ice-covered waters of the Great Lakes in the dead of winter. The ship's crew is able to navigate safely by plotting courses through open water or thin ice, a technique made possible by a multi-agency technology demonstration program in which NASA is a leading participant. Traditionally, the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway System is closed to shipping for more than three months of winter season because of ice blockage, particularly fluctuations in the thickness and location of ice cover due to storms, wind, currents and variable temperatures. Shippers have long sought a system of navigation that would allow year-round operation on the Lakes and produce enormous economic and fuel conservation benefits. Interrupted operations require that industrial firms stockpile materials to carry them through the impassable months, which is costly. Alternatively, they must haul cargos by more expensive overland transportation. Studies estimate the economic benefits of year-round Great Lakes shipping in the hundreds of millions of dollars annually and fuel consumption savings in the tens of millions of gallons. Under Project Icewarn, NASA, the U.S. Coast Guard and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration collaborated in development and demonstration of a system that permits safe year-round operations. It employs airborne radars, satellite communications relay and facsimile transmission to provide shippers and ships' masters up-to-date ice charts. Lewis Research Center contributed an accurate methods of measuring ice thickness by means of a special "short-pulse" type of radar. In a three-year demonstration program, Coast Guard aircraft equipped with Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) flew over the Great Lakes three or four times a week. The SLAR, which can penetrate clouds, provided large area readings of the type and distribution of ice cover. The information was supplemented by short-pulse radar measurements of ice thickness. The radar data was relayed by a NOAA satellite to a ground station where NOAA analyzed it and created picture maps, such as the one shown at lower left, showing where icebreakers can cut paths easily or where shipping can move through thin ice without the aid of icebreakers. The ice charts were then relayed directly to the wheelhouses of ships operating on the Lakes. Following up the success of the Great Lakes program, the icewarn team applied its system in another demonstration, this one a similarly successful application designed to aid Arctic coast shipping along the Alaskan North Slope. Further improvement of the ice-monitoring system is planned. Although aircraft-mounted radar is effective, satellites could provide more frequent data. After the launch this year of Seasat, an ocean-monitoring satellite, NASA will conduct tests to determine the ice-mapping capability and accuracy of satellite radar images.

  20. Design and quantification of an extreme winter storm scenario for emergency preparedness and planning exercises in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettinger, M.D.; Martin, Ralph F.; Hughes, M.; Das, T.; Neiman, P.; Cox, D.; Estes, G.; Reynolds, D.; Hartman, R.; Cayan, D.; Jones, L.

    2012-01-01

    The USGS Multihazards Project is working with numerous agencies to evaluate and plan for hazards and damages that could be caused by extreme winter storms impacting California. Atmospheric and hydrological aspects of a hypothetical storm scenario have been quantified as a basis for estimation of human, infrastructure, economic, and environmental impacts for emergency-preparedness and flood-planning exercises. In order to ensure scientific defensibility and necessary levels of detail in the scenario description, selected historical storm episodes were concatentated to describe a rapid arrival of several major storms over the state, yielding precipitation totals and runoff rates beyond those occurring during the individual historical storms. This concatenation allowed the scenario designers to avoid arbitrary scalings and is based on historical occasions from the 19th and 20th Centuries when storms have stalled over the state and when extreme storms have arrived in rapid succession. Dynamically consistent, hourly precipitation, temperatures, barometric pressures (for consideration of storm surges and coastal erosion), and winds over California were developed for the so-called ARkStorm scenario by downscaling the concatenated global records of the historical storm sequences onto 6- and 2-km grids using a regional weather model of January 1969 and February 1986 storm conditions. The weather model outputs were then used to force a hydrologic model to simulate ARkStorm runoff, to better understand resulting flooding risks. Methods used to build this scenario can be applied to other emergency, nonemergency and non-California applications. ?? 2011 The Author(s).

  1. Decay of a Martian Dust Storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    NASA Hubble Space Telescope images of Mars, taken on June 27, 1997 (left) and July 9, 1997 (right), document the dissipation of a large dust storm during the 12 days separating the two observations.

    The images were taken to monitor the weather conditions near Ares Vallis, the site where NASA's Pathfinder spacecraft landed on July 4. Maps of the equatorial region were constructed from the images and are shown at the bottom of the figure; a green cross marks the Pathfinder landing site. (All images are oriented with North to the top).

    These two sets of observations show a number of dramatic changes in the planet's atmosphere. At about the 7 o'clock position on the June 27 image, the eastern end of the Valles Marineris canyon system is just coming into daylight and can be seen to be filled with yellowish dust. The dust appears to be confined to the canyons, which can be as much as 8 km deep and hundreds of km wide. Estimates of the quantity of dust involved in this storm indicate that 96% of the incoming sunlight is being blocked from reaching the surface by the dust clouds. Note that on the July 9 image, the dust storm appears to be subsiding; it is estimated that the dust quantity in most of the visible canyon system has dropped to only 10% to 20% of that seen on June 27.

    However, on July 9 a streamer of dust is visible in the North polar region, extending about 1200 km southward from the dark sand dunes surrounding the polar ice cap; diffuse dust is visible over much of Acidalia, the dark region to the north of the Pathfinder landing site. The extent of clouds visible across the planet has also changed considerably between the two dates. Just to the west (left) of the July 9 dust streamer, a very bright area of water-ice clouds is seen; this area was considerably cloudier on June 27.

    These images dramatically show that atmospheric conditions can change rapidly on Mars. Observations such as these will continue to be made over the next several months, allowing the detailed surface observations made by Pathfinder to be placed into the broader context of the global images available from HST.

    This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  2. Meteoroids and Meteor Storms: A Threat to Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    Robust system design is the best protection against meteoroid damage. Impacts by small meteoroids are common on satellite surfaces, but impacts by meteoroids large enough to damage well designed systems are very rare. Estimating the threat from the normal meteoroid environment is difficult. Estimates for the occasional "storm" are even more uncertain. Common sense precautions are in order for the 1999 Leonids, but wide-spread catastrophic damage is highly unlikely. Strong Leonid showers are also expected in 2000 and 2001, but these pose much less threat than 1999.

  3. Onset of frequent dust storms in northern China at ~AD 1100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuxin; Zhao, Cheng; Song, Mu; Liu, Weiguo; Chen, Fahu; Zhang, Dian; Liu, Zhonghui

    2015-11-01

    Dust storms in northern China strongly affect the living and health of people there and the dusts could travel a full circle of the globe in a short time. Historically, more frequent dust storms occurred during cool periods, particularly the Little Ice Age (LIA), generally attributed to the strengthened Siberian High. However, limited by chronological uncertainties in proxy records, this mechanism may not fully reveal the causes of dust storm frequency changes. Here we present a late Holocene dust record from the Qaidam Basin, where hydrological changes were previously reconstructed, and examine dust records from northern China, including the ones from historical documents. The records, being broadly consistent, indicate the onset of frequent dust storms at ~AD 1100. Further, peaked dust storm events occurred at episodes of high total solar irradiance or warm-dry conditions in source regions, superimposed on the high background of frequent dust storms within the cool LIA period. We thus suggest that besides strong wind activities, the centennial-scale dust storm events over the last 1000 years appear to be linked to the increased availability of dust source. With the anticipated global warming and deteriorating vegetation coverage, frequent occurrence of dust storms in northern China would be expected to persist.

  4. Onset of frequent dust storms in northern China at ~AD 1100.

    PubMed

    He, Yuxin; Zhao, Cheng; Song, Mu; Liu, Weiguo; Chen, Fahu; Zhang, Dian; Liu, Zhonghui

    2015-01-01

    Dust storms in northern China strongly affect the living and health of people there and the dusts could travel a full circle of the globe in a short time. Historically, more frequent dust storms occurred during cool periods, particularly the Little Ice Age (LIA), generally attributed to the strengthened Siberian High. However, limited by chronological uncertainties in proxy records, this mechanism may not fully reveal the causes of dust storm frequency changes. Here we present a late Holocene dust record from the Qaidam Basin, where hydrological changes were previously reconstructed, and examine dust records from northern China, including the ones from historical documents. The records, being broadly consistent, indicate the onset of frequent dust storms at ~AD 1100. Further, peaked dust storm events occurred at episodes of high total solar irradiance or warm-dry conditions in source regions, superimposed on the high background of frequent dust storms within the cool LIA period. We thus suggest that besides strong wind activities, the centennial-scale dust storm events over the last 1000 years appear to be linked to the increased availability of dust source. With the anticipated global warming and deteriorating vegetation coverage, frequent occurrence of dust storms in northern China would be expected to persist. PMID:26607033

  5. Deconstructing the climate change response of the Northern Hemisphere wintertime storm tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, B. J.; Shaffrey, L. C.; Woollings, T. J.

    2015-11-01

    There are large uncertainties in the circulation response of the atmosphere to climate change. One manifestation of this is the substantial spread in projections for the extratropical storm tracks made by different state-of-the-art climate models. In this study we perform a series of sensitivity experiments, with the atmosphere component of a single climate model, in order to identify the causes of the differences between storm track responses in different models. In particular, the Northern Hemisphere wintertime storm tracks in the CMIP3 multi-model ensemble are considered. A number of potential physical drivers of storm track change are identified and their influence on the storm tracks is assessed. The experimental design aims to perturb the different physical drivers independently, by magnitudes representative of the range of values present in the CMIP3 model runs, and this is achieved via perturbations to the sea surface temperature and the sea-ice concentration forcing fields. We ask the question: can the spread of projections for the extratropical storm tracks present in the CMIP3 models be accounted for in a simple way by any of the identified drivers? The results suggest that, whilst the changes in the upper-tropospheric equator-to-pole temperature difference have an influence on the storm track response to climate change, the large spread of projections for the extratropical storm track present in the northern North Atlantic in particular is more strongly associated with changes in the lower-tropospheric equator-to-pole temperature difference.

  6. Onset of frequent dust storms in northern China at ~AD 1100

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuxin; Zhao, Cheng; Song, Mu; Liu, Weiguo; Chen, Fahu; Zhang, Dian; Liu, Zhonghui

    2015-01-01

    Dust storms in northern China strongly affect the living and health of people there and the dusts could travel a full circle of the globe in a short time. Historically, more frequent dust storms occurred during cool periods, particularly the Little Ice Age (LIA), generally attributed to the strengthened Siberian High. However, limited by chronological uncertainties in proxy records, this mechanism may not fully reveal the causes of dust storm frequency changes. Here we present a late Holocene dust record from the Qaidam Basin, where hydrological changes were previously reconstructed, and examine dust records from northern China, including the ones from historical documents. The records, being broadly consistent, indicate the onset of frequent dust storms at ~AD 1100. Further, peaked dust storm events occurred at episodes of high total solar irradiance or warm-dry conditions in source regions, superimposed on the high background of frequent dust storms within the cool LIA period. We thus suggest that besides strong wind activities, the centennial-scale dust storm events over the last 1000 years appear to be linked to the increased availability of dust source. With the anticipated global warming and deteriorating vegetation coverage, frequent occurrence of dust storms in northern China would be expected to persist. PMID:26607033

  7. Dynamic Crush Characterization of Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Boitnott, Richard L.; Kellas, Sotiris

    2006-01-01

    During the space shuttle return-to-flight preparations following the Columbia accident, finite element models were needed that could predict the threshold of critical damage to the orbiter's wing leading edge from ice debris impacts. Hence, an experimental program was initiated to provide crushing data from impacted ice for use in dynamic finite element material models. A high-speed drop tower was configured to capture force time histories of ice cylinders for impacts up to approximately 100 ft/s. At low velocity, the force-time history depended heavily on the internal crystalline structure of the ice. However, for velocities of 100 ft/s and above, the ice fractured on impact, behaved more like a fluid, and the subsequent force-time history curves were much less dependent on the internal crystalline structure.

  8. Anchor ice, seabed freezing, and sediment dynamics in shallow arctic seas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimnitz, E.; Kempema, E.W.; Barnes, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    Diving investigations confirm previous circumstantial evidence of seafloor freezing and anchor ice accretion during freeze-up storms in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. These related bottom types were found to be continuous from shore to 2 m depth and spotty to 4.5 m depth. The concretelike nature of frozen bottom, where present, should prohibit sediment transport by any conceivable wave or current regime during the freezing storm. But elsewhere, anchor ice lifts coarse material off the bottom and incorporates it into the ice canopy, thereby leading to significant ice rafting of shallow shelf sediment and likely sediment loss to the deep sea. -from Authors

  9. Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  10. Sea ice terminology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    A group of definitions of terms related to sea ice is presented, as well as a graphic representation of late winter ice zonation of the Beaufort Sea Coast. Terms included in the definition list are belt, bergy bit, bight, brash ice, calving, close pack ice, compacting, compact pack ice, concentration, consolidated pack ice, crack, diffuse ice edge, fast ice, fast-ice boundary, fast-ice edge, first-year ice, flaw, flaw lead, floe, flooded ice, fractured, fractured zone, fracturing, glacier, grey ice, grey-white ice, growler, hummock, iceberg, iceberg tongue, ice blink, ice boundary, ice cake, ice edge, ice foot, ice free, ice island, ice shelf, large fracture, lead, medium fracture, multiyear ice, nilas, old ice, open pack ice, open water, pack ice, polar ice, polynya, puddle, rafted ice, rafting, ram, ridge, rotten ice, second-year ice, shearing, shore lead, shore polynya, small fracture, strip, tabular berg, thaw holes, very close pack ice, very open pack ice, water sky, young coastal ice, and young ice.

  11. Conference explores relationship between geomagnetic storms and substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A. Surjalal; Lakhina, Gurbax S.; Kamide, Yohsuke

    The terrestrial magnetosphere is strongly disturbed by solar plasma, especially during periods of increased solar activity These disturbances constitute geomagnetic storms and substorms and may damage many technological systems, depending on the intensity of the geomagnetic activity Substorms have long been considered to be essential components of geomagnetic storms, but recent studies of the solar windmagnetosphere system are leading to a rethinking of their relationship.About 100 scientists from around the world gathered near Mumbai, India, last March for the AGU Chapman Conference on Storm-Substorm Relationships, to assess current understanding of the relationship between these two major components of geomagnetic activity. The recent data from space missions and ground-based observations and developments in theory and modeling were extensively reviewed and critically examined to assess the advances and to identify key future directions.

  12. Dust Storms: Why Are Dust Storms a Concern?

    MedlinePlus

    ... blown into the air, often lifted by strong winds. Dust storms can be up to 100 miles ... Southwest during the region’s summer monsoon season, when winds shift, temperatures rise, and conditions are extremely dry. ...

  13. Total Storm Currents in Relation to Storm Type and Lifecycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deierling, W.; Kalb, C. P.; Mach, D. M.; Liu, C.

    2013-12-01

    Electrified lightning and non-lightning producing clouds of various types are thought to play a major role in supplying current to the global electric circuit (GEC). However, the contribution of storm conduction currents of different cloud types to the GEC is still not entirely known. Estimates of storm total conduction currents for different electrified clouds for the general categories of oceanic and continental electrified clouds were recently estimated from data collected over two decades during multiple field campaigns involving the NASA ER-2 and Altus-II aircraft. Building on this previous work, in this study we differentiate cloud categories into more specific cloud types (e.g. convective and stratiform partitions, severe versus ordinary single cell storms) and investigate on a case by case basis their underlying microphysical and dynamical structure. We also investigate the temporal evolution of storm total conduction currents during the lifecycle of electrified clouds.

  14. Winter Storm Zones on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, J. L.; Haberle, R. M.; Barnes, J. R.; Bridger, A. F. C.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Preferred regions of weather activity in Mars' winter middle latitudes-so called 'storm zones' are found in a general circulation model of Mars' atmospheric circulation. During northern winter, these storm zones occur in middle latitudes in the major planitia (low-relief regions) of the western and eastern hemisphere. In contrast, the highlands of the eastern hemisphere are mostly quiescent. Compared to Earth's storm zones where diabatic heating associated with land-sea thermal contrasts is crucial, orography on Mars is fundamental to the regionalization of weather activity. Future spacecraft missions aimed at assessing Mars' climate and its variability need to include such regions in observation strategies.

  15. Centralized Storm Information System (CSIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    A final progress report is presented on the Centralized Storm Information System (CSIS). The primary purpose of the CSIS is to demonstrate and evaluate real time interactive computerized data collection, interpretation and display techniques as applied to severe weather forecasting. CSIS objectives pertaining to improved severe storm forecasting and warning systems are outlined. The positive impact that CSIS has had on the National Severe Storms Forecast Center (NSSFC) is discussed. The benefits of interactive processing systems on the forecasting ability of the NSSFC are described.

  16. Biological ice nucleation initiates hailstone formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaud, Alexander B.; Dore, John E.; Leslie, Deborah; Lyons, W. Berry; Sands, David C.; Priscu, John C.

    2014-11-01

    Cloud condensation and ice nuclei in the troposphere are required precursors to cloud and precipitation formation, both of which influence the radiative balance of Earth. The initial stage of hailstone formation (i.e., the embryo) and the subsequent layered growth allow hail to be used as a model for the study of nucleation processes in precipitation. By virtue of the preserved particle and isotopic record captured by hailstones, they represent a unique form of precipitation that allows direct characterization of the particles present during atmospheric ice nucleation. Despite the ecological and economic consequences of hail storms, the dynamics of hailstone nucleation, and thus their formation, are not well understood. Our experiments show that hailstone embryos from three Rocky Mountain storms contained biological ice nuclei capable of freezing water at warm, subzero (°C) temperatures, indicating that biological particles can act as nucleation sites for hailstone formation. These results are corroborated by analysis of δD and δ18O from melted hailstone embryos, which show that the hailstones formed at similarly warm temperatures in situ. Low densities of ice nucleation active abiotic particles were also present in hailstone embryos, but their low concentration indicates they were not likely to have catalyzed ice formation at the warm temperatures determined from water stable isotope analysis. Our study provides new data on ice nucleation occurring at the bottom of clouds, an atmospheric region whose processes are critical to global climate models but which has challenged instrument-based measurements.

  17. Shelter from the Storm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Corey; Metz, John

    2001-01-01

    Discusses why most schools need to upgrade the spaces they use to protect students and staff from tornadoes. School building areas commonly used as safe havens during tornadoes are assessed, followed by information on disaster damage reimbursements and Federal Emergency Management Agency guidelines (FEMA 361) for building tornado and hurricane

  18. Shelter from the Storm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Corey; Metz, John

    2001-01-01

    Discusses why most schools need to upgrade the spaces they use to protect students and staff from tornadoes. School building areas commonly used as safe havens during tornadoes are assessed, followed by information on disaster damage reimbursements and Federal Emergency Management Agency guidelines (FEMA 361) for building tornado and hurricane…

  19. Record-breaking storm activity on Uranus in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, Imke; Sromovsky, L. A.; Fry, P. M.; Hammel, Heidi B.; Baranec, Christoph; Sayanagi, Kunio M.

    2015-05-01

    In spite of an expected decline in convective activity following the 2007 equinox of Uranus, eight sizable storms were detected on the planet with the near-infrared camera NIRC2, coupled to the adaptive optics system, on the 10-m W.M. Keck telescope on UT 5 and 6 August 2014. All storms were on Uranus' northern hemisphere, including the brightest storm ever seen in this planet at 2.2 μm, reflecting 30% as much light as the rest of the planet at this wavelength. The storm was at a planetocentric latitude of ∼15°N and reached altitudes of ∼330 mbar, well above the regular uppermost cloud layer (methane-ice) in the atmosphere. A cloud feature at a latitude of 32°N, that was deeper in the atmosphere (near ∼2 bar), was later seen by amateur astronomers. We also present images returned from our HST ToO program, that shows both of these cloud features. We further report the first detection of a long-awaited haze over the north polar region.

  20. Modeling analysis of storm surge states at Nome, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, D. E.; Shippee, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    Storms that move into the western Bering Sea region have the potential to generate large storm surge responses along the eastern and northeastern Bering Sea coastal margins. Previous authors have discussed physical indications of surges approaching 4m. Surges of this magnitude are made possible by several factors, including the limited depth of the northern Bering Sea, which a continental shelf, and the fact that the storms often loiter, allowing maximum adverse sea states to be attained and maintained. This is coupled with a coastal region that is susceptible to surge, caused either by shallow relief or ice-rich coastal bluffs, which respond with severe erosion when they are undercut by elevated water levels. In a previous AGU presentation, occurrences of storm surge, observed at the water level recording station at Nome (up to 2006), were analysed in terms of their synoptic drivers. It was found that in some cases the marine state and locally-observed winds did not appear to match: in some instances a surge did not have locally-observed favorable winds, and in other instances strong, onshore flow was not accompanied by a surge. Using the surge modeling system ADCIRC a model grid was set up for the region off of Nome and operated with trial and observed winds to determine how extensive and how far offshore a wind field needs to be before a coastal surge response is observed. This presentation overviews these results.

  1. Riding the storm out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurman, Josh

    2009-04-01

    I am standing on a bridge near the North Carolina coast. There is a light breeze, and I am enjoying some hazy sunshine. But this calm is an illusion: in a few minutes winds of up to 45ms-1 (100 mph) will sweep in again. The approaches to my section of the bridge are already drowned under 2.5 m of water, and my companions on this island are an eclectic mix of traumatized animals, including snakes, rats, wounded pelicans and frogs. Earlier, one of the snakes flew through the air past my truck. The animals and I have been drawn to this bridge by Hurricane Isabel, which has just slammed into the coastal islands of North Carolina, and at the moment we are in the calm, sunny eye of the storm. The animals are just trying to survive on the area's only dry ground. But I have come to the bridge with a radar system on a truck and have spent a night and a day on it because I want to know what is happening inside this hurricane.

  2. Cocaine Intoxication and Thyroid Storm

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Cocaine, a widely used sympathomimetic drug, causes thermoregulatory and cardiac manifestations that can mimic a life-threatening thyroid storm. Case. A man presented to the emergency department requesting only cocaine detoxification. He reported symptoms over the last few years including weight loss and diarrhea, which he attributed to ongoing cocaine use. On presentation he had an elevated temperature of 39.4°C and a heart rate up to 130 beats per minute. Examination revealed the presence of an enlarged, nontender goiter with bilateral continuous bruits. He was found to have thyrotoxicosis by labs and was treated for thyroid storm and cocaine intoxication concurrently. The patient was ultimately diagnosed with Graves’ disease and treated with iodine-131 therapy. Conclusion. Cocaine use should be considered a possible trigger for thyroid storm. Recognition of thyroid storm is critical because of the necessity for targeted therapy and the significant mortality associated with the condition if left untreated. PMID:26425625

  3. A Coastal Storms Intensity Scale for the Catalan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, E. T.; Jimenez, J. A.

    2009-09-01

    The impact of storms on the coastal zone produces a series of high-intensity processes such as beach erosion, overwash and inundation, usually considered as coastal hazards. When these coastal hazards verify along developed/urbanized areas, could produce large damages in existing infrastructures, affect coastal uses and disturb coastal ecosystem services. The importance of these storms and induced hazards is explicit in the Protocol on ICZM in the Mediterranean signed in 2008 by the EU and the Mediterranean countries. This Protocol includes a specific chapter on natural hazards, where the parties are advised to undertake vulnerability and hazard assessments of coastal zones and take prevention, mitigation and adaptation measures to address the effects of natural disasters. Within this context, the main aim of this work is to present an intensity scale for coastal storms developed for typical conditions of the Catalan Shelf. This follows the classic works of the hurricane (Saffir-Simpson, 1971) and the Atlantic Northeast storms (Dolan-Davis, 1992) scales although adapting them to the characteristics of Mediterranean coastal wave storms. To develop such scale, wave data recorded along the Catalan coast in 5 locations covering a coastline of about 400 km have been used. Recorded wave time series cover a total time frame of about 25 years (1984-2008). The first task was to identify storms in time series, which here were defined as those events during which the significant wave height exceeded a minimum value (threshold) of 2 m during a minimum period of 6 hours. Because our interest is to use this information to help managers to deal with coastal hazards, this definition was based not just in statistical properties of time series but on physical ones, i.e. this is the minimum event producing a significant coastal response in terms of beach erosion (estimated by means of numerical modelling of beach response to storm impacts). With this, a complete storm data set for the Catalan coast was built by identifying all events in recorded time series. Each one is defined in terms of wave height -Hs-, period -Tp-, direction -? -, duration -D- and wave power -P- (integrated along the storm duration). This storm data set is then analysed by means of a clustering technique resulting in a 5-categories scale using the wave power as classification parameter. This 5-level scale was selected to maintain the capacity to compare it to original ones developed for the Atlantic. Once all the storms were associated to a given class, the next step was to assign them the order of magnitude of the expected induced coastal hazards along the Catalan coast. This was done by obtaining for each storm a measure of the intensity of the main induced hazards (beach profile erosion, sediment transport and inundation). Thus, each storm category is finally defined in terms of wave properties (Hs, Tp, ? , D,P) and, in terms of the magnitude of expected coastal hazards (which are defined by a mean, maximum and standard deviation of estimated values). The final paper will show the obtained values and proposed classification and it will compare with storm classification developed for the Atlantic coast. References Saffir, H.S. and R.H. Simpson. 1971. A proposed scale for ranking hurricanes by intensity, Minutes of the eight NOAA, NWS Hurricane Conference, Miami, Florida. Dolan, R. and Davis, R.E., 1992. An intensity scale for Atlantic coast Northeast Storms. Journal of Coastal Research, 8(4): 840-853.

  4. ICE911 Research: Preserving and Rebuilding Reflective Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, L. A.; Chetty, S.; Manzara, A.; Venkatesh, S.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a localized surface albedo modification technique that shows promise as a method to increase reflective multi-year ice using floating materials, chosen so as to have low subsidiary environmental impact. It is now well-known that multi-year reflective ice has diminished rapidly in the Arctic over the past 3 decades and this plays a part in the continuing rapid decrease of summer-time ice. As summer-time bright ice disappears, the Arctic is losing its ability to reflect summer insolation, and this has widespread climatic effects, as well as a direct effect on sea level rise, as oceans heat and once-land-based ice melts into the sea. We have tested the albedo modification technique on a small scale over six Winter/Spring seasons at sites including California's Sierra Nevada Mountains, a Canadian lake, and a small man-made lake in Minnesota, using various materials and an evolving array of instrumentation. The materials can float and can be made to minimize effects on marine habitat and species. The instrumentation is designed to be deployed in harsh and remote locations. Localized snow and ice preservation, and reductions in water heating, have been quantified in small-scale testing. We have continued to refine our material and deployment approaches, and we have had laboratory confirmation by NASA. In the field, the materials were successfully deployed to shield underlying snow and ice from melting; applications of granular materials remained stable in the face of local wind and storms. We are evaluating the effects of snow and ice preservation for protection of infrastructure and habitat stabilization, and we are concurrently developing our techniques to aid in water conservation. Localized albedo modification options such as those being studied in this work may act to preserve ice, glaciers, permafrost and seasonal snow areas, and perhaps aid natural ice formation processes. If this method is deployed on a large enough scale, it could conceivably bring about a reduction in the Ice-Albedo Feedback Effect, possibly slowing one of the key effects and factors in climate change.

  5. Ice911 Research: Preserving and Rebuilding Multi-Year Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, L. A.; Chetty, S.; Manzara, A.

    2013-12-01

    A localized surface albedo modification technique is being developed that shows promise as a method to increase multi-year ice using reflective floating materials, chosen so as to have low subsidiary environmental impact. Multi-year ice has diminished rapidly in the Arctic over the past 3 decades (Riihela et al, Nature Climate Change, August 4, 2013) and this plays a part in the continuing rapid decrease of summer-time ice. As summer-time ice disappears, the Arctic is losing its ability to act as the earth's refrigeration system, and this has widespread climatic effects, as well as a direct effect on sea level rise, as oceans heat, and once-land-based ice melts into the sea. We have tested the albedo modification technique on a small scale over five Winter/Spring seasons at sites including California's Sierra Nevada Mountains, a Canadian lake, and a small man-made lake in Minnesota, using various materials and an evolving array of instrumentation. The materials can float and can be made to minimize effects on marine habitat and species. The instrumentation is designed to be deployed in harsh and remote locations. Localized snow and ice preservation, and reductions in water heating, have been quantified in small-scale testing. Climate modeling is underway to analyze the effects of this method of surface albedo modification in key areas on the rate of oceanic and atmospheric temperature rise. We are also evaluating the effects of snow and ice preservation for protection of infrastructure and habitat stabilization. This paper will also discuss a possible reduction of sea level rise with an eye to quantification of cost/benefit. The most recent season's experimentation on a man-made private lake in Minnesota saw further evolution in the material and deployment approach. The materials were successfully deployed to shield underlying snow and ice from melting; applications of granular materials remained stable in the face of local wind and storms. Localized albedo modification options such as the one being studied in this work may act to preserve ice, glaciers, permafrost and seasonal snow areas, and perhaps aid natural ice formation processes. If this method could be deployed on a large enough scale, it could conceivably bring about a reduction in the Ice-Albedo Feedback Effect, possibly slowing one of the key effects and factors in climate change. Test site at man-made lake in Minnesota 2013

  6. Toward an integrated storm surge application: ESA Storm Surge project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Boram; Donlon, Craig; Arino, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    Storm surges and their associated coastal inundation are major coastal marine hazards, both in tropical and extra-tropical areas. As sea level rises due to climate change, the impact of storm surges and associated extreme flooding may increase in low-lying countries and harbour cities. Of the 33 world cities predicted to have at least 8 million people by 2015, at least 21 of them are coastal including 8 of the 10 largest. They are highly vulnerable to coastal hazards including storm surges. Coastal inundation forecasting and warning systems depend on the crosscutting cooperation of different scientific disciplines and user communities. An integrated approach to storm surge, wave, sea-level and flood forecasting offers an optimal strategy for building improved operational forecasts and warnings capability for coastal inundation. The Earth Observation (EO) information from satellites has demonstrated high potential to enhanced coastal hazard monitoring, analysis, and forecasting; the GOCE geoid data can help calculating accurate positions of tide gauge stations within the GLOSS network. ASAR images has demonstrated usefulness in analysing hydrological situation in coastal zones with timely manner, when hazardous events occur. Wind speed and direction, which is the key parameters for storm surge forecasting and hindcasting, can be derived by using scatterometer data. The current issue is, although great deal of useful EO information and application tools exist, that sufficient user information on EO data availability is missing and that easy access supported by user applications and documentation is highly required. Clear documentation on the user requirements in support of improved storm surge forecasting and risk assessment is also needed at the present. The paper primarily addresses the requirements for data, models/technologies, and operational skills, based on the results from the recent Scientific and Technical Symposium on Storm Surges (www.surgesymposium.org, organized by the WMO-IOC Joint technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology, JCOMM) and following activities, that have been supported by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO through JCOMM. The paper also reviews the capabilities of storm surge models, and current status in using Earth Observation (EO) information for advancing storm surge application tools, and further, for improving operational forecasts and warning capability for coastal inundation. In this context, the plans and expected results of the ESA Storm Surge Project (2010-2011) will be introduced.

  7. Ionospheric redistribution during geomagnetic storms

    PubMed Central

    Immel, T J; Mannucci, A J

    2013-01-01

    [1]The abundance of plasma in the daytime ionosphere is often seen to grow greatly during geomagnetic storms. Recent reports suggest that the magnitude of the plasma density enhancement depends on the UT of storm onset. This possibility is investigated over a 7year period using global maps of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) produced at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The analysis confirms that the American sector exhibits, on average, larger storm time enhancement in ionospheric plasma content, up to 50% in the afternoon middle-latitude region and 30% in the vicinity of the high-latitude auroral cusp, with largest effect in the Southern Hemisphere. We investigate whether this effect is related to the magnitude of the causative magnetic storms. Using the same advanced Dst index employed to sort the TEC maps into quiet and active (Dst<−100 nT) sets, we find variation in storm strength that corresponds closely to the TEC variation but follows it by 3–6h. For this and other reasons detailed in this report, we conclude that the UT-dependent peak in storm time TEC is likely not related to the magnitude of external storm time forcing but more likely attributable to phenomena such as the low magnetic field in the South American region. The large Dst variation suggests a possible system-level effect of the observed variation in ionospheric storm response on the measured strength of the terrestrial ring current, possibly connected through UT-dependent modulation of ion outflow. PMID:26167429

  8. Magnetic Storms and Induction Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Joshua Rigler, E.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Balch, Christopher C.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic storms are potentially hazardous to the activities and technological infrastructure of modern civilization. This reality was dramatically demonstrated during the great magnetic storm of March 1989, when surface geoelectric fields, produced by the interaction of the time-varying geomagnetic field with the Earth's electrically conducting interior, coupled onto the overlying Hydro-Qubec electric power grid in Canada. Protective relays were tripped, the grid collapsed, and about 9 million people were temporarily left without electricity [Bolduc, 2002].

  9. Magnetic storms and induction hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Rigler, E. Joshua; Pulkkinen, Antti; Balch, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic storms are potentially hazardous to the activities and technological infrastructure of modern civilization. This reality was dramatically demonstrated during the great magnetic storm of March 1989, when surface geoelectric fields, produced by the interaction of the time-varying geomagnetic field with the Earth's electrically conducting interior, coupled onto the overlying Hydro-Québec electric power grid in Canada. Protective relays were tripped, the grid collapsed, and about 9 million people were temporarily left without electricity [Bolduc, 2002].

  10. The relationship between lightning activity and ice fluxes in thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deierling, Wiebke; Petersen, Walter A.; Latham, John; Ellis, Scott; Christian, Hugh J.

    2008-08-01

    It is generally believed that a strong updraft in the mixed-phase region of thunderstorms is required to produce lightning. This is the region where the noninductive charging process is thought to generate most of the storm electrification. Analytic calculations and model results predict that the total lightning frequency is roughly proportional to the product of the downward mass flux of solid precipitation (graupel) and the upward mass flux of ice crystals. Thus far this flux hypothesis has only been tested in a very limited way. Herein we use dual-polarimetric and dual-Doppler radar observations in conjunction with total lightning data collected in Northern Alabama and also Colorado/Kansas during two field campaigns. These data are utilized to investigate total lightning activity as a function of precipitation and nonprecipitation ice masses and estimates of their fluxes for different storm types in different climate regions. A total of 11 storms, including single cell, multicell, and supercell storms, was analyzed in the two climatologically different regions. Time series of both precipitation and nonprecipitation ice mass estimates above the melting level show a good relationship with total lightning activity for the 11 storms analyzed (correlation coefficients exceed 0.9 and 0.8, respectively). Furthermore, the relationships are relatively invariant between the two climate regions. The correlations between total lightning and the associated product of ice mass fluxes are even higher. These observations provide strong support for the flux hypothesis.

  11. Impact of reduced Arctic sea ice on Greenland ice sheet variability in a warmer than present climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, S. J.; DeConto, R. M.; Pollard, D.

    2014-06-01

    A global climate model with interactive vegetation and a coupled ice sheet-shelf component is used to test the response of the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) to increased sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and reduced sea ice (SI) cover during the mid-Pliocene warm period (˜3 Ma) as reconstructed from proxy records. Seasonally open water in the Arctic and North Atlantic are shown to alter regional radiation budgets, storm tracks, and moisture and heat advection into the Greenland interior, with increases in temperature rather than precipitation dominating the ice sheets response. When applied to an initially glaciated Greenland, the presumed warm, ice-free Pliocene ocean conditions induce rapid melting of nearly the entire ice sheet and preclude a modern-like GIS from (re)growing, regardless of orbital forcing. The sensitivity of Greenland to imposed Pliocene ocean conditions may have serious implications for the future response of the ice sheet to continued warming in the Arctic basin.

  12. Ice rafting of fine-grained sediment, a sorting and transport mechanism, Beaufort Sea, Alaska.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, P.W.; Reimnitz, E.; Fox, D.

    1982-01-01

    The presence of turbid, sediment-rich fast ice in the Arctic is a major factor affecting transport of fine-grained sediment. Observers have documented the widespread, sporadic occurrence of sediment- rich fast ice in both the Beaufort and Bering Seas. The occurrence of sediment in only the upper part of the seasonal fast ice indicates that sediment-rich ice forms early during ice growth. The most likely mechanism requires resuspension of nearshore bottom sediment during storms, accompanied by formation of frazil ice and subsequent lateral advection before the fast ice is stabilized. We estimate that the sediment incorporated in the Beaufort ice canopy formed a significant proportion of the seasonal influx of terrigenous fine-grained sediment. The dominance of fine-grained sediment suggests that in the Arctic and sub-Arctic these size fractions may be ice rafted in greater volumes than the coarse fraction of traditionally recognized ice-rafted sediment. -from Authors

  13. Microphysics, Meteorology, Microwave and Modeling of Mediterranean Storms: The M(sup 5) Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Fiorino, Steven; Mugnai, Alberto; Panegrossi, Giulia; Tripoli, Gregory; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Comprehensive understanding of the microphysical nature of Mediterranean storms requires a combination of in situ meteorological data analysis and radar-passive microwave data analysis, effectively integrated with numerical modeling studies at various scales, particularly from synoptic scale down to mesoscale. The microphysical properties of and their controls on severe storms are intrinsically related to meteorological processes under which storms have evolved, processes which eventually select and control the dominant microphysical properties themselves. Insofar as hazardous Mediterranean storms, highlighted by the September 25-28/1992 Genova flood event, the October 5-7/1998 Friuli flood event, and the October 13-15/2000 Piemonte flood event (all taking place in northern Italy), developing a comprehensive microphysical interpretation requires an understanding of the multiple phases of storm evolution and the heterogeneous nature of precipitation fields within the storm domains. This involves convective development, stratiform transition and decay, orographic lifting, and sloped frontal lifting proc esses. This also involves vertical motions and thermodynamical instabilities governing physical processes that determine details of the liquid/ice water contents, size distributions, and fall rates of the various modes of hydrometeors found within the storm environments. This paper presents detailed 4-dimensional analyses of the microphysical elements of the three severe Mediterranean storms identified above, investigated with the aid of SSM/I and TRMM satellite measurements (and other remote sensing measurements). The analyses are guided by nonhydrostatic mesoscale model simulations at high resolution of the intense rain producing portions of the storm environments. The results emphasize how meteorological controls taking place at the large scale, coupled with localized terrain controls, ultimately determine the most salient features of the bulk microphysical properties of the storms. These results have bearing on precipitation remote sensing from space, and the role of modeling in designing precipitation retrieval algorithms.

  14. Repairing damaged platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.E.; Kwok, P.H.; Wang, S.S.

    1995-10-01

    This paper introduces a unique method for strengthening of platforms and replacing damaged members. Extending the life of existing infrastructure is approved means of decreasing cash expenditures for new platforms and facilities. Platforms can be affected by corrosion, overloading and fatigue. The renovation and repair of existing offshore installations is an important part of offshore engineering. The basis behind this paper is an April, 1993 incident in the Arabian Gulf. A vessel broke loose from its moorings in a severe storm and collided with a wellhead platform. The collision severely damaged the platform buckling seven major support members and cracking joints throughout the structure. In view of the significant damage, there was an urgent need to repair the structure to avoid any further damage from potentially sever winter storm conditions. Various means of repair and their associated costs were evaluated: traditional dry hyperbaric welding, adjacent platforms, grouted clamped connections, and mechanical pipe connectors. The repair was completed using an innovative combination of clamps and wet welding to attach external braces to the structure.

  15. Discontinuous Galerkin methods for modeling Hurricane storm surge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Clint; Kubatko, Ethan J.; Westerink, Joannes J.; Trahan, Corey; Mirabito, Christopher; Michoski, Craig; Panda, Nishant

    2011-09-01

    Storm surge due to hurricanes and tropical storms can result in significant loss of life, property damage, and long-term damage to coastal ecosystems and landscapes. Computer modeling of storm surge can be used for two primary purposes: forecasting of surge as storms approach land for emergency planning and evacuation of coastal populations, and hindcasting of storms for determining risk, development of mitigation strategies, coastal restoration and sustainability. Storm surge is modeled using the shallow water equations, coupled with wind forcing and in some events, models of wave energy. In this paper, we will describe a depth-averaged (2D) model of circulation in spherical coordinates. Tides, riverine forcing, atmospheric pressure, bottom friction, the Coriolis effect and wind stress are all important for characterizing the inundation due to surge. The problem is inherently multi-scale, both in space and time. To model these problems accurately requires significant investments in acquiring high-fidelity input (bathymetry, bottom friction characteristics, land cover data, river flow rates, levees, raised roads and railways, etc.), accurate discretization of the computational domain using unstructured finite element meshes, and numerical methods capable of capturing highly advective flows, wetting and drying, and multi-scale features of the solution. The discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method appears to allow for many of the features necessary to accurately capture storm surge physics. The DG method was developed for modeling shocks and advection-dominated flows on unstructured finite element meshes. It easily allows for adaptivity in both mesh ( h) and polynomial order ( p) for capturing multi-scale spatial events. Mass conservative wetting and drying algorithms can be formulated within the DG method. In this paper, we will describe the application of the DG method to hurricane storm surge. We discuss the general formulation, and new features which have been added to the model to better capture surge in complex coastal environments. These features include modifications to the method to handle spherical coordinates and maintain still flows, improvements in the stability post-processing (i.e. slope-limiting), and the modeling of internal barriers for capturing overtopping of levees and other structures. We will focus on applications of the model to recent events in the Gulf of Mexico, including Hurricane Ike.

  16. The geological effects of hurricanes on coral reefs and the interpretation of storm deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoffin, T. P.

    1993-11-01

    Hurricanes occur in belts 7° to 25° north and south of the equator. Reefs growing in these belts suffer periodic damage from hurricane-generated waves and storm surge. Corals down to 20m depth may be broken and removed, branching colonies being much more susceptible to breakage than upright massive forms. Sand cays may be washed away and former storm ridges may migrate to leeward across reef flats to link with islands. Reef crest and reef front coral debris accumulate as talus at the foot of the fore-reef slope, on submarine terraces and grooves, on the intertidal reef flat as storm ridges of shingle or boulders and isolated blocks of reef framework, as accreting beach ridges of leeward migrating shingle, as lobes and wedges of debris in back-reef lagoons, as drapes of carbonate sand and mud in deep off-reef locations in the fore-reef and lagoonal areas. In addition to the coarse debris deposited, other features may aid the recognition of former hurricane events, including the assemblage of reef biota, its species composition and the structure of the skeletons; graded internal sediments in framework cavities; characteristic sequences of encrusting organisms; characteristic shapes of reef flat microatoll corals; and submarine cement crusts over truncated reef surfaces. The abundance of reef flat storm deposits whose ages cluster around 3000 4000 y BP in certain parts of the world most likely relate to a slight fall in relative sea level rather than an increase in storminess during that period. A higher frequency of storms need not result in more reef flat storm deposits. The violence of the storm relative to normal fair-weather conditions influences the extent of damage; the length of time since the previous major storm influences the amount of coral debris created; the length of time after the hurricane, and before a subsequent storm influences the degree of stabilization of reef-top storm deposits and hence their chances of preservation.

  17. Hindcast storm events in the Bering Sea for the St. Lawrence Island and Unalakleet Regions, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erikson, Li H.; McCall, Robert T.; van Rooijen, Arnold; Norris, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This study provides viable estimates of historical storm-induced water levels in the coastal communities of Gambell and Savoonga situated on St. Lawrence Island in the Bering Sea, as well as Unalakleet located at the head of Norton Sound on the western coast of Alaska. Gambell, Savoonga, and Unalakleet are small Native Villages that are regularly impacted by coastal storms but where little quantitative information about these storms exists. The closest continuous water-level gauge is at Nome, located more than 200 kilometers from both St. Lawrence Island and Unalakleet. In this study, storms are identified and quantified using historical atmospheric and sea-ice data and then used as boundary conditions for a suite of numerical models. The work includes storm-surge (temporary rise in water levels due to persistent strong winds and low atmospheric pressures) modeling in the Bering Strait region, as well as modeling of wave runup along specified sections of the coast in Gambell and Unalakleet. Modeled historical water levels are used to develop return periods of storm surge and storm surge plus wave runup at key locations in each community. It is anticipated that the results will fill some of the data void regarding coastal flood data in western Alaska and be used for production of coastal vulnerability maps and community planning efforts.

  18. Morphological response and coastal dynamics associated with major storm events along the Gulf of Lions Coastline, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervais, M.; Balouin, Y.; Belon, R.

    2012-03-01

    Along the coast, anticipating the different morphological responses induced by storm events is crucial for managers to evaluate coastal risks and to develop the best measures to mitigate them. In this paper, a methodology is developed to determine the best storm intensity parameter to derive storm thresholds for different morphological responses. The methodology is applied to the northern part of the Gulf of Lions coastline where storm events can induce important morphological changes. These include shoreline retreat, beach and dune erosion, significant migration of nearshore bars, overwashes and even breaches of coastal barriers, as well as damage to coastal defences and coastal infrastructure. In order to evaluate historical storm characteristics and impact, an extensive review was undertaken to obtain quantitative datasets (beach profiles, wave records), aerial photographs and more qualitative information on morphological evolution and coastal damage. Re-analysis of hydrodynamic and morphology data was undertaken, and hindcast wave modelling results were used to characterised storm intensities. The methodology developed to evaluate storm thresholds consists of obtaining morphological evolution indicators (evidence of breaching, overwash processes, volume variations and migration of morphological patterns) that can be directly linked to a storm event and its characteristics. Results demonstrate that in such a quasi-non-tidal wave-dominated environment, with intermediate double-barred beach shoreface morphology, major coastal changes occur following the maximum significant wave height reached during the storm, or else according to maximum wave run-up elevation regarding upper beach impact, a wave height dependant parameter. Inversely storm surge (and water level) alone, as well as total storm energy, do not explain any storm impact scale. Storm-specific datasets indicate that important morphological evolution is observed during moderate storm events (significant wave heights over 2.7 m). Above this threshold, the morphological behaviour changes radically. The main characteristics are a rapid offshore migration of the nearshore bars and large deposition of sand on the upper beach. However, the major morphological changes are associated with even more energetic events. When the significant wave height reaches 5 m, important impacts are observed: breaching and overtopping of natural coastal barriers, and severe dune erosion and impacts to coastal infrastructure on urbanised beaches. Qualitative observations show an important increase in damage when the storm waves reach 5 m. The methods employed can be applied easily to any coastal segment and provide coastal managers with tools to evaluate different coastal evolution and coastal damage induced by storm events.

  19. USGS Multi-Hazards Winter Storm Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, D. A.; Jones, L. M.; Perry, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    The USGS began an inter-disciplinary effort, the Multi Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP), in 2007 to demonstrate how hazards science can improve a community's resiliency to natural disasters including earthquakes, tsunamis, wildfires, landslides, floods and coastal erosion. The project engages the user community in setting research goals and directs efforts towards research products that can be applied to loss reduction and improved resiliency. The first public product of the MHDP was the ShakeOut Earthquake Scenario published in May 2008. It detailed the realistic outcomes of a hypothetical, but plausible, magnitude 7.8 earthquake on the San Andreas Fault in southern California. Over 300 scientist and experts contributed to designing the earthquake and understanding the impacts of such a disaster, including the geotechnical, engineering, social, cultural, environmental, and economic consequences. The scenario advanced scientific understanding and exposed numerous vulnerabilities related to emergency response and lifeline continuity management. The ShakeOut Scenario was the centerpiece of the Nation's largest-ever emergency response exercise in November 2008, dubbed "The Great Southern California ShakeOut" (www.shakeout.org). USGS Multi-Hazards is now preparing for its next major public project, a Winter Storm Scenario. Like the earthquake scenario, experts will be brought together to examine in detail the possibility, cost and consequences of a winter storm disaster including floods, landslides, coastal erosion and inundation; debris flows; biologic consequences like extirpation of endangered species; physical damages like bridge scour, road closures, dam failure, property loss, and water system collapse. Consideration will be given to the vulnerabilities associated with a catastrophic disruption to the water supply to southern California; the resulting impacts on ground water pumping, seawater intrusion, water supply degradation, and land subsidence; and a detailed examination on climatic change forces that could exacerbate the problems. Similar to the ShakeOut Scenario, the Winter Storm Scenario is designing a large but scientifically plausible physical event followed by an expert analysis of the secondary hazards, and the physical, social, and economic consequences. Unlike the earthquake scenario, the winter storm event may occur over days, weeks, and possibly months, and the stakeholder community is broadening to include resource managers as well as local governments and the emergency and lifeline management communities. Developing plans for this Scenario will be presented at this session, and feedback will be welcomed.

  20. Using Satellite Observation for Early Warning of Convective Storm in Tehran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owlad, E.

    2015-12-01

    Severe convective storms are responsible for large amount of damage each year around the world. They form an important part of the climate system by redistributing heat, moisture, and trace gases, as well as producing large quantities of precipitation. As these extreme and rare events are in mesoscale there is many uncertainty in predicting them and we can't rely on just models. On the other hand, remote sensing has a large application in Meteorology and near real time weather forecasting, especially in rare and extreme events like convective storms that might be difficult to predict with atmospheric models. On second of June 2014, near 12UTC a sudden and strong convective storm occurred in Tehran province that was not predicted, and caused economic and human losses. In This research we used satellite observations along with synoptic station measurements to predict and monitor this storm. Results from MODIS data show an increase in the amount of cloudiness and also aerosol optical depth and sudden decrease in cloud top temperature few hours before the storm occurs. EUMETSAT images show the governing of convection before the storm occurs. With combining the observation data that shows Lake of humidity and high temperature in low levels with satellite data that reveals instability in high levels that together caused this convective, we could track the storm and decrease the large amount of damage.

  1. Mechanisms for Mars dust storms.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leovy, C. B.; Zurek, R. W.; Pollack, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    Characteristics of the Mars global dust storm are reviewed. At the Mariner 9 encounter, the dust consisted of highly absorbing particles distributed rather uniformly up to great height (about 50 km). These observations together with temperature distributions inferred from the Mariner 9 IRIS by Hanel et al. (1972) are used to estimate global wind systems during the dust storm. The global distribution and direction of light surface streaks indicate that the axisymmetric circulation was a dominant part of flow during the dust storm. The axisymmetric winds may become strong enough to raise dust over wide areas of Mars' tropics under unusual conditions: the incoming solar radiation must be near its seasonal maximum, the static stability must be low, and the atmosphere must be able to absorb and re-emit a sizeable fraction of the incoming radiation. Strong winds around the periphery of the retreating south polar cap would be driven by the temperature gradient at the cap edge and by the mass outflow due to subliming CO2. These polar winds could generate local dust storms, raising the general level of dustiness, and providing the conditions necessary for onset of a global dust storm.

  2. Storm tracks near marginal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambaum, Maarten; Novak, Lenka

    2015-04-01

    The variance of atmospheric storm tracks is characterised by intermittent bursts of activity interspersed with relatively quiescent periods. Most of the poleward heat transport by storm tracks is due to a limited number of strong heat flux events, which occur in a quasi-periodic fashion. This behaviour is in contradiction with the usual conceptual model of the storm tracks, which relies on high growth rate background flows which then spawn weather systems that grow in an exponential or non-normal fashion. Here we present a different conceptual model of the atmospheric storm tracks which is built on the observation that, when including diabatic and other dissipative effects, the storm track region is in fact most of the time marginally stable. The ensuing model is a nonlinear oscillator, very similar to Volterra-Lotka predator-prey models. We demonstrate the extensions of this model to a stochastically driven nonlinear oscillator. The model produces quasi-periodic behaviour dominated by intermittent heat flux events. Perhaps most surprisingly, we will show strong evidence from re-analysis data for our conceptual model: the re-analysis data produces a phase-space plot that is very similar indeed to the phase-space plot for our nonlinear oscillator model.

  3. Mapping and Visualization of Storm-Surge Dynamics for Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gesch, Dean B.

    2009-01-01

    The damages caused by the storm surges from Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita were significant and occurred over broad areas. Storm-surge maps are among the most useful geospatial datasets for hurricane recovery, impact assessments, and mitigation planning for future storms. Surveyed high-water marks were used to generate a maximum storm-surge surface for Hurricane Katrina extending from eastern Louisiana to Mobile Bay, Alabama. The interpolated surface was intersected with high-resolution lidar elevation data covering the study area to produce a highly detailed digital storm-surge inundation map. The storm-surge dataset and related data are available for display and query in a Web-based viewer application. A unique water-level dataset from a network of portable pressure sensors deployed in the days just prior to Hurricane Rita's landfall captured the hurricane's storm surge. The recorded sensor data provided water-level measurements with a very high temporal resolution at surveyed point locations. The resulting dataset was used to generate a time series of storm-surge surfaces that documents the surge dynamics in a new, spatially explicit way. The temporal information contained in the multiple storm-surge surfaces can be visualized in a number of ways to portray how the surge interacted with and was affected by land surface features. Spatially explicit storm-surge products can be useful for a variety of hurricane impact assessments, especially studies of wetland and land changes where knowledge of the extent and magnitude of storm-surge flooding is critical.

  4. Greenland Ice Sheet response to mid-Pliocene summer Arctic sea ice-free conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, S. J.; DeConto, R.; Pollard, D.

    2011-12-01

    A critical uncertainty in future predictions of climate and sea level is the response of the cryosphere. Proxy reconstructions for the mid-Pliocene Arctic Ocean (~ 3 Ma) are indicative of summer Arctic ice-free conditions and higher than modern sea surface temperatures, conditions that are analogous to projections for the end of the 21st century. We implement available mid-Pliocene boundary conditions into a fully-coupled Global Circulation Model with interactive vegetation. We use a 3-D thermo-mechanical ice sheet-shelf model to simulate the equilibrated response of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) to the combined effect of reduced sea ice conditions and increased sea surface temperatures during the mid-Pliocene Warm Period. Reductions in Arctic sea ice are shown to enhance ocean/land-to-atmosphere fluxes, increasing heat and moisture transport in the high latitudes. In particular, changes in the North Atlantic exert a strong influence on the storm track and seasonal temperatures and precipitation over Greenland. Despite increased precipitation, warmer temperatures generally reduce snow mass balance. As a result, an initial present-day ice sheet forced by Pliocene climate undergoes rapid melting, limiting the ice sheet to the only highest elevations in South and East Greenland. Once the ice sheet is lost, local surface characteristics and associated feedbacks dominates Greenland climate, precluding the regrowth of the ice sheet. Depending on the initial state of the ice sheet, the equilibrated ice sheet loss is equivalent to between 5.8 to 6.4 m of sea level. We assess the sensitivity of the GIS to Pliocene forcing and internal feedbacks, adding to the understanding of land-ice sea-ice hysteresis in a world warmer than today.

  5. A High Density Storm Surge Monitoring Network: Evaluating the Ability of Wetland Vegetation to Reduce Storm Surge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, S.; Denton, M.; Ferreira, C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent tropical storm activity in the Chesapeake Bay and a potential increase in the predicted frequency and magnitude of weather systems have drawn increased attention to the need for improved tools for monitoring, modeling and predicting the magnitude of storm surge, coastal flooding and the respective damage to infrastructure and wetland ecosystems. Among other forms of flood protection, it is believed that coastal wetlands and vegetation can act as a natural barrier that slows hurricane flooding, helping to reduce the impact of storm surge. However, quantifying the relationship between the physical process of storm surge and its attenuation by wetland vegetation is an active area of research and the deployment of in-situ measuring devices is crucial to data collection efforts in this field. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) mobile storm-surge network has already successfully provided a framework for evaluating hurricane induced storm surge water levels on a regional scale through the use of in-situ devices installed in areas affected by storm surge during extreme events. Based on the success of the USGS efforts, in this study we adapted the monitoring network to cover relatively small areas of wetlands and coastal vegetation with an increased density of sensors. Groups of 6 to 10 water level sensors were installed in sites strategically selected in three locations on the Virginia coast of the lower Chesapeake Bay area to monitor different types of vegetation and the resulting hydrodynamic patterns (open coast and inland waters). Each group of sensors recorded time series data of water levels for both astronomical tide circulation and meteorological induced surge. Field campaigns were carried out to survey characteristics of vegetation contributing to flow resistance (i.e. height, diameter and stem density) and mapped using high precision GPS. A geodatabase containing data from field campaigns will support the development and calibration of computational models to simulate storm surge flow over wetlands specifically designed to represent Virginia's aquatic vegetation and to improve our fundamental knowledge of tide and storm surge hydrodynamics in estuarine wetlands. This poster will present the results of the field measurements for events during the 2013 Hurricane Season, tidal flows within the study areas, and surge attenuation rates according to vegetation characteristics.

  6. The spatial structure of European wind storms as characterized by bivariate extreme-value Copulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonazzi, A.; Cusack, S.; Mitas, C.; Jewson, S.

    2012-05-01

    The winds associated with extra-tropical cyclones are amongst the costliest natural perils in Europe. Re/insurance companies typically have insured exposure at multiple locations and hence the losses they incur from any individual storm crucially depend on that storm's spatial structure. Motivated by this, this study investigates the spatial structure of the most extreme windstorms in Europe. The data consists of a carefully constructed set of 135 of the most damaging storms in the period 1972-2010. Extreme value copulas are applied to this data to investigate the spatial dependencies of gusts. The copula method is used to investigate three aspects of windstorms. First, spatial maps of expected hazard damage between large cities and their surrounding areas are presented. Second, we demonstrate a practical application of the copula method to benchmark catalogues of artificial storms for use in the re/insurance sector. Third, the copula-based method is used to investigate the sensitivity of spatially aggregated damage to climate variability. The copula method allows changes to be expressed in terms of storm frequency, local intensity, and storm spatial structure and gives a more detailed view of how climate variability may affect multi-location risk in Europe.

  7. Observations of Florida Convective Storms Using Dual Wavelength Airborne Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, G. M.; Heymsfield, A. J.; Belcher, L.

    2004-01-01

    NASA conducted the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers (CRYSTAL) Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (FACE) during July 2002 for improved understanding of tropical cirrus. One of the goals was to improve the understanding of cirrus generation by convective updrafts. The reasons why some convective storms produce extensive cirrus anvils is only partially related to convective instability and the vertical transport ice mass by updrafts. Convective microphysics must also have an important role on cirrus generation, for example, there are hypotheses that homogeneous nucleation in convective updrafts is a major source of anvil ice particles. In this paper, we report on one intense CRYSTAL- FACE convective case on 16 July 2002 that produced extensive anvil.

  8. Mars' great storm of 1971.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capen, C. F.; Martin, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    Description of the development of this planet-wide storm and its subsequent decline through mid-January 1972. The initial core of the disturbance extended northeast to southwest. Preliminary examination of photographic data indicates that the storm, yellow in color, spread completely around the planet in about 16 days. During the storm, red- and green-light photographs recorded Mars as brighter than normal, while in blue it was only slightly brighter, and in the ultraviolet there was no significant change. The history of yellow clouds is discussed. They seem to germinate in specific areas in the southern hemisphere, such as the Hellas-Noachis region. Another yellow cloud is predicted for July or August of 1973.

  9. Intense geomagnetic storms: A study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silbergleit, Virginia

    In the pipes and the lines of the transmission of the electrical energy, the route of the currents through them, causes a diminution of the life utility of the same one. The intense storms are studied, because these are induced quickly to the ionospheric systems that they change, obtaining great induced telluric currents (or GICs). Also the Akasofs parameter based on the time for periods of strong and moderate magnetic storms during the last 10 years is calculated. The method also standardizes the parameters of the storm: electron flow between 30-300 KeV, z component of the magnetic field (Bz), the solar Wind velocity (v), indices AE and AL. Also, the decay time of the ring current (which is different during the main and the recovery phase from of the geomagnetic disturbances) are calculated.

  10. Research Opportunities at Storm Peak Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I. B.

    2006-12-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) operates a high elevation facility, Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL), located on the west summit of Mt. Werner in the Park Range near Steamboat Springs, Colorado at an elevation of 3210 m MSL (Borys and Wetzel, 1997). SPL provides an ideal location for long-term research on the interactions of atmospheric aerosol and gas- phase chemistry with cloud and natural radiation environments. The ridge-top location produces almost daily transition from free tropospheric to boundary layer air which occurs near midday in both summer and winter seasons. Long-term observations at SPL document the role of orographically induced mixing and convection on vertical pollutant transport and dispersion. During winter, SPL is above cloud base 25% of the time, providing a unique capability for studying aerosol-cloud interactions (Borys and Wetzel, 1997). A comprehensive set of continuous aerosol measurements was initiated at SPL in 2002. SPL includes an office-type laboratory room for computer and instrumentation setup with outside air ports and cable access to the roof deck, a cold room for precipitation and cloud rime ice sample handling and ice crystal microphotography, a 150 m2 roof deck area for outside sampling equipment, a full kitchen and two bunk rooms with sleeping space for nine persons. The laboratory is currently well equipped for aerosol and cloud measurements. Particles are sampled from an insulated, 15 cm diameter manifold within approximately 1 m of its horizontal entry point through an outside wall. The 4 m high vertical section outside the building is capped with an inverted can to exclude large particles.

  11. Klaus, an exceptional winter storm over Northern Iberia and Southern France - a comparison between storm diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberato, M. L. R.; Pinto, J. G.; Trigo, I. F.; Trigo, R. M.

    2010-05-01

    The synoptic evolution and dynamical characteristics of storm "Klaus" (23 and 24 January 2009) are analysed. "Klaus" was an extratropical cyclone which developed over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean on the 21st January 2009, then moved eastward embedded in the strong westerly flow and experienced a notorious strengthening on the 23rd January. The storm moved into the Bay of Biscay and deepened further before hitting Northern Spain and Southwestern France with gusts of up to 198 km/h. Afterwards, it steered southeastwards across Southern France into Northern Italy and the Adriatic. "Klaus" was the most intense and damaging wind storm in the region in a decade, provoked more than 20 casualties and insured losses of several billion Euros. The evolution of "Klaus" is analysed using two standard cyclone detecting and tracking schemes: a) the vorticity maxima based algorithm originally developed by Murray and Simmonds [1991], adapted for Northern Hemisphere cyclone characteristics [Pinto et al. 2005]; and b) the pressure minima based algorithm first developed for the Mediterranean region [Trigo et al. 1999; 2002] and later extended to a larger Euro-Atlantic region [Trigo 2006]. Additionally, the synoptic and mesoscale features of the storm are analysed. The vorticity based method detects the storm earlier than the pressure minima one. Results show that both tracks exhibited similar features and positions throughout almost all of their lifecycles, with minor discrepancies being probably related to different ways of both methods handling the spatio-temporal evolution of multiple candidates for cyclonic centres. In its strengthening phase, "Klaus" presents deepening rates above 37 hPa/24h, a value that after geostrophically adjusted to the reference latitude of 60°N increases to 44 hPa/24h, implying an exceptional event with bomb characteristics. During maximum intensity change within 24 hours was 1.165hPa/(deglat)2. References: Murray RJ, Simmonds I (1991) Aust. Meteorol. Mag., 39, 155-166. Pinto JG et al (2005) Meteorol. Z., 14, 823-838. Trigo IF et al (1999) J. Climate, 12, 1685-1696. Trigo IF et al (2002) Mon. Weather Rev. 130, 549-569. Trigo IF (2006) Clim. Dyn., 26, 127-143.

  12. Mesoscale aspects of convective storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T. T.

    1981-01-01

    The structure, evolution and mechanisms of mesoscale convective disturbances are reviewed and observation techniques for "nowcasting" their nature are discussed. A generalized mesometeorological scale is given, classifying both low and high pressure systems. Mesoscale storms are shown often to induce strong winds, but their wind speeds are significantly less than those accompanied by submesoscale disturbances, such as tornadoes, downbursts, and microbursts. Mesoscale convective complexes, severe storm wakes, and flash floods are considered. The understanding of the evolution of supercells is essential for improving nowcasting capabilities and a very accurate combination of radar and satellite measurements is required.

  13. National Severe Storms Forecast Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The principal mission of the National Severe Storms Forecast Center (NSSFC) is to maintain a continuous watch of weather developments that are capable of producing severe local storms, including tornadoes, and to prepare and issue messages designated as either Weather Outlooks or Tornado or Severe Thunderstorm Watches for dissemination to the public and aviation services. In addition to its assigned responsibility at the national level, the NSSFC is involved in a number of programs at the regional and local levels. Subsequent subsections and paragraphs describe the NSSFC, its users, inputs, outputs, interfaces, capabilities, workload, problem areas, and future plans in more detail.

  14. Storm-driven Mixing and Potential Impact on the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Jiayan; Comiso, Josefino; Walsh, David; Krishfield, Richard; Honjo, Susumu; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Observations of the ocean, atmosphere, and ice made by Ice-Ocean Environmental Buoys (IOEBs) indicate that mixing events reaching the depth of the halocline have occurred in various regions in the Arctic Ocean. Our analysis suggests that these mixing events were mechanically forced by intense storms moving across the buoy sites. In this study, we analyzed these mixing events in the context of storm developments that occurred in the Beaufort Sea and in the general area just north of Fram Strait, two areas with quite different hydrographic structures. The Beaufort Sea is strongly influenced by inflow of Pacific water through Bering Strait, while the area north of Fram Strait is directly affected by the inflow of warm and salty North Atlantic water. Our analyses of the basin-wide evolution of the surface pressure and geostrophic wind fields indicate that the characteristics of the storms could be very different. The buoy-observed mixing occurred only in the spring and winter seasons when the stratification was relatively weak. This indicates the importance of stratification, although the mixing itself was mechanically driven. We also analyze the distribution of storms, both the long-term climatology as well as the patterns for each year in the last two decades. The frequency of storms is also shown to be correlated- (but not strongly) to Arctic Oscillation indices. This study indicates that the formation of new ice that leads to brine rejection is unlikely the mechanism that results in the type of mixing that could overturn the halocline. On the other hand, synoptic-scale storms can force mixing deep enough to the halocline and thermocline layer. Despite a very stable stratification associated with the Arctic halocline, the warm subsurface thermocline water is not always insulated from the mixed layer.

  15. Major storm periods and climate forcing in the Western Mediterranean during the Late Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degeai, Jean-Philippe; Devillers, Benoît; Dezileau, Laurent; Oueslati, Hamza; Bony, Guénaëlle

    2015-12-01

    Big storm events represent a major risk for populations and infrastructures settled on coastal lowlands. In the Western Mediterranean, where human societies colonized and occupied the coastal areas since the Ancient times, the variability of storm activity for the past three millennia was investigated with a multi-proxy sedimentological and geochemical study from a lagoonal sequence. Mappings of the geochemistry and magnetic susceptibility of detrital sources in the watershed of the lagoon and from the coastal barriers were undertaken in order to track the terrestrial or coastal/marine origin of sediments deposited into the lagoon. The multi-proxy analysis shows that coarser material, low magnetic susceptibility, and high strontium content characterize the sedimentological signature of the paleostorm levels identified in the lagoonal sequence. A comparison with North Atlantic and Western Mediterranean paleoclimate proxies shows that the phases of high storm activity occurred during cold periods, suggesting a climatically-controlled mechanism for the occurrence of these storm periods. Besides, an in-phase storm activity pattern is found between the Western Mediterranean and Northern Europe. Spectral analyses performed on the Sr content revealed a new 270-year solar-driven pattern of storm cyclicity. For the last 3000 years, this 270-year cycle defines a succession of ten major storm periods (SP) with a mean duration of 96 ± 54 yr. Periods of higher storm activity are recorded from >680 to 560 cal yr BC (SP10, end of the Iron Age Cold Period), from 140 to 820 cal yr AD (SP7 to SP5) with a climax of storminess between 400 and 800 cal yr AD (Dark Ages Cold Period), and from 1230 to >1800 cal yr AD (SP3 to SP1, Little Ice Age). Periods of low storm activity occurred from 560 cal yr BC to 140 cal yr AD (SP9 and SP8, Roman Warm Period) and from 820 to 1230 cal yr AD (SP4, Medieval Warm Period).

  16. Cumulative impacts of hurricanes on Florida mangrove ecosystems: Sediment deposition, storm surges and vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, T. J., III; Anderson, G.H.; Balentine, K.; Tiling, G.; Ward, G.A.; Whelan, K.R.T.

    2009-01-01

    Hurricanes have shaped the structure of mangrove forests in the Everglades via wind damage, storm surges and sediment deposition. Immediate effects include changes to stem size-frequency distributions and to species relative abundance and density. Long-term impacts to mangroves are poorly understood at present. We examine impacts of Hurricane Wilma on mangroves and compare the results to findings from three previous storms (Labor Day, Donna, Andrew). Surges during Wilma destroyed ??? 1,250 ha of mangroves and set back recovery that started following Andrew. Data from permanent plots affected by Andrew and Wilma showed no differences among species or between hurricanes for stem mortality or basal area lost. Hurricane damage was related to hydro-geomorphic type of forest. Basin mangroves suffered significantly more damage than riverine or island mangroves. The hurricane by forest type interaction was highly significant. Andrew did slightly more damage to island mangroves. Wilma did significantly more damage to basin forests. This is most likely a result of the larger and more spatially extensive storm surge produced by Wilma. Forest damage was not related to amount of sediment deposited. Analyses of reports from Donna and the Labor Day storm indicate that some sites have recovered following catastrophic disturbance. Other sites have been permanently converted into a different ecosystem, namely intertidal mudflats. Our results indicate that mangroves are not in a steady state as has been recently claimed. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  17. Spatial characteristics of severe storms in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, L.; Zhang, L. M.

    2015-07-01

    A storm may cause serious damage to infrastructures and public safety. The storm spatial distribution is an important piece of information in drainage system design and landslide hazard analysis. The primary objective of this paper is to quantify the spatial characteristics of three severe storms in Hong Kong. The maximum rolling 4, 24 and 36 h rainfall amounts of these storms are introduced firstly. Then the spatial structure of precipitation represented by semivariograms is analysed in both isotropic and anisotropic cases. Afterwards, the distribution of rainfall in spatial domain is assessed via surface trend fitting. Finally the spatial correlation of detrended residuals is determined through studying the scales of fluctuation along eight directions. The spatial distribution of the maximum rolling rainfall can be represented by a rotated ellipsoid trend surface and a random field of residuals. The principal directions of the surface trend are between 25 and 45°. The scales of fluctuation of the detrended residuals are found between 5 and 25 km according to the semivariograms and autocorrelation functions. The spatial correlations of the maximum rolling rainfall are affected by the rainfall duration. The scale of fluctuation becomes smaller as the rainfall duration increases. Such spatial characteristics are related to the local terrain and meteorology factors.

  18. New insights on geomagnetic storms from observations and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Jordanova, Vania K

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the response at Earth of the Sun's varying energy output and forecasting geomagnetic activity is of central interest to space science, since intense geomagnetic storms may cause severe damages on technological systems and affect communications. Episodes of southward (Bzstorms representative of each interplanetary condition with our kinetic ring current atmosphere interactions model (RAM), and investigate the mechanisms responsible for trapping particles and for causing their loss. We find that periods of increased magnetospheric convection coinciding with enhancements of plasma sheet density are needed for strong ring current buildup. During the HSS-driven storm the convection potential is highly variable and causes small sporadic injections into the ring current. The long period of enhanced convection during the CME-driven storm causes a continuous ring current injection penetrating to lower L shells and stronger ring current buildup.

  19. A sensitivity study of storm cyclones with a mesoscale model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radtke, K. S.; Tetzlaff, G.

    2003-04-01

    Extra tropical storms caused noticeable damages in the last decades. The evolution of strong cyclones is investigated by simulations with the nonhydrostatic limited area model 'Lokal Modell' (LM) of the German Weather Service (DWD). Which Conditions become important to distinguish an common cyclone from an storm-cyclone? Intense cyclones are mostly characterised by two typical large-scale features: high baroclinicity along the track of the low pressure system and a region of high equivalent potential temperature. For this purpose the observed values of the horizontal temperature gradient and the distribution of air moisture are varied and were used as forcing data, in such a way the development of storms was modified. The forcing data for the LM were generated by the global model of the DWD. Therefore data of real cyclones, such as the low Ginger, which occurred in 2000, were used. As the LM simulates only a limited area, the lateral bounds become problematic because of the manipulated forcing data. A procedure is tested, in order to prevent these problems. In this manner ensembles of storm scenarios were produced. The effects of various conditions were studied. Here in particular the changes in the surface velocity field were of interest. In the case of Ginger, an increase of the temperature gradient about 10 K causes an increasing of the maximum velocity about 3 m/s.

  20. NPDES storm-water-sampling guidance document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The manual provides operators of facilities that discharge storm water associated with industrial activity and operators of large and medium municipal separate storm sewer systems with guidance on storm water sampling. The manual is primarily designed to assist operators/owners in planning for and fulfilling the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) storm water discharge sampling requirements for permit applications as well as for other storm water sampling needs. The manual summarizes the storm water application regulations and gives instructions on filling out Form 2-F. The document describes 'representative' storms and problems with obtaining data from storm events. An in-depth discussion of collecting grab and composite sampling, both manually and by automatic sampler is provided. Sampling protocol modifications, requirements for petitions for substituting substantially identical effluents, and requests for approval of alternate test procedures are discussed. Safety issues are introduced.

  1. Auroral Zone E-Region Electron Density Geomagnetic Storm Enhancements Predicted by the Empirical STORM-E Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Christopher; Bilitza, Dieter; Xu, Xiaojing

    2012-07-01

    Auroral nighttime infrared emission observed by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument onboard the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite is used to develop an empirical model of geomagnetic storm enhancements to E-region electron densities. The empirical model is called STORM-E. The proxy for characterizing the E-region response to geomagnetic forcing is NO+(v) volume emission rates (VER) derived from the TIMED/SABER 4.3 um channel limb radiance measurements. The storm-time response of the NO+(v) 4.3 um VER is most sensitive to auroral particle precipitation. A statistical database of storm-time to climatological quiet-time ratios of SABER-observed NO+(v) 4.3 um VER are fit to widely available geomagnetic indices using the theoretical framework of linear impulse-response theory. The STORM-E model provides a dynamic storm-time correction factor to adjust a known quiescent E-region electron density peak concentration for geomagnetic enhancements due to auroral particle precipitation. In this paper, the development of the E-region electron density storm-time correction factor is described. The STORM-E storm-time correction factor is fit to a single geomagnetic index. There are four versions of the STORM-E model. Each version is fit to one of the following indices: HP-, AE-, Ap-, or Dst. High-latitude incoherent scatter radar (ISR) E-region electron density measurements are compared to STORM-E predictions for various geomagnetic storm periods during solar cycle 23. These comparisons show that STORM-E significantly improves the prediction of E-region electron density enhancements due to auroral particle precipitation, in comparison to the nominal International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model or to the quiet-time baseline electron density concentrations measured by ISR. The version of the STORM-E model based on the fit to the Ap-index is now incorporated into the 2012 release of the IRI.

  2. New Method for Estimating Landslide Losses for Major Winter Storms in California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, C. J.; Perez, F. G.; Branum, D.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a prototype system for estimating the economic costs of landslides due to winter storms in California. This system uses some of the basic concepts and estimates of the value of structures from the HAZUS program developed for FEMA. Using the only relatively complete landslide loss data set that we could obtain, data gathered by the City of Los Angeles in 1978, we have developed relations between landslide susceptibility and loss ratio for private property (represented as the value of wood frame structures from HAZUS). The landslide loss ratios estimated from the Los Angeles data are calibrated using more generalized data from the 1982 storms in the San Francisco Bay area to develop relationships that can be used to estimate loss for any value of 2-day or 30-day rainfall averaged over a county. The current estimates for major storms are long projections from very small data sets, subject to very large uncertainties, so provide a very rough estimate of the landslide damage to structures and infrastructure on hill slopes. More importantly, the system can be extended and improved with additional data and used to project landslide losses in future major winter storms. The key features of this system—the landslide susceptibility map, the relationship between susceptibility and loss ratio, and the calibration of estimates against losses in past storms—can all be improved with additional data. Most importantly, this study highlights the importance of comprehensive studies of landslide damage. Detailed surveys of landslide damage following future storms that include locations and amounts of damage for all landslides within an area are critical for building a well-calibrated system to project future landslide losses. Without an investment in post-storm landslide damage surveys, it will not be possible to improve estimates of the magnitude or distribution of landslide damage, which can range up to billions of dollars.

  3. Impacts of land cover changes on hurricane storm surge in the lower Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, M.; Lawler, S.; Ferreira, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States with more than 150 rivers draining into the bay's tidal wetlands. Coastal wetlands and vegetation play an important role in shaping the hydrodynamics of storm surge events by retaining water and slowing the propagation of storm surge. In this way coastal wetlands act as a natural barrier to inland flooding, particularly against less intense storms. Threats to wetlands come from both land development (residential or commercial/industrial) and sea level rise. The lower region of the Chesapeake Bay near its outlet is especially vulnerable to flooding from Atlantic storm surge brought in by hurricanes, tropical storms and nor'easters (e.g., hurricanes Isabel [2003] and Sandy [2012]). This region is also intensely developed with nearly 1.7 million residents within the greater Hampton Roads metropolitan area. Anthropogenic changes to land cover in the lower bay can directly impact basin drainage and storm surge propagation with impacts reaching beyond the immediate coastal zone to affect flooding in inland areas. While construction of seawall barriers around population centers may provide storm surge protection to a specifically defined area, these barriers deflect storm surge rather than attenuate it, underscoring the importance of wetlands. To analyze these impacts a framework was developed combining numerical simulations with a detailed hydrodynamic characterization of flow through coastal wetland areas. Storm surges were calculated using a hydrodynamic model (ADCIRC) coupled to a wave model (SWAN) forced by an asymmetric hurricane vortex model using the FEMA region 3 unstructured mesh (2.3 million nodes) under a High Performance Computing (HPC) environment. Multiple model simulations were performed using historical hurricanes data and hypothetical storms to compare the predicted storm surge inundation with various levels of wetland reduction and/or beach hardening. These data were combined and overlaid with a geospatial inventory of critical infrastructure assets to evaluate the potential for storm damage associated with each level of wetland reduction. This poster will present quantitative analyses of the benefits and losses regarding storm surge inundation and damage from land cover changes in the study region.

  4. Cement Creek Following Storm Event

    Cement Creek following storm event in July, 2004. Note the orange discoloration of the stream derived from weathering of bedrocks and from mined areas. This type of event happens frequently in the Animas Watershed near Silverton, Colorado. View is to the south, with Kendall Mountain in the distance....

  5. Rain from Tropical Storm Noel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Though not the most powerful storm of the 2007 Atlantic Hurricane season, Tropical Storm Noel was among the most deadly. Only Category 5 Hurricane Felix and its associated flooding had a higher toll. The slow-moving Tropical Storm Noel inundated the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Cuba, and the Bahamas with heavy rain between October 28 and November 1, 2007. The resulting floods and mudslides left at least 115 dead and thousands homeless throughout the Caribbean, reported the Associated Press on November 2, 2007. This image shows the distribution of the rainfall that made Noel a deadly storm. The image shows rainfall totals as measured by the Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center from October 26 through November 1, 2007. The analysis is based on measurements taken by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The heaviest rainfall fell in the Dominican Republic and the Bahamas, northeast of Noel's center. Areas of dark red show that rainfall totals over the south-central Dominican Republic and parts of the Bahamas were over 551 millimeters (21 inches). Much of eastern Hispaniola, including both the Dominican Republic and Haiti received at least 200 mm (about 8 inches) of rain, shown in yellow. Rainfall totals over Haiti and Cuba were less, with a range of at least 50 mm (2 inches) to over 200 mm (8 inches).

  6. ENSO and winter storms in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, D.R.; Bromirski, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of North Pacific winter storms that penetrate the California coast drives the winds, sea level, precipitation and streamflow that are crucial influences on coastal processes. There is considerable variability of these storm characteristics, in large part owing to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO} phenomenon. There is a great contrast of the storm characteristics during the El Nino phase vs. the La Nina phase, with the largest scale, southerly extensive winter storms generated during El Nino.

  7. A-Train Observations of Deep Convective Storm Tops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Setvak, Martin; Bedka, Kristopher; Lindsey, Daniel T.; Sokol, Alois; Charvat, Zdenek; Stastka, Jindrich; Wang, Pao K.

    2013-01-01

    The paper highlights simultaneous observations of tops of deep convective clouds from several space-borne instruments including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) of the Aqua satellite, Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) of the CloudSat satellite, and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) flown on the CALIPSO satellite. These satellites share very close orbits, thus together with several other satellites they are referred to as the "A-Train" constellation. Though the primary responsibility of these satellites and their instrumentation is much broader than observations of fine-scale processes atop convective storms, in this study we document how data from the A-Train can contribute to a better understanding and interpretation of various storm-top features, such as overshooting tops, cold-U/V and cold ring features with their coupled embedded warm areas, above anvil ice plumes and jumping cirrus. The relationships between MODIS multi-spectral brightness temperature difference (BTD) fields and cloud top signatures observed by the CPR and CALIOP are also examined in detail to highlight the variability in BTD signals across convective storm events.

  8. Breakup of Pack Ice, Antarctic Ice Shelf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Breakup of Pack Ice along the periphery of the Antarctic Ice Shelf (53.5S, 3.0E) produced this mosaic of ice floes off the Antarctic Ice Shelf. Strong offshore winds, probably associated with strong katabatic downdrafts from the interior of the continent, are seen peeling off the edges of the ice shelf into long filamets of sea ice, icebergs, bergy bits and growlers to flow northward into the South Atlantic Ocean. 53.5S, 3.0E

  9. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  10. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  11. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  12. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  13. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  14. Interactive modeling of storm impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rooijen, A.; Baart, F.; Roelvink, J. A.; Donchyts, G.; Scheel, F.; de Boer, W.

    2014-12-01

    In the past decades the impact of storms on the coastal zone has increasingly drawn the attention of policy makers and coastal planners, engineers and researchers. The mean reason for this interest is the high density of the world's population living near the ocean, in combination with climate change. Due to sea level rise and extremer weather conditions, many of the world's coastlines are becoming more vulnerable to the potential of flooding. Currently it is common practice to predict storm impact using physics-based numerical models. The numerical model utilizes several inputs (e.g. bathymetry, waves, surge) to calculate the impact on the coastline. Traditionally, the numerical modeller takes the following three steps: schematization/model setup, running and post-processing. This process generally has a total feedback time in the order of hours to days, and is suitable for so-called confirmatory modelling.However, often models are applied as an exploratory tool, in which the effect of e.g. different hydraulic conditions, or measures is investigated. The above described traditional work flow is not the most efficient method for exploratory modelling. Interactive modelling lets users adjust a simulation while running. For models typically used for storm impact studies (e.g. XBeach, Delft3D, D-Flow FM), the user can for instance change the storm surge level, wave conditions, or add a measure such as a nourishment or a seawall. The model will take the adjustments into account immediately, and will directly compute the effect. Using this method, tools can be developed in which stakeholders (e.g. coastal planners, policy makers) are in control and together evaluate ideas by interacting with the model. Here we will show initial results for interactive modelling with a storm impact model.

  15. Beating the storm. [Procedures of Marathon Oil Co

    SciTech Connect

    Stelzer, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    In this article, Mr. Stelzer describes the activities of management and crews when weather advisories dictate emergency shutdown of Marathon's western Gulf of Mexico drilling activities. The Lafayette, LA office monitors the atmospheric disturbances (seeds of potential hurricanes) and, eventually, the growing storm, and alerts all Marathon platforms in Sector 2 of the western Gulf to prepare for possible shutdown. In the example described here, management gave the order at 7:00 AM to shut down all Marathon platforms and shore bases in the vicinity of the western Gulf as Hurricane Alicia built up eastward. Within minutes, a well-practed series of exercises was put in motion - lowering and chaining down lengths of drill pipe, securing anything else that could be chained down, and starting the orderly evacuation of the platform workers (by helicopter, when possible). By 5:35 PM, just 10.5 hours after the alert, all personnel from the 13 Marathon platforms had been safely transported to Lafayette and Lake Charles, LA. The shore bases themselves were then secured and vacated to await the storm's fury. Alicia eventually slammed ashore, wreaking extensive storm damage in Galveston, Houston, and Texas City; a Marathon refinery in the latter sustained heavy property loss and interruption of work. Offshore, there was very little damage aboard the Marathon platforms; and, within hours, all platforms were back in operation.

  16. Some physical drivers of changes in the winter storm tracks over the North Atlantic and Mediterranean during the Holocene.

    PubMed

    Brayshaw, David James; Hoskins, Brian; Black, Emily

    2010-11-28

    The winter climate of Europe and the Mediterranean is dominated by the weather systems of the mid-latitude storm tracks. The behaviour of the storm tracks is highly variable, particularly in the eastern North Atlantic, and has a profound impact on the hydroclimate of the Mediterranean region. A deeper understanding of the storm tracks and the factors that drive them is therefore crucial for interpreting past changes in Mediterranean climate and the civilizations it has supported over the last 12 000 years (broadly the Holocene period). This paper presents a discussion of how changes in climate forcing (e.g. orbital variations, greenhouse gases, ice sheet cover) may have impacted on the 'basic ingredients' controlling the mid-latitude storm tracks over the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean on intermillennial time scales. Idealized simulations using the HadAM3 atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) are used to explore the basic processes, while a series of timeslice simulations from a similar atmospheric GCM coupled to a thermodynamic slab ocean (HadSM3) are examined to identify the impact these drivers have on the storm track during the Holocene. The results suggest that the North Atlantic storm track has moved northward and strengthened with time since the Early to Mid-Holocene. In contrast, the Mediterranean storm track may have weakened over the same period. It is, however, emphasized that much remains still to be understood about the evolution of the North Atlantic and Mediterranean storm tracks during the Holocene period. PMID:20956368

  17. A New Perspective on Southern Hemisphere Storm Tracks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskins, B. J.; Hodges, K. I.

    2005-10-01

    A detailed view of Southern Hemisphere storm tracks is obtained based on the application of filtered variance and modern feature-tracking techniques to a wide range of 45-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40) data. It has been checked that the conclusions drawn in this study are valid even if data from only the satellite era are used. The emphasis of the paper is on the winter season, but results for the four seasons are also discussed. Both upper- and lower-tropospheric fields are used. The tracking analysis focuses on systems that last longer than 2 days and are mobile (move more than 1000 km). Many of the results support previous ideas about the storm tracks, but some new insights are also obtained. In the summer there is a rather circular, strong, deep high-latitude storm track. In winter the high-latitude storm track is more asymmetric with a spiral from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans in toward Antarctica and a subtropical jet related lower-latitude storm track over the Pacific, again tending to spiral poleward. At all times of the year, maximum storm activity in the higher-latitude storm track is in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions. In the winter upper troposphere, the relative importance of, and interplay between, the subtropical and subpolar storm tracks is discussed. The genesis, lysis, and growth rate of lower-tropospheric winter cyclones together lead to a vivid picture of their behavior that is summarized as a set of overlapping plates, each composed of cyclone life cycles. Systems in each plate appear to feed the genesis in the next plate through downstream development in the upper-troposphere spiral storm track. In the lee of the Andes in South America, there is cyclogenesis associated with the subtropical jet and also, poleward of this, cyclogenesis largely associated with system decay on the upslope and regeneration on the downslope. The genesis and lysis of cyclones and anticyclones have a definite spatial relationship with each other and with the Andes. At 500 hPa, their relative longitudinal positions are consistent with vortex-stretching ideas for simple flow over a large-scale mountain. Cyclonic systems near Antarctica have generally spiraled in from lower latitudes. However, cyclogenesis associated with mobile cyclones occurs around the Antarctic coast with an interesting genesis maximum over the sea ice near 150E. The South Pacific storm track emerges clearly from the tracking as a coherent deep feature spiraling from Australia to southern South America. A feature of the summer season is the genesis of eastward-moving cyclonic systems near the tropic of Capricorn off Brazil, in the central Pacific and, to a lesser extent, off Madagascar, followed by movement along the southwest flanks of the subtropical anticyclones and contribution to the convergence zone cloud bands seen in these regions.

  18. Dynamic damage model of crevasse opening and application to glacier calving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pralong, A.; Funk, M.

    2005-01-01

    Theory and applications of continuum damage mechanics for ice are discussed, and on this basis, an ice damage model, valid at low stresses, is proposed. The model describes the damage itself, the rheology of the damaged ice, and the damage evolution. A local damaging and healing law is considered, and its parameterization is motivated. The model parameters are inferred from published data of laboratory experiments. The model is subsequently implemented in a finite element code and applied to the prediction of a calving process and to the destabilization of an ice chunk from a hanging glacier. Numerical results show good agreement with field measurements.

  19. Dust storms - Great Plains, Africa, and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woiceshyn, P. M.; Krauss, R.; Minzner, R.; Shenk, W.

    1977-01-01

    Dust storms in the Great Plains of North America and in the Sahara Desert are analyzed on the basis of imagery from the geostationary Synchronous Meteorological Satellite. The onset time, location and areal extent of the dust storms are studied. Over land surfaces, contrast enhancement techniques are needed to obtain an adequate picture of dust storm development. In addition, infrared imagery may provide a means of monitoring the strong horizontal temperature gradients characteristic of dust cloud boundaries. Analogies between terrestrial dust storms and the airborne rivers of dust created by major Martian dust storms are also drawn.

  20. Large Geomagnetic Storms: Introduction to Special Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.

    2010-01-01

    Solar cycle 23 witnessed the accumulation of rich data sets that reveal various aspects of geomagnetic storms in unprecedented detail both at the Sun where the storm causing disturbances originate and in geospace where the effects of the storms are directly felt. During two recent coordinated data analysis workshops (CDAWs) the large geomagnetic storms (Dst < or = -100 nT) of solar cycle 23 were studied in order to understand their solar, interplanetary, and geospace connections. This special section grew out of these CDAWs with additional contributions relevant to these storms. Here I provide a brief summary of the results presented in the special section.

  1. Identification of Storm Surge Vulnerable Areas in the Philippines Through Simulations of Typhoon Haiyan-Induced Storm Surge Using Tracks of Historical Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapidez, John Phillip; Suarez, John Kenneth; Tablazon, Judd; Dasallas, Lea; Gonzalo, Lia Anne; Santiago, Joy; Cabacaba, Krichi May; Ramos, Michael Marie Angelo; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo; Malano, Vicente

    2014-05-01

    Super Typhoon Haiyan entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) 07 November 2013, causing tremendous damage to infrastructure and loss of lives mainly due to the typhoon's storm surge and strong winds. Storm surges up to a height of 7 meters were reported in the hardest hit areas. The threat imposed by this kind of natural calamity compelled researchers of the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards, the flagship disaster mitigation program of the Department of Science and Technology, Government of the Philippines, to undertake a study to determine the vulnerability of all Philippine coastal communities to storm surges of the same magnitude as those generated by Haiyan. This study calculates the maximum probable storm surge height for every coastal locality by running simulations of Haiyan-type conditions but with tracks of tropical cyclones that entered PAR from 1948-2013. DOST-Project NOAH used the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) Storm Surge Model, a numerical code that simulates and predicts storm surges spawned by tropical cyclones. Input parameters for the storm surge model include bathymetric data, storm track, central atmospheric pressure, and maximum wind speed. The simulations were made using Haiyan's pressure and wind speed as the forcing parameters. The simulated storm surge height values were added to the maximum tide level obtained from WXTide, software that contains a catalogue of worldwide astronomical tides, to come up with storm tide levels. The resulting water level was used as input to FLO-2D to generate the storm tide inundation maps. One product of this study is a list of the most vulnerable coastal areas that can be used as basis for choosing priority sites for further studies to implement appropriate site-specific solutions. Another product is the storm tide inundation maps that the local government units can use to develop a Risk-Sensitive Land Use Plan for identifying appropriate areas to build residential buildings, evacuation sites, and other critical facilities and lifelines. The maps can also be used to develop a disaster response plan and evacuation scheme.

  2. Maine coastal storm and flood of February 2, 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrill, Richard Arthur; Chin, Edwin H.; Richardson, W.S.

    1979-01-01

    A business section of Bangor, Maine, was flooded with 12 feet (3.7 m) of water on February 2, 1976. The water surface elevation reached 17.46 feet (5.32 m) above national geodetic vertical datum of 1929 (NGVD), approximately 10.5 feet (3.2 m) above the predicted astronomical tide at Bangor. The unusually high water resulted from a tidal storm surge caused by prolonged strong, south-southeasterly winds which occurred near the time of astronomical high tide. Winds exceeded 64 knots off the New England coast. The resulting flood was the third highest since 1846 and is the first documented tidal flood at Bangor. This report documents the meteorological and hydrologic conditions associated with the flooding and also contains a brief description of storm damage from Eastport to Brunswick, Maine. Included are flood elevations in the city of Bangor and along the coast of Maine east of the Kennebec River. (Kosco-USGS)

  3. Severe storm detection with passive 37 GHz observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, R. W.; Howland, M. R.; Martin, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    The research objective was to determine the information content of satellite passive 37 GHz brightness temperatures on the severity of thunderstorms through the measurement of the attenuation (scattering) signature of precipitation. The severe storm detection potential of satellite-observed passive 37 GHz radiances was evaluated by comparing Nimbus-7 Scanning Multi-channel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) data to reports of severe weather contained in the NSSFC severe weather log for calendar years 1979 and 1980 over the United States east of the Rocky Mountains. Heavy thunderstorms have a characteristic signature in the form of localized very low 37 GHz T sub B from scattering by precipitation-size ice particles (thick cirrus being transparent at this frequency). The local noon and midnight snapshots taken by the SMMR on alternating days (with incomplete areal coverage of the U.S. on any given day) were scanned to find cases of strong scattering by precipitation, revealed by large differences between the 18 and 37 GHz brightness temperatures, the 37 GHz T sub B being at least 20 C lower than the 18 GHz T sub B. The value of the 37 GHz T sub b was then compared to severe weather reports within one hour of the SMMR observation time, in the vicinity of the SMMR-observed storm. It was found that the degree to which the T sub B were lowered was a fairly good indicator of the probability that the storm was severe. Of 263 storms observed by the SMMR during 1979 and 1980, 54 percent had severe weather associated with them for a T sub b below 203 K, while 8 percent of those above this threshold were severe.

  4. Impact of hurricanes storm surges on the groundwater resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Biersel, T. P.; Carlson, D.A.; Milner, L.R.

    2007-01-01

    Ocean surges onto coastal lowlands caused by tropical and extra tropical storms, tsunamis, and sea level rise affect all coastal lowlands and present a threat to drinking water resources of many coastal residents. In 2005, two such storms, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita struck the Gulf Coast of the US. Since September 2005, water samples have been collected from water wells impacted by the hurricanes' storm surges along the north shore of Lake Pontchartrain in southeastern Louisiana. The private and public water wells tested were submerged by 0.6-4.5 m of surging saltwater for several hours. The wells' casing and/or the associated plumbing were severely damaged. Water samples were collected to determine if storm surge water inundated the well casing and, if so, its effect on water quality within the shallow aquifers of the Southern Hills Aquifer System. In addition, the samples were used to determine if the impact on water quality may have long-term implication for public health. Laboratory testing for several indicator parameters (Ca/Mg, Cl/Si, chloride, boron, specific conductance and bacteria) indicates that surge water entered water wells' casing and the screened aquifer. Analysis of the groundwater shows a decrease in the Ca/Mg ratio right after the storm and then a return toward pre-Katrina values. Chloride concentrations were elevated right after Katrina and Rita, and then decreased downward toward pre-Katrina values. From September 2005 to June 2006, the wells showed improvement in all the saltwater intrusion indicators. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Flashover tests of artificially iced insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Charneski, M.D.; Gaibrois, G.L.; Whitney, B.F.

    1982-08-01

    Test apparatus and procedures were developed to test energized, non-contaminated, 120 kV system insulators under simulated freezing rain conditions. The flashover performances were compared between non-ceramic composite transmission line insulators and standard porcelain 5 3/4 x 10 inch suspension insulators. Standard and long leak Multicone porcelain insulators were also compared in the icing tests to standard porcelain station post insulators. Icing tests at several voltage stresses provided the full flashover range of the insulators from the minimum or zero flashovers in ten trials up to the maximum or 10 flashovers in 10 trials. Using the desired insulator voltage stress flashover curve for specific insulator types and the voltage stress applied to the insulator, the comparative probability of flashover due to ice storms on the system can be evaluated for 120 kV, 230 kV and 345 kV systems.

  6. Storms of Mediterranean and Atlantic legends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenenwald, N.; Tabeaud, M.

    2009-09-01

    Weather extremes and notably wind storms are very often the channel ones since they are suspected of being the outward signs of climate change. However, even if audiovisual medias talk about wind storms in a very similar way, tales and legends stories account for the richness of their representations. Coastal and insular regions, whatever Atlantic or Mediterranean, are the ones where wind storms are most mentioned. The comparison between the tales and legends of these two regions, with distinct climatic characteristics, allows to underline the similarities and dissimilarities about the impregnation (or impact) of wind storms on these territories. Winds and storms distinguish spaces through vocabulary which can be peculiar to a region. Nevertheless, they also bring them together because above the local cultures is the human thought upon which wind storms create comparable perceptions, whatever the region. Key words: wind storms, Mediterranean regions, Atlantic regions, perceptions, representations.

  7. Thyroid Storm Precipitated by Duodenal Ulcer Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Natsuda, Shoko; Nakashima, Yomi; Horie, Ichiro; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid storm is a rare and life-threatening complication of thyrotoxicosis that requires prompt treatment. Thyroid storm is also known to be associated with precipitating events. The simultaneous treatment of thyroid storm and its precipitant, when they are recognized, in a patient is recommended; otherwise such disorders, including thyroid storm, can exacerbate each other. Here we report the case of a thyroid storm patient (a 55-year-old Japanese male) complicated with a perforated duodenal ulcer. The patient was successfully treated with intensive treatment for thyroid storm and a prompt operation. Although it is believed that peptic ulcer rarely coexists with hyperthyroidism, among patients with thyroid storm, perforation of a peptic ulcer has been reported as one of the causes of fatal outcome. We determined that surgical intervention was required in this patient, reported despite ongoing severe thyrotoxicosis, and reported herein a successful outcome. PMID:25838951

  8. Extreme Lightning Flash Rates as an Early Indicator of Severe Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Extreme lightning flash rates are proving to be an early indicator of intensifying storms capable of producing tornadoes, damaging winds and hail. Most of this lightning is in the cloud, where the naked eye can not see it. Recent global observations of thunderstorms from space indicate that giant electrical storms (supercells and convective complexes) with flash rates on the order of 1 flash per second are most common over the land masses of the America sub-tropics and equatorial Congo Basin. Within the United States, the average tornado warning lead time on a national basis is about 11 min. The real-time observation of extreme flash rates and the rapid increase in the in-cloud flash rate, signalling the intensification of the storm updraft, may provide as much as a 50% increase in severe storm warning lead time.

  9. Analysis of the recent storm record in the southwestern Spanish coast: implications for littoral management.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, A; Ruiz, F; Cáceres, L M; Rodríguez Vidal, J; Pino, R; Muñoz, J M

    2003-03-01

    This work compares the geomorphologic evolution of the Huelva coast (SW Spain), some climatic-oceanographic data of the Cádiz Gulf and the recent storm record of this zone, covering the last 4 decades (1956-1996). An interesting correlation was found between the southwestern wind periodicity, the number of storm periods and the beach ridges observed in the main spits (El Rompido and Doñana). The spectral analysis of the wind time series permits to establish two most probable levels of periodicity: 6 and 9-10 years. Both periods coincide with the storm record and the creation of new beach ridges after a high-energy period. Beach damage, another storm-induced effect, was analysed by deducing different implications for the future management of tourist localities. PMID:12606159

  10. Numerical simulation of the effects of cooling tower complexes on clouds and severe storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orville, Harold D.; Eckhoff, Peter A.; Peak, James E.; Hirsch, John H.; Kopp, Fred J.

    A two-dimensional, time-dependent model has been developed which gives realistic simulations of many severe storm processes—such as heavy rains, hail and strong winds. The model is a set of partial differential equations describing time changes of momentum, energy, and mass (air and various water substances such as water vapor, cloud liquid, cloud ice, rainwater and hail). In addition, appropriate boundary and initial conditions (taken from weather sounding data) are imposed on a domain approx. 20 km high by 20 km wide with 200 m grid intervals to complete the model. Modifications have been made to the model which allow additional water vapor and heat to be added at several lower grid points, simulating effluents from a power park. Cases have been run which depict realistic severe storm situations. One atmospheric sounding has a strong middle-level inversion which tends to inhibit the first convective clouds but gives rise later to a severe storm with hail and heavy rains. One other sounding, is taken from a day in which a severe storm occurred in the Miami area. A third sounding depicts atmospheric conditions in which severe storms formed in the vicinity of Huron, South Dakota. The results indicate that a power park emitting 80 % latent heat and 20 % sensible heat has little effect on the simulated storm. A case with 100 % sensible heat emission leads to a much different solution, with the simulated storm reduced in severity and the rain and hail redistributed. A case in which water vapor is accumulated in a region and released over a broad depth results in slightly more rain from a severe storm.

  11. Towards Resolving the Paradox of Antarctic Sea Ice: A New Integrated Framework for Observing the Antarctic Marginal Ice Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, G. D.

    2014-12-01

    Antarctic sea ice distribution, a canary in the coal mine for climate change in the Southern Hemisphere, is controlled by the marginal ice zone (MIZ). The MIZ is the dynamic outer part of the sea-ice zone, where it interacts with the high-energy open ocean and is strongly affected by waves and storms. As an interface between ocean and atmosphere with extreme vertical and horizontal temperature gradients and large variations in mechanical properties, the MIZ is a complex system that evolves with, and impacts upon, the advancing/receding ice edge. More than a zone, it is a migratory transition in 'phase space' that biannually passes across the entire Antarctic SIZ. During the advance phase of sea-ice seasonality, and under freezing conditions, wave-induced pancake-ice formation can lead to rapid ice-edge advance. During the retreat phase, the dynamic break-up and modification of sea ice by passing storms, winds and waves greatly modifies the floe-size distribution within the MIZ, to create smaller floes that melt more rapidly and accelerate sea-ice retreat as spring progresses. Inspired by the current Arctic MIZ efforts, new fieldwork is proposed to resolve the key characteristics of the Antarctic MIZ and the processes controlling its extent. Combining new autonomous observation technology with ship-based techniques, integrated experiments are being designed to advance our understanding of the MIZ and its role in driving seasonal sea ice advance and retreat around Antarctica. The proposed project provides a unique opportunity to develop an observational, analytical, and science-policy framework for coordinated monitoring of sea ice in both the northern and southern hemispheres, with implications for forecasting, monitoring, and prediction that are essential with increasingly dynamic and variable polar climate systems.

  12. Repairing damaged structures

    SciTech Connect

    Perano, A.C.

    1980-08-01

    While Grace Platform was being installed, damage was sustained to jacket members, varying from metal rubbing to denting and puncturing by a falling section of pile follower. Because the 12-legged jacket is in a water depth in excess of 300 ft it was necessary to use a remote controlled vehicle in order to establish a preliminary damage report to determine whether the structural integrity of the jacket with the damaged braces required repair, reinforcing, removal, or just to be left as they were. From information gathered on videotapes, it was possible to direct the divers to all questionable areas and to study each in detail. From the sketches, photographs and accompanying report, there was sufficient information and data for the designers of the platform to conduct an investigation and analysis of the areas in question. The analysis was performed using storm and seismic loading conditions. The results obtained determined damaged members. All parties concerned with the damage investigation agreed upon which structures needed to be repaired and under what conditions the repairs would take place.

  13. Severe storms observing satellite study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwens, R. P.; Stern, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Payload distribution and the attitude control system for the multi-mission modular spacecraft/StormSat configuration are discussed. The design of the advanced atmospheric sounder and imaging radiometer (AASIR) gimbal drive and its servomechanism is described. Onboard data handling, data downlink communications, and ground data handling systems are developed. Additional topics covered include: magnetic unloading at synchronous altitude, north-south stationkeeping, and the feasibility and impact of flying the microwave atmospheric sounding radiometer (MASR) as an additional payload.

  14. Characterizing the variability in precipitation-bearing storms over Central Greenland during the last glacial period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstrup, Mai; Svensson, Anders M.; Rasmussen, Sune O.; Ditlevsen, Peter; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Steig, Eric J.

    2013-04-01

    A few ice core records are of sufficiently high resolution that they are able to record individual weather events. In this study, we are looking into one of these, namely the visual stratigraphy of the NGRIP ice core record from Central Greenland. We consider the evidence these data contains on variability in past precipitation-bearing storm tracks over Central Greenland during the rapid climatic changes of the last glacial. This information has implications for the variability of past circulation patterns in the North Atlantic region and their governing climate mechanisms. From the NGRIP ice core, Central Greenland, very detailed images of the visual stratigraphy in the core has been obtained. For the ice deposited during the last glacial period, the images show a clear banding of small-scale layers with a range of thicknesses. These layers are believed to be the result of individual precipitation events, which can be distinguished due to differences in their impurity concentrations. This assumption is justified by a qualitative comparison of contemporary Central Greenland weather data to the layering in early Holocene visual stratigraphy data. In combination with an accurate layer-counted chronology for the NGRIP ice core, the data allows us to look into the variability of past storminess over Central Greenland. This variability is quantified in terms of the changes in frequency and intensity of precipitation-bearing storms over the warm and cold phases of the last glacial period. Preliminary investigations show that whereas the average amount of precipitation per storm event is relatively constant with climate, the frequency of storms is changing significantly: A considerably larger number of precipitating storms per year are reaching the NGRIP drill site, Central Greenland, during the interstadials. On the other hand, inter-annual variability in the frequency of major storm occurrences is observed to be largest during the cold periods. We hypothesize that the observed variation is caused by an average southward shift of the jet stream during cold periods, but with its trajectory displaying a higher degree of annual and interannual variability. This is consistent with modern evidence for a northward shift of the polar jet stream in response to global warming.

  15. Dust Storm in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Along historic Route 66, just southeast of the little town of Amboy, California, lies a dried-up lake. Dry lakebeds are good sources of two things: salt and dust. In this image, the now-parched Bristol Lake offers up both. On April 12, 2007, dust storms menaced the area around Amboy. To the northwest, near Newberry Springs, California, dust hampered visibility and led to a multi-car collision on Interstate 40, killing two people and injuring several others. The same day, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of a dust storm in the dry remains of Bristol Lake. Many small dust clouds boil up from the ground surface, casting their shadows to the northwest. A bright white cloud floating over the dust also throws its shadow onto the ground below. East of the dust storm are salt works that stand out from the surrounding landscape thanks to their straight lines and sharp angles. Dark ground surfaces alternate with mined white salt in a network of stripes. When lakes evaporate, chemicals that had been dissolved in the water stay behind, making dry lake beds an ideal place to find heavy concentrations of minerals, including salt. Besides the salt works, something else appears in stark contrast to this arid place. Lush green fields of irrigated crops appear in the east. Besides their color, their orderly arrangement reveals their human-made origin.

  16. Microwave Radiometric Observations Near 19.35, 92 and 183 GHz of Precipitation in Tropical Storm Cora.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilheit, T. T.; Chang, A. T. C.; King, J. L.; Rodgers, E. B.; Nieman, R. A.; Krupp, B. M.; Milman, A. S.; Stratigos, J. S.; Siddalingaiah, H.

    1982-08-01

    Observations of rain cells in the remains of a decaying tropical storm were made by Airborne Microwave Radiometers at 19.35 and 92 GHz and three frequencies near 183 GHz. Extremely low brightness temperatures, as low as 140 K, were noted in the 92 and 183 GHz observations. These can be accounted for by the ice often associated with raindrop formation. Further, the 183 GHz observations can be interpreted in terms of the height of the ice. The brightness temperatures observed suggest the presence of precipitationsized ice as high as 9 km or more.

  17. Microwave radiometric observations near 19.35, 92 and 183 GHz of precipitation in tropical storm Cora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilheit, T. T.; Chang, A. T.; King, J. L.; Rodgers, E. B.; Nieman, R. A.; Krupp, B. M.; Milman, A. S.; Stratigos, J. S.; Siddalingaih, H.

    1982-01-01

    Observations of rain cells in the remains of a decaying tropical storm were made by Airborne Microwave Radiometers at 19.35,92 and three frequencies near 183 GHz. Extremely low brightness temperatures, as low as 140 K were noted in the 92 and 183 GHz observations. These can be accounted for by the ice often associated with raindrop formation. Further, 183 GHz observations can be interpreted in terms of the height of the ice. The brightness temperatures observed suggest the presence of precipitation sized ice as high as 9 km or more.

  18. An overview of shed ice impact in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Thomas H.; Britton, Randall K.

    1993-01-01

    One of the areas of active research in commercial and military rotorcraft is directed toward developing the capability of sustained flight in icing conditions. The emphasis to date has been on the accretion and subsequent shedding of ice in an icing environment, where the shedding may be natural or induced. Historically, shed-ice particles have been a problem for aircraft, particularly rotorcraft. Because of the high particle velocities involved, damage to a fuselage or other airframe component from a shed-ice impact can be significant. Design rules for damage tolerance from shed-ice impact are not well developed because of a lack of experimental data. Thus, NASA Lewis (LeRC) has begun an effort to develop a database of impact force and energy resulting from shed ice. This effort consisted of a test of NASA LeRC's Model Rotor Test Rig (MRTR) in the Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). Both natural shedding and forced shedding were investigated. Forced shedding was achieved by fitting the rotor blades with Small Tube Pneumatic (STP) deicer boots manufactured by BF Goodrich. A detailed description of the test is given as well as the design of a new impact sensor which measures the force-time history of an impacting ice fragment. A brief discussion of the procedure to infer impact energy from a force-time trace are required for the impact-energy calculations. Recommendations and future plans for this research area are also provided.

  19. An overview of shed ice impact studies in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Randall K.; Bond, Thomas H.

    1993-01-01

    One of the areas of active research in commercial and military rotorcraft is directed toward developing the capability of sustained flight in icing conditions. The emphasis to date has been on the accretion and subsequent shedding of ice in an icing environment, where the shedding may be natural or induced. Historically, shed-ice particles have been a problem for aircraft, particularly rotorcraft. Because of the high particle velocities involved, damage to a fuselage or other airframe component from a shed-ice impact can be significant. Design rules for damage tolerance from shed-ice impact are not well developed because of a lack of experimental data. Thus, NASA Lewis (LeRC) has begun an effort to develop a database of impact force and energy resulting from shed ice. This effort consisted of a test of NASA LeRC's Model Rotor Test Rig (MRTR) in the Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). Both natural shedding and forced shedding were investigated. Forced shedding was achieved by fitting the rotor blades with Small Tube Pneumatic (STP) deicer boots manufactured by BF Goodrich. A detailed description of the test is given as well as the design of a new impact sensor which measures the force-time history of an impacting ice fragment. A brief discussion of the procedure to infer impact energy from a force-time trace are required for the impact-energy calculations. Recommendations and future plans for this research area are also provided.

  20. Calving of large tabular icebergs from ice shelf rift systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joughin, Ian; MacAyeal, Douglas R.

    2005-01-01

    We used Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar to study the detachment process that allowed two large icebergs to calve from the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. Time series of rift geometries indicate that rift widths increased steadily, whereas rift lengths increased episodically through several discrete rift-tip propagation events. We also conducted modeling experiments constrained by the observed rift geometry. Both the observations and model suggest that rift opening, and, thus, tabular-iceberg calving, are largely driven by ``glaciological'' stresses-stress introduced by the effect of gravity on the ice shelf-rather than by stress introduced by the ocean and atmosphere, e.g., tides and storms. This style of rift propagation is expected to determine the steady, background calving rate of ice shelves and, thus, differs significantly from styles that led to the recent disintegration of ice shelves in response to climate warming, e.g., the Larsen B Ice Shelf on the Antarctic Peninsula.

  1. Tropical and Extratropical Cyclone Damages under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranson, M.; Kousky, C.; Ruth, M.; Jantarasami, L.; Crimmins, A.; Tarquinio, L.

    2014-12-01

    This paper provides the first quantitative synthesis of the rapidly growing literature on future tropical and extratropical cyclone losses under climate change. We estimate a probability distribution for the predicted impact of changes in global surface air temperatures on future storm damages, using an ensemble of 296 estimates of the temperature-damage relationship from twenty studies. Our analysis produces three main empirical results. First, we find strong but not conclusive support for the hypothesis that climate change will cause damages from tropical cyclones and wind storms to increase, with most models (84 and 92 percent, respectively) predicting higher future storm damages due to climate change. Second, there is substantial variation in projected changes in losses across regions. Potential changes in damages are greatest in the North Atlantic basin, where the multi-model average predicts that a 2.5°C increase in global surface air temperature would cause hurricane damages to increase by 62 percent. The ensemble predictions for Western North Pacific tropical cyclones and European wind storms (extratropical cyclones) are approximately one third of that magnitude. Finally, our analysis shows that existing models of storm damages under climate change generate a wide range of predictions, ranging from moderate decreases to very large increases in losses.

  2. An observational and numerical case study of a flash sea storm over the Gulf of Genoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlandi, A.; Pasi, F.; Onorato, L. F.; Gallino, S.

    2008-06-01

    During the night between the 8 and 9 December 2006 the seawall of the Savona harbour (Liguria Region in north west of Italy) was overtopped by waves. In this work the "Savona flash sea storm" has been studied by analyzing the data recorded by meteo-marine observing stations and the data produced by high resolution meteo-marine numerical models. The data show that, due to the presence of a fast moving low pressure system, the event was characterized by a rapid transition and interaction between two different regimes of winds and related sea states. The results of the study suggest that the most damaging dynamics of the event could be correlated to a bi-modal structure of the wave spectrum. Based on this the authors suggest that a deeper study of the spectral structure of sea storms could lead to define new operational forecasting tools for the preventive evaluation of sea storms damaging potential.

  3. Processes driving storm-scale coastal change along the Outer Banks, North Carolina: Insights from during-storm observations using CLARIS (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodie, K. L.

    2010-12-01

    Storm-scale coastal change is traditionally observed using “pre-” and “post”-storm surveys, making explicit observations of processes driving alongshore variability in erosion and accretion during the storm difficult. Anecdotal evidence suggests that at least during moderate storms, such as the frequent extratropical storms that batters the Outer Banks of North Carolina, significant amounts of recovery may occur while the storm continues and waves are still large. “Pre-” and “post”-storm surveys likely underestimate the total impact of a storm on the beach. Coastal Lidar and Radar Imaging System (CLARIS), is a fully-mobile remote sensing system designed to operate during storms and collect topography data of the beach from a terrestrial laser scanner as well as bathymetry data from X-band radar-derived wave celerity measurements, and surf- and swash-zone morphology data from time-averaged radar images. In addition, CLARIS provides spatial maps of wave direction from the radar data, and localized measurements of inner-surf zone wave height and shoreline setup from laser time-series. Intersection of the radar data with the laser data also provides data on spatial variations in the maximum swash excursion during the time of the survey. Observations of beach volume and shoreline change from terrestrial laser data were collected semi-daily during a Nor’Easter along 10 km of the Outer Banks of North Carolina. These changes were compared with simultaneous observations of surf- and swash-zone morphology as well as with modeled and observed wave parameters during the storm to analyze patterns of erosion and accretion. These data suggest that spatial variations (O(100m) alongshore) in shoreline and beach-volume change are related to alongshore variations in inner surf zone morphology, which alters the amount of wave dissipation alongshore. Specifically, the amount of wave dissipation in the inner surf-zone, as measured using time-averages of X-band radar returns, explained 50% of the variability in beach volume change during the building portion of the storm. In contrast, spatial variations in beach volume change during the building portion of this storm were not explained well by either alongshore variations in wave height or predicted relative runup. Data also indicate that the timing of erosion and accretion during storms may be strongly influenced by wave steepness. More than half of the original shoreline erosion recovered along 50% of the study site within 24 hours of the storm peak as waves remained large (>2.5 m), but transitioned to long period swell. The 5 km region of coastline that experienced the most erosion during the storm was spatially correlated with a region of persistent and irregular outer-surf zone and nearshore bathymetry. Though the observed net beach-volume change may be negligible during these storms and possibly of less importance to longer-term coastal evolution, understanding the processes driving storm-scale change are still needed to improve predictions of coastal hazards and damage.

  4. The acute whole effluent toxicity of storm water from an international airport

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.J.; Turley, S.D.; Turley, B.S.; Yonkos, L.T.; Ziegler, G.P.; Knott, M.H.

    1995-06-01

    In October 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated application requirements with deadlines for storm-water discharges associated with industrial activity and certain municipal systems. Major airports have a number of hydrocarbon-based contaminants that could appear in storm-water runoff. In addition, ethylene, diethylene, and propylene glycol deicing and anti-icing mixtures are used during freezing and near-freezing weather. The objective of this study was to characterize the potential acute impact on aquatic life from industrial storm-water discharges from an international airport. Samples from winter storm events caused acute toxicity to both the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the daphnid (Daphnia magna), with LC50 values for both species as low as 1.0 and 2.0% effluent. The toxicity of the samples was due to the various glycol-based deicer/anti-icer mixtures used during these events. High oxygen demands and elevated total nitrogen levels are other potential problems during anti-icing/deicing activities. Samples from rain events during the nonwinter months at the airport did not cause acute toxicity unless associated with fuel spills. As a result of this study, a new discharge permit has been issued for this airport, requiring the implementation of plans for the collection and recycling and/or disposal of the deicer/anti-icer mixtures.

  5. A Qualitative Model of Meteor Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matney, M. J.

    1996-03-01

    This work addresses the behavior of rare outbursts of meteor activity colloquially known as meteor storms. During such meteor storms, the observed rate of meteors can jump several orders of magnitude over normal rates. Historically, the largest meteor outbursts have been associated with the return to the inner Solar System of the parent comet of the meteor stream. For example, the Leonid shower tends to show storming behavior every 33 years, coinciding with the approximate time of the perihelion passage of its parent comet P/Tempel-Tuttle. This paper presents a model that describes why and when meteor storms can be expected to occur. The model predicts that the Earth must pass near the meteoroid stream within a computed time window in order for observers on the Earth to observe such a storm; the width and location of the time window being a function primarily of the parent comet's orbit. Using this method, a series of potential storm-producing comets were examined for possible meteor storms in coming years. The model predicts that the Leonid shower should be expected to storm in 1999, and possibly the Giacobinid (October Draconid) shower in 1998. In addition, the model predicts that the Perseid shower should show enhanced activity for the next few years, but the meteor rates should not increase significantly over normal levels. The model predicts that the meteor streams from other potential storm-producing comets should not produce any storms before the year 2000, but may do so early in the next century.

  6. Impact of early and late winter icing events on sub-arctic dwarf shrubs.

    PubMed

    Preece, C; Phoenix, G K

    2014-01-01

    Polar regions are predicted to undergo large increases in winter temperature and an increased frequency of freeze-thaw cycles, which can cause ice layers in the snow pack and ice encasement of vegetation. Early or late winter timing of ice encasement could, however, modify the extent of damage caused to plants. To determine impacts of the date of ice encasement, a novel field experiment was established in sub-arctic Sweden, with icing events simulated in January and March 2008 and 2009. In the subsequent summers, reproduction, phenology, growth and mortality, as well as physiological indicators of leaf damage were measured in the three dominant dwarf shrubs: Vaccinium uliginosum, Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Empetrum nigrum. It was hypothesised that January icing would be more damaging compared to March icing due to the longer duration of ice encasement. Following 2 years of icing, E. nigrum berry production was 83% lower in January-iced plots compared to controls, and V. vitis-idaea electrolyte leakage was increased by 69%. Conversely, electrolyte leakage of E. nigrum was 25% lower and leaf emergence of V. vitis-idaea commenced 11 days earlier in March-iced plots compared to control plots in 2009. There was no effect of icing on any of the other parameters measured, indicating that overall these study species have moderate to high tolerance to ice encasement. Even much longer exposure under the January icing treatment does not clearly increase damage. PMID:23574610

  7. Clearing the Martian air - The troubled history of dust storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, L. J.

    1984-03-01

    This note is an attempt to resolve some misconceptions regarding the historical record of the Martian atmospheric phenomena referred to as 'dust storms,' but often called yellow storms, yellow clouds, planetwide dust storms, global dust storms, great dust storms, etc. The known frequency of planet-encircling storms will be specifically addressed. Better knowledge of the sizes, frequencies, and locations of Martian dust storms is needed for atmospheric modeling and for future mission planning.

  8. Assessing Tropical Cyclone Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Done, J.; Czajkowski, J.

    2012-12-01

    Landfalling tropical cyclones impact large coastal and inland areas causing direct damage due to winds, storm-surge flooding, tornadoes, and precipitation; as well as causing substantial indirect damage such as electrical outages and business interruption. The likely climate change impact of increased tropical cyclone intensity, combined with increases in exposure, bring the possibility of increased damage in the future. A considerable amount of research has focused on modeling economic damage due to tropical cyclones, and a series of indices have been developed to assess damages under climate change. We highlight a number of ways this research can be improved through a series of case study analyses. First, historical loss estimates are revisited to properly account for; time, impacted regions, the source of damage by type, and whether the damage was direct/indirect and insured/uninsured. Second, the drivers of loss from both the socio-economic and physical side are examined. A case is made to move beyond the use of maximum wind speed to more stable metrics and the use of other characteristics of the wind field such as direction, degree of gustiness, and duration is explored. A novel approach presented here is the potential to model losses directly as a function of climate variables such as sea surface temperature, greenhouse gases, and aerosols. This work is the first stage in the development of a tropical cyclone loss model to enable projections of losses under scenarios of both socio-economic change (such as population migration or altered policy) and physical change (such as shifts in tropical cyclone activity one from basin to another or within the same basin).

  9. Relationships Among Electrification, Lightning, Kinematics, and Microphysics: Lessons From the Interaction of Observations and Numerical Storm Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macgorman, D. R.

    2005-12-01

    Observations and numerical storm simulations each have a role in teaching us more about the relationships among electrification, lightning, kinematics, and microphysics. Observations depict aspects of reality, but often sample with too little temporal or spatial resolution or have too many voids to test particular concepts and relationships. Furthermore, many properties critical to developing our knowledge of relationships either must be inferred indirectly from observations or cannot be observed at all. Numerical storm simulations fill this shortcoming of observations by providing a complete, physically consistent set of storm parameters with which to determine relationships. However, numerical simulations may not accurately mimic real behavior, because of shortcomings in their parameterizations or physics. Thus, numerical storm simulations must be tested against observations, and their parameterizations or physics must be refined as needed to mimic the investigated behaviors more realistically. One example in which the interaction of observations and simulations was critical was in determining that the noninductive exchange of charge between ice particles and actively riming graupel is able to produce thunderstorm electric field magnitudes capable of initiating lightning and to produce electrical storm structure similar in key respects to observed electrical structure. More recently observations and simulations have shown that lightning flash rates are roughly proportional to graupel mass or volume and to updraft mass flux or updraft volume, as one might expect from the noninductive mechanism. Furthermore, recent observations suggest strongly that the polarity of thunderstorm electrical structure is sometimes inverted from the polarity usually observed in storms, and simulation studies have recently begun examining why this occurs. However, our understanding of underlying storm properties and processes needs to be improved to address some storm relationships in simulations. Underlying uncertainties include the extent to which inductive processes can contribute to electrification (which, in turn, depends on collision/rebound probabilities and other microphysical properties), the distribution of ice particle concentrations, and the behavior of noninductive charge exchange at small liquid water contents.

  10. Calculation of the size of ice hummocks

    SciTech Connect

    Kozitskii, I.E.

    1985-03-01

    Ice hummocks are often seen during the breakup of water bodies and are the result of shifting of the ice cover during spring movements and are confined both to the shore slope, or exposed stretches of the bottom, and to shallow waters. At the same time, the shore is often used for needs of construction, transportation, power engineering and economic purposes, and cases of damage to structures and disruption of operations by ice hummocks are known. The authors therefore study here the character and extent of the phenomenon as it affects the design of shore engineering structures. They add that existing standards do not fully reflect the composition of ice loads on structures, in connection with which it is expedient to theorize as regards the expected size of ice hummocks.

  11. Understanding Storm Time Poynting Flux Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garner, H. M.; Ober, D. M.; Wilson, G. R.

    2012-12-01

    It is known that energy deposited by dayside Earth-directed Poynting flux (S||) is greater during geomagnetic storms; however, S|| spatial and temporal variability are less well understood. Eight years (2000-2008) of data from the WDC for Geomagnetism, Kyoto, were collected to identify thirteen large and five super storms according to specific criteria: "classic" storm structure in which the time interval between sudden storm commencement (SSC) and minimum Dst (Dstmin) was ≤ 24 hours; the main and recovery phases did not experience secondary or tertiary disturbances; large storms where Dst ≤ -93 nT; and, super storms where Dst ≤ -184 nT. Solar wind and magnetospheric data for the 18 storms were collected from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP F-15) and NASA OMNI. For all storms, the data were averaged and plotted to identify S|| variability for the mantle, cusp, polar rain, and central and boundary layer plasma sheet regions during geomagnetic storm time. As known for all storms, while Dst decreased, average S|| peaked, as did Kp. The energy deposited per square-meter by precipitating energetic particles (electrons) did not increase, though average hemispheric power increased by nearly a factor of two for the large and super storms between SSC and Dstmin. For the large storms, average S|| from the central and boundary layer plasma sheet regions (on closed field lines) was enhanced by nearly a factor of two between SSC and Dstmin; for the super storms, enhancement was over a factor of three. Average large storm S|| enhancement from the mantle, cusp, and polar rain regions (on open field lines) was significantly more enhanced by a factor of three between SSC and Dstmin. It was enhanced by a factor of over five for the super storms. For the open field line regions, a large, prolonged secondary peak in S|| was observed for large and super storms during the recovery phase. As suggested by this and prior studies, research is needed to better understand the observed secondary peak in S|| and causes for the observed larger S|| on open field line regions. It is desired to develop an empirical model of S|| (i.e., an index) to be used as input for ionospheric modeling. To that end, mapping S|| spatial variability will validate orbit-to-orbit variability and will provide a basis for empirical modeling. In addition, study of smaller, more frequent storms will provide better statistics. A comprehensive understanding of auroral heating processes will therefore require more sampling and further research.

  12. Statistics of geomagnetic storms and ionospheric storms at low and mid latitudes in two solar cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijaya Lekshmi, D.; Balan, N.; Tulasi Ram, S.; Liu, J. Y.

    2011-11-01

    The statistics of occurrence of the geomagnetic storms, and ionospheric storms at Kokubunji (35.7N, 139.5E 26.8N magnetic latitude) in Japan and Boulder (40.0N, 254.7E 47.4N) in America are presented using the Dst and peak electron density (Nmax) data in 1985-2005 covering two solar cycles (22-23) when 584 geomagnetic storms (Dst ? -50 nT) occurred. In addition to the known solar cycle and seasonal dependence of the storms, the statistics reveal some new aspects. (1) The geomagnetic storms show a preference for main phase (MP) onset at around UT midnight especially for major storms (Dst ? -100 nT), over 100% excess MP onsets at UT midnight compared to a uniform distribution. (2) The number of positive ionospheric storms at Kokubunji (about 250) is more than double that at Boulder, and (3) the occurrence of the positive storms at both stations shows a preference for the morning-noon onset of the geomagnetic storms as expected from a physical mechanism of the positive storms. (4) The occurrence of negative ionospheric storms at both stations follows the solar cycle phases (most frequent at solar maximum) better than the occurrence of positive storms, which agrees with the mechanism of the negative storms.

  13. Effects of Hurricane Katrina’s storm surge on the quality of shallow aquifers near the northern shoreline of Lake Pontchartrain, southeastern Louisiana: Chapter 7D in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tomaszewski, Dan J.; Lovelace, John K.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sampled 13 wells on the northern shoreline of Lake Pontchartrain to determine the effect of Hurricane Katrina-induced storm surge water on the shallow groundwater resources. Surge water entering damaged wells did not contaminate the entire aquifer; however, contamination did occur locally at well sites. Because the storm surge from Katrina lasted only a few hours, surge water entering the aquifer will probably have only a short-term effect.

  14. Accounting for damage to model the influence of a pinning point on the grounding line dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brondex, Julien; Gagliardini, Olivier; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Krug, Jean; Durand, Gaël

    2015-04-01

    The ice released from Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets into the ocean is the main cause of the current observed sea-level rise. Using the open-source finite-element code Elmer/Ice, a previous study (Favier et al., 2012) investigated the impact of a localised contact point between a floating ice shelf and the bedrock and showed its stabilizing effect on ice discharge. The large amount of friction introduced locally by a pinning point induces a rapid decrease of ice velocities upstream the contact leading to an advance of the grounding line seaward until the grounded ice-sheet and the ice rise merge together. This causes a slow down of ice discharge which is consistent with observations on real ice-shelves. However, highly crevassed zones surrounding those pinning points are commonly observed, highlighting strong damage patterns which were not taken into account in Favier et al. (2012). Damage has a strong influence on ice rheology as ice gets softer when damaged, therefore accelerating the ice flow. Recently, a damage model has been implemented within Elmer/Ice (Krug et al., 2014). In this model, damage is created in areas where the maximum principal Cauchy stress is higher than a stress threshold. Damage is then advected with ice flow and its impact on viscosity is taken into account by modifying the enhancement factor of Glen's flow law. Since high shear stresses predominate in the vicinity of pinning points, damage is likely to appear in those areas, making ice more fluid and thus lessening the stabilizing effect previously observed. To check the validity of this hypothesis, the pinning point experiment is repeated taking damage into account. The impact of basal crevasses filled with sea water, which tend to counteract the compressive stresses due to cryostatic pressure and thus to promote damage formation under the shelf, is investigated as well.

  15. Fracturing of rocks by ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahou, Ioanna; Grae Worster, M.

    2009-11-01

    Frost damage, caused by the freezing of water-saturated media, affects plant roots, pavements and the foundations of buildings, and is a major erosional force in rocks. The process has been studied extensively in the case of soils, and mechanisms such as the formation of ice lenses have been identified. Here, we consider the freezing of water in a three-dimensional cavity in a water-saturated, porous, elastic rock. Initially, the expansion of water as it freezes causes flow away from the solidification front, into the porous rock. The Darcy flow in the porous medium controls the pressure field and therefore the freezing temperature. At later times, disjoining thermomolecular forces create a pre-melted film of water between the ice and the rock and cause flow of pore water from the surrounding rock into the cavity. We find that the disjoining forces between the ice and the rock have the dominant effect, so we focus on those later times when the cavity is ice-filled. We solve the coupled set of integro-differential equations governing the elastic stress in the rock and the flow through its pores to determine the evolution of the shape and extent of the ice-filled cavity.

  16. Observed Anomalous Atmospheric Circulation in Summers of Unusual Arctic Sea Ice Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, Erlend; Orsolini, Yvan; Furevik, Tore; Hodges, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    This study presents the atmospheric patterns (circulation, precipitation and temperature) associated with changes in Arctic sea ice extent (SIE) in summertime. Significant features and dynamical linkages of the parameter fields are presented. Sea ice extent and concentration are from the National Snow & Ice Data Center (NSIDC), while sea level pressure, winds, temperature, radiation, precipitation and snowfall - used to characterize storms, cloud cover, warming/cooling effects, large-scale wave trains and jet streams - come from the European Re-Analysis Interim (ERA-Interim) re-analysis. The storm track characteristic is analyzed using the Kevin Hodges TRACK algorithm, based on zonal and meridional winds at 850 hPa. Significant patterns result from compositing anomalous high (+1 STD, 23 months) and low (-1 STD, 17 months) standardized SIE reduction months in summer (May-August, MJJA) over 1979-2013. For high SIE reduction months, a relative anticyclonic circulation over the Arctic Ocean emerges. Resulting is a tendency for storms to shun the Arctic Ocean, following a more zonal path, and hence contributing to a weakening of the climatological Arctic Ocean Cyclone Maximum. For the Arctic Ocean, a reduced cloud cover results in less precipitation, where the particular decrease in snowfall over sea ice in August lowers the albedo and hence increases the ice reduction. The warming over the continents increases the land-sea temperature contrast, resulting in increased cyclogenesis especially along the Siberian coast. In mid-latitudes, the shift in storm tracks results in an increase in storms and rainfall over northwestern Europe and southern Scandinavia. The presentation adds to the ongoing discussion on Arctic sea ice and mid-latitude extreme weather, and also contributes to the understanding of feedback mechanisms in the region. With the current declining trend in sea ice expected to continue in the coming decades, the understanding of anomalous circulation patterns associated to sea-ice loss is important for assessing changes in the Arctic climate system and their impacts.

  17. Signatures of cosmic-ray increase attributed to exceptional solar storms inferred from multiple cosmogenic radionuclide records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekhaldi, Florian; Muscheler, Raimund; Adolphi, Florian; Svensson, Anders; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran; McConnell, Joseph R.; Sigl, Michael; Welten, Kees C.; Woodruff, Thomas E.

    2014-05-01

    Miyake et al. (2012, 2013) discovered rapid increases of 14C content in tree rings dated to AD 774-5 and AD 993-4 which they have attributed to cosmic-ray events. These extreme particle events have no counterparts in the instrumental record and have been tentatively associated with solar proton events, supernovae and short gamma-ray bursts, which have very different energy spectra. Cosmogenic radionuclides such as 14C, 10Be and 36Cl arise from the interaction of cosmic rays with atmospheric nitrogen, oxygen and argon. These radio-isotopes are produced through different reaction pathways and vary with different energy dependencies of the production rate cross section. Owing to this, yield functions can be used to determine the energy level of incident particles. However, only 14C has been measured at high resolution to quantify the energy and thus the origin of the outbursts. We present an annually resolved record of 10Be from the NGRIP ice core for the two events. In addition, we also utilized the GRIP ice core 36Cl record in our analysis. Our results show that the differential production of cosmogenic 14C, 10Be and 36Cl is consistent with a solar energy spectrum. Considering the notable increase in radionuclides, the solar storms would have had to be substantially greater than the largest recorded geomagnetic storm, the so-called Carrington event. This challenges our understanding of the sun's dynamics. Furthermore, the events could possibly be of interest for the investigation of potential cosmic ray-cloud linkages (Svensmark & Friis-Christensen, 1997). Alternatively, such outbursts of energetic particles have the potential to deplete atmospheric ozone and alter atmospheric circulation. Ultimately, the magnitude of such particle events draws attention to the perhaps underestimated potential of the sun to cause great damage to modern technologies. References Miyake, F., Masuda, K. & Nakamura, T. Another rapid event in the carbon-14 content of tree rings. Nature Communications 4:1748, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms2783 (2013). Miyake, F., Nagaya, K., Masuda, K. & Nakamura, T. A signature of cosmic-ray increase in AD 774-775 from tree rings in Japan. Nature 486, 240-242, DOI: 210.1038/nature11123 (2012). Svensmark, H., & Friis-Christensen, E. Variation of cosmic ray flux and global cloud coverage - A missing link in solar-climate relationships. J. Atmos. Sol., Terr. Phys., 59, 225-1232, DOI: 10.1029/1998JD200091 (1997).

  18. The Role of Summertime Storms in Thermoabrasion of a Permafrost Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wobus, C. W.; Anderson, R. S.; Overeem, I.; Stanton, T. P.; Clow, G. D.; Urban, F. E.

    2010-12-01

    Erosion rates along permafrost coastlines of Alaska’s North Slope have been increasing over the past few decades. Since thermal energy accounts for most of the erosion potential along these ice-rich permafrost coastlines, predictive models of coastal erosion require an understanding of how sea surface temperatures (SST) evolve, both through the summer ice-free season and interannually. We integrate the following observational data to describe patterns of nearshore SST in the Beaufort Sea. First, we use wave and ocean temperature data from sensors deployed offshore from the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPR-A) during the summer of 2009. These sensors were placed in a shore-normal array between 0.2 and 10 km offshore, in water depths ranging from ~1m to 7m. Second, we use data from meteorological stations in the NPR-A to summarize the regional weather patterns that drive observed changes in ocean waves and temperatures over this time period. And third, we use satellite data to summarize sea ice position and sea surface temperatures over the past decade. Combined, these data are used to illustrate how sea ice, winds, and insolation combine to control sea surface temperatures along the frozen coastline. The buoy data illustrate two distinct “modes” of thermal state in the nearshore environment. Early in the summer when sea ice remains near the coast, the nearshore open water area is sheltered from mixing and warms to its highest temperatures of the summer. Shore-normal temperature gradients approach 1-2 degrees C per kilometer during this period, with very warm nearshore waters (up to 10 degree C) and consequently high thermal erosion potential along the coast. As the sea ice margin retreats in mid-summer, a single summertime storm homogenizes the temperatures offshore, collapsing the offshore temperature gradient to less than 0.5 degrees C per km and dropping the nearshore temperatures by almost 5 degrees C. Thermal erosion potential is consequently reduced. Later summer storms create transient decreases in SST nearest the shore, suggesting that these storms are pulling cold nearshore waters away from the coastline and potentially rejuvenating thermoabrasion along the coastline. Collectively, these data demonstrate that storms play an important role in thermal erosion potential along permafrost coastlines. Our single-season record from buoy data is placed into context by summarizing seasonal patterns and longer-term trends in sea ice position and SST from satellite data.

  19. Upper-Level Structure of Oklahoma Tornadic Storms on 2 May 1979. I: Radar and Satellite Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Blackmer, Roy H., Jr.; Schotz, Steven

    1983-07-01

    This paper discusses the observational characteristics of the upper level structure of severe tornadic storms in Oklahoma on 2 May 1979 during SESAME. The data analyzed consist of limited-scan GOES-East and West visible, infrared (11 m), and stereo satellite data, dual-Doppler radar observations, and special storm scale soundings. The time-histories of stereo cloud top height, minimum equivalent blackbody temperature (TBB) and radar reflectivity are followed for three severe storms over a several hour period; two of the storms are tornadic. Cloud top IR growth rates and vertical velocities of the storms are computed and found to have maxima which fall into Adler and Fenn's severe storm classification. For one of the storms there is an interesting coupling between cloud top parameters and low-level radar echoes; the other tornadic storm showed no unique relationship. Hail damage began shortly after tropopause penetration by thee storms. Two major IR cold areas associated with the leading downwind storm (i.e., Lahoma storm), are both about 10°C lower than the minimum (tropopause) temperature in an upwind sounding. One is displaced upwind about 15 km from the visible cloud top and the inferred updraft position from radar; the other is located about 15 km to the south of the visible cloud top. A `V' pattern of lower TBB with embedded higher temperature (warm areas) developed after tropopause penetration by the Lahoma storm. Composites of stereo height contours on IR images indicated that TBB is not uniquely related to height.The warm areas are deduced to be of two types: one called the `close-in' warm am is located about 10-20 km downwind of the cloud top of the Lahoma storm, and the other called the `distant' warm area is about 50-75 km downwind. The close-in warm area has a motion similar to that of the storms and appears to be dynamically linked to the leading storm. A model is proposed to explain this warm area based on mixing processes and subsidence near cloud top. The distant warm area advects with a direction similar to the 9-14 km upper level winds but with a speed 10-20 m s1 lower. This appears to be anvil cirrus material. However, the TBB in this area are several degrees warmer the stratospheric environmental temperatures at the anvil top. Stratospheric above-anvil cirrus (Fujita) explains neither the `V' shape nor the internal warm areas. Doppler radar derived winds are presented to add insight into the development of the upper level structure of the storms.

  20. The storm-time equatorial electrojet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, K.; Sastry, T. S. G.; Sampath, S.; Stolarik, J. D.; Usher, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    A Petrel rocket carrying a double cell rubidium magnetometer was launched from the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station during the early main phase of a magnetic storm. No ionospheric currents associated with the storm were observed and the large field depression, at the flight time, must therefore be attributed to currents at higher altitudes. The equatorial enhancement of ionospheric magnetic storm currents, predicted on the basis of theory and earlier ground data, was not observed.

  1. The storm-time equatorial electrojet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, K.; Sastry, T. S. G.; Sampath, S.; Stolarik, J. D.; Usher, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    A Petrel rocket carrying a double cell rubidium magnetometer was launched from the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station during the early main phase of a magnetic storm. No ionospheric currents associated with the storm were observed, and the large field depression at the flight time must therefore be attributed to currents at higher altitudes. The equatorial enhancement of ionospheric magnetic storm currents, predicted on the basis of theory and earlier ground data, was not observed.

  2. Local Mars dust storm generation mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, J. A.; Sharman, R. D.; Lucich, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    On an areocentric solar longitude of 340 deg, first Mars year of Viking on the surface, a local dust storm was observed at the Viking Lander No. 1 site by Viking Orbiter A. The storm lasted less than one Martian day (sol) with the dust raised affecting the site for about three sols. It is concluded that this storm was caused by baroclinic waves and that the threshold wind speed for saltation was 25-30 m/sec.

  3. Convective storms in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso, R.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2013-05-01

    The atmospheres of the planets in the Solar System have different physical properties that in some cases can be considered as extreme when compared with our own planet's more familiar atmosphere. From the tenuous and cold atmosphere of Mars to the dense and warm atmosphere of Venus in the case of the terrestrial planets, to the gigantic atmospheres of the outer planets, or the nitrogen and methane atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan, we can find a large variety of physical environments. The comparative study of these atmospheres provides a better understanding of the physics of a geophysical fluid. In many of these worlds convective storms of different intensity appear. They are analogous to terrestrial atmospheres fed by the release of latent heat when one of the gases in the atmosphere condenses and they are therefore called moist convective storms. In many of these planets they can produce severe meteorological phenomena and by studying them in a comparative way we can aspire to get a further insight in the dynamics of these atmospheres even beyond the scope of moist convection. A classical example is the structure of the complex systems of winds in the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn. These winds are zonal and alternate in latitude but their deep structure is not accessible to direct observation. However the behaviour of large--scale convective storms vertically extending over the "weather layer" allows to study the buried roots of these winds. Another interesting atmosphere with a rather different structure of convection is Titan, a world where methane is close to its triple point in the atmosphere and can condense in bright clouds with large precipitation fluxes that may model part of the orography of the surface making Titan a world with a methane cycle similar to the hydrological cycle of Earth's atmosphere.

  4. Geomagnetic storm environments and effects on electrical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tesche, F.M. , Dallas, TX ); Barnes, P.R. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the behavior of the earth's magnetic field during a geomagnetic storm. Temporal variations of the B-field on the earths surface can induce an electric field in the earth, and this E-field will induce currents to flow in long, grounded conductors. Previous experience with geomagnetic storms indicates that such geomagnetically-induced currents can cause damage to power system components, and at times, can cause power blackouts. This paper presents some recently measured geomagnetic field variations, and illustrates how the induced electric field can be calculated, assuming a simple model of the imperfectly conducting earth. This calculation may be performed either in the time or in the frequency domain. Approximations to the time dependence of the geomagnetic field permit an analytical evaluation of the corresponding E-field in the earth, and this results in a simple expression for the transient Enfield. A knowledge of this Enfield is important in understanding the effects of geomagnetic storms on the power system, and in devising protection methods.

  5. Geomagnetic storm environments and effects on electrical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tesche, F.M.; Barnes, P.R.

    1992-11-01

    This paper briefly reviews the behavior of the earth`s magnetic field during a geomagnetic storm. Temporal variations of the B-field on the earths surface can induce an electric field in the earth, and this E-field will induce currents to flow in long, grounded conductors. Previous experience with geomagnetic storms indicates that such geomagnetically-induced currents can cause damage to power system components, and at times, can cause power blackouts. This paper presents some recently measured geomagnetic field variations, and illustrates how the induced electric field can be calculated, assuming a simple model of the imperfectly conducting earth. This calculation may be performed either in the time or in the frequency domain. Approximations to the time dependence of the geomagnetic field permit an analytical evaluation of the corresponding E-field in the earth, and this results in a simple expression for the transient Enfield. A knowledge of this Enfield is important in understanding the effects of geomagnetic storms on the power system, and in devising protection methods.

  6. Vulnerability of a subarctic barrier spit to global warming induced changes in storm surge and wave runup: Shaktoolik, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohman, K. A.; Erikson, L. H.

    2012-12-01

    The native Inupiaq community of Shaktoolik, in northwestern Alaska, is located on a low-lying barrier spit located on Norton Sound. The inhabited portion of the spit is 7.07 m above MLLW at its highest and only ~200 m across. The community is vulnerable to marine flooding on both the open ocean and lagoon sides of the spit during storms. Storm events in this region typically occur during the fall and winter months, often when the coastline is protected from flooding and erosion by shorefast ice. High latitudes are experiencing the greatest increases in temperature due to global warming and the reduced duration and extent of sea ice is affecting Alaskan coastal communities. Continued reduction of sea ice protecting the coastline from exposure during large storm events may result in the need to relocate many Native Alaskan coastal communities. The goal of this study was to quantify changes in storm surge and wave runup during ice-free months for the mid to late 21st century. An analytical approach was developed to quantify storm surge in Alaskan coastal communities with historical meteorological data from the North American Regional Reanalysis. This analytical model was used to calculate projected storm surge inundation levels in Shaktoolik for the mid and late 21st century for both a moderate and high greenhouse gas emissions scenario (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 respectively), with meteorological output from the MIROC5 global climate model. Additionally, projected wave runup heights during storm events were calculated numerically using WAVEWATCH III to calculate wave height and period from the projected MIROC5 meteorological data and SBEACH to model the maximum runup heights along the Shaktoolik shoreline. Total storm water levels (storm surge plus wave runup height) were calculated for 236 projected storm events in the Bering Sea and used to find the return periods of inundation for each emissions scenario. When compared to historical total storm water levels, the results show that the moderate emissions scenario has a higher storm frequency and greatest change in return periods of inundation for storm surge. The 100-yr surge level is +6.26 m above MLLW for the moderate emissions scenario and +5.26 m historically. The high emissions scenario produces lower storm frequency than the moderate emissions scenario and the return periods of inundation for storm surge are similar to the historical values. When wave setup and runup are included in the total inundation levels for the moderate emissions scenario the results are similar to historical values, and when wave setup and runup are included in the high emissions scenario the total inundation levels are lower than historical values. The 100-yr flood level is +10.20 m above MLLW for the moderate emissions scenario and +8.62 m for the high emissions scenario, compared to +10.36 m historically. All three of these inundation levels overtop the highest ground elevation in the community.

  7. Sea ice trends and cyclone activity in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coggins, Jack; McDonald, Adrian; Rack, Wolfgang; Dale, Ethan

    2015-04-01

    Significant trends in the extent of Southern Hemisphere sea ice have been noted over the course of the satellite record, with highly variable trends between different seasons and regions. In this presentation, we describe efforts to assess the impact of cyclones on these trends. Employing a maximum cross-correlation method, we derive Southern Ocean ice-motion vectors from daily gridded SSMI 85.5 GHz brightness temperatures. We then derive a sea ice budget from the NASA-Team 25 km square daily sea ice concentrations. The budget quantifies the total daily change in sea ice area, and includes terms representing the effects of ice advection and divergence. A residual term represents the processes of rafting, ridging, freezing and thawing. We employ a cyclone tracking algorithm developed at the University of Canterbury to determine the timing, location, size and strength of Southern Hemisphere cyclones from mean sea-level pressure fields of the ERA-Interim reanalysis. We then form composites of the of sea ice budget below the location of cyclones. Unsurprisingly, we find that clockwise atmospheric flow around Southern Hemisphere cyclones exerts a strong influence on the movement of sea ice, an effect which is visible in the advection and divergence terms. Further, we assess the climatological importance of cyclones by comparing seasons of sea ice advance for periods with varying numbers of cyclones. This analysis is performed independently for each sea ice concentration pixel, thus affording us insight into the geographical importance of storm systems. We find that Southern Hemisphere sea ice extent is highly sensitive to the presence of cyclones in the periphery of the pack in the advance season. Notably, the sensitivity is particularly high in the northern Ross Sea, an area with a marked positive trend in sea ice extent. We discuss whether trends in cyclone activity in the Southern Ocean may have contributed to sea ice extent trends in this region.

  8. Heterogeneous Ice Nuclei Measurements in Monte Cimone, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudich, Y.; Reicher, N.; Schrod, J.; Bingemer, H. G.

    2013-12-01

    Supercooled liquid droplets may coexist with ice crystals below the freezing point in mixed phase clouds. Although pure liquid droplets will not freeze spontaneously until the homogeneous freezing temperature -38°C, ice crystals exist at warmer temperatures due to the presence of ice nuclei (IN), that allow heterogeneous freezing on their surface. Only a small portion of the natural and anthropogenic aerosols serve as ice nuclei. Each aerosol type has its own ability to create and grow ice. IN ability varies with chemical and physical properties and with the environmental characteristics, as temperature and humidity. In this study, samples of aerosol particles were collected on a daily basis over a period of two weeks, on top of Monte Cimone in Italy (44.18°N, 10.70°E, 2165m asl), as part of the PEGASOS (Pan-European Gas-AeroSOl-climate interaction Study) project. The aerosols precipitated electrostatically onto a silicon wafer for an offline measurement of the ice nucleation ability, using the FRankfurt Ice Nuclei Deposition FreezinG Experiment (FRIDGE). The FRIDGE is a vacuum diffusion chamber that generates the sub-freezing temperatures and the supersaturations above ice, simulating conditions that exist inside a mixed phase cloud. On top of the chamber, a camera monitors the formation of ice crystals and a new counting algorithm reports the number concentration of ice crystals. During this campaign, a Saharan dust storm reached the sampling area and the ice nuclei concentrations were higher compared to the daily ice nuclei concentrations for the rest of the campaign. This result supports the previous findings that dust particles are among the most effective and important natural sources of ice nuclei.

  9. Empirical STORM-E model: II. Geomagnetic corrections to nighttime ionospheric E-region electron densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Xu, Xiaojing; Bilitza, Dieter; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Russell, James M.

    2013-02-01

    Auroral nighttime infrared emission observed by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument onboard the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite is used to develop an empirical model of geomagnetic storm enhancements to E-region electron densities. The empirical model is called STORM-E and will be incorporated into the 2012 release of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI). The proxy for characterizing the E-region response to geomagnetic forcing is NO+(v) Volume Emission Rates (VER) derived from the TIMED/SABER 4.3 μm channel limb radiance measurements. The storm-time response of the NO+(v) 4.3 μm VER is most sensitive to auroral particle precipitation. A statistical database of storm-time to climatological quiet-time ratios of SABER-observed NO+(v) 4.3 μm VER are fit to widely available geomagnetic indices using the theoretical framework of linear impulse-response theory. The STORM-E model provides a dynamic storm-time correction factor to adjust a known nighttime quiescent E-region electron density peak concentration for geomagnetic enhancements due to auroral particle precipitation. Part I of this series gives a detailed description of the algorithms and methodologies used to derive NO+(v) VER from SABER 4.3 μm limb emission measurements. In this paper, Part II of the series, the development of the E-region electron density storm-time correction factor is described. The STORM-E storm-time correction factor is fit to a single geomagnetic index. There are four versions of the STORM-E model, which are currently independent of magnetic local time. Each version is fit to one of the following indices: HP, AE, Ap, or Dst. High-latitude Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) E-region electron density measurements are compared to STORM-E predictions for various geomagnetic storm periods during solar cycle 23. These comparisons show that STORM-E significantly improves the prediction of E-region electron density enhancements due to auroral particle precipitation, in comparison to the nominal IRI model or to the quiet-time baseline electron density concentrations measured by ISR. The STORM-E/ISR comparisons indicate that the STORM-E fits to the Ap-, AE-, and HP-indices are comparable in both absolute accuracy and relative dynamical response. Contrarily, the Dst-index does not appear to be a suitable input driver to parameterize the E-region electron density response to geomagnetic activity.

  10. Evidence for the sensitivity of a Great Basin terminal lake to storm track position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatchett, B.; Boyle, D. P.; Garner, C.; Kaplan, M. L.; Bassett, S.

    2014-12-01

    Arid, closed basin watersheds can serve as indicators of regional climate change. In this work we test the hypothesis that surface elevations of Walker Lake, a Great Basin terminal lake, are sensitive to storm track positions. To do so, we use historical climate records, numerically dated paleolakeshore elevations, global reanalysis products and a semi-distributed water balance model. Precipitation and temperature values from calculated wet and dry periods between 1920-2011 were used as input to the model. Storm track climatologies were developed using reanalysis products. Our results demonstrate that a strong relationship exists between historic wet and dry periods and storm track positions. Under the assumption of a stationary climate using these historic wet and dry climates with the model, we simulated lake levels that are consistent with recorded high and lowstands occurring during Heinrich Stadial 1, the Younger Dryas, the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age. These findings provide direct support for the storm track migration hypothesis. The nonlinear relationship between changes in precipitation and runoff appears to play a critical role in determining why terminal lakes are particularly responsive to changes in storm track positions.

  11. A Personal Storm Warning Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Although lightning detection systems operated by government agencies, utilities and other businesses provide storm warnings, this information often does not reach the public until some time after the observations have been made. A low-cost personal lightning detector offers a significant safety advantage to private flyers, boaters, golfers and others. Developed by Airborne Research Associates, the detectors originated in Space Shuttle tests of an optical lightning detection technique. The commercial device is pointed toward a cloud to detect invisible intracloud lightning by sensing subtle changes in light presence. The majority of the sales have been to golf courses. Additional products and more advanced applications are in progress.

  12. Storm impact scale for barrier islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    A new scale is proposed that categorizes impacts to natural barrier islands resulting from tropical and extra-tropical storms. The proposed scale is fundamentally different than existing storm-related scales in that the coupling between forcing processes and the geometry of the coast is explicitly included. Four regimes, representing different levels of impact, are defined. Within each regime, patterns and relative magnitudes of net erosion and accretion are argued to be unique. The borders between regimes represent thresholds defining where processes and magnitudes of impacts change dramatically. Impact level 1 is the 'swash' regime describing a storm where runup is confined to the foreshore. The foreshore typically erodes during the storm and recovers following the storm; hence, there is no net change. Impact level 2 is the 'collision' regime describing a storm where the wave runup exceeds the threshold of the base of the foredune ridge. Swash impacts the dune forcing net erosion. Impact level 3 is the 'overwash' regime describing a storm where wave runup overtops the berm or, if present, the foredune ridge. The associated net landward sand transport contributes to net migration of the barrier landward. Impact level 4 is the 'inundation' regime describing a storm where the storm surge is sufficient to completely and continuously submerge the barrier island. Sand undergoes net landward transport over the barrier island; limited evidence suggests the quantities and distance of transport are much greater than what occurs during the 'overwash' regime.

  13. On the watch for geomagnetic storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Arthur W.; Brown, William M., III

    1997-01-01

    Geomagnetic storms, induced by solar activity, pose significant hazards to satellites, electrical power distribution systems, radio communications, navigation, and geophysical surveys. Strong storms can expose astronauts and crews of high-flying aircraft to dangerous levels of radiation. Economic losses from recent geomagnetic storms have run into hundreds of millions of dollars. With the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as the lead agency, an international network of geomagnetic observatories monitors the onset of solar-induced storms and gives warnings that help diminish losses to military and commercial operations and facilities.

  14. Monolayer Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangi, Ronen; Mark, Alan E.

    2003-07-01

    We report results from molecular dynamics simulations of water under confinement and at ambient conditions that predict a first-order freezing transition from a monolayer of liquid water to a monolayer of ice induced by increasing the distance between the confining parallel plates. Since a slab geometry is incompatible with a tetrahedral arrangement of the sp3 hybridized oxygen of water, the freezing is coupled to a linear buckling transition. By exploiting the ordered out-of-plane displacement of the molecules in the buckled phase the distortion of the hydrogen bonds is minimized.

  15. Ice Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    blugerman, n.

    2015-10-01

    My project is to make ice observatories to perceive astral movements as well as light phenomena in the shape of cosmic rays and heat, for example.I find the idea of creating an observation point in space, that in time will change shape and eventually disappear, in consonance with the way we humans have been approaching the exploration of the universe since we started doing it. The transformation in the elements we use to understand big and small transformations, within the universe elements.

  16. Space Transportation System (STS)-117 External Tank (ET)-124 Hail Damage Repair Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Timmy R.; Gentz, Steven J.; Barth, Timothy S.; Minute, Stephen A.; Flowers, Cody P.; Hamilton, David A.; Null, Cynthia H.; Schafer, Charles F.

    2009-01-01

    Severe thunderstorms with associated hail and high winds struck the STS-117 stack on February 26, 2007. Peak winds were recorded at 62 knots with hail sizes ranging from 0.3 inch to 0.8 inch in diameter. As a result of the storm, the North Carolina Foam Institute (NCFI) type 24-124 Thermal Protection System (TPS) foam on the liquid oxygen (LO2) ogive acreage incurred significant impact damage. The NCFI on the ET intertank and the liquid hydrogen (LH2) acreage sustained hail damage. The Polymer Development Laboratory (PDL)-1034 foam of the LO2 ice frost ramps (IFRs) and the Super-Lightweight Ablator (SLA) of the LO2 cable tray also suffered minor damage. NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was asked to assess the technical feasibility of repairing the ET TPS, the reasonableness of conducting those repairs with the vehicle in a vertical, integrated configuration at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Vehicle Assemble Building (VAB), and to address attendant human factors considerations including worker fatigue and the potential for error. The outcome of the assessment is recorded in this document.

  17. In the Eye of the Storm: A Participatory Course on Coastal Storms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Storm disasters are amplified in the coastal environment due to population pressures and the power of the sea. The upper-division/graduate university course "Coastal Storms" was designed to equip future practitioners with the skills necessary to understand, respond to, and mitigate for these natural disasters. To accomplish this, "Coastal Storms"…

  18. In the Eye of the Storm: A Participatory Course on Coastal Storms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Storm disasters are amplified in the coastal environment due to population pressures and the power of the sea. The upper-division/graduate university course "Coastal Storms" was designed to equip future practitioners with the skills necessary to understand, respond to, and mitigate for these natural disasters. To accomplish this, "Coastal Storms"

  19. Understanding the Variations in Flood Responses to Tropical-Storms and Hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, M.; Chen, X.; McGlynn, B. L.

    2014-12-01

    Hurricanes and tropical storms are major geophysical disaster-causing agents, which are responsible for tremendous economic and property losses in the U.S. A large percentage of these losses have been due to flooding from intense storms. In order to minimize flood damages associated with large hurricane-season storms, it is important to be able to predict streamflow amount in response to storms for a range of hydroclimatological conditions. However, this is challenging considering that streamflow response exhibits appreciable variability even for storms that deliver similar precipitation amounts. In order to better understand the sources of this expressed streamflow variability, we use a physics-based, distributed hydrologic model and supporting hydrologic data sets to identify and evaluate dominant hydrologic controls on streamflow amount variability in a southeastern US watershed. Our analyses suggest that the dominant controls on the variability of streamflow amount are antecedent soil moisture condition near the ground surface, and evapotranspirative losses during post-event streamflow recession periods, which are in turn influenced by precipitation history and prevailing vegetation and meteorological conditions. Information regarding dominant controls could help prioritize measurements during observation campaigns and could aid in risk management to quickly evaluate flood responses given prior information about hurricane storm size.

  20. Impacts on the deep-sea ecosystem by a severe coastal storm.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Canals, Miquel; Calafat, Antoni M; Lastras, Galderic; Pedrosa-Pàmies, Rut; Menéndez, Melisa; Medina, Raúl; Company, Joan B; Hereu, Bernat; Romero, Javier; Alcoverro, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Major coastal storms, associated with strong winds, high waves and intensified currents, and occasionally with heavy rains and flash floods, are mostly known because of the serious damage they can cause along the shoreline and the threats they pose to navigation. However, there is a profound lack of knowledge on the deep-sea impacts of severe coastal storms. Concurrent measurements of key parameters along the coast and in the deep-sea are extremely rare. Here we present a unique data set showing how one of the most extreme coastal storms of the last decades lashing the Western Mediterranean Sea rapidly impacted the deep-sea ecosystem. The storm peaked the 26(th) of December 2008 leading to the remobilization of a shallow-water reservoir of marine organic carbon associated with fine particles and resulting in its redistribution across the deep basin. The storm also initiated the movement of large amounts of coarse shelf sediment, which abraded and buried benthic communities. Our findings demonstrate, first, that severe coastal storms are highly efficient in transporting organic carbon from shallow water to deep water, thus contributing to its sequestration and, second, that natural, intermittent atmospheric drivers sensitive to global climate change have the potential to tremendously impact the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth, the deep-sea ecosystem. PMID:22295084

  1. Impacts of sand and dust storms on agriculture and potential agricultural applications of a SDSWS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanski, R.; Sivakumar, M. V. K.

    2009-03-01

    This paper will give an overview of the various impacts of sand and dust storms on agriculture and then address the potential applications of a Sand and Dust Storm Warning System (SDSWS) for agricultural users. Sand and dust storms have many negative impacts on the agricultural sector including: reducing crop yields by burial of seedlings under sand deposits, the loss of plant tissue and reduced photosynthetic activity as a result of sandblasting, delaying plant development, increasing end-of-season drought risk, causing injury and reduced productivity of livestock, increasing soil erosion and accelerating the process of land degradation and desertification, filling up irrigation canals with sediments, covering transportation routes, affecting water quality of rivers and streams, and affecting air quality. One positive impact is the fertilization of soil minerals to terrestrial ecosystems. There are several potential agricultural applications of a SDSWS. The first is to alert agricultural communities farmers to take preventive action in the near-term such as harvesting maturing crops (vegetables, grain), sheltering livestock, and strengthening infrastructure (houses, roads, grain storage) for the storm. Also, the products of a SDSWS could be used in for monitoring potential locust movement and post-storm crop damage assessments. An archive of SDSWS products (movement, amount of sand and dust) could be used in researching plant and animal pathogen movement and the relationship of sand and dust storms to disease outbreaks and in developing improved soil erosion and land degradation models.

  2. Risk assessment of tropical storm surges for coastal regions of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Wang, H.; Liu, G. M.; Sun, X. Y.; Fei, X. Y.; Wang, P. T.; Lv, T. T.; Xue, Z. S.; He, Y. W.

    2014-05-01

    Storm surges are responsible for much of the damage and loss of life associated with landfalling tropical cyclones (TCs). Thus, understanding the characteristics of risk associated with TC storm surges for the coastal regions of China is of great interest. Based on a comprehensive assessment of hazard indices for TC storm surges and vulnerability indices for coastal counties, we obtained a risk assessment for coastal regions of China as a county-level unit. The hazard index was calculated using a model based on the parameters of a TC landfall frequency index (f) and maximum storm surge elevation (MSSE). The MSSE was calculated from the TC maximum sustained wind and tide gauge records using a regression function. Vulnerability indices were obtained from indices on socioeconomics, land use, the ecological environment, and resilience. From this study, it can be concluded that the hazard level of TC storm surges increases from north to south along the Chinese coast, the vulnerabilities have significant spatial heterogeneity, and coastal regions of China can be divided into four zones of risk level. The results of this study can provide scientific support for marine disaster mitigation and decision making. Additionally, the risk assessment methodology used here for storm surges could be extended and applied to other coastal areas.

  3. Impacts on the Deep-Sea Ecosystem by a Severe Coastal Storm

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Canals, Miquel; Calafat, Antoni M.; Lastras, Galderic; Pedrosa-Pàmies, Rut; Menéndez, Melisa; Medina, Raúl; Company, Joan B.; Hereu, Bernat; Romero, Javier; Alcoverro, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Major coastal storms, associated with strong winds, high waves and intensified currents, and occasionally with heavy rains and flash floods, are mostly known because of the serious damage they can cause along the shoreline and the threats they pose to navigation. However, there is a profound lack of knowledge on the deep-sea impacts of severe coastal storms. Concurrent measurements of key parameters along the coast and in the deep-sea are extremely rare. Here we present a unique data set showing how one of the most extreme coastal storms of the last decades lashing the Western Mediterranean Sea rapidly impacted the deep-sea ecosystem. The storm peaked the 26th of December 2008 leading to the remobilization of a shallow-water reservoir of marine organic carbon associated with fine particles and resulting in its redistribution across the deep basin. The storm also initiated the movement of large amounts of coarse shelf sediment, which abraded and buried benthic communities. Our findings demonstrate, first, that severe coastal storms are highly efficient in transporting organic carbon from shallow water to deep water, thus contributing to its sequestration and, second, that natural, intermittent atmospheric drivers sensitive to global climate change have the potential to tremendously impact the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth, the deep-sea ecosystem. PMID:22295084

  4. Rapid Response Measurements of Hurricane Waves and Storm Surge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravois, U.

    2010-12-01

    Andrew (1992), Katrina (2005), and Ike (2008) are recent examples of extensive damage that resulted from direct hurricane landfall. Some of the worst damages from these hurricanes are caused by wind driven waves and storm surge flooding. The potential for more hurricane disasters like these continues to increase as a result of population growth and real estate development in low elevation coastal regions. Observational measurements of hurricane waves and storm surge play an important role in future mitigation efforts, yet permanent wave buoy moorings and tide stations are more sparse than desired. This research has developed a rapid response method using helicopters to install temporary wave and surge gauges ahead of hurricane landfall. These temporary installations, with target depths from 10-15 m and 1-7 km offshore depending on the local shelf slope, increase the density of measurement points where the worst conditions are expected. The method has progressed to an operational state and has successfully responded to storms Ernesto (2006), Noel (2007), Fay (2008), Gustav (2008), Hanna (2008) and Ike (2008). The temporary gauges are pressure data loggers that measure at 1 Hz continuously for 12 days and are post-processed to extract surge and wave information. For the six storms studied, 45 out of 49 sensors were recovered by boat led scuba diver search teams, with 43 providing useful data for an 88 percent success rate. As part of the 20 sensor Hurricane Gustav response, sensors were also deployed in lakes and bays inLouisiana, east of the Mississippi river delta. Gustav was the largest deployment to date. Generally efforts were scaled back for storms that were not anticipated to be highly destructive. For example, the cumulative total of sensors deployed for Ernesto, Noel, Fay and Hanna was only 20. Measurement locations for Gustav spanned over 800 km of exposed coastline from Louisiana to Florida with sensors in close proximity to landfall near Cocodrie, Louisiana. Surge measurements between landfall and the Mississippi delta show 1.5 - 2 m of surge and values exceeding 2 m further from landfall north of the Mississippi delta. These observations demonstrate the importance of coastal geography on storm surge vulnerability. Waves measurements from Gustav show large waves of 5 m at all exposed locations from landfall to western Florida. Some smaller values were also recorded, likely to be due to depth limited breaking or sheltering from the Mississippi delta. Two weeks after Hurricane Gustav, major Hurricane Ike entered the Gulf of Mexico threatening Texas. Unfortunately the sensors already deployed for Gustav reached the 12 day memory limit and did not catch the most extreme conditions of Ike. However, 9 additional sensors were deployed for Ike spanning 360 km of the Texas coast. These measurements show surge east of the Galveston, Texas landfall exceeding 4.5 m and wave heights greater than 5 m. Hurricane Ike was by far the most destructive of the 6 storms measured and has spawned separate work relating the extent of building damage to these measurements.

  5. The observed clustering of damaging extratropical cyclones in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    The clustering of severe European windstorms on annual timescales has substantial impacts on the (re-)insurance industry. Our knowledge of the risk is limited by large uncertainties in estimates of clustering from typical historical storm data sets covering the past few decades. Eight storm data sets are gathered for analysis in this study in order to reduce these uncertainties. Six of the data sets contain more than 100 years of severe storm information to reduce sampling errors, and observational errors are reduced by the diversity of information sources and analysis methods between storm data sets. All storm severity measures used in this study reflect damage, to suit (re-)insurance applications. The shortest storm data set of 42 years provides indications of stronger clustering with severity, particularly for regions off the main storm track in central Europe and France. However, clustering estimates have very large sampling and observational errors, exemplified by large changes in estimates in central Europe upon removal of one stormy season, 1989/1990. The extended storm records place 1989/1990 into a much longer historical context to produce more robust estimates of clustering. All the extended storm data sets show increased clustering between more severe storms from return periods (RPs) of 0.5 years to the longest measured RPs of about 20 years. Further, they contain signs of stronger clustering off the main storm track, and weaker clustering for smaller-sized areas, though these signals are more uncertain as they are drawn from smaller data samples. These new ultra-long storm data sets provide new information on clustering to improve our management of this risk.

  6. Severe Extra-tropical Storms Under Climate Change And Related Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckebusch, G. C.; Ulbrich, U.; Pinto, J. G.; Donat, M.

    2007-12-01

    Winter storms caused by extra-tropical cyclones over the Northeast Pacific and the Northeast Atlantic basins are important factors for property losses caused by natural hazards over Europe and North-America. The European storm series in early 1990 and late 1999 led to enormous economic damages (US-14.2 bn and 18.5 bn, respectively) and insured claims (US-9.8 bn and 10.75 bn, respectively). Although significant trends in North Atlantic / European storm activity have not been identified for the last decades, this study provide evidence that under anthropogenic climate change the number of extreme storms could increase, whereas the total number of northern hemispheric extra-tropical cyclones may be slightly reduced. This holds true for the Northeast Pacific as well as the Northeast Atlantic basin. The results from global climate models are well recognised in wind speed analyses from regional climate models. For parts of western Central Europe an increase in frequency and intensity of extreme wind speeds are identified. In this context, the analysis of climate models from the ENSEMBLES initiative offers the unique opportunity to investigate model to model variability for GCM and RCM simulation in more horizontal detail, leading thus to measures of uncertainty. Additionally, loss potentials derived from an ensemble of global and regional climate models using a simple storm damage regression model under climate change conditions are presented. For the two European regions (United Kingdom and Germany) ensemble-mean storm-related losses are investigated. Based on GCMs the ensemble mean is found to possibly increase by up to 37%. Furthermore, the interannual variability of extreme events will increase leading to a higher risk of extreme storm activity and related losses. In order to gain more regional information, RCMs have been forced with ECMWF-ERA40 for validation, and with several GCMs under IPCC SRES scenarios for future conditions.

  7. Coastal storm monitoring in Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wicklein, Shaun M.; Bennett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Coastal communities in Virginia are prone to flooding, particularly during hurricanes, nor’easters, and other coastal low-pressure systems. These weather systems affect public safety, personal and public property, and valuable infrastructure, such as transportation, water and sewer, and electric-supply networks. Local emergency managers, utility operators, and the public are tasked with making difficult decisions regarding evacuations, road closures, and post-storm recovery efforts as a result of coastal flooding. In coastal Virginia these decisions often are made on the basis of anecdotal knowledge from past events or predictions based on data from monitoring sites located far away from the affected area that may not reflect local conditions. Preventing flood hazards, such as hurricane-induced storm surge, from becoming human disasters requires an understanding of the relative risks that flooding poses to specific communities. The risk to life and property can be very high if decisions about evacuations and road closures are made too late or not at all.

  8. Spring Dust Storm Smothers Beijing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A few days earlier than usual, a large, dense plume of dust blew southward and eastward from the desert plains of Mongolia-quite smothering to the residents of Beijing. Citizens of northeastern China call this annual event the 'shachenbao,' or 'dust cloud tempest.' However, the tempest normally occurs during the spring time. The dust storm hit Beijing on Friday night, March 15, and began coating everything with a fine, pale brown layer of grit. The region is quite dry; a problem some believe has been exacerbated by decades of deforestation. According to Chinese government estimates, roughly 1 million tons of desert dust and sand blow into Beijing each year. This true-color image was made using two adjacent swaths (click to see the full image) of data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on March 17, 2002. The massive dust storm (brownish pixels) can easily be distinguished from clouds (bright white pixels) as it blows across northern Japan and eastward toward the open Pacific Ocean. The black regions are gaps between SeaWiFS' viewing swaths and represent areas where no data were collected. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  9. Characteristics of ionospheric storms in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao; Wang, Guojun; Shi, Jiankui

       The ionosphere experiences intense response during the geomagnetic storm and it varies with latitude and longitude. The DPS-4 digisonde measurements and GPS-TEC data of ionospheric stations located at different latitudes in the longitudinal sector of 90-130E during 2002 to 2012 were analyzed to investigate the ionospheric effects in the different latitude of East Asia during geomagnetic storm. About 70 geomagnetic storms are selected according to the Dst index and observed data and they are in different seasons and different solar activity levels. A few quiet days’ averages of data before geomagnetic storm were used as the undisturbed level. Results show that for the middle and high latitude, the short-lived positive disturbance associated with the initial phase of the every storm was observed in each season and then the disturbances were negative till the termination of storm. At the low latitude, storm-time disturbances of foF2 have obvious diurnal, seasonal and solar cycle characteristics. Generally, geomagnetic activity will cause foF2 to increase at daytime and decrease at nighttime except for the summer in low solar activity period. The intensity of response of foF2 is stronger at nighttime than that at daytime. The negative ionospheric storm effect is the strongest in summer and the positive ionospheric storm effect is the strongest in winter. In high solar activity period, the diurnal variation of the response of foF2 is very pronounced in each season, and the strong ionospheric response can last several days. In low solar activity period, ionospheric response has very pronounced diurnal variation in winter only. It’s notable that geomagnetic activities occurred at local time nighttime can cause stronger and longer responses of foF2 at the low latitude. All in all, the obvious negative phase ionospheric storms often occurred at the low latitude. Moreover a notable phenomenon was observed for the low latitude, there are the intensive oscillations of foF2 occurring during the main storm phase of enhanced storm in Hainan, and it occurred in the morning generally. For the TEC data, strong disturbances can be observed simultaneously from high latitude to low latitude during the main phase of some storms. Generally strong/weak storms can cause the negative/positive phase storms of TEC in the low latitude and which are obvious in the daytime for the summer and winter and in the period from noon to midnight for the equinox. The differences of the responses of foF2 and TEC are also investigated.

  10. Charging regions, regions of charge, and storm structure in a partially inverted polarity supercell thunderstorm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruning, Eric

    2008-10-01

    Dipoles, tripoles and other stacked charge arrangements are a temptingly convenient explanation of the electrical structure of entire storms and may have merit when storms can be considered a point phenomenon. However, the internal charge structure of storms with three-dimensional kinematic and microphysical structure (e.g., supercells) is not well-represented by single stack of pancake-shaped charge regions. In this study, lightning mapping and radar data from the 26 May 2004 supercell in central Oklahoma are used to examine successive arcs of lightning that developed in response to pulses in the storm's updraft. The evolution of lightning in updraft pulses was found to match with the established model of the formation and fallout of precipitation in supercells. Initial lightning in an arc was contained within precipitation lofted above the storm's weak echo region. Lower positive charge was centered at 7 km, negative charge at 10 km, and positive charge at 12 km, which is considered an elevated normal polarity tripole formed by the non-inductive charging collisions between ice crystals and riming graupel. Later and simultaneously, two different charge regions were associated with precipitation that reached the ground. To the left of the weak echo region, six charge regions were inferred to form a normal polarity arrangement, with positive charge carried on hail at the bottom of the stack. Further forward in the storm's precipitation region, four charge regions were inferred, with negative charge at the bottom of the stack, which is an inverted polarity structure. Flashes occasionally lowered positive charge to ground from this charge region. The charge structures in the precipitating region of the storm were due to charge advection from the elevated initial tripole formed in large inferred supercooled liquid water concentrations and additional non-inductive charging in lower supercooled water concentration about 5 km to the side of the storm's strongest updraft. The data suggest that the normal vs. inverted polarity nomenclature is applicable to neither the whole storm nor the charging process itself. Any given normal or inverted region may be significantly influenced by charging processes operating outside of it. It is recommended that future studies of charge structure in storms utilize an interpretive framework which distinguishes between charging regions and regions of charge and ties them to conventional supercellular structural features and their microphysical history as observed in radar fields.

  11. Ice-phobic surfaces that are wet.

    PubMed

    Stone, Howard A

    2012-08-28

    Ice formation on surfaces and structures produces damage and inefficiencies that negatively impact all manners of activities. Not surprisingly, for a long time, an unmet challenge has been to design materials capable of minimizing or even eliminating the formation of ice on the surface of the material. In recent years, there were significant efforts to develop such ice-phobic surfaces by building on the advances made with superhydrophobic materials since these, by definition, tend to repel water. However, a robust response includes the ability to deter the formation of ice when a substrate colder than the freezing temperature is exposed either to impacting water droplets or water vapor (i.e., frost formation). In the latter case, superhydrophobic surfaces in high humidity conditions were shown to allow significant ice accumulation. Consequently, a new design idea was needed. In this issue of ACS Nano, it is shown how a liquid-infiltrated porous solid, where the liquid strongly wets and is retained within the material, has many of the properties desired for an ice-phobic substrate. The composite material exhibits low contact angle hysteresis so only small forces are needed to provoke droplets to slide off of a cold substrate. This new slippery surface shows many characteristics required for ice-phobicity, and a method is demonstrated for applying this kind of material as a coating on aluminum. Ice may have met its match. PMID:22876765

  12. The observed clustering of damaging extra-tropical cyclones in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, S.

    2015-12-01

    The clustering of severe European windstorms on annual timescales has substantial impacts on the re/insurance industry. Management of the risk is impaired by large uncertainties in estimates of clustering from historical storm datasets typically covering the past few decades. The uncertainties are unusually large because clustering depends on the variance of storm counts. Eight storm datasets are gathered for analysis in this study in order to reduce these uncertainties. Six of the datasets contain more than 100~years of severe storm information to reduce sampling errors, and the diversity of information sources and analysis methods between datasets sample observational errors. All storm severity measures used in this study reflect damage, to suit re/insurance applications. It is found that the shortest storm dataset of 42 years in length provides estimates of clustering with very large sampling and observational errors. The dataset does provide some useful information: indications of stronger clustering for more severe storms, particularly for southern countries off the main storm track. However, substantially different results are produced by removal of one stormy season, 1989/1990, which illustrates the large uncertainties from a 42-year dataset. The extended storm records place 1989/1990 into a much longer historical context to produce more robust estimates of clustering. All the extended storm datasets show a greater degree of clustering with increasing storm severity and suggest clustering of severe storms is much more material than weaker storms. Further, they contain signs of stronger clustering in areas off the main storm track, and weaker clustering for smaller-sized areas, though these signals are smaller than uncertainties in actual values. Both the improvement of existing storm records and development of new historical storm datasets would help to improve management of this risk.

  13. Severe Autumn storms in future Western Europe with a warmer Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baatsen, Michiel; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Van Delden, Aarnout J.; de Vries, Hylke

    2014-09-01

    Simulations with a very high resolution (~25 km) global climate model indicate that more severe Autumn storms will impact Europe in a warmer future climate. The observed increase is mainly attributed to storms with a tropical origin, especially in the later part of the twentyfirst century. As their genesis region expands, tropical cyclones become more intense and their chances of reaching Europe increase. This paper investigates the properties and evolution of such storms and clarifies the future changes. The studied tropical cyclones feature a typical evolution of tropical development, extratropical transition and a re-intensification. A reduction of the transit area between regions of tropical and extratropical cyclogenesis increases the probability of re-intensification. Many of the modelled storms exhibit hybrid properties in a considerable part of their life cycle during which they exhibit the hazards of both tropical and extratropical systems. In addition to tropical cyclones, other systems such as cold core extratropical storms mainly originating over the Gulf Stream region also increasingly impact Western Europe. Despite their different history, all of the studied storms have one striking similarity: they form a warm seclusion. The structure, intensity and frequency of storms in the present climate are compared to observations using the MERRA and IBTrACS datasets. Damaging winds associated with the occurrence of a sting jet are observed in a large fraction of the cyclones during their final stage. Baroclinic instability is of great importance for the (re-)intensification of the storms. Furthermore, so-called atmospheric rivers providing tropical air prove to be vital for the intensification through diabatic heating and will increase considerably in strength in the future, as will the associated flooding risks.

  14. Severe Autumn storms in future Western Europe with a warmer Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baatsen, Michiel; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Van Delden, Aarnout J.; de Vries, Hylke

    2015-08-01

    Simulations with a very high resolution (~25 km) global climate model indicate that more severe Autumn storms will impact Europe in a warmer future climate. The observed increase is mainly attributed to storms with a tropical origin, especially in the later part of the twentyfirst century. As their genesis region expands, tropical cyclones become more intense and their chances of reaching Europe increase. This paper investigates the properties and evolution of such storms and clarifies the future changes. The studied tropical cyclones feature a typical evolution of tropical development, extratropical transition and a re-intensification. A reduction of the transit area between regions of tropical and extratropical cyclogenesis increases the probability of re-intensification. Many of the modelled storms exhibit hybrid properties in a considerable part of their life cycle during which they exhibit the hazards of both tropical and extratropical systems. In addition to tropical cyclones, other systems such as cold core extratropical storms mainly originating over the Gulf Stream region also increasingly impact Western Europe. Despite their different history, all of the studied storms have one striking similarity: they form a warm seclusion. The structure, intensity and frequency of storms in the present climate are compared to observations using the MERRA and IBTrACS datasets. Damaging winds associated with the occurrence of a sting jet are observed in a large fraction of the cyclones during their final stage. Baroclinic instability is of great importance for the (re-)intensification of the storms. Furthermore, so-called atmospheric rivers providing tropical air prove to be vital for the intensification through diabatic heating and will increase considerably in strength in the future, as will the associated flooding risks.

  15. New technology and tool prepared for communication against storm surges.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letkiewicz, Beata

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the presentation is description of the new technology and tool prepared for communication, information and issue of warnings against storm surges. The Maritime Branch of the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management is responsible for preparing the forecast as warning, where the end users are Government Officials and Public. The Maritime Branch carry out the project "Strengthening the administrative capacity in order to improve the management of Polish coastal zone environment" (supported by a grant from Norway through the Norwegian Financial Mechanism). The expected final result of the project is web site www.baltyk.pogodynka.pl. One of the activities of the project is - set up of information website www.baltyk.pogodynka.pl, giving public access to the complied data. Information on web site: - meta data - marine data (on-line measurement: sea level, water temperature, salinity, oxygen concentration); - data bases of mathematical model outputs - forecast data (sea level, currents); - ice conditions of the Baltic Sea, - instructions, information materials with information of polish coastal zone. The aim of set up of the portal is development of communication between users of the system, exchange of the knowledge of marine environment and natural hazards such as storm surges, improving the ability of the region in the scope of the data management about the sea environment and the coastal zone.

  16. Storm Surge Hazard in Oman Based on Cyclone Gonu and Historic Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blount, C.; Fritz, H. M.; Albusaidi, F. B.; Al-Harthy, A. H.

    2008-12-01

    Super Cyclone Gonu was the strongest tropical cyclone on record in the Arabian Sea. Gonu developed sustained winds reaching 240 km/h with gusts up to 315 km/h and an estimated central pressure of 920 mbar by late 4 June 2007 while centered east-southeast of Masirah Island on the coast of Oman. Gonu weakened after encountering dry air and cooler waters prior to the June 5 landfall on the eastern-most tip of Oman, becoming the strongest tropical cyclone to hit the Arabian Peninsula. Gonu dropped heavy rainfall near the eastern coastline, reaching up to 610 mm which caused wadi flooding and heavy damage. The shore parallel cyclone track resulted in coastal damage due to storm surge and storm wave impact along a 300km stretch of Omani coastline. Maximum high water marks, overland flow depths, and inundation distances were measured along the Gulf of Oman during the 1-4 August 2007 reconnaissance. The high water marks peaked at Ras al Hadd at the eastern tip of Oman exceeding 5 meters, surpassing 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami runup at every corresponding point. The cyclone caused $4 billion in damage and at least 49 deaths in the Sultanate of Oman. Prior to Gonu, only two similar cyclones struck the coast of Oman in the last 1200 years (in 865 and 1890). The 1890 storm, which remains the worst natural disaster in Oman's history, drenched the coast from Soor to Suwayq causing inland wadi flooding. Matrah and Muscat were the hardest hit areas with many ships being washed ashore and wrecked. The storm is known to have killed about 727 people and caused huge agricultural and shipping losses. Similarly, the 865 storm affected areas between Gobrah and Sohar. A high-resolution finite element ADCIRC mesh of the Arabian Sea is created to model storm surge and is coupled with STWAVE. Modeling results from Gonu are compared to measurements and used to determine the contribution from storm surge and waves. The 1890 and 865 storms are modeled with standard cyclone parameters and results are compared to historical records to estimate the storm tracks. These results can be used to assess the coastal vulnerability in the Gulf of Oman.

  17. The NASA F-106B Storm Hazards Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neely, W. R., Jr.; Fisher, B. D.

    1983-01-01

    During the NASA LRC Storm Hazards Program, 698 thunderstorm precipitations were made from 1980 to 1983 with an F-106B aircraft in order to record direct lightning strike data and the associated flight conditions. It was found that each of the three composite fin caps tested experienced multiple lightning attachments with only minor cosmetic damage. The maximum current level was only 20 ka, which is well below the design standard of 200 ka; however, indications are that the current rate of rise standard has been approached and may be exceeded in a major strike. The peak lightning strike rate occurred at ambient temperatures between -40 and -45 C, while most previously reported strikes have occurred at or near the freezing level. No significant operational difficulties or major aircraft damage resulting from the thunderstorm penetrations have been found.

  18. Scrambled Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This complex area on the side of Europa which faces away from Jupiter shows several types of features which are formed by disruptions of Europa's icy crust. North is to the top of the image, taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft, and the Sun illuminates the surface from the left. The prominent wide, dark bands are up to 20 kilometers (12 miles) wide and over 50 kilometers (30 miles) long. They are believed to have formed when Europa's icy crust fractured, separated and filled in with darker, 'dirtier' ice or slush from below. A relatively rare type of feature on Europa is the 15-kilometer-diameter (9.3-mile) impact crater in the lower left corner. The small number of impact craters on Europa's surface is an indication of its relatively young age. A region of chaotic terrain south of this impact crater contains crustal plates which have broken apart and rafted into new positions. Some of these 'ice rafts' are nearly 1 kilometer (about half a mile) across. Other regions of chaotic terrain are visible and indicate heating and disruption of Europa's icy crust from below. The youngest features in this scene are the long, narrow cracks in the ice which cut across all other features. One of these cracks is about 30 kilometers (18 miles) to the right of the impact crater and extends for hundreds of miles from the top to the bottom of the image.

    The image, centered near 23 degrees south latitude and 179 degrees longitude, covers an area about 240 by 215 kilometers (150 by 130 miles) across. The finest details that can be discerned in this picture are about 460 meters (500 yards) across. The image was taken as Galileo flew by Europa on March 29, 1998. The image was taken by the onboard solid state imaging system camera from an altitude of 23,000 kilometers (14,000 miles).

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  19. A 2000-year dust storm record from Lake Sugan, a small alpine lake in north Tibet Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, F.; Qiang, M.; Zhou, A.; Xiao, S.; Chen, J.; Sun, D.

    2013-12-01

    Northern Tibet Plateau is a potential source of atmospheric dust supply to the Northern Hemisphere. However, dust storm evolution and dust emission processes in the past remain unclear due to the scarcity of geologic archives in this region. Hydrologically closed lakes in dust source areas act as a trap, providing the opportunity to trace the history of dust emission or eolian activity. Here we present the results of dust storm proxies and a dust storm history from Lake Sugan in the Qaidam Basin, a dust source area, on the northern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Grain size analyses of the materials deposited during modern dust storms and of the lake surface sediments demonstrate that the coarse component of the lake sediments was transported primarily by ambient winds when dust storms occurred. In combination with a sediment chronology generated by counting annual laminations, a 2000-year dust storm history was reconstructed on the basis of changes in the coarse component and magnetic susceptibility of the lake sediments. Frequent and/or intensive dust storms occurred during the intervals AD 300-500, AD 1180-1240 and AD 1500-1700. The occurrence of dust storms largely coincided with the strengthening of the Siberian High with colder air masses from high latitudes, such as during the Little Ice Age, frequently encroaching into the dust source areas in northwestern China. Our results suggest that wind strength plays an important role in dust emissions in arid source areas. However, dust storms in the late 20th century are most likely associated with disturbance of the ground surface caused by petroleum exploitation in the Qaidam Basin. This research was published in JGR (Chen et al., 2013, JGR).

  20. A 2000-year dust storm record from Lake Sugan in the dust source area of arid China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fahu; Qiang, Mingrui; Zhou, Aifeng; Xiao, Shun; Chen, Jianhui; Sun, Donghuai

    2013-03-01

    Arid northwestern China is considered to be a major source of atmospheric dust supply to the Northern Hemisphere. However, dust storm evolution and dust emission processes in the past remain unclear due to the scarcity of geologic archives in this region. Hydrologically closed lakes in dust source areas act as a trap, providing the opportunity to trace the history of dust emission or eolian activity. Here we present the results of dust storm proxies and a dust storm history from Lake Sugan in the Qaidam Basin, a dust source area, on the northern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Grain size analyses of the materials deposited during modern dust storms and of the lake surface sediments demonstrate that the coarse component of the lake sediments was transported primarily by ambient winds when dust storms occurred. In combination with a sediment chronology generated by counting annual laminations, a 2000-year dust storm history was reconstructed on the basis of changes in the coarse component and magnetic susceptibility of the lake sediments. Frequent and/or intensive dust storms occurred during the intervals AD 300-500, AD 1180-1240, and AD 1500-1700. The occurrence of dust storms largely coincided with the strengthening of the Siberian High with colder air masses from high latitudes, such as during the Little Ice Age, frequently encroaching into the dust source areas in northwestern China. Our results suggest that wind strength plays an important role in dust emissions in arid source areas. However, dust storms in the late 20th century are most likely associated with disturbance of the ground surface caused by petroleum exploitation in the Qaidam Basin.

  1. Dust Storm, Sudan and Ethiopia, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Dust Storms and atmospheric haze are common occurances in many parts of the world. This dust storm over the Red Sea on the Sudanese and Ethiopian coast near Ras (Cape) Asis (18.5N, 38.0E) shows airborne dust and sand being blown in various directions at different altitudes in the atmosphere.

  2. Evaluation of the STORM model storm-time corrections for middle latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buresova, D.; McKinnell, L.-A.; Sindelarova, T.; De La Morena, B. A.

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents results from the Storm-Time Ionospheric Correction Model (STORM) validation for selected Northern and Southern Hemisphere middle latitude locations. The created database incorporated 65 strong-to-severe geomagnetic storms, which occurred within the period 1995-2007. This validation included data from some ionospheric stations (e.g., Pruhonice, El Arenosillo) that were not considered in the development or previous validations of the model. Hourly values of the F2 layer critical frequency, foF2, measured for 5-7 days during the main and recovery phases of each selected storm were compared with the predicted IRI 2007 foF2 with the STORM model option activated. To perform a detailed comparison between observed values, medians and predicted foF2 values the correlation coefficient, the root-mean-square error (RMSE), and the percentage improvement were calculated. Results of the comparative analysis show that the STORM model captures more effectively the negative phases of the summer ionospheric storms, while electron density enhancement during winter storms and the changeover of the different storm phases is reproduced with less accuracy. The STORM model corrections are less efficient for lower-middle latitudes and severe geomagnetic storms.

  3. Martian great dust storms - An update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurek, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    Observations by the Viking Orbiters and Landers have made substantial contributions to an understanding of the episodic, planetary-scale dust storms on Mars. These and other observations pertinent to the great dust storms are reviewed in this paper; most of the emphasis is on the atmospheric/climatic aspects of these great storms. Specifically, observations concerning the optical properties of the airborne dust, the frequency of occurrence of great dust storms, and the kinematics of their evolution are summarized. Special attention is given to the various estimates derived from Viking data of atmospheric dust opacity. Within this observational framework, various physical mechanisms underlying the generation, evolution, and decay of the Martian great dust storms are discussed.

  4. Interactions Between Convective Storms and Their Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddox, R. A.; Hoxit, L. R.; Chappell, C. F.

    1979-01-01

    The ways in which intense convective storms interact with their environment are considered for a number of specific severe storm situations. A physical model of subcloud wind fields and vertical wind profiles was developed to explain the often observed intensification of convective storms that move along or across thermal boundaries. A number of special, unusually dense, data sets were used to substantiate features of the model. GOES imagery was used in conjunction with objectively analyzed surface wind data to develop a nowcast technique that might be used to identify specific storm cells likely to become tornadic. It was shown that circulations associated with organized meso-alpha and meso-beta scale storm complexes may, on occasion, strongly modify tropospheric thermodynamic patterns and flow fields.

  5. A rare case of thyroid storm.

    PubMed

    McMillen, Brock; Dhillon, Manvinder Shelley; Yong-Yow, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid storm is a rare and life-threatening state of thyroid hormone excess. Rapid recognition of thyroid storm is key to decreasing the morbidity and mortality of this condition. Clinical manifestations of thyroid storm include unexplained weight loss, hyperactivity and irritability. The most common causes of thyrotoxicosis are Graves' disease, toxic multinodular goitre and toxic adenoma. We present a rare case of thyroid storm induced by dual nivolumab and ipilimumab immunotherapy in a patient receiving treatment for advanced melanoma. In this case, our patient was admitted for thyroid storm 1 month after initiating treatment with nivolumab and ipilimumab immunotherapy. The patient was treated with β-blockers, antithyroid medications and systemic steroids resulting in an improvement in thyroid function testing and symptoms. PMID:27090545

  6. ESTIMATION OF URBAN STORM-RUNOFF LOADS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driver, Nancy E.; Lystrom, David J.

    1986-01-01

    The United States was divided into three regions, on the basis of mean annual rainfall, to decrease the variability in storm-runoff constituent loads and to improve regression relations with basin and climatic characteristics. Multiple-regression analyses, in progress, are being refined to determine the best regression models for each of the storm-runoff constituent loads in each of the three regions. These techniques, when finalized, can be used to estimate storm-runoff constituent loads for gaged and ungaged urban watersheds. The preliminary standard errors of estimate for five constituents examined to date ranged from 54 to 223 percent, and the coefficients of determination (r**2) ranged from 0. 39 to 0. 94. Total storm rainfall and total contributing drainage area appear to be the most significant independent variables in the regression models. This paper is a progress report on preliminary results of estimating storm-runoff constituent loads for ungaged watersheds.

  7. Development of Inundation Map for Bantayan Island, Cebu Using Delft3D-Flow Storm Surge Simulations of Typhoon Haiyan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuadra, Camille; Suarez, John Kenneth; Biton, Nophi Ian; Cabacaba, Krichi May; Lapidez, John Phillip; Santiago, Joy; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo; Malano, Vicente

    2014-05-01

    On average, 20 typhoons enter the Philippine area of responsibility annually, making it vulnerable to different storm hazards. Apart from the frequency of tropical cyclones, the archipelagic nature of the country makes it particularly prone to storm surges. On 08 November 2013, Haiyan, a Category 5 Typhoon with maximum one-minute sustained wind speed of 315 kph, hit the central region of the Philippines. In its path, the howler devastated Bantayan Island, a popular tourist destination. The island is located north of Cebu City, the second largest metropolis of the Philippines in terms of populace. Having been directly hit by Typhoon Haiyan, Bantayan Island was severely damaged by strong winds and storm surges, with more than 11,000 houses totally destroyed while 5,000 more suffered minor damage. The adverse impacts of possible future storm surge events in the island can only be mitigated if hazard maps that depict inundation of the coastal areas of Bantayan are generated. To create such maps, Delft3D-Flow, a hydrodynamic model was used to simulate storm surges. These simulations were made over a 10-m per pixel resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO) bathymetry. The results of the coastal inundation model for Typhoon Haiyan's storm surges were validated using data collected from field work and local government reports. The hydrodynamic model of Bantayan was then calibrated using the field data and further simulations were made with varying typhoon tracks. This was done to generate scenarios on the farthest possible inland incursion of storm surges. The output of the study is a detailed storm surge inundation map that depicts safe zones for development of infrastructure near coastal areas and for construction of coastal protection structures. The storm surge inundation map can also be used as basis for disaster preparedness plans of coastal communities threatened by approaching typhoons.

  8. Ice flow of the Antarctic ice sheet.

    PubMed

    Rignot, E; Mouginot, J; Scheuchl, B

    2011-09-01

    We present a reference, comprehensive, high-resolution, digital mosaic of ice motion in Antarctica assembled from multiple satellite interferometric synthetic-aperture radar data acquired during the International Polar Year 2007 to 2009. The data reveal widespread, patterned, enhanced flow with tributary glaciers reaching hundreds to thousands of kilometers inland over the entire continent. This view of ice sheet motion emphasizes the importance of basal-slip-dominated tributary flow over deformation-dominated ice sheet flow, redefines our understanding of ice sheet dynamics, and has far-reaching implications for the reconstruction and prediction of ice sheet evolution. PMID:21852457

  9. Icing conditions over Northern Eurasia in changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulygina, Olga N.; Arzhanova, Natalia M.; Groisman, Pavel Ya

    2015-02-01

    Icing conditions, particularly in combination with wind, affect greatly the operation of overhead communication and transmission lines causing serious failures, which result in tremendous economic damage. Icing formation is dangerous to agriculture, forestry, high seas fishery, for land and off coast man-made infrastructure. Quantitative icing characteristics such as weight, thickness, and duration are very important for the economy and human wellbeing when their maximum values exceed certain thresholds. Russian meteorological stations perform both visual and instrumental monitoring of icing deposits. Visual monitoring is ocular estimation of the type and intensity of icing and the date of ice appearance and disappearance. Instrumental monitoring is performed by ice accretion indicator that in addition to the type, intensity and duration of ice deposits reports also their weight and size. We used observations at 958 Russian stations for the period 1977-2013 to analyze changes in the ice formation frequency at individual meteorological stations and on the territory of quasi-homogeneous climatic regions in Russia. It was found that hoar frosts are observed in most parts of Russia, but icing only occurs in European Russia and the Far East. On the Arctic coast of Russia, this phenomenon can even be observed in summer months. Statistically significant decreasing trends in occurrence of icing and hoar frost events are found over most of Russia. An increasing trend in icing weights (IWs) was found in the Atlantic Arctic region in autumn. Statistically significant large negative trends in IWs were found in the Pacific Arctic in winter and spring.

  10. Sun Damage

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Sun Damage A A A The sun has a profound ... rough or scaly areas of skin due to damage from sun exposure. Some actinic keratoses can turn ...

  11. Determining the Return Period of Storm Surge Events in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, Joy; Suarez, John Kenneth; Lapidez, John Phillip; Mendoza, Jerico; Caro, Carl Vincent; Tablazon, Judd; Ladiero, Christine; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo

    2015-04-01

    The devastating damages generated by the Tropical Cyclone Haiyan storm surges in Eastern Samar, Philippines prompted the Department of Science and Technology-Project NOAH (Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards) to calculate the return period and storm surge exceedance probability of these events. The recurrence interval or the period of return of a storm surge event is the estimated likelihood that that event would occur again. Return periods are measured through historical data denoting the interval of recurrence in average over a period of time. The exceedance probability however, is a graphical representation that describes the probability that some various levels of loss will be exceeded over a future time period or will be surpassed over a given time. DOST-Project NOAH simulates storm surge height time series using JMA storm surge model which is a numerical model based on shallow water equations. To determine the period of recurrence of storm surges with this type of intensity, the agency intends to compute the estimation of storm surge heights generated by tropical cyclones for 2-year, 5-year, 10-year, 25-year, 50-year and 100-year return periods for the Philippine coast. The storm surge time series generated from JMA combined with WXTide simulation, a software containing archives/catalogues of world-wide astronomical tides, and 5-meter resolution DEM were used as input parameters for the inundation model, which shows probable extent of flooding at a specific storm surge return period. Flo-2D two-dimensional flood routing model, a GIS integrated software tool that facilitates the creation of the flood model grid system, was used for flood hazard model. It is a simple volume conservation model composed of processor program that facilitate graphical editing and mapping of flooding details which uses continuity equation and the dynamic wave momentum equations. The measurements of storm surge return period and probable extent of coastal flooding in the Philippine coasts would give us an approximation on affected areas when a tropical cyclone hit the country. This information would be beneficial to local government agencies that intends to develop evacuation planning for these types of calamities, as well as to assess the area's vulnerability are to storm surges.

  12. Dust Storm Hits Canary Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A thick pall of sand and dust blew out from the Sahara Desert over the Atlantic Ocean yesterday (January 6, 2002), engulfing the Canary Islands in what has become one of the worst sand storms ever recorded there. In this scene, notice how the dust appears particularly thick in the downwind wake of Tenerife, the largest of the Canary Islands. Perhaps the turbulence generated by the air currents flowing past the island's volcanic peaks is churning the dust back up into the atmosphere, rather than allowing it to settle toward the surface. This true-color image was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on January 7, 2002. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  13. A Strengthening Eastern Pacific Storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    These July 11, 2006 images are from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument aboard NASA's Terra Satellite. They show then Tropical Storm Bud as it was intensifying into a hurricane, which it became later that day. The true-color image at left is next to an image of cloud heights on the right. Two-dimensional maps of cloud heights such as these give scientists an opportunity to compare their models against actual hurricane observations.

    At the time of these images, Bud was located near 14.4 degrees north latitude and 112.5 degrees west longitude, or about 620 miles (1000 kilometers) southwest of Cabo San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena,Calif. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  14. Ice sheet margins and ice shelves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of climate warming on the size of ice sheet margins in polar regions is considered. Particular attention is given to the possibility of a rapid response to warming on the order of tens to hundreds of years. It is found that the early response of the polar regions to climate warming would be an increase in the area of summer melt on the ice sheets and ice shelves. For sufficiently large warming (5-10C) the delayed effects would include the breakup of the ice shelves by an increase in ice drainage rates, particularly from the ice sheets. On the basis of published data for periodic changes in the thickness and melting rates of the marine ice sheets and fjord glaciers in Greenland and Antarctica, it is shown that the rate of retreat (or advance) of an ice sheet is primarily determined by: bedrock topography; the basal conditions of the grounded ice sheet; and the ice shelf condition downstream of the grounding line. A program of satellite and ground measurements to monitor the state of ice sheet equilibrium is recommended.

  15. Modern Airfoil Ice Accretions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Sheldon, David W.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents results from the first icing tests performed in the Modem Airfoils program. Two airfoils have been subjected to icing tests in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). Both airfoils were two dimensional airfoils; one was representative of a commercial transport airfoil while the other was representative of a business jet airfoil. The icing test conditions were selected from the FAR Appendix C envelopes. Effects on aerodynamic performance are presented including the effects of varying amounts of glaze ice as well as the effects of approximately the same amounts of glaze, mixed, and rime ice. Actual ice shapes obtained in these tests are also presented for these cases. In addition, comparisons are shown between ice shapes from the tests and ice shapes predicted by the computer code, LEWICE for similar conditions. Significant results from the tests are that relatively small amounts of ice can have nearly as much effect on airfoil lift coefficient as much greater amounts of ice and that glaze ice usually has a more detrimental effect than either rime or mixed ice. LEWICE predictions of ice shapes, in general, compared reasonably well with ice shapes obtained in the IRT, although differences in details of the ice shapes were observed.

  16. Icing: Accretion, Detection, Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, John J.

    1994-01-01

    The global aircraft industry and its regulatory agencies are currently involved in three major icing efforts: ground icing; advanced technologies for in-flight icing; and tailplane icing. These three major icing topics correspondingly support the three major segments of any aircraft flight profile: takeoff; cruise and hold; and approach and land. This lecture addressess these three topics in the same sequence as they appear in flight, starting with ground deicing, followed by advanced technologies for in-flight ice protection, and ending with tailplane icing.

  17. Numerical Study of a Tornado-Like Vortex in a Supercell Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Jorge Ruben

    Recent observations and numerical simulations have significantly improved our understanding of tornadic storms. However, our knowledge of tornado-genesis remains rudimentary. Necessary atmospheric conditions favoring the formation of tornadoes in supercell storms are known, but sufficient conditions remain elusive. The underlying reason is that the processes involved in environment-storm and storm-tornado interactions are not fully understood, as numerical models in the past lacked sufficient resolution to resolve these interactions satisfactorily. In this thesis, an attempt is made to fill this gap by performing a multi-grid high resolution simulation of a supercell storm spawning a tornado-like vortex. Four grids, with grid sizes of 600 m, 200 m, 70 m, and 30 m, are used to allow explicit simulation of storm-tornado interactions. Diagnostic analysis of the modeling results allows an investigation of the origin of rotation at both the storm scale and the tornado scale. The simulation results showed that the origin of vertical rotation at storm scale during the early stage of storm development is due to tilting of the horizontal vorticity in the environment. This so called mesocyclone then further strengthens by the mechanism of stretching and Dynamic Pipe Effect and descends downwards. During the time of mesocyclone intensification, incipient surface vertical vortices form along the outflow boundary created by the rear flank downdraft due to the process of horizontal shear instability. One of the surface vortices experiences an initial exponential growth in its vorticity by interacting with the descending mesocyclone and merging with multiple smaller satellite vortices. The tornado-like vortex (TLV) which forms has a maximum horizontal wind of 103 m s-1 and a minimum central pressure of 927 hPa. Vorticity budgets of the mesocyclone and the TLV are computed to assess quantitatively the importance of various processes for rotation. Sensitivity experiments were also performed to determine the effect of varying the environmental conditions on the mesocyclone and surface vorticity. It was found that as the low-level vertical shear of the environmental wind increases, the mesocyclone intensifies and favors the intensification of near surface vorticity. The presence of drier layers in the upper and middle troposphere eventually produces a weaker mesocyclone and weaker outflow boundaries. On the other hand, inclusion of the ice phase processes produces a stronger mesocyclone and more intense outflow boundaries to enhance the intensification of near surface vorticity.

  18. Storm Sudden Commencements Without Interplanetary Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Wooyeon; Lee, Jeongwoo; Yi, Yu; Ssessanga, Nicholas; Oh, Suyeon

    2015-09-01

    Storm sudden commencements (SSCs) occur due to a rapid compression of the Earth's magnetic field. This is generally believed to be caused by interplanetary (IP) shocks, but with exceptions. In this paper we explore possible causes of SSCs other than IP shocks through a statistical study of geomagnetic storms using SYM-H data provided by the World Data Center for Geomagnetism ? Kyoto and by applying a superposed epoch analysis to simultaneous solar wind parameters obtained with the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite. We select a total of 274 geomagnetic storms with minimum SYM-H of less than ?30nT during 1998-2008 and regard them as SSCs if SYM-H increases by more than 10 nT over 10 minutes. Under this criterion, we found 103 geomagnetic storms with both SSC and IP shocks and 28 storms with SSC not associated with IP shocks. Storms in the former group share the property that the strength of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), proton density and proton velocity increase together with SYM-H, implying the action of IP shocks. During the storms in the latter group, only the proton density rises with SYM-H. We find that the density increase is associated with either high speed streams (HSSs) or interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), and suggest that HSSs and ICMEs may be alternative contributors to SSCs.

  19. Prediction of magnetic storms by nonlinear models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia, J. A.; Sharma, A. S.; Papadopoulos, K.

    The strong correlation between magnetic storms and southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is well known from linear prediction filter studies using the Dst and IMF data. However, the linear filters change significantly from one storm to another and thus are limited in their predicting ability. Previous studies have indicated nonlinearity in the magnetospheric response as the ring current decay rate varies with the Dst value during storms. We present in this letter nonlinear models for the evolution of the Dst based on the OMNI database for 1964-1990. When solar wind data are available in advance, the evolution of storms can be predicted from the Dst and IMF data. Solar wind data, however, are not available most of the time or are available typically an hour or less in advance. Therefore, we have developed nonlinear predictive models based on the Dst data alone. In the absence of solar wind data, these models cannot predict the storm onset, but can predict the storm evolution, and may identify intense storms from moderate ones. The input-output model based on IMF and Dst data, the autonomous model based on Dst alone, and a combination of the two can be used as forecasting tools for space weather.

  20. Stability of subsea pipelines during large storms.

    PubMed

    Draper, Scott; An, Hongwei; Cheng, Liang; White, David J; Griffiths, Terry

    2015-01-28

    On-bottom stability design of subsea pipelines transporting hydrocarbons is important to ensure safety and reliability but is challenging to achieve in the onerous metocean (meteorological and oceanographic) conditions typical of large storms (such as tropical cyclones, hurricanes or typhoons). This challenge is increased by the fact that industry design guidelines presently give no guidance on how to incorporate the potential benefits of seabed mobility, which can lead to lowering and self-burial of the pipeline on a sandy seabed. In this paper, we demonstrate recent advances in experimental modelling of pipeline scour and present results investigating how pipeline stability can change in a large storm. An emphasis is placed on the initial development of the storm, where scour is inevitable on an erodible bed as the storm velocities build up to peak conditions. During this initial development, we compare the rate at which peak near-bed velocities increase in a large storm (typically less than 10(-3) m s(-2)) to the rate at which a pipeline scours and subsequently lowers (which is dependent not only on the storm velocities, but also on the mechanism of lowering and the pipeline properties). We show that the relative magnitude of these rates influences pipeline embedment during a storm and the stability of the pipeline. PMID:25512592

  1. Stability of subsea pipelines during large storms

    PubMed Central

    Draper, Scott; An, Hongwei; Cheng, Liang; White, David J.; Griffiths, Terry

    2015-01-01

    On-bottom stability design of subsea pipelines transporting hydrocarbons is important to ensure safety and reliability but is challenging to achieve in the onerous metocean (meteorological and oceanographic) conditions typical of large storms (such as tropical cyclones, hurricanes or typhoons). This challenge is increased by the fact that industry design guidelines presently give no guidance on how to incorporate the potential benefits of seabed mobility, which can lead to lowering and self-burial of the pipeline on a sandy seabed. In this paper, we demonstrate recent advances in experimental modelling of pipeline scour and present results investigating how pipeline stability can change in a large storm. An emphasis is placed on the initial development of the storm, where scour is inevitable on an erodible bed as the storm velocities build up to peak conditions. During this initial development, we compare the rate at which peak near-bed velocities increase in a large storm (typically less than 10−3 m s−2) to the rate at which a pipeline scours and subsequently lowers (which is dependent not only on the storm velocities, but also on the mechanism of lowering and the pipeline properties). We show that the relative magnitude of these rates influences pipeline embedment during a storm and the stability of the pipeline. PMID:25512592

  2. STORM-E Geomagnetic Correction to Auroral Zone E-Region Peak Electron Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Christopher; Xu, Xiaojing; Fernandez, Jose; Bilitza, Dieter; Russell, J. M., III; Mlynczak, M. G.

    An auroral zone empirical geomagnetic storm correction to ionospheric E-region peak electron density has been developed. The empirical storm model called STORM-E was produced from a database of storm-to-quiet correction factors derived from infrared radiance measurements taken by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. The storm-time correction factors were computed from storm-to-quiet ratios (SQR) of NO+(v) volume emission rates (VER) retrieved from TIMED/SABER observations of 4.3 um broadband limb emission measurements. Since NO+ is the terminal E-region ion, NO+(v) 4.3 um VER SQR accurately approximate the E-region electron density SQR. Thus, SABER-derived NO+(v) 4.3 um VER SQR enable the characterization of E-region electron density enhancements due to geomagnetic activity. A global database of SABER NO+(v) 4.3 um VER SQR was derived for the 2002-2006 period and was used to develop a parametric fit in geomagnetic indices such as HP, AE, kp/ap, and Dst. In this paper, we compare STORM-E predictions of the E-region electron density with incoherent scatter radar electron density measurements for representative levels of geomagnetic activity during solar cycle 23. We also discuss the implementation of STORM-E into the IRI model and the possibility of extending STORM-E to latitudes outside the auroral oval region.

  3. Storms in Ancient Egypt: the Examples of Historical Natural Disasters Impacts on the Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Anastasia

    2013-04-01

    Though rain storms are infrequent in Egypt, which is normally a rainless country, some Ancient Egyptian texts give accounts of violent storms and rains. Actually, even small amounts of rain in that area could cause huge impact, as none of the water was absorbed by soil, and, running off, it could create dangerous torrents. The Tempest stele, circa 1550 BC, recounts a highly destructive storm happened during the reign of Ahmose I, the king of Egypt's 18 dynasty. The catastrophy is described in details, including the specific noise, overall darkness, torrent so that no torch could be lit. Many houses were washed into the river, temples, tombs and pyramids damaged and collapsed. The stele commemorates the restoration works made by the king who was able to cope with this great disaster and "re-establish the Two Lands". Some egyptologists believe that this event is related to the Minoan eruption of Thera, but this is unlikely given the description in the stele.

  4. The cytokine storm of severe influenza and development of immunomodulatory therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiang; Zhou, Yuan-hong; Yang, Zhan-qiu

    2016-01-01

    Severe influenza remains unusual in its virulence for humans. Complications or ultimately death arising from these infections are often associated with hyperinduction of proinflammatory cytokine production, which is also known as ‘cytokine storm'. For this disease, it has been proposed that immunomodulatory therapy may improve the outcome, with or without the combination of antiviral agents. Here, we review the current literature on how various effectors of the immune system initiate the cytokine storm and exacerbate pathological damage in hosts. We also review some of the current immunomodulatory strategies for the treatment of cytokine storms in severe influenza, including corticosteroids, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 agonists, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, antioxidants, anti-tumour-necrosis factor therapy, intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, statins, arbidol, herbs, and other potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:26189369

  5. Towards robust optimal design of storm water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquez Calvo, Oscar; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2015-04-01

    In this study the focus is on the design of a storm water or a combined sewer system. Such a system should be capable to handle properly most of the storm to minimize the damages caused by flooding due to the lack of capacity of the system to cope with rain water at peak times. This problem is a multi-objective optimization problem: we have to take into account the minimization of the construction costs, the minimization of damage costs due to flooding, and possibly other criteria. One of the most important factors influencing the design of storm water systems is the expected amount of water to deal with. It is common that this infrastructure is developed with the capacity to cope with events that occur once in, say 10 or 20 years - so-called design rainfall events. However, rainfall is a random variable and such uncertainty typically is not taken explicitly into account in optimization. Rainfall design data is based on historical information of rainfalls, but many times this data is based on unreliable measures; or in not enough historical information; or as we know, the patterns of rainfall are changing regardless of historical information. There are also other sources of uncertainty influencing design, for example, leakages in the pipes and accumulation of sediments in pipes. In the context of storm water or combined sewer systems design or rehabilitation, robust optimization technique should be able to find the best design (or rehabilitation plan) within the available budget but taking into account uncertainty in those variables that were used to design the system. In this work we consider various approaches to robust optimization proposed by various authors (Gabrel, Murat, Thiele 2013; Beyer, Sendhoff 2007) and test a novel method ROPAR (Solomatine 2012) to analyze robustness. References Beyer, H.G., & Sendhoff, B. (2007). Robust optimization - A comprehensive survey. Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg., 3190-3218. Gabrel, V.; Murat, C., Thiele, A. (2014). Recent advances in robust optimization: An overview. European Journal of Operational Research. 471-483. Solomatine, D.P. (2012). Robust Optimization and Probabilistic Analysis of Robustness (ROPAR). http://www.unesco-ihe.org/hi/sol/papers/ ROPAR.pdf.

  6. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. Magnetic storms had role in earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    Scientists from Stanford University say that prior to the San Francisco earthquake on Oct 17, university instruments recorded exceptional changes in Earth's magnetic field. They suggest that solar-triggered magnetic storms may have played a role in the quake. The Stanford University magnetometer, which is positioned near Corralitos, about four miles from the epicenter of the quake, monitors ultra-low-frequency (ULF) variations - between 0.01 and 10 Hz - in the Earth's magnetic field. Ordinarily, these variations result from, among other things, solar magnetic storms high in the atmosphere.Solar magnetic storms have also been proven to cause power system outages.

  8. The great dust storm of 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, L. J.; James, P. B.

    1987-01-01

    It is reported that on the global scale, no major dust storm activity was seen during telescopic observations of Mars during the several months or so preceeding this conference. However, the corresponding season on Mars was early fall, which is at the beginning of the dust storm season. It was too early to tell, therefore, if a great dust storm was going to occur that year. Current observations and what they show about present atmospheric conditions and the recession of the South Polar Cap is discussed.

  9. Reduced Baroclinicity During Martian Global Dust Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battalio, Joseph; Szunyogh, Istvan; Lemmon, Mark

    2015-11-01

    The eddy kinetic energy equation is applied to the Mars Analysis Correction Data Assimilation (MACDA) dataset during the pre-winter solstice period for the northern hemisphere of Mars. Traveling waves are triggered by geopotential flux convergence, grow baroclinically, and decay barotropically. Higher optical depth increases the static stability, which reduces vertical and meridional heat fluxes. Traveling waves during a global dust storm year develop a mixed baroclinic/barotropic growth phase before decaying barotropically. Baroclinic energy conversion is reduced during the global dust storm, but eddy intensity is undiminished. Instead, the frequency of storms is reduced due to a stabilized vertical profile.

  10. Measured winter performance of storm windows

    SciTech Connect

    Klems, Joseph H.

    2002-08-23

    Direct comparison measurements were made between various prime/storm window combinations and a well-weatherstripped, single-hung replacement window with a low-E selective glazing. Measurements were made using an accurate outdoor calorimetric facility with the windows facing north. The doublehung prime window was made intentionally leaky. Nevertheless, heat flows due to air infiltration were found to be small, and performance of the prime/storm combinations was approximately what would be expected from calculations that neglect air infiltration. Prime/low-E storm window combinations performed very similarly to the replacement window. Interestingly, solar heat gain was not negligible, even in north-facing orientation.

  11. Storm Physics and Lightning Properties over Northern Alabama during DC3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthee, R.; Carey, L. D.; Bain, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) experiment seeks to examine the relationship between deep moist convection (DMC) and the production of nitrogen oxides (NOx) via lightning (LNOx). The focus of this study will be to examine integrated storm microphysics and lightning properties of DMC across northern Alabama (NA) during the DC3 campaign through use of polarimetric radar [UAHuntsville's Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Radar (ARMOR)] and lightning mapping [National Aeronautical and Space Administration's (NASA) north Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NA LMA)] platforms. Specifically, ARMOR and NA LMA are being used to explore the ability of radar inferred microphysical (e.g., ice mass, graupel volume) measurements to parameterize flash rates (F) and flash area for estimation of LNOX production in cloud resolving models. The flash area was calculated by using the 'convex hull' method. This method essentially draws a polygon around all the sources that comprise a flash. From this polygon, the convex hull area that describes the minimum polygon that circumscribes the flash extent is calculated. Two storms have been analyzed so far; one on 21 May 2012 (S1) and another on 11 June 2012 (S2), both of which were aircraft-penetrated during DC3. For S1 and S2, radar reflectivity (Z) estimates of precipitation ice mass (M) within the mixed-phase zone (-10°C to -40°C) were well correlated to the trend of lightning flash rate. However, a useful radar-based F parameterization must provide accurate quantification of rates in addition to proper trends. The difference reflectivity was used to estimate Z associated with ice and then a single Z-M relation was employed to calculate M in the mixed-phase zone. Using this approach it was estimated that S1 produced an order of magnitude greater M, but produced about a third of the total amount of flashes compared to S2. Expectations based on the non-inductive charging (NIC) theory suggest that the M-to-F ratio (M/F) should be stable from storm-to-storm, amongst other factors, all else being equal. Further investigation revealed that the mean mixed-phase Z was 11 dB higher in S1 compared to S2, suggesting larger diameters and lower concentrations of ice particles in S1. Reduction by an order of magnitude of the intercept parameter (N0) of an assumed exponential ice particle size distribution within the Z-M relation for S1 resulted in a proportional reduction in S1's inferred M and therefore a more comparable M/F ratio between the storms. Flash statistics between S1 and S2 revealed the following: S1 produced 1.92 flashes/minute and a total of 102 flashes, while S2 produced 3.45 flashes/minute and a total of 307 flashes. On average, S1 (S2) produced 212 (78) sources per flash and an average flash area of 89.53 km2 (53.85 km2). Thus, S1 produced fewer flashes, a lower F, but more sources per flash and larger flash areas as compared to S2. Ongoing analysis is exploring the tuning of N0 within the Z-M relation by the mean Z in the mixed-phase zone. The suitability of various M estimates and other radar properties (graupel volume, ice fluxes, anvil ice mass) for parameterizing F, flash area and LNOX will be investigated on different storm types across NA.

  12. Effects of urban pollution on downwind storms: An energetic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrio, G. G.

    2011-12-01

    In two previous studies. the effects of the Houston Metropolitan area on the characteristics and intensity of convection and precipitation were investigated for events triggered by the sea-breeze circulation . Carrió et al (2010) isolated the effects of the land-use change and examined the indirect effects of urban pollution considering sources of varied intensity linked to sub-grid urban area fractions. The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System developed at Colorado State University (RAMS@CSU) was validated against radar observations for the case used as a benchmark for these sensitivity experiments. With regard to the aerosol effects, as other authors have also found, enhancing cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) can produce an invigoration of downwind convective cells due to additional latent heat release. However, results showed an interesting non-monotonic behavior of convection intensity and precipitation when more intense CCN surface sources were considered. A second study (Carrió et al, 2011) consisted of a large number of multi-grid simulations (more than one hundred) and varied convective instability in addition to the intensity of urban pollution sources. The non-monotonic response was linked to the riming efficiency reduction of ice particles when aerosol concentrations are greatly enhanced. Therefore, a greater fraction of the ice-phase condensed water mass is transported out of the storm as pristine ice crystals instead of being transferred to precipitating water species. Even though, Carrió et al, (2011) strongly supports the relationship between the behavior of the simulated precipitation and the aforementioned microphysical mechanism, the evidence could be considered somewhat "circumstantial". For that reason, the problem was revisited with a new modeling study that approaches it from a more energetic perspective. These new numerical experiments used RAMS@CSU coupled to the Town Energy Budget (TEB) urban model and a microphysical module that considers the explicit activation of CCN (and giant CCN), a bimodal representation of cloud droplets, and a bin-emulation approach for droplet collection, ice-particle riming, and sedimentation. Model outputs every 30s were used to analyze the (indirect) effects of urban pollution on the efficiency of microphysical processes leading to the generation of precipitation particles (involving ice-phase and warm rain), latent heat release rates, buoyancy, vertical momentum, as well as several integral quantities linked to the convective cells simulated downwind of the urban complex. Results clearly support the explanations inferred in the previous study, show a non-monotony behavior of several macroscopic characteristics of the downwind convective cells, and indicate that the expected increase of the particulate pollution is more likely to selectively enhance precipitation of convective events characterized by higher instability and extreme precipitation events.

  13. Iced-airfoil aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragg, M. B.; Broeren, A. P.; Blumenthal, L. A.

    2005-07-01

    Past research on airfoil aerodynamics in icing are reviewed. This review emphasizes the time period after the 1978 NASA Lewis workshop that initiated the modern icing research program at NASA and the current period after the 1994 ATR accident where aerodynamics research has been more aircraft safety focused. Research pre-1978 is also briefly reviewed. Following this review, our current knowledge of iced airfoil aerodynamics is presented from a flowfield-physics perspective. This article identifies four classes of ice accretions: roughness, horn ice, streamwise ice, and spanwise-ridge ice. For each class, the key flowfield features such as flowfield separation and reattachment are discussed and how these contribute to the known aerodynamic effects of these ice shapes. Finally Reynolds number and Mach number effects on iced-airfoil aerodynamics are summarized.

  14. Sea ice ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Arrigo, Kevin R

    2014-01-01

    Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters. PMID:24015900

  15. Sea Ice Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

  16. Physiological and ecological significance of biological ice nucleators.

    PubMed Central

    Lundheim, Rolv

    2002-01-01

    When a pure water sample is cooled it can remain in the liquid state at temperatures well below its melting point (0 degrees C). The initiation of the transition from the liquid state to ice is called nucleation. Substances that facilitate this transition so that it takes place at a relatively high sub-zero temperature are called ice nucleators. Many living organisms produce ice nucleators. In some cases, plausible reasons for their production have been suggested. In bacteria, they could induce frost damage to their hosts, giving the bacteria access to nutrients. In freeze-tolerant animals, it has been suggested that ice nucleators help to control the ice formation so that it is tolerable to the animal. Such ice nucleators can be called adaptive ice nucleators. There are, however, also examples of ice nucleators in living organisms where the adaptive value is difficult to understand. These ice nucleators might be structures with functions other than facilitating ice formation. These structures might be called incidental ice nucleators. PMID:12171657

  17. Top Sounder Ice Penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, D. L.; Goemmer, S. A.; Sweeney, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Ice draft measurements are made as part of normal operations for all US Navy submarines operating in the Arctic Ocean. The submarine ice draft data are unique in providing high resolution measurements over long transects of the ice covered ocean. The data has been used to document a multidecadal drop in ice thickness, and for validating and improving numerical sea-ice models. A submarine upward-looking sonar draft measurement is made by a sonar transducer mounted in the sail or deck of the submarine. An acoustic beam is transmitted upward through the water column, reflecting off the bottom of the sea ice and returning to the transducer. Ice thickness is estimated as the difference between the ship's depth (measured by pressure) and the acoustic range to the bottom of the ice estimated from the travel time of the sonar pulse. Digital recording systems can provide the return off the water-ice interface as well as returns that have penetrated the ice. Typically, only the first return from the ice hull is analyzed. Information regarding ice flow interstitial layers provides ice age information and may possibly be derived with the entire return signal. The approach being investigated is similar to that used in measuring bottom sediment layers and will involve measuring the echo level from the first interface, solving the reflection loss from that transmission, and employing reflection loss versus impedance mismatch to ascertain ice structure information.

  18. Dual-Polarization Radar Observations of Upward Lightning-Producing Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lueck, R.; Helsdon, J. H.; Warner, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Upward Lightning Triggering Study (UPLIGHTS) seeks to determine how upward lightning, which originates from the tips of tall objects, is triggered by nearby flash activity. As a component of this study we analyze standard and dual-polarization weather radar data. The Correlation Coefficient (CC) in particular can be used to identify and quantify the melting layer associated with storms that produce upward lightning. It has been proposed that positive charge generation due to aggregate shedding at the melting layer results in a positive charge region just above the cloud base. This positive charge region may serve as a positive potential well favorable for negative leader propagation, which initiate upward positive leaders from tall objects. We characterize the horizontal coverage, thickness and height of the melting layer in addition to cloud base heights when upward lightning occurs to determine trends and possible threshold criteria relating to upward lightning production. Furthermore, we characterize storm type and morphology using relevant schemes as well as precipitation type using the Hydrometer Classification Algorithm (HCA) for upward lightning-producing storms. Ice-phase hydrometeors have been shown to be a significant factor in thunderstorm electrification. Only a small fraction of storms produce upward lightning, so null cases will be examined and compared as well.

  19. The Newfoundland ice extent and the solar cycle from 1860 to 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, B.T.; Jones, S.J. )

    1990-04-15

    Sea ice conditions off the east coast of Newfoundland for the last 130 years are presented, forming what is believed to be the longest ice record for the northwestern Atlantic. Because of differenced in how these data were originally collected, the series is divided into two sets, before and after 1920. Time series for solar activity and air temperature at St. John's have also been compiled and correlation coefficients between the various data sets determined. The relationships between the sea ice extent and solar activity are discussed in the contest of the Iceland ice index and recent findings in the atmosphere-ocean-ice system in the northern hemisphere. The association with the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and the similarity with the fluctuating trends of sea levels, sea surface temperatures, and storms in the North Atlantic are noted. Predictions for the sea ice extent are made for the next few years based on the relationship with solar activity.

  20. XBeach-G: a tool for predicting gravel barrier response to extreme storm conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masselink, Gerd; Poate, Tim; McCall, Robert; Roelvink, Dano; Russell, Paul; Davidson, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Gravel beaches protect low-lying back-barrier regions from flooding during storm events and their importance to society is widely acknowledged. Unfortunately, breaching and extensive storm damage has occurred at many gravel sites and this is likely to increase as a result of sea-level rise and enhanced storminess due to climate change. Limited scientific guidance is currently available to provide beach managers with operational management tools to predict the response of gravel beaches to storms. The New Understanding and Prediction of Storm Impacts on Gravel beaches (NUPSIG) project aims to improve our understanding of storm impacts on gravel coastal environments and to develop a predictive capability by modelling these impacts. The NUPSIG project uses a 5-pronged approach to address its aim: (1) analyse hydrodynamic data collected during a proto-type laboratory experiment on a gravel beach; (2) collect hydrodynamic field data on a gravel beach under a range of conditions, including storm waves with wave heights up to 3 m; (3) measure swash dynamics and beach response on 10 gravel beaches during extreme wave conditions with wave heights in excess of 3 m; (4) use the data collected under 1-3 to develop and validate a numerical model to model hydrodynamics and morphological response of gravel beaches under storm conditions; and (5) develop a tool for end-users, based on the model formulated under (4), for predicting storm response of gravel beaches and barriers. The aim of this presentation is to present the key results of the NUPSIG project and introduce the end-user tool for predicting storm response on gravel beaches. The model is based on the numerical model XBeach, and different forcing scenarios (wave and tides), barrier configurations (dimensions) and sediment characteristics are easily uploaded for model simulations using a Graphics User Interface (GUI). The model can be used to determine the vulnerability of gravel barriers to storm events, but can also be used to help optimise design criteria for gravel barriers to reduce their vulnerability and enhance their coastal protection ability.

  1. Evaluation of the STORM model storm-time corrections for middle latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buresova, Dalia; McKinnell, Lee-Anne; Sindelarova, Tereza; Blanco, Ins; de La Morena, Benito

    Estimation of the ionospheric response to a geomagnetic disturbance and forecasting of the main ionospheric parameters is very useful for different radio communication purposes. As long as variations in the ionosphere are related in regular patterns, empirical models, such as the IRI model, sufficiently estimate corrections for the ionospheric effects on radio wave propagation. During a geomagnetic storm the variability of the ionospheric parameters increases substantially and makes forecasting more complicated. Recently the IRI2001 model incorporated a geomagnetic activity dependence based on an empirical Storm-Time Ionospheric Correction Model (STORM). This paper will present results of the STORM model validation for Northern and Southern Hemisphere middle latitudes. The created database incorporates 65 strong-tosevere geomagnetic storms, which occurred within the period 1995-2007. In our analysis we used data from some ionospheric stations (e.g., Pruhonice, El Arenosillo, Athens), which were not included in the development or the previous validation of the model. Hourly values of the F2 layer critical frequency, foF2, measured for 5-7 days during the main and recovery phases of each selected storm where compared with those generated by the IRI model. To perform a detailed comparison between observed values, medians and model-generated foF2 values the correlation coefficient, the normalised root-mean-square error (NRMSE), and the percentage improvement are calculated. Results of the comparative analysis show that the STORM model captures more effectively the negative phases of the summer ionospheric storms, while electron density enhancement during winter storms and changeover of the different storm phases is reproduced with lower accuracy. The STORM model corrections are less efficient for lowermiddle latitudes and severe geomagnetic storms. Effectiveness of the IRI2001 updating with the near-real time digisonde data is also analysed.

  2. Observational analysis of the interaction between a baroclinic boundary and supercell storms on 27 April 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrer, Adam Thomas

    A thermal boundary developed during the morning to early afternoon hours on 27 April as a result of rainfall evaporation and shading from reoccurring deep convection. This boundary propagated to the north during the late afternoon to evening hours. The presence of the boundary produced an area more conducive for the formation of strong violent tornadoes through several processes. These processes included the production of horizontally generated baroclinic vorticity, increased values in storm-relative helicity, and decreasing lifting condensation level heights. Five supercell storms formed near and/or propagated alongside this boundary. Supercells that interacted with this boundary typically produced significant tornadic damage over long distances. Two of these supercells formed to the south (warm) side of the boundary and produced a tornado prior to crossing to the north (cool) side of the boundary. These two storms exhibited changes in appearance, intensity, and structure. Two other supercells formed well south of the boundary. These two storms remained relatively weak until they interacted with the boundary. These storms then rapidly intensified and produced tornadoes. Supercells that formed well into the cool side of the boundary either did not produce tornadoes or the tornadoes were determined to be weak in nature.

  3. Health Effects of Coastal Storms and Flooding in Urban Areas: A Review and Vulnerability Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Charles-Guzman, Kizzy; Matte, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Coastal storms can take a devastating toll on the public's health. Urban areas like New York City (NYC) may be particularly at risk, given their dense population, reliance on transportation, energy infrastructure that is vulnerable to flood damage, and high-rise residential housing, which may be hard-hit by power and utility outages. Climate change will exacerbate these risks in the coming decades. Sea levels are rising due to global warming, which will intensify storm surge. These projections make preparing for the health impacts of storms even more important. We conducted a broad review of the health impacts of US coastal storms to inform climate adaptation planning efforts, with a focus on outcomes relevant to NYC and urban coastal areas, and incorporated some lessons learned from recent experience with Superstorm Sandy. Based on the literature, indicators of health vulnerability were selected and mapped within NYC neighborhoods. Preparing for the broad range of anticipated effects of coastal storms and floods may help reduce the public health burden from these events. PMID:23818911

  4. Health effects of coastal storms and flooding in urban areas: a review and vulnerability assessment.

    PubMed

    Lane, Kathryn; Charles-Guzman, Kizzy; Wheeler, Katherine; Abid, Zaynah; Graber, Nathan; Matte, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Coastal storms can take a devastating toll on the public's health. Urban areas like New York City (NYC) may be particularly at risk, given their dense population, reliance on transportation, energy infrastructure that is vulnerable to flood damage, and high-rise residential housing, which may be hard-hit by power and utility outages. Climate change will exacerbate these risks in the coming decades. Sea levels are rising due to global warming, which will intensify storm surge. These projections make preparing for the health impacts of storms even more important. We conducted a broad review of the health impacts of US coastal storms to inform climate adaptation planning efforts, with a focus on outcomes relevant to NYC and urban coastal areas, and incorporated some lessons learned from recent experience with Superstorm Sandy. Based on the literature, indicators of health vulnerability were selected and mapped within NYC neighborhoods. Preparing for the broad range of anticipated effects of coastal storms and floods may help reduce the public health burden from these events. PMID:23818911

  5. Hail Ice Impact of Lightweight Composite Sandwich Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luong, Sean Dustin

    There is a growing demand for the usage of composite sandwich structures in the aircraft industry. Aircraft may suffer damage from a variety of impact sources such as ground service equipment, runway debris, bird strike, or hail ice. The damage response of hail ice impacts on composite sandwich structures is not well understood and they can often result in core damage without visually detectable surface damage. This seed damage may grow and lead to large-scale failure of the structure through repetitive operational loading, such as ground-air-ground cycles of aircraft (causes core internal pressurization). Therefore, it is necessary to understand the types of damage that can occur as a result of impacts. This study explores the effect of high velocity hail ice impact on damage formation in lightweight composite sandwich panels, particularly at a level that produces barely visible external damage. Panels consisting of two different facesheet thicknesses (1.19 and 1.87 mm) were impacted at angles of 25, 40, and 90 degrees at speeds of 25 and 50 m/s. The tests revealed three different core damage modes. Any level of measurable surface damage was an indicator of the presence of internal core damage, but internal damage could also be present without measurable surface damage. Thus, visual inspection alone was not a reliable method of damage detection. No clear relationship was found between impact energy levels and internal damage state since, for example, both 83 and 20.5 J tests produced core fracture, while a 16 J test did not produce any core damage. All core damage occurred at a depth of 3-5 mm from the impact-side facesheet.

  6. Measurement of ice thickness (icing) in aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John; Kirby, Mark S. JR.

    1988-01-01

    Pulsed ultrasonic techniques have been used to measure the formation of ice in flight in an icing wind tunnel with a precision of + or - 0.5 mm. Two icing regimes, humid and dry, are identified. Both natural and artificial conditions are considered. On the basis of ice formation rates obtained by the ultrasound technique and the observed surface conditions, it is found that the heat transfer coefficients are larger in the wind tunnel tests than in actual flight, presumably due to the higher level of turbulence in the wind tunnel tests. Profiles obtained during flight under natural conditions are compared with mechanical-type measurements and with the results of stereographic analysis.

  7. Storm sudden commencements and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrov, Ivan; Sobisevich, Aleksey; Guglielmi, Anatol

    2015-03-01

    We have investigated statistically the problem of possible impact of the geomagnetic storm sudden com-mencement (SSC) on the global seismic activity. SSC are used as reference points for comparative analysis of seismicity by the method of superposed epoch. We selected 405 earthquakes from 1973 to 2010 with M˜5 magnitudes from a representative part of USGS Catalog. The comparative analysis of seismicity was carried out at the intervals of ˜60 min relative to the reference point. With a high degree of reliability, it was found that before the reference point the number of earthquakes is noticeably greater than after it. In other words, the global seismicity is suppressed by SSC. We refer to some studies in which the chemical, thermal and force mechanisms of the electromagnetic field action on rocks are discussed. We emphasize the incompleteness of the study concerning the correlation between SSC and earthquakes because we still do not succeed in understanding and interpreting the relationship in terms of physics and mathematics. The study need to be continued to solve this problem of interest and importance.

  8. Statistical characterization of temporal structure of storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvadori, G.; De Michele, C.

    2006-06-01

    The authors present a statistical procedure to estimate the probability distributions of storm characteristics. The approach uses recent advances in stochastic hydrological modeling. The temporal dynamics of rainfall are modeled via a reward alternating renewal process that describes wet and dry phases of storms. In particular, the wet phase is modeled as a rectangular pulse process with dependent random duration and intensity; the global dependence structure is described using multidimensional copulas. The marginal distributions are described by Generalized Pareto laws. The authors derive both the storm volume statistics and the rainfall volume distribution within a fixed temporal window preceding a storm. Based on these results, they calculate the antecedent moisture conditions. The paper includes a thorough discussion of the validity of the assumptions and approximations introduced, and an application to actual rainfall data. The models presented here have important implications for improved design procedures of water resources and hydrologic systems.

  9. Tropical Storm Don - Duration: 31 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    GOES-13 data was compiled into an animation by the NASA GOES Project at NASA Goddard that shows the development of Tropical Storm Don in the southern Gulf of Mexico, west of Cuba. The animation run...

  10. Tropical Storm Faxai - Duration: 13 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA/JAXA's TRMM Satellite provided data of developing Tropical Storm Faxai to make this 3-D image that showed some towering thunderstorms in the area were reaching altitudes of up to 15.5km/~9.6 m...

  11. Powerful Midwest Storm System - Duration: 24 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of imagery from NOAA’s GOES-13 satellite shows themovement of storm systems in the south central United States on May 20,2013. Warm, moist gulf air flowing across Texas, Oklahoma...

  12. A new way to study geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, J. A.; Wright, D. M.; Milan, S. E.; Grocott, A.; Boakes, P. D.

    2011-08-01

    James Hutchinson and colleagues describe a novel radar technique to study geomagnetic storms: superposed latitude-time-velocity plots. This is a summary of the poster winning a Rishbeth Prize at the NAM/UKSP/MIST meeting in April.

  13. Quantifying Power Grid Risk from Geomagnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homeier, N.; Wei, L. H.; Gannon, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    We are creating a statistical model of the geophysical environment that can be used to quantify the geomagnetic storm hazard to power grid infrastructure. Our model is developed using a database of surface electric fields for the continental United States during a set of historical geomagnetic storms. These electric fields are derived from the SUPERMAG compilation of worldwide magnetometer data and surface impedances from the United States Geological Survey. This electric field data can be combined with a power grid model to determine GICs per node and reactive MVARs at each minute during a storm. Using publicly available substation locations, we derive relative risk maps by location by combining magnetic latitude and ground conductivity. We also estimate the surface electric fields during the August 1972 geomagnetic storm that caused a telephone cable outage across the middle of the United States. This event produced the largest surface electric fields in the continental U.S. in at least the past 40 years.

  14. Tropical Storm Dolly Develops - Duration: 32 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation from NOAA's GOES-East satellite from Aug. 31-Sept. 2 shows the movement of a low pressure area from the western Caribbean Sea over the Yucatan Peninsula as it becomes Tropical Storm ...

  15. The 1973 dust storm on Mars: Maps from hourly photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    The hourly progress of the 1973 major Martian storm was mapped using photographic images from the International Planetary Patrol. Two series of 20 daily maps show the semi-hourly positions of the storm brightenings in red light and blue light. The maps indicate that the 1973 storm had many similarities to the 1971 storm.

  16. Using Wind Setdown and Storm Surge on Lake Erie to Calibrate the Air-Sea Drag Coefficient

    PubMed Central

    Drews, Carl

    2013-01-01

    The air-sea drag coefficient controls the transfer of momentum from wind to water. In modeling storm surge, this coefficient is a crucial parameter for estimating the surge height. This study uses two strong wind events on Lake Erie to calibrate the drag coefficient using the Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Wave Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system and the the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). Simulated waves are generated on the lake with Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN). Wind setdown provides the opportunity to eliminate wave setup as a contributing factor, since waves are minimal at the upwind shore. The study finds that model results significantly underestimate wind setdown and storm surge when a typical open-ocean formulation without waves is used for the drag coefficient. The contribution of waves to wind setdown and storm surge is 34.7%. Scattered lake ice also increases the effective drag coefficient by a factor of 1.1. PMID:23977309

  17. An industrial sensor for reliable ice detection in gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Freestone, J.W.; Weber, M.

    1994-12-31

    Ice formation in the intake duct and compressor blading is a constant risk on gas turbines operating in regions where there are unfavorable ambient conditions. If allowed to continue there is a clear danger that pieces of ice will be ingested by the machine causing substantial damage. To protect the machine from possible damage, if ice is suspected by the operator the de-icing system is activated, injecting hot bleed air from the last compressor stages into the cold inlet air, naturally causing a decrease in power and efficiency. There exists a requirement for an ice detection system which will reliably detect the presence of ice and therefore optimize the use of bleed air for de-icing and reduce unnecessary power and efficiency losses. This paper discusses the necessary conditions for icing and describes a robust industrial sensor for reliable ice detection. The system, which is suitable for ground based gas turbines, has been installed on a 130MW gas turbine in Holland for the last three years and some of the results are presented here together with the economic advantages to be gained from installing such a system.

  18. Impact of the sea surface temperature rise on storm-track clouds in global nonhydrostatic aqua planet simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, C.; Iga, S.; Satoh, M.

    2014-05-01

    Aqua planet experiments were conducted to investigate storm-track cloud change due to sea surface temperature (SST) rise. Fourteen kilometer mesh global nonhydrostatic model was employed with an explicit cloud microphysical process, and the model output data were composited to the cyclone center. Both the column-integrated liquid and ice cloud contents are significantly increased around the cyclone center due to the SST rise. The occurrence of low-level liquid clouds becomes more frequent not only near the cyclone center but also for all of the higher latitudes, which cannot be seen in low-resolution models. This as well as thicker liquid clouds enhances shortwave cooling. Upper level ice clouds occur more frequently on the east side of the cyclone center, and they partly offset the enhanced shortwave cooling through longwave warming. These results may imply an importance of the cloud-scale process with cloud microphysics on the storm-track clouds and their radiative forcing.

  19. Storm Track Response to Perturbations in Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbengue, Cheikh Oumar

    This thesis advances our understanding of midlatitude storm tracks and how they respond to perturbations in the climate system. The midlatitude storm tracks are regions of maximal turbulent kinetic energy in the atmosphere. Through them, the bulk of the atmospheric transport of energy, water vapor, and angular momentum occurs in midlatitudes. Therefore, they are important regulators of climate, controlling basic features such as the distribution of surface temperatures, precipitation, and winds in midlatitudes. Storm tracks are robustly projected to shift poleward in global-warming simulations with current climate models. Yet the reasons for this shift have remained unclear. Here we show that this shift occurs even in extremely idealized (but still three-dimensional) simulations of dry atmospheres. We use these simulations to develop an understanding of the processes responsible for the shift and develop a conceptual model that accounts for it. We demonstrate that changes in the convective static stability in the deep tropics alone can drive remote shifts in the midlatitude storm tracks. Through simulations with a dry idealized general circulation model (GCM), midlatitude storm tracks are shown to be located where the mean available potential energy (MAPE, a measure of the potential energy available to be converted into kinetic energy) is maximal. As the climate varies, even if only driven by tropical static stability changes, the MAPE maximum shifts primarily because of shifts of the maximum of near-surface meridional temperature gradients. The temperature gradients shift in response to changes in the width of the tropical Hadley circulation, whose width is affected by the tropical static stability. Storm tracks generally shift in tandem with shifts of the subtropical terminus of the Hadley circulation. We develop a one-dimensional diffusive energy-balance model that links changes in the Hadley circulation to midlatitude temperature gradients and so to the storm tracks. It is the first conceptual model to incorporate a dynamical coupling between the tropical Hadley circulation and midlatitude turbulent energy transport. Numerical and analytical solutions of the model elucidate the circumstances of when and how the storm tracks shift in tandem with the terminus of the Hadley circulation. They illustrate how an increase of only the convective static stability in the deep tropics can lead to an expansion of the Hadley circulation and a poleward shift of storm tracks. The simulations with the idealized GCM and the conceptual energy-balance model demonstrate a clear link between Hadley circulation dynamics and midlatitude storm track position. With the help of the hierarchy of models presented in this thesis, we obtain a closed theory of storm track shifts in dry climates. The relevance of this theory for more realistic moist climates is discussed.

  20. Geomagnetic storms, super-storms, and their impacts on GPS-based navigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafyeva, E.; Yasyukevich, Yu.; Maksikov, A.; Zhivetiev, I.

    2014-07-01

    Using data of GPS receivers located worldwide, we analyze the quality of GPS performance during four geomagnetic storms of different intensity: two super-storms and two intense storms. We show that during super-storms the density of GPS Losses-of-Lock (LoL) increases up to 0.25% at L1 frequency and up to 3% at L2 frequency, and up to 0.15% (at L1) and 1% (at L2) during less intense storms. Also, depending on the intensity of the storm time ionospheric disturbances, the total number of total electron content (TEC) slips can exceed from 4 to 40 times the quiet time level. Both GPS LoL and TEC slips occur during abrupt changes of SYM-H index of geomagnetic activity, i.e., during the main phase of geomagnetic storms and during development of ionospheric storms. The main contribution in the total number of GPS LoL was found to be done by GPS sites located at low and high latitudes, whereas the area of numerous TEC slips seemed to mostly correspond to the boundary of the auroral oval, i.e., region with intensive ionospheric irregularities. Our global maps of TEC slips show where the regions with intense irregularities of electron density occur during geomagnetic storms and will let us in future predict appearance of GPS errors for geomagnetically disturbed conditions.

  1. Detection Of Tornado Damage Tracks With EOS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Nair, Udaysankar; Haines, Stephanie L.

    2005-01-01

    The damage surveys conducted by the NWS in the aftermath of a reported tornadic event are used to document the location of the tornado ground damage track (path length and width) and an estimation of the tornado intensity. This study explored the possibility of using near real-time medium and high-resolution satellite imagery from the NASA EOS satellites to provide additional information for the surveys. MODIS and ASTER data were used to study the damage tracks from three tornadic storms; the La Plata, Maryland storm of 28 April 2002 and the Carter-Butler Counties and Madison County Missouri storms of 24 April 2002. These storms varied in intensity (from F0-F4) and occurred over regions with different land use. It was found that, depending on the nature of land use, tornado damage tracks from intense storms (F2 or greater) may be evident in both ASTER and MODIS satellite imagery. In areas of dense vegetation the scar patterns show up very clearly, while in areas of grassland and regions with few trees, scar patterns are not at all obvious in the satellite imagery. The detection of previously unidentified segments of a damage track caused by the 24 April 2004 Madison County, Missouri tornado demonstrates the utility of satellite imagery for damage surveys. However, the capability to detect tornado tracks in satellite imagery appears to be as much dependent on the nature of the underlying surface and land use as on the severity of the tornadic storm. The imaging sensors on the NPOESS operational satellites to be launched in 2006 will continue the unique observing capabilities of the EOS instruments.

  2. Steering of westerly storms over western North America at the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oster, Jessica L.; Ibarra, Daniel E.; Winnick, Matthew J.; Maher, Katharine

    2015-03-01

    The hydroclimate history of North America includes the formation and desiccation of large inland lakes and the growth and ablation of glaciers throughout the Quaternary period. At the Last Glacial Maximum, expanded pluvial lakes in the south and aridity in the northwest suggest that the winter westerly storm track was displaced southwards and migrated northwards as the Laurentide Ice Sheet waned. However, lake highstands do not occur synchronously along zonal bands, in conflict with this hypothesis. Here we compile a network of precipitation proxy reconstructions from lakes, speleothems, groundwater deposits, packrat middens and glaciers from the western and southwestern US, which we compare with an ensemble of climate simulations to identify the controls of regional hydroclimatic change. The proxy records suggest a precipitation dipole during the Last Glacial Maximum, with wetter than modern conditions in the southwest and drier conditions near the ice sheet, and a northwest-southeast trending transition zone across the northern Great Basin. The models that simulate a weaker and south-shifted Aleutian low-pressure system, a strong North Pacific high-pressure system, and a high above the ice sheet best reproduce this regional variation. We therefore conclude that rather than a uniformly south-shifted storm track, a stronger jet that is squeezed and steered across the continent by high-pressure systems best explains the observed regional hydroclimate patterns of the Last Glacial Maximum.

  3. Environmental and environmental-health impacts of the ARkStorm Scenario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Alpers, Charles N.; Morman, Suzette A.; San Juan, Carma A.

    2016-01-01

    The ARkStorm Scenario predicts that a prolonged winter storm event across California would cause extreme precipitation, flooding, winds, physical damages, and economic impacts. This study uses a literature review and geographic information system-based analysis of national and state databases to infer how and where ARkStorm could cause environmental damages, release contamination from diverse natural and anthropogenic sources, affect ecosystem and human health, and cause economic impacts from environmental-remediation, liability, and health-care costs. Examples of plausible ARkStorm environmental and health concerns include complex mixtures of contaminants such as petroleum, mercury, asbestos, persistent organic pollutants, molds, and pathogens; adverse physical and contamination impacts on riverine and coastal marine ecosystems; and increased incidences of mold-related health concerns, some vector-borne diseases, and valley fever. Coastal cities, the San Francisco Bay area, the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, parts of the Central Valley, and some mountainous areas would likely be most affected. This type of screening analysis, coupled with follow-up local assessments, can help stakeholders in California and disaster-prone areas elsewhere better plan for, mitigate, and respond to future environmental disasters.

  4. Dust Storm, Red Sea and Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Outlined against the dark blue water of the Red Sea, a prominent dust storm is making its way across the Red Sea into Saudi Arabia (22.0N, 39.0E) between the Islamic holy cities of Medinah and Mecca. Funneled through a gap in the coastal ranges of southern Sudan near the Ethiopian border, dust storms frequently will blow counter to the prevailing tropical easterly winds of the region.

  5. EVIDENCE FOR COMET STORMS IN METEORITE AGES

    SciTech Connect

    Perlmutter, S.; Muller, R.A.

    1987-10-01

    Clustering of cosmic-ray exposure ages of H chondritic meteorites occurs at 7 {+-} 3 and 30 {+-} 6 Myr ago. There is independent evidence that comet storms have occurred at the same times, based on the fossil record of family and genus extinctions, impact craters and glass, and geomagnetic reversals. We suggest that H chondrites were formed by the impact of shower comets on asteroids. The duration of the most recent comet shower was {le} 4 Myr, in agreement with storm theory.

  6. Use of historical information in extreme storm surges frequency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, Yasser; Duluc, Claire-Marie; Deville, Yves; Bardet, Lise; Rebour, Vincent

    2013-04-01

    The prevention of storm surge flood risks is critical for protection and design of coastal facilities to very low probabilities of failure. The effective protection requires the use of a statistical analysis approach having a solid theoretical motivation. Relating extreme storm surges to their frequency of occurrence using probability distributions has been a common issue since 1950s. The engineer needs to determine the storm surge of a given return period, i.e., the storm surge quantile or design storm surge. Traditional methods for determining such a quantile have been generally based on data from the systematic record alone. However, the statistical extrapolation, to estimate storm surges corresponding to high return periods, is seriously contaminated by sampling and model uncertainty if data are available for a relatively limited period. This has motivated the development of approaches to enlarge the sample extreme values beyond the systematic period. The nonsystematic data occurred before the systematic period is called historical information. During the last three decades, the value of using historical information as a nonsystematic data in frequency analysis has been recognized by several authors. The basic hypothesis in statistical modeling of historical information is that a perception threshold exists and that during a giving historical period preceding the period of tide gauging, all exceedances of this threshold have been recorded. Historical information prior to the systematic records may arise from high-sea water marks left by extreme surges on the coastal areas. It can also be retrieved from archives, old books, earliest newspapers, damage reports, unpublished written records and interviews with local residents. A plotting position formula, to compute empirical probabilities based on systematic and historical data, is used in this communication paper. The objective of the present work is to examine the potential gain in estimation accuracy with the use of historical information (to the Brest tide gauge located in the French Atlantic coast). In addition, the present work contributes to addressing the problem of the presence of outliers in data sets. Historical data are generally imprecise, and their inaccuracy should be properly accounted for in the analysis. However, as several authors believe, even with substantial uncertainty in the data, the use of historical information is a viable mean to improve estimates of rare events related to extreme environmental conditions. The preliminary results of this study suggest that the use of historical information increases the representativity of an outlier in the systematic data. It is also shown that the use of historical information, specifically the perception sea water level, can be considered as a reliable solution for the optimal planning and design of facilities to withstand extreme environmental conditions, which will occur during its lifetime, with an appropriate optimum of risk level. Findings are of practical relevance for applications in storm surge risk analysis and flood management.

  7. Mediterranean Storms: An Integrated Approach of Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karageorgou, H.; Riza, E.; Linos, A.; Papanikolaou, D.

    2010-09-01

    Disaster by UN definition is "a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society, involving widespread human, material, economic, or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using only its own resources". Mediterranean storms induce flash floods caused by excessive amounts of rainfall within a short lasting period of time. The intensity and duration of precipitation, region geomorphology, urbanization and different governmental emergency management structures trigger different consequences between Mediterranean countries. The integrated approach in management of storm risk represents a holistic perspective including interactions between government, science and technology institutions, developing agencies, private sector, NGOs and public. Local authorities and national government are responsible for the design, preparation and decision on storm risk management policies and strategies considering scientific risk identifying, assessing and understanding. Efficient governance management requires satisfied response to early warning systems, functionality of the affected systems upon which society depends and appropriate focus on variable interest, beliefs, values and ideologies between social groups. Also an appropriate balancing of benefits and costs in an efficient and equitable manner is important for the governance risk management. Natural sciences in corporation with the engineering science have developed effective early prediction, warning and monitoring systems on storm and flood risk. The health sciences use prediction systems for health related hazards and consequences and the social sciences research estimates the human resilience during disasters and the factors which affect and determine the human behavior. Also social sciences survey the response of public to early warning messages, the appropriate communicative methods to distributing messages and mechanisms to improve public response. The available and applied science and technology in prediction and early warning systems rely on the close collaboration between scientists and policy makers to achieve effective disaster prevention of human life and mitigation of damages. Developing agencies approach risk management as an integral part of development and encourage activities and measures to reduce the exposure and vulnerability to natural hazards through early warning systems, building codes, land use plans and disaster sensitive development plans. The human settlement and investment in high risk floodplains place greater numbers of people and economic assets in danger of being affected by storms and floods. Disasters and development are highly inter-related. Recurrent disasters and frequent localized disasters erode development and conversely the development processes can reduce disaster risk, or create new risks. The private sector participation in risk reduction efforts can help local communities mitigate disasters and increases the benefits of the businesses. The private insurance sector is highly involved in the prevention of disaster caused by natural hazards especially storms and floods. The collaboration between academic community and the insurance sector indicates the linkages between the mutual insurance actions and risk culture. Also tourism industry and private critical infrastructure sector get involved in prevention measures and activities against storm and flood risks to build sustainable functionality and keep public trust. NGOs focus on social, cultural, environmental, educational, or health issues in disaster management and their members are educated and experienced on their area of operations. The staff of local and national NGOs is familiar with culture, languages, governance structures, social networks, climate and geography of the affected area and holds a unique understanding of the specific problems of the affected population. Additionally, NGO’s operations do not suffer from bureaucracy and therefore are able to deploy on very short notice. The public awareness, behavior and response to disasters depend on the knowledge about the risk, the understanding of the information and the translation of what it means in their own particular circumstances. The majority of people judges the information to be credible and discusses the meaning of information with trusted family members, friends and colleagues to decide the next action. Well educated people, efficient management of previous experiences, successful communication methods and trust on government and authorities contribute towards efficient public response on disasters.

  8. Importance of Chemical Composition for Ice Nucleation: A Combined Field and Laboratory Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baustian, K. J.; Wise, M. E.; Cziczo, D. J.; Hallar, A. G.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    The formation of ice in cirrus clouds remains one of the most uncertain aspects of climate change. One reason for this is the complex nature of tropospheric cloud ice nuclei (IN). Raman spectroscopy combined with particle mapping can provide insight into the morphology, phase and chemical functional groups associated with ice nucleating particles. As part of the Storm Peak Aerosol and Cloud Characterization Study (SPACCS) 2010 a cascade impactor was used to collect size-segregated samples of ambient aerosol particles at Storm Peak Laboratory in Steamboat Springs, Colorado (elevation 10,500 ft.). Ice nucleation characteristics of each sample were investigated using optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The samples were placed in an environmental cell and exposed to water vapor at low temperatures to simulate atmospheric ice formation in the upper troposphere. Selective depositional ice nucleation events were used to identify IN particles and Raman spectroscopy was used to probe compositional variability within single micron-sized IN particles. For comparison, spectral and size information was also obtained from non-ice nucleating particles. This approach was used to vastly simplify the investigation of ice nucleation on complex field samples. Although the majority of particles were observed to contain a detectable amount of organic material, IN particles often contained less or no organic material when compared to non-IN particles. Further, Raman mapping has revealed that a significant fraction of the collected particles have thick coatings of organic material. These coated particles are poor IN and were never observed to nucleate ice even at very high levels of supersaturation with respect to ice. Our results agree with other studies that have observed organic material inhibiting ice formation and show that thick organic coatings found on ambient particles may prevent ice nucleation. These results have implications for cloud formation in the troposphere.

  9. Field Evaluation of Low-E Storm Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Drumheller, S. Craig; Kohler, Christian; Minen, Stefanie

    2007-07-11

    A field evaluation comparing the performance of low emittance (low-e) storm windows with both standard clear storm windows and no storm windows was performed in a cold climate. Six homes with single-pane windows were monitored over the period of one heating season. The homes were monitored with no storm windows and with new storm windows. The storm windows installed on four of the six homes included a hard coat, pyrolitic, low-e coating while the storm windows for the other two homeshad traditional clear glass. Overall heating load reduction due to the storm windows was 13percent with the clear glass and 21percent with the low-e windows. Simple paybacks for the addition of the storm windows were 10 years for the clear glass and 4.5 years forthe low-e storm windows.

  10. Northern hemisphere dust storms on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, P. B.

    1993-01-01

    Dust storms in the northern hemisphere of Mars appear to be less common than the more familiar southern hemisphere storms, and essentially, no activity north of about 30 latittude has been documented. The data are, however, subject to an observational bias because Mars is near aphelion during oppositions, which occur during the most likely seasons for dust activity in the north. The amount of dust activity in the northern hemisphere is clearly very relevant to the role of atmospheric transport in the dust cycle. The classic global storms that occur during spring in the southern hemisphere are observed to transport dust from sources in the southern hemisphere to sinks or temporary depositories in the north. The question of whether atmospheric transport can close the dust cycle, i.e., return the dust to the southern hemisphere sources on some timescale, is clearly relevant to the solution of the puzzle of how the dust storm cycle is modulated, i.e., why storms occur in some years but not in others. There are data that suggest that the spring/early summer season in the northern hemisphere of Mars during the year following the major 1977 storms observed by Viking was very dusty. A number of observations of the vicinity of the receding north polar cap showed clear evidence of substantial dust activity in the sub-Arctic region.

  11. Scientists Track 'Perfect Storm' on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Two dramatically different faces of our Red Planet neighbor appear in these comparison images showing how a global dust storm engulfed Mars with the onset of Martian spring in the Southern Hemisphere. When NASA's Hubble Space Telescope imaged Mars in June, the seeds of the storm were caught brewing in the giant Hellas Basin (oval at 4 o'clock position on disk) and in another storm at the northern polar cap.

    When Hubble photographed Mars in early September, the storm had already been raging across the planet for nearly two months obscuring all surface features. The fine airborne dust blocks a significant amount of sunlight from reaching the Martian surface. Because the airborne dust is absorbing this sunlight, it heats the upper atmosphere. Seasonal global Mars dust storms have been observed from telescopes for over a century, but this is the biggest storm ever seen in the past several decades.

    Mars looks gibbous in the right photograph because it is 26 million miles farther from Earth than in the left photo (though the pictures have been scaled to the same angular size), and our viewing angle has changed. The left picture was taken when Mars was near its closest approach to Earth for 2001 (an event called opposition); at that point the disk of Mars was fully illuminated as seen from Earth because Mars was exactly opposite the Sun.

    Both images are in natural color, taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

  12. Electrically Active Storms in the Appalachian Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffines, G. R.; Orville, R. E.

    2004-12-01

    There is less lightning activity in the Appalachian Mountains than in other surrounding areas as indicated by several flash density studies. Some storms have demonstrated a characteristic coined as the Appalachian Lightning Jump where the lightning ends as it approaches the mountain range or continues on following the valleys in between the mountains instead of the mountain peaks as in other regions such as the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. In certain storms, the lightning diverts around the higher elevations as if the storm may be experiencing some sort of a blocking effect such as cold air damming or the loss of low level convergence with the surface elevation changes. In this follow-on study to the Appalachian Lightning Jump presentation at the 2003 Annual AGU Meeting, the storms exhibiting this jumping characteristic are examined by including lightning data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) and measurements from the WSR-88D radars in the area to determine if there is a change in the structure of these storms. Comparisons with storms similar in nature, from a lightning perspective, are also examined to determine if the lightning jump is unique to more shallow systems that may lose their support when approaching the mountains or that may experience cold air damming.

  13. Non-storm water discharges technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, S.

    1994-07-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) submitted a Notice of Intent to the California State Water Resources Control Board (hereafter State Board) to discharge storm water associated with industrial activities under the California General Industrial Activity Storm Water National Pollutant Elimination System Discharge Permit (hereafter General Permit). As required by the General Permit, LLNL provided initial notification of non-storm water discharges to the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board (hereafter Regional Board) on October 2, 1992. Additional findings and progress towards corrective actions were reported in subsequent annual monitoring reports. LLNL was granted until March 27, 1995, three years from the Notice of Intent submission date, to eliminate or permit the non-storm water discharges. On May 20, 1994, the Regional Board issued Waste Discharge Requirements (WDR Board Order No. 94-131, NPDES No. CA0081396) to LLNL for discharges of non-contact cooling tower wastewater and storm water related to industrial activities. As a result of the issuance of WDR 94-131, LLNL rescinded its coverage under the General Permit. WDR 94-131 allowed continued non-storm water discharges and requested a technical report describing the discharges LLNL seeks to permit. For the described discharges, LLNL anticipates the Regional Board will either waive Waste Discharge Requirements as allowed for in The Water Quality Control Plan for the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Valley Region (hereafter Basin Plan) or amend Board Order 94-131 as appropriate.

  14. Storms and plankton: the forgotten link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, F.

    2009-09-01

    The physico-chemical fields of the pelagic environment are constantly fluctuating at different spatial and temporal scales. Storms are extreme events of such fluctuations that cascade down to small scales to alter nutrient availability to microscopic algae or swimming and mating behaviour of motile plankton. In coastal ecosystems, storms represent dissolved nutrient injections via run-off and resuspension that trigger planktonic succession events. Storms may also have a role in the development and/or mitigation of harmful algal blooms, events with health consequences that are of growing societal concern. Mediterranean storms are also responsible for the transport of micro and macronutrients from Saharan origin. The effects of the deposition of such nutrients over the ocean may range from small to significant depending on the local conditions. Overall, albeit it is hard to envision catastrophic consequences, storms affect, directly or indirectly, the dynamics of plankton and hence ecosystem production. The full potential of such relationships will be evidenced once biological time series match the resolution and spatial coverage of meteorological and oceanic data. As the frequency and intensity of storms is subject to global change, future oceanic ecosystem production and diversity scenarios will be affected as well.

  15. Mapping hurricane rita inland storm tide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, C.; Mason, R.R., Jr.; Blanchard, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    Flood-inundation data are most useful for decision makers when presented in the context of maps of affected communities and (or) areas. But because the data are scarce and rarely cover the full extent of the flooding, interpolation and extrapolation of the information are needed. Many geographic information systems provide various interpolation tools, but these tools often ignore the effects of the topographic and hydraulic features that influence flooding. A barrier mapping method was developed to improve maps of storm tide produced by Hurricane Rita. Maps were developed for the maximum storm tide and at 3-h intervals from midnight (00:00 hours) through noon (12:00 hours) on 24 September 2005. The improved maps depict storm-tide elevations and the extent of flooding. The extent of storm-tide inundation from the improved maximum storm-tide map was compared with the extent of flood inundation from a map prepared by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The boundaries from these two maps generally compared quite well especially along the Calcasieu River. Also a cross-section profile that parallels the Louisiana coast was developed from the maximum storm-tide map and included FEMA high-water marks. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Mapping Hurricane Rita inland storm tide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, Charles; Mason, Jr., Robert R.; Blanchard, Stephen F.

    2009-01-01

    Flood-inundation data are most useful for decision makers when presented in the context of maps of effected communities and (or) areas. But because the data are scarce and rarely cover the full extent of the flooding, interpolation and extrapolation of the information are needed. Many geographic information systems (GIS) provide various interpolation tools, but these tools often ignore the effects of the topographic and hydraulic features that influence flooding. A barrier mapping method was developed to improve maps of storm tide produced by Hurricane Rita. Maps were developed for the maximum storm tide and at 3-hour intervals from midnight (0000 hour) through noon (1200 hour) on September 24, 2005. The improved maps depict storm-tide elevations and the extent of flooding. The extent of storm-tide inundation from the improved maximum storm-tide map was compared to the extent of flood-inundation from a map prepared by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The boundaries from these two maps generally compared quite well especially along the Calcasieu River. Also a cross-section profile that parallels the Louisiana coast was developed from the maximum storm-tide map and included FEMA high-water marks.

  17. Fundamental Ice Crystal Accretion Physics Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter M.; Broeren, Andy P.; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Vargas, Mario; Wright, William B.; Currie, Tom; Knezevici, Danny; Fuleki, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Due to numerous engine power-loss events associated with high-altitude convective weather, ice accretion within an engine due to ice crystal ingestion is being investigated. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada are starting to examine the physical mechanisms of ice accretion on surfaces exposed to ice-crystal and mixed-phase conditions. In November 2010, two weeks of testing occurred at the NRC Research Altitude Facility utilizing a single wedge-type airfoil designed to facilitate fundamental studies while retaining critical features of a compressor stator blade or guide vane. The airfoil was placed in the NRC cascade wind tunnel for both aerodynamic and icing tests. Aerodynamic testing showed excellent agreement compared with CFD data on the icing pressure surface and allowed calculation of heat transfer coefficients at various airfoil locations. Icing tests were performed at Mach numbers of 0.2 to 0.3, total pressures from 93 to 45 kPa, and total temperatures from 5 to 15 C. Ice and liquid water contents ranged up to 20 and 3 g/m3, respectively. The ice appeared well adhered to the surface in the lowest pressure tests (45 kPa) and, in a particular case, showed continuous leading-edge ice growth to a thickness greater than 15 mm in 3 min. Such widespread deposits were not observed in the highest pressure tests, where the accretions were limited to a small area around the leading edge. The suction surface was typically ice-free in the tests at high pressure, but not at low pressure. The icing behavior at high and low pressure appeared to be correlated with the wet-bulb temperature, which was estimated to be above 0 C in tests at 93 kPa and below 0 C in tests at lower pressure, the latter enhanced by more evaporative cooling of water. The authors believe that the large ice accretions observed in the low pressure tests would undoubtedly cause the aerodynamic performance of a compressor component such as a stator blade to degrade significantly, and could damage downstream components if shed.

  18. Fundamental Ice Crystal Accretion Physics Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, Tom; Knezevici, Danny; Fuleki, Dan; Struk, Peter M.; Broeren, Andy P.; Tsao, Jen-ching; Vargas, Mario; Wright, William

    2011-01-01

    Due to numerous engine power-loss events associated with high-altitude convective weather, ice accretion within an engine due to ice-crystal ingestion is being investigated. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada are starting to examine the physical mechanisms of ice accretion on surfaces exposed to ice-crystal and mixed-phase conditions. In November 2010, two weeks of testing occurred at the NRC Research Altitude Facility utilizing a single wedge-type airfoil designed to facilitate fundamental studies while retaining critical features of a compressor stator blade or guide vane. The airfoil was placed in the NRC cascade wind tunnel for both aerodynamic and icing tests. Aerodynamic testing showed excellent agreement compared with CFD data on the icing pressure surface and allowed calculation of heat transfer coefficients at various airfoil locations. Icing tests were performed at Mach numbers of 0.2 to 0.3, total pressures from 93 to 45 kPa, and total temperatures from 5 to 15 C. Ice and liquid water contents ranged up to 20 and 3 grams per cubic meter, respectively. The ice appeared well adhered to the surface in the lowest pressure tests (45 kPa) and, in a particular case, showed continuous leading-edge ice growth to a thickness greater than 15 millimeters in 3 minutes. Such widespread deposits were not observed in the highest pressure tests, where the accretions were limited to a small area around the leading edge. The suction surface was typically ice-free in the tests at high pressure, but not at low pressure. The icing behavior at high and low pressure appeared to be correlated with the wet-bulb temperature, which was estimated to be above 0 C in tests at 93 kPa and below 0 C in tests at lower pressure, the latter enhanced by more evaporative cooling of water. The authors believe that the large ice accretions observed in the low pressure tests would undoubtedly cause the aerodynamic performance of a compressor component such as a stator blade to degrade significantly, and could damage downstream components if shed.

  19. Laser-induced plasma cloud interaction and ice multiplication under cirrus cloud conditions.

    PubMed

    Leisner, Thomas; Duft, Denis; Möhler, Ottmar; Saathoff, Harald; Schnaiter, Martin; Henin, Stefano; Stelmaszczyk, Kamil; Petrarca, Massimo; Delagrange, Raphaëlle; Hao, Zuoqiang; Lüder, Johannes; Petit, Yannick; Rohwetter, Philipp; Kasparian, Jérôme; Wolf, Jean-Pierre; Wöste, Ludger

    2013-06-18

    Potential impacts of lightning-induced plasma on cloud ice formation and precipitation have been a subject of debate for decades. Here, we report on the interaction of laser-generated plasma channels with water and ice clouds observed in a large cloud simulation chamber. Under the conditions of a typical storm cloud, in which ice and supercooled water coexist, no direct influence of the plasma channels on ice formation or precipitation processes could be detected. Under conditions typical for thin cirrus ice clouds, however, the plasma channels induced a surprisingly strong effect of ice multiplication. Within a few minutes, the laser action led to a strong enhancement of the total ice particle number density in the chamber by up to a factor of 100, even though only a 10(-9) fraction of the chamber volume was exposed to the plasma channels. The newly formed ice particles quickly reduced the water vapor pressure to ice saturation, thereby increasing the cloud optical thickness by up to three orders of magnitude. A model relying on the complete vaporization of ice particles in the laser filament and the condensation of the resulting water vapor on plasma ions reproduces our experimental findings. This surprising effect might open new perspectives for remote sensing of water vapor and ice in the upper troposphere. PMID:23733936

  20. Laser-induced plasma cloud interaction and ice multiplication under cirrus cloud conditions

    PubMed Central

    Leisner, Thomas; Duft, Denis; Möhler, Ottmar; Saathoff, Harald; Schnaiter, Martin; Henin, Stefano; Stelmaszczyk, Kamil; Petrarca, Massimo; Delagrange, Raphaëlle; Hao, Zuoqiang; Lüder, Johannes; Petit, Yannick; Rohwetter, Philipp; Kasparian, Jérôme; Wolf, Jean-Pierre; Wöste, Ludger

    2013-01-01

    Potential impacts of lightning-induced plasma on cloud ice formation and precipitation have been a subject of debate for decades. Here, we report on the interaction of laser-generated plasma channels with water and ice clouds observed in a large cloud simulation chamber. Under the conditions of a typical storm cloud, in which ice and supercooled water coexist, no direct influence of the plasma channels on ice formation or precipitation processes could be detected. Under conditions typical for thin cirrus ice clouds, however, the plasma channels induced a surprisingly strong effect of ice multiplication. Within a few minutes, the laser action led to a strong enhancement of the total ice particle number density in the chamber by up to a factor of 100, even though only a 10−9 fraction of the chamber volume was exposed to the plasma channels. The newly formed ice particles quickly reduced the water vapor pressure to ice saturation, thereby increasing the cloud optical thickness by up to three orders of magnitude. A model relying on the complete vaporization of ice particles in the laser filament and the condensation of the resulting water vapor on plasma ions reproduces our experimental findings. This surprising effect might open new perspectives for remote sensing of water vapor and ice in the upper troposphere. PMID:23733936

  1. Physical and Dynamical Linkages between Lightning Jumps and Storm Conceptual Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Elise V.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    The presence and rates of total lightning are both correlated to and physically dependent upon storm updraft strength, mixed phase precipitation volume and the size of the charging zone. The updraft modulates the ingredients necessary for electrification within a thunderstorm, while the updraft also plays a critical role in the development of severe and hazardous weather. Therefore utilizing this relationship, the monitoring of lightning rates and jumps provides an additional piece of information on the evolution of a thunderstorm, more often than not, at higher temporal resolution than current operational radar systems. This correlation is the basis for the total lightning jump algorithm that has been developed in recent years. Currently, the lightning jump algorithm is being tested in two separate but important efforts. Schultz et al. (2014; this conference) is exploring the transition of the algorithm from its research based formulation to a fully objective algorithm that includes storm tracking, Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) Proxy data and the lightning jump algorithm. Chronis et al. (2014; this conference) provides context for the transition to current operational forecasting using lightning mapping array based products. However, what remains is an end-to-end physical and dynamical basis for coupling total lightning flash rates to severe storm manifestation, so the forecaster has a reason beyond simple correlation to utilize the lightning jump algorithm within their severe storm conceptual models. Therefore, the physical basis for the lightning jump algorithm in relation to severe storm dynamics and microphysics is a key component that must be further explored. Many radar studies have examined flash rates and their relationship to updraft strength, updraft volume, precipitation-sized ice mass, etc.; however, their relationship specifically to lightning jumps is fragmented within the literature. Thus the goal of this study is to use multiple Doppler and polarimetric radar techniques to resolve the physical and dynamical storm characteristics specifically around the time of the lightning jump. This information will help forecasters anticipate lightning jump occurrence, or even be of use to determine future characteristics of a given storm (e.g., development of a mesocyclone, downdraft, or hail signature on radar), providing additional lead time/confidence in the severe storm warning paradigm.

  2. Physical and Dynamical Linkages Between Lightning Jumps and Storm Conceptual Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Elise V.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    The presence and rates of total lightning are both correlated to and physically dependent upon storm updraft strength, mixed phase precipitation volume and the size of the charging zone. The updraft modulates the ingredients necessary for electrification within a thunderstorm, while the updraft also plays a critical role in the development of severe and hazardous weather. Therefore utilizing this relationship, the monitoring of lightning rates and jumps provides an additional piece of information on the evolution of a thunderstorm, more often than not, at higher temporal resolution than current operational radar systems. This correlation is the basis for the total lightning jump algorithm that has been developed in recent years. Currently, the lightning jump algorithm is being tested in two separate but important efforts. Schultz et al. (2014; this conference) is exploring the transition of the algorithm from its research based formulation to a fully objective algorithm that includes storm tracking, Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) Proxy data and the lightning jump algorithm. Chronis et al. (2014) provides context for the transition to current operational forecasting using lightning mapping array based products. However, what remains is an end-to-end physical and dynamical basis for coupling total lightning flash rates to severe storm manifestation, so the forecaster has a reason beyond simple correlation to utilize the lightning jump algorithm within their severe storm conceptual models. Therefore, the physical basis for the lightning jump algorithm in relation to severe storm dynamics and microphysics is a key component that must be further explored. Many radar studies have examined flash rates and their relationship to updraft strength, updraft volume, precipitation-sized ice mass, etc.; however, their relationship specifically to lightning jumps is fragmented within the literature. Thus the goal of this study is to use multiple Doppler and polarimetric radar techniques to resolve the physical and dynamical storm characteristics specifically around the time of the lightning jump. This information will help forecasters anticipate lightning jump occurrence, or even be of use to determine future characteristics of a given storm (e.g., development of a mesocyclone, downdraft, or hail signature on radar), providing additional lead time/confidence in the severe storm warning paradigm.

  3. Doped Artificial Spin Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson Reichhardt, Cynthia; Libal, Andras; Reichhardt, Charles

    We examine square and kagome artificial spin ice for colloids confined in arrays of double-well traps. Unlike magnetic artificial spin ices, colloidal and vortex artificial spin ice realizations allow creation of doping sites through double occupation of individual traps. We find that doping square and kagome ice geometries produces opposite effects. For square ice, doping creates local excitations in the ground state configuration that produce a local melting effect as the temperature is raised. In contrast, the kagome ice ground state can absorb the doping charge without generating non-ground-state excitations, while at elevated temperatures the hopping of individual colloids is suppressed near the doping sites. These results indicate that in the square ice, doping adds degeneracy to the ordered ground state and creates local weak spots, while in the kagome ice, which has a highly degenerate ground state, doping locally decreases the degeneracy and creates local hard regions.

  4. The role of conditional symmetric instability in Sting Jet storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, L. H.; Martinez-Alvarado, O.; Gray, S. L.; Clark, P. A.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this project is to determine the mechanisms that lead to sting jets in extreme windstorms and develop diagnostics for predicting their formation and development. Extratropical cyclones often produce strong surface winds, mostly associated with low-level jets along the warm and cold fronts. Some severe extratropical cyclones have been found to produce an additional area of localised strong, and potentially very damaging, surface winds during a certain part of their development. These strong winds are associated with air that originates within the cloud head, exiting at the tip of the cloud head and descending rapidly from there to the surface. This rapidly descending air associated with the strong surface winds is known as a sting jet. One significant feature of sting jet storms is mesoscale slantwise circulations in the cloud head, which have been speculated to be due to the release of conditional symmetric instability (CSI). Analyses of two very different proposed sting jet storms will be presented. In both cases, a sting jet feature has been identified and examined using two diagnostics for CSI: SCAPE (slantwise convective available potential energy) and moist potential vorticity (MPV). SCAPE and negative MPV exist near the tip of the cloud heads and SCAPE decreases during the time of the descent of the sting jets, indicating that CSI may be being released.

  5. Diagnosing Aircraft Icing Potential from Satellite Cloud Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, William L., Jr.; Minnis, Patrick; Fleeger, Cecilia; Spangenberg, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    The threat for aircraft icing in clouds is a significant hazard that routinely impacts aviation operations. Accurate diagnoses and forecasts of aircraft icing conditions requires identifying the location and vertical distribution of clouds with super-cooled liquid water (SLW) droplets, as well as the characteristics of the droplet size distribution. Traditional forecasting methods rely on guidance from numerical models and conventional observations, neither of which currently resolve cloud properties adequately on the optimal scales needed for aviation. Satellite imagers provide measurements over large areas with high spatial resolution that can be interpreted to identify the locations and characteristics of clouds, including features associated with adverse weather and storms. This paper describes new techniques for interpreting cloud products derived from satellite data to infer the flight icing threat to aircraft. For unobscured low clouds, the icing threat is determined using empirical relationships developed from correlations between satellite imager retrievals of liquid water path and droplet size with icing conditions reported by pilots (PIREPS). For deep ice over water cloud systems, ice and liquid water content (IWC and LWC) profiles are derived by using the imager cloud properties to constrain climatological information on cloud vertical structure and water phase obtained apriori from radar and lidar observations, and from cloud model analyses. Retrievals of the SLW content embedded within overlapping clouds are mapped to the icing threat using guidance from an airfoil modeling study. Compared to PIREPS and ground-based icing remote sensing datasets, the satellite icing detection and intensity accuracies are approximately 90% and 70%, respectively, and found to be similar for both low level and deep ice over water cloud systems. The satellite-derived icing boundaries capture the reported altitudes over 90% of the time. Satellite analyses corresponding to the time and location of several recent aviation accidents and with icing PIREPS are also presented that reveal skill in identifying severe icing conditions. These results demonstrate the utility of satellite cloud retrievals for quantitatively diagnosing the potential for icing conditions on temporal and spatial scales that should be useful to the aviation community. Plans are being developed to deliver these new satellite products to the GOES-R Proving Ground in the near future so that they can be evaluated in operational applications.

  6. Ice rule correlations in stuffed spin ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldus, R. J.; Fennell, T.; Deen, P. P.; Ressouche, E.; Lau, G. C.; Cava, R. J.; Bramwell, S. T.

    2013-01-01

    Stuffed spin ice is a chemical variation of a spin ice material like Ho2Ti2O7 in which extra magnetic ions are inserted into the crystal structure. Previous studies have shown that the degree of stuffing has very little effect on the residual entropy in the system, which takes a value very close to the spin ice entropy. We argue, however, that the observation of this entropy does not imply long range coherence of the ice rules, that determine the local spin configurations. We have characterized deviations from the ice rules by means of a polarized neutron diffraction study of a single crystal of Ho2+δTi2-δO7-δ/2 with δ = 0.3. Our results demonstrate that the ice rules in stuffed spin ice are strictly valid only over a relatively short range, and that at longer range stuffed spin ice exhibits some characteristics of a ‘cluster glass’, with a tendency to more conventional ferromagnetic correlations.

  7. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Glenn, David F.; Suciu, Dan F.; Harris, Taryl L.; Ingram, Jani C.

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  8. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Glenn, D.F.; Suciu, D.F.; Harris, T.L.; Ingram, J.C.

    1993-04-06

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  9. Piscataquis River Ice Measurement

    In this photo Terrence Talbot, a student with the Maine Office, drills holes with an ice auger in preparation for a discharge measurement through the ice at the USGS station on the Piscataquis River near Dover-Foxcroft, Maine.  After drilling 20-30 holes through the ice at known intervals we a...

  10. Ice Jam Remnants

    On April 29, hydrologic technicians Anthony Underwood and Jeremiah Pomerleau visited the USGS gaging station on the St. John River at Ninemile Bridge and found a sea of broken up, dirty ice left behind by a recent ice jam. According to Anthony, photos don't do the size and scale of the ice chunks a...

  11. Technology for Ice Rinks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Ron Urban's International Ice Shows set up portable ice rinks for touring troupes performing on temporary rinks at amusement parks, sports arenas, dinner theaters, shopping malls and civic centers. Key to enhanced rink portability, fast freezing and maintaining ice consistency is a mat of flexible tubing called ICEMAT, an offshoot of a solar heating system developed by Calmac, Mfg. under contract with Marshall.

  12. The Antarctic Ice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radok, Uwe

    1985-01-01

    The International Antarctic Glaciological Project has collected information on the East Antarctic ice sheet since 1969. Analysis of ice cores revealed climatic history, and radar soundings helped map bedrock of the continent. Computer models of the ice sheet and its changes over time will aid in predicting the future. (DH)

  13. Ice Versus Rock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Olson, Eric A.; Dehm, Janet

    2005-01-01

    During a snow bank exploration, students noticed "ice caves," or pockets, in some of the larger snow banks, usually below darker layers. Most of these caves had many icicles hanging inside. Students offered reasonable explanations of ice cave formation--squirrels, kids, snow blowers--and a few students came close to the true ice cave-formation…

  14. Landsat Ice Caps

    Landsat image of ice caps in northern Savernaya Zemlya, Russian Arctic Islands (80 degrees N.). The scene shows zones of melting on the ice caps. The largest ice cap is about 80 km across. Image courtesy of Julian Dowdeswell, Scott Polar Research Institute, Cambridge, UK....

  15. Experiments in Ice Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, P. F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes experiments in ice physics that demonstrate the behavior and properties of ice. Show that ice behaves as an ionic conductor in which charge is transferred by the movement of protons, its electrical conductivity is highly temperature-dependent, and its dielectric properties show dramatic variation in the kilohertz range. (Author/GA)

  16. Ice Versus Rock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Olson, Eric A.; Dehm, Janet

    2005-01-01

    During a snow bank exploration, students noticed "ice caves," or pockets, in some of the larger snow banks, usually below darker layers. Most of these caves had many icicles hanging inside. Students offered reasonable explanations of ice cave formation--squirrels, kids, snow blowers--and a few students came close to the true ice cave-formation

  17. Flooding in southeastern United States from tropical storm Alberto, July 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hale, Timothy W.; Stamey, Timothy C.

    1995-01-01

    In July 1994, parts of Georgia, Alabama and Florida were devastated by floods resulting from rainfall produced by Tropical Storm Alberto. The flooding resulted in 33 human deaths in towns and small communities or near swollen streams. Total damages to public and private property were estimated at nearly $1 billion dollars. This article highlights severe stream flooding resulting from Alberto and describes U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) efforts to document this event and provide information to those who need it.

  18. Local ice melting by an antifreeze protein.

    PubMed

    Calvaresi, Matteo; Höfinger, Siegfried; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2012-07-01

    Antifreeze proteins, AFP, impede freezing of bodily fluids and damaging of cellular tissues by low temperatures. Adsorption-inhibition mechanisms have been developed to explain their functioning. Using in silico Molecular Dynamics, we show that type I AFP can also induce melting of the local ice surface. Simulations of antifreeze-positive and antifreeze-negative mutants show a clear correlation between melting induction and antifreeze activity. The presence of local melting adds a function to type I AFPs that is unique to these proteins. It may also explain some apparently conflicting experimental results where binding to ice appears both quasipermanent and reversible. PMID:22657839

  19. Extreme Storm Surges in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goennert, G.; Buß, Th.; Mueller, O.; Thumm, S.

    2009-04-01

    Extreme Storm Surges in the North Sea Gabriele Gönnert, Olaf Müller, Thomas Buß and Sigrid Thumm Climate Change will cause a rise of the sea level and probably more frequent and more violent storm surges. This has serious consequences for the safety of people as well as for their values and assets behind the dikes. It is therefore inevitable to first assess how sea level rise and an extreme storm surge event designes. In a second step it is possible to determine the risk for specific locations and develop strategies. The Project XtremRisk - Extreme Storm Surges at the North Sea Coast and in Estuaries. Risk calculation and risk strategies, funded by the German Federal Government will help answering these questions. The „Source-Pathway-Receptor" Concept will be used as a basis for risk analysis and development of new strategies. The Project offers methods to assess the development of extreme events under the conditions of today. Under conditions reflecting the climate change it will be tried to design an extreme event. For these three main points will be considered: a) Analysis and calculation of each factor, which produce a storm surge and its maximum level occurring in the last 100 years. These are: - maximum surge level: surge (due to the wind), - influence of the tide and the interaction between surge and tide, - influence of external surges , b) The hydrodynamics of a storm surge cause nonlinear effects in the interaction of the named factors. These factors and effects will both be taken into account to calculate the magnitude of the extreme storm surge. This step is very complex and need additional examination by numerical models. c) Analysis of the different scenarios to mean sea level rise and to the increase of wind speed due to the climate change. The presentation will introduce methods and show first results of the analysis of extreme events and the mean sea level rise.

  20. Ionospheric Storms in Equatorial Region: Digisonde Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paznukhov, V.; Altadill, D.; Blanch, E.

    2011-12-01

    We present a study of the ionospheric storms observed in the low-latitude and equatorial ionosphere at several digisonde stations: Jicamarca (Geomagnetic Coordinates: 2.0 S, 355.3 E), Kwajalein Island (3.8 N, 238.2 E), Ascension Island (2.5 S, 56.8 E), Fortaleza (4.8 N, 33.7 W), and Ramey (28.6 N, 5.2 E). The strongest geomagnetic storms from years 1995-2009 have been analyzed. The main ionospheric characteristics, hmF2 and foF2 were used in the study, making it possible to investigate the changes in the ionosphere peak density and height during the storms. All digisonde data were manually processed to assure the accuracy of the measurements. Solar wind data, geomagnetic field variations, and auroral activity indices have been used to characterize the geomagnetic environment during the events. It was found in our analysis that the major drivers for the ionospheric storms, electric field and neutral wind have approximately equal importance at the low-latitude and equatorial latitudes. This is noticeably different from the behavior of the ionsphere in the middle latitudes, where the neutral wind is usually a dominant factor. It was found that the auroral index, AE is the best precursor of the ionospheric effects observed during the storms in this region. We analyze the difference between time delays of the storm effects observed at the stations located in different local time sectors. The overall statistics of the time delays of the storms as a function of the local time at the stations is also presented. Several very interesting cases of sudden very strong ionospheric uplifting and their possible relation to the equatorial super fountain effect are investigated in greater details.

  1. Global Storm Surge Forecasting and Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckman, Lorraine; Verlaan, Martin; Weerts, Albrecht

    2015-04-01

    The Global Storm Surge Forecasting and Information System is a first-of-its-kind operational forecasting system for storm surge prediction on a global scale, taking into account tidal and extra-tropical storm events in real time. The system, built and hosted by Deltares, provides predictions of water level and surge height up to 10 days in advance from numerical simulations and measurement data integrated within an operational IT environment. The Delft-FEWS software provides the operational environment in which wind forecasts and measurement data are collected and processed, and serves as a platform from which to run the numerical model. The global Delft3D model is built on a spherical, flexible mesh with a resolution around 5 km in near-shore coastal waters and an offshore resolution of 50 km to provide detailed information at the coast while limiting the computational time required. By using a spherical grid, the model requires no external boundary conditions. Numerical global wind forecasts are used as forcing for the model, with plans to incorporate regional meteorological forecasts to better capture smaller, tropical storms using the Wind Enhanced Scheme for generation of tropical winds (WES). The system will be automated to collect regional wind forecasts and storm warning bulletins which are incorporated directly into the model calculations. The forecasting system provides real-time water level and surge information in areas that currently lack local storm surge prediction capability. This information is critical for coastal communities in planning their flood strategy and during disaster response. The system is also designed to supply boundary conditions for coupling finer-scale regional models. The Global Storm Surge Forecasting and Information System is run within the Deltares iD-Lab initiative aiming at collaboration with universities, consultants and interested organizations. The results of the system will be made available via standards such as netCDF-CF, OpenDAP, WaterML2 and/or JSON REST as an interoperability experiment.

  2. Ionospheric data assimilation and forecasting during storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartier, Alex T.; Matsuo, Tomoko; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Collins, Nancy; Hoar, Timothy J.; Lu, Gang; Mitchell, Cathryn N.; Coster, Anthea J.; Paxton, Larry J.; Bust, Gary S.

    2016-01-01

    Ionospheric storms can have important effects on radio communications and navigation systems. Storm time ionospheric predictions have the potential to form part of effective mitigation strategies to these problems. Ionospheric storms are caused by strong forcing from the solar wind. Electron density enhancements are driven by penetration electric fields, as well as by thermosphere-ionosphere behavior including Traveling Atmospheric Disturbances and Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances and changes to the neutral composition. This study assesses the effect on 1 h predictions of specifying initial ionospheric and thermospheric conditions using total electron content (TEC) observations under a fixed set of solar and high-latitude drivers. Prediction performance is assessed against TEC observations, incoherent scatter radar, and in situ electron density observations. Corotated TEC data provide a benchmark of forecast accuracy. The primary case study is the storm of 10 September 2005, while the anomalous storm of 21 January 2005 provides a secondary comparison. The study uses an ensemble Kalman filter constructed with the Data Assimilation Research Testbed and the Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model. Maps of preprocessed, verticalized GPS TEC are assimilated, while high-latitude specifications from the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics and solar flux observations from the Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Experiment are used to drive the model. The filter adjusts ionospheric and thermospheric parameters, making use of time-evolving covariance estimates. The approach is effective in correcting model biases but does not capture all the behavior of the storms. In particular, a ridge-like enhancement over the continental USA is not predicted, indicating the importance of predicting storm time electric field behavior to the problem of ionospheric forecasting.

  3. Solar noise storms - The polarization of storm Type III and related bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulk, G. A.; Suzuki, S.; Sheridan, K. V.

    1984-01-01

    The spectral and polarization characteristics of 19 noise storms that occurred during 1976-1982 are reported. All components of the storms - Type I bursts and continuum, storm Type III bursts, and fine structures such as reverse drift pairs - are found to have the same sense of circular polarization. While the degree of polarization p of Type I bursts and continuum is generally greater than or approximately equal to 0.5, that of storm Type III bursts is almost always less than 0.5. Two set of storm Type III bursts stand out: one with less than or approximately equal to 0.2 and another with greater than or approximately equal to 0.3. Because these sets respectively have degrees of polarization so similar to those of fundamental (F) the harmonic (H) components of non-storm F - H pairs, it is deduced that storm Type III bursts are due sometimes to fundamental plasma radiation and sometimes to harmonic. However, F - H pairs are extremely rare among storm Type III bursts.

  4. Survey of Saturn auroral storms observed by the Hubble Space Telescope: Implications for storm time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, C. J.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Nichols, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    We examine the ultraviolet images of Saturn obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) between 1997 and 2013 for the presence of auroral storm signatures, consisting of 2060 individual images over 74.4 h of exposure time. We find 12 storm intervals in these data, identified by bright high-latitude auroras spanning the dawn sector, which previous studies have shown are excited by strong magnetospheric compressions by the solar wind. While most of these events have previously been discussed individually, here we consider what may be deduced about the lifetime of storms, yet unobserved directly for a given event, by examining the ensemble. Specifically, we examine the presence or absence of storm signatures in successive HST observing "visits" separated by varying intervals of time. We show that the observations are consistent with a typical lifetime of ~1.5 Saturn rotations (~16 h), within a likely range between ~1 and ~2 rotations. We suggest that this time scale and the storm evolution morphology relate to the time for hot plasma subcorotation around the planet, following injection postmidnight after a major burst of tail reconnection excited by the solar wind compression. From the overall observed ~12% occurrence frequency of storm signatures, we further infer an averaged storm recurrence time of ~5.5 days (~4-7 days), although this averaged value could be shortened by the occurrence of successive storm activations within few-day disturbed solar wind intervals as observed directly in two cases.

  5. Ultrasonic emissions during ice nucleation and propagation in plant xylem.

    PubMed

    Charrier, Guillaume; Pramsohler, Manuel; Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Saudreau, Marc; Améglio, Thierry; Neuner, Gilbert; Mayr, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Ultrasonic acoustic emission analysis enables nondestructive monitoring of damage in dehydrating or freezing plant xylem. We studied acoustic emissions (AE) in freezing stems during ice nucleation and propagation, by combining acoustic and infrared thermography techniques and controlling the ice nucleation point. Ultrasonic activity in freezing samples of Picea abies showed two distinct phases: the first on ice nucleation and propagation (up to 50 AE s(-1) ; reversely proportional to the distance to ice nucleation point), and the second (up to 2.5 AE s(-1) ) after dissipation of the exothermal heat. Identical patterns were observed in other conifer and angiosperm species. The complex AE patterns are explained by the low water potential of ice at the ice-liquid interface, which induced numerous and strong signals. Ice propagation velocities were estimated via AE (during the first phase) and infrared thermography. Acoustic activity ceased before the second phase probably because the exothermal heating and the volume expansion of ice caused decreasing tensions. Results indicate cavitation events at the ice front leading to AE. Ultrasonic emission analysis enabled new insights into the complex process of xylem freezing and might be used to monitor ice propagation in natura. PMID:25756189

  6. A Snowfall Impact Scale Derived from Northeast Storm Snowfall Distributions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocin, Paul J.; Uccellini, Louis W.

    2004-02-01

    A Northeast snowfall impact scale (NESIS) is presented to convey a measure of the impact of heavy snowfall in the Northeast urban corridor, a region that extends from southern Virginia to New England. The scale is derived from a synoptic climatology of 30 major snowstorms in the Northeast urban corridor and applied to the snowfall distribution of 70 snowstorms east of the Rocky Mountains. NESIS is similar in concept to other meteorological scales that are designed to simplify complex phenomena into an easily understood range of values. The Fujita scale for tornadoes and the Saffir Simpson scale for hurricanes measure the potential for destruction to property and loss of life by wind-related damage (and storm surge for Saffir Simpson) through use of a categorical ranking (0 or 1 5).

  7. The Kinematic and Microphysical Control of Storm Integrated Lightning Flash Extent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carey, Lawrence; Koshak, William; Petersen, Harold; Schultz, Elise; Schultz, Chris; Matthee, Retha; Bain, Lamont

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this preliminary study is to investigate the kinematic and microphysical control of lightning properties, particularly those that may govern the production of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in thunderstorms, such as flash rate, type and extent. The mixed-phase region is where the noninductive charging (NIC) process is thought to generate most storm electrification during rebounding collisions between ice particles in the presence of supercooled water. As a result, prior radar-based studies have demonstrated that lightning flash rate is well correlated to kinematic and microphysical properties in the mixed-phase region of thunde